Sample records for war deadly fevers

  1. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views oncold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D (United States)

    Malagón, Filiberto


    This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  2. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views on Cold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malagón Filiberto


    Full Text Available Abstract This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  3. Lassa fever: the challenges of curtailing a deadly disease. (United States)

    Ibekwe, Titus


    Today Lassa fever is mainly a disease of the developing world, however several imported cases have been reported in different parts of the world and there are growing concerns of the potentials of Lassa fever Virus as a biological weapon. Yet no tangible solution to this problem has been developed nearly half a decade after its identification. Hence, the paper is aimed at appraising the problems associated with LAF illness; the challenges in curbing the epidemic and recommendations on important focal points. A Review based on the documents from the EFAS conference 2011 and literature search on PubMed, Scopus and Science direct. The retrieval of relevant papers was via the University of British Columbia and University of Toronto Libraries. The two major search engines returned 61 and 920 articles respectively. Out of these, the final 26 articles that met the criteria were selected. Relevant information on epidemiology, burden of management and control were obtained. Prompt and effective containment of the Lassa fever disease in Lassa village four decades ago could have saved the West African sub-region and indeed the entire globe from the devastating effect and threats posed by this illness. That was a hard lesson calling for much more proactive measures towards the eradication of the illness at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health care.

  4. Simulation of Spread of African Swine Fever, Including the Effects of Residues from Dead Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Bøtner, Anette


    To study the spread of African swine fever (ASF) within a pig unit and the impact of unit size on ASF spread, a simulation model was created. In the model, an animal can be in one of the following stages: susceptible, latent, subclinical, clinical, or recovered. Animals can be infectious during...... the subclinical stage and are fully infectious during the clinical stage. ASF virus (ASFV) infection through residues of dead animals in the slurries was also modeled in an exponentially fading-out pattern. Low and high transmission rates for ASFV were tested in the model. Robustness analysis was carried out...... in order to study the impact of uncertain parameters on model predictions. The results showed that the disease may fade out within the pig unit without a major outbreak. Furthermore, they showed that spread of ASFV is dependent on the infectiousness of subclinical animals and the residues of dead animals...

  5. Imagining the absent dead: rituals of bereavement and the place of the war dead in German women's art during the First World War. (United States)

    Siebrecht, Claudia


    Drawing on women's visual responses to the First World War, this article examines female mourning in wartime Germany. The unprecedented death toll on the battlefronts, military burial practices and the physical distance from the remains of the war dead disrupted traditional rituals of bereavement, hindered closure and compounded women's grief on the home front. In response to these novel circumstances, a number of female artists used their images to reimagine funerary customs, overcome the separation from the fallen and express acute emotional distress. This article analyses three images produced during the conflict by the artists Katharina Heise, Martha Schrag and Sella Hasse, and places their work within the civilian experience of bereavement in war. By depicting the pain of loss, female artists contested the historical tradition of proud female mourning in German society and countered wartime codes of conduct that prohibited the public display of emotional pain in response to soldiers’ deaths. As a largely overlooked body of sources, women's art adds to our understanding of the tensions in wartime cultures of mourning that emerged between 1914 and 1918.

  6. Deadly intracranial bleed in patients with dengue fever: A series of nine patients and review of literature. (United States)

    Sam, Jo Ee; Gee, Teak Sheng; Nasser, Abdul Wahab


    Dengue fever is a global pandemic threat with increasing incidence. To date, there are no cures and the effectiveness of dengue vaccines is still uncertain. World Heath Organization introduced expanded dengue syndrome to include unusual presentations of dengue fever including severe neurologic complications. One of the deadly complications is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We collected data of patients with ICH diagnosed via a plain computed tomography of the brain (CT brain) with thrombocytopenia and positive Dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein (NS1) antigen test or positive dengue serology IgM from January 2014 till June 2015 at our center. Nine patients were included and all 20 other remaining patients reported in literature so far are discussed. We found that all patients in our center requiring neurosurgical intervention died. Another interesting observation is that detection of Dengue IgG usually meant more severe ICH and poorer outcomes. From our series, platelet levels did not seem to influence the outcome. We recommend that for early detection of ICH, Dengue IgG should be routinely screened and a high index of suspicion be maintained. Future research should be focused on determining predictors of ICH in patients with dengue fever so that preventive steps can be taken as mortality is high and no treatment seems beneficial at the moment once severe ICH occurs.

  7. [Typhus fever morbidity among the military personnel and civilians in the regions around Volga river during World War I]. (United States)

    Raĭkova, S V; Zav'ialov, A I


    The article is concerned to the materials about epidemiologic situation of typhus fever in the regions around Volga river (Saratovsky, Samarsky and others) during World War I (1914-1918) among the military personnel of the Russian army and among the civilians. The main reasons for spread of infection, ways of the transmission, and also measures for decreasing of level of morbidity on the different stages of evacuation of patients with typhus fever in the safer hospitals are shown. The most important methods of fighting against epidemic of typhus fever were: isolation of patients in separate special hospitals, desincection and disinfection measures in the foci of infection and organization appropriate sanitary conditions for military man in the army and among civilians. Acquired valuable experience of territorial and military doctors during the period of epidemic of typhus fever allowed receiving complex effective antiepidemic measures of fighting and prevention from this disease.

  8. Global action to prevent war: a programme for government and grassroots efforts to stop war, genocide and other forms of deadly conflict. (United States)

    Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S


    At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed

  9. Housing equity for health equity: a rights-based approach to the control of Lassa fever in post-war Sierra Leone. (United States)

    Kelly, J Daniel; Barrie, M Bailor; Ross, Rachel A; Temple, Brian A; Moses, Lina M; Bausch, Daniel G


    Poor quality housing is an infringement on the rights of all humans to a standard of living adequate for health. Among the many vulnerabilities of those without adequate shelter is the risk of disease spread by rodents and other pests. One such disease is Lassa fever, an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. Lassa virus is maintained in the rodent Mastomys natalensis, commonly known as the "multimammate rat," which frequently invades the domestic environment, putting humans at risk of Lassa fever. The highest reported incidence of Lassa fever in the world is consistently in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, a region that was at the center of Sierra Leone's civil war in which tens of thousands of lives were lost and hundreds of thousands of dwellings destroyed. Despite the end of the war in 2002, most of Kenema's population still lives in inadequate housing that puts them at risk of rodent invasion and Lassa fever. Furthermore, despite years of health education and village hygiene campaigns, the incidence of Lassa fever in Kenema District appears to be increasing. We focus on Lassa fever as a matter of human rights, proposing a strategy to improve housing quality, and discuss how housing equity has the potential to improve health equity and ultimately economic productivity in Sierra Leone. The manuscript is designed to spur discussion and action towards provision of housing and prevention of disease in one of the world's most vulnerable populations.

  10. Love the dead, fear the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge


    The dead are everywhere in the landscape in Acholi, northern Uganda. In the homes, the dead are present through their gravesites, situated next to houses and huts, and as spiritual presences in their family’s daily lives. In the bush, the dead are present as a constant potentiality, in the form...... of abandoned bones and rootless spirits; the remnants of years of civil war. This chapter deals with these landscapes of death, and explores how consolation is found through tying the dead to the land: to the home. It also explores the constant peril that this way of life poses, as living in such close...

  11. Long-term sequelae of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome attributable to hantaan virus in Korean War veterans. (United States)

    Mathes, Robert W; Page, William F; Crawford, Harriet M; McBean, A Marshall; Miller, Richard N


    Health status was sought for approximately 1600 Korean War veterans who contracted hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) during deployment to Korea between 1951 and 1953. To determine whether long-term sequelae were present for these individuals, mortality and morbidity data were collected from the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Social Security Administration, and the National Death Index records. Control subjects were selected from military units in Korea with no reported cases of HFRS. Those with HFRS had a slightly higher mortality rate (33.2%) than did noninfected individuals (32.0%), but this difference was not statistically significant. Non-Caucasian cases had significantly higher morbidity rates than did non-Caucasian controls only for transient ischemic attacks (4.8% versus 0%) and diabetes mellitus (19.3% versus 8.1%). In conclusion, HFRS did not increase mortality rates in this cohort but might have had an impact on selected morbidity outcomes.

  12. Mortality and Morbidity Among Military Personnel and Civilians During the 1930s and World War II From Transmission of Hepatitis During Yellow Fever Vaccination: Systematic Review (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy


    During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced. PMID:23327242

  13. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus


    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at:

  14. Rutherford's war (United States)

    Campbell, John


    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  15. Dead Man or Dead Hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    and potential takeover bids. Recent Delaware case-law suggests that the most extreme, ‘dead hand’ version of such clauses might violate directors’ fiduciary duties. This short article develops some initial thoughts on the phenomenon and evaluates how the new poison pills would be handled under European takeover...

  16. Hemorrhagic Fevers (United States)

    ... of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. VHFs have common ... the animals that carry them live. For example, Lassa fever is limited to rural areas of West ...

  17. Scarlet fever (United States)

    ... streptococcus . This is the same bacteria that cause strep throat . Causes Scarlet fever was once a very serious ... fever is infection with the bacteria that cause strep throat. An outbreak of strep throat or scarlet fever ...

  18. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.


    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  19. Dengue fever (United States)

    ... Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur forest disease, Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever, Zika). In: Bennett JE, Dolin ...

  20. Lassa Fever (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Lassa Fever Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... US) French Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Lassa fever is an acute viral illness that occurs ...

  1. Housing equity for health equity: a rights-based approach to the control of Lassa fever in post-war Sierra Leone


    Kelly J Daniel; Barrie M Bailor; Ross Rachel A; Temple Brian A; Moses Lina M; Bausch Daniel G


    Abstract Poor quality housing is an infringement on the rights of all humans to a standard of living adequate for health. Among the many vulnerabilities of those without adequate shelter is the risk of disease spread by rodents and other pests. One such disease is Lassa fever, an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. Lassa virus is maintained in the rodent Mastomys natalensis, commonly known as the “multimammate rat,” which frequently invades the domesti...

  2. Getting the Civil War Right (United States)

    Loewen, James W.


    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  3. Dengue fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Dengue fever is caused by dengue viruses. (DENV). Transmission of DENV has increased dramatically in the past two decades making DENV the most important human pathogens among arthropod-borne viruses (1). About 50-. 100 million dengue fever infections occur every year in tropical and subtropical.

  4. Yellow Fever (United States)

    ... febrile illness to severe liver disease with bleeding. Yellow fever disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings, laboratory testing, and travel history, including the possibility of exposure to ... specific treatment for yellow fever; care is based on symptoms. Steps to ...

  5. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (United States)

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Four different dengue viruses are known to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs when a person is bitten by ...

  6. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral (United States)

    ... is usually applied to disease caused by Arenaviridae (Lassa fever, Junin and Machupo), Bunyaviridae (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic ... fever Dengue and severe dengue Ebola virus disease Lassa fever Marburg haemorrhagic fever Rift Valley fever Multimedia, ...

  7. Rheumatic fever (United States)

    ... condition are: Loss of control of emotions, with bouts of unusual crying or laughing Quick, jerky movements ... minor criteria include: Fever High ESR Joint pain Abnormal EKG You'll likely be diagnosed with rheumatic ...

  8. Valley fever (United States)

    ... especially the first trimester) People of Native American, African, or Philippine descent may also get more severe ... that causes Valley fever) Chest x-ray Sputum culture Sputum smear (KOH test) Tests done for more ...

  9. Typhoid fever (United States)

    ... It is most commonly caused due to a bacteria called Salmonella typhi ( S typhi ). ... Enteric fever ... electrolyte packets. Antibiotics are given to kill the bacteria. ... check current recommendations before choosing an antibiotic.

  10. Yellow fever (United States)

    ... SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  11. Valley Fever (United States)

    ... loss Headache Valley fever Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Q fever (United States)

    ... bacteria can infect: Sheep Goats Cattle Dogs Cats Birds Rodents Ticks Infected animals shed these bacteria in: Birth products Feces Milk Urine Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released into the air by ...

  13. Dengue Fever (United States)

    ... change the water in birdbaths, dog bowls, and flower vases at least once a week. By taking ... Cholera West Nile Virus First Aid: Vomiting Are Insect Repellents With DEET Safe for Kids? Dengue Fever ...

  14. Relapsing fever (United States)

    ... and Sudan. Famine, war, and the movement of refugee groups often results in LBRF epidemics. Symptoms Symptoms ... by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission ( URAC's accreditation program is ...

  15. Day of the Dead (United States)

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy


    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  16. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael


    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  17. Dengue fever (image) (United States)

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  18. Yellow Fever Vaccine (United States)

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

  19. Rheumatic Fever (United States)

    ... without the antibiotics in your bloodstream, the streptococcal bacteria can still multiply and affect your heart and other organs. If your strep infection leads to rheumatic fever, your doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory medicines or aspirin to reduce the swelling ...

  20. Dengue fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    degreasing metabolic acidosis (15). Give paracetamol for fever and analgesia. Avoid aspirin, ibuprofen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents as they may aggravate gastritis or bleeding (15). Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) may be associated with Reye's syndrome. Monitor patients at least 6 hourly in 24 hours.

  1. Scarlet Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Katherine Fleming-Dutra, pediatrician, discusses scarlet fever, its cause, how to treat it, and how to prevent its spread.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  2. Orchid Fever (United States)

    Oliver, Phillip


    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

  3. Lassa fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The illness usually begins insidiously with fever, weakness, malaise joint pain or lumber pain cough and severe headache. Pharyngitis often exudative and conjunctivitis may occur early. In severe cases prostration dehydration and facial or neck oedema can occur (3). Laboratory findings include Serum aminotransferases.

  4. Dead Sea Scrolls (United States)


    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  5. Typhoid fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mikoleit, Matthew L.


    cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow......, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar...... with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main...

  6. [Milk fever]. (United States)

    Dumont, M


    Infectious complications following delivery were, in the past, attributed to "milk fever": these were milk congestion, milk deposits, rancid milk, etc., that were held responsible. The milk was reabsorbed into the blood of the patient and settled in the peritoneum ("milk peritonitis"), in the broad ligaments (pelvic abscess), in the thighs (phlebitis) and also in the breasts (breast abscess). This belief, originated by Aristotle, was accepted by excellent authors like Andre Levret (1703-1780), one of the most famous French obstetricians and Nicolas Puzos, at the same time. More recently, authors alluded to it and blamed "milk fever" for being at the origin of dramatic pictures which they described in their novels, like Victor Hugo and Guy de Maupassant, for instance.

  7. Dengue fever


    Badreddine, Samar; Al-Dhaheri, Fahmi; Al-Dabbagh, Ammar; Al-Amoudi, Abdulrahman; Al-Ammari, Maged; Elatassi, Nader; Abbas, Haytham; Magliah,Rami; Malibari, Abdulbasit; Almoallim, Hani


    Objectives: To delineate the clinical features and outcomes of dengue infection and to guide clinician of early diagnosis and identification of risks factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Methods: This study is a retrospective cross-sectional. Clinical records of 567 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of dengue infection, admitted to a single hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between January 2010 and June 2014 were reviewed. Results: Dengue infection was most common in adult males. Sixty-eig...

  8. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham


    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  9. [Lassa fever]. (United States)

    Fleischer, K; Köhler, B; Kirchner, A; Schmid, J


    A 22-year-old female German student was admitted with fever of unknown origin for 5 days to the hospital of her hometown immediately after returning from a 7-week journey under simple conditions through 4 West African countries. After exclusion of malaria and typhoid and nonrespondence to antibiosis, she was transferred on the 4th day to the Department of Tropical Medicine in Würzburg. After the clinical assumption of Lassa fever, the virus was confirmed by PCR within 3 hours (Bernhard Nocht Institute, Hamburg) on the 10th day of her illness. The assumption was based on travel history, continuous fever, cough, pharyngitis, thoracic pain, and exclusion of other acute infections. From the beginning, the patient was cared for with barrier nursing and after diagnosis under strict isolation in an intensive care unit reserved for her alone by a team of doctors and nurses specialized in tropical medicine and intensive care. The staff was protected through isolation suits with filters. Monitoring and therapy entailed all methods of intensive care and intravenous administration of ribavirin 16 mg/kg body weight = 900 mg every 6 hours. The patient died on the 14th day of her illness in a volume deficiency shock due to uncontrollable heavy hemorrhage from all organs including the skin, a so-called "leakage syndrome". Conclusions are drawn regarding training in tropical medicine, diagnostics of highly contagious infections, intensive care of patients affected with them under isolation, contact tracing, psychological crisis intervention for personnel, media information, care of the infectious corpse and disposal of infectious waste.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fever is the cardinal manifestation of infection. Platelets are necessary to prevent bleeding manifestations. Certain infections cause thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of bleeding manifestations in i nfections which cause fever and thrombocytopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: INCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients who were admitted with fever and thrombocytopenia, aged above 12 years, in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients who are admitted with thrombocytopenia and without fever were excluded. Patients who are admitted with fever and normal platelet count were excluded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSI ON: Fever with thrombocytopenia is the commonest presenting problem in the medical war ds. In the present study the commonest infectious etiology of fever with thrombocytopenia was malaria fever (36%, followed by undiagnosed fevers (28%, dengue fever (26%, typhoid fever (6% and scrub typhus (4%. In the present study bleeding manifestati ons were seen in 16 cases (32% and bleeding manifestations were not seen in 34 cases (68%. The commonest bleeding manifestation was cutaneous, followed by hematemesis, malena, bleeding gums, hematuria and epistaxis. Bleeding manifestation was commonly se en in thrombocytopenia with dengue fever (14%, followed by malaria (8%, undiagnosed cases (8% and typhoid (2%.

  11. Dead or alive?



    Dead or Alive was a painting and sound exhibition in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Richmond. NPL is the UK’s national standards laboratory for metrology and is one of the world’s leading measurement institutes. \\ud \\ud The exhibition took the form of installations consisting of paintings and soundscapes set up in two spaces, an anechoic chamber (dead) and a reverberation chamber (alive). For the exhibition a new body of work was made including a twenty-seven-metre panoramic painti...

  12. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.


    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...... a quantitative description of the empirical network composed of citations and references (in- and out-links) between papers (nodes) in the SPIRES database of scientific papers in high energy physics. We also demonstrate that the death mechanism alone can result in power law degree distributions for the resulting...... network....

  13. Rat-bite fever (United States)

    ... dwellings may help prevent rat-bite fever. Taking antibiotics by mouth after a rat bite may also help prevent this illness. Alternative Names Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic ...

  14. Dengue Fever Testing (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Dengue Fever Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Images View Sources Ask Us Also Known As Dengue Fever Antibodies Dengue Fever Virus Formal Name Dengue ...

  15. Dengue Fever Treatment (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Dengue Fever Treatment Dengue Fever Dengue Fever Biology and Transmission Prevention Diagnosis ... of genomic data, and advances the understanding and treatment of dengue disease. Content last reviewed on February 7, 2011 ...

  16. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (United States)

    ... 4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Virus Families Information ... 2014 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ...

  17. The Dead Sea (United States)


    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  18. Clara Maass, yellow fever and human experimentation. (United States)

    Chaves-Carballo, Enrique


    Clara Louise Maass, a 25-year-old American nurse, died of yellow fever on August 24, 1901, following experimental inoculation by infected mosquitoes in Havana, Cuba. The human yellow fever experiments were initially conducted by MAJ Walter Reed, who first used written informed consent and proved the validity of Finlay's mosquito-vector hypothesis. Despite informed consent form and an incentive of $100 in U.S. gold, human subjects were exposed to a deadly virus. The deaths of Clara Maass and two Spanish immigrants resulted in a public outcry and the immediate cessation of yellow fever human experiments in Cuba. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders


    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... under humid, sub-polar conditions? Does this rate differ from rates reported from polar environments of dry continental nature? How will the sedimentary architecture appear in the geological record? How will the final landsystem appear? These key questions are answered in a review of research...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  20. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof


    Thapsia L. circumscribes a small genus of herbaceous perennials in the taxonomically difficult family Apiaceae. Thapsia occurs around the Mediterranean, extending from the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and Morocco to Crete and other Greek Islands in the East. Thapsia is commonly known as deadly...... the species studied here from Ammodaucus, Distichoselinum, Elaeoselinum, Guillonea and Margotia in Thapsia in correspondence with previous phylogenetic studies of Apiaceae. Elaeoselinum is not monophyletic. Clades within Thapsia correlate well with previous observations of groupings based on the occurrence...

  1. The Somali Conflict: From Irredentism to Clannish War for Unification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the Somali conflict, especially how it degenerated from a simple war of ethnic crisis into one of world's most deadly and persistent crises. The paper investigates the interplay of both local and international factors in the escalation of the war. The paper is of the view that clannish interests and selfish ...

  2. The Dead Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips


    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  3. Familial Mediterranean Fever (United States)

    ... fever usually begin during childhood. They occur in bouts called attacks that last one to three days. ... Mediterranean fever isn't treated. Complications can include: Abnormal protein in the blood. During attacks of familial ...

  4. Q fever - early (United States)

    ... fever is usually noticed while looking for the cause of pneumonia . ... In rare cases, Q fever causes a heart infection that can lead to ... ) Liver infection (chronic hepatitis) Lung infection ( pneumonia )

  5. An Evolutionary Perspective on War Heroism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, Hannes; Störmer, C.


    Humans are one of the most cooperative and altruistic species on the planet. At the same time, humans have a long history of violent and deadly intergroup conflicts or wars. Recently, contemporary evolutionary theorists have revived Charles Darwin’s idea that human in-group altruism and out-group

  6. [Health problems of combatants during the First World War]. (United States)

    Lefort, Hugues; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Tabbagh, Xavier; Domanski, Laurent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre


    The First World War because of the use of new weapons, injured more than 3 500 000 people (500 000 in the face), more than diseases (tuberculosis, typhoid fever, etc.) or even weather circumstances. The healing of the war wounds through surgery undertook a significant evolution thanks to the use of asepsis and antiseptics. Mortality go down, opening the way to the physical and psychological rehabilitation of those injured by the war.

  7. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen


    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  8. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  9. The Performing Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    the surface of Vor Frelsers Cemetery, as the background for affective resonances of the un-seen and un-told networks that connect people with time, places and spaces, through media. By following a non-representational research approach the project tries to enliven this particular cemetery rather than report...... as functional assistant cemetery in 1790, the 1,66 Acre of Vor Frelser Cemetery have had significant cultural and emotional roothold in the citizens of Amager and the adjacent Copenhagen districts. Today it serves as both the traditional ritual space for the interment of the dead (bodies or cremated remains...... that convey a weave of bodies, sites and memories along with a bodily exploration of the city of Copenhagen. Here invisible life-traces and their way through the urban landscape are animated as a meshwork of relations between the real and the fictional, unfolding in the interplay between performance...

  10. Charlie: Dead Laughing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Tuirán Rougeon


    Full Text Available The article addresses the dramatic events of January 2015 in France, from the perspective of humor as an unconscious formation, as described by Freud. The deadly attack targeted the headquarters of Charlie Hebdo, a satirical journal that questions sensitive social issues through caricatures, cartoons, and humor. Considering that censure has always existed, what could explain this bloody act today? Can't we laugh at everything? Can't we laugh with anyone? While Freud suggests the hypothesis that the comic is a formation of spirit vis-à-vis the pain caused by existence, he also proposes that humor is the contribution of the super-ego to the comic. How, then, is it possible to understand that we cannot laugh at everything?


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  12. Three wars that never happened. (United States)

    Russell, W M S


    This article discusses three serious wars that were averted and the three men who averted them. In 1478-79, Pope Sixtus IV's hatred of the Medici culminated in aggressive war against Florence, supported by his powerful ally King Ferrante of Naples. The initial stags of this war were indecisive, but it was about to become much more serious, probably involving all the Italian states and possibly meaning the total destruction of Florence. Lorenzo il Magnifico sailed to Naples, convinced Ferrante this more serious war was against his interests and obtained a generous peace. In 1861, the British Government responded to the boarding of a British ship by a vessel of the American North with a peremptory letter. Albert, Prince Consort, though dying of typhoid fever amended the letter to save Lincoln's face and thus averted war with the North. From 1871 to 1890, Otto von Bismarck worked for a stable peace between the European powers to be attained by arranging meetings of most or all of them to accustom them to solving disputes by negotiation. Two such meetings in Berlin secured 36 years of peace between the powers, despite many disputes, and in particular averted war for possessions in Africa, which could have involved them all.

  13. Dead End Street Blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Dun


    Full Text Available The long stagflation in the nineteen-seventies broke the Keynesian hold on economic policy. Last year we witnessed the spectacular unraveling of neo-liberal policies of manipulating money and credit. While these episodes might be studied to explain the specific weaknesses and errors of each of the two policy paradigms that have dominated in the West after the Second World War, this lecture highlights the ideas and presuppositions that remained in place throughout the whole period. Despite the alliance that once existed between libertarians and classical liberals, on the one hand, and neo-liberals, on the other hand, the latter did not have sufficiently coherent conceptions of freedom and free markets to produce a true alternative for the Keynesian idea of a scientifically managed economy as a utilitarian and pragmatic approach to the utopian goal of the greatest happiness for the greatest number, i.e., complete well-being for all.

  14. An update on crimean congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma B Appannanavar


    Full Text Available Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae. CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community.

  15. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.


    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  16. Recurrent fever in children


    Sofia Torreggiani; Giovanni Filocamo; Susanna Esposito


    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes,...

  17. Anthrax, People and Dead Hippos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Epidemiologist, Dr. Melissa Marx, discuses anthrax deaths in people who ate dead hippos.  Created: 11/7/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/7/2017.

  18. «Dead Men Attack» (Osovets, 1915: Archive Sources Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav I. Menjkovsky


    Full Text Available The article, basing on archive materials, attempts to examine one of the chapters of World War I history, namely, so-called “dead men attack” during Osovets Tower (westward of Bialystok, within the territory of modern Poland defense by Russian troops in 1915, reconstructs the battle, specifies attack, rather counterattack conditions, introduces new archive sources for scientific use.

  19. Climate change and dead zones. (United States)

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B


    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Dead Star Rumbles (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite of Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A This Spitzer Space Telescope composite shows the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (white ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (gray, orange and blue). It consists of two processed images taken one year apart. Dust features that have not changed over time appear gray, while those that have changed are colored blue or orange. Blue represents an earlier time and orange, a later time. These observations illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago. Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia. An infrared echo is created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. This apparent motion can be seen here by the shift in colored dust clumps. Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars. This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons. Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen. The earlier Spitzer image was taken on November 30, 2003, and the later, on December 2, 2004.

  1. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF) (United States)

    ... Submit Search the CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups, References... Marburg HF Outbreak Distribution Map Factsheet: Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever [PDF – ...

  2. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology (United States)

    ... Other Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever More Epidemiology and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in 2007. In 2008, the Q fever case definition was changed to allow for the reporting of ...

  3. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST... Dead covers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each port light with the sill located below the margin line must have a hinged, inside dead cover. (b) The dead cover on a port light...

  4. Rat Bite Fever (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who have been bitten by an infected rat or, in some cases, squirrels, mice, cats, and ...

  5. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren


    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  6. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren


    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....



    Shilpa Anand Hakki


    BACKGROUND There is an alarming increase in the incidence of fever with thrombocytopenia especially during monsoon and peri-monsoon period. Infections with protozoa, bacteria and viruses can cause thrombocytopenia with or without disseminated intravascular coagulation. Commonly, dengue, malaria, scrub typhus and other rickettsial infections, meningococci, Leptospira and certain viral infections present as fever with thrombocytopenia. Occasionally, these patients can go on to devel...

  8. ‘Do not say they are dead’ : the political use of mystical and religious concepts in the Persian poetry of the Iran-Iraq war (1980-88)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi Mahani, Mahnia A.


    The Iran-Iraq war began on September 22, 1980 when Iraq attacked the border towns of Iran. The war lasted for eight years. The Iran-Iraq war is the longest conventional battle since World War II. It is estimated that on both sides there is about one million dead and three million wounded, thousands

  9. Development of vaccines against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus


    Dowall, Stuart D.; Carroll, Miles W.; Hewson, Roger


    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a deadly human pathogen of the utmost seriousness being highly lethal causing devastating disease symptoms that result in intense and prolonged suffering to those infected. During the past 40 years, this virus has repeatedly caused sporadic outbreaks responsible for relatively low numbers of human casualties, but with an alarming fatality rate of up to 80% in clinically infected patients. CCHFV is transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks and co...

  10. War, suffering and modern German history. (United States)

    Hansen, Randall


    This introduction proceeds in five steps. First, it briefly considers the etymology of the term "suffering," as well as the way in which scholars from different disciplines have approached it conceptually and empirically. Second, drawing on the contributions to this issue, it raises general themes emerging from the study of the Thirty Years, Franco-Prussian and First World Wars, with particular attention to gender, the disabled, and Jewish-German veterans. Finally, it considers the most politically contested field of German suffering - the Second World War - and reflects on how that suffering can be narrated and understood without running into the intellectual dead ends of either self-pity or collective guilt.

  11. The Right to be Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Troyer, John Eric


    illustrate our essay design arguments through the competition’s history and results. In our paper we argue that designing future cemeteries should focus on how spaces such as Arnos Vale represent a transitional hybrid space. A merger of the Victorian past with the digital present, in order to create a new...... kind of archival future. Future Cemeteries will ultimately become spaces where both dead humans and dead data are stored. The irony, of course, is that given current design conditions and limitations in thinking, Arnos Vale’s granite headstones will remain in situ long after today’s ‘internet’ has...

  12. Resurrecting Dead-water Phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Mercier, Matthieu; Dauxois, Thierry


    We revisit experimental studies performed by Ekman on dead-water using modern techniques in order to present new insights on this peculiar phenomenon. We extend its description to more general situations such as a three-layer fluid or a linearly stratified fluid in presence of a pycnocline, showing the robustness of dead-water phenomenon. We observe large amplitude nonlinear internal waves which are coupled to the boat dynamics, and we emphasize that the modeling of the wave-induced drag requires more analysis, taking into account nonlinear effects.

  13. Lithotrites and postoperative fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, David I; Lipkin, Michael E; Wang, Agnes J


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risks of fever from different lithotrites after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PNL database is a prospective, multi-institutional, international PNL registry. Of 5,803 total...... with fever [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.17, p = 0.413], while diabetes (OR 1.32, p = 0.048), positive urine culture (OR 2.08, p PNL...... fever was not significantly different among the various lithotrites used in the CROES PNL study....

  14. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René


    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der e...

  15. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders


    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice. Atten...

  16. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever (United States)

    ... Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (83) Yellow Fever ... should be taken to avoid medications, such as aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which may increase ...

  17. The Fever Effect


    Milton, Damian


    In episode 4 of ‘The A word’, Jo, the young Autistic child depicted in the series has a fever, during which he shows more signs or reciprocal communication and empathy. Whilst it is mentioned in this program that there have been studies in to the ‘fever effect’, in fact there have not been in-depth scientific studies carried out on this phenomenon.

  18. [Dengue fever: clinical features]. (United States)

    Dellamonica, P


    The vector for dengue fever and chikungunya, Aedes albopictus, was recently identified in Southeastern France, although the usual vector for dengue fever is Aedes aegypti, raising the possibility of cases occurring among the local population via viraemic individuals returning from endemic areas. Dengue fever is usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti. It is due to an arbovirus-flavivirus of which four different serotypes are known: Den 1 to 4. Each serotype is responsible for specific prolonged immunity but no cross-reactivity exists between serotypes. Clinically, the onset is abrupt with frontal headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, joint pain, prostration and, in many cases, a macular rash usually sparing the face and extremities. Haemorrhagic signs may occur, such as petechiae, purpura, epistaxis or bleeding gingivae. Two severe forms of dengue fever, particularly among children below 3 years of age, include dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and DHF with shock (dengue shock syndrome). If a case is suspected in metropolitan France, the diagnosis should be systematically confirmed by positive specific IgM, RT-PCR or viral isolation. Treatment of dengue fever, whether in its uncomplicated form or with hemorrhagic manifestations or shock, remains symptomatic. There is no specific anti-viral treatment. A case should be notified to allow French health authorities to take the appropriate measures for vector control.

  19. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds (United States)

    ... Related Links Mosquito Surveillance Software West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... What should I do if I find a dead bird? State and local agencies have different policies ...

  20. A Novel Animal Model of Borrelia recurrentis Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Using Immunodeficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, C.; Lundqvist, J.; Rooijen, van N.; Bergstrom, S.


    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) borreliosis is caused by Borrelia recurrentis, and it is a deadly although treatable disease that is endemic in the Horn of Africa but has epidemic potential. Research on LBRF has been severely hampered because successful infection with B. recurrentis has been

  1. The Forgotten War: Korea. (United States)

    Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.


    Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

  2. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deadly force. 632.4 Section 632.4 National... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a) Deadly force is destructive physical force directed against a person or persons (e.g., firing a lethal...

  3. The Social Effects of War Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan DEMİREL


    Full Text Available In today’s world, knowledge is increasingly impacted via visual representation. The messages sent through various sources, such as newspaper, television and the internet, lead people to form opinions about various topics. In this context, photography is one of the most powerful source of information. Moreover, the visual power and the ability to show nonverbal communication makes it a perfect tool for propaganda. These days, photographs showing war themes are used more often than the past. It can be said that war photographs serve as a tool for showing the world the realities of war to those, even to those who turn their back to massacres. After all, a dead body creates a shocking effect in the seer. In this study, the context of the photographs of the war, examined in sample of photograph of Aylan Kurdi, which became the “icon” of immigration due to Syrian civil war and war it relates to and it is studied to understand how it is assessed and understood considering the environment and conditions on the date the photo was taken, existing values, beliefs and things happened in the world in that time, from a critical point of view.

  4. Recurrent Fever in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Torreggiani


    Full Text Available Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  5. Global risk of deadly heat (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Dousset, Bénédicte; Caldwell, Iain R.; Powell, Farrah E.; Geronimo, Rollan C.; Bielecki, Coral R.; Counsell, Chelsie W. W.; Dietrich, Bonnie S.; Johnston, Emily T.; Louis, Leo V.; Lucas, Matthew P.; McKenzie, Marie M.; Shea, Alessandra G.; Tseng, Han; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Leon, Lisa R.; Hawkins, Ed; Trauernicht, Clay


    Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published between 1980 and 2014, and found 783 cases of excess human mortality associated with heat from 164 cities in 36 countries. Based on the climatic conditions of those lethal heat events, we identified a global threshold beyond which daily mean surface air temperature and relative humidity become deadly. Around 30% of the world's population is currently exposed to climatic conditions exceeding this deadly threshold for at least 20 days a year. By 2100, this percentage is projected to increase to ~48% under a scenario with drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and ~74% under a scenario of growing emissions. An increasing threat to human life from excess heat now seems almost inevitable, but will be greatly aggravated if greenhouse gases are not considerably reduced.

  6. Photographic Histories of the Civil War and the First World War and Rebirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Meigs


    Full Text Available The article compares The Photographic History of the Civil War published in 1912, with A Photographic History of the First World War, published in 1933. The author is looking for similarities in the reworking of interpretations of war photography after the war and discovers that the photographs in conjunction with their editing can be made to cover up as much as they reveal. The Photographic History of the Civil War, published at the height of the Jim Crow era, with its hugely elaborate editorial structure, manages to deny the importance of slavery to the war and the importance of freed slaves afterwards. Even photographs of the dead of Gettysburg take on a meaning more appropriate to 1912 than to the event that produced them. The comparatively direct A Photographic History of the First World War, manages loyalty only to the thought of the author at the moment of its publication. Other interpretations were possible at other times as the author editor followed literary fashion and history.

  7. Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Walker


    Full Text Available Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae, is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.

  8. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever. (United States)

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Walker, David H


    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host's immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.

  9. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk


    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  10. Signs of scarlet fever (image) (United States)

    Scarlet fever is a disease caused by an infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteria that occurs in a small percentage of people with strep throat. The illness typically begins with a fever and ...

  11. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  12. Fever of unknown origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders-Manders, C.; Simon, A.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.


    More than 50 years after the first definition of fever of unknown origin (FUO), it still remains a diagnostic challenge. Evaluation starts with the identification of potential diagnostic clues (PDCs), which should guide further investigations. In the absence of PDCs a standardised diagnostic

  13. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  14. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead? (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  15. Vietnam: Historians at War (United States)

    Moyar, Mark


    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  16. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (United States)

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W


    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  17. More Dead than Dead: Perceptions of Persons in the Persistent Vegetative State (United States)

    Gray, Kurt; Knickman, T. Anne; Wegner, Daniel M.


    Patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS) may be biologically alive, but these experiments indicate that people see PVS as a state curiously more dead than dead. Experiment 1 found that PVS patients were perceived to have less mental capacity than the dead. Experiment 2 explained this effect as an outgrowth of afterlife beliefs, and the…

  18. Total war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris


    Full Text Available In principle, this paper presents critics of Freud's concept of death drive and deals with the consequences of its drawing in the theoretical plane. Namely, the death drive is, besides the original pleasure principle, imported into the selfmediation dialectic of subjectivity. By that, as if a scientific foundation and justification had been given to one of the central tendencies in Western European thought: to the idea of original opposition or eternal war. In our time, violence has entered widely into theoretical reality, which is best witnessed by Derida's thought. Nevertheless, the concept of death drive presents only one of the possible lines of the development of psychoanalysis, the line which is fully avoided in papers and praxis of one different psychoanalyst - very much used but not enough acknowledged - Wilhelm Reich. Reich, namely, succeeded in explanation of masochism problem (as one of the main motives for presenting of death drive by inversion of the pleasure principle, and such interpretation gave results in therapy while the concept of death drive had shown itself apsolutely fruitless (unproductive in that field. In that sense, one could say that it is the matter of different ethoi.

  19. Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa. (United States)

    Burke, Marshall B; Miguel, Edward; Satyanath, Shanker; Dykema, John A; Lobell, David B


    Armed conflict within nations has had disastrous humanitarian consequences throughout much of the world. Here we undertake the first comprehensive examination of the potential impact of global climate change on armed conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. We find strong historical linkages between civil war and temperature in Africa, with warmer years leading to significant increases in the likelihood of war. When combined with climate model projections of future temperature trends, this historical response to temperature suggests a roughly 54% increase in armed conflict incidence by 2030, or an additional 393,000 battle deaths if future wars are as deadly as recent wars. Our results suggest an urgent need to reform African governments' and foreign aid donors' policies to deal with rising temperatures.

  20. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.55 Dead bodies. The remains of a person who died of a communicable disease...

  1. 49 CFR 236.798 - Section, dead. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Section, dead. 236.798 Section 236.798 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Section, dead. A section of track, either within a track circuit or between two track circuits, the rails...

  2. Culture Wars: Air Force Culture and Civil-Military Relations (United States)


    dead gener- als, hold the military mind in their dead grip.”21 For the generation of military leaders in the Gulf War, searing memories of Vietnam...Fulghum, “U.S. May Suspend Northern Watch Patrol,” Aviation Week & Space Technology 154, no. 20 (14 May 2001): 31. 64. Alan Sipress and Dan Balz, “Bush...York Times, 6 June 2008. Sipress, Alan , and Dan Balz. “Bush Signals Escalation in Response to Hus- sein.” Washington Post, 17 February 2001. Smith

  3. Winning Insurgent War: Back to Basics (United States)


    Spanish: Juan Carlos Laviana’s La Guerra Civil Española Mes a Mes (The Civil War Month-to-Month); Ricardo Cierva’s Historia de España Para Niñ in the way Karl Marx used lumpenproletariat ˗˗ a refuse class, but rather as a term for any collective identity that suffers an inferior...credited with the observation, but so can Karl Marx and maybe some long-dead Greeks. (The observation can be inferentially tied to egalitarianism

  4. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg


    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  5. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.


    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  6. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.


    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury


    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  8. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever. (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W


    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  9. Perehdytysopas, Fashion Fever Oy


    Schwartz-Kröger, Matilda


    Tässä toiminnallisessa opinnäytetyössä keskityttiin perehdyttämisen teoriaan ja perehdyttämisoppaan kokoamiseen. Tavoitteena oli tuottaa toimiva perehdyttämisopas Porin, Vaasan, Turun ja Seinäjoen Vila-myymälöiden tarpeisiin. Toimeksiantajana toimi Fashion Fever Oy. Perehdyttämisopas oli hyvä valinta opinnäytetyön aiheeksi, koska yritys oli kasvanut sen kokoiseksi, että kaikkien toimipisteiden rutiinit oli tärkeä yhtenäistää. Sen avulla voitiin varmistaa, että kaikki aloittavat työntekijät...

  10. relapsing fever, a disappearing cause of fever and maternal death

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 1, 2013 ... by various Borrelia spirochetes transmitted either by lice (epidemic relapsing fever) or ticks (endemic relapsing fever, caused by Borrelia Duttoni). Clinically, these spirochetes all produce an undulating febrile disease in humans, with signs and symptoms often indistinguishable from those of malaria (3,4) .

  11. Relapsing fever, a disappearing cause of fever and maternal death ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the incidence of tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) during the last 50 years, once like malaria an endemic disease in Sengerema, Tanzania. Design: By analyzing the annual reports, focusing on the number of admissions, maternal deaths, blood smears of patients with fever for Borrelia.

  12. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...... about war and masculine rationalties; gender relations in social movements of rebellion and national transformation; and masculinity in civil society under conditions of war and post-war....

  13. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  14. De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead? (United States)


    10 | Air & Space Power Journal De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead ? Robert Cardillo Richard Szafranski Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed or...of French Artillery Instructors in the U.S. Army.”1 Let’s fire directly at the idea of strategy. The hypothesis is that strategy is dead , and that’s...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent


    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  16. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2 (United States)


    economic, and politica ! institutions. And like independence, war shaped the "course taken by the new nation as it faced its future. The consequences...Cruden, The War That Never Ended: The American Ci’,il War (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1973), p. 176. 139 190 NOTES. CHAPTER 2 15. Thonas Weber . The

  17. Early Korean War Coverage. (United States)

    Lee, Raymond S. H.


    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  18. Q fever: the Dutch policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruschke, C. J. M.; Roest, H. I. J.; Coutinho, R. A.


    Between 2007 and 2010, the Netherlands experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Q fever of more than 4000 human cases. Q fever infections of dairy goats, leading to abortion waves, were considered to be the cause of this outbreak. Measures to combat the outbreak had to be taken based on limited

  19. Q fever: The Dutch Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruschke, C.J.M.; Roest, H.I.J.; Coutinho, R.A.


    Between 2007 and 2010, the Netherlands experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Q fever of more than 4000 human cases. Q fever infections of dairy goats, leading to abortion waves, were considered to be the cause of this outbreak. Measures to combat the outbreak had to be taken based on limited

  20. Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco (United States)

    Sarih, M’hammed; Garnier, Martine; Boudebouch, Najma; Bouattour, Ali; Rihani, Abdelaziz; Hassar, Mohammed; Gern, Lise; Postic, Danièle


    We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species. PMID:19861058

  1. Leadership, Ethics and Law of War. Discussion Guide for Marines (United States)


    apparently unarmed civilians, primarily the elderly and women and children, including infants in their mothers’ arms. The destruction on the ground...feet square. They were so malnourished that – as with concentration camp victims of World War II – their food intake had to be increased gradually to... elderly people, farmers, women and children now dead, with no apparent connection to the enemy. After determining that there was no exploitable

  2. Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat Here's how to ... t take off in Phoenix on Tuesday, the heat wave scorching the Southwest for the next week ...

  3. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response En español Send ... Mouth? Looking at Lupus Wise Choices Signs of Sepsis Sepsis can be hard to spot, because its ...

  4. Dead cell phagocytosis and innate immune checkpoint (United States)

    Yoon, Kyoung Wan


    The human body loses several billions of cells daily. When cells die in vivo, the corpse of each dead cell is immediately cleared. Specifically, dead cells are efficiently recognized and cleared by multiple types of neighboring phagocytes. Early research on cell death focused more on molecular mechanisms of cell death regulation while the cellular corpses were merely considered cellular debris. However, it has come to light that various biological stimuli following cell death are important for immune regulation. Clearance of normal dead cells occurs silently in immune tolerance. Exogenous or mutated antigens of malignant or infected cells can initiate adaptive immunity, thereby inducing immunogenicity by adjuvant signals. Several pathogens and cancer cells have strategies to limit the adjuvant signals and escape immune surveillance. In this review, we present an overview of the mechanisms of dead cell clearance and its immune regulations. PMID:28768566

  5. The dead donor rule: a defense. (United States)

    Birch, Samuel C M


    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the "dead donor rule," the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are not addressed.) The claim that the dead donor rule lacks a cogent ethical rationale will be shown to be an expression of the contemporary rejection of the moral significance of the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die. The moral significance of this traditional distinction, and the associated norm that doctors should not kill their patients, will be defended, and this critique of it shown to be unsuccessful.

  6. Fentanyl Patch Can Be Deadly to Children (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fentanyl Patch Can Be Deadly to Children Share Tweet ... from accidental exposure to a skin patch containing fentanyl, a powerful pain reliever. As a result of ...

  7. Could 'Safer' Filtered Cigarettes Be More Deadly? (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165825.html Could 'Safer' Filtered Cigarettes Be More Deadly? New report suggests they're ... 2017 MONDAY, May 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Filtered cigarettes might be even more lethal than unfiltered ones, ...

  8. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters. (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P


    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  9. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari


    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  10. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo


    Analysis of the records of instances in which non-immune persons contracted yellow fever notwithstanding vaccination shows that the onset of disease occurs soon after vaccination, the longest period being 13 days. Since the average incubation period in yellow fever is 6 days, it seems that infection must have taken place in some instances during the period while protection was developing. These instances led to a study of the possibility of immediate protection by means of the anti-icteroides serum. It had already been shown that the immune serum protects at once against experimental Leptospira icteroides infection, but it remained to determine how long the protection would last. Guinea pigs were given different quantities of the immune serum and subsequently injected, at various intervals, with a virulent strain of Leptospira icteroides. Complete protection enduring 5 days was obtained with as minute a quantity of serum as 0.002 cc. per 1,000 gm. of body weight. After 5 days, however, the immune substance rapidly diminished, and to keep the animal protected for as long as 10 days it was necessary to give 100 times as much, or 0.2 cc. For a man weighing 80 kilos, 0.16 cc. (0.002 x 80) would theoretically be sufficient to protect for at least 5 days, 1.6 cc. for 7 days, and 16 cc. for 10 days. This temporary protection may be a valuable antecedent to that furnished by vaccination, since the final effect of the latter cannot be expected until at least 9 to 10 days have passed. PMID:19868677

  11. The war veteran identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.


    Full Text Available The paper discusses how war veterans perceive themselves and how they answer the question 'Who am I?'. War veterans face many challenges in the process of re-socialization from a state of war and war traumatization to a peacetime society. There are several reasons why their re-socialization is a slow process: the first one is that a war engagement is in itself a highly stressful situation which carries traumas of different degrees, the other reason is the changed system of values in relation to war engagement. Namely, at the time they went to war, they had a strong social support, but at the time of their return and today this support is lost to the point of judgment. And the third reason which limits their re-socialization is the situation of social transition they found on their return from war, which specifically means that a large percentage of the population in general, and thus the war veterans after returning from the war, lost their jobs, creating a large social group of 'transition losers'. Such a condition often generates an identity crisis. This set of socio-cultural circumstances together with the ontological insecurity carried by war trauma generate an identity crisis, which is manifested among the respondents in nihilistic answers when responding to questions about their own personality. Studying the identity of war veterans, it was found that a strong attachment to the veteran identity is dominant. In fact, this paper discusses the different ways in which this attachment is refracted in the personality and identity of subjects, from negative attitudes to the pride in belonging to a group of war veterans and personal fulfillment in the activism in associations of war participants.

  12. Multispacer sequence typing relapsing fever Borreliae in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Elbir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Africa, relapsing fevers are neglected arthropod-borne infections caused by closely related Borrelia species. They cause mild to deadly undifferentiated fever particularly severe in pregnant women. Lack of a tool to genotype these Borrelia organisms limits knowledge regarding their reservoirs and their epidemiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome sequence analysis of Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii and Borrelia recurrentis yielded 5 intergenic spacers scattered between 10 chromosomal genes that were incorporated into a multispacer sequence typing (MST approach. Sequencing these spacers directly from human blood specimens previously found to be infected by B. recurrentis (30 specimens, B. duttonii (17 specimens and B. crocidurae (13 specimens resolved these 60 strains and the 3 type strains into 13 species-specific spacer types in the presence of negative controls. B. crocidurae comprised of 8 spacer types, B. duttonii of 3 spacer types and B. recurrentis of 2 spacer types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Phylogenetic analyses of MST data suggested that B. duttonii, B. crocidurae and B. recurrentis are variants of a unique ancestral Borrelia species. MST proved to be a suitable approach for identifying and genotyping relapsing fever borreliae in Africa. It could be applied to both vectors and clinical specimens.

  13. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever. (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit


    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory Diagnosis of Lassa Fever. (United States)

    Raabe, Vanessa; Koehler, Jeffrey


    Lassa virus remains an important cause of illness in West Africa and among the travelers returning from this region with an acute febrile illness. The symptoms of Lassa fever can be nonspecific and mimic those of other endemic infections, especially early in illness, making a clinical diagnosis difficult; therefore, laboratory testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis. An early identification of Lassa fever is crucial for maximizing the benefit of available antiviral therapy, as treatment efficacy rapidly decreases following the clinical onset of the disease. This minireview provides an overview of the currently available diagnostic tests for Lassa fever and their strengths and weaknesses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Intrathecal antibody production in two cases of yellow fever vaccine associated neurotropic disease in Argentina. (United States)

    Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Martinez, Valeria Paula; Nemirovsky, Corina; Padula, Paula Julieta


    During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In 2008 after a Yellow fever outbreak an exhaustive prevention campaign took place in Argentina using 17D live attenuated Yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is considered one of the safest live virus vaccines, although serious adverse reactions may occur after vaccination, and vaccine-associated neurotropic disease are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to confirm two serious adverse events associated to Yellow fever vaccine in Argentina, and to describe the analysis performed to assess the origin of specific IgM against Yellow fever virus (YFV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both cases coincided with the Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease case definition, being clinical diagnosis longitudinal myelitis (case 1) and meningoencephalitis (case 2). Specific YFV antibodies were detected in CSF and serum samples in both cases by IgM antibody-capture ELISA. No other cause of neurological disease was identified. In order to obtain a conclusive diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection the IgM antibody index (AI(IgM) ) was calculated. High AI(IgM) values were found in both cases indicating intrathecal production of antibodies and, therefore, CNS post-vaccinal YFV infection could be definitively associated to YFV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The War on Drugs - America's Other War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruske, Jr, James S


    The United States Coast Guard, with the assistance of the United States Navy, has been engaged in interdicting drugs in the maritime environment since Richard Nixon declared the War on Drugs thirty-seven years ago...

  17. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008. (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I


    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  18. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Novel Virus Strain, Uganda, 2007–2008 (United States)

    Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J.; Talisuna, Ambrose O.; Okware, Sam I.


    During August 2007–February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78–8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions. PMID:20587179

  19. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna


    and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims.......This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...

  20. Fever in Infants and Children (United States)

    ... quickly lead to dehydration. Give your child an oral rehydration solution to prevent it. For the fever, give ... doctor or take your child to the emergency room right away.Start OverDiagnosisThese may be symptoms of ...

  1. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  2. Fungal life in the dead sea. (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina


    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem.

  3. Experimental therapies for yellow fever


    Julander, Justin G.


    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availabili...

  4. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever


    Ergonul, O.


    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a geographically widespread pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality. Although it is primarily zoonosis, sporadic cases and outbreaks of CCHF affecting humans do occur. The disease is endemic in many countries in Africa, Europe and Asia, and during 2002-2006, is has been reported in Turkey. People become infected through tick bites (especially Hyalomma spp.), by crushing infected ticks, after contact with a patient with...

  5. Treatment of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse S


    Full Text Available Senaka Rajapakse,1,2 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Anoja Rajapakse31Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Lincoln County Hospital, United Lincolnshire NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK; 3Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Mansfield, UKAbstract: The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decades at an alarming rate. In the endemic areas, waves of infection occur in epidemics, with thousands of individuals affected, creating a huge burden on the limited resources of a country's health care system. While the illness passes off as a simple febrile episode in many, a few have a severe illness marked by hypovolemic shock and bleeding. Iatrogenic fluid overload in the management may further complicate the picture. In this severe form dengue can be fatal. Tackling the burden of dengue is impeded by several issues, including a lack of understanding about the exact pathophysiology of the infection, inability to successfully control the vector population, lack of specific therapy against the virus, and the technical difficulties in developing a vaccine. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, natural history, management strategies, and future directions for research on dengue, including the potential for development of a vaccine.Keywords: dengue, treatment, fluid resuscitation

  6. Jemen - the Proxy War


    Magdalena El Ghamari


    The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occas...

  7. The War Transformed Love


    Perrot, Michelle


    Paris Diderot University - Paris 7 “The war transformed love”, wrote Blaise Cendrars, who himself lived through this dramatic experience. But what else? How did men and women experience the Great War, not only in their affective, romantic and sexual relationships, but more generally in everything forging their relationships: family life, intimacy, the public and the private spheres, work, writing, images, the body and the soul? A poilu's postcard, 1916 The war was first the triumph of the or...

  8. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger


    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  9. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel


    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war. Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war. Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients. Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  10. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel


    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war.Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war.Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients.Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  11. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams


    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  12. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa


    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  13. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks (United States)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.


    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  14. War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F


    .... One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution (WPR...

  15. The Virgin of Luján: sacred source of legitimation of the heroes of the Malvinas War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marina Panizo


    Full Text Available The loss of a loved one in war, as in the extraordinary losses in general, produces a break in the usual ways of facing death. In this article we will see how relatives of fallen in the Malvinas War were adapted to these changes in a creative way, reformulating conventional models to understand them, through a framework of interpretation of losses where the Virgin of Luján, sacred source of legitimation of the dead and the bereaved, becomes the instrument through which occurs the communion of all Argentineans, both living and dead, and strengthening the national identity.  

  16. [Ebola and Marburg fever--outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever]. (United States)

    Chlíbek, R; Smetana, J; Vacková, M


    With an increasing frequency of traveling and tourism to exotic countries, a new threat-import of rare, very dangerous infections-emerges in humane medicine. Ebola fever and Marburg fever, whose agents come from the same group of Filoviridae family, belong among these diseases. The natural reservoir of these viruses has not yet been precisely determined. The pathogenesis of the diseases is not absolutely clear, there is neither a possibility of vaccination, nor an effective treatment. Fever and haemorrhagic diathesis belong to the basic symptoms of the diseases. Most of the infected persons die, the death rate is 70-88 %. The history of Ebola fever is relatively short-30 years, Marburg fever is known almost 40 years. Hundreds of people have died of these diseases so far. The study involves epidemics recorded in the world and their epidemiological relations. Not a single case has been recorded in the Czech Republic, nevertheless a sick traveler or infected animals are the highest risk of import these diseases. In our conditions, the medical staff belong to a highly endangered group of people because of stringent isolation of patients, strict rules of barrier treatment regime and high infectivity of the diseases. For this reason, the public should be prepared for possible contact with these highly virulent infections.

  17. The Just War or Just a War? A Proposal for Ethical Joint Doctrine of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Sarah J


    .... Combat now spans both war and "not war" in the new "military operation other than war", and the process of the military government has been completely replaced by the new "civil administration...

  18. Children and War. (United States)

    Engel, Mary


    War is a stressful social condition that can be considered a form of child abuse. The holocaust experience, Vietnam, and World War II have all had significant effects on children's emotions and behavior. Problems that arise from these traumatic events are explored. (DF)

  19. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John


    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  20. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W


    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  1. Fighting the Drug War. (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990


    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  2. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim


    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  3. Introduction to Special Issue "War Graves / Die Bauaufgabe Soldatenfriedhof, 1914-1989"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrmeister, Christian


    Full Text Available Commemoration of the dead is intricately linked to the history of civilization itself. Consequently, art history (understood in a broad sense, encompassing architectural history, social history of art, aesthetics, political iconography, etc. is characterized by a long tradition of paying minute attention to Christian and profane iconography of chapels, epitaphs, and death dances; and to memorials, tombs, and other manifestations, particularly with regard to the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. Twentieth century war graves, war cemeteries, memorial shrines, and burial sites of the fallen, however, have received only little attention. This assessment was the starting point of our joint endeavor: If the history of conflicts and wars, and the history of war death in particular, is such a major topic for the humanities at large, and especially for contemporary and cultural history, memory studies, etc., then the question arises to what degree art history can contribute to that ongoing discourse. Sketching a Potentially Global Field of Research Table of Contents Acknowledgements Sources and Materials Basic Research on War Graves and War Cemeteries in The Political Archive of the Federal Foreign Office in Berlin / Kriegsgräber im Politischen Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes in Berlin The Archive of the German War Graves Commission in Kassel / Das Archiv des Volksbundes Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. in Kassel War Graves, War Cemeteries, and Memorial Shrines since 1914: A Selected Bibliography Selected Printed Source Material

  4. 17DD yellow fever vaccine (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira


    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  5. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  6. Women and War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Camerablu


    Full Text Available In the traditional representation of war the protagonist is always the man, the soldier, portrayed in his full virility, strength and justified aggressiveness. In every public discourse on war women are presented as the personification of something to be protected and even the country itself, the homeland, that is in danger of being invaded by the enemy. However this stereotype is far from portraying the full range of women’s activity in war. In many cases throughout history, from the mythical Antigone to the forgotten heroism of resistance of women against Nazi-German occupation in the Second World War, women have taken action both to save human lives and to preserve the values of their communities that war threatens to destroy. Avoiding an essentialist and reductive interpretation that identifies tout court women with peace, this issue explores women’s wartime experiences.

  7. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of...

  8. Cheatgrass Dead Zones in Northern Nevada (United States)

    Reports of areas of cheatgrass die-off are becoming more frequent. In 2009, we investigated cheatgrass die-off in north-central Nevada. Dead zones ranged from several to hundreds of acres in size and were largely unvegetated and covered by cheatgrass litter with a distinct gray cast. We collected re...

  9. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.


    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  10. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive · Fossils · Evolution and O2 PAL · The Science in Dinosaurs · Origin/ Extinction of Dinosaurs · PowerPoint Presentation · India –94my + 50my · Icehouse /Greenhouse through time · Global Mean Annual Temperature Distributions at 100 my · Global Mean Annual ...

  11. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever. (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C


    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  12. The association of state per capita income and military service deaths in the Vietnam and Iraq wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maynard Charles


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, social burdens including war casualties are often distributed unequally across groups of individuals, communities, and states. The purpose of this report was to examine the association between war deaths and per capita income in the 50 states and District of Columbia during the Vietnam and Iraq wars. Methods The numbers of deaths by the home state of record for each conflict were obtained from Department of Defense records on the Internet as were key variables including age at death, gender, race, branch of service, rank, circumstances of death, home state of record and the ratio of wounded to dead. In addition, we obtained state per capita income and state population for the relevant times. Results Characteristics of decedents in the 2 conflicts were very similar with young, white enlisted men accounting for the majority of deaths. However, in the Iraq war, women accounted for a 2.4% of casualties. Also of note was the higher ratio of wounded to dead in Iraq. At the level of the state, the correlation between the ratio of deaths per 100,000 and per capita income was -0.51 (p Conclusion For military service members serving in the Vietnam and Iraq conflicts, there were many more women who died in the latter war. Whether war deaths resulted in lower per capita income cannot be determined from these cross sectional data; we simply note a strong association between per capita income and war casualty rates for both wars.

  13. The Health Consequences of the Diversion of Resources to War and Preparation for War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel


    Full Text Available Armed conflict damages health in many ways. These include death and disability directly caused by war, destruction of the societal infrastructure that supports health and safety, forced migration of people both within their own country and as refugees to other countries, promotion of violence as a method to settle conflicts and disputes, and the long-term adverse effects on social relationships. This special issue of Social Medicine examines the impact of war on human health from a geographically diverse set of countries and from diverse perspectives. Dr. Andrea Angulo Menasse, a researcher from Mexico City’s Autonomous University, documents the very personal story of how the violence of the Spanish Civil War affected one family. In her case study the trauma suffered by Spanish Republicans is traced through three generations and crosses the Atlantic Ocean as the family moves is exiled in Mexico. Dr. Sachin Ghimire from the Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health of the Jawaharlal Nehru University reports on his fieldwork in Rolpa, Nepal, the district from which the Nepal Civil War (also called the People’s War originated in 1996. Based on 80 interviews, he documents the difficulties faced by health care workers as they negotiated the sometimes deadly task of remaining in communities where control alternated between Nepalese Special Forces and the Maoist rebels. Finally, Colombian researcher, Carlos Iván Pacheco Sánchez, from the University of Rosario in Bogota, brings an epidemiologist’s tools to examine the impact of the ongoing armed conflict in the border Department of Nariño. His discussion is informed by the current debate over health care in Colombia where a recent Constitutional Court decision has found that the current health care system violates the right to health. These three papers amply demonstrate the depth, breadth and relevance of contemporary social medicine.

  14. Fever of unknown origin: subacute thyroiditis versus typhoid fever. (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Thermidor, Marjorie; Mohan, Sowjanya; Valsamis, Ageliki S; Johnson, Diane H


    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is not infrequently a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians. Common infectious causes include endocarditis and abscesses in adults, and noninfectious causes include neoplasms and certain collagen vascular diseases, for example, polymyalgia rheumatica, various vasculitides, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (adult Still's disease). Subacute thyroiditis is a rare cause of FUO. Among the infectious causes of FUO, typhoid fever is relatively uncommon. We present a case of FUO in a traveler returning from India whose initial complaints were that of left-sided neck pain and angle of the jaw pain, which initially suggested the diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. After an extensive FUO workup, when typhoid fever is a likely diagnostic possibility, an empiric trial of anti- Salmonella therapy has diagnostic and therapeutic significance. The presence of relative bradycardia, and response to quinolone therapy, was the basis of the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever as the explanation for this patients FUO. This case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in assessing patients with FUO with few diagnostic findings.

  15. relapsing fever, a disappearing cause of fever and maternal death

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 1, 2013 ... labor, puerperal sepsis, post-partum haemorrhage, complications of abortion, and pre-eclampsia. There were few reports of abortions and abortion-related mortality. Relapsing fever or Borrelia infection was an indirect cause of death common to the region and particularly hazardous to pregnant women and ...

  16. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever) (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  17. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... 166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people ... deadly melanomas, an expert warns. This type of skin cancer can be affected by genetics and is far ...

  18. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.


    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  19. Somatic hypotheses of war syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der


    Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely

  20. What about My Child and Rheumatic Fever? (United States)

    ... occur after a streptococcal infection of the throat (“strep throat”). Most strep throat infections don’t lead to rheumatic fever. When they do, the time between the strep throat and rheumatic fever is about two to four ...

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of tick-borne African relapsing fevers: latest developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien eFotso Fotso


    Full Text Available In Africa, relapsing fevers caused by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species are transmitted by ticks, with the exception of Borrelia recurrentis, which is a louse-borne spirochete. These tropical diseases responsible for mild to deadly spirochetemia. Cultured B. crocidurae, B. duttonii and B. hispanica circulate alongside at least six species which have not yet been cultured in vectors. Direct diagnosis is hindered by the use of non-specific laboratory tools. Indeed, microscopic observation of Borrelia spirochaeta in smears of peripheral blood taken from febrile patients lacks sensitivity and specificity. Although best visualised using dark-field microscopy, the organisms can also be detected using Wright-Giemsa or acridine orange stains.. PCR-based detection of specific sequences in total DNA extracted from a specimen can be used to discriminate different relapsing fever Borreliae. In our laboratory, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of B. duttonii/recurrentis and B. crocidurae: Multispacer Sequence Typing accurately identified cultured relapsing fever borreliae and revealed diversity among them. Other molecular typing techniques, such as multilocus sequence analysis of tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, showed the potential risk of human infection in Africa. Recent efforts to culture and sequence relapsing fever borreliae have provided new information for reassessment of the diversity of these bacteria. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been reported as a means of identifying cultured borreliae and of identifying both vectors and vectorised pathogens such as detecting relapsing fever borreliae directly in ticks. The lack of a rapid diagnosis test restricts the management of such diseases. We produced monoclonal antibodies against Borrelia crocidurae in order to develop cheap assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae. In this paper

  2. Aeschylus and War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....

  3. Terrorism, war, and peace




    The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability...

  4. Political Bias and War


    Jackson, Matthew O.; Morelli, Massimo


    We examine how countries' incentives to go to war depend on the "political bias" of their pivotal decision makers. This bias is measured by a decision maker’s risk/ reward ratio from a war compared to that of the country at large. If there is no political bias, then there are mutually acceptable transfers from one country to the other that will avoid a war in the presence of commitment or enforceability of peace treaties. There are cases with a strong enough bias on the part of one or both co...

  5. Typhoid fever: the experience of last decade


    A. N. Kovalenko; A. M. Ivanov; N. S. Odynaev; M. I. Rachmanov; A. A. Murachev


    This article is about analyses of diagnostics and treatment of the modern typhoid fever. In the past typhoid fever was critical and lifethreatening inflectional disease. But nowadays thanks to using of chloramphenicol and other antimicrobial preparations, typhoid fever is serious but well curable disease. In the second part of the 20th century the number of typhoid fever cases has decreased. As a result a new generation of physicians, who has never come across this disease, appeared. Nowadays...

  6. Abdominal Disturbances Among Dengue Fever Patients


    Harahap, Arnold Hasahatan; Simadibrata, Marcellus; Makmun, Dadang; Hasan, Irsan


    Background: Abdominal disturbances are common symptoms found in approximately 40% of patients with dengue fever, which frequently cause significant morbidity. This study was developed as an attempt to understand the effect of plasma leakage in dengue hemorrhagic fever; particularly on ab dominal problems. Method: The study was conducted in hospitalized patients who were diagnosed with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (based on the 1997 WHO criteria for DHF) at Fatmawati hospital, Ja...

  7. [Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Croatia--historical review]. (United States)

    Petricević, Ivan; Kuzman, Ilija


    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been known from ancient times as a disease with many names, which raised great interest during the Korean war (1951-1954), occurring as a large epidemic (Korean hemorrhagic fever). Therefore, the subsequently discovered causative agent was named after the Hantaan River which runs along the 38th parallel and divides North Korea from South Korea. A similar disease was described in 1934 in Scandinavian countries (epidemic nephrosonephritis or nephropathy). During the Second World War, the disease was also registered as wartime nephritis in several European south-eastern countries. Since 1982, similar clinical manifestations of the disease, differently named in various parts of the world, have been assigned one unique name--hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, as recommended by the World Health Organization. In Croatia, the first patient with HFRS was diagnosed in 1952 and the paper describing the case was published in 1954 (Radosevic and Mohacek). Since then, the disease has been regularly occurring in our country, especially in sporadic form, with only two smaller epidemics recorded until 1995. The first epidemic with 14 forestry workers involved occurred in 1967 at the Plitvice Lakes, and the second with the same number of soldiers in 1989 around the Pieso-Airport near Zagreb. Simultaneously, in 1967 and 1989 two large-scale epidemics of HFRS occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina with 144 cases each. Until the first large epidemic of HFRS in Croatia during the Croatian War in 1995, occurring at several localities (Mala Kapela, Dinara mountain, west Slavonia), it was considered that there were only several natural foci of the disease in Croatia (around Ogulin and Slunj, Plitvice Lakes, Zagreb surroundings). A total of 125 cases were reported to the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in 1995. Fifty patients, 45 of them soldiers, were hospitalized at Dr. Fran Mihaljević University Hospital for infectious

  8. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which a...

  9. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes that...

  10. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane


    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  11. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition...

  12. Standing dead tree resources in forests of the United States (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Karen L. Waddell; Christopher M. Oswalt; James E. Smith


    Given the importance of standing dead trees to numerous forest ecosystem attributes/ processes such as fuel loadings and wildlife habitat, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, initiated a consistent nationwide inventory of standing dead trees in 1999. As the first cycle of annual standing dead tree...

  13. Mothers' Perception of Fever Management in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Results: A total of 151 mothers participated with age range 19 years to 54 years with mean of 31.4±5.7SD. One hundred and thirteen (74.8%) defined fever as hotness of the body. Commonest associated symptom with fever was loss of appetite (71.5%). Commonest identified cause of fever was malaria (71 (47%) mothers).

  14. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003 (United States)

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert


    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. PMID:15498174

  15. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh


    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A.H.M.; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Robert F Breiman


    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  16. Fever, sore throat and myalgia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a continual significant fever daily. Shotty cervical lymphadenopathy was noted. The relevant laboratory investigations are shown in Table 1. On admission to tertiary care, an aetiological differential diagnosis for the pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO)[1] (Table 2) included retropharyngeal abscess, Lemierre's syndrome, HIV ...

  17. Haemorrhagic fevers and ecological perturbations. (United States)

    Le Guenno, B


    Hemorrhagic fever is a clinical and imprecise definition for several different diseases. Their main common point is to be zoonoses. These diseases are due to several viruses which belong to different families. The Flaviviridae have been known for the longest time. They include the Amaril virus that causes yellow fever and is transported by mosquitoes. Viruses that have come to light more recently belong to three other families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Filoviridae. They are transmitted by rodents (hantaviruses and arenaviruses) or from unknown reservoirs (Ebola Marburg). The primary cause of most outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever viruses is ecological disruption resulting from human activities. The expansion of the world population perturbs ecosystems that were stable a few decades ago and facilitates contacts with animals carrying viruses pathogenic to humans. Another dangerous human activity is the development of hospitals with poor medical hygiene. Lassa, Crimean-Congo or Ebola outbreaks are mainly nosocomial. There are also natural environmental changes: the emergence of Sin Nombre in the U.S. resulted from heavier than usual rain and snow during spring 1993 in the Four Corners. Biological industries also present risks. In 1967, collection of organs from monkeys allowed the discovery in Marburg of a new family of viruses, the Filoviridae. Hemorrhagic fever viruses are cause for worry, and the avenues to reduce their toll are still limited.

  18. Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria (United States)

    Izri, Arezki; Temmam, Sarah; Moureau, Grégory; Hamrioui, Boussad; de Lamballerie, Xavier


    To determine whether sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is present in Algeria, we tested sandflies for phlebovirus RNA. A sequence closely related to that of SFSV was detected in a Phlebotomus ariasi sandfly. Of 60 human serum samples, 3 contained immunoglobulin G against SFSV. These data suggest SFSV is present in Algeria. PMID:18439364

  19. Diarrhea associated with typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, S. K.; Speelman, P.; Butler, T.; Nath, S.; Rahman, H.; Stoll, B. J.


    To study the pathogenesis of diarrhea occurring with typhoid fever, we selected 42 patients with diarrhea and blood cultures positive for Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi A, but without diarrheal copathogens, for measurement of stool output and examination of fecal composition. The mean

  20. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits (United States)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.


    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.


    Davis, Nelson C.


    1. Saimiri sciureus has been infected with yellow fever virus, both by the inoculation of infectious blood and by the bites of infective mosquitoes. Some of the monkeys have died, showing lesions, including hepatic necrosis, suggesting yellow fever as seen in human beings and in rhesus monkeys. Virus has been transferred back to M. rhesus from infected Saimiri both by blood inoculation and by mosquito bites. The virus undoubtedly has been maintained through four direct passages in Saimiri. Reinoculations of infectious material into recovered monkeys have not given rise to invasion of the blood stream by virus. Sera from recovered animals have protected M. rhesus against the inoculation of virus. 2. It has been possible to pass the virus to and from Ateleus ater by the injection of blood or liver and by the bites of mosquitoes. The livers from two infected animals have shown no necrosis. The serum from one recovered monkey proved to be protective for M. rhesus. 3. Only three out of twelve Lagothrix lagotricha have reacted to yellow fever virus by a rise in temperature. Probably none have died as a result of the infection. In only one instance has the virus been transferred back to M. rhesus. The sera of recovered animals have had a protective action against yellow fever virus. PMID:19869721

  2. Clausewitz’s Trinity: Dead or Alive? (United States)


    Dutch rebellion against the Spanish crown began in 1566 as a clash between the protestant Dutch and the catholic Spaniards. The Thirty Years War...Japanese as cruel , animal- like sub-humans (see figure 5).95 History of Combat and Culture, 220-21. 95Lynn, Battle. A History of Combat and Culture

  3. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein


    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s........ Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...

  4. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini


    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  5. The Canons of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel J. Freeman


    .... This Note draws upon the complete set of judicial opinions assessing authorizations for the use of military force in order to propose context-specific canons for interpreting war powers statutes...

  6. Surviving deadness in the analytic experience. (United States)

    Koritar, Endre


    The transference/countertransference (third space) analysis is considered to be central in the therapeutic effectiveness of the analytic process. Less emphasis has been placed on the actual experiences of analyst and analysand in the conflictual reenactment of third space experience and its resolution. This paper recounts the shared experience of a patient who was silent throughout most of the analysis, and my reaction, in fantasy and enactment, to this disturbing experience-both for him and for myself. I argue that it is the affective re-experiencing of past repressed trauma in the analytic space that has a therapeutic impact, leading to growth in the patient and also the therapist. I contrast Freud's emphasis on insight, making the unconscious conscious, with Ferenczi's suggestion that the therapeutic impact lies in the repetition of past traumatic experience in the analysis but with the possibility of a different outcome with a more benign object, leading to symbolic representation of repressed trauma. Re-experiencing and symbolization, in the third space, of past traumatic experience can be an exit point from the endless repetition of trauma in internal and external object relations, leading to a new beginning in the patient's life. Immersed in the experience of deadness in the analysis, which had become a dead womb, the struggle to remain alive and thinking led to a rupture out of the dead womb, like the Caesura of birth, into aliveness and the ability to mentalize what had previously remained unmentalized.

  7. The War for Yemen (United States)


    Fight The current conflict has roots in both Yemen’s history and the Sunni-Shia conflict. However, it has become a bloody , multi-faceted war. The...Iran: Ayatollah Khomeini.” Iran Chamber Society, accessed 15 February 2016, Institute, US Army War College, Jun 2014, accessed 15 Feb 2016 via, 21-5, 66 2Iran Chamber

  8. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær


    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  9. [The war victim]. (United States)

    Hugeux, P; Barouti, H


    Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.

  10. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'. (United States)


    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  11. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota


    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The reasons why Pakistan might be at high risk of Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever epidemic; a scoping review of the literature. (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Saqib, Anum; Ikram, Raazeyah; Sarwar, Muhammad Rehan; Scahill, Shane


    Pakistan has faced a number of significant healthcare challenges over the past decade. In 2000, one of these events - a deadly epidemic of Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) - struck Pakistan. The people of Pakistan are at a very high risk of acquiring CCHF, due to a number of factors which emerge from a scoping review of the literature. First, the underdeveloped healthcare system of the country is currently not prepared to cope with challenges of this nature. Healthcare professionals and medical institutes are not sufficiently equipped to properly diagnose, manage and prevent CCHF. Second, a large percentage of the general public is unaware of the spread and control of the vector. The agricultural sector of Pakistan is vast and thus many people are involved in animal husbandry and the handling of livestock which can lead to the transmission of the CCHF virus. Even in urban areas the risk of transmission is significantly higher around the time of Eid-ul-Azha, when Muslims slaughter animals. Finally, the political upheavals faced by the country have also increased Pakistan's vulnerability because a large number of refugees from Afghanistan, a CCHF endemic country, have migrated to Pakistan as a result of the Afghan war. Most of the refugees and their animals settle in Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces, which consequently have a higher prevalence of CCHF. This scoping review of the literature highlights the potential causes of high risk CCHF and draws conclusions and makes recommendations that policy-makers in Pakistan may wish to consider in-order to improve on the current situation.

  13. War liver injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Nebojša


    Full Text Available Aim. To provide a retrospective analysis of our results and experience in primary surgical treatment of subjects with war liver injuries. Methods. From July 1991 to December 1999, 204 subjects with war liver injuries were treated. A total of 82.8% of the injured were with the liver injuries combined with the injuries of other organs. In 93.7%, the injuries were caused by fragments of explosive devices or bullets of various calibers. In 140 (68.6% of the injured there were minor lesions (grade I to II, treated with simple repair or drainage. There were complex injuries of the liver (grade III-V in 64 (31.4% of the injured. Those injuries required complex repair (hepatorrhaphy, hepatotomy, resection debridement, resection, packing alone. The technique of perihepatic packing and planned reoperation had a crucial and life-saving role when severe bleeding was present. Routine peritoneal drainage was applied in all of the injured. Primary management of 74.0% of the injured was performed in war hospitals. Results. After primary treatment, 72 (35.3% of the injured were with postoperative complications. Reoperation was done in 66 injured. Total mortality rate in 204 injured was 18.1%. All the deceased had significant combined injuries. Mortality rates due to the liver injury of the grade III, IV and V were 16.6%, 70.0% and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Complex liver injuries caused very high mortality rate and the management of the injured was delicate under war circumstances (if the injured reached the hospital alive. Our experience under war circumstances and with war surgeons of limited knowledge of the liver surgery and war surgery, confirmed that it was necessary to apply compressive abdominal packing alone or in combination with other techniques for hemostasis in the treatment of liver injuries grade III-V, resuscitation and rapid transportation to specialized hospitals.

  14. Rheumatic fever prophylaxis: Gisborne experience. (United States)

    Frankish, J D


    There were 300 admissions to the Cook Hospital with rheumatic fever in 1958-83. During 1958-73 oral penicillin was used for secondary prophylaxis and 77 (35%) of 223 admissions were recurrences. From 1974-83 when parenteral benzathine penicillin was increasingly used there were 77 admissions of which 14 (18%) were readmissions. An effective programme of secondary prophylaxis using benzathine penicillin and co-ordination of hospital and community health services is outlined. One hundred and eight patients with a first attack of rheumatic fever were seen in 1968-82. The chance of a recurrence in patients in whom oral prophylaxis was instituted was 15% two years after the initial attack and 35% after six years. Institution of parenteral prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of recurrence (p = 0.0009) which was 2% six years after the first attack.

  15. Yellow Fever: A Reemerging Threat (United States)

    Gardner, Christina L.; Ryman, Kate D.


    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease, endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. YF principally affects humans and nonhuman primates, and is transmitted via the bite of infected mosquitoes. The agent of YF, yellow fever virus (YFV), can cause devastating epidemics of potentially fatal, hemorrhagic disease. We rely on mass vaccination campaigns to prevent and control these outbreaks. However, the risk of major YF epidemics, especially in densely populated, poor urban settings, both in Africa and South America, has greatly increased due to: (1) reinvasion of urban settings by the mosquito vector of YF, Aedes aegypti; (2) rapid urbanization, particularly in parts of Africa, with populations shifting from rural to predominantly urban; and (3) waning immunization coverage. Consequently, YF is considered an emerging, or reemerging disease of considerable importance. PMID:20513550

  16. Imported chikungunya fever in Madrid. (United States)

    Richi Alberti, Patricia; Steiner, Martina; Illera Martín, Óscar; Alcocer Amores, Patricia; Cobo Ibáñez, Tatiana; Muñoz Fernández, Santiago


    Chikungunya Fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes fever, rash and musculoskeletal complaints. The latest may persist for several months, or even years or developed a relapsing course, that deserve an adequate treatment. Due to the large outbreak declared in the Caribbean in 2013, imported cases of Chikungunya as well as the risk of autochthonous transmission in case of available vectors have increased in non-endemic countries, like Spain. We described four cases of Chikungunya treated in our clinic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. Dengue fever complicated by hemophagocytosis


    Koshy, Maria; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Bhumi; Kurup, Akhil Rajendra; Hansdak, Samuel George


    Dengue is a common acute viral febrile illness in the tropics. Although the usual presentation is that of a self-limiting illness, its complications are protean. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an acute febrile illness and was diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite appropriate supportive therapy, the patient initially improved, but subsequently had clinical deterioration. Evaluation revealed features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He was successfully treated w...

  18. [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever]. (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Moriikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro


    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The case fatality rate of CCHF ranges from 10-40%. Because CCHF is not present in Japan, many Japanese virologists and clinicians are not very familiar with this disease. However, there remains the possibility of an introduction of CCHFV or other hemorrhagic fever viruses into Japan from surrounding endemic areas. Development of diagnostic laboratory capacity for viral hemorrhagic fevers is necessary even in countries without these diseases. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, laboratory-based systems such as recombinant protein-based antibody detection, antigen-capture and pathological examination have been developed. In this review article, epidemiologic and clinical data on CCHF in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, compiled through field investigations and diagnostic testing utilizing the aforementioned laboratory systems, are presented. CCHFV infections are closely associated with the environmental conditions, life styles, religion, occupation, and human economic activities. Based on these data, preventive measures for CCHFV infections are also discussed.

  19. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    designed to bring about an early decision rather than being bogged down in a costly war of attrition. Among Chinese combatants, cultural references to World War I abounded. One officer described a period of relative peace as reminiscent of All Quiet on the Western Front. A young pilot found inspiration......Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier...

  20. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead


    Valis, Noël


    The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de ...

  1. [A case of lycanthropy with deadly violence]. (United States)

    Bénézech, M; De Witte, J; Etchepare, J J; Bourgeois, M


    After a short historical review of the contemporary medical literature, the authors analyze a new and original observation of lycanthropy. He is a 28 years old man, imprisoned for deadly violence, who has been showing, for many years, the belief of being transformed into a werewolf during depersonalization episodes when he presents a lycanthropic behaviour. Our observation is closer to hysteria and mythomania on an antisocial personality, although it seems difficult to place the mental pathology of this alcoholic recidivist delinquent into a nosographical frame.

  2. Dead time optimization method for power converter (United States)

    Deselaers, C.; Bergmann, U.; Gronwald, F.


    This paper introduces a method for dead time optimization in variable speed motor drive systems. The aim of this method is to reduce the conduction time of the freewheeling diode to a minimum without generation of cross conduction. This results in lower losses, improved EMC, and less overshooting of the phase voltage. The principle of the method is to detect beginning cross currents without adding additional components in the half bridge like resistors or inductances. Only the wave shape of the phase voltage needs to be monitored during switching. This is illustrated by an application of the method to a real power converter.

  3. Azathioprine-induced fever in autoimmune hepatitis (United States)

    Khoury, Tawfik; Ollech, Jacob E; Chen, Shmuel; Mizrahi, Meir; Shalit, Meir


    Underdiagnosis of drug-induced fever leads to extensive investigation and prolongation of hospitalization, and may lead to multiple unnecessary invasive procedures and a wrong diagnosis. Azathioprine is a widely used immunosuppressive drug. We report a case of a 53-year-old female patient diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis treated with azathioprine, who presented to the emergency room with a 6-wk history of fever and chills without other associated symptoms. Since the patient’s fever was of unknown origin, she was hospitalized. All treatment was stopped and an extensive workup to explore the source of fever and chills was performed. Results of chest X-ray, viral, urine, and blood cultures, autoimmune serology, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, and abdominal ultrasound revealed no source of infection. A rechallenge test of azathioprine was performed and the fever and chills returned within a few hours. Azathioprine was established as the definite cause following rechallenge. Fever as an adverse drug reaction is often unrecognized. Azathioprine has been reported to cause drug-induced fever in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and sarcoidosis. To the best of our knowledge there have been no previous reports documenting azathioprine-induced fever in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. The occurrence of fever following the readministration of azathioprine suggests the diagnosis of drug-induced fever, particularly after the exclusion of other causes. A careful rechallenge is recommended to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:23840156

  4. [Complications and cause of death in mexican children with rocky mountain spotted fever]. (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Miguel Ángel; Rascón-Alcantar, Adela

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a life threatening disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsia, characterized by multisystem involvement. We studied 19 dead children with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. All children who were suspected of having rickettsial infections were defined as having Rocky Mountain spotted fever by serology test and clinical features. Through the analysis of each case, we identified the clinical profile and complications associated to the death of a patient. In nine (69.2%) of 13 cases that died in the first three days of admission, the associated condition was septic shock. Others complications included respiratory distress causes by non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, renal impairment, and multiple organ damage. The main cause of death in this study was septic shock. The fatality rate from Rocky Mountain spotted fever can be related to the severity of the infection, delay in diagnosis, and delay in initiation of antibiotic therapy. Pulmonary edema and cerebral edema can be usually precipitated by administration of excess intravenous fluids.

  5. Access to yellow fever travel vaccination centres in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: A geographical study. (United States)

    Petersen, Jakob; Simons, Hilary; Patel, Dipti

    More than 700,000 trips were made by residents in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (EWNI) in 2015 to tropical countries endemic for yellow fever, a potentially deadly, yet vaccine-preventable disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to map the geographical accessibility of yellow fever vaccination centres (YFVC) in EWNI. The location of 3208 YFVC were geocoded and the average geodetic distance to nearest YFVC was calculated for each population unit. Data on trips abroad and centres were obtained regionally for EWNI and nationally for the World Top20 countries in terms of travel. The mean distance to nearest YFVC was 2.4 km and only 1% of the population had to travel more than 16.1 km to their nearest centre. The number of vaccines administered regionally in EWNI was found correlated with the number of trips to yellow fever countries. The number of centres per 100,000 trips was 6.1 in EWNI, which was below United States (12.1) and above the rest of Top20 countries. The service availability was in line with demand regionally. With the exception of remote, rural areas, yellow fever vaccination services were widely available with only short distances to cover for the travelling public. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bagaeva


    Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  7. Death and bereavement in the First World War: the Australian experience. (United States)

    Jalland, Pat


    The First World War was a turning point in the cultural history of death and bereavement in Australia. The mass deaths of some 60,000 soldiers overseas led to communal rituals of mourning for the war dead and minimal public expressions of private grief. The mass slaughter of so many young men and the interminable grief of so many families devalued the deaths of civilians at home and helped to create a new cultural model of suppressed and privatised grieving which deeply constrained the next two generations. Emotional and expressive grieving became less common, mourning ritual was minimised and sorrow became a private matter. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Illusion Of Defeat: Egyptian Strategic Thinking And The 1973 Yom Kippur War (United States)


    stating that due to strategy failing to recover from losing its way during the Cold War, one might conclude that it is dead. Doing so, he says, would...know it or not.26 This is key, as a common view among some is that the perceived bipolar world of the Cold War was a much simpler time, when his Axis sympathies and desire for Germany to remove the British from Egypt.94 Upon his release from jail , Sadat rejoined the Free Officers

  9. Off the Chart: The Crimean War in British Public Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Berridge


    Full Text Available The Crimean War revealed in this issue of '19' is of such rich and varied historical interest as to make a mystery of its relative obscurity with the general public in the UK. My own article adopts a novelist’s perspective to chart some aspects of this popular decline, exploring the treatment of the Siege of Sebastopol through the media of painting, literature, and cinema, and considering whether those aspects of the war that have made the greatest impression on the public mind are also those that make it least commercially attractive. It also examines the more official legacy, from the treatment of war dead to the changing face of sculpted memorials, and by comparing British commemoration with that of Russians in Crimea, discusses the possible role played in national memory by both shame and pride. In a final brief analysis of the 1968 film 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', I consider the extent to which modern rejection of Victorian values has created historical distortion, and whether a more truthful presentation might better serve the cause of preserving an important war in the British public consciousness.

  10. Life without war. (United States)

    Fry, Douglas P


    An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war.

  11. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter


    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  12. Wars, disasters and kidneys. (United States)

    Lameire, N


    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.

  13. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm


    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states to ...... the link between the Vietnam War, the Afghanistan War, the Iraq War, and the background for the financial crisis that began in 2008.......The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  14. Korean War Veterans by State (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  15. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War. (United States)

    Shapiro, Charles S.


    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  16. Teaching about World War II. (United States)

    Siler, Carl S.


    Examines a unit approach to World War II that emphasizes totalitarianism, the military conduct of the war, and the Holocaust. Advocates using a variety of teaching strategies, methods, and materials. Includes several examples of innovative materials and activities. (MJP)

  17. When the dead are alive! The influence of the living dead in the letter of Jude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan J. Joubert


    Full Text Available This essay investigates the impact of the deceased on  the audience to which the letter of Jude was originally addressed. A construct of the influence of the “living dead” in ancient Babylon, Israel, the Graeco-Roman world and in African tradition serves as a basic cognitive map to come to terms with Jude’s views on the dead. It is argued that, since the wicked dead, who are being physically punished in  the underworld,  are kept alive  in the collective memory of Jude’s community and since their deeds are re-enacted in the sinful behavior  of intruders in their midst, their lives are influenced by  the “presence” of these living dead. On the other hand and, although Jude does not deal with the physical whereabouts of the righteous death, he and his readers know that their postmortem honour is still intact. The righteous in this community is assured that God protects the integrity of the faithful dead.

  18. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star (United States)


    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  19. Breathing Life Into Dead-Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gressel Oliver


    Full Text Available The terrestrial planet formation regions of protoplanetary disks are generally sufficiently cold to be con- sidered non-magnetized and, consequently, dynamically inactive. However, recent investigations of these so-called “Dead-Zones” indicate the possibility that disks with strong mean radial temperature gradients can support instabilities associated with disk-normal gradients of the basic Keplerian shear profile. This process, known as the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF instability, is the instability of short radial wavelength inertial modes and depends wholly on the presence of vertical gradients of the mean Keplerian (zonal flow. We report here high resolution fully nonlinear axisymmetric numerical studies of this instability and find a number of features including how, in the nonlinear saturated state, unstable discs become globally distorted, with strong vertical oscillations occurring at all radii due to local instability. We find that nonaxisymmetric numerical experiments are accompanied by significant amounts angular momentum transport (α ~ 0001. This instability should be operating in the Dead-Zones of protoplanetary disks at radii greater than 10-15 AU in minimum mass solar nebula models.

  20. Nuclear war effects studied (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  1. Fever and signs of shock: the essential dangerous fever. (United States)

    Reifel Saltzberg, Jennifer M


    A common cause of fever with signs of shock is sepsis. Sepsis describes the spectrum of illness caused by severe infection. The incidence of sepsis is increasing and mortality can be high. Diagnosing the disease and implementing treatment early can decrease mortality. Early treatment includes empirical antibiotics and resuscitation. The diverse physiology present in sepsis can make the resuscitation complex; many different types of hemodynamic monitoring may be necessary. Even with this complexity, an organized approach can improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In Defence of New Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kaldor


    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on ‘new wars’. It argues that ‘new wars’ should be understood not as an empirical category but rather as a way of elucidating the logic of contemporary war that can offer both a research strategy and a guide to policy. It addresses four components of the debate: whether new wars are ‘new’; whether new wars are war or crime; whether the data supports the claims about new wars; and whether new wars are ‘post-Clausewitzean’. It argues that the obsession with the ‘newness’ of wars misses the point about the logic of new wars; that there is a blurring of war and crime but it is important to address the political elements of new wars; that, although the data should be used with caution, it does seem to offer support for some elements of the new war thesis; and that the argument is indeed post-Clausewitzean because new wars are not ‘contests of wills’ but more similar to a mutual enterprise. It concludes that the debate has greatly enriched the overall argument.

  3. The Technological Culture of War (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien


    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  4. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). (United States)

    Villasante, Olga


    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable...

  6. Traumatic war stressors and psychiatric symptoms among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War veterans. (United States)

    Fontana, A; Rosenheck, R


    Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans' age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking treatment from specialized Veterans Affairs outpatient clinical teams made up the sample: 320 World War II, 199 Korean War, and 4,619 Vietnam War veterans. All hypotheses were supported significantly. The similarity of relationships between traumatic exposure and symptoms across wars testifies to the generality of these experiences. Furthermore, the results suggest the operation of significant effects due both to aging and to cohort differences in sociocultural attitudes toward the stigma of mental illness and the popularity of the wars.

  7. Photographic Study Of A Dead-Pressed Explosive (United States)

    Swallowe, G. M.; Field, J. E.


    High speed photography in conjunction with electron microscopy and a pressure measuring technique have been used to investigate the differences between dead-pressed and non-dead-pressed samples of the primary explosive Mercury Fulminate (Hg Ful). Photographs of reaction propagation were taken in transmitted light using a specially adapted drop-weight machine with transparent anvils. The results of these experiments suggested a mechanism for dead-pressing in Hg Ful based on the microscopic internal structure of the compacted explosive.

  8. Hepatic involvement in dengue Fever in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jagadishkumar, Kalenahalli; Jain, Puja; Manjunath, Vaddambal G; Umesh, Lingappa


    .... 110 children with serologically positive dengue fever aged between 2 months - 14 years were studied for their hepatic functions both clinically and biochemically after excluding malaria, enteric...

  9. The Canadian Corps in the Great War: A Learning Organization in Action (United States)


    of the Canadian Corps revealed that the Corps’ excellent performance during the war – especially in the later years – resulted from its...of the Canadian Corps revealed that the Corps’ excellent performance during the war—particularly in the later years— resulted from its transformation...adaptation cost over 230,000 dead and wounded.4 Learning organization theory provides a method to illustrate how the Canadian Corps dealt with the challenges

  10. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever (United States)

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos


    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  11. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II (United States)


    seems as questionable as alchemy . Congress had little choice. It had no authority to tax individuals or to levy duties on trade. The country had no banks... plasma , penicillin and sulfa drugs. air and motor transport of the wounded. and field hospitals tested during World War I also dramatically reduced

  12. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm


    in the future. The “extreme 20th century” will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be narrated as more extreme, and its temporal bindings become easier to observe. The much celebrated “revolutions in military affairs” will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away...

  13. Images of War. (United States)

    Davis, William C.


    Analyzes the rise of photography during the Civil War period, and discusses current photographic technology. Examines photography entrepreneurs, and expounds on notable individuals in photography. Describes types of photographs taken, problems encountered in gathering pictures, and popular responses to photography. Concentrates on Civil War…

  14. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel


    of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  15. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner


    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  16. Recent Cold War Studies (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn


    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  17. War No Longer Exists (United States)


    governments and terrorists, warlords, separatists, and in and among nations’ populations. Mary Kaldor echoes this 4 view, arguing that states are...19-20. 7 Mary Kaldor , “Elaborating the ‘New War’ Thesis,” in Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Jan Angstrom, eds., Rethinking the Nature of War (New York

  18. Thucydides: Theorist of War (United States)


    the unremitting pressures of conflict; and the fundamental nature of war, including the psychological aspects of battle, where soldiers are engaged...this regard edmund burke was particularly perceptive in his understanding of the baleful influence that second- and third-order effects could

  19. Fever-Induced Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Manohar MD


    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is increasingly recognized as a cause of sudden cardiac death. Many of these patients do not get diagnosed due its dynamic and often hidden nature. We have come a long way in understanding the disease process, and its electrophysiology appears to be intimately linked with sodium channel mutations or disorders. The cardiac rhythm in these patients can deteriorate into fatal ventricular arrhythmias. This makes it important for the clinician to be aware of the conditions in which arrhythmogenicity of Brugada syndrome is revealed or even potentiated. We present such an instance where our patient’s Brugada syndrome was unmasked by fever.

  20. Dengue fever complicated by hemophagocytosis (United States)

    Koshy, Maria; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Bhumi; Kurup, Akhil Rajendra; Hansdak, Samuel George


    Dengue is a common acute viral febrile illness in the tropics. Although the usual presentation is that of a self-limiting illness, its complications are protean. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an acute febrile illness and was diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite appropriate supportive therapy, the patient initially improved, but subsequently had clinical deterioration. Evaluation revealed features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He was successfully treated with glucocorticoids and had an uneventful recovery. This case adds to the limited adult cases of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the literature and the need for prompt recognition and treatment of this rare complication. PMID:27274854

  1. [Myocarditis in severe typhoid fever]. (United States)

    Bobin, A N; Antukh, E A; Parkhomenko, Iu G; Makanin, M A


    The article explains the development of toxic infective myocarditis and, in many cases, pancarditis, in patients with severe typhoid fever (TF) with lethal outcome. The authors present the most frequently found symptoms and ECG signs, the main histological features and possibilities of clinical diagnostics of myocarditis. The latter is of special importance, because a significant number of patients do not have typical clinical presentation. The work is based on the data from 109 autopsy records and 42 case histories as well as the results of morphological study of the heart in archive samples received from 47 military men who died of TF.

  2. Deadly Poisonous Turkish Mushrooms Containing Alpha Amanitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgaz Akata


    Full Text Available Mushroom poisoning is still a serious health problem for Turkey. The mushroom species which cause fatal mushroom poisoning have been reported to contain at least 98% alpha-amanitin. The knowledge of the poisonous mushroom species including alpha- amanitin is important for the treatment and prevention of these poisonings. In this review, the mushrooms containig alpha-amanitin and causing deadly mushroom poisinings were listed and given information about their poisonus effects. According to literature, nine poisonous mushroom species which include alpha-amanitin have so far been reported from Turkey. These are Lepiota brunneoincarnata; Lepiota castanea; Lepiota helveola; Lepiota subincarnata; Amanita phalloides; Amanita verna; Amanita virosa; Conocybe filaris and Galerina marginata.

  3. [Complications of typhoid fever and its causes in an epidemic focus]. (United States)

    Bobin, A N; Parkhomenko, Iu G


    Autopsy records, case histories, and archival organ and tissue samples were studied in 109 Soviet military men during the Afghanistan war, who had died of typhoid fever in 1980-1986. Morphological and statistical studies demonstrated that the current pattern and frequency of complications and immediate causes of death with the epidemic incidence in the endemic focus largely corresponded to those in the preantibiotic period. The specific features were the higher rate and early development of enteric complications, infectious myocarditis, and infectious-toxic shock, the higher, as compared with the past years, proportion of deaths from circulatory diseases and a reduction of cases of total intoxication. Acute cardiovascular insufficiency associated with infectious myocarditis and infectious-toxic shock was one of the main causes of death in the first 2 weeks of typhoid fever. Most patients died of perforative peritonitis and pneumonia in the later period.

  4. Fever During Pregnancy Tied to Autism in Study (United States)

    ... study cannot prove that a fever during pregnancy causes autism, only that there appears to be an association. ... it's the fever that's predisposing the baby to autism or the cause of the fever or the body's immune response ...

  5. Pancreatic disturbances and typhoid fever. (United States)

    Hermans, P; Gerard, M; van Laethem, Y; de Wit, S; Clumeck, N


    During an 8-year period, 14 adult patients were hospitalized with typhoid fever confirmed by positive blood cultures for Salmonella typhi. Among these patients, we have retrospectively (n = 7) and prospectively (n = 7) evaluated pancreatic disturbance by serum amylase and lipase measurements at the time of admission. In 7 (50%) biological signs of pancreatitis were noted: mean amylase level 81 IU (range 30-201 IU, normal value less than 40 IU), mean lipase level 949 IU (range 468-2,000 IU, normal value less than 300 IU). Clinical signs of pancreatitis were observed in 4 cases, one of whom had a concomitant salmonella biliary tract infection and gall stones demonstrated by laparotomy and the others a normal biliary ultrasonographic examination with a swelling of the pancreas. No alcohol or drug use or other infection were noted before admission. This study suggests that biological or clinical pancreatitis should be considered as a frequent complication of typhoid fever. S. typhi should therefore be added to the list of pathogens implicated in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic or non-lithiasic pancreatitis.

  6. Leptospirosis presenting as honeymoon fever. (United States)

    de Sainte Marie, B; Delord, M; Dubourg, G; Gautret, P; Parola, P; Brouqui, P; Lagier, J C


    An increasing number of travelers from western countries visit tropical regions, questioning western physicians on the prophylaxis, the diagnosis and the therapeutic management of patients with travel-associated infection. In July 2014, a French couple stayed for an adventure-travel in Columbia without malaria prophylaxis. A week after their return the woman presented with fever, myalgia, and retro-orbital pain. Three days later, her husband presented similar symptoms. In both patients, testing for malaria, arboviruses and blood cultures remained negative. An empirical treatment with doxycycline and ceftriaxone was initiated for both patients. Serum collected from the female patient yielded positive IgM for leptospirosis but was negative for her husband. Positive Real-Time PCR were observed in blood and urine from both patients, confirming leptospirosis. Three lessons are noteworthy from this case report. First, after exclusion of malaria, as enteric fever, leptospirosis and rickettsial infection are the most prevalent travel-associated infections, empirical treatment with doxycycline and third generation cephalosporin should be considered. In addition, the diagnosis of leptospirosis requires both serology and PCR performed in both urine and blood samples. Finally, prophylaxis using doxycycline, also effective against leptospirosis, rickettsial infections or travellers' diarrhea should be recommended for adventure travelers in malaria endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu


    This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever…

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children. (United States)

    Woods, Charles R


    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Typhoid Fever: Misdiagnosis or Overdiagnosis | Onyekwere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently there has been a public panic about an increase in cases of typhoid fever. Typhoid fever caused by salmonella typhi is common and constitutes a major public health problem in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa, South America and parts of Asia. Its clinical features are non-specific and available ...

  10. Chronic Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344824497


    From 2007-2010, during the recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, over 4000 cases of acute Q fever were registered, which is an underestimation of the total amount of Coxiella burnetii infections due to a high amount of asymptomatic primary infections. In the literature it is stated that 1-5%

  11. The immune response in Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.


    Q fever is an infection caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. A large outbreak of Q fever occurred in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010, in which infected goats and sheep were the source of human infections. In some people, so-called ‘chronic Q fever’ develops, which mainly manifests as

  12. Dead time corrections using the backward extrapolation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilad, E., E-mail: [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Dubi, C. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Geslot, B.; Blaise, P. [DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-les-Durance 13108 (France); Kolin, A. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)


    Dead time losses in neutron detection, caused by both the detector and the electronics dead time, is a highly nonlinear effect, known to create high biasing in physical experiments as the power grows over a certain threshold, up to total saturation of the detector system. Analytic modeling of the dead time losses is a highly complicated task due to the different nature of the dead time in the different components of the monitoring system (e.g., paralyzing vs. non paralyzing), and the stochastic nature of the fission chains. In the present study, a new technique is introduced for dead time corrections on the sampled Count Per Second (CPS), based on backward extrapolation of the losses, created by increasingly growing artificially imposed dead time on the data, back to zero. The method has been implemented on actual neutron noise measurements carried out in the MINERVE zero power reactor, demonstrating high accuracy (of 1–2%) in restoring the corrected count rate. - Highlights: • A new method for dead time corrections is introduced and experimentally validated. • The method does not depend on any prior calibration nor assumes any specific model. • Different dead times are imposed on the signal and the losses are extrapolated to zero. • The method is implemented and validated using neutron measurements from the MINERVE. • Result show very good correspondence to empirical results.

  13. Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: A review (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Shawn Fraver; Tuomas Aakala; Jeffrey H. Gove; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; Mark J. Ducey


    The amount and dynamics of forest dead wood (both standing and downed) has been quantified by a variety of approaches throughout the forest science and ecology literature. Differences in the sampling and quantification of dead wood can lead to differences in our understanding of forests and their role in the sequestration and emissions of CO2, as...

  14. Day of the Dead: A Mexican-American Celebration. (United States)

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…

  15. 37 CFR 1.42 - When the inventor is dead. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... for A Patent § 1.42 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the legal...

  16. 37 CFR 1.422 - When the inventor is dead. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.422 Section 1.422 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... File An International Application § 1.422 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the...

  17. Modelling chemistry over the Dead Sea: bromine and ozone chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow


    Full Text Available Measurements of O3 and BrO concentrations over the Dead Sea indicate that Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs, widely known to happen in polar regions, are also occuring over the Dead Sea due to the very high bromine content of the Dead Sea water. However, we show that BrO and O3 levels as they are detected cannot solely be explained by high Br levels in the Dead Sea water and the release of gas phase halogen species out of sea borne aerosol particles and their conversion to reactive halogen species. It is likely that other sources for reactive halogen compounds are needed to explain the observed concentrations for BrO and O3. To explain the chemical mechanism taking place over the Dead Sea leading to BrO levels of several pmol/mol we used the one-dimensional model MISTRA which calculates microphysics, meteorology, gas and aerosol phase chemistry. We performed pseudo Lagrangian studies by letting the model column first move over the desert which surrounds the Dead Sea region and then let it move over the Dead Sea itself. To include an additional source for gas phase halogen compounds, gas exchange between the Dead Sea water and the atmosphere is treated explicitly. Model calculations indicate that this process has to be included to explain the measurements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abramova


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of technology of chitosan obtaining from unconventional sources, namely from dead bees. Methods: The article considers three methods of chitosan obtaining from dead bees, namely the technology with the usage of dead bees with low degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages. Results: It is proved that the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages does not require high temperatures and long time. Yield of chitosan with the use of this technology is 21-24%. Discussion: The expediency of dead bees usage as raw material for the production of chitosan in Ukraine is shown. The technologies of chitosan obtaining from dead bees are compared, the most efficient one is chosen, which provide the highest yield of the finished product, so it is the most promising for the application in practice.

  19. Recipe for Hypoxia: Playing the Dead Zone Game (United States)

    Kastler, Jessica A.


    Dead zones--areas experiencing low levels of dissolved oxygen--are growing in shallow ocean waters around the world. Research has shown that dead zones form as a result of a specific type of pollution, called nutrient enrichment or eutrophication, and are found in almost every coastal zone where humans have large populations. Concepts related to…

  20. Dead wood inventory and assessment in South Korea (United States)

    Jong-Su Yim; Rae Hyun Kim; Sun-Jeong Lee; Yeongmo. Son


    Dead wood (DW) plays a critical role not only in maintaining biodiversity but also in stocking carbon under UNFCCC. From the 5th national forest inventory (NFI5; 2006-2010) in South Korea, field data relevant to the DW including standing and downed dead trees by four decay class, etc. were collected. Based on the NFI5 data,...

  1. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses. (United States)


    ... received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass... circumstances shall the carcasses of any animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter, or any part thereof... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section...

  2. Modeling and clinical diagnosis of dead regions in the cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnaar, B.


    This thesis attempts to establish, using a model framework, a relationship between the psychophysical measurement of off-frequency listening and the functional auditory loss caused by dead regions in the cochlear. The results are used to evaluate the clinical value of dead region diagnosis with PTCs

  3. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee


    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever and human capitalization in South Korean higher education are analyzed from a comparative viewpoint. The study evaluates the effects and problems of education fever this country’s current higher education, and it concludes that Koreans’ educational fever has been a core factor by which to achieve the development of the national economy as well as the rapid expansion of higher education.

  4. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Akter


    Full Text Available Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated.

  5. Typhoid fever: the experience of last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kovalenko


    Full Text Available This article is about analyses of diagnostics and treatment of the modern typhoid fever. In the past typhoid fever was critical and lifethreatening inflectional disease. But nowadays thanks to using of chloramphenicol and other antimicrobial preparations, typhoid fever is serious but well curable disease. In the second part of the 20th century the number of typhoid fever cases has decreased. As a result a new generation of physicians, who has never come across this disease, appeared. Nowadays typhoid fever is still actual for practical public health in Russia. There are two causes: first, there is a risk of delivery of infections with tourists and immigrants. Second, the small number of physicians, who possess well knowledge of clinical features and modern therapy.

  6. The geographical distribution of Q fever. (United States)



    The results of a WHO-assisted survey of the distribution of Q fever in 32 countries and an analysis of reports published to date indicate that Q fever exists in 51 countries on five continents. Q-fever infection was most often reported in man and the domestic ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats.The disease was found to exist in most countries where investigations were carried out. Notable exceptions were Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and the Scandinavian countries. With the exception of Poland, where the results were inconclusive, all these countries import relatively few domestic ruminants-the most important animal reservoirs of human Q-fever infection. It seems, therefore, that the traffic of infected ruminants may be one of the most important, if not the most important, means for the geographical spread of Q fever. The importance, if any, of ticks associated with such traffic needs to be defined.

  7. Children Play War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bankova


    Full Text Available The article reflects the results from the author’s research project on traditional and modern games of children in Bulgaria. Based on the life stories, interviews, media reports and other sources of information an ethnological reading of the memories of respondents during the Second World War and its impact on aspects of everyday culture, as is children’s play, will be made. Trough different types of narratives (anthropological, ethnographic, film and literary the author represents the children’s play of war as a reflection of the reality in which the children live and at the same time as one of the most vivid examples of how important the peace is for the comprehensive development of the human personality.

  8. The Afghan Air War (United States)


    corrup- tion, and build a pure Islamic state. The actual resul t was oppression, austeri ty, and the decay of basic government funct ions. Women ...were forced to wear the al l -conceal ing burkha and soccer - stadium executions and amputat ions terrorized ci t izens. Al though the Tal iban in 2001... Bull -s Eye War: Pinpoint Bombing Shifts Role of GI Joe” Washington Post, Dec. 2, 2001. 27 Jumper, remarks at AFA’s February 2002 symposium in Orlando

  9. Children Play War


    P. Bankova


    The article reflects the results from the author’s research project on traditional and modern games of children in Bulgaria. Based on the life stories, interviews, media reports and other sources of information an ethnological reading of the memories of respondents during the Second World War and its impact on aspects of everyday culture, as is children’s play, will be made. Trough different types of narratives (anthropological, ethnographic, film and literary) the author represents the child...

  10. On Political War (United States)


    history before Hitler: leaving foreign wars aside, deaths through internal repressive measures conducted for ideological reasons amounted in Soviet Russia ... history have suggested keys to an understanding of the individual and social forces behind conflict. Their views have seldom stood the test of reality...who feared damage to his trade initiative), it later surfaced and served as a basis for a history of Muscovy written by Milton. A useful reminder for

  11. Understanding War in Afghanistan (United States)


    Works of art or history books showing human faces or female forms were destroyed. The animals in the Kabul Zoo were tortured or killed by Taliban...agronomists to help Afghan agriculture and animal husbandry enter the 21st century. In terms of reconstruction and development, the coalition, 114 Understanding War in Afghanistan Kabul that is linked into the provinces and districts and able to perform the basic security and welfare

  12. 'The most beautiful of wars' : Carl von Clausewitz and small wars


    Scheipers, Sibylle


    Carl von Clausewitz was both an avid analyst of small wars and people’s war and, during the wars of liberation, a practitioner of small war. While Clausewitz scholars have increasingly recognised the centrality of small wars for Clausewitz’s thought, the sources and inspirations of his writings on small wars have remained understudied. This article contextualises Clausewitz’s thought on small wars and people’s war in the tradition of German philosophical and aesthetic discourses around 1800. ...

  13. No Time for Dead Time: Use the Fourier Amplitude Differences to Normalize Dead-time-affected Periodograms (United States)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Huppenkothen, Daniela


    Dead time affects many of the instruments used in X-ray astronomy, by producing a strong distortion in power density spectra. This can make it difficult to model the aperiodic variability of the source or look for quasi-periodic oscillations. Whereas in some instruments a simple a priori correction for dead-time-affected power spectra is possible, this is not the case for others such as NuSTAR, where the dead time is non-constant and long (∼2.5 ms). Bachetti et al. (2015) suggested the cospectrum obtained from light curves of independent detectors within the same instrument as a possible way out, but this solution has always only been a partial one: the measured rms was still affected by dead time because the width of the power distribution of the cospectrum was modulated by dead time in a frequency-dependent way. In this Letter, we suggest a new, powerful method to normalize dead-time-affected cospectra and power density spectra. Our approach uses the difference of the Fourier amplitudes from two independent detectors to characterize and filter out the effect of dead time. This method is crucially important for the accurate modeling of periodograms derived from instruments affected by dead time on board current missions like NuSTAR and Astrosat, but also future missions such as IXPE.

  14. The Effect of War on Children. (United States)

    Goldson, Edward


    This paper discusses the effects of modern war on children in the 20th century, focusing on direct and indirect effects of World War II, Vietnam War, war in Afghanistan, conflicts in Africa and in Central America, and Persian Gulf War. The paper notes the devastating effects on children of disruption of education and other public services in…

  15. Live from the Battlefield: An Examination of Embedded War Correspondents’ Reporting during Operation Iraqi Freedom (21 March-14 April 2003) (United States)


    sets like clockwork . Information is power, and in such a serious and deadly endeavor as war, the American public demands to be in the know. There...the texture of peanut butter. 104 Everything turns burnt orange , then all goes dark. During the same time period non-embedded reporters

  16. Surgical advances during the First World War: the birth of modern orthopaedics. (United States)

    Ramasamy, Arul; Eardley, W G P; Edwards, D S; Clasper, J C; Stewart, M P M


    The First World War (1914-1918) was the first truly industrial conflict in human history. Never before had rifle fire and artillery barrage been employed on a global scale. It was a conflict that over 4 years would leave over 750,000 British troops dead with a further 1.6 million injured, the majority with orthopaedic injuries. Against this backdrop, the skills of the orthopaedic surgeon were brought to the fore. Many of those techniques and systems form the foundation of modern orthopaedic trauma management. On the centenary of 'the War to end all Wars', we review the significant advances in wound management, fracture treatment, nerve injury and rehabilitation that were developed during that conflict. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  17. From Goya to Afghanistan--an essay on the ratio and ethics of medical war pictures. (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo; de Mare, Heidi; Meijman, Frans J


    For centuries pictures of the dead and wounded have been part and parcel of war communications. Often the intentions were clear, ranging from medical instructions to anti-war protests. The public's response could coincide with or diverge from the publisher's intention. Following the invention of photography in the nineteenth century, and the subsequent claim of realism, the veracity of medical war images became more complex. Analysing and understanding such photographs have become an ethical obligation with democratic implications. We performed a multidisciplinary analysis of War Surgery (2008), a book containing harsh, full-colour photographs of mutilated soldiers from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Our analysis shows that, within the medical context, this book is a major step forward in medical war communication and documentation. In the military context the book can be conceived as an attempt to put matters right given the enormous sacrifice some individuals have suffered. For the public, the relationship between the 'reality' and 'truth' of such photographs is ambiguous, because only looking at the photographs without reading the medical context is limiting. If the observer is not familiar with medical practice, it is difficult for him to fully assess, signify and acknowledge the value and relevance of this book. We therefore assert the importance of the role of professionals and those in the humanities in particular in educating the public and initiating debate.

  18. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov


    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  19. Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii (United States)

    Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien


    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans. PMID:23152826

  20. The Principles of War Reconsidered (United States)


    consist of a checklist of principles of war. There existed the Art of War (not the Science) and the works of ancient, medieval , and nineteenth...third chapter of the thesis presents the transformation of the concept of the principles of war in the twentieth century. The canonizing of Napoleonic...This maelstrom of opinions, lacking in basic principles and clear laws round which they could be crystallized, was bound to be intellectually

  1. Reconstructive challenges in war wounds


    Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti


    War wounds are devastating with extensive soft tissue and osseous destruction and heavy contamination. War casualties generally reach the reconstructive surgery centre after a delayed period due to additional injuries to the vital organs. This delay in their transfer to a tertiary care centre is responsible for progressive deterioration in wound conditions. In the prevailing circumstances, a majority of war wounds undergo delayed reconstruction, after a series of debridements. In the recent m...

  2. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valis, Noël


    Full Text Available The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de lo real, de lo material —el cuerpo sin vida— como una inextricable parte de lo sagrado, no desaparece del ambiente secular de los siglos XIX y XX. En los relatos analizados en este artículo se estudia cómo en determinadas narrativas humanitarias centradas en la práctica de la autopsia y la momificación, las huellas del catolicismo actúan como una suerte de discurso espectral de la imaginación, en que lo real se configura en formas de lo siniestro, lo monstruoso o lo sagrado.

  3. Personal Identity and Resurrection from the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparov Igor


    Full Text Available The paper examines arguments of the “Christian materialist” Trenton Merricks that he provided in support of the claim that the Christian doctrine of resurrection from the dead is compatible with the materialist understanding of the nature of human beings. In his paper The Resurrection of the Body, Merricks discussed two aspects of the materialist interpretation of the traditional religious doctrine of the bodily resurrection. On the one hand, he analyses and tries to overcome objections against the possibility of the general resurrection in case the materialist understanding of the nature of human personality should be true (mainly the problem of the temporal gap. On the other hand, he provides some reasons why the materialist understanding of human nature is more relevant than its dualist counterpart to the doctrine of the bodily resurrection. The present paper evaluates his arguments and discusses the suggestion that the doctrine of resurrection is not only compatible with materialism, but is also tenable if human beings are identical with their physical bodies. The conclusion of the paper is that Merricks’ apologetic arguments achieve their aims in defending the doctrine of resurrection only partially; the resurrection doctrine appears more tenable if we accept the dualistic conception of human nature.

  4. Dead Time of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S.Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Tudisco, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A. [Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S.Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Fallica, G.; Mazzillo, M. [ST-Microelectronics, stradale Primosole 50, I-95100, Catania (Italy); Zimbone, M. [Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S.Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy)


    Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) is the new generation of Geiger-Muller counter device developed in semiconductor technology [S. Privitera et al. Sensors Journal, vol 8 Iss. 8 (2008) 4636; S. Tudisco et al. IEEE Sensors Journal vol 8 ISS 7-8 (2008) 1324; S. Cova et al. Applied Optics 35 (1996) 1956]. Physical dead time model and noise production process has been analyzed and their corrections have been performed [S.H. Lee, R.P. Gardner, M. Jae, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 263 (2007) 46]. We have been able to extract the real amount of incident photon rate up to 10{sup 7}cps using a device with 0.97{mu}s total deadtime. We also developed the equation of the noise count rate vs incoming photon rate, supported by Montecarlo simulation and experimental data. We marked the difference between dark rate and noise count rate, and introduced the noise rate inside the hybrid deadtime equation used for SPAD device.

  5. Fever in pregnancy and offspring head circumference. (United States)

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie


    To examine whether maternal fever during pregnancy is associated with reduced head circumference and risk of microcephaly at birth. A prospective study of 86,980 live-born singletons within the Danish National Birth Cohort was carried out. Self-reported maternal fever exposure was ascertained in two interviews during pregnancy and information on head circumference at birth was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Fever in pregnancy was reported by 27% of the mothers, and we identified 3370 cases of microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to third percentile for sex and gestational age) and 1140 cases of severe microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to first percentile for sex and gestational age). In this study, maternal fever exposure was not associated with reduced head circumference (adjusted β = 0.03, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.01-0.05), increased risk of microcephaly (odds ratio: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03) nor severe microcephaly (odds ratio: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.88-1.15) in the offspring. These findings were consistent for increasing numbers of fever episodes, for increasing fever severity, and for exposure in both early pregnancy and midpregnancy. In this most comprehensive study to date, we found no indication that maternal fever in pregnancy is associated with small head size in the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever). (United States)

    Effa, Emmanuel E; Lassi, Zohra S; Critchley, Julia A; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    Typhoid and paratyphoid are febrile illnesses, due to a bacterial infection, which remain common in many low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in areas with known resistance to the older first-line antibiotics. To evaluate fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treating children and adults with enteric fever. We searched The Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (February 2011); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library (2011, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to February 2011); EMBASE (1974 to February 2011); and LILACS (1982 to February 2011). We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) in February 2011. Randomized controlled trials examining fluoroquinolone antibiotics, in people with blood, stool or bone marrow culture-confirmed enteric fever. Two authors independently assessed the trial's methodological quality and extracted data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean difference for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Comparative effectiveness has been interpreted in the context of; length of treatment, dose, year of study, known levels of antibiotic resistance, or proxy measures of resistance such as the failure rate in the comparator arm. Twenty-six studies, involving 3033 patients, are included in this review.Fluoroquinolones versus older antibiotics (chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin and ampicillin)In one study from Pakistan in 2003-04, high clinical failure rates were seen with both chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, although resistance was not confirmed microbiologically. A seven-day course of either ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin were found to be superior. Older studies of these comparisons failed to show a difference (six trials, 361 participants).In small studies conducted almost two decades ago, the fluoroquinolones were demonstrated to have fewer

  7. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.


    Ohanian, Lee E


    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  8. Quantifying Responses of Spectral Vegetation Indices to Dead Materials in Mixed Grasslands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Xiaohui; Guo, Xulin


    ... by the confounding effects from external factors, such as soil properties, dead materials, and shadowing of vegetation canopies. Dead materials refer to the dead component of vegetation, including fallen...

  9. Do the 'brain dead' merely appear to be alive? (United States)

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Miller, Franklin G


    The established view regarding 'brain death' in medicine and medical ethics is that patients determined to be dead by neurological criteria are dead in terms of a biological conception of death, not a philosophical conception of personhood, a social construction or a legal fiction. Although such individuals show apparent signs of being alive, in reality they are (biologically) dead, though this reality is masked by the intervention of medical technology. In this article, we argue that an appeal to the distinction between appearance and reality fails in defending the view that the 'brain dead' are dead. Specifically, this view relies on an inaccurate and overly simplistic account of the role of medical technology in the physiology of a 'brain dead' patient. We conclude by offering an explanation of why the conventional view on 'brain death', though mistaken, continues to be endorsed in light of its connection to organ transplantation and the dead donor rule. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Dead pixel correction techniques for dual-band infrared imagery (United States)

    Nguyen, Chuong T.; Mould, Nick; Regens, James L.


    We present two new dead pixel correction algorithms for dual-band infrared imagery. Specifically, we address the problem of repairing unresponsive elements in the sensor array using signal processing techniques to overcome deficiencies in image quality that are present following the nonuniformity correction process. Traditionally, dead pixel correction has been performed almost exclusively using variations of the nearest neighbor technique, where the value of the dead pixel is estimated based on pixel values associated with the neighboring image structure. Our approach differs from existing techniques, for the first time we estimate the values of dead pixels using information from both thermal bands collaboratively. The proposed dual-band statistical lookup (DSL) and dual-band inpainting (DIP) algorithms use intensity and local gradient information to estimate the values of dead pixels based on the values of unaffected pixels in the supplementary infrared band. The DSL algorithm is a regression technique that uses the image intensities from the reference band to estimate the dead pixel values in the band undergoing correction. The DIP algorithm is an energy minimization technique that uses the local image gradient from the reference band and the boundary values from the affected band to estimate the dead pixel values. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with 50 dual-band videos. Simulation results indicate that the proposed techniques achieve perceptually and quantitatively superior results compared to existing methods.

  11. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)]. (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E


    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  12. Development of vaccines against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Carroll, Miles W; Hewson, Roger


    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a deadly human pathogen of the utmost seriousness being highly lethal causing devastating disease symptoms that result in intense and prolonged suffering to those infected. During the past 40years, this virus has repeatedly caused sporadic outbreaks responsible for relatively low numbers of human casualties, but with an alarming fatality rate of up to 80% in clinically infected patients. CCHFV is transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks and contact with the blood of viremic livestock, additionally cases of human-to-human transmission are not uncommon in nosocomial settings. The incidence of CCHF closely matches the geographical range of permissive ticks, which are widespread throughout Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. As such, CCHFV is the most widespread tick-borne virus on earth. It is a concern that recent data shows the geographic distribution of Hyalomma ticks is expanding. Migratory birds are also disseminating Hyalomma ticks into more northerly parts of Europe thus potentially exposing naïve human populations to CCHFV. The virus has been imported into the UK on two occasions in the last five years with the first fatal case being confirmed in 2012. A licensed vaccine to CCHF is not available. In this review, we discuss the background and complications surrounding this limitation and examine the current status and recent advances in the development of vaccines against CCHFV. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever. (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Reshma; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Deshpande, Shrikant; Patkar, Priyanka


    Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema. Here we present a case of anterior ischemic optic neurapathy associated with dengue fever.

  14. Appendicular perforation in dengue fever: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Desai


    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections have become one of major emerging infectious diseases in the tropics. Acute abdomen occurring in dengue viral infection is not uncommon. The spectrums of acute surgical emergencies which raise suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe in patients presenting with dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, non-specific peritonitis and very rarely acute appendicitis. The presence of low white cell count and platelet count can raise suspicion of a diagnosis of dengue in a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain, during a dengue epidemic. We herein report three patients with dengue fever who had appendicular perforation during the course of their viral fever.

  15. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa. (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal


    Lassa fever, a zoonotic viral infection, is endemic in West Africa. The disease causes annual wide spread morbidity and mortality in Africa, and can be imported by travelers. Possible importation of Lassa fever and the potential for the use of Lassa virus as an agent of bioterrorism mandate clinicians in Israel and other countries to be vigilant and familiar with the basic characteristics of this disease. The article reviews the basis of this infection and the clinical management of patients with Lassa fever. Special emphasis is given to antiviral treatment and infection control.

  16. Epidural Labor Analgesia and Maternal Fever. (United States)

    Sharpe, Emily E; Arendt, Katherine W


    Women receiving an epidural for labor analgesia are at increased risk for intrapartum fever. This relationship has been supported by observational, before and after, and randomized controlled trials. The etiology is not well understood but is likely a result of noninfectious inflammation as studies have found women with fever have higher levels of inflammatory markers. Maternal pyrexia may change obstetric management and women are more likely to receive antibiotics or undergo cesarean delivery. Maternal pyrexia is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. With these consequences, understanding and preventing maternal fever is imperative.

  17. Dead-Time Generation in Six-Phase Frequency Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas


    Full Text Available In this paper control of multi-phase induction drives is discussed. Structure of six-phase frequency inverter is examined. The article deals with dead-time generation circuits in six-phase frequency inverter for transistor control signals. Computer models of dead-time circuits is created using LTspice software package. Simulation results are compared with experimental results of the tested dead-time circuits. Parameters obtained in simulation results are close to the parameters obtained in experimental results.

  18. Adaptive control with variable dead-zone nonlinearities (United States)

    Orlicki, D.; Valavani, L.; Athans, M.; Stein, G.


    It has been found that fixed error dead-zones as defined in the existing literature result in serious degradation of performance, due to the conservativeness which characterizes the determination of their width. In the present paper, variable width dead-zones are derived for the adaptive control of plants with unmodeled dynamics. The derivation makes use of information available about the unmodeled dynamics both a priori as well as during the adaptation process, so as to stabilize the adaptive loop and at the same time overcome the conservativeness and performance limitations of fixed-dead zone adaptive or fixed gain controllers.

  19. Clinical Features Of Malaria And Typhoid Fever | Mba | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Features to distinguish Malaria from Typhoid fever. These can be discerned from a good and detailed clinical history, in addition to a thorough physical examination. The following would help. The paroxysms of malaria fever as against the step ladder pattern fever of typhoid fever. The prominence of headaches in typhoid ...

  20. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick


    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  1. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig


    Anri Sala’s film 1395 Days Without Red (2011) provides a kind of reenactment of an accidental day during the 1992-95 siege of Sarajevo. Shot in today’s Sarajevo, the film revisits and embodies some of the widely circulated images of the siege, such as inhabitants sprinting across so-called Sniper...... Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...

  2. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania


    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  3. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale


    against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland, Inherent Vice and Bleeding Edge. A number of these conflicts as well as others – both colonial and post-colonial – show up in V. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only...... – from Dominus Blicero to Gottfried, from Tyrone Slothrop to Clive Mossmoon – it identifies a variety of battle stations and triangulation points in relation to which Pynchon’s fictional conflicts may be mapped: from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic...

  4. War silver coins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana


    Full Text Available There were two issues of silver 50-para, 1- and 2-dinar coins minted in the Parisian minting house marked with the year 1915 and bearing the image of King Petar I Karadjordjevic. Minted during the I World War, these two issues of silver coins only differed in that the first one had the specified name of the engraver (Schwarte, whereas the second issue had the engraver's name left out. These coins were used as the official legal tender until 28 June 1931.

  5. Transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep


    Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes to inappropriate use of blood components and blood centers constantly face the challenge of inventory management during dengue outbreaks. The current review is aimed to highlight the role of platelets and other blood components in the management of dengue. The review was performed after searching relevant published literature in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and various text books and journal articles.

  6. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection (United States)

    ... uses them Stay home from work, school, or daycare until you no longer have a fever and ... last updated: January 22, 2018 Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases , Division of Bacterial ...

  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Safety for the Whole Family Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  8. Acute cerebellar ataxia in enteric fever. (United States)

    Sawhney, I M; Prabhakar, S; Dhand, U K; Chopra, J S


    Acute cerebellar ataxia as an isolated neurological manifestation of enteric fever is very rare. Three cases of acute cerebellar ataxia associated with enteric fever are reported. The diagnosis of enteric fever was confirmed by positive blood culture, strongly positive Widal test and rising antibody titres. The major clinical features were rapid development of gait ataxia, limb ataxia and dysarthria. None of the patients had altered sensorium. The cerebellar involvement was noticed on the second or third day of fever which progressed for one to two days. The symptoms remained static for one to two weeks and thereafter all the patients showed gradual recovery in a few weeks. Acute onset of cerebellar lesion, self limiting course and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis suggest par- or post-infectious demyelinating pathology in these patients, who were not related to each other.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Polyakova


    Full Text Available Fever is a normal physiological response to illness in young children and it is often associated with a self-limiting viral infection. Fever is not a diagnosis, but a symptom of illness. A diagnosis of the underlying illness is essential to institute appropriate treatment. Although it is a normal response, that facilitates and accelerates recovery, some people, including many doctors, believe that fever should be treated to reduce temperature without determining the underlying illness causing the fever. Antipyretics should be used to make the child more comfortable and not used routinely with the sole aim of reducing the temperature. This article aims to acquaint primary healthcare workers and general practitioners with last guidelines to assist the measurement of body temperature, deciding on when to refer and the appropriate use of antipyretic medication in children, efficacy and safety of paracetamol and ibuprofen in oral and rectal forms. 

  10. Biological control of cattle fever ticks (United States)

    Cattle fever ticks (CFT) Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus are invasive livestock pests that are endemic to Mexico and invasive along the Texas – Mexico border. Acaricide resistance, alternate wildlife hosts, and pathogenic landscape forming weeds present challenges for sustainable...

  11. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos. (United States)

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N


    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research (United States)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.


    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  13. Typhoid Fever: The Challenges of Medical Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhoid Fever: The Challenges of Medical Management. Dr J A Otegbayo. Gastrointeslinal/ Liver Unit, Department of Medicine,. University oflbaa'an/ University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Keywords: Typhoid, medical management, challenges. INTRODUCTION. Salmonella enterica serotype typhi is the aetiological.

  14. A case of ADEM following Chikungunya fever. (United States)

    Maity, Pranab; Roy, Pinaki; Basu, Arindam; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S


    Chikungunya most often is a self-limiting febrile illness with polyarthritis and the virus is not known to be neurotropic. We are reporting a case of chikugunya fever presenting as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis(ADEM) which is very rare.

  15. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonvetera...

  16. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.


    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  17. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.


    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  18. Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace (United States)

    Powers, Janet M.


    This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

  19. Does Red China Want War (United States)


    acrimonious polemic with the Soviet Union has resulted in a hardening Soviet position toward aid to China. In fact, by late 1964, Soviet deliveries of...the Chinese position on nuclear war. The central issue in the Sino-Soviet polemic regarding nuclear war does not stem from any difference of opinion

  20. Addicts Try to Avoid Deadly Fentanyl, but Many Tragically Fail (United States)

    ... fullstory_166663.html Addicts Try to Avoid Deadly Fentanyl, But Many Tragically Fail Potent synthetic opioid now ... may be caused by the potent synthetic opioid fentanyl. But most opioid addicts are not actively seeking ...

  1. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.


    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which......, however, are assumed to be measured for each data point. In addition, the detector and processor used in the current study introduce a certain amount of fixed processing and data transfer times, which further contribute to the distortion of the computed spectrum. However, we show an excellent agreement...

  2. Dead zone area at the downstream flow of barrages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida


    Full Text Available Flow separation is a natural phenomenon encountered at some cases downstream of barrages. The main flow is divided into current and dead zone flows. The percentage area of dead zone flow must be taken into consideration downstream of barrages, due to its negative effect on flow characteristics. Experimental studies were conducted in the Hydraulic Research Institute (HRI, on a physical regulator model with five vents. Theoretically the separation zone is described as a part of an ellipse which is practically verified by plotting velocity vectors. The results show that the percentage area of dead zone to the area through length of separation depends mainly on the expansion ratio [channel width to width of opened vents], with maximum value of 81% for operated side gates. A statistical analysis was derived, to predict the percentage area of dead zone flow to the area through length of separation.

  3. The dead and gone: Preparations and final repose (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The relations between the living and the dead are sanctioned by specific departure ceremonies and a series of maintenance operations that vary in their elaboration...

  4. Dead Crow Density and West Nile Virus Monitoring, New York (United States)

    Schmit, Kate; Hagiwara, Yoichiro; Anand, Madhu; Backenson, P. Bryon; Gotham, Ivan; Kramer, Laura


    New York State used the health commerce system to monitor the number of West Nile virus (WNV) human disease cases and the density of dead crows. In each year from 2001 to 2003 and for the 3 years combined, persons living in New York counties (excluding New York City) with elevated weekly dead crow densities (above a threshold value of 0.1 dead crows per square mile) had higher risk (2.0–8.6 times) for disease caused by WNV within the next 2 weeks than residents of counties reporting fewer dead crows per square mile. This type of index can offer a real-time, relatively inexpensive window into viral activity in time for prevention and control. Changes in reporting, bird populations, and immunity may require that thresholds other than 0.1 be used in later years or in other areas. PMID:16229764

  5. [The role of dead bacteria in streptococcus sanguis biofilm reformation]. (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zhu, Min; Liu, Zheng


    To investigate the role of dead bacteria in Streptococcus sanguis biofilm reformation. Vital fluorescent staining technique and Confocal laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) were combined to observe Streptococcus sanguis biofilm on the saliva-coated glass (SCG) in an artificial mouth model, the thickness and bacterial density were compared between biofilm reformed on saliva covered slide with dead cells (test group) and biofilm reformed on saliva coated slide without dead cells (control group) at different times. At 30 min, the bacterial density rather than biofilm thickness of test group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05), whereas at 60 min, 120min, 240min, the biofilms were significantly thicker in test group than that (P<0.05). The dead cells may help biofilm reformation during the formation of biofilm.

  6. Fever of unknown origin in rheumatic diseases. (United States)

    Zenone, Thierry


    Noninfectious inflammatory diseases (connective tissue diseases, vasculitis syndromes, granulomatous diseases) emerged as the most frequent cause of fever of unknown origin in western countries. Among these diseases, giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica are the most frequent specific diagnosis in the elderly and adult-onset Still's disease the most frequent in younger patients. This article focuses on noninfectious inflammatory diseases as a cause of classic fever of unknown origin (mainly rheumatic diseases, such as vasculitis and connective tissue diseases).

  7. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta


    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.


    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.


    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  9. The challenge of enteric fever. (United States)

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J


    Enteric fever, a non-specific, systemic infection caused by S. Typhi or Paratyphi A, B or C, is common in resource-limited regions of the world, where poor sanitation infrastructure facilitates faeco-oral transmission. Prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics minimises illness severity, but presentation to health care facilities is often delayed because of the non-specific nature of the symptoms and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests. Disease prevention requires significant investment in provision of clean water and sanitation in the long term; vaccination offers a more realistic strategy for medium term control. However, implementation of existing vaccines and development of more efficacious vaccines has been hindered by the lack of an established correlate of protection and under appreciation of the true disease burden. Human microbial infection studies could provide a vehicle for the rapid evaluation of novel vaccines and investigation of the immunobiology of enteric infection. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Forensic-odontological age determination in living and dead persons


    Olze, Andreas


    Forensic-odontological determination of the age-at-death of dead, unknown persons is a traditional element of forensic odonto-stomatology. Besides the comparison of documents on ante- and post-mortem findings, an age estimate that is as accurate as possible is an important tool for identifying unknown dead persons, because it allows limiting the group of persons in question. Age estimation is, in principle, possible by measuring the degree of root dentin transparency; it yields good result...

  11. The DEAD-box helicase eIF4A (United States)

    Andreou, Alexandra Z.; Klostermeier, Dagmar


    DEAD-box helicases catalyze the ATP-dependent unwinding of RNA duplexes. They share a helicase core formed by two RecA-like domains that carries a set of conserved motifs contributing to ATP binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding and duplex unwinding. The translation initiation factor eIF4A is the founding member of the DEAD-box protein family, and one of the few examples of DEAD-box proteins that consist of a helicase core only. It is an RNA-stimulated ATPase and a non-processive helicase that unwinds short RNA duplexes. In the catalytic cycle, a series of conformational changes couples the nucleotide cycle to RNA unwinding. eIF4A has been considered a paradigm for DEAD-box proteins, and studies of its function have revealed the governing principles underlying the DEAD-box helicase mechanism. However, as an isolated helicase core, eIF4A is rather the exception, not the rule. Most helicase modules in other DEAD-box proteins are modified, some by insertions into the RecA-like domains, and the majority by N- and C-terminal appendages. While the basic catalytic function resides within the helicase core, its modulation by insertions, additional domains or a network of interaction partners generates the diversity of DEAD-box protein functions in the cell. This review summarizes the current knowledge on eIF4A and its regulation, and discusses to what extent eIF4A serves as a model DEAD-box protein. PMID:22995829

  12. Dead Zones and the Origin of Planetary Masses


    Matsumura, Soko; Pudritz, Ralph E.


    Protoplanets accrete material from their natal protostellar disks until they are sufficiently massive to open a gap in the face of the disk's viscosity that arises from the magneto-rotational instability (MRI). By computing the ionization structure within observationally well-constrained disk models, we demonstrate that poorly ionized, low viscosity "dead zones" stretch out to 12 AU within typical disks. We find that planets of terrestrial mass robustly form within the dead zones while massiv...

  13. Typhoid fever: clinical diagnosis versus laboratory confirmation. (United States)

    Ngwu, B A; Agbo, J A


    Recently there has been an increase in the clinically diagnosed typhoid fever in various parts of Nigeria with subsequent increase in public fear of possible epidemics of the disease. In this study the accuracy of clinically diagnosed typhoid fever were investigated. Blood and stool specimens from 260 patients clinically diagnosed typhoid fever were investigated using Widal test and bacteriological culture methods respectively. One hundred and thirty-four (51.5%) of the cases investigated were positive and that there was a significant difference (P clinically diagnosed and bacteriologically confirmed typhoid fever cases. Causative organisms were Salmonella typhi 46 (34.3%); S paratyphi B 34 (25.4%); S paratyphi A 24 (17.9%); S paratyphi C 20 (14.9%); other Salmonella spp 10 (7.5%). Young adults and males were predominantely affected. Most of the clinically diagnosed typhoid cases were misdiagnosis and the hue and cry by the general public on the epidemic of typhoid fever could not be justified. It is recommended that careful detailed history taking, meticulous clinical examination and prompt bacteriological culturing of specimens from suspected typhoid cases will improve the accuracy of clinically diagnosed typhoid fever.

  14. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov


    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  15. Suicide among War Veterans (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir


    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956

  16. Commemorating a war that never came:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna


    The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...

  17. The dead donor rule: can it withstand critical scrutiny? (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W


    Transplantation of vital organs has been premised ethically and legally on "the dead donor rule" (DDR)-the requirement that donors are determined to be dead before these organs are procured. Nevertheless, scholars have argued cogently that donors of vital organs, including those diagnosed as "brain dead" and those declared dead according to cardiopulmonary criteria, are not in fact dead at the time that vital organs are being procured. In this article, we challenge the normative rationale for the DDR by rejecting the underlying premise that it is necessarily wrong for physicians to cause the death of patients and the claim that abandoning this rule would exploit vulnerable patients. We contend that it is ethical to procure vital organs from living patients sustained on life support prior to treatment withdrawal, provided that there is valid consent for both withdrawing treatment and organ donation. However, the conservatism of medical ethics and practical concerns make it doubtful that the DDR will be abandoned in the near future. This leaves the current practice of organ transplantation based on the "moral fiction" that donors are dead when vital organs are procured.

  18. Metagenomic insights into important microbes from the Dead Zone (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Baker, B.; Seitz, K.; Temperton, B.; Gillies, L.; Rabalais, N. N.; Mason, O. U.


    Coastal regions of eutrophication-driven oxygen depletion are widespread and increasing in number. Also known as dead zones, these regions take their name from the deleterious effects of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L) on shrimp, demersal fish, and other animal life. Dead zones result from nutrient enrichment of primary production, concomitant consumption by chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms, and strong stratification that prevents ventilation of bottom water. One of the largest dead zones in the world occurs seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), where hypoxia can reach up to 22,000 square kilometers. While this dead zone shares many features with more well-known marine oxygen minimum zones, it is nevertheless understudied with regards to the microbial assemblages involved in biogeochemical cycling. We performed metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on six samples from the 2013 nGOM dead zone from both hypoxic and oxic bottom waters. Assembly and binning led to the recovery of over fifty partial to nearly complete metagenomes from key microbial taxa previously determined to be numerically abundant from 16S rRNA data, such as Thaumarcheaota, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, SAR406, SAR324, Synechococcus spp., and Planctomycetes. These results provide information about the roles of these taxa in the nGOM dead zone, and opportunities for comparing this region of low oxygen to others around the globe.

  19. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment. (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah


    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  20. Dead time corrections for inbeam γ-spectroscopy measurements (United States)

    Boromiza, M.; Borcea, C.; Negret, A.; Olacel, A.; Suliman, G.


    Relatively high counting rates were registered in a proton inelastic scattering experiment on 16O and 28Si using HPGe detectors which was performed at the Tandem facility of IFIN-HH, Bucharest. In consequence, dead time corrections were needed in order to determine the absolute γ-production cross sections. Considering that the real counting rate follows a Poisson distribution, the dead time correction procedure is reformulated in statistical terms. The arriving time interval between the incoming events (Δt) obeys an exponential distribution with a single parameter - the average of the associated Poisson distribution. We use this mathematical connection to calculate and implement the dead time corrections for the counting rates of the mentioned experiment. Also, exploiting an idea introduced by Pommé et al., we describe a consistent method for calculating the dead time correction which completely eludes the complicated problem of measuring the dead time of a given detection system. Several comparisons are made between the corrections implemented through this method and by using standard (phenomenological) dead time models and we show how these results were used for correcting our experimental cross sections.

  1. Memorial service: A means of communication with the dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Barišić Milina M.


    Full Text Available A specific relationship toward the dead characterizes the traditional Serbian culture; this cult exists even today, in somewhat changed form. A death is always followed by the appropriate, traditional, ritual obligations that served to regulate behavior of a family, or even wider community members that has lost one of its members. The relationship with the dead does not cease after the funeral, but it continues to be maintained during general holidays dedicated to the dead-memorial service. These are the days dedicated to all dead, and when offerings were made especially for the deceased. The memorial services take place in particular days of the year: most often on Saturdays, on Saturdays before another holiday, the Spirits, and on Saturdays before the holiday Mitrovdan; memorial services are also connected with some other holidays during the year. In addition to the general memorial service dedicated to all dead, there are so-called special memorial services, which take place only in special occasions (on holidays like Petrovdan, Saint Ilija, Velika Gospojina, Trojice and more. Many different rituals performed during memorial services, as well as ritual objects used should provide the deceased with a safe residence in their new environment. The most important rituals that enabled the communication with the dead include: preparing and sharing food and drinks, visits to a cemetery, lighting candles, incense of graves, vine spilling, decoration with flowers and basilica. The most important ritual objects are: graves, food, drinks, candles, incense, vine, flowers and basilica.

  2. In the Event of Bioterrorism: Protecting Families from Deadly Diseases (United States)

    ... fevers—Bolivian, Argentine, Sabia-virus associated, Venezuelan, and Lassa. In some parts of the world, especially South ... they can be seen in the United States. Lassa fever, for example, occurs primarily in West Africa, ...

  3. Living with the Dead or Communicating with the dead: media practices of continuing bonds among bereaved parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    for this paper analyzing bereaved parent’ communicational practices in order to create continuing bonds (Klass 1996) to their dead children. The use of media and materialities ascribed with media qualities allows us to “deal with and come to terms with death without being dead ourselves” (Christensen...... in the shape of everyday parental activities such as playing with the child, reading bedtime stories, celebrating birthdays or just bearing the dead child in mind, the purpose of which are to keep the dead child as a present part of the parents’ and family’s continuing life. We argue that these practices...... are best understood as parents’ everyday practices relating to a child we have rather than to a child we had or a child we did not get. The child’s continuing existence and presence is inscribed in everyday life through uses of digital media, physical objects working as media – even the parents own bodies...

  4. A novel animal model of Borrelia recurrentis louse-borne relapsing fever borreliosis using immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Larsson

    Full Text Available Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF borreliosis is caused by Borrelia recurrentis, and it is a deadly although treatable disease that is endemic in the Horn of Africa but has epidemic potential. Research on LBRF has been severely hampered because successful infection with B. recurrentis has been achieved only in primates (i.e., not in other laboratory or domestic animals. Here, we present the first non-primate animal model of LBRF, using SCID (-B, -T cells and SCID BEIGE (-B, -T, -NK cells immunocompromised mice. These animals were infected with B. recurrentis A11 or A17, or with B. duttonii 1120K3 as controls. B. recurrentis caused a relatively mild but persistent infection in SCID and SCID BEIGE mice, but did not proliferate in NUDE (-T and BALB/c (wild-type mice. B. duttonii was infectious but not lethal in all animals. These findings demonstrate that the immune response can limit relapsing fever even in the absence of humoral defense mechanisms. To study the significance of phagocytic cells in this context, we induced systemic depletion of such cells in the experimental mice by injecting them with clodronate liposomes, which resulted in uncontrolled B. duttonii growth and a one-hundred-fold increase in B. recurrentis titers in blood. This observation highlights the role of macrophages and other phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection. B. recurrentis evolved from B. duttonii to become a primate-specific pathogen that has lost the ability to infect immunocompetent rodents, probably through genetic degeneration. Here, we describe a novel animal model of B. recurrentis based on B- and T-cell-deficient mice, which we believe will be very valuable in future research on LBRF. Our study also reveals the importance of B-cells and phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection.

  5. The Finitude of War or the Infinite War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Muriel Restrepo


    Full Text Available On the basis of the difference between M. Foucault and Th. Hobbes regarding war as a principle and foundation of power, the article shows the importance of this conceptual difference for contemporary political analyses. Foucault argues that in modern Western societies, the political community and, more specifically, politics itself, has been the space of a war waged by other means. By extension, this thesis entails the inversion of von Clausewitz’s principle, namely, that war is the continuation of politics by other means.

  6. Tick bite fever and Q fever — a South African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection, and a post—Q fever chronic fatigue syndrome has been described. The molecular pathophysiology of ... Chronic Q fever remains challenging to treat. The genera Rickettsia and Coxiella are aerobic ... gene nucleotide sequence homologies have allowed more than. 30 species and subspecies of rickettsiae to be ...

  7. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas. (United States)


    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  8. The Lessons of the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  9. War and Peace: Toys, Teachers, and Tots. (United States)

    Dodd, Arleen; And Others

    War play is play with a toy that initiates violence or play that involves the imitation of war. War play can involve: (1) the use of toys based on television cartoon shows to imitate the action in the cartoons; (2) play with replicas of war paraphernalia or manipulatives shaped into guns; and (3) dramatic play. The negative effects on children…

  10. The Spanish Civil War: An Analysis (United States)


    later. Although the Spanish Civil War is little covered in American classrooms , its carnage rivals that of the U.S. Civil War: 500,000 deaths, of...October 2003), Spanish Civil War. 3 Felipe Ribeiro de Meneses, Franco and the Spanish Civil War (New York: Routledge, 2001). 4 University of

  11. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based on estimates arrived at in Chamberlain, Australians in the South African war, pp 79, 88-9. The standard works on the ... American war, was a consequence of this. As war in South Africa loomed in mid-1899 the ... 1899 the uitlander cause enjoyed a quiet sympathy in many families. As the war broke out, hundreds of ...

  12. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia's South African war 1899-19021. DR CRAIG WILCOX. Australian WarMemorial historian o/the Anglo-Boer War, Sydney, Australia. Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the. British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those. Australians constituted ...

  13. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.


    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  14. Just war and the problem of evil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schott, Robin May


    In this essay, Robin May Schott criticizes leading proponents of just war theory and introduces the notion of justifiable but illegitimate violence. Instead of legitimating some wars as just, it is better to acknowledge that both the situation of war and moral judgments about war are ambiguous...

  15. Options for reducing HIV transmission related to the dead space in needles and syringes. (United States)

    Zule, William A; Pande, Poonam G; Otiashvili, David; Bobashev, Georgiy V; Friedman, Samuel R; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Des Jarlais, Don C


    When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0.5 to 20 mL. Needles ranged in length from 8 to 38 mm. The average dead space was 3 μL in low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles, 13 μL in high dead space syringes with low dead space needles, 45 μL in low dead space syringes with high dead space needles, and 99 μL in high dead space syringes with high dead space needles. Among low dead space designs, calculated volumes of blood and HIV viral burden were lowest for low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles and highest for low dead space syringes with high dead space needles. The dead space in different low dead space needle and syringe combinations varied substantially. To reduce HIV transmission related to syringe sharing, needle and syringe programs need to combine this knowledge with the needs of their clients.

  16. Combat exposure and mental health: the long-term effects among US Vietnam and Gulf War veterans. (United States)

    Gade, Daniel M; Wenger, Jeffrey B


    Using a random sample of more than 4000 veterans, we test the effects of combat exposure on mental health. We focus on two cohorts of veterans: those who served in Vietnam (1964-1975) and the Gulf War (1990-1991). Combat exposure differed between these groups in intensity, duration and elapsed time since exposure. We find that combat exposure generally, and exposure to dead, dying, or wounded people, specifically, is a significant predictor of mental health declines as measured by an individual's Mental Component Summary score. Under our general specifications, the negative effects of combat on mental health were larger for Gulf war veterans than for Vietnam veterans as of 2001. These effects persist after controlling for demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, income and assets. Using discrete factor, nonparametric maximum likelihood (DFML) estimation we controlled for unobserved heterogeneity as well as the factors above. In the DFML specifications we find a negative impact of exposure to dead, wounded or dying people for both Gulf and Vietnam veterans, but find no statistically significant effect for combat exposure overall for Vietnam veterans as of 2001. Based on our Gulf war parameters, we estimate that the costs of mental health declines to be between $87 and $318 per year for each soldier with combat service and exposure to dead, dying and wounded people. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...... and tactical function as a military stronghold that played a central role in the political strategies of the ruling European elite. Even as a threat of force, a castle had the potential to structure a conflict or to structure the rule of a region. This role of castles in medieval warfare has long been...... considered to be a topic primarily for a narrow circle of specialists in military history and archaeologists interested in loop-holes and mining technique. However, the picture has been changing, and both historians and archaeologists have started to recognize the critical relevance of strongholds, castles...

  18. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.


    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  19. Mali: Visions of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Marchal


    Full Text Available Political elites in Bamako articulate different understandings of the war in northern Mali, though share the same view on the restoration of Malian sovereignty. Those visions are deeply rooted in an assessment of the past failed peace agreements with Tuareg groups, a focus on social and ethnic differentiations that emphasize the role of Kidal and the will to avoid major reforms in dealing with key issues such as the efficiency of the political system, the role of Islam in the Malian polity and the complicated relations between Bamako and its neighbours. The status of AQIM in the current crisis, contrary to the international narrative, is downplayed while other armed groups, in particular the MNLA, are seen as the real, and, often, only threat.

  20. Wars of Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars


    , both political and military, war between the two forms, the post-napoleonic, Fichtean notion of nationality (1807-8) and the historical notion of imperium. “Nationality” entered the political semantics witch such a force and shook the existing political order of empires to the ground because of its...... households and fragments of earlier political empires, such as the Danish Realm (rigsfællesskab) with Greenland, The Faroe Islands and the Danish State, poses the important question: how did the replacement and re-formation of the European political system happen? I argue, that we can observe a semantic...... and apply appropriate forms of response. To unravel the two complex cases of political ‘management’ of the rise of german nationality, I have to open up the semantic complex of “crown”, “state”, “kingdom”, prince and government, as they are used in governmental, internal communications, dispatches...

  1. Becoming a warring nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Mads; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund


    This introduction sets the frame for the section’s four articles, all themed on contemporary developments in Denmark in the wake of the country’s involvement in the ‘coalition’ wars of recent decades. During this period, Danish governments have adopted a so-called ‘activist’ foreign policy, a key...... pacifism and a strong foreign policy tradition of non-involvement. We outline this Danish road from ‘adaptation’ to ‘activism’, arguing for a need for a critical, qualitatively based research focus on the social and cultural repercussions of this peculiar ‘military moment’ in Denmark. The four articles...... that make up the themed section are written on the basis of ethnographic case studies that seek to contribute to such a wider discussion....

  2. Chronic Q fever in the Netherlands 5 years after the start of the Q fever epidemic: results from the Dutch chronic Q fever database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.; Delsing, C.E.; Groenwold, R.H.; Wegdam-Blans, M.C.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Jager-Leclercq, M.G. De; Hoepelman, A.I.; Kasteren, M.E.E. van; Buijs, J.; Renders, N.H.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Wever, P.C.


    Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and

  3. Context dependency and generality of fever in insects. (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Z R; Adamo, S A


    Fever can reduce mortality in infected animals. Yet, despite its fitness-enhancing qualities, fever often varies among animals. We used several approaches to examine this variation in insects. Texas field crickets (Gryllus texensis) exhibited a modest fever (1 °C increase in preferred body temperature, T pref) after injection of prostaglandin, which putatively mediates fever in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but they did not exhibit fever during chronic exposure to heat-killed bacteria. Further, chronic food limitation and mating status did not affect T pref or the expression of behavioural fever, suggesting limited context dependency of fever in G. texensis. Our meta-analysis of behavioural fever studies indicated that behavioural fever occurs in many insects, but it is not ubiquitous. Thus, both empirical and meta-analytical results suggest that the fever response in insects 'is widespread, although certainly not inevitable' (Moore 2002). We highlight the need for future work focusing on standardizing an experimental protocol to measure behavioural fever, understanding the specific mechanism(s) underlying fever in insects, and examining whether ecological or physiological costs often outweigh the benefits of fever and can explain the sporadic nature of fever in insects.

  4. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war....... Conflict is basically a problem of essentially contested communication. Once this historical self-reference was established around the 17th century, war, thirdly, became delimited by its structural couplings to religion, mass media (propaganda), finance, welfare for victims and veterans, law, politics...

  5. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J


    ... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...

  6. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J


    ... of them. They are, indeed, genuine wars, even though the physical violence might be minimal, because they serve a political, socio-cultural, or economic purpose, and they involve hostile intentions...

  7. War and Economics: Spanish Civil War Finances Revisited


    Martin-Acena, Pablo; Martinez Ruiz, Elena; Pons Brias, Maria A.


    This paper reviews how the Spanish civil war was financed. We present new evidence to show that the two combatant parties, the Republican government and the Franco administration followed similar financial strategies. In both cases money creation, rather than new taxes or the issue of debt, was the main mechanism used to cover the expenses of the war. We argue, contrary to the established knowledge, that both sides consumed a similar amount of domestic and foreign resources. We also argue tha...

  8. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans (United States)


    sign. higher; retinol binding protein ns higher 2005: Serum uric acid ns lower Neurocognitive function 1997: Poorer accuracy on automated performance...with muscle metabolism and physical endurance in 49 Gulf War veterans and 61 nonveterans with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).1725 In Gulf War veterans...118. 120. Behan PO, Behan WM, Horrobin D. Effect of high doses of essential fatty acids on the postviral fatigue syndrome . Acta Neurol Scand. 1990;82

  9. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib


    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  10. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat (United States)

    Hagar, Joan


    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al., 2001). In

  11. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) revised. (United States)

    Unger, Manuel; Karanikas, Georgios; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Winkler, Stefan; Aletaha, Daniel


    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) was originally characterised in 1961 by Petersdorf and Beeson as a disease condition of temperature exceeding 38.3 °C on at least three occasions over a period of at least three weeks, with no diagnosis made despite one week of inpatient investigation. However, since underlying diseases are often reported for classical FUO, these presentations may not be considered to be of "unknown origin". Rather, the aetiology of prolonged fever may resolve, or not resolve. The definition of fever with unresolved cause (true FUO) is difficult, as it is a moving target, given the constant advancement of imaging and biomarker analysis. Therefore, the prevalence of fever with unresolved cause (FUO) is unknown.In this review, we report such a case of prolonged fever, which initially has presented as classical FUO, and discuss current literature. Furthermore, we will give an outlook, how a prospective study on FUO will allow to solve outstanding issues like the utility of different diagnostic investigations, and the types and prevalence of various underlying diseases.

  12. Ethnicity and the spread of civil war


    Bosker, Maarten; de Ree, Joppe


    Civil wars critically hinder a country's development process. This paper shows that civil wars can also have severe international consequences. Anecdotal evidence highlights that civil wars sometimes spill over international boundaries. Using a more rigorous econometric approach we provide evidence that conflict spillovers are indeed quantitatively very important. Also, they are context dependent. Ethnicity in particular plays a key role in the spread of civil war. Only ethnic civil wars spil...

  13. DEAD-box proteins as RNA helicases and chaperones (United States)

    Jarmoskaite, Inga; Russell, Rick


    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous in RNA-mediated processes and function by coupling cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis to changes in affinity for single-stranded RNA. Many DEAD-box proteins use this basic mechanism as the foundation for a version of RNA helicase activity, efficiently separating the strands of short RNA duplexes in a process that involves little or no translocation. This activity, coupled with mechanisms to direct different DEAD-box proteins to their physiological substrates, allows them to promote RNA folding steps and rearrangements and to accelerate remodeling of RNA-protein complexes. This review will describe the properties of DEAD-box proteins as RNA helicases and the current understanding of how the energy from ATPase activity is used to drive the separation of RNA duplex strands. It will then describe how the basic biochemical properties allow some DEAD-box proteins to function as chaperones by promoting RNA folding reactions, with a focus on the self-splicing group I and group II intron RNAs. PMID:21297876

  14. Indoor Dead Reckoning Localization Using Ultrasonic Anemometer with IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Seo


    Full Text Available Dead reckoning is an important aspect of estimating the instantaneous position of a mobile robot. An inertial measurement unit (IMU is generally used for dead reckoning because it measures triaxis acceleration and triaxis angular velocities in order to estimate the position of the mobile robot. Positioning with inertial data is reasonable for a short period of time. However, the velocity, position, and attitude errors increase over time. Much research has been conducted in ways to reduce these errors. To position a mobile robot, an absolute positioning method can be combined with dead reckoning. The performance of a combined positioning method can be improved based on improvement in dead reckoning. In this paper, an ultrasonic anemometer is used to improve the performance of dead reckoning when indoors. A new approach to the equation of an ultrasonic anemometer is proposed. The ultrasonic anemometer prevents divergence of the mobile robot’s velocity. To position a mobile robot indoors, the ultrasonic anemometer measures the relative movement of air while the robot moves through static air. Velocity data from the ultrasonic anemometer and the acceleration and angular velocity data from the IMU are combined via Kalman filter. Finally we show that the proposed method has the performance with a positioning method using encoders on a good floor condition.

  15. Rockets in World War I (United States)


    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  16. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry


    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  17. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)


    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  18. The Korean War and the post-war prisoners of war (POW) regime, 1945-1956


    Wylie, Neville; Crossland, James


    This paper examines the framework for the treatment of prisoners of war that emerged after 1945. It focuses on one of the key elements of the post-war prisoner of war (POW) regime, the role of neutral bodies – state authorities acting as ‘protecting powers’ or humanitarian agencies such as the International Committee of the Red Cross – in supervising the implementation of the 1949 POW convention. It examines the importance of neutral supervision for the POW regime, and shows how the events of...

  19. [Epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Lvov and Cracow during and after World War I (until the year 1922)]. (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz


    In Lvov and Cracow at the times of World War I, the infectious diseases such as tuberculosis followed by typhus fever, typhoid fever, dysentery, as well as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, smallpox, cholera and venereal diseases (particularly syphilis) posed one of the most significant and dangerous problems for inhabitants. Their increased prevalence was the result of deteriorating sanitary and living conditions of the city population. The spread of epidemic infectious diseases was enhanced by marching troops, migration of civilians and war prisoners, return of large groups of displaced people and demobilized soldiers after regaining independence in November 1918. Additionally, unfavorable epidemiological situation in Lvov deteriorated at the time of the war with Ukrainians (November 1918-April 1919) and Bolsheviks (July-August 1920). The control of infectious diseases was in the hands of regional local physicians who referred patients to hospitals, isolated homes, bath and disinfection institutions, and conducted vaccinations against smallpox. A decrease in infectious diseases prevalence and deaths to the prewar levels occurred in 1922.

  20. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian


    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  1. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever. (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan


    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity.

  2. Hemophagocytic syndrome in classic dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Ray


    Full Text Available A 24-year-old previously healthy girl presented with persistent fever, headache, and jaundice. Rapid-test anti-dengue virus IgM antibody was positive but anti-dengue IgG was nonreactive, which is suggestive of primary dengue infection. There was clinical deterioration during empiric antibiotic and symptomatic therapy. Bone marrow examination demonstrated the presence of hemophagocytosis. Diagnosis of dengue fever with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was made according to the diagnostic criteria of the HLH 2004 protocol of the Histiocyte Society. The patient recovered with corticosteroid therapy. A review of literature revealed only a handful of case reports that showed the evidence that this syndrome is caused by dengue virus. Our patient is an interesting case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with classic dengue fever and contributes an additional case to the existing literature on this topic. This case highlights the need for increased awareness even in infections not typically associated with hemophagocytic syndrome.

  3. Milk fever control principles: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Østergaard, S


    with sufficient magnesium to fulfil its needs, and to prevent the dry cows from being too fat. Available information on the influence of carbohydrate intake, and on the effect of the length of the dry period and prepartum milking, is at present insufficient to include these factors in control programmes....... prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K...... is a palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR...

  4. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil]. (United States)

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato


    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  5. Lost trust: a yellow fever patient response. (United States)

    Runge, John S


    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care.

  6. The Nature of War Theory (United States)


    natural selection is the finches of the Galapagos Islands. Simply, those birds, adept at obtaining seeds or those able to get new kinds of foods, were...favorable mutation passed from generation to generation.16 The finches of the Galapagos Islands are an example of evolution at the individual-level... Penguin Books, 1987), Chapter 13. 13Clausewitz, On War, 89. 14Fuller, The Foundations of the Science of War, 66. 15Richard P. Brennan, Dictionary of

  7. Afterword: war on the senses


    Bourke, Joanna


    Book synopsis: Modern Conflict and the Senses investigates the sensual worlds created by modern war, focusing on the sensorial responses embodied in and provoked by the materiality of conflict and its aftermath. The volume positions the industrialized nature of twentieth-century war as a unique cultural phenomenon, in possession of a material and psychological intensity that embodies the extremes of human behaviour, from total economic mobilization to the unbearable sadness of individual loss...

  8. War veterans as peace builders


    Kostić Novica


    In the period from 1991. to 1999. over 1500000 people in former Yugoslavia were members of dozens military formations that participated in the war in different manners and with various motives. These persons have actively contributed to the tragedy caused by war, that was and for some time will be the most important factor of social and personal relationships between individuals and the nations in the member states of former Yugoslavia. They are now left on their own and exposed to manipulati...

  9. Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model (United States)

    Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah


    In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.

  10. Chikungunya fever: current status in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Nava-Frías


    Full Text Available Chikungunya fever is a tropical vector-borne disease that has been spreading rapidly around the world during the last 10 years, and which has been usually misdiagnosed as dengue. Nowadays, this disease is increasing in Mexico, mainly in the southern and central zones of the country, being significantly more common in women, children and young adults (28% in < 20 years of age. The classical presentation includes fever, arthralgia, polyarthritis, back-pain, and skin rashes. Although symptoms and treatment are similar to those for dengue, there are key clinical features to differentiate these two diseases.

  11. Milk Fever Control Principles: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østergaard S


    Full Text Available Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%–60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K – (Cl + S significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle is a palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR (between 0 and 0.20 (daily calcium intake below versus above 20 g/d. The main problem in implementing the low-Ca principle is difficulties in formulating rations sufficiently low in calcium when using commonly available feeds. The use of large doses of vitamin D metabolites and analogues for milk fever prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this principle is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with sufficient magnesium to fulfil its needs, and to prevent the dry cows from being too fat. Available information on the influence of carbohydrate intake, and on the

  12. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. (United States)

    Rowland, Michael; Plackett, Timothy P; Smith, Richard


    Yellow fever is a mosquito-transmitted hemorrhagic viral disease that is endemic to tropical regions in South America and Africa. It remains a significant health concern for deploying military personnel, accordingly vaccination is frequently performed on troops. Although the vaccine is generally administered with only minor complications, rare severe complications are also reported. Herein, we report a mild case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease 4 days after administration of the vaccine. The various complications of the vaccine and their pathogenesis are also reviewed.

  13. Fever in pregnancy and offspring head circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm


    was ascertained in two interviews during pregnancy and information on head circumference at birth was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. RESULTS: Fever in pregnancy was reported by 27% of the mothers, and we identified 3370 cases of microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to third...... percentile for sex and gestational age) and 1140 cases of severe microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to first percentile for sex and gestational age). In this study, maternal fever exposure was not associated with reduced head circumference (adjusted β = 0.03, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0...

  14. Zika Fever: Basic Facts About the Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Kalinina


    Full Text Available At the beginning of 2016, the World Health Organization announced the spread of Zika virus to be a global threat. Serious concerns about the little-known up to the present time Zika fever are caused by the growth of neurological complications of this disease. There is no strong evidence yet, but more and more often this infection is associated with congenital skull and brain malformations, development of Guillain-Barre syndrome. The article presents the basic information on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of viral Zika fever, and modern possibilities of its prevention.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever Virus (United States)

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A.; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T.


    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944–2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed. PMID:22172568

  16. Deadly Choices empowering Indigenous Australians through social networking sites. (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Appo, Nathan; Haymes, Alana; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn


    The potential for health promotion through social networking sites (SNSs) is widely recognized. However, while health promotion prides itself in focusing on the social determinants of health, its partiality for persuading individuals to comply with health behaviours dominates the way health promotion utilizes SNSs. This paper contributes to an understanding of collaborative ways SNSs can work for health promotion agendas of self-determination and empowerment in an Indigenous Australia context. An ethnographic study was undertaken with Deadly Choices, an Indigenous-led health promotion initiative. The study involved participant observation of interactions on Deadly Choices SNSs between Deadly Choices and its online community members. Deadly Choices provides an example of SNSs providing a powerful tool to create a safe, inclusive and positive space for Indigenous people and communities to profile their healthy choices, according to Indigenous notions of health and identity. The study found five principles that underpin Deadly Choices' use of SNSs for health promotion. These are: create a dialogue; build community online and offline; incentivise healthy online engagement; celebrate Indigenous identity and culture; and prioritize partnerships. Deadly Choices SNSs empowers Indigenous people and communities to be health promoters themselves, which represents a power shift from health promotion practitioner to Indigenous people and communities and more broadly, an enactment of Indigenous self-determination on SNSs. Mainstream health promotion can learn from Indigenous health promotion practice regarding the use of SNSs for health promotion agendas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Mayaro fever in an HIV-infected patient suspected of having Chikungunya fever. (United States)

    Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Góngora, Delzi Vinha Nunes de; Maia, Irineu Luiz; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda


    Arboviruses impose a serious threat to public health services. We report a case of a patient returning from a work trip to the Amazon basin with myalgia, arthralgia, fever, and headache. During this travel, the patient visited riverside communities. Both dengue and Chikungunya fevers were first suspected, tested for, and excluded. Mayaro fever was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction. The increased awareness of physicians and consequent detection of Mayaro virus in this case was only possible due a previous surveillance program with specific health personnel training about these neglected arboviruses.

  18. Homer and the cult of the dead in Helladic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odysseus Tsagarakis


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Homeric bothros (Odyssey X 517 ff. as a possible source of information for the ritual and function of various bothroi (grave pits which are considered to be an important archaeological source. It seems that the bothroi were, by their nature, best suited to a cult of the dead and served as altars. The paper also discusses the possible reasons for the existence of the cult and argues against the view that fear of the dead motivated the cult in Helladic times.

  19. Intrapulmonary gas mixing and dead space in artificially ventilated dogs. (United States)

    Schrikker, A C; Wesenhagen, H; Luijendijk, S C


    In this study we have investigated the effects of breath holding and of the physical properties of gases on four different respiratory dead spaces (VD): the Fowler, the physiological, the washout and the inert gas dead space. The experiments were performed with dogs which were ventilated artificially with breathing patterns with different post-inspiratory breath holding times (ta) of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s. Tracer amounts of acetone, ether and enflurane were infused continuously into a peripheral vein and a bolus of a mixture of krypton, Freon12 and SF6 was introduced into the peritoneal cavity. After reaching steady state, samples of arterial blood, mixed venous blood and mixed expired air were taken simultaneously. From the partial pressures (Pa, PV and PE respectively) we determined the excretion (E = PE/PV), retention (R = Pa/PV) and the physiological dead space fraction (VD,phys/VT = (1- PE/Pa)) for each gas, where VT is tidal volume. Further, we recorded the expirograms of the six tracer gases and of CO2 from which the Fowler dead space fractions (VD,Fowler/VT) of the different gases were determined. Also the washout dead space fractions (VD,washout/VT) for He and SF6 were determined as well as the inert gas dead space fraction (VD,MIGET/VT) with the use of the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). With the exception of VD,phys/VT for SF6, all dead space fractions decreased with increasing ta. VD,phys/VT for the poorly soluble gas SF6 was considerably larger than VD,phys/VT for the remaining gases. For the highly soluble acetone VFowler/VT was considerably smaller than VD,Fowler/VT for the other gases. VD,washout,SF6/VT was always larger than VD,washout,He/VT and VD,Fowler,SF6/VT. Further, VD,phys/VT was larger than VD,Fowler/VT for SF6 and acetone. However, for gases with intermediate solubility in blood VD,phys/VT tended to be smaller than VD,Fowler/VT. We conclude that the respiratory dead spaces are affected by the breathing pattern and by the

  20. The Dynamics of the Skin Temperature of the Dead Sea


    Roni Nehorai; Nadav Lensky; Steve Brenner; Itamar Lensky


    We explored the dynamics of the temperature of the skin layer of the Dead Sea surface by means of in situ meteorological and hydrographic measurements from a buoy located near the center of the lake. The skin temperature is most highly correlated to air temperature (0.93–0.98) in all seasons. The skin temperature is much less correlated to the bulk surface water temperature in the summer (0.80), when the lake is thermally stratified, and uncorrelated in the winter, when the Dead Sea is vertic...

  1. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know (United States)

    ... travel to a yellow fever area should discuss vaccination with their doctor. They might be at increased risk for severe ... yellow fever. If travel cannot be avoided, discuss vaccination with your doctor. If you cannot get the vaccine for medical ...

  2. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dongo, Andrew E; Kesieme, Emeka B; Iyamu, Christopher E; Okokhere, Peter O; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C; Akpede, George O


    .... When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas...

  3. Lassa fever - full recovery without ribavarin treatment: a case report. (United States)

    Ajayi, Nnennaya A; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Ifebunandu, Ngozi A; Nnabu, Richard; Onwe, Francis I; Asogun, Danny A


    Lassa fever is a rodent-borne zoonosis that clinically manifests as an acute hemorrhagic fever. It is treated using ribavarin. Surviving Lassa fever without receiving the antiviral drug ribavarin is rare. Only few cases have been documented to date. We report a case of a 59-year old female with fever who was initially thought to have acute pyelonephritis and sepsis syndrome with background malaria. Further changes in her clinical state and laboratory tests led to a suspicion of Lassa fever. However at the time her laboratory confirmatory test for Lassa fever returned, her clinical state had improved and she made full recovery without receiving ribavarin. Her close contacts showed no evidence of Lassa virus infection. This report adds to the literature on the natural history of Lassa fever; and that individuals may survive Lassa fever with conservative management of symptoms of the disease and its complications.

  4. Immunization against east coast fever by infection and treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunization against east coast fever by infection and treatment method in. Uganda. Nsubuga -Mutaka ... Key words: East Cost Fever. tick horne, immunisation. Introduction. The disease" ... interval acaricide application. However, this has not.

  5. Impact of war on American adolescents. (United States)

    Hardin, Sally Brosz; Hayes, Eileen; Cheever, Kerry H; Addy, Cheryl


    The impact of the Persian Gulf war on adolescents in Columbia, Charleston, and Sumter, SC. Four semiannual surveys measured adolescents' exposure to and evaluations of the Persian Gulf war, and the relationship between this exposure and mental distress. Of the sample, 814 (65.9%) reported being distressed by the war and 849 (69%) reported feeling better after the war ended. More than half the sample had a friend or relative sent to the war (n = 725, 58.8%), and of these, 458 were African American. Nine percent (n = 111) of the sample had a mother, father, or both a mother and a father in the war. There was a positive correlation between adolescents' ratings on the Negative Impact of War Scores and Mental Distress Scores despite the easy victory and public support for the war in the United States. Females and African Americans viewed the war more negatively than did Caucasian males.

  6. World War I: an air war of consequence. (United States)

    Hallion, Richard P


    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Epidemiology of violence and war. (United States)

    Cvjetanović, B


    The magnitude of the threat that violence and war pose to the health, the quality of life, and the very survival of humanity is obvious. A number of scientific disciplines have provided, each through its own methodology, insights into the causation, genesis, and dynamics of violence and war. Although epidemiological and psychological methodologies received priority, the multidisciplinary approach to this problem seems to be the most appropriate. This essay attempts to approach holistically the study of epidemiology of violence and war and the ways of preventing these severe problems of the contemporary society. Conceptual models of the causative mechanisms and dynamics of violence and war, mapping the various psychic, social, and environmental factors, are presented. These models, besides advancing abstract ideas, also provide a concrete framework for determining and exploring the interactions and dynamics of the factors and processes which lead to violence and war. The types of interventions outlined for control and prevention are intended to make an impact upon "critical points" within the dynamics of the process which produces violence and war, and are conceived to be implemented on both the national and international level. The importance of family, community, and school influences is considered, but the role of international organizations, including the United Nations, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations is also stressed. Discussion is focused on the factors which favour peace and hamper aggression, on "internationalization" and global society versus xenophobia and nationalism. The conclusions state that there is sufficient knowhow to devise and implement a reasonable and effective international programme for the control and prevention of violence and war, provided there is adequate public and political willingness and support.

  8. War as a moral imperative (not just practical politics by other means) (United States)

    Ginges, Jeremy; Atran, Scott


    We present findings from one survey and five experiments carried out in the USA, Nigeria and the Middle East showing that judgements about the use of deadly intergroup violence are strikingly insensitive to quantitative indicators of success, or to perceptions of their efficacy. By demonstrating that judgements about the use of war are bounded by rules of deontological reasoning and parochial commitment, these findings may have implications for understanding the trajectory of violent political conflicts. Further, these findings are compatible with theorizing that links the evolution of within-group altruism to intergroup violence. PMID:21325334

  9. Education Fever and Happiness in Korean Higher Education (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu


    This article discusses relevance between education fever and happiness from the viewpoint of Korean higher education. To review this study systematically, three research questions are addressed. First, what is education fever from the viewpoint of the Korean people? Second, what are relations between education fever and happiness? Last, can…

  10. Response to childhood fevers among Mbaise parents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mothers were often the first to recognize fever in the children, followed by the other caregivers and then the fathers.The response to childhood fever was faster when a male child was sick (P < 0.001). The longer the delay the poorer the outcomes of the first action taken in response to childhood fevers (R2change = 0.011).

  11. Surveillance of viral haemorrhagic fevers in Ghana: entomological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 2804 households were surveyed to estimate larval indices and man-vector contacts of potential vectors of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Yellow fever and ... variations and the dry season was identified as the high-risk period for transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and possible disease outbreaks.

  12. Medical cost of Lassa fever treatment in Irrua Specialist Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the direct medical cost of Lassa fever treatment on patients in South-South Nigeria. All the 73 confirmed Lassa fever cases admitted in the isolation ward of the Institute Of Lassa Fever Research and Control, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) Irrua, in Edo State, Nigeria, ...

  13. Lassa fever: A case report | Chundusu | Research Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Severe Lassa fever with high mortality among health care providers is usually a human to human infection that requires high index of suspicion to diagnose. This case report is to describe a peculiar case of Lassa fever among health worker. Result: A severe form of Lassa fever was diagnosed early in a healthcare ...

  14. Mothers' Perception of Fever Management in Children | Alex-Hart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fever is a common problem in childhood. Most febrile episodes are managed at home before consultation in a health facility. Caregivers' response to fever will depend on their perception of its cause and knowledge of its management. This study aimed to evaluate mothers' perceptions of fever and its ...

  15. Frequency of mutations in Mediterranean fever gene, with gender ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common hereditary inflammatory periodic disease, characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, abdominal pain, synovitis and pleurisy. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distri- bution of Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene mutations and to investigate the ...

  16. Mevalonate kinase deficiency and Dutch type periodic fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J.; Houten, S. M.; Waterham, H. R.; Wanders, R. J.; Rijkers, G. T.; Kimpen, J. L.; Duran, R.; Poll-The, B. T.; Kuis, W.


    Dutch type periodic fever (DPF) is an autosomal recessive hereditary fever syndrome. Cases have been reported worldwide, the majority from France and The Netherlands. From infancy the patients suffer fever attacks that recur every 2-8 weeks, often precipitated by immunizations, infections or

  17. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    problems of dengue is presented here. [Chaturvedi U C and Nagar R 2008 Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective; J. Biosci. ..... crisis management. We need dedicated teams to solve the problems and minimize the human suffering. Acknowledgements. We thank Dr. Cecilia Dayaraj, Division of ...

  18. immunisation fever amongst infants receiving Diphtheria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 6, 2013 ... Methods: A prospective study was conducted on a cohort of 710 in- fants who received ... immunisation, especially in infants and young children. Although generally benign and self-limiting, fever is ..... Although this method might minimise recall bias because of the short duration of memory re- call required ...

  19. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe? (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J


    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Facing dengue fever - our first experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Dejan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by dengue virus, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, where it is mostly imported from. The most common clinical form is classic dengue fever. We presented the first dengue case microbiologically confirmed in Serbia. Case report. A 34-year-old male got classic dengue fever after arrival from Cuba. The disease occurred suddenly with fever, myalgias, skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, abnormal aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels. The diagnosis was confirmed with virological diagnostic methods. Significant leukopenia and thrombocytopenia as well as elevation of serum creatine kinase activity were recorded from the very beginning of hospitalization, but were gradually normalized. The whole duration of hospitalization was accompanied by laboratory signs of liver lesion. The disease had favourable outcome. At hospital discharge, the patient was afebrile, asymptomatic, with discrete erythematous rash on torso and arms, normal hemathological values and creatine kinase level and moderately elevated alanine-aminotransferase level. Conclusion. Considering global climate changes and growing international traffic, our health care service needs to be ready for possible massive outbreaks of dengue and other tropical infectious diseases in forthcoming years.

  1. Dengue fever | Tavodova | South Sudan Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Dengue fever. Milada Tavodova. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  2. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  3. Chikungunya Fever | | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a member of the genus Alphavirus, in the family Togaviridae. CHIKV was first isolated from the blood of a febrile patient in Tanzania in 1953, and has since been identified repeatedly in west ...

  4. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela. (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C


    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  5. Host-pathogen interactions in typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, H.K.


    This thesis focuses on host-pathogen interactions in Salmonella Typhi and Burkholderia pseudomallei infections and explores the interplay between these bacteria and the innate immune system. Typhoid fever is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in low-income countries. With adequate


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Smita Sulackshana Devi Goorah


    Full Text Available Chikungunya fever, an emerging mosquito-borne viral disease, has affected Mauritius with two recent outbreaks in 2005 and 2006 respectively. A study was carried out in 2007 to describe the clinical complications post-Chikungunya infection. Ethical clearance was obtained for this study. Data collection was carried out in February and March 2007 on a sample of people who had suffered from Chikungunya fever by means of a comprehensive questionnaire. Participants comprised 77 people; there were 41 males and 36 females. Participants ranged from 6 to 69 years. 70 participants experienced persisting joint pains for at least 6 months following the acute phase. Of these, 35 had residual joint complaints after 6 months. 44 participants suffered from psychological sequelae. 10 participants had dermatological sequelae, 6 had iatrogenic complications due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-induced gastritis, and 3 participants with serologically confirmed Chikungunya fever had neurological manifestations and changes on CT/MRI which could correspond to demyelination. Statistical analysis demonstrated that there was a weak linear relationship between the number of complications and increasing age; there was a significant difference in the number of complications according to gender, females being more affected than males; participants with co-morbidities had more complications and psychological sequelae than previously healthy participants. This study highlights that Chikungunya fever, which causes a significant impact on health in the acute phase, can have significant sequelae months afterwards and this includes psychological sequelae.

  7. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil. (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C


    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  8. Ebola haemorrhagic fever among hospitalised children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : A unique feature of previous Ebola outbreaks has been the relative sparing of children. For the first time, an out break of an unusual illness-Ebola haemorrhagic fever occurred in Northern Uganda - Gulu district. Objectives : To describe the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of hospitalised children and ...

  9. [Arbovirus causing hemorrhagic fever at IMSS]. (United States)

    Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor


    To know the arbovirus causing hemorrhagic fever in patients at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. A follow-up study was made in patients with probable diagnosis of hemorrhagic dengue. Blood samples were taken to look for dengue fever, yellow fever and San Luis, Tonate and Mayaro encephalitis viruses. Frequencies and proportions of the interest variables were analyzed. 35 patients were studied. Isolation and PCR results of the 13 samples were negative in 12 of them and positive to denguevirus-3 in one of them. The determination of IgM was positive for dengue fever in 25 cases; 2 were positive to Mayaro virus and 8 were negative to what was looked for. Hemorrhages and thrombocytopenia were more frequent in patients infected with dengue and Mayaro viruses; jaundice and encephalopathy were more frequent in the latter, and renal dysfunction, in patients with a negative result. Evolution was satisfactory in all cases, except for one (Mayaro), which presented hemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, jaundice and encephalopathy that lead to death. The results show the risk of appearance and dissemination of several vector-born diseases in Mexico. Thus, they require intensive epidemiological surveillance to identify them and to know their real occurrence and specific clinical profile.

  10. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  11. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease? (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  12. Lassa fever or lassa hemorrhagic fever risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses. (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A


    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control.

  13. A yellow fever epizootic in Zika Forest, Uganda, during 1972: Part 2: Monkey serology. (United States)

    Kirya, B G; Okia, N O


    During the 1972 yellow fever epizootic in Zika Forest, Uganda, sera from 21 monkeys shot in a number of forests around the Entebbe area were tested for the presence of a number of arbovirus antibodies. All sera were tested for antibodies against Chikungunya (CHIK), O'nyong-nyong (ONN), Zika, yellow fever (YF) West Nile (WN) and Wesselsbron (WESS) by the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Because of the crossreaction within the flaviviruses (group B arboviruses) mouse protection test (PT) was also carried out on the sera against YF, WESS and Zika viruses. Serological studies carried out on monkey sera from different parts of Uganda, including the Entebbe area, during 1968 gave results which reflected a surprisingly low rate of YF immune monkeys (3%) throughout the country compared with the rate of over 40% immune monkeys obtained by Haddow et al. in 1951. 40% of the monkey sera collected during 1972 were immune to YF by the PT. Since no YF virus had been isolated between 1968 and 1972 the results indicate strongly that the monkeys in the Entebbe area were involved in the epizootic of 1972. No sick or dead monkeys were found in all the forests checked around Entebbe area during the epizootic. This indicates that the animal-to-animal cycle of the equatorial African forests involved the mild endemic infection characteristic of a virus in its natural habitat and infecting its natural host.

  14. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.


    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  15. Antimicrobial properties of Dead Sea black mineral mud. (United States)

    Ma'or, Zeev; Henis, Yigal; Alon, Yaacov; Orlov, Elina; Sørensen, Ketil B; Oren, Aharon


    The unique, black, hypersaline mud mined from the Dead Sea shores is extensively used in mud packs, masks, and topical body and facial treatments in spas surrounding the lake, and in cosmetic preparations marketed worldwide, but little is known about its antimicrobiological properties. We performed detailed microbial and chemical analysis of Dead Sea mineral mud compounded in dermatological and cosmetic preparations. Using conventional bacteriological media (with or without salt augmentation), we found surprisingly low numbers of colony-forming microorganisms in the mud. The highest counts (up to 20,000 colonies per gram, mostly consisting of endospore-forming bacteria) were obtained on sheep blood agar. Test microorganisms (i.e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans) rapidly lost their viability when added to the mud. Zones of growth inhibition were observed around discs of Dead Sea mud placed on agar plates inoculated with Candida or with Propionibacterium, but not with Staphylococcus or Escherichia. The effect was also found when the mud was sterilized by gamma irradiation. Using (35)S-labeled sulfate as a tracer, bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction could be demonstrated at a low rate (0.13 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm(3).d). The antibacterial properties of Dead Sea mud are probably owing to chemical and/or physical phenomena. Possible modes of antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties are discussed.

  16. New Testament Textual Criticism is dead! Long live New Testament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the notion that some of the basic assumptions upon which textual criticism is built, like the quest for an “original text”, have serious flaws and that much of what has been attempted the last 300 years is actually an exercise in futility. In this sense New Testament textual criticism can be declared dead.

  17. Piecing Together the Past: The Dead Sea Schools. (United States)

    Ulrich, Eugene; And Others


    Illustrates the astonishing coordination of archaeological and scholarly activities surrounding the Dead Sea Scrolls. First discovered by Bedouin nomads in 1947, the Scrolls consist of a few complete manuscripts and over 80,000 fragments. Discusses the early Christian sect that produced the Scrolls, and provides current perspectives on the…

  18. The relevance of the Dead Sea scrolls for New Testament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article demonstrates why the Dead Sea Scrolls are important for NT scholarship. After a sketch of the main periods of Qumran research, the author discusses four patterns of relating Qumran with the NT which he considers problematic. Neither was the Qumran community a prototype of Early Christianity, nor do Qumran ...

  19. Literary Genres in Poetic Texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls (United States)

    Pickut, William Douglas


    Among the texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, there are four literary compositions that bear the superscriptional designations shir and mizmor. These designations correspond directly to superscriptional designations provided many times in both the now-canonical Psalter and the various witnesses to those texts unearthed at Qumran. On its face, this fact…

  20. Stylistic Variation In Three English Translations Of The Dead Sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 different English translations were published. In this article the stylistic variation of three of these translations are analysed. It is suggested that the issue of stylistic variation boils down to linguistically inscribed preference in the choice and construction of discourses in the ...

  1. Pablo Remembers: The Fiesta of the Day of the Dead. (United States)

    Ancona, George

    This children's book describes how Pablo, a young Mexican boy, and his family celebrate the Day of the Dead (El Dia de Los Muertos). This holiday takes place on the first and second day of November and honors relatives and friends who have died. The holiday celebrates their spiritual return to Earth to share a special feast with the living, and…

  2. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves (Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 24, 2016 ... the forest in the Sahel region. Therefore, the surface area which could be preserved through the year and in 10 years is illustrated in Table 3. From Table 3, the valorisation of the biogas as cooking energy from dead neem biomass quantified in Maroua town could allow the preservation of 567.45 ha/year of.

  3. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in AMPKa2 kinase dead mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Stride, Nis


    AIM: To study if the phenotypical characteristics (exercise intolerance; reduced spontaneous activity) of the AMPKa2 kinase-dead (KD) mice can be explained by a reduced mitochondrial respiratory flux rates (JO(2) ) in skeletal muscle. Secondly, the effect of the maturation process on JO(2...

  4. Giving Thanks: Observing Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead. (United States)

    Dever, Martha T.; Barta, James J.


    Describes a primary-grade curriculum unit organized around the theme of "giving thanks" and encompassing the holidays of Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead. Provides historical background and cultural context for each holiday, engagement activities, investigation activities, sharing activities, and a short list of related…

  5. Comparison of burning characteristics of live and dead chaparral fuels (United States)

    L. Sun; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise


    Wildfire spread in living vegetation, such as chaparral in southern California, often causes significant damage to infrastructure and ecosystems. The effects of physical characteristics of fuels and fuel beds on live fuel burning and whether live fuels differ fundamentally from dead woody fuels in their burning characteristics are not well understood. Toward this end,...

  6. Personal Reflection: Teaching in the Shadow of a Dead God (United States)

    Corrigan, Paul T.


    Potter (2013) argues that even though many college teachers have adopted constructivist practices and perspectives, the "foundations" of Western higher education remain objectivist through and through. In the title metaphor of his essay, "objectivism" is the dead god. Constructivism killed it conceptually. But materially and…

  7. Gastric necrosis four years after fundoplication causing a dead foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Skovsen, Anders Peter; Kildsig, Jeppe


    A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted and treated for diabetic ketoacidosis. As the patient deteriorated and the viability of the foetus was uncertain a CT scan was done which showed free fluid and air intraabdominally. Surgery was performed. A dead foetus was delivered and a 2 × 5 cm necrotic...

  8. Dead Metaphor in Selected Advertisements in Nigerian Dailies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead metaphors and images are often enlivened and empowered by advertisers to help their commUlzication and to achieve bewitching effects. It is interesting to see words and phrases that may be presumed to have been drained of their linguistic strength being brought back to currency and made to act fast in aiding ...

  9. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas


    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  10. Simulating psychophysical tuning curves in listeners with dead regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnaar, Bastiaan; Jepsen, Morten L.; Dreschler, Wouter A.


    This study investigates the relation between diagnosis of dead regions based on the off-frequency psychophysical tuning curve (PTC) tip and the frequency and level of the probe tone. A previously developed functional model of auditory processing was used to simulate the complete loss of inner hair

  11. Remembering Important People On The Day Of The Dead (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005


    This article describes a project that can help students learn more about historic figures-or remember lost loved ones--with this Day of the Dead project from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. The purpose is to remember the wonderful things the person did, and to celebrate his or her life. Directions for construction, as well as a suggested list of…

  12. The permeability of dead plant cells for some enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorin, N.


    The penetration of α-chymotrypsin and/or pancreatic lipase into dead cells of soybean cotyledons, of yeast and of algae was studied using the enzymic activity as a parameter. In addition a fluorescent antibody technique was applied for the localization of α-chymotrypsin within the soybean

  13. "The Northern Lights" Investigative Reporting Covers Deadly Decisions. (United States)

    Srour, George


    Presents a story package from the high school newspaper "The Northern Lights," called "Deadly Decisions." Includes an editorial, an eyewitness account, a timeline of the coverage itself, an interview with a local TV reporter, photographs, and a graph of the events the stories covered. (SR)

  14. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves ( Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead leaves of neem trees in the Sahelian urban zone are among the wastes that are underutilized, since it is either buried or burnt, and thus, contribute to increased environmental pollution. Unfortunately, the lack of information on the biomass and energy potentials of these wastes empedes any initiative for its industrial ...

  15. Bacteria of living and dead larvae of Porthetria dispar (L.) (United States)

    John D. Podgwaite; Benjamin J. Cosenza


    A preliminary study of the bacteria associated with living and dead larvae of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar (L.)) was undertaken to determine what types of micro-organisms may be associated with disease in this insect. Specific objectives of this study were to enumerate the types of aerobic bacteria, and if possible to further elucidate the role...

  16. On H∞ control for dead-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinsma, Gjerrit; Zwart, Heiko J.


    A mixed sensitivity H∞ problem is solved for dead-time systems. It is shown that for a given bound on the H∞-norm causal stabilizing controllers exist that achieve this bound if and only if a related finite-dimensional Riccati equation has a solution with a certain nonsingularity property. In the

  17. Michoacan People, Customs, and the Day of the Dead. (United States)

    Maulhardt, Mary

    This curriculum guide is intended: (1) to expose students to the people and customs of Michoacan, Mexico; (2) to explore the meaning of traditional Day of the Dead customs through hands-on experiences; and (3) to build the self-esteem of second language learners of Mexican descent. During the study, students whose primary language is Spanish read…

  18. [Forensic Analysis of 20 Dead Cases Related to Heroin Abuse]. (United States)

    Huang, W Q; Li, L H; Li, Z; Hong, S J


    To perform retrospective analysis on 20 dead cases related to heroin abuse, and to provide references for the forensic assessment of correlative cases. Among 20 dead cases related to heroin abuse, general situation, using method of drug, cause of death and result of forensic examination were analyzed by statistical analysis for summarizing the cause of death and pathologic changes. The dead were mostly young adults, with more male than female. The results of histopathological examinations showed non-specific pathological changes. There were four leading causes of death, including acute poisoning of heroin abuse or leakage (13 cases, 65%), concurrent diseases caused by heroin abuse (3 cases, 15%), inspiratory asphyxia caused by taking heroin (2 cases, 10%), and heroin withdrawal syndrome (2 cases, 10%). The forensic identification on dead related to heroin abuse must base on the comprehensive autopsy, and combine with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of heroin and its metabolites in death and the case information, as well as the scene investigation.

  19. Eating the dead in Madagascar | Campbell | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was, for example, noted in Madagascar during the imperial campaigns of Ranavalona I in the period 1829 - 1853. Two types of cannibalism have been described: exocannibalism, where enemies were consumed, and endocannibalism, where dead relatives were eaten to assist their passing to the world of the ancestors, ...

  20. Bipolar disorder, childhood bereavement, and the return of the dead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upon its head, with red extended mouth and solitary eye of fire, sat the hideous beast whose craft had seduced me into murder ...' From 'The Black Cat', written c. age 35 (Poe 1975:230). Keywords: Edgar Allan Poe; bipolar disorder, childhood bereavement, and the return of the dead; literary criticism; American poetry; ...