WorldWideScience

Sample records for war crimes

  1. Enemy War Crimes: How to Investigate and Prosecute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-30

    automatically think of Nuremberg . In many instances they recall seeing pictures of Goering , Hess, and Speer sitting together being tried before the...think of the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, but few are familiar with the overall U.S. Army war crimes trials efforts in World War II or what, if any, was...DATE: 30 March 1988 PAGES: 51 CLASSIFICATAION: Unclassified ,When the subject of enemy war crimes is mentioned, most people think of the Nuremberg War

  2. Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-19

    attacks on civilians during the 2001 conflict. 03/14/05 — Former Bosnian Serb Chief of Police Gojko Jankovic was transferred to The Hague from Banja ... Luka .3 He is charged with war crimes allegedly committed in the 1992 attack on the Bosnian town of Foca. 03/11/05 — Former Bosnian Serb Interior

  3. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in El Salvador and Guatemala are not the ones that show the highest rates of crime. Furthermore, no direct relation exists between the presence of armed conflict and crime rates at a national level. The presence of armed conflict is neither a necessary factor nor a sufficient one for criminal violence. Onthe contrary, this work points to a close link between inequality and crime rates at a national level.

  4. The Symbiosis of War Crime and Organized Crime in the Former Yugoslavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Axboe

    The growth of organized crime and its interconnection with European organized crime both presaged and informed the collapse of the Yugoslav state in the early 1990s.  A tight nexus emerged between state security services and militaries and organized criminal gangs who converged to enjoy parasitic...... gains during a time of war.  No aspect of society remained immune to the criminalization of social, political and economic transactions, with spillover effects visible even in those areas not directly engulfed by armed conflict.  Since the end of the wars in the former Yugoslavia, these networks have...

  5. CyberWar, CyberTerror, CyberCrime

    CERN Document Server

    Mehan, Julie E

    2008-01-01

    CyberWar, CyberTerror, CyberCrime provides a stark and timely analysis of the increasingly hostile online landscape that today’s corporate systems inhabit, and gives a practical introduction to the defensive strategies that can be employed in response.

  6. Cyber Attack! Crime or Act of War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    to count the number of electrons dancing on the head of a pin. But the definition of what is an act of war and what is not carries a great deal of...being evaluated is in a traditional domain or the cyber domain, the standard for determining if a casus belli exists should be the same. Nevertheless...features of the cyber domain.14 We want to focus on just the factors in the cyber domain that make determinations regarding casus belli more difficult

  7. Battlefield euthanasia - courageous compassion or war crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Susan J

    2011-03-21

    Issues relating to voluntary euthanasia that are currently being debated by Australian society are distinctly different from those encountered by battlefield doctors. Doctors in war undertake to treat those affected by conflict; their participation in euthanasia challenges the profession's definition of "duty of care". Euthanasia must be distinguished from "triage" and medical withdrawal of care (which are decided within a medical facility where, although resources may be limited, comfort care can be provided in the face of treatment futility). Battlefield euthanasia is a decision made, often immediately after hostile action, in the face of apparently overwhelming injuries; there is often limited availability of pain relief, support systems or palliation that would be available in a civilian environment. The battlefield situation is further complicated by issues of personal danger, the immediacy of decision making and difficulties with distinguishing civilians from combatants. Regardless of the circumstances on a battlefield, doctors, whether they are civilians or members of a defence force, are subject to the laws of armed conflict, the special provisions of the Geneva Conventions and the ethical codes of the medical profession.

  8. The Therapeutic Turn in International Humanitarian Law: War Crimes Tribunals as Sites of "Healing"?

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Diana Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThe Therapeutic Turn in International Humanitarian Law: War Crimes Tribunals as Sites of "Healing"? by Diana Elizabeth Anders Doctor of Philosophy in Rhetoric Designate Designated Emphasis in Women, Gender, and SexualityUniversity of California, Berkeley Professor Judith Butler, Co-Chair Professor David Cohen, Co-Chair This dissertation examines the growing tendency to figure international war crimes tribunals in terms of their therapeutic value for their victims. My project do...

  9. Restorative and retributive justice in the context of war and war crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Christie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author is dealing with the relationship between restorative and retributive responses to war and war crimes. Starting from labeling theory and critical criminology, the author argues that the crime does not exist and what exist are behaviors which may be terrible, but, which depending on the context may be considered punishable or not. In the basis of punishment is dealing with consequences, not with causes, which makes that retributive approach has considerable limitations. Regarding this, the author argues for restrictive use of punishment and emphasis the need of creating social systems in which ordinary people would be able to come together and jointly discuss the problems they have and the way of solving them. It is important to give an opportunity to victims to tell what have happened to them, what are their pains; but also to the offenders to express what and why they did what they had done. This is the only way of having an impact on the causes, i. e. on repairmen of the disturbed social relations and reconciliation between parties in conflict.

  10. The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal, Tokyo 2000: a feminist response to revisionism?

    OpenAIRE

    Lévy, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the emergence in the 1990s of the issue of “Comfort women” and the conditions that led to the holding of The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal for the Trial of Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery. It argues that it was a response both to victims’ needs and to the prevailing revisionism concerning the violence committed during the Asian-Pacific war by the Japanese army, which had been the subject of the Tokyo war crimes trials of 1946-1948. The women’s tribunal represe...

  11. Cyber Crime & Cyber War – "Part of the Game": Cyber Security, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Welche Rolle spielt Cyber Crime gegenwärtig? Was unterscheidet Cyber Crime von Cyber War? Wie muss Cyber Security gestaltet sein, um effektiven Schutz nachhaltig zu gewährleisten? Cyber Crime-Aktivitäten kennzeichnen sich häufig durch eine einfache Zugänglichkeit von betrügerischem Know-How und technischen Hilfsmitteln. Bedingt durch eine schleppende und mangelhafte Umsetzung von koordinierten Gegenmaßnahmen, resultieren Cyber-Delikte in einem Low-Risk und High-Reward Szenario für Cyber-Kriminelle. Je organisierter und spezialisierter ein Cyber-Crime-Netzwerk gestaltet ist, desto größer wird das Schadenspotenzial. Cyber Crime ist der Überbegriff für betrügerische Aktivitäten über das Internet. Diese stützen sich auf das Vorbild von "traditionellen" Offline-Kriminalitätsverhaltensmustern, welche durch das technologische Spektrum des Internets einfach zugänglich sind. Nichtsdestoweniger ist es die technische Ausführung der Delikte, die ein wesentliches Unterscheidungsmerkmal zwischen Online- und Offline-Betrug bildet. Auch steht die für organisierte, kriminelle Verbindungen, so auch für Regierungen oder Terrororganisationen geringere Hemmschwelle für eine militärische Instrumentalisierung des Internets im Brennpunkt von Cyber Security. Erfolgen Cyber Crime Aktivitäten unter dem Anspruch der Verfolgung politischer Ziele, sprechen wir von Cyber War. Nachhaltige, gegen Cyber Crime und Cyber War gerichtete Cyber Security-Maßnahmen finden in einem hochdynamischen Umfeld statt. Cyber-Kriminelle sind im Regelfall logistisch und finanziell gut ausgestattet. Viele werden von Regierungen unterstützt. Cyber Crime-Player verfügen über weitreichende technische Fähigkeiten, sodass sie maßgeschneiderte Schadprogramme (Malware für ihre Ziele entwickeln können. Aktuell fehlt vielen Unternehmen und öffentlichen Institutionen das Bewusstsein für die Notwendigkeit von Abwehrsystemen. Ein Cyber Security-Fokus auf Pr

  12. The Symbiosis of War Crime and Organized Crime in the Former Yugoslavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Axboe

    The growth of organized crime and its interconnection with European organized crime both presaged and informed the collapse of the Yugoslav state in the early 1990s.  A tight nexus emerged between state security services and militaries and organized criminal gangs who converged to enjoy parasitic...... significant challenges that these societies still confront on their road to European Union membership....

  13. Facing the past: media framing of war crimes in post-conflict Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golčevski, N.; von Engelhardt, J.; Boomgaarden, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is generally acknowledged that national elites and the mass media play an important role in the way that societies come to terms with a legacy of war crimes, there is little empirical knowledge about whether and how the mass media actually do contribute to a process of ‘facing the past’.

  14. The Soldier’s Dilemma: Using Decision Theory to Explain American War Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Orders is an excellent primer on the historic and legal precedents involved in war crimes. Additionally, Philip Zimbardo’s explanation of the Abu...25, 2007, from www.prd.uscourts.gov. 50 Willoughby, J. (2001). Remaking the conquering heroes. New York: Palgrave. Zimbardo , P. (2007). The

  15. Snapshot of a War Crime: The Case of Russian Colonel, Yuri Budanov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Finch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study of war, certain images become symbolic. In Vietnam, it might have been the photo of the young child running naked from a napalm explosion on her village. In the Iraq war, the toppling of Saddam Hussein’s statue in Baghdad. The trials of Russian Colonel, Yuri Budanov became the iconic event for many Russians when thinking about the most recent conflict with Chechnya (1999-2008. This paper will examine the trials surrounding the alleged war crimes of this Russian officer, the background to this crime, the course of the trials, and the political and social factors which affected the various verdicts. The article will also touch upon the dilemma involved with distinguishing combatants from non-combatants in a counter-insurgency operation.

  16. Sexual violence in armed conflict: the least condemned of war crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike

    2014-03-01

    Sexual violence in armed conflict has traditionally received poor attention until recent years. It has been the "least condemned of war crimes" although, with the inception of the International Criminal Court and various other international courts and tribunals, convictions of high-profile aggressors are increasing. Only recently Charles Taylor, the President of Liberia, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity which included rape and sexual slavery. He was sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. Is prosecution of these crimes sufficient to minimise sexual violence in war? That seems unlikely given the potential for such violence to be a cheap and effective strategy to terrorise a civilian population and "ethnically cleanse" the newly won territory. However, there is a remarkable variation in the levels of sexual violence in armed conflicts. Some, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, have extremely low levels, whereas in Bosnia and many African states the prevalence of sexual violence is at epidemic levels. The reasons for such differences are many, however, some precipitating factors may be improved by strong military discipline, improved gender balance in armed forces, better political awareness by combatants of the aims of a campaign and pre-deployment ethical training.

  17. Reparations for U.S. war crimes against Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corlett Angelo J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the basic tenets of just war theory and those of United States law regarding compensatory justice, it is argued that the U.S. invasion of Iraq from 2003-present is morally unjust and that the U.S. owes substantial reparations to Iraq.

  18. ORNL`s war on crime, technically speaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiques, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes research being carried out by the Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This program works on projects which are solvable, affordable, and outside the scope of the private sector. Examples are presented of work related to: the lifetime of childrens fingerprints compared to adults; the development of ways of providing cooler body armor; digital enhancement technology applied to security-camera images from crime scenes; victim identification by skeletal reconstruction for use by forensic anthropologists.

  19. CCD imaging technology and the war on crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Glenn E.

    1992-08-01

    Linear array based CCD technology has been successfully used in the development of an Automatic Currency Reader/Comparator (ACR/C) system. The ACR/C system is designed to provide a method for tracking US currency in the organized crime and drug trafficking environments where large amounts of cash are involved in illegal transactions and money laundering activities. United States currency notes can be uniquely identified by the combination of the denomination serial number and series year. The ACR/C system processes notes at five notes per second using a custom transport a stationary linear array and optical character recognition (OCR) techniques to make such identifications. In this way large sums of money can be " marked" (using the system to read and store their identifiers) and then circulated within various crime networks. The system can later be used to read and compare confiscated notes to the known sets of identifiers from the " marked" set to document a trail of criminal activities. With the ACR/C law enforcement agencies can efficiently identify currency without actually marking it. This provides an undetectable means for making each note individually traceable and facilitates record keeping for providing evidence in a court of law. In addition when multiple systems are used in conjunction with a central data base the system can be used to track currency geographically. 1.

  20. Violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala: causes and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Guatemala is one of the most violent countries in Latin America, and thus the world. The primary purpose of this thesis is to answer the following question: what factors explain the rise of violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala? The secondary focus of this thesis is to identify the transnational implications of Guatemala’s violence for U.S. policy. Guatemala’s critical security environment requires the identification of causal rela...

  1. The use of forensic botany and geology in war crimes investigations in NE Bosnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A G

    2006-11-22

    From 1997 to 2002 the United Nations International Criminal Tribune for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) undertook the exhumation of mass graves in NE Bosnia as part of the war crimes investigations aimed at providing evidence for the prosecution of war criminals in The Hague. This involved the location and exhumation of seven former mass graves (primary sites) dug following the fall of Srebrenica in July 1995. These primary mass graves were secretly and hurriedly exhumed three months later and most of the bodies or body parts transported and reburied in a large number of secondary sites many of which were subsequently exhumed by ICTY. The aim of the pollen and soil/sediment studies was to provide an 'environmental profile' of the original site of the samples and use this to match the relocated bodies to the original mass graves. This was part of completing the chain of evidence, providing evidence of the scale and organization of the original atrocities and the subsequent attempts to conceal the evidence related to them. All the primary sites were located in areas of contrasting geology, soils and vegetation, and this allowed matching of the sediment transported in intimate contact with the bodies to the original burial sites, which in some cases were also the execution sites. In all, over 24 sites were investigated, over 240 samples collected and analyzed under low power microscopy and 65 pollen sub-samples fully analyzed. The pollen and sediment descriptions were used in conjunction with the mineralogy (using XRD) of primary and secondary sites in order to provide matches. These matches were then compared with matching evidence from ballistic studies and clothing. The evidence has been used in court and is now in the public domain. It is believed this is the first time 'environmental profiling' techniques have been used in a systematic manner in a war crimes investigation.

  2. Crime

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...

  3. The Bosnian War Crimes Trial Simulation: Teaching Students about the Fuzziness of World Politics and International Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Kurt W.

    1999-01-01

    Explains using the Bosnian war crimes simulation to introduce international law and its political and legal ramifications in the course "Introduction to International Politics." Discusses the characteristics of the simulation, its effectiveness, and the response by students. Offers an evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)

  4. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

  5. Violent Crime in Post-Civil War Guatemala: Causes and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and security threats, including transnational gangs, drug trafficking , and human rights violations.418 More recently, the influx at the U.S. border of...rather influential elements in the occunence of violence. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Guatemala, post-conflict, violent crime, drug trafficking , violent...23 a. Drug Trafficking .................................................................... 24 b. Violent Gangs

  6. Annexe 2 - Charter of The Women's International War Crimes Tribunal On Japan's Military Sexual Slavery

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    (Incorporating Modifications Agreed upon During the Hague Meeting, 26-27 October 2000) PreambleWitnessing the passage of the 20th century without any justice done to women victims and survivors of sexual slavery committed by the Japanese Military in various Asian countries under its colonial domination and military occupation before and during the Second World War, being one of the most horrendous forms of wartime sexual violence known in this century;Witnessing also that violence against wom...

  7. Annexe 2 - Charter of The Women's International War Crimes Tribunal On Japan's Military Sexual Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available (Incorporating Modifications Agreed upon During the Hague Meeting, 26-27 October 2000 PreambleWitnessing the passage of the 20th century without any justice done to women victims and survivors of sexual slavery committed by the Japanese Military in various Asian countries under its colonial domination and military occupation before and during the Second World War, being one of the most horrendous forms of wartime sexual violence known in this century;Witnessing also that violence against wom...

  8. Youth crime and preventive policing in post-war Scotland (c.1945-71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartie, Angela; Jackson, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    This article explores debates concerning the methods and styles used by the police service in its dealings with children and young people in post-war Scotland (in comparison with England). Study of the implementation of Police Juvenile Liaison Schemes is used to consider shifting points of tension as well as cooperation between the police and other occupational groups engaged in work at the nexus of youth justice-welfare. Whilst often characterized as contradictory tendencies, the article demonstrates that a social welfare ethic and a criminal justice ethic were coexistent within the rhetoric and practice of policing, but that they operated in a state of flux. It also argues that styles of policing were subject to change, particularly as the use of discretionary and informal methods was increasingly challenged, as physical violence was increasingly seen as an outmoded recourse for the institutions of criminal justice, and as the policing of youth was increasingly politicized. The post-war period can be characterized in terms of greater levels of public scrutiny, the formalization of processes previously undertaken through informal or semi-formal mechanisms, and attempts (not always successful) to systematize procedures nationally in terms of the Scottish state.

  9. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  10. Attempted crime

    OpenAIRE

    Kalneja, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor paper is "Attempted Crime." Attempted crime is unfinished criminal offense and the person carrying out an attempted crime threat to the interests protected by the Criminal Law. In the Judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offenses, preparation for a crime. The judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offense, preparation for a crime....

  11. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  12. Hate crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not much interest for the subject of hate crime in our literature. In the article, the author defines hate crime, based on the facts mainly from the Anglosaxon literature, and tries to explain the origin of prejudice. There is a description of factors which can be the cause for these crimes to occur. The author highlights the importance of preventing bias motivated crime. The article ends with some propositions about how to fight hate crimes.

  13. On the Environmental Crimes and Regulation since the End of the Second World War%“二战”后世界环境犯罪及其规制简论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思杰

    2014-01-01

    Environmental problems emerged with the industrialization progress.Since the end of the Second World War,world environmental problems have become more and more severe.Thus,the concept of environmental crimes and the criminal means to regulate environmental problems emerge and develop.Presently,countries all a-round the world and the international community have built a set of laws to control the environmental crimes.The subject,liability and punishments of environmental crimes have been defined clearly.In the future,the internation-al cooperation and sustainable development should be maintained and reinforced.In order to control the environ-mental crimes more effectively,it is necessary to take measures such as adding the accusation of trespassing inter-national environmental interests,affirming that the legal persons can be the subjects of environmental crimes and so forth.%环境问题伴随着人类工业化的开展而凸显。第二次世界大战结束后,世界环境问题日益严重,环境犯罪的概念与规制环境问题的刑事手段出现并得到发展。目前,世界各国和国际社会已经建立起了环境犯罪规制体系,环境犯罪的主体、责任和刑罚问题得到厘清。未来,应当继续加强国际合作,坚持可持续发展,采取增加侵害国际环境利益的罪名、肯定法人的环境犯罪主体资格等措施,以更好地规制环境犯罪。

  14. Violence, Crime, and Violent Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Felson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I propose a dual conceptualization of violent crime. Since violent crime is both violence and crime, theories of aggression and deviance are required to understand it. I argue that both harm-doing and rule breaking are instrumental behaviors and that a bounded rational choice approach can account for both behaviors. However, while some of the causes of harm-doing and deviance (and violent and nonviolent crime are the same, some are different. Theories of crime and deviance cannot explain why one only observes individual and group differences in violent crime and theories of aggression and violence cannot explain why one observes differences in all types of crimes. Such theories are “barking up the wrong tree.”

  15. [Economic crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.

  16. Cyber Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正With the popularization of Internet,cyber crimes have be-come a serious problem facing us.Nowadays cyber criminalsseem to be everywhere on the Internet.To illustrate,somecommit fraud or lift intellectual property,others snatch pass-words or disrupt e-commerce,and still others unleash virusesto crash computers.As a result,these crimes destroy net-work security greatly and make computer users suffer great losses.However,we shouldn't tolerate these cyber criminals any more.It's high timefor us to take effective measures to fight against cyber crimes.

  17. Rape as a Weapon of War: Should Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examiners (SAMFEs) be Added to Female Engagement Teams (FETs) in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Medical Evidence of War Crimes • Gender-Based Violence • Anti- Human Trafficking • Demobilization, Disarmament, and Reintegration • Behavioral...1990’s the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda declared rape to be a war crime and a crime against humanity . The United Nations (UN) has...Rwanda declared rape to be a war crime and a crime against humanity . The United Nations (UN) has charged the international community to work

  18. The Development of the Concept of the Crimes against Humanity in the Sources of International Criminal Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J Zilinskas

    2001-01-01

      Crimes against Humanity is one of the most dynamic categories in the International Criminal Law since it first appearance in the Charter of Nuremberg Military Tribunal in 1945 as an outgrowth of the war crimes...

  19. Crime scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...... of the Wallander series, the author examines the various types of location used, focusing especially on their dramaturgic and aesthetic roles and on the various ways in which locations are conceptualized in the two series. The analysis also includes extra materials on the DVDs. Finally, the author discusses some...... theoretical and methodological challenges of analysing the significance and impact of locations in TV productions....

  20. True Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This poem is a creative response to contemporary true crime narratives about baby farming in Victorian times, namely Alison Rattle and Allison Vale’s The Woman Who Murdered Babies for Money: The Story of Amelia Dyer (London: André Deutsch, 2011; and the TV documentary, “Amelia Dyer: Martina Cole’s Lady Killers.”

  1. [The M-cycle of crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antholz, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Crime development measured by means of the changes in police recorded crime statistics (criminal offences per 100.000 inhabitants) shows periodical cycles, which can be described by the capital letter M. Starting from a low rate of criminality, crime rises over 1-3 years followed by an interim decline lasting for about one year. Then crime increases again for approximately 2 years to a second peak. After that, crime strongly declines to the next low point over a period of about two years. The course of this development is not uniform with equal amplitudes, but resembles an M-curve. Since 1950, seven such M-cycles have been observed with the 3rd M-cycle from 1965-1973, the 4th M-cycle from 1973-1984, the 5th M-cycle from 1984-1994, the 6th M-cycle from 1994-2005 and the 7th M-cycle from 2005-2010 being particularly distinct. The M-curve of crime may be explained by the M-form of the business cycle. Since World War II, the M-cycle of crime and the M-cycle of the economy have run approximately parallel. Up to the first large oil crisis, the M-cycle of crime preceded the economic situation by 1-2 years, whereas since 1976 it has followed the economic development with a time lag of one to two years.

  2. The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    This article analyzes crime development which is one of the largest threats in today's world, frequently referred to as the war on crime. The criminal commits crimes in his free time (when not in jail) according to a non-stationary Poisson process which accounts for fluctuations. Expected values and variances for crime development are determined. The deterrent effect of imprisonment follows from the amount of time in imprisonment. Each criminal maximizes expected utility defined as expected benefit (from crime) minus expected cost (imprisonment). A first-order differential equation of the criminal's utility-maximizing response to the given punishment policy is then developed. The analysis shows that if imprisonment is absent, criminal activity grows substantially. All else being equal, any equilibrium is unstable (labile), implying growth of criminal activity, unless imprisonment increases sufficiently as a function of criminal activity. This dynamic approach or perspective is quite interesting and has to our knowledge not been presented earlier. The empirical data material for crime intensity and imprisonment for Norway, England and Wales, and the US supports the model. Future crime development is shown to depend strongly on the societally chosen imprisonment policy. The model is intended as a valuable tool for policy makers who can envision arbitrarily sophisticated imprisonment functions and foresee the impact they have on crime development.

  3. 《孙子兵法》与职务犯罪侦查预审谋略体系%The Art of War and the Strategic System of the Pre-trial Investigation of Duty Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛文超

    2015-01-01

    As the most important military science work of ancient China,The Art of War has profound strategic thinking and tactics planning,which corresponds with contrariety,uncertainty and hierarchy of the pre-trial investi-gation of duty crimes.From macroscopic aspects,the thinking of pursuing complete victory and “The five means of victory”could be the basic standpoint of pre-trial investigation.From microcosmic aspects,the tactics of leading posi-tion,keeping clear of the enemy’s main force and strike at his weak points,being changeable,leaving a way out, combining punishment with leniency,combining vitality and reality,differentiating of alienation,etc.are to be con-ducted according to the actual conditions.On the background of the amendment of Criminal Procedure Law,The Art of War may offer illuminating guidance in the establishment and expansion of pre-trial investigation strategic sys-tem.%《孙子兵法》是一部重要的古代兵法著作,其深刻的战略战术思想对应着预审的对立性、不确定性、层次性。在宏观上,务求全胜和“知胜有五”等战略思想能够成为预审的基本立场。在微观上,要求根据实际情况,实施主导预审、避实击虚、务求变化、留足出路、宽严有度、虚实结合、分化离间等战术。在《刑事诉讼法》的修改及对程序合法性更加强调的背景下,侦查预审面临着新的机遇和挑战,《孙子兵法》对于建立和拓展预审谋略体系,有着重要的启发意义。

  4. Crime and Mental Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Naomi E. Feldman; Leigh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence of crime's impact on the mental wellbeing of both victims and non-victims. We differentiate between the direct impact to victims and the indirect impact to society due to the fear of crime. The results show a decrease in mental wellbeing after violent crime victimization and that the violent crime rate has a negative impact on mental wellbeing of non-victims. Property crime victimization and property crime rates show no such comparable impact. Finally, we estimat...

  5. Targeted Strikes in the "Global War on Terror"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-18

    therefore, a valid military target. 21Anthony Dworkin , "The Yemen Strike: The War On Terrorism Goes Global,ൖ November 2002, Global Policy Forum...Crime Studies," Federal Research Division, The Library of Congress, accessed at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frdlKhobar.htm 30The U.S. has labeled detainees...belligerent" subject to prosecution for war crimes (i.e., murder)? Anthony Dworkin , "The Yemen Strike: The War On Terrorism Goes Global,ൖ November

  6. Prosecution of International Crimes - a Historical and Empirical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Rikhof

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the manner in which both international institutions as well as domestic courts have dealt with the phenomenon of meeting out justice to persons who have committed the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The paper will begin by painting with a broad brush a canvas of the attempts made at the international level in this area followed by a description of some overarching elements of two types of domestic trials. The first concerns trials conducted in countries relying on territorial jurisdiction, i.e. where the crimes had occurred, while the second is relevant in countries using universal jurisdiction, i.e. where the perpetrator was found after having committed the crimes. The article will then move from the general to one specific aspect of international trials, namely the methodologies used to draw the circle of guilty perpetration of persons involved in international crimes.

  7. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...

  8. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  9. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  10. private military contractors, war crimes and international

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    greatest challenges for international humanitarian law (IHL). This presents a ... In popular media ... India Companies enlisted European mercenaries to protect their outposts from ..... definition only in a contractual relation with the hiring actor.

  11. Young People's Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱平

    2002-01-01

    Crime is a very serious problem in Britain. One sort of crime which particularly worries people is juvenile crimes-that is, crimes committed (犯罪) by young. people.For some years juvenile crimes have been increasing.There are two main sorts of juvenile crimes:stealing and violence(暴力).

  12. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  13. The SAPS crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, the South African Minister of Police releases the crime statistics in ... prove an invaluable source of information for those who seek to better understand and respond to crime ... of Social Development in the JCPS may suggest a.

  14. Education Policy and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Lochner, Lance

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between education and crime from an economic perspective, developing a human capital-based model that sheds light on key ways in which early childhood programs and policies that encourage schooling may affect both juvenile and adult crime. The paper first discusses evidence on the effects of educational attainment, school quality, and school enrollment on crime. Next, the paper discusses evidence on the crime reduction effects of preschool programs like P...

  15. THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS IN FIGHTING ORGANISED CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that the auditors should play an effective role in reducing, if not eliminating, these crimes.New auditing standards require auditors to take a proactive approach to assessing whether management has in place appropriate systems and controls to manage the risk of fraud.This paper shed light on nature, impacts and types of economic and financial crimes, and then the role of auditing profession in fighting against them.

  16. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    This paper matches a comprehensive Danish employer-employee data set with individual crime information (timing of offenses, charges, convictions, and prison terms by crime type) to estimate the impact of job displacement on an individual’s propensity to commit crime. We focus on displaced individ...

  17. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper expl...

  18. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  19. Regional Crime Rates and Fear of Crime: WISIND Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, Mathias; Kroh, Martin; Meier, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Many people are afraid of falling prey to crime. The present report investigates the extent to which this fear is in line with the actual regional crime rates. This analysis is based on data from a comprehensive database on the fear of crime, combined with police crime statistics (specifically, adjusted crime statistics which factor in the "dark figure" of unreported crime). No evidence was found to support the (occasionally voiced) contention that the fear of falling prey to crime is irratio...

  20. Regional crime rates and fear of crime: WISIND findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, Mathias; Kroh, Martin; Meier, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Many people are afraid of falling prey to crime. The present report investigates the extent to which this fear is in line with the actual regional crime rates. This analysis is based on data from a comprehensive database on the fear of crime, combined with police crime statistics (specifically, adjusted crime statistics which factor in the "dark figure" of unreported crime). No evidence was found to support the (occasionally voiced) contention that the fear of falling prey to crime is irratio...

  1. Crime and German Decadence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    subjects are dealt with collectively and in doing so he establishes new grounds for reflection on crime and culture – both factual and fictional representation as such. Approaches to crime fiction often build on an acknowledged history of the genre which, then, reproduces an established concord...... the boundaries of understanding the cultural and historical roots of genre and crime fiction. Nevertheless, the missing link in dealing with crime fiction – even though Nestingen takes certain steps in that direction – is often its connection to criminological and cultural studies. If we approach crime stories...

  2. Full moon and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.

  3. Patterns and Costs of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alan Jay

    1984-01-01

    Presents results of the Library Crime Research Project, a three-year study of crime and disruption patterns in public libraries in all 50 states. Patterns of crime, costs of crime (direct, indirect), losses due to crime, patterns of security use, and effects of victimization are covered. Three references are listed. (EJS)

  4. Crime and American Culture. Ethics and Public Policy Essay #43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    The great waves of foreign immigration, the onset of rapid industrialization, the emergence of an urban working class--all features of the post Civil War United States that might have contributed to rising crime rates--did not. Ted Robert Gurr suggests that a growth of the "civilizing process" occurred in which people turned away from violence and…

  5. Crime as tourism externality

    OpenAIRE

    Biagi, Bianca; Detotto, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the linkage between tourism and crime with particular focus on the distortions generated onto criminal activities by the presence of visitors. Controlling for socio-demographic and economic variables, we empirically investigate the contribution of tourist arrivals to different types of crimes for 103 Italian provinces and for the year 2005. Possible spill-over effects of crime are taken into account by testing two spatial models (one spatial lag model and one spatial error...

  6. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  7. The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs-crime nexus, whereas the criminological literature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs-crime channel within a Becker-Ehrlich model of crime supply. We analyse three different channels from drug abuse to crime: system-related, economic-related ...

  8. The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs-crime nexus, whereas the criminological literature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs-crime channel within a Becker-Ehrlich model of crime supply. We analyse three different channels from drug abuse to crime: system-related, economic-related ...

  9. 间接涉入战争罪的责任:纽伦堡后续对德国企业家的审判%The Corporate Responsibility for the Involvement of War Crimes:The German Industrialists at Nuremberg Subsequent Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖军

    2016-01-01

    对公司、企业为战争发动者提供资金、生产武器装备和后勤物资从而间接涉入战争罪的审判起始于二战结束后的纽伦堡审判。纽伦堡国际军事法庭结束后,占领德国的美、苏、英、法四国在各自占领区内分别进行了后续审判,涵盖了直接、间接涉入战争罪的德国企业负责人。对德累斯顿银行董事会成员卡尔·哈斯彻的审判,由于未在在纽伦堡审判中单独列出,较少引起研究注意。这些纽伦堡后续审判中对德国企业家的审判,开创了国际法追究公司战争罪的先河,尽管,也有瑕疵。%The trial of industrialists for their financing war crimes originates from the Nuremberg trials after WWⅡ.Step by the suspending trial against Gustav Krupp , the first German businessman before international military trial, several German industrialists tried on the subsequent Nuremberg trails .These practices could be the pioneer of holding responsibility over private companies for the involvement of war crimes .Karl Rasche , the director of Dresdner Bank , was a defendant of the Ministry Case before American Military Trials in Nuremberg , Germany .He was condemned 7 years imprison for involving plunder and spoliation during war time .It is ignored by main re-search because it is not a separate trial in subsequent Nuremberg Trials .The analysis of it could attract the academy to illustrate the comprehensive practices concerning the corporate responsibility under international criminal law dur -ing that Nuremberg Trials.

  10. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    individuals, i.e. high-tenure workers with strong attachment to their firm, who lose employment during a mass-layoff event. Pre-displacement data suggests no evidence of endogenous selection of workers for displacement during mass-layoffs: displaced workers’ propensity to commit crime exhibits...... theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  11. Processus de documentation et de jugement des crimes internationaux dans les archives belges (1914-2014): Quelles pistes pour une numérisation?

    OpenAIRE

    Rovetta, Ornella

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a digital database project that seeks to identify, to describe and to digitize Belgian judicial archives related to war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. It focuses on the records produced by Belgian jurisdictions in the contexts of post-conflict processes from 1914 to 2014. In particular, three specific moments are taken into account: the attempts to judge German war criminals in the 1920s and 1940s following the First and the Second World War and the occupati...

  12. The Strategy against Organized Crime in Mexico: a Public Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Montero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the assumption that the organized crime is a menace for democracy. The article develops an analysis on the fight against organized crime's policy design in the Felipe Calderon's government, questioning if the policy is managed as a police's issue or a national security's issue. The main finding is the identification of the Mexican's government objective in the "war against organized crime" switching the focus from organized crime to the violence created by criminal organizations. To fight violence the government implements a policy based on the use of public force that doesn't consider the cooperation between different governmental agencies.

  13. Towards an understanding of “crimes againsthumanity” since Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Huhle

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an historical analysis of the manner in which crimes againsthumanity have acquired an independent status from crimes of war and aggressionever since the concept was first introduced in discussions between the Allies duringthe establishment of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. It describes themanner in which the concept has evolved and been discussed in several internationalbodies, and how it was finally included in the Rome Statute of the International CriminalCourt. The article shows how the Nuremberg trials have a fundamental legaland historical meaning in that they institutionalized individual responsibility for anew category of crimes before an international tribunal. It also shows how after theNuremberg trials, crimes against humanity have been gradually withdrawn fromthe competency of government sovereignty to become a matter for the internationalcommunity of nations.

  14. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dağlar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they become challenging. The purpose of this study is to conduct a literature review of Geographical Information System and Crime Mapping in Crime Analysis and to propose policy recommendations regarding to implementation of crime mapping and GIS. To achieve this purpose, first a historical evaluation of GIS and crime mapping will be rendered and then the importance of place will be explained in terms of assessing crime problems accurately.

  15. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  16. Crime and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl

    Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and ­corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.

  17. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  18. The war in Mexico and its possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Tomišková, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    For ten years, the Mexican government is fighting against the drug cartels. The beginnings of the drug war began in 2006 when Felipe Calderon officially declared war on organized crime in Mexico, also known as the war on drugs. The aim is to analyze the various actors involved in the drug conflict, determine their status and individual roles. The entire work is also meant to evaluate possible solutions, the positive and negative aspects and summarize final thoughts. The first part contains an...

  19. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  20. Crime and the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Much work on crime has focused on the effect of criminal sanctions on crime, ignoring (except as a control variable) the effect of labor market conditions on crime. This study reviews studies of time series, cross area, and individual evidence pertaining to the effect of unemployment and other labor market variables on crime and compares the "strength" of the labor market-crime and the sanctions-crime relations. It concludes that there is a labor market-crime link but that this link is not we...

  1. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper...... exploits a detailed Danish register-based data set to fill this gap in the literature. The main findings are that male convicts do not face lower transition rates into partnerships as such, but they face a lower chance of forming partnerships with females from more well-o¤ families. In addition males who...

  2. The Economic Epidemiology of Crime.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas J. Philipson; Posner, Richard A

    1996-01-01

    Economic analysis of infectious diseases emphasizes the self-correcting character of epidemics, as rising risk of infection causes potential victims to take self-protective measures. We apply the analysis to crime, showing how rational potential victims of crime will take increased self-protective measures in response to rising crime rates, causing those rates to moderate. Victim responses to crime can offset public expenditures on crime control; this implies that there may be a "natural" rat...

  3. Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses psychopathology as portrayed in literature, followed by an examination of some theories of psychopathy and the association of sociopathy and crime. Also discusses using parental licensing as a preventive measure against the development of sociopathology in children. (GR)

  4. Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbovo & Eidenoje

    1971-09-08

    Sep 8, 1971 ... single theory or definition can be exhaustive on the issue of crime.4 A major .... Postulations of this theory recommend proper town planning, ...... addition to imprisonment, restitution is also to be made to victims.76 Advance.

  5. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well...... as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  6. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  7. Cyber terrorism and cyber-crime – threats for cyber security

    OpenAIRE

    Ackoski, Jugoslav; Dojcinovski, Metodija

    2012-01-01

    This paper has aim to give contribution in supporting efforts against cyber threats recognized as a cyber terrorism and cyber crime. Also, it has aim to show future challenges related to cyber security and their emerging threats – cyber war, cyber terrorism and cyber crime. Accelerate weapon development called ICT (Information Communication Technology) which is developed every day faster and faster, and development of human conscious on higher level about consequences of ICT enormous pene...

  8. Youht Crime and Its Relations With Schools

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Halil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a conceptual analysis relation with youth crime, crime - school relations. Under this general purpose, following topics will be presented; (a) theories about youth crime, (b) risk factors for youth crime, school crime relations, and (d) solutions for youth crime. To analyze the issue of youth crime, there are two basic theories. These theories are general strain theory and escape theory. Possible risk factorsmotivating youth crime are related to peer group...

  9. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality, integ

  10. Planning against crime: preventing crime with people not barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In SA Crime Quarterly No 8 2004, the argument was made for better use of bylaws by city governments in an effort to prevent crime. Another equally effective tool available to municipalities lies in the area of urban planning. Crime is closely tied...

  11. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,

  12. Buffalo: Public Attitudes About Crime; A National Crime Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    The National Crime Survey found that about three-fourths of the Buffalo residents perceived national crime as on the upswing, and one-third sensed an increase locally. Fewer than 10% believed crime in either place declined. Most felt their own victimization rate had increased. Fear of criminal attack appeared largely dependent upon the time of day…

  13. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... the possibilities of re-appropriating digital software, game engines, and other tools available in digital media. The machinima film scenes demonstrate how war-related stories resemiotize, such as how meaning-making transforms from a story in a war game context to a film context. Thereby, machinima exemplifies how...

  14. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    promote evidence-based crime and violence reduction policies and strategies. ... South Africa's high violent crime rates are ... economic deprivation are strongly associated.9 .... To estimate the relative poverty of a precinct compared.

  15. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...

  16. [Crime and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligand, Liliane; Gonin, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    Crime does not necessarily involve the existence of a psychopathologic disorder. However, some psychiatric disorders as, for example, delirious psychosis, paranoia, melancholy or obsessional neurosis, might predispose to crime. Violence can lead the victim, by the way of stress or trauma, to develop some psychic trouble as neurosis or traumatic psychosis. Children in particular, while constructing, are very vulnerable victims, especially when their aggressor is also a member of their family. Therapy for the aggressors, as well as for the victims, is based on the assertion that both the aggressors and the victims are subject to law.

  17. Economical Crime Control

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Philip J.; Jens Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the introductory chapter for the forthcoming NBER volume Controlling Crime: Strategies and Tradeoffs. The Great Recession has led to cuts in criminal justice expenditures, and the trend towards ever-higher incarceration rates that has been underway since the 1970s in the U.S. appears to have turned the corner. That raises the question of whether the crime drop can be sustained. State and local revenue shortfalls have engendered intense interest in cost-cutting measures that do n...

  18. Less crime, more punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2008-09-01

    Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.

  19. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  20. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAKAŞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.

  1. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  2. International Crimes and Transitional Justice: where does organised crime fit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Stephan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.

  3. Cities, Crowding and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    This article considers the effects of human crowding in light of recent tests and observations. Factors such as sex, age, culture, socio-economic standing, frustration, and interpersonal physical distance are examined. Results indicate that crowding contributes to social problems and crime. (TK)

  4. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  5. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound

  6. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  7. The Crime Lab Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Crime Lab Project, which takes an economical, hands-on, interdisciplinary approach to studying the career of forensics in the middle or high school classroom. Includes step-by-step student requirements for the investigative procedure, a sample evidence request form, and an assessment rubric. (KHR)

  8. Crime, Race, and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1992-01-01

    Fear can produce behavior that is indistinguishable from racism. The best way to reduce real or imagined racism is to reduce the African-American crime rate to equal that of whites. This will require an enormous commitment to the problems of the innercity. (SLD)

  9. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound q

  10. Corporate Crime and Restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Articulates need, nature, and form of a restitutionary approach to corporate crime. Considers small, in-prison production-oriented programs; residential in-community programs, and nonresidential in-community programs for individual offenders; also considers lump sum and continuous payments for corporations to make restitution. (NRB)

  11. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  12. Responding to Identity Crime on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Holm

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the unique challenges of responding to identity crime. Identity crime involves the use of personal identification information to perpetrate crimes. As such, identity crime involves using personal and private information to for illegal purposes. In this article, the two significant issues that obstruct responses to this crime are considered. These are first, the reporting of crime, and second the issue of jurisdiction. The paper also presents an exploration of some responses to identity crime.

  13. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  14. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  15. The Crime Curve of Turkey: Does crime decrease with age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akalın

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age distribution of crime is one of the few issues in criminology that received sufficient attention in the West. Some scholars argued that this age distribution is adequately invariant over time, place and type of crime; whereas, others admit that this distribution differs over place and type of crime. Although age-crime curve looks similar in many ways, in fact, a slight difference has been recognized in most countries. This age-crime curve may also help out to focus more on the causes of criminality of specific age groups. Establishing this age distribution is also important because it may play a guiding role for law enforcement personnel and in constructing preventive programs. This article is written primarily to find out how age-crime curve looks like in Turkey. In doing this, prison statistics used here as the primary source.

  16. Ending Rape in War: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Fiske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rape of women has for centuries been an endemic feature of war, yet perpetrators largely go unpunished. Women were sanctioned as the spoils of war in biblical times and more recently it has been claimed that it is more dangerous to be a woman than a soldier in modern conflict. Nevertheless, until the establishment of the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia – there was very little concern regarding the need to address the rape of women in conflict. This paper briefly maps historical attitudes towards rape in war, outlines some analyses and explanations of why rape in war occurs and finally turns more substantively to recent efforts by the international community to prosecute rape as a war crime and a crime against humanity. We argue, that while commendable in some ways, contemporary approaches to rape in war risk reinforcing aspects of women’s status which contribute to the targeting of women for rape and continue to displace women from the centre to the margins in debates and practices surrounding rape in both war and peace time.  We conclude by arguing that criminal prosecutions alone are insufficient and that, if we are to end the rape of women and girls in war (and peace we need a radical restructuring of gender relations across every sphere of social and political life.

  17. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  18. Crime Without Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As gangs grow increasingly globalized, organized crime is becoming a problem hindering international economic development In late 2005, Dutch police raided Hells Angels clubhouses around the country. In a coordinated sweep that followed a yearlong investigation, police carried out predawn searches in six towns and cities in the Netherlands, arresting 45 members of the motorcycle club, laying scores of charges and seizing an assortment of weapons. Such large-scale raids were rare in Dutch history, and the...

  19. Sexual disorders and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, José G V; Michalski-Jaeger, Camila A

    2012-09-01

    Highlighting the relationship between sexual disorders and crime, reviewing and summarizing the articles published throughout 2011 which add to the current knowledge on this subject. Studies on specific populations confirm the association between sexual disorders and crime, particularly between paraphilias and sexual crimes regarding male offenders. Female offenders are less likely to be diagnosed with a sexual disorder. Some case reports focus on unusual paraphilias and lead us to question the vast possibilities of paraphilic contents and sexual arousal patterns. The variations of paraphilic-associated sexual arousal patterns, unconventional sex behaviors or paraphilic disorders are constantly changing. In this sense, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 current proposals for a sexual dysfunction diagnostic category are under intense discussion because of their important clinical and forensic consequences. Sexual violence is a theme not well understood yet. Because of its nature, researching it can raise many ethical problems. There is no possibility of clinical trials and of case-control studies. Even cohort studies may be problematic in themselves. So, most of the research involves biased samples or case reports, or is merely theoretical. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the subject, so that preventive and rehabilitative measures can be taken.

  20. Women's experiences of sexual harassment: some implications for their fear of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study war to look for causes of women's fear of crime. It was hypothesised that experiences of sexual harassment, which usually are not serious but could occur relatively often, can lead women to be fearful and restrict themselves to their homes. A distinction was made between

  1. Women's experiences of sexual harassment: some implications for their fear of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study war to look for causes of women's fear of crime. It was hypothesised that experiences of sexual harassment, which usually are not serious but could occur relatively often, can lead women to be fearful and restrict themselves to their homes. A distinction was made between vi

  2. An imperfect success - The Guatemalan genocide trial and the struggle against impunity for international crimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, H.; Wirken, S.

    2014-01-01

    On 10 May 2013, a Guatemalan trial court rendered a historic judgment, convicting former President José Efraín Ríos Montt to an 80-year prison sentence for genocide and war crimes. On 20 May 2013, in a 3-2 majority decision, Guatemala’s Constitutional Court annulled the trial judgment on procedural

  3. An imperfect success - The Guatemalan genocide trial and the struggle against impunity for international crimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, H.; Wirken, S.

    2014-01-01

    On 10 May 2013, a Guatemalan trial court rendered a historic judgment, convicting former President José Efraín Ríos Montt to an 80-year prison sentence for genocide and war crimes. On 20 May 2013, in a 3-2 majority decision, Guatemala’s Constitutional Court annulled the trial judgment on procedural

  4. Crime fiction and mediatized religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  5. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  6. Clauberg's eponym and crimes against humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Frederick; Csapó-Sweet, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Scientific journals are ethically bound to cite Professor Dr. Carl Clauberg's Nazi medical crimes against humanity whenever the eponym Clauberg is used. Modern articles still publish the eponym citing only the rabbit bioassy used in developing progesterone agonists or antagonists for birth control. Clauberg's Nazi career is traced to his having subjected thousands of Jewish women at the Ravensbruck and Auschwitz-Birkenau death camps to cruel, murderous sterilization experiments that are enthusiastically described by incriminating letters (reproduced here) between him and the notorious Nazi Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. The experiments were carried out in women's block 10 in Auschwitz-Birkenau where Clauberg's colleague Dr. Josef Mengele worked alongside. After Germany lost World War II in 1945 Mengele fled to South America, where he lived to an old age. Clauberg was caught by Russian soldiers, put on trial in the Soviet Union for his crimes against humanity, and imprisoned in 1948. In 1955 he was repatriated to Germany, once again imprisoned for his crimes, and belatedly expelled from the German Medical Association. To estimate the contemporary usage of the names Mengele and Clauberg, Internet hits were recorded for Clauberg C or Mengele J (with and without adding the term Auschwitz) with the Google and Scirus search engines. The ratios of hits for combinations of these terms reveal that relative to Mengele, Clauberg's name is barely known. We propose that journals and books printing the eponym Clauberg cite its derivation and reference to the convicted Nazi criminal. The present article can serve for such citations.

  7. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI re...

  8. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  9. Tourism and Crime: Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalina Palanca-Tan; Garces, Len Patrick Dominic M.; Angelica Nicole C. Purisima; Zaratan, Angelo Christian L.

    2015-01-01

    Using panel data gathered from 16 regions of the Philippines for the period 2009–11, this paper investigates the relationship between tourism and crime. The findings of the study show that the relation between tourism and crime may largely depend on the characteristics of visitors and the types of crime. For all types of crime and their aggregate, no significant correlation between the crime rate (defined as the number of crime cases divided by population) and total tourist arrivals is found....

  10. A Cure for Crime? Psycho-Pharmaceuticals and Crime Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new…

  11. Major violence (crimes against the international community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Saraiva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of ICC in 1998 and the fact that its Statute entered into force in 2002 allowed the international community to provide a permanent legal mechanism to dissuade and repress extreme violent and cruel acts. However, the change in international scenario after the USSR fell apart, which led to the increase in political violence - preventative war/pre-emptive war - and the affirmation of exceptional policies, has had a considerable impact in the negotiation of the Statute and later in the definition of the crime of aggression, approved in the Kampala Conference. The great powers structured their negotiation strategies in terms of their long term interests, which are made evident in the approved texts, namely in the possibility of human rights securitization and the preference for selective multilateralism that the Statute and the Kampala declaration were not able to prevent, thus raising questions as to the basis for the Court and its future. The text advocates that this arrogance should not be understood as a manifestation of US vitality, which can question the legitimacy of the ICC. In fact, this hostility is a strategy for political survival aimed at maintaining the freedom of strategic action in a strategic scenario increasingly dynamic and demanding.

  12. Violencia y democratización en Centroamérica: el impacto del crimen en la legitimidad de los regímenes de posguerra Violence and democratization in Central America: the impact of crime in the legitimacy of post-war regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel CRUZ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    El propósito fundamental del artículo es mostrar que los elevados niveles de la violencia común y de la delincuencia que afectan en la actualidad a los países latinoamericanos, especialmente a los países centroamericanos de posguerra, constituye un obstáculo y una amenaza para los procesos de democratización. Esto porque la violencia criminal erosiona el apoyo ciudadano a los regímenes surgidos de las transiciones políticas y resta legitimidad al sistema político. El artículo parte de los resultados de una serie de encuestas llevadas a cabo con más de 6.700 ciudadanos en países centroamericanos en situación de posguerra (Guatemala, El Salvador y Nicaragua en 1999 y se analiza la vinculación entre los niveles de victimización y de percepción de inseguridad pública con el nivel de apoyo político para el sistema.

    The main purpose of this article is to show that the high levels of common violence and crime, which currently affect Latin American countries, especially post-war Central American ones, represent a threat and obstacle to democratization processes. This is so, because common violence erodes the citizens’ support to the regimes emerged from the political transitions and deteriorates the legitimacy of the political system. The article is based on the results of a series of surveys conducted with more than 6.700 citizens who live in post-war Central American

  13. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  14. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  15. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  16. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion of religion i Scandinavian crime fiction where I consider theories of transgression and religion. Secondly, I run through five relatively popular examples of Scandinavian crime fiction to show how this genre trend works. Lastly, I...

  17. Crime, accidents and social control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  18. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  19. Organized Crime and Legislation against crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Shehu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most promising post-Cold War developments in Marxian thought have been stimulated by problems facing Marxists in Western Europe, to that extent they all seem to lay bare, intentionally or otherwise, the lacking of qualities, of Marx’s prediction. The most significant example of the failure of Marxist theory to be realised in practice is the persistent survival of the capitalist mode of production. The inevitable crisis foreseen by Marx, which would lead to revolution, failed to materialise and that claim is now itself historical, since capitalism has become the norm for social organisation in most of the world’s nations. By asking the question how capitalism can persist amid crisis, Gramsci, provided the most promising way of revision to the stunted Marxian orthodoxy. Today for us is important to ask whether Marxist analysis of neoliberal global strategy or globalisation and fragmentation invite reconsideration of the tendency on the part of many international relations scholarships to ignore and simply dismiss Marxism. It is also important to consider whether the significance of Marxist project of developing a critical approach to international politics, is but one way in which Marxism progressed beyond the traditional Anglo-American scholarship to IR.

  20. Postsecularism in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion and....../or spirituality in a way which differs from the genre’s usual approach. Firstly, I will frame the traditional attitude towards religion in crime fiction by Scandinavian welfare modernity, outlining the conspicuous absence of religion in the genre. Secondly, I propose a typology of the treatment of religion...... in crime fiction. My examples are all taken from the vast corpus of contemporary Scandinavian crime fiction, but it would be rather unproblematic to stretch the scope of the theory to an analysis of western crime fiction in general. Within this typology, I will introduce the phenomenon of a religious...

  1. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    F286. RG 109, NA. Thanks to Dr. Boyd Switzer, Professor of Nutrition at UNC Medical School, who assisted me here. Lee’s men consumed about 35 to 40...cigarettes, soap bars, and chocolate in. 200 Interviewer Talk to me a little bit, just as a final question, about the impact of the coming Cold War

  2. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  3. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  4. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  5. Crime As Entertainment or Entertainment as A Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Article presents one part of pop culture is crime portrayed as entertainment in television shows. Television has the means of information and entertainment, resulting in the shift of crime shows, initially crime was portrayed in the news but due to the high popularity, it becomes part of the entertainment as well. In terms of information, the most famous of crime drama show is Crime Scene Investigation (CSI, and this show gave effect known as the CSI effect, which is people have more appreciation to scientific evidences and DNA testing in trials. On the other hand, with so many shows involving crime resulting in cultivation impact, which is accumulation and the formation of perception of reality. People who are more exposed to this crime show will form the same perception as the one depicted by television and resulted to changes in their behavior. Several proposals to reduce this negative effects are audience learning, the use of rating system and electronic key in television set.  

  6. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  7. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI respondents’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to report crimes to the police. Drawing on a survey of LGBTI individuals sampled from a Gay Pride community event and online LGBTI community forums (N = 329, I use quantitative statistical methods to examine whether LGBTI people’s beliefs in police homophobia are also directly associated with the behavioral intention to report crime. Overall, the results indicate that LGBTI and heterosexual people differ significantly in their intention to report crime to the police, and that a belief in police homophobia strongly influences LGBTI people’s intention to underreport crime to the police.

  8. Organized crime impact study highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteous, S.D.

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.

  9. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  10. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyun Zhao; Zhilan Feng; Carlos Castillo-Chavez

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  11. Borderless Crime - Computer Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.

  12. Secrecy, Betrayal and Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Siegel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies.  In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.

  13. Avant le crime politique

    OpenAIRE

    Fell, Claude; Rutés, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    La créativité récente dans le sous-genre policier au Mexique, que l’on appelle « néo-policier » favorise la mise en valeur des romans et nouvelles à caractère policier qui n’avaient pas dans ce pays le développement éditorial pris aux Etats-Unis. Le crime et l’enquête policière ont des composantes de fiction qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans le profil conventionnel du roman de détective. Des œuvres de plusieurs écrivains marquent cette évolution vers le néo-policier.Dans Ensayo de un crimen (1986)...

  14. Avant le crime politique

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La créativité récente dans le sous-genre policier au Mexique, que l’on appelle « néo-policier » favorise la mise en valeur des romans et nouvelles à caractère policier qui n’avaient pas dans ce pays le développement éditorial pris aux Etats-Unis. Le crime et l’enquête policière ont des composantes de fiction qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans le profil conventionnel du roman de détective. Des œuvres de plusieurs écrivains marquent cette évolution vers le néo-policier.Dans Ensayo de un crimen (1986)...

  15. White-Collar Crimes and Financial Corruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.

  16. From Drug Wars to Criminal Insurgency: Mexican Cartels, Criminal Enclaves and Criminal Insurgency in Mexico and Central America. Implications for Global Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Transnational organized crime is a pressing global security issue. Mexico is currently embroiled in a protracted drug war. Mexican drug cartels and allied gangs (actually poly-crime organizations) are currently challenging states and sub-state polities (in Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and beyond) to capitalize on lucrative illicit global economic markets. As a consequence of the exploitation of these global economic flows, the cartels are waging war on each other and state institutions to g...

  17. A Statistical Approach to Crime Linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this paper is to develop a statistical approach to criminal linkage analysis that discovers and groups crime events that share a common offender and prioritizes suspects for further investigation. Bayes factors are used to describe the strength of evidence that two crimes are linked. Using concepts from agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the Bayes factors for crime pairs are combined to provide similarity measures for comparing two crime series. This facilitates crime series...

  18. UNSOLVED AND LATENT CRIME: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.

  19. Differences in prevalence rates of PTSD in various European countries explained by war exposure, other trauma and cultural value orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guided by previous explorations of historical and cultural influences on the occurrence of PTSD, the aim of the present study was to investigate the contributions of war victimisation (in particular, World War II) and other civil trauma on the prevalence of PTSD, as mediated by cultural value orientation. Secondary data analysis was performed for 12 European countries using data, including PTSD prevalence and number of war victims, crime victims, and natural disaster victims, from...

  20. Differences in prevalence rates of PTSD in various European countries explained by war exposure, other trauma and cultural value orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guided by previous explorations of historical and cultural influences on the occurrence of PTSD, the aim of the present study was to investigate the contributions of war victimisation (in particular, World War II) and other civil trauma on the prevalence of PTSD, as mediated by cultural value orientation. Secondary data analysis was performed for 12 European countries using data, including PTSD prevalence and number of war victims, crime victims, and natural disaster victims, from...

  1. Differences in prevalence rates of PTSD in various European countries explained by war exposure, other trauma and cultural value orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Guided by previous explorations of historical and cultural influences on the occurrence of PTSD, the aim of the present study was to investigate the contributions of war victimisation (in particular, World War II) and other civil trauma on the prevalence of PTSD, as mediated by cultural value orientation. Secondary data analysis was performed for 12 European countries using data, including PTSD prevalence and number of war victims, crime victims, and natural disaster victims, from ...

  2. Podcast: The Electronic Crimes Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.

  3. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    The inadequate conditions of South Africa's correctional facilities are well known. Health care, sanitation, food provision, access to education and reading materials, and, in particular, ..... J Belknap, The invisible woman: gender, crime and.

  4. Crime fiction and moral emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The article first discusses how crime fiction centrally activates moral emotions related to feelings of social trust and social conflicts. The article uses psychological theory to analyse audio-visual fiction, and it takes an evolutionary stance in relation to morality; within film studies......, and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...... typology of moral systems and how different stages relate to different social systems. Further, a functional description of the various moral emotions is used to characterize crime fictions. The use of moral emotions in crime fiction is exemplified in Oplev’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009), angry...

  5. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  6. Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This essay was written for the essay competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It discusses the possible determinant factors of youth crimes in Pakistan and provides logical suggestion to tackle the problem.

  7. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion.

  8. Postsecularism in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion a......-constrained modernity and the theological theory of a welfare theodicy as valuable discussions of why we see this spiritual interest in crime fiction....

  9. Challenges of organized environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarski Tatjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment as the totality of natural and man-made values and their relationships, is a complex problem that is not just a challenge for the law in the sense that it is protected from intrusion, but also for the negative social phenomena such as crime. Dynamic negative social phenomenon, immanent to every society, crime is constantly in the process of 'adaptation' in terms of modification of existing and creation of new forms. One of the contemporary forms of crime is an environmental crime which multiplies its concrete forms of manifestation, which is due to the extraordinary diversity of the environment in which offenders constantly find new enforcement cases. Especially significant issues regarding the environment is waste whose collection, transport, treatment and disposal is one of the priority importance for humanity. However, insufficient awareness of the significance and importance of this issue, as well as the harmful consequences of failure in connection with the waste in an appropriate manner, together with the motive of greed is enough for offenders to deal with illegal activity and exercise in relation to different types of waste. In this type of criminal activity usually occur organized criminal group that this type of criminal activity makes it even more difficult. These problems are extremely important and complex, in this paper, attention is given to the organized environmental crime in connection with smuggling of hazardous waste, as one of the forms of organized environmental crime.

  10. Health Effects of Sexual Violence against Woman as a War Weapon: Case of Bosnia War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gogen;

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women, a public health and human rights problem, evaluated by the case of Bosnia War. METHODS: Bosnia War, United Nations resolutions, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY cases, activities of NGOs, approaches of WHO, Dayton Peace Agreement, current health programs were evaluated with the health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women. RESULTS: Sexual violence against women and systematic rapes were used as an “ethnic cleaning” tool and war weapon during Bosnia War, estimated 20.000-60.000 women and girls were raped systematically, captivated in rape camps, exposed to sexual violence. Medical care following the sexual violence against women and rape should include; Determination and teatment of injuries, forensic notice and documentation, preventive and curative services for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV/AIDS, emergency contraceptive services, safe medical abortus, follow up of pregnancies, psychosocial support and services and training of health care professionals. Mental Health Reform became a priority health topic for Bosnia Herzegovina aftermath of the Bosnia War. Taking measures to prevent social stigmatism of the victims, economic support and implementation of rehabilitation programs, punishment of the perpetrators to repair social and community bonds are important. ICTY investigates and punishes the crimes of rapes and sexual violence against women. CONCLUSION: UN defines the violence against women and rapes during wars as “crime against humanity”. Besides improving the status of women, comprehensive approaches with the cooperation of medical, legal and social organisations are needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 119-126

  11. The philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation: introducing the special section on the philosophy of hate crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, David; Munthe, Christian

    2015-06-01

    In this introduction to the special symposium on the philosophy of hate crime, we provide an overview of the main philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation. We point out that there are two overarching philosophical issues that span over the literature: the Conceptual Question--concerning what hate crime is--and the Normative Question--concerning the status of hate crimes and the justification of hate crime legislation. We also provide brief summaries of the articles in the special section and point to their relations to the broader themes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Youht Crime and Its Relations With Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil IŞIK

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to make a conceptual analysis relation with youth crime, crime - school relations. Under this general purpose, following topics will be presented; (a theories about youth crime, (b risk factors for youth crime, school crime relations, and (d solutions for youth crime. To analyze the issue of youth crime, there are two basic theories. These theories are general strain theory and escape theory. Possible risk factorsmotivating youth crime are related to peer group, family, community, and schools. Schools have number of different devices to fight with youth crime. Using these devices can help to solve the problem. There is no one type model or solution because; every school is unique in its nature.

  13. Unemployment and Gang Crime: Could Prosperity Backfire?

    OpenAIRE

    Poutvaara, Panu; Priks, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Empirical evidence reveals that unemployment tends to increase property crime but that it has no effect on violent crime. To explain these facts, we examine a model of criminal gangs and suggest that there is a substitution effect between property crime and violent crime at work. In the model, non-monetary valuation of gang membership is private knowledge. Thus the leaders face a trade-off between less crime per member in large gangs and more crime per member in small gangs. Unemployment i...

  14. ПОВЕСТЬ «В КОНЦЕ КОНЦОВ» И СБОРНИК «NUREMBERG WAR CRIMES TRIALS» КАК ЛИТЕРАТУРНЫЙ МАТЕРИАЛ О НЮРНБЕРГСКОМ ПРОЦЕССЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Игнашов, Александр

    2012-01-01

    В статье рассматриваются особенности использования документов Нюрнбергского процесса в книгах «В конце концов» и «Nuremberg War Crimes Trials».

  15. L’impossible crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Giuliani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Figure appréciée des romanciers du xixe siècle, l’incestueuse prend tour à tour le visage de Lucrèce, Salomé ou Phèdre. Toujours voluptueuse, cette dernière est une fille, une sœur, mais jamais, elle n’est présentée comme une mère. Est-ce à dire que les mères ne pratiquent pas l’inceste ? La lecture de la littérature médicale, qui ne dialogue pas sur le phénomène, ainsi que celle des procès de Cours d’assises, qui traduisent 92% d’hommes devant les jurés, entérine cette vision masculine du crime. Pourtant, plongé dans une lecture attentive des sources, l’historien croise des histoires de mères, souvent violentes, qui s’attaquent sexuellement à leurs enfants. Comment expliquer ce décalage ?Salome, Phèdre and Lucrezia Borgia were the most appreciated figures of incest in the French literature during the nineteenth-century. Sister or daugther, they were always described as voluptuous women. But concerning the incestuous mother, the writers remained silent. Didn’t she exist? Even the medical literature and the Justice System, which judged 92% of male, agreed with this social imaginary in keeping quiet about incestuous mother. By a careful glance at the sources, the historian can however cross the path of these incestuous mothers, often more violent than the fathers with their children. How can this gap be explained?

  16. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes ...

  17. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  18. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  19. Assessing Crime as a Problem: The Relationship between Residents' Perception of Crime and Official Crime Rates over 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between official crime rates in census tracts and resident perceptions of crime. Using a unique data set that links household-level data from the American Housing Survey metro samples over 25 years (1976-1999) with official crime rate data for census tracts in selected cities during selected years, this study…

  20. El Salvador’s crime prevention policies—from Mano Dura to El Salvador Seguro

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines Salvadoran policies that addressed the rise in violent crime by gangs. These gangs have posed the biggest security risk to El Salvador since the end of the civil war in 1992. The two biggest gangs are the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street, both originating in Los Angeles, CA, and which have proliferated throughout the Americas since the 1990s. Salvadoran administrations have tried to solve the issue in diffe...

  1. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  2. Crime and Justice: Taking a Futuristic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Gene; Tafoya, William L.

    1985-01-01

    How to apply futuristic approaches to crime and justice in an effort to prevent crime and deal more effectively with offenders is described. Planning, brainstorming, using the Delphi method, and opinion polling are discussed. (Author/RM)

  3. Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Haraldsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

  4. Cyber economic crime and commonwealth laws

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers-Jones, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the legal issues affecting commonwealth countries in terms of virtual/cyber financial crime. Virtual financial crime or cyber financial crime is where acts of fraud money laundering etc… take place over the internet. Virtual financial crime is a present and real threat to global economies and creating an international agreement to prevent, detect and punish virtual criminals is an increasing problem for governments and law enforcement agencies. This paper i...

  5. articles: Links between rural development and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Terance J. Rephann

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few years, metropolitan crime has fallen in the United States while nonmetropolitan crime has continued to increase. This article examines nonmetropolitan crime during the period 1977-1995, and describes its characteristics and spatial dynamics. The article outlines eight categories of causal factors and investigates their role in nonmetropolitan county crime variation using regression analysis. This analysis shows that many variables commonly identified with "rural development"...

  6. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  7. Public concern about serious organised crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, K.; Leeney, D

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 cross-government Organised Crime Strategy (Home Office, 2011) emphasises the need for community safety practitioners to provide information to help citizens recognise when they may be vulnerable to serious organised crime so that they might take steps to prevent victimisation and the need for the state response to serious organised crime to be supported by local communities. Drawing on focus group data, this article examines the nature of public concern about serious organised crime;...

  8. The car and crime: critical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Nic

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the literature on joyriding, car crime, motor projects and masculinities. Fieldwork in motor projects combined with the methods of cultural studies locates car crime within a gendered car culture. Thus motor projects are seen to 'work' within that gendered car culture but a longer term solution to car crime is to be found in 'green' transport policies and changes in gender relations. Theoretically it recognises the reality of car crime and also the reality of t...

  9. Statistical physics of crime: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent

  10. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  11. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion of religion i Scandinavian crime fiction where I consider theories of transgression and religion. Secondly, I run through five relatively popular examples of Scandinavian crime fiction to show how this genre trend works. Lastly, I...... connect this with what has been dubbed mediatized religion and a more general, philosophical explanation of why we see this development: The project of modernity is, as a result of cultural changes, at the moment transgressing its own epistemological boundaries opening up into what has been called...

  12. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  13. High on Crime Fiction and Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...

  14. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  15. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  16. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  17. Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)

  18. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  19. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Chapman, Christopher D.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy

    This report provides detailed statistical information on crime in schools. It is a companion document to the "Annual Report on School Safety: 1999," which offers an overview of the nature and scope of school crime. This report is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and…

  20. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  1. The effects of education on crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; van den Brink, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use a unique data set on criminal behaviour to analyse the effects of education on offences and crimes committed. The findings suggest that substantial savings on the social costs of crime can be obtained by investing in education. We find that the probability of committing crime

  2. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  3. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  4. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  5. Crime Solving Techniques: Training Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Jack M.

    The document is a training bulletin for criminal investigators, explaining the use of probability, logic, lateral thinking, group problem solving, and psychological profiles as methods of solving crimes. One chpater of several pages is devoted to each of the five methods. The use of each method is explained; problems are presented for the user to…

  6. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Crime QuArterly No. 59 • mArCh ... Section 77 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 deals with the treatment of persons who are unable to ..... resource considerations alone.36 .... membership of groups; as demonstrated in. President of ...

  7. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  8. Preventing Crime through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit quasi-

  9. Preventing Crime Through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit quasi-

  10. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available ’ Crime Administration System (CAS), and they record over 80% of all crime reported in South Africa in near real time on CAS. Hence, at any time one can get a report of the crime situation for most of the country that is no more than a few hours old... in South Africa, which has led us to concentrate on the analysis of crime data aggregated to CAS Blocks or police-station precincts. However, SAPS are digitising manually several priority crimes on a daily basis in Johannesburg and we have helped them...

  11. CULTURAL APPROACHES IN CYBERPORN CRIME PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Angkupi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of law in cyberporn law enforcement demands the need for non-penal approach as pre-ventive effort to eliminate causes of Cyberporn crimes. This approach includes crime prevention which aims to prevent a crime from being recurred. This approach can be implemented through situ-ational control by active involvement of cultural roles in community. However, it cannot be separat-ed from observing human life variations including childhood, youth, family, school, gender, peer group which play significant role during productive period. Those variations cane be taken as a theo-retical base for cyberporn crime prevention. Keywords: pornography, internet, crime prevention

  12. Refusing to be a man?: Men's responsibility for war rape and the problem of social structures in feminist and gender theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Paul

    2013-01-01

    As the majority perpetrators of sexual violence, it is plausible to see men as responsible for war rape not only as individuals, but also as collective bystanders, facilitators and beneficiaries. Following recent criticisms of individual legal and moral responsibility for rape as a war crime in international law, this article examines how we might think of war rape as a collective action in moral and sociological terms. First, it assesses existing moral arguments for the responsibility of men...

  13. Rethinking Posse Comitatus: The Use of Military Force in Combating Urban Crime Using British Royal Marines in Northern Ireland as a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    leaders of two rival black gangs , the Bloods and the Cryps, met to establish an unprecedented truce so that they could focus their efforts jointly against...percent of all homicides in Los Angeles County.56 In Los Angeles the Crips and the Bloods have an estimated 70,000 members with franchises in most...criminal behavior portend increased demands for assistance from the military to combat gang wars, drug wars and other violent crimes. Recommendation

  14. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    knowledge about crime and prevention that can strengthen crime prevention professionals in their work. The collaboration consists of nine projects and focuses on burglaries and home robberies, violence and vandalism in public spaces as well as sexual assaults among youth.......This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...

  15. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...... knowledge about crime and prevention that can strengthen crime prevention professionals in their work. The collaboration consists of nine projects and focuses on burglaries and home robberies, violence and vandalism in public spaces as well as sexual assaults among youth....

  16. Statistical physics of crime: A review

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics o...

  17. Dal computer crime al computer-related crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Apruzzese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital Identity Theft has become one of the most lucrative illegitimate business. Also known as “phishing”, it consists in unauthorized access to an individual’s personal financial data aiming to capture information relative to on line banking and on line financial services. At the beginning people were the victims of such scams, currently the attention is directed to computer networks. “Pharming” and “keylogging” are some of the latest and utmost sophisticated data processing techniques used by computer crime fraudsters. Latest entries are the “botnets”, herds of infected machines, usually managed by one sole command centre which can determine serious damages to network systems. Botnets have made large scale identity theft much simpler to realize. Organized crime is becoming more and more involved in this new crime world that can easily assure huge profits. The Italian State Police, in order to respond more effectively to this new rising challenge, has created, with the Postal and Communication Police, an agency highly specialized in combating such new phenomenon

  18. Tourism and Crime: Evidence from the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Palanca-Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data gathered from 16 regions of the Philippines for the period 2009–11, this paper investigates the relationship between tourism and crime. The findings of the study show that the relation between tourism and crime may largely depend on the characteristics of visitors and the types of crime. For all types of crime and their aggregate, no significant correlation between the crime rate (defined as the number of crime cases divided by population and total tourist arrivals is found. However, a statistically significant positive relation is found between foreign tourism and robbery and theft cases as well as between overseas Filipino tourism and robbery. On the other hand, domestic tourism is not significantly correlated with any of the four types of crimes. These results, together with a strong evidence of the negative relationship between crime and the crime clearance efficiency, present much opportunity for policy intervention in order to minimize the crime externality of the country’s tourism-led development strategy.

  19. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  20. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Iraq War has done the United States more harm than good the removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War,which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century.

  1. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN WENLIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War, which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century. Although there remain quite a few uncertainties, an honest review shows the war is a failure for the United States.

  2. Military service and crime: new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, David L; Oh, Sehun; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; King, Erika

    2017-05-01

    Evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of military personnel are involved in high-risk and antisocial behaviors that place them at jeopardy for criminal justice system involvement. However, prior research on military service and crime has disproportionately focused on veterans from the Vietnam War era (1955-1975), and has tended to focus on either current or former military members. This study employed data from a population-based study (i.e., National Study on Drug Use and Health [NSDUH] between 2002 and 2014). It systematically examines the prevalence of self-reported antisocial behaviors, criminal justice system involvement, and substance abuse among the US civilian population and military service members, including reservists (n = 2206) and those who reported having been separated or retired from military service (n = 20,551). These factors are further examined across the developmental spectrum of adulthood (ages 18-34, 35-49, and 50-64). Results showed that military members were more prone to lifetime arrests and overall substance misuse. However, additional findings emerged suggesting that, while the military population overall seems to be positively associated with higher criminal activity than that found in the civilian population, these findings were based on a specific subgroup of the veteran population. This subgroup is comprised of individuals who likely did not fit in with the military culture and were discharged from the military early in their careers. Additional research on identifying this subgroup of military members is encouraged to better concentrate on prevention and treatment measures.

  3. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...... mechanisms suggests youth interaction in proximate residential context with older adults with drug crime experience as the most plausible source of neighborhood effects....

  4. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    .... Though crime rates have declined in recent years, crime and its devastating effects still require our... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the.... This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten...

  5. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  6. Is Polish Crime Economically Rational?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether crime in Poland is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behavior claims that the propensity to commit criminal activi-ties is negatively related to deterrence. The potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2003 to 2005 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and deterrence, intr...

  7. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  8. Organized Crime, Corruption and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, Maurice; Verdier, Thierry; Zenou, Yves

    2003-01-01

    We analyze an oligopoly model in which differentiated criminal organizations globally compete on criminal activities and engage in local corruption to avoid punishment. When law enforcers are sufficiently well-paid, difficult to bribe and corruption detection highly probable, we show that increasing policing or sanctions effectively deters crime. However, when bribing costs are low, that is badly-paid and dishonest law enforcers work in a weak governance environment, and the rents from crimin...

  9. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children’...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school.......This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  10. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices.

  11. Environmental criminal offences - victimless crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, social groups, entire society or environment as value per se?” Perceiving ecological criminal offences as victimless crimes diminishes their importance and the circle of subjects interested to unveil, prove, prevent, suppress and impose punishments for these offences. Therefore, the author discusses the sustainability of the traditional, anthropocentrically defined term of victim in the context of biocentrism and its growing influence on criminal law, criminology and victimology. Attempting to determine whether ecological criminal offences represent victimless crimes, the author analyzes their term, characteristics and significance. Starting from the traditional definition of victim, she analyzes the term of “victimless crimes“ and its (unsustainability in the context of environmental crime, focusing on its most frequent victims and the necessity of their protection.

  12. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. To learn more or to help with this cause, visit the Somaly Mam Foundation at www.somaly.org or the U.S. Department of State at www. state.gov.

  13. A Proposed Solution for Crime Reporting and Crime Updates on Maps in Android Mobile Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Mujtaba Raza; Leelavathi Rajamanickam

    2015-01-01

      The purpose of this research paper is to propose and develop an android mobile application for the general public awareness of the crime situation of their area and to provide them crime locations on the map...

  14. Crime Data, crimes, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Tooele County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Crime Data dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'crimes'. Data by...

  15. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.

  16. Journeys to Crime: Assessing the Effects of a Light Rail Line on Crime in the Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Liggett, Robin; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of new transit lines is some times dogged by concerns that such lines may increase crime rates in station neighborhoods. Affluent communities have often complained that transit lines transport crime to the suburbs. This study focuses on the Green Line transit system in Los Angeles and examines its effects on crime in the adjacent areas. The Green Line light rail system passes through some high-crime inner city neighborhoods and terminates at its western end in affluent subu...

  17. Imprisonment and the crime rate in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Eoin O’Sullivan; Ian O’Donnell

    2003-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1999, the number of indictable crimes recorded in Ireland dropped by 21 per cent and the daily average prison population rose by 33 per cent. The Government has claimed that a causal relationship exists here: more prisoners means less crime. The purpose of this paper is to map recent trends in the use of prison and to explore the interaction between rates of crime and rates of imprisonment.

  18. A Survey of Cyber Crime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papanikolaou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.

  19. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  20. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  1. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various culture wars – hippies...... political or military but also social and psychological, economic and technological, cultural and imaginative. Using as its exemplar Pynchon’s treatment of world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow, this essay explores one key modulation in the nature of warfare: from the armed conflicts characteristic...... of an imperial order to the struggles for security – not just physical but also ideological and discursive, conceptual and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order. Through the personal identities and historical trajectories of a number of the novel’s representative figures...

  2. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  3. CMIS: Crime Map Information System for Safety Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Yee, Ng Peng; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Crime Map is an online web based geographical information system that assists the public and users to visualize crime activities geographically. It acts as a platform for the public communities to share crime activities they encountered. Crime and violence plague the communities we are living in. As part of the community, crime prevention is everyone's responsibility. The purpose of Crime Map is to provide insights of the crimes occurring around Malaysia and raise the public's awareness on crime activities in their neighbourhood. For that, Crime Map visualizes crime activities on a geographical heat maps, generated based on geospatial data. Crime Map analyse data obtained from crime reports to generate useful information on crime trends. At the end of the development, users should be able to make use of the system to access to details of crime reported, crime analysis and report crimes activities. The development of Crime Map also enable the public to obtain insights about crime activities in their area. Thus, enabling the public to work together with the law enforcer to prevent and fight crime.

  4. Spatial Dependence of Crime in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Aguayo Téllez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and the probability of becoming an offender is positively related to variables such as unemployment, the percentage of young men and the existence of schools, hospitals or markets in the neighborhood.

  5. Cartography of crime: Portrait of metropolitan Vilnius

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasiliauskas, Darius; Beconytė, Giedrė

    In Europe, especially in Eastern Europe, geographic research in criminology deals mainly with data analysis and accompanying cartographic communication through the visualisation of crime maps is less developed...

  6. Fear of crime in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Lumpur in their urban parks; concealment (vegetation), being alone, signs of physical disorder, presence of social incivilities, familiarity, prior information about crime and previous crime experience. This study also found that among the residents of Kuala Lumpur there is some form of defensive...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...

  7. City of Durham Police Crime Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This metadata contains information on crime definitions and location obfuscation techniques to protect citizen identification data. Officers responding to incidents...

  8. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available the boundaries 3rd Annual Crime Mapping Research Conference 11 - 14 December 1999, Orlando, Florida Panel: Mapping around the world Crime clocks and target performance maps AK Cooper, TC Gilfillan, MA Potgieter, PMU Schmitz and PM du Plessis Division.... In an American context, a CAS Block could be equated to a Beat. Using the centroids and/or faces of the CAS Blocks, one can readily map the crime data using a GIS. Figure 1: Location of the study area Traditionally, automated crime mapping and analysis...

  9. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization.

  10. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  11. Fear of Crime among the Elderly: The Role of Crime Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Lee; Courlander, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effect of police patrol and crime education on the fear of crime and security-conscious behavior of 152 senior citizens. Results indicated that, although those who were highly affected by the crime education component exhibited increased security-conscious behavior, they also showed increased fear. (Author)

  12. The Prosecution of Hate Crimes: The Limitations of the Hate Crime Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nickie D.

    2009-01-01

    Since the development of bias crime legislation over the past few decades, scholars have debated the merits of the legislation and questioned its enforcement. In light of such concerns, this study presents characteristics of all cases prosecuted as bias crimes in a New Jersey county between 2001 and 2004 and applies the hate crime typology…

  13. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  14. Free State educators' perceptions of the scope of learner crime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    related .... conventional crimes as violent and property-related crimes poses problems. ..... injuria, as well as written and oral defamation can only be punishable crimes ..... to work and play in a secure and safe school environment and neigh-.

  15. Tourism and Crime: Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Palanca-Tan, Rosalina; Garces, Len Patrick Dominic M.; Angelica Nicole C. Purisima; Zaratan, Angelo Christian L.

    2015-01-01

    Using panel data gathered from 16 regions of the Philippines for the period 2009–11, this paper investigates the relationship between tourism and crime. The findings of the study show that the relation between tourism and crime may largely depend on the characteristics of visitors and the types of crime. For all types of crime and their aggregate, no significant correlation between the crime rate (defined as the number of crime cases divided by population) and total tourist arrivals is found....

  16. Understanding Recurrent Crime as System-Immanent Collective Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Matjaž Perc; Karsten Donnay; Dirk Helbing

    2013-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prio...

  17. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  18. Study of Fear of Crime in High Crime Areas in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ahmadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated fear of crime in the case of personal and neighborhood related variables. Aquestionnaire survey conducted in two high crime areas (Ahnmadino and Dehpialeh in Shiraz-Iran, among300 residents. Results showed that among personal variables, gender had significant relationship with fearand surprisingly males were more fearful than females. Other personal variables didn't have significantrelationship with fear of crime (age, education, ethnicity, income, home ownership. But neighborhoodrelated variables (incivility, neighborhood attachment, and neighborhood quality and crime perception inneighborhood significantly related to fear of crime. In regression multivariate analysis only incivilityentered and explained 19 percent of dependent variable.

  19. CSI Effect of Crime Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yakupoğlu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is aimed to evaluate the impact of CSI series on Criminal Justice Professional’s attitudes and behaviour and how these programs effecting public. From this point of view criminal justice professionals are expected to respond questions about, how this kind of dramas and programs guided potential criminals, reflected the practice of forensic science and directed the public expectation regarding performing their professions. Material and Methods: A survey has been conducted to 266 participants, who are working as crime scene investigation specialists, criminal courts judges, public prosecutors, lawyers, law enforcement personnel and forensic specialists, to reveal their perceptions. Gained data has been analyzed statistically by using SPSS (Version 20.0. Findings: According to some results of the research; 1 out of every 2 participants are following CSI series. only 3 out of every 10 participants expressed that these kind of series have positive effects on their professional practices, more than half of the participants agreed that crime dramas are effecting criminal behaviour and creating trained perpetrators. Also 1 out of every 2 participants believe that the perpetrators are attentive to leave fewer evidence because of these programs. Results: CSI series are not reflecting forensic techniques and methods as what it’s supposed to be in real life. Due to the raise of public interest in forensic sciences because of these dramas people changed their expectation about criminal justice mechanism which can be cause misperceptions on citizens who face with investigation and prosecution processes for the first time Keywords: CSI Effect; Crime Scene Investigation; Forensic Techniques and Methods

  20. O combate ao crime organizado

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Steffanie Berkenbrock

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho tem por escopo retratar a realidade jurídica do crime organizado no Brasil, analisando todas as nuances do conceito, suas características, seus modelos assemelhados e sua tipificação. Pretende-se examinar a evolução histórica dessa nova criminalidade, tanto internacional quanto internamente, desde os primeiros grupos que cometiam ilícitos na forma organizada até as figuras endógeno-empresariais existentes em diversos países na atualidade. Objetiva-se verificar a ev...

  1. Rethinking the Criminology of Crimes of States: Monumental, Mundane, Mislabeled and Miscalculated Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedrichs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a reflexive account on criminological engagement with crimes of states, with special attention to the case of Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, and Berlin and Germany today. The emergence of a criminology of crimes of states is reviewed, along with arguments for and against criminological engagement with such crime. In particular, a response to Carrier and Park’s (2013 critique of ‘entrepreneurial criminology’ is provided in this context. Distinctions are drawn between monumental and mundane crimes of states, and mislabeled and miscalculated crimes of states, with special attention to mundane and miscalculated crimes. A brief concluding section identifies some issues that might be included in an agenda for a criminology of crimes of states, going forward.

  2. Crime analysis using open source information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...

  3. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crime control. 742.7 Section 742.7... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote...

  4. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...

  5. Policing organized crime : a new direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Frederik E.; Bruinsma, Gerben J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Recent criminological research in the Netherlands underscores the fact that organized crime is embedded in society and the overall picture makes it clear that police emphasis on a crime fighting model of the police, based solely on criminal law will not be entirely effective. Therefore, the Twente p

  6. Fear of Crime and Residential Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyea, Michael J.; Zingraff, Matthew T.

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationship between fear of crime and residential location. Studies sample of more than 3,000 North Carolina residents. Results indicate that rural residents have significantly lower fear of crime than urban counterparts when known correlates are controlled. Discusses implications for future research. (Author/TES)

  7. Cyber Crime in Uganda : Myth or Reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tushabe, Florence; Baryamureeba, Venansius; Ardil, C

    2005-01-01

    There is a general feeling that Internet crime is an advanced type of crime that has not yet infiltrated developing countries like Uganda. The carefree nature of the Internet in which anybody publishes anything at anytime poses a serious security threat for any nation. Unfortunately, there are no fo

  8. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Fleury, Jill K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy; Planty, Michael G.

    This report contains the most recent available data on school crime and safety drawn from a number of statistical series supported by the federal government. It is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and safety. There are five sections to the report: Violent Deaths at…

  9. [Organized and professional crime: a comparative approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, H J; Mack, J A

    1975-01-01

    After a short preliminary statement of a terminological character, the authors review the basic features of professional and organized crime, also in relation to historically well defined aspects of it, of the "crime-syndicate" type. The tracts differentiating in this sector the European criminality from the North-American one are identified, and the most significant examples of criminal organization active in recent times especially in Great Britain are illustrated. The survey is carried out taking into account the quantitative and qualitative evolution of the phenomenon and probing further into the value and function that the various categories of crime operators assume in the most modern forms of organized crime. A special attention is devoted to the activities of particular importance that precede and follow the perpetration of crimes. The problem of the professional and organized crime is also viewed in the light of the difference existing in the various European countries, and of the easy access to international connections which afford to this type of crime quite a comprehensive scope of action and which involve a greater difficulty of the activities carried out by the authorities of the various countries. The authors finally emphasize the gravity of the new forms of crime that are being committed especially in the business field, and urge all those concerned in criminological problems to devote their attention to the phenomenon, delving further into the connection it has with the deviance theory.

  10. Crime analysis using open source information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...

  11. The Effect of Workfare on Crime:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Imai, Susumu

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of workfare policy on crime by exploiting two exogenous welfare policy changes in Denmark. Our results show a strong decline in the crime rate among treated unemployment uninsured men relative to untreated uninsured and unemployment insured men, and part of t...

  12. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  13. On the behavorial economics of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van Winden; E. Ash

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences' mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The standard rational-choice crime model is refined by a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According

  14. Addressing the Enforcement Gap to Counter Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Gramckow, Heike P.; Greene, Jack; Marshall, Ineke; Barao, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Crime and violence impede development and disproportionally impact poor people in many countries across the world. Though crime and violence represent serious problems in many countries, less-developed countries experience particular concentrations, especially those that are characterized by fragile or less-trusted government institutions and pervasive insecurity. Under such circumstances,...

  15. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  16. Does organized crime exist in Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Shaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing international concern about the growth of organized crime in Africa. Important criminal organizations and professional criminals are present in Africa, but we argue that the term "organized crime" is not a very useful description of their activity, since what we are actually witn

  17. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  18. Community Violent Crime Rates and School Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' (N=857) perceptions of school danger. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Discusses community- and school-based prevention…

  19. Crime and Delinquency in California, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    A statistical portrait of crime and deliquency in California in 1986 is presented in this document. These topics are discussed and illustrated by data tables and graphs: crimes (violent, property); arrests (felony, misdemeanor, changes in rates); adult felony arrest dispositions (dispositions, arrestees convicted); adult corrections (supervision,…

  20. Crime and Delinquency in California, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    A statistical portrait of crime and deliquency in California in 1985 is presented in this document. These topics are discussed and illustrated by data tables and graphs: crimes (violent, property); arrests (felony, misdemeanor, changes in rates); adult felony arrest dispositions (dispositions, arrestees convicted); adult corrections (supervision,…

  1. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jill F.; Peter, Katharin; Kaufman, Phillip; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Planty, Mike; Snyder, Thomas D.; Duhart, Detis T.; Rand, Michael R.

    This report, the fifth in a series of annual reports on school crime, presents the latest available data on school crime and student safety. The data present a mixed picture of school safety. Rates of criminal victimization in school have declined or remained constant, and students seem to feel more secure at school than they did a few years ago.…

  2. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  3. Designing a Data Warehouse for Cyber Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Yeol Song

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is the rising tide of cyber crimes. These crimes, since they rarely fit the model of conventional crimes, are difficult to investigate, hard to analyze, and difficult to prosecute. Collecting data in a unified framework is a mandatory step that will assist the investigator in sorting through the mountains of data. In this paper, we explore designing a dimensional model for a data warehouse that can be used in analyzing cyber crime data. We also present some interesting queries and the types of cyber crime analyses that can be performed based on the data warehouse. We discuss several ways of utilizing the data warehouse using OLAP and data mining technologies. We finally discuss legal issues and data population issues for the data warehouse.

  4. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  5. Home closure as a weapon in the Dutch war on drugs: Does judicial review function as a safety net?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Larissa Michelle; Vols, Michel; Brouwer, Jan

    Background A widespread sense of a failing criminal justice system and increased feelings of insecurity changed the response to crime into a culture of control, which is characterized by policies that punish and exclude. In the Netherlands, these influences can be witnessed in the war on drugs where

  6. The War on Fakes and Infringement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Xinzhen

    2012-01-01

    China has been making strenuous efforts to uphold intellectual prop erty laws and individual's ownership rights.The latest steps in its war on knockoff products and IPR violations were announced on December 13 by Vice Minister of Commerce Jiang Zengwei.The Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM),Jiang said,is urging various local governments to set up special departments and task forces to combat counterfeits and IPR-related crimes.The long-term goal is to establish a more concrete mechanism to address piracy and protect property rights."Compared to special campaigns we carried out in the past,a routine mechanism will be created as we search for a permanent cure to this problem," Jiang said.To improve China's pattern of protecting IPR.Jiang said,the country has revised and improved relevant laws and regulations.making them more feasible and pertinent,and upgraded those practicable judicial interpretations into laws.

  7. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawati, Hilmi M

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law. Male rape, in time of war, is predominantly an assertion of power and aggression rather than an attempt on the part of the perpetrator to satisfy sexual desire. The effect of such a horrible attack is to damage the victim's psyche, rob him of his pride, and intimidate him. In Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, and Iraq, therefore, male rape and sexual torture has been used as a weapon of war with dire consequences for the victim's mental, physical, and sexual health. Testimonies collected at the Medical Centre for Human Rights in Zagreb and reports received from Iraq make it clear that prisoners in these conflicts have been exposed to sexual humiliation, as well as to systematic and systemic sexual torture. This paper calls upon the international community to combat the culture of impunity in both dictator-ruled and democratic countries by bringing the crime of wartime rape into the international arena, and by removing all barriers to justice facing the victims. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that wartime rape is the ultimate humiliation that can be inflicted on a human being, and it must be regarded as one of the most grievous crimes against humanity. The international community has to consider wartime rape a crime of war and a threat to peace and security. It is in this respect that civilian community associations can fulfill their duties by encouraging victims of male rape to break their silence and address their socio-medical needs, including reparations and rehabilitation.

  8. Álcool, drogas e crime Alcohol, drugs and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chalub

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo descreve duas situações complexas e duplamente preocupantes em termos de saúde pública, seja, por sua alta prevalência e/ou por suas conseqüências. Trata-se dos transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e a criminalidade. Será relatada a forma como diversos pesquisadores as associam, bem como a situação das perícias de usuários e dependentes de álcool e drogas. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão das publicações sobre o tema, utilizando-se, como bancos de dados, o Medline e o Lilacs, cobrindo o período de 1986 a 2006. Os descritores usados foram: "alcoholism", "drug dependence", "drug abuse" e "crime". Resumos de congressos, artigos e livros relevantes sobre o tema, publicados por diferentes autoridades no assunto, em diversas fases de pesquisa, foram consultados e incluídos. CONCLUSÃO: As diversas pesquisas coincidem na afirmação de uma associação entre transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e criminalidade. O que é possível constatar é a alta proporção de atos violentos quando o álcool ou as drogas ilícitas estão presentes entre agressores, suas vítimas ou em ambos. Quando se realiza um exame pericial em autores que alegam alguma relação do ato praticado com consumo de álcool/drogas, esta perícia deve levar em consideração a substância em uso, o quadro clínico por ela causado, bem como verificar a presença de um diagnóstico, a existência de nexo causal e possíveis alterações na capacidade de entendimento e/ou determinação do agente.OBJECTIVE: This article describes two complex and doubly preoccupying situations in terms of public health, either, for its high prevalence and/or its consequences. These problems are the psychoactive substance use disorder and crime. The form will be told as diverse researchers associate them, as well as the situation of the exam of users and alcohol dependents and drugs. METHOD: A revision of publications was become fulfilled on the

  9. Making a homefront without a battlefront: The manufacturing of domestic enemies in the early Cold War culture 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Gabilliet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the Cold War was an undeclared conflict without actual battlefront one of its earliest charcteristics was the emergence in the United States of a homefront-based “war culture” targetting domestic enemies. 1947 witnessed the rise in news media of anxieties over alleged threats to domestic stability: in the first few months of the year, a Crime Scare reactivating pre-war concerns about the Mob and, in the summer, the first reported UFO sightings. In both cases the media and public resp...

  10. The lived experience of victims of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrearty, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this research study was to ascertain the impact of crime on individuals, who presented with an injury to the emergency department. Given the high prevalence of crime in our society today, victims of crime are identified as a growing patient population seeking help in emergency departments. To maximise holistic care for these patients it is important that healthcare professionals gain insight into the experience of being a victim of crime. The study was qualitative in nature and used a phenomenological approach. In-depth, unstructured audio taped interviews were conducted to elicit the essence of the experience of being a victim of crime. The voices of the victims revealed four themes; "Fear, Shock and Disbelief", "Guilt/Self-blame", "Physical and Psychological Scars" and "Lifestyle Changes". The management of victims of crime in the emergency department appears to be concerned exclusively with physical injuries. Unseen is the potential psychological sequelae of the assault. Pivotal to these findings is the absence of psychological follow-up support for these victims of crime. This study affords healthcare professionals working in the emergency department, the opportunity to reflect upon current practice and highlight the value of their role in the provision of optimal care for this patient population.

  11. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstuction (CSIRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John F.; Young, Jeffrey M.; Corrigan, Paul

    1997-02-01

    Graphic Data Systems Corporation (GDS Corp.) and Intellignet Graphics Solutions, Inc. (IGS) combined talents in 1995 to design and develop a MicroGDSTM application to support field investiations of crime scenes, such as homoicides, bombings, and arsons. IGS and GDS Corp. prepared design documents under the guidance of federal, state, and local crime scene reconstruction experts and with information from the FBI's evidence response team field book. The application was then developed to encompass the key components of crime scene investigaton: staff assigned to the incident, tasks occuring at the scene, visits to the scene location, photogrpahs taken of the crime scene, related documents, involved persons, catalogued evidence, and two- or three- dimensional crime scene reconstruction. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstruction (CSIRR$CPY) provides investigators with a single applicaiton for both capturing all tabular data about the crime scene and quickly renderng a sketch of the scene. Tabular data is captured through ituitive database forms, while MicroGDSTM has been modified to readily allow non-CAD users to sketch the scene.

  12. Evaluation of the Urban Crime Prevention Program. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Janice A.; Cook, Royer F.

    The Urban Crime Prevention Program (UCPP) was designed to combat urban crime through the establishment of 85 innovative neighborhood-based crime prevention projects across nine cities for 18 months. UCPP's main goals were to increase citizen participation in innovative neighborhood crime prevention efforts, to bolster the capabilities of…

  13. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  14. War and Comics (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and soldiers with low literacy. At the same time, the war changed the history of comics and the magazine market for children and youth

  15. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  16. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  17. The Kawousan War reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimba, I.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    The Kawousan War (1916-1920) was one of the longest periods of resistance known in Niger and through it the local people - Tuareg, Hausa and others - fought to free their society from French colonial domination. Unlike other interpretations, this chapter looks at the structural causes of the war rel

  18. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  19. The Effect of Workfare on Crime:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Imai, Susumu

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of workfare policy on crime by exploiting two exogenous welfare policy changes in Denmark. Our results show a strong decline in the crime rate among treated unemployment uninsured men relative to untreated uninsured and unemployment insured men, and part...... of this decline can be identified as a direct effect of workfare participation. Moreover, we find that criminal activity was also reduced during weekends, when the workfare programs were closed, allowing us to distinguishing the pure program effect from the incapacitation effect. These results imply a strong...... and potentially lasting crime reducing effect of workfare policy....

  20. The effect of plant closure on crime

    OpenAIRE

    Rege, Mari; Skarðhamar, Torbjørn; Telle, Kjetil; Votruba, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the effect of exposure to plant closure on crime using an individual-level panel data set containing criminal charges for all unmarried and employed Norwegian men below the age of 40. Men originally employed in plants that subsequently closed are 14 percent more likely to be charged of a crime than comparable men in stable plants. There is no difference in charge rates prior to closure, supporting a causal interpretation of our result. Within crime categories, we find no effect of...

  1. Once Upon a Crime: Towards Crime Prediction from Demographics and Mobile Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Staiano, Jacopo; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to predict crime in a geographic space from multiple data sources, in particular mobile phone and demographic data. The main contribution of the proposed approach lies in using aggregated and anonymized human behavioral data derived from mobile network activity to tackle the crime prediction problem. While previous research efforts have used either background historical knowledge or offenders' profiling, our findings support the hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime. In our experimental results with real crime data from London we obtain an accuracy of almost 70% when predicting whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not. Moreover, we provide a discussion of the implications of our findings for data-driven crime analysis.

  2. The Legal Framework Of Human Rights Crime As An Extraordinary Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Siswadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research reviews the legal framework of human rights crime as an extraordinary crime as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases. The outcomes of the research indicate that modern human rights law developed out of customs and theories that established the rights of the individual in relation to the state. Disagreements regarding human rights violations which can only be done by the state and its agents or can also be done by non-government units still exist at the moment. As it turns out in practice however it has certain weaknesses particularly in legislation concerning serious crimes of human rights both as ius constituendum and ius constitutum still needs to be improved especially in the implementation of human rights on judiciary system. Therefore serious crimes against human rights are included as an extraordinary crime. The handling of the cases was incredible and special has become a logical consequence to be included as an extraordinary crime.

  3. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  4. Perceived insecurity and fear of crime in a city with low crime rates

    OpenAIRE

    Valera, Sergi; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Fear of crime is one of the most important problems in our cities, even in low-crime rate areas. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence of the issues involved in the perceived risk of victimization and fear of crime in these contexts using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) technique. Five hundred and seventyone people living in a working-class neighborhood of Barcelona answered a 45-item questionnaire including the following 7 constructs: perception of insecurity, previous threat expe...

  5. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareck, Martine; Ellaway, Anne

    2011-12-14

    Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded) and subjective (resident-perceived) measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed among younger participants. Our findings highlight the

  6. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareck Martine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded and subjective (resident-perceived measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed

  7. Mandated political representation and crimes against the low castes

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Victoire

    2016-01-01

    Mandated political representation over the last twenty years has had a different impact on the reporting of crime by the low castes than what is observed for the reporting of crime by women. I exploit the timing of the implementation of mandated political representation of the low castes to examine its effect on crime reports by these people. Mandated political representation of the low castes in India appears to affect the declaration of crime only for two very specific crime categories: ide...

  8. Mapping crime scenes and cellular telephone usage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method that uses a desktop geographical information system (GIS) to plot cellular telephone conversations made when crimes are committed, such as hijackings, hostage taking, kidnapping, rape and murder. The maps produced...

  9. Introducing fear of crime to risk research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan

    2006-02-01

    This article introduces the fear of crime to risk research, noting a number of areas for future interdisciplinary study. First, the article analyzes both the career of the concept of fear of crime and the politics of fear. Second, it considers research and theory on the psychology of risk, particularly the interplay between emotion and cognition, and what might be called the risk as image perspective. Third, the article speculates how people learn about risk and suggests how to customize a social amplification of risk framework to fear of crime. Finally, the article advances the argument that fear of crime may be an individual response to community social order and a generalized attitude toward the moral trajectory of society. Each of these areas of discussion has implications for future theoretical developments within risk research; each highlights how risk research can contribute to the social scientific understanding of an important issue of the day.

  10. A Study on Cyber Crimes and protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has widened itself over the last two decades and has become the axis of todays global development. The world of internet provides every user all the required information and latest information making it the most valuable source of information. With the advancement of internet, the crime has also widened its roots in all possible directions which claim to be the biggest threat in the near future. The cyber crimes pose a threat to the under developed, developing and the developed nations as a whole. One such major cyber crime is Phishing. It targets not just big organization but also individual users. In this paper we explore the Cyber crimes, the online security vulnerabilities and the available strategies and techniques for protection

  11. Political crimes in the transition to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    ” and the “political”. In the second part, I will discuss how the social sciences emerged in the late 19th century as a reflection on the nature of crime in the transition to modernity. The importance of some almost forgotten “classical traditions” will be stressed. In the third part I will briefly indicate how......This article is intended as a reflection piece on the question: what could be an anthropological contribution to the question of political crimes? The reflection will consist of three interrelated parts. In the first part, I wish to address the meaning of the words we use when bespeaking “crime...... the most celebrated political revolutions within the European tradition, including the French and the Russian Revolutions, are critically tied to the emergence of new forms of political crime originating in crowd behavior. The framework elaborated throughout the article relies on contributions of classical...

  12. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  13. Myths of the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We review some "myths" of the Great War of 1914 to 1918: that the war broke out inadvertently, that the western front saw needless slaughter, that the Allies used the food weapon to strangle Germany, and that the peace treaty that ended the war caused the rise of Hitler and the still greater war that followed.\\ud

  14. Somatic hypotheses of war syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely diff

  15. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    The narratives commence with World War I and conclude with the wars in .... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American .... as his thesis that leaders should exploit all opportunities to avoid war as it is people,.

  16. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The inverse relationship between abortion and crime has spurred new research and much controversy. If the relationship is causal, then polices that increased abortion have generated enormous external benefits from reduced crime. In previous papers, I argued that evidence for a casual relationship is weak and incomplete. In this paper, I conduct a number of new analyses intended to address criticisms of my earlier work. First, I examine closely the effects of changes in abortion rates between ...

  17. Forty Years of Crime in London (Journal)

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    As a contribution to the fortieth anniversary celebrations of the London Journal, this article provides an overview of the twenty-seven articles which it has published about crime and criminal justice since its inception. While few articles were published in its early years, there has been a big increase in articles published in the last decade, pushing the Journal into the forefront of the historiography on these topics. A survey of the recurring themes in articles about crime, policing, jus...

  18. Crime and the transition to teenage parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Carine Øien-Ødegaard; Torbjørn Skardhamar

    2015-01-01

    Age-graded social control theory suggests that parenthood can have a preventive effect on crime among adults, but it is unclear whether and how this applies to teenagers, as teenage parenthood and affiliation with crime can have mutual confounding causes. Using individual-level Norwegian administrative register data on the total population of fifteen to nineteen year olds, we assess the relationship between teenage parenthood and criminal activity. We find that teenage parents have an elevate...

  19. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  20. War No Longer Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    understanding that industrial ability decides a war…”58 Russell Wrigley , in his famous book “The American Way of War,” argues that America...2003, 82, no.4, 41. 60 Colin S Gray, “The American Way of War: Critique and Implications,” Rethinking the Principles of War,” Anthony D. McIvor...12, 2012). 91 Anthony H. Cordesman, “The New US Defense Strategy and the Priorities and Changes in FY2013 Budget,” Center for Strategic and

  1. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  2. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  3. Homicides in Serbia within the context of social transition and war

    OpenAIRE

    Simeunović-Patić Biljana J.

    2003-01-01

    Notably deplorable phenomenological changes of homicides in Serbia at the beginning of 1990’s proceeded along with the dismantling of SFRJ, wars and unsuccessful starting of social transition: within the turbulent and almost extreme social context it had been generated an increase of all types of violence as well as crime in general. Restrictive social conditions economic deprivation, social disorganization and deregulation are apprehended as factors of facilitation of risks of violent abreac...

  4. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  5. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the military contribution to terminate wars on the African strategic landscape is dependent upon a military leadership that is able to interface political ...... leadership. A further obstacle resides in the costs of adjusting military forces.

  6. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  7. How Wars Begin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Stevenson family was having dinner. The family atewithout talking for several minutes, then Tom said, "Daddy,do you know how wars begin? " Mr. Stevenson thought for a moment, then he said, "Yes,I think so.

  8. The Blueing of America: The Bridge Between the War on Drugs and the War on Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G. Ashdown

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The reaction to the Vietnam War protest years, the presidency of Richard Nixon, and ultimately that of Ronald Reagan, ushered in a conservative revolution in the United States that still endures. Republican Presidents during this period have appointed eleven Justices to the United States Supreme Court,1 seven of whom serve on the Court today.2 Coinciding with this historical phenomenon was the proliferation of drug usage in the country: first marijuana, hallucinogenic drugs, and amphetamines during the counterculture years of the late ’60s and ’70s, and later powder and then crack cocaine. When prosecutorial emphasis shifted, especially at the federal level,3 to meet the increased fascination with narcotics, courts in the country became deluged with drug cases, many if not most of which presented Fourth Amendment search and seizure issues. This, of course, was because the Fourth Amendment’s exclusionary rule could make the corpus of the crime unavailable to the prosecution.

  9. [Determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention: information-seeking on the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.

  10. Gender, general theory of crime and computer crime: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon

    2013-04-01

    Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.

  11. A Crime Analysis Decision Support System for Crime Report Classification and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Today's Internet-based crime reporting systems make timely and anonymous crime reporting possible. However, these reports also result in a rapidly growing set of unstructured text files. Complicating the problem is that the information has not been filtered or guided in a detective-led interview resulting in much irrelevant information. To…

  12. Effect of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED Measures on Active Living and Fear of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED has become a popular urban planning approach to preventing crime and mitigating fear of crime through the improvement of physical neighborhood environments. CPTED is widely used to improve deteriorated neighborhoods that suffer from crime. However, few studies have empirically examined the complex relationships among CPTED, fear of crime, and active living. Our study, therefore, investigated the effects of CPTED measures on walking frequency and fear of crime, analyzing behavioral data of residents living in participatory neighborhood regeneration areas and matched neighborhoods. We analyzed survey data from 12 neighborhoods that implemented CPTED approaches and 12 matched neighborhoods in Seoul, Korea, using structural equation modeling, which could consistently estimate complex direct and indirect relationships between a latent variable (fear of crime and observable variables (CPTED measures and walking frequency. We designed the survey instrument as a smartphone app. Participants were recruited from 102 locations within the 24 selected neighborhoods; in total, 623 individuals returned surveys. The results revealed that sufficient closed-circuit television, street lighting, and maintenance played a significant role in mitigating fear of crime. This study has implications for planning and policy issues related to CPTED, mental health, and active living.

  13. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  14. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    government.""’ 3 On the other hand, a change in political theory -also prompted by the war-provided the intellectual justification for a stronger national...individual Americans to behave as virtuous, self- sacrificing citizens led in two directions. The Radicals, who rested their political theories on the...values. From that perspective, the war suggested that Europeans had gone berserk, denying their civilization and its values. In a Freudian sense, they were

  15. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    customs. War, they have also asserted, draws two related political dangers in its train. An ambitious President (or one of his successful generals ) might... general questions about war’s intluence upon the economy. political institutions, and society’s constituent groups. This book takes a preliminary step... millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists and statesmen re- placed clergymen as the leaders of American thought, and politics supplanted

  16. Preventing a Currency War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On the global economic recovery's already unpredictable road, the latest threat comes from the possibility of a currency war. Although worries about the war have recently been alleviated,as G20 financial officials vowed to "refrain from competitive devaluation of currencies" at their meeting in Gyeongju, South Korea, on October 21-23, more than just words and promises are necessary to avert a currency showdown.

  17. Analysis of Mexico's Narco-War Network (2007-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Espinal-Enríquez

    Full Text Available Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Organized Crime Groups based on Income-Generating Crimes: The Case of Erzurum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa KARAKAYA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the investigations realized in Turkey, about organized crime groups do not apply to mafia groups that include violence in their criminal activities. In this sense, the organizational structures that have come together to commit other types of crimes needs to be revealed. This study includes investigative works carried out in Erzurum between 01.01.2010-01.12.2013 regarding organized crime groups and based on the document reviews of said investigations. The problem of this study is the differences among Erzurum based organized crime groups regarding their income generating criminal activities. The aim of this study is determination of the differences among organized crime groups under following subtitles; criminal activities, profiles of leaders and members, continuity, division of labor, and hierarchy.

  19. Geovisualization Approaches for Spatio-temporal Crime Scene Analysis - Towards 4D Crime Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Markus; Asche, Hartmut

    This paper presents a set of methods and techniques for analysis and multidimensional visualisation of crime scenes in a German city. As a first step the approach implies spatio-temporal analysis of crime scenes. Against this background a GIS-based application is developed that facilitates discovering initial trends in spatio-temporal crime scene distributions even for a GIS untrained user. Based on these results further spatio-temporal analysis is conducted to detect variations of certain hotspots in space and time. In a next step these findings of crime scene analysis are integrated into a geovirtual environment. Behind this background the concept of the space-time cube is adopted to allow for visual analysis of repeat burglary victimisation. Since these procedures require incorporating temporal elements into virtual 3D environments, basic methods for 4D crime scene visualisation are outlined in this paper.

  20. Using Open Data to Detect Organized Crime Threats—Factors Driving Future Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work provides an innovative look at the use of open data for extracting information to detect and prevent crime, and also explores the link between terrorism and organized crime. In counter-terrorism and other forms of crime prevention, foresight about potential threats is vitally important......, counter-terrorism and crime science. It will also be of interest to those in related fields such as applications of computer science and data mining, public policy, and business intelligence......., such as communication between organized crime networks and radicalization towards terrorism, is driven by a combination of political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental factors. The contributions to this volume represent a major step by researchers to systematically collect, filter, interpret...

  1. Prosecutorial perspectives on gender-bias hate crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Beverly A; Dinitto, Diana M

    2005-09-01

    Increasingly, state and federal hate crime policies include the status category of gender. This study assesses prosecutors' knowledge of gender-bias hate crimes and their willingness to charge violence against women as a hate crime. A grounded theory method used qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of prosecutors from Texas. The study found prosecutors insufficiently informed about gender-bias hate crimes. Prosecutors attribute violence against women to motivations of power and control rather than hate. Prosecutors find hate crime prosecutions problematic, including the use of the category of gender. The findings have implications for the hate crime and antiviolence against women movements.

  2. Differences in prevalence rates of PTSD in various European countries explained by war exposure, other trauma and cultural value orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-06-28

    Guided by previous explorations of historical and cultural influences on the occurrence of PTSD, the aim of the present study was to investigate the contributions of war victimisation (in particular, World War II) and other civil trauma on the prevalence of PTSD, as mediated by cultural value orientation. Secondary data analysis was performed for 12 European countries using data, including PTSD prevalence and number of war victims, crime victims, and natural disaster victims, from different sources. Ten single value orientations, as well as value aggregates for traditional and modern factors, were investigated. Whilst differences in PTSD prevalence were strongly associated with war victim rates, associations, albeit weaker, were also found between crime victims and PTSD. When cultural value orientations, such as stimulation and conformity as representatives of modern and traditional values, were included in the multivariate predictions of PTSD prevalence, an average of approximately 80% of PTSD variance could be explained by the model, independent of the type of trauma exposure. The results suggest that the aftermath of war contributes to current PTSD prevalence, which may be explained by the high proportion of the older population who directly or indirectly experienced traumatic war experiences. Additional findings for other types of civil trauma point towards an interaction between value orientation and country-specific trauma rates. Particularly, being personally oriented towards stimulation appears to interact with differences in trauma prevalence. Thus, cultural value orientation might be viewed not only as an individual intrinsic process but also as a compensatory strategy after trauma exposure.

  3. THE TRANSFORMATION OF WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Mnyandu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "A ghost is stalking the corridors of general staffs and defence departments all over the 'developed' world - the fear of military impotence, even irrelevance. ...As new forms of armed conflict multiply and spread, they will cause the lines between public and private, government and people, military and civilian to become as blurred as they were before 1648. ...One very important way in which men can attain joy, freedom, happiness is (through war." (Van Creveld, 1991: 1,226,227 These are the words that open and conclude this book whose stated objective is to provide a non-Clausewitzian perspective to 'modern' warfare (p ix. In the first two chapters, Van Creveld perceptively addresses the bankruptcy of nuclear weapons and strategy, the declining utility of conventional armed forces and the resurgence of low intensity conflict as well as the resounding political outcomes accrued through such conflicts. Acknowledging Karl von Clausewitz as an outstanding military theoretician, Van Creveld not only delineates the historical context in which Clausewitz's writings were most relevant, but goes on to evoke the works of Colmar von der Goltz (Das Volk in Waffen, 1883 and Erich Ludendorf (Der Totale Krieg, 1936 in order to clearly distinguish the concept of a trinitarian war in comparison to those of a total war and nontrinitarian war (p 35, 42, 45, 49. "Involving the surgical separation of the state, society and the military, the trinitarian war is compatible with the Clausewitzian prescription and primary notion of war as a continuation of politics" (p 63. While total war appears to be an extreme and perverted form of trinitarian war - it plays a vital role in as far as it nearly obliterated society, facilitated the rise of totalitarian governments and even precipitated the Second World War. This openened the flood gates for the resurgence of nontrinitarian conflict in which individuals and individual societies (not established armies acting on behalf

  4. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  5. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin S Hanley

    Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  6. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination...... are signs to be read and interpreted. Thus the place carries a plot (a narrative) which at first is hidden and scattered and has to be revealed and pieced together through a process of investigation and exploration with the aid of different forensic methods, eyewitnesses and so on; - through reading...... this reconstructed place the story itself is also reconstructed: the crime is being solved, the murderer revealed.                       An important element in this narrative and performative practise is the use of simulation as a storytelling device. Simulation is a well-known method in investigation of crime...

  7. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... justice is an insurgent mode of social control or securitisation as well as a contextual expression of contested sovereignty directed at the state’s unwillingness or incapacity to contain dangerous forms of violent crime.......Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...

  8. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  9. Crime in the School and in the Community: Offenders, Victims, and Fearful Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Joan

    1983-01-01

    Examines research on crime, fear of crime and victimization in the school and community. Suggests that crime and fear of crime should be viewed in a community context since high-crime schools tend to be in high-crime neighborhoods with a higher fear level. (JAC)

  10. United States Crimes Database 1994-2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 1994-2000, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  11. United States Crimes Database 2001-2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 2001-2002, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  12. The practice of crime prevention: Design principles for more effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of crime prevention: Design principles for more effective security governance. ... or law enforcement nature depends on the nature of the (crime) problem. ... what might be thought of as 'best thinking' rather than 'best practice'.

  13. Audit Planning for Investigating Cyber Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ajeet Singh Poonia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of technology into many aspects of everyday life has led to development of the modern concept of information society. This development of the information society offers great opportunities which are accompanied by new threats. Attacks against information infrastructure, Internet services, online fraud and hacking attacks are just some examples of cyber crimes that are committed on a large scale every day and the financial damage caused by cybercrime is enormous. The risks of cyber crime are very real and too threatening to be ignored. Every franchisor and licensor, indeed every business owner, Internet service providers, domain name registries, universities, law enforcement agencies, and other crossindustry stakeholders has to face up to their vulnerability and do something about it. An organized effort toward fighting cyber crime is required. In this paper, an effort has been done in this direction.

  14. AUDIT PLANNING FOR INVESTIGATING CYBER CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Singh Poonia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of technology into many aspects of everyday life has led to development of the modern concept of information society. This development of the information society offers great opportunities which are accompanied by new threats. Attacks against information infrastructure, Internet services, online fraud and hacking attacks are just some examples of cyber crimes that are committed on a large scale every day and the financial damage caused by cybercrime is enormous. The risks of cyber crime are very real and too threatening to be ignored. Every franchisor and licensor, indeed every business owner, Internet service providers, domain name registries, universities, law enforcement agencies, and other cross-industry stakeholders has to face up to their vulnerability and do something about it. An organized effort toward fighting cyber crime is required. In this paper, an effort has been done in this direction.

  15. Essays in Education, Crime, and Job Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick

    corresponds to an increase in the opportunity cost of engaging in criminal activity, decreasing the probability an individual commits crime. Likewise, loss of employment decreases the opportunity cost of engaging in criminal activity, increasing the probability an individual commits crime. Discrimination......With a limited budget and resources, governments must decide how to allocate funds across a variety of factors which benefit society such as education, crime deterrence, and public safety. Each increase in spending on one area comes with the knowledge that this money cannot be spent on social...... problems in another area. As such, externalities and unexpected spillover effects impact the costs and benefits of public spending to society and may have large and meaningful implications on how to most effectively allocate resources across a multitude of outcomes. For example, an increase in education...

  16. Essays on the Economics of Crime in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Corona Juárez, Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation looks at the influence of crime on three important aspects of Mexico: The tourism industry, the threat of organized crime towards the Mexican youth and the spread of drug crime throughout the country. Even though crime has long been a present threat for the Mexican economy and society, this research project was motivated by the public security problem being faced by the Mexican Federal Government and the Mexican population since the end of 2006.

  17. How Crime in the United States is Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-03

    chance, lottery , or other gambling activity. Gambling Equipment Violations. To unlawfully manufacture, sell, buy, possess, or transport equipment...category — crimes against society.111 For NIBRS reporting, crimes against society include drug/narcotics offenses, gambling offenses, pornography/obscene...Background, NCJ 151172, October 1994. 255 Ibid. 256 Ibid. 257 C.J. Mosher et al., The Mismeasure of Crime, p. 160. crimes, prostitution, and gambling

  18. Crime prevention in the Netherlands: Pilot projects evaluated

    OpenAIRE

    Polder, W.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the Dutch government launched a five year crime prevention program in response to the rise of crime. Since there existed little experience with prevention programs the main goal was to set up organizational networks and provide a knowledge base regarding effective crime prevention measures. Over 200 prevention projects have been set up. A meta evaluation of the projects concludes that crime prevention can be very effective under certain conditions.

  19. Costs of alcohol and drug-involved crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Cohen, Mark A; Cox, Kenya L C

    2006-12-01

    A large proportion of violent and property crimes involve alcohol or other drugs (AOD). AOD use only causes some of these crimes. This paper estimates the costs of AOD-involved and AOD-attributable crimes. Crime counts are from government statistics adjusted for underreporting. The AOD-involved portion of crime costs is estimated from inmate surveys on alcohol and illicit drug use at the time of the crime. The costs and AOD-attributable portion of AOD-involved crimes come from published studies. They include tangible medical, mental health, property loss, future earnings, public services, adjudication, and sanctioning costs, as well as the value of pain and suffering. An estimated 5.4 million violent crimes and 8 million property crimes involved AOD use in 1999. Those AOD-involved crimes cost society over 6.5 billion dollars in medical and mental health care and almost 65 billion dollars in other tangible expenses (in 1999 dollars). If the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life is added, AOD-involved crime costs totaled 205 billion dollars. Violent crimes accounted for more than 85% of the costs. Roughly estimated, crimes attributable to alcohol cost 84 billion dollars, more than 2 times the 38 billion dollars attributable to drugs. Although American media--news and entertainment--dwell on the links between drugs and crime, alcohol-attributable crime costs are double drug-attributable ones. Effective efforts to reduce the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs should reduce costs associated with crime.

  20. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does......Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...

  1. Crime prevention: more evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Genovés, Vicente; Farrington, David P; Welsh, Brandon C

    2008-02-01

    This paper introduces a new section of Psicothema dedicated to the evidence-based approach to crime prevention. Along with an original sexual-offender-treatment programme implemented in Spain, this section presents four systematic reviews of important subjects in the criminological arena, such as sexual offender treatment, the well-known programme, the effectiveness of custodial versus non-custodial sanctions in reoffending and the fight against terrorism. We also highlight some of the focal points that scientists, practitioners and governments should take into account in order to support this evidence-based viewpoint of crime prevention.

  2. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  3. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find...... no effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short or the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather impacts criminal activity through other channels...

  4. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  5. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti-social...... behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...

  6. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...

  7. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour.

  8. Race, crime, and criminal justice in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da

    2010-01-01

    How is ‘difference’ reflected on crime and the criminal justice system in Portugal? The answers obtained depend on which notions we can translate ‘difference’ into: ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, ‘foreigners’, ‘immigrants’, ‘minorities’. This, in turn, depends also on whether we focus on statistics, rates, or, from another angle, experiences of crime and of the criminal justice system. Quantitative and qualitative data highlight different but complementary aspects of a same landscape. This paper focus...

  9. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...... justice in Cameroon, this article argues that the political contextualisation of sovereignty must pay attention not only to the sovereign’s right to kill and let live, but also its responsibility to guarantee safety for those citizens it chooses to let live. The paper demonstrates that in Cameroon mob...

  10. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  11. Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing: mapping review of theories and causal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Theo; Clayton, Stephen; Neary, David; Whitehead, Margaret; Petticrew, Mark; Thomson, Hilary; Cummins, Steven; Sowden, Amanda; Renton, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the findings from a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the links between crime and fear of crime, the social and built environment, and health and wellbeing. A pragmatic approach was employed, with iterative stages of searching and synthesis. This produced a holistic causal framework of pathways to guide future research. The framework emphasises that crime and fear of crime may have substantial impacts on wellbeing, but the pathways are often highly indirect, mediated by environmental factors, difficult to disentangle and not always in the expected direction. The built environment, for example, may affect health via its impacts on health behaviours; via its effects on crime and fear of crime; or via the social environment. The framework also helps to identify unexpected factors which may affect intervention success, such as the risk of adverse effects from crime prevention interventions as a result of raising awareness of crime.

  12. Crime Data, Point Crime data, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Crime Data dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Point Crime data'....

  13. Crime scene as spatial production on screen, online and offline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    Our field of investigation is site specific realism in crime fiction and spatial production as media specific features. We will analyze the (re)production of crime scenes in respectively crime series, computer games and tourist practice, and relate this to the ideas of emotional geography. The use...

  14. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  15. Disaggregating the Relationship Between Schools and Crime: A Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rebecca K.; Swatt, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Although an extensive literature exists on crime in schools, surprisingly few studies have examined crime within the vicinity of schools. Schools, like other urban facilities, can generate crime by providing youth opportunities to congregate with little supervision, particularly before and after school hours. Some noteworthy studies have…

  16. The Role of Perpetrator Motivation in Two Crime Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers (n = 134) were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 design that manipulated type of crime (rape vs. robbery) and perpetrator motivation (anger vs. desire). After reading one of the crime scenarios, participants responded to a series of attitude items regarding responsibility for the crime, assigned blame to agents mentioned in the…

  17. The relationship between mental disorders and different types of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and typ

  18. Latina Teenagers: Victimization, Identity, and Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madriz, Esther

    1997-01-01

    Studied the impact of victimization and fear of crime on 56 Latina teenagers in urban and suburban areas. Fear of crime was associated not only with the variables traditionally correlated with fear of crime, but also with feelings of identity. Also examined were coping mechanisms Latina teenagers used to deal with those fears. (SLD)

  19. Victimization and Fear of Crime in Elderly Public Housing Tenants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, M. Powell; Yaffe, Silvia

    1980-01-01

    Fear of crime was central in determining psychological well-being. Crime-related variables were minimally related to size of social space and activity outside the housing site. Planned housing serves a protective function and tenants are not necessarily made prisoners in their homes by crime or fear. (Author)

  20. The Situational Relationship Between Age and the Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffords, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines one's fear of crime while walking in the neighborhood, and in one's home. Results showed age was positively associated with fear of crime in the former situation, but slightly negatively associated in the latter. Suggested that the aged may only be more fearful of crime in particularly dangerous situations. (JAC)

  1. Fear of Crime in the Elderly: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Max E.; And Others

    To investigate correlates of fear of crime and physical mobility among physically vulnerable older adults, 42 community dwelling older adults twice completed a battery of tests, with 1 year intervening. The tests included Functional Health Status, Perceived Health Status, Sense of Mastery, Leave of Residence, and Fear of Crime. Crime statistics…

  2. The relationship between mental disorders and different types of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and

  3. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... rape that will shed new light on how often this crime occurs, and we continue to combat sexual violence... April 27, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8804--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 #0; #0... Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  4. Crime prevention in the Netherlands : Pilot projects evaluated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, W.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the Dutch government launched a five year crime prevention program in response to the rise of crime. Since there existed little experience with prevention programs the main goal was to set up organizational networks and provide a knowledge base regarding effective crime prevention measures.

  5. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research…

  6. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  7. Supporting Young Crime Victims: Discursive Environments and Formula Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstrand, Cecilia Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Within the crime victim movement and discourse on victimization, a novel victim category has been introduced: the young crime victim. This article analyses the professional discourse formed around the new notion, focusing on the needs of the young crime victim along with the practices, tools, and techniques used to deal with resistance at a…

  8. Chemistry and Crime: From Sherlock Holmes to Today's Courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Samuel M., Ed.

    The application of the principles of chemistry both for committing crimes and for tracking down criminals interests audiences of all ages and walks of life. This interest is the reason for the long-standing popularity of fictional works that describe crimes made possible by the criminal's knowledge of chemistry and crimes solved by the sleuth's…

  9. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  10. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  11. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  12. Iowa and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  13. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  14. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  15. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  16. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  17. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  18. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  19. Communities, Students, Schools, and School Crime: A Confirmatory Study of Crime in U.S. High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how community characteristics, student background, school climate, and zero-tolerance policies interact to affect school crime. The study articulates and fits a school crime model to 712 high schools participating in the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety, confirming that school location and student socioeconomic status…

  20. Crime Prevention Starts at Home! Setting the Stage for Community Action To Prevent Violence and Other Crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    Crime prevention works. This simple fact is often forgotten in the ongoing debate over crime and its causes. Prevention works when individuals take common-sense actions to protect themselves, their families and property. The theme from Crime Prevention Month 1995 goes back to these basics: good home security, self-protection skills for kids and…

  1. Crime Seasonality: Examining the Temporal Fluctuations of Property Crime in Cities With Varying Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linning, Shannon J; Andresen, Martin A; Brantingham, Paul J

    2016-03-17

    This study investigates whether crime patterns fluctuate periodically throughout the year using data containing different property crime types in two Canadian cities with differing climates. Using police report data, a series of ordinary least squares (OLS; Vancouver, British Columbia) and negative binomial (Ottawa, Ontario) regressions were employed to examine the corresponding temporal patterns of property crime in Vancouver (2003-2013) and Ottawa (2006-2008). Moreover, both aggregate and disaggregate models were run to examine whether different weather and temporal variables had a distinctive impact on particular offences. Overall, results suggest that cities that experience greater variations in weather throughout the year have more distinct increases of property offences in the summer months and that different climate variables affect certain crime types, thus advocating for disaggregate analysis in the future.

  2. [Physicians as crime writers and literary detectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, S; Hellesvik, M

    1993-03-30

    Doctors have played an important role in the development of the crime story--both internationally and in Norway. This paper reviews the biographies of some well-known writers and their sleuths--from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle to contemporary Norwegian authors.

  3. Italian Crime Fiction: A Barbarian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Weller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a means of analysing the differences between Detective Fiction and Crime Fiction, in terms of multi genre content, concentrating especially on the development of Italian works in these fields. It also provides a shortened case study, analysing The Hound of the Baskervilles in this way.

  4. [The elderly as victims of violent crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlf, E H

    1994-01-01

    Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.

  5. Fear of Crime Among the Aged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Frank; Kleiman, Michael B.

    1976-01-01

    Compares the patterns of fear of crime among the aged and the non-aged. Four key specifying variables were used in the analysis--sex, race, socioeconomic status, and size of community. Findings indicated that elderly respondents who were either female, black, or metropolitan residents possessed extremely high fear rates. (Author)

  6. Women's Fear of Crime: A Rural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jo; Panelli, Ruth; Kraack, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines women's experience of fear of crime in rural areas. It argues that much existing research on issues of gender, fear and safety have focused on urban areas and that as a result we know relatively little about women's experience of fear in a rural context. As well as arguing that we need to redress the balance and respond to the…

  7. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  8. Reconstruction of crimes by infrared photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M

    2016-09-01

    Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate.

  9. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME. AN (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stoica

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.

  10. Social Disadvantage and Crime: A Criminological Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Per-Olof H; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features - i.e., their exposure - which leads to their interaction.

  11. JAZZ E CRIME ORGANIZADO EM KANSAS CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Kôei Itikawa Tanaka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims at analyzing the problematic relationship between jazz and gangsterism in Robert Altman’s Kansas City (1996. Through an analysis of the film’s final sequence, we will bring up a historical background about the theme and investigate how the connection between musical production and organized crime is established through the formal construction of the movie.

  12. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect is t...

  13. Honor crimes: review and proposed definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elakkary, S.; Franke, B.; Shokri, D.; Hartwig, S.; Tsokos, M.; Puschel, K.

    2014-01-01

    There is every reason to believe that honor based violence is one of the forms of domestic violence that is being practiced against females all over the world. This type of violence includes a wide range of crimes, the severest of which is honor killing. Many studies have adopted different definitio

  14. Opportunity Theory and Agricultural Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Scott, Michelle L.; Bhati, Avinash S.

    2007-01-01

    A growing body of research lends support to opportunity theory and its variants, but has yet to focus systematically on a number of specific offenses and contexts. Typically, the more crimes and contexts to which a theory applies, the broader its scope and range, respectively, and thus generalizability. In this paper, we focus on agricultural…

  15. The effectiveness of youth crime prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth (

  16. The Effect of Divorce on Domestic Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    Social scientists remain unsure as to whether divorce acts to alleviate domestic violence or whether ex-spouses become the targets of the displaced violence. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System and the Census, this study investigates the relationship between the divorce rate and the domestic crime rate. The study…

  17. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Al Neyadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being greedy and not being content also some of them have financial troubles these reasons usually exploited by criminals. Thus the decree will be a punishment or criminalizes formally on any person who using any kind of information technology and any others private life to blackmail or to threaten others online. In addition at the present time with the most detailed new cybercrime law that can be used to prove found guilty. As well the author discusses that the new cyber-crime law provides protection of personal information including banking information credit cards and electronic payment information.

  18. Modelling crime linkage with Bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Zoete; M. Sjerps; D. Lagnado; N. Fenton

    2015-01-01

    When two or more crimes show specific similarities, such as a very distinct modus operandi, the probability that they were committed by the same offender becomes of interest. This probability depends on the degree of similarity and distinctiveness. We show how Bayesian networks can be used to model

  19. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Mudassar; Abd Rahman Nik Adzrieman B.

    2017-01-01

    Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows ...

  20. Application of pattern recognition techniques to crime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.

    1976-08-15

    The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)

  1. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME IN INDONESIA: THE NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mitchell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.

  2. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes......This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...

  3. Misrepresenting Atrocities: "Kill Anything that Moves" and the Continuing Distortions of the War in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zinoman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nick Turse, Kill Anything that Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam. New York: Picador, 2013. 416 pp. $30 (cloth; $17 (paper; $10 (e-book. While recounting a punishing accumulation of atrocity stories, Kill Anything That Moves advances four relatively straightforward arguments. First, it asserts that this grim dimension of the Vietnam War was ignored at the time, has been neglected in the scholarship, and is today forgotten in popular memory. Second, it claims that American atrocities were pervasive in Vietnam, perpetrated on a massive scale by every military unit, in every theater of battle, during every period of the war. Third, it contends that the proliferation of atrocities and war crimes was largely caused by command policies devised at the highest levels of the U.S. military and government. And fourth, as its subtitle indicates, it suggests that the atrocious record of the U.S. military in Vietnam reveals both the “true nature of the war” (16 and the “true history of Vietnamese civilian suffering” (262 that it left in its wake. In addition to being untrue, these arguments point to the isolation of Turse’s approach from current trends in the historical study of military violence against civilians. For example, most recent work on military atrocities—such as John Horne and Alan Kramer’s magisterial German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial (2001—insist that primary and secondary sources on the topic must be treated with special care since they are notoriously vulnerable to politicization and distortion. Turse’s misleading estimate of the size and significance of the existing literature on Vietnam War atrocities flies in the face of this advice. As we will show, academics, lawyers, journalists, activists, and creative artists have been agonizing over American atrocities and war crimes in Vietnam for almost fifty years...

  4. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts. ...

  5. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...

  6. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  7. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  8. The War Against Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  9. Cities of War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOTIANBI; LUOYUANJUN

    2005-01-01

    Shanghai of the 1930s had particular appeal for Japan, being a large international metropolis in its immediate vicinity. After World War I, Japan concentrated all its China trade, shipping and manufacturing in Shanghai, and by 1930, 30,000 of the 50,000 foreigners living in Shanghai were Japanese.

  10. Cold War Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  11. Airpower in Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    uncommitted elements of enemy armed forces, key agricultural areas, and other such target systems.7 By the late Cold War, AirLand Battle had come to dominate...perhaps even inexpensive drones because fighter or bomber aircraft are just too complex and expensive to operate. With these imprecise terror

  12. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  13. The War Against Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  14. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Lyons, Christopher J; Hays, Zachary R

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20(th) century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle's downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990's, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980's showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990's showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed.

  15. Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.

  16. Age and the explanation of crime, revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-06-01

    Age is one of the most robust correlates of criminal behavior. Yet, explanations for this relationship are varied and conflicting. Developmental theories point to a multitude of sociological, psychological, and biological changes that occur during adolescence and adulthood. One prominent criminological perspective outlined by Gottfredson and Hirschi claims that age has a direct effect on crime, inexplicable from sociological and psychological variables. Despite the attention this claim has received, few direct empirical tests of it have been conducted. We use data from Pathways to Desistance, a longitudinal study of over 1,300 serious youthful offenders (85.8% male, 40.1% African-American, 34.3% Hispanic, 21.0% White), to test this claim. On average, youths were 16.5 years old at the initial interview and were followed for 7 years. We use multilevel longitudinal models to assess the extent to which the direct effects of age are reduced to statistical and substantive non-significance when constructs from a wide range of developmental and criminological theories are controlled. Unlike previous studies, we are able to control for changes across numerous realms emphasized within differing theoretical perspectives including social control (e.g., employment and marriage), procedural justice (e.g., perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of the legal system), learning (e.g., gang membership and exposure to antisocial peers), strain (e.g., victimization and relationship breakup), psychosocial maturity (e.g., impulse control, self-regulation and moral disengagement), and rational choice (e.g., costs and rewards of crime). Assessed separately, these perspectives explain anywhere from 3% (procedural justice) to 49% (social learning) of the age-crime relationship. Together, changes in these constructs explain 69% of the drop in crime from ages 15 to 25. We conclude that the relationship between age and crime in adolescence and early adulthood is largely explainable, though

  17. THE CONTENT OF QUALIFICATION OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Veklenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343(2+7The main provisions of the theory of qualification of crimes were developed in the Soviet times. Some of them, notably relating to the content of criminal law assessment, have become obsolete. Therefore, the article aims to interpret a new vision of the content of qualification. The methods used in the research include analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, interview and statistical method. The authors note that in practice, in fact, general and specific signs of the crimes appearing in the criminal law are used in the qualification of crime.The authors question the use of "corpus delicti" in enforcement during the criminal legal evaluation. Corpus delicti was created in science to the full understanding and disclosure of the crime and its possible structures. It is impossible to carry out qualification and to resolve issues of criminal responsibility or exemption from it on the basis of scientific statements, which are not enshrined in law.Without knowledge of corpus delicti it is possible to hold a formal qualification of the offences and the imposition of criminal liability. This is due to the fact that all penal signs, sufficient for criminal liability provided for in the existing criminal law of the Russian Federation.The authors make the conclusion that qualification is carried out not in terms of corpus delicti, which is a scientific category, but on the basis of general features of crime – guilt, social danger, unlawfulness, liability to punishment, since it is them that are consolidated on the legislative level.

  18. Hate crimes: American and Balkan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the nineties of the last century it was noticed in the U.S.A. that suddenly the number of crimes with violence in the inter-racial and inter-ethnical conflicts rose. Also the phenomenon of ignition of churches, religious and sacral objects, especially in the south of the U.S.A., objects which were used by black people, was recorded. Directly in relation to that - the term „hate crimes“ then arose in science and became outspread very quickly, primarily in criminology. Several events, and above all the murder of a young homosexual in Wyoming influenced for both the violence and the crimes commited towards the homosexuals and all due to the prejudices towards this sexual minority to be included in this term. Today, this term is used not only in the U.S.A. and not only in a criminological sense, but also in a purely legal sense to denote the crimes which were carried out under the influence of hate towards a correspondent racial, ethnical or sexual minority. This term is linked also to the terminology and thus the problems which are related to the „hate speech“. The author of this paper writes about how this term arose in the first place and which problems emerge related to hate crimes and primarily in relation to the issues of expansion of democracy and tolerance, and also education, primarily among the police force and the young population. The author also ascertains that only with the law, no great effects in the battle against this phenomenon can be achieved and that before the criminal-legal intervention some other measures have to be approached, like the creation of an atmosphere of tolerance and the education of the citizens about the phenomenon of hate crimes.

  19. LESSONS FROM THE BOER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De Jong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Jay Stone and Erwin A. Schmidl, The Boer War and Military reforms, Volume 28 of the series "War and Society of East Central Europe", University Press of America, Lanham: New York - London, 1988, 345 pp. Numerous studies exist of the lessons to be learnt from the Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902 by students of 20th Century Warfare. These studies date back from the days of that war up to the present. In many cases these studies are titled "Lessons from the Boer War". In the book under review Jay Stone examines the War's impact on Britain and Erwin Schmidl its effect in Austria-Hungary. I shall confine this review to Stone's findings. According to him Britain entered the war full of self-confidence in the hope of terminating the conflict within a few weeks, but was totally unprepared. The reason was that the last war she waged against a European power was as long ago as 1855-56. That was the Crimean War against Russia. Thereafter she had fought only local, colonial wars against badly drilled, little disciplined and primitively armed non-European armies. Some of these used to attack in large hordes and were shot or ridden down en masse. This had happened recently at Omdurman in 1898 where Kitchener defeated the Sudanese. The British ultimately were victorious in all the colonial wars.

  20. Predictors of fear of crime in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about factors that predict fear of crime in older adults. Indeed, the topic itself remains a source of controversy, with early studies indicating higher levels of crime fear with age, and new, more methodologically rigorous studies demonstrating the opposite trend. The present exploratory investigation included 106 older adults and assessed the relationship between demographic variables, interpersonal violence, psychopathology, and fear of crime. In addition, this study built on previous research in that specific feared outcomes (e.g., hospitalization) were also considered. Initial findings indicate that being female, non-Caucasian, having depressive symptoms, and reporting social isolation are predictive of general fear of crime ratings. Different predictor sets were noted for fear of crime against person and fear of crime against property. Reported perceptions of negative crime outcomes were associated with being female, non-Caucasian, and having low income.

  1. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between ''criminals'', ''inspectors'', and ''ordinary people'' as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stab...

  2. War and the Mythological Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an interesting ambiguity that marks any discussion on war in much of modern political theory. While it is acknowledged that war entails enormous human suffering, considerable latitude is conceded for moral judgements about the right to wage war, on the grounds that the suffering imposed upon self and others due to war, is an unfortunate necessity for the future good of a national community. The legality (as distinct from the legitimacy of modern wars is directly tied to the notion of contractual violence, such that state entities are granted the right to declare war and to conduct it within the constraints (in theory if not in practice of agreed covenants that place restrictions on what is justifiable violence in war and against whom it may be directed.

  3. The Socioeconomic Determinants of Crime in Ireland from 2003-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Brosnan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the socioeconomic determinants of property crime and violent crime in Ireland between 2003 and 2012. The aim of the study is to determine whether individuals respond to incentives when deciding to engage in crime and whether this decision is dependent on the type of crime an individual engages in. The results of the paper support the economic theory of crime which indicates that criminals respond to incentives, particularly for property crimes. Higher rates of crime detect...

  4. Rape in war: the humanitarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, L; Schull, M J

    2000-10-31

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting.

  5. Young adults, alcohol, crime and disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anna; Budd, Tracey

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol-related crime is increasingly being recognized as a problem in cities and towns with popular entertainment districts. Crime and disorder linked to alcohol has been particularly connected with binge drinking or heavy sessional drinking. Research evidence indicates that it is the young adult age group who are most likely to be involved in crime and disorder and the most likely to binge drink. This paper examines the relationship between binge drinking and criminal and disorderly behaviour among 18- to 24-year-olds. Secondary analysis was undertaken of the 1998/1999 Youth Lifestyles Survey, a large-scale, representative, household survey of 12- to 30-year-olds living in England and Wales. Binge drinking, and especially male binge drinking, among 18- to 24-year-olds is statistically related to offending behaviour. In the 12 months prior to interview 39% of binge drinkers admitted to committing an offence and 60% admitted criminal and/or disorderly behaviour during or after drinking alcohol. Multivariate analysis found that binge drinking remains strongly associated with criminal and disorderly behaviour even after taking other relevant factors into account. Individuals who got drunk at least once a week had more than five times the odds of being involved in fighting or violent crime. For offences or disorderly behaviour that took place during or after drinking alcohol an individual had a seven times greater chance of breaking or damaging something and a five times greater chance of being involved in a fight if he/she got drunk at least once a week. These findings suggest that frequency of drunkenness is a better predictor of offending behaviour than frequency of drinking per se. Using frequency of drunkenness as the basis for defining binge drinking reveals that a large minority of young adults who binge drink also become involved in offending or disorderly behaviour. Binge drinking is particularly associated with crimes of violence. The relationship between

  6. "Miniature Cold War?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: Relations between America and Russia are one of the most important bilateral ties that could affect the trend of world situation.What's the matter with U. S. -Russia ties? What's wrong with their bilateral relations? People tend to ask these days. Some observers on both sides suggest that post 9/11 honeymoon has turned sour when joint effort against challenges from nontraditional security issues failed to remove original bilateral contradictions over traditional security concerns.Japanese Jiji News Agency saw "a miniature Cold War" evolving and the British Guardian even bluntly pronounced "a new Cold War" on January 3, asserting that disintegration of the former Soviet Union did not terminate bilateral contention, which has only been performed on an international stage more complicated than ever before, with covert scheming against each other replacing overt, direct confrontation. How about starting our discussion with those comments?

  7. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  8. Mexican-American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    which were exchanged at Lima on the 31st of October, 1846. The Attorney -General of the United States early in August last completed the... Bolivia , Guatemala, and Ecuador. The manifest importance of cultivating the most friendly relations with all the independent States upon this continent...shall be considered as annulling or suspending the solemn covenant contained in this article. On the contrary, the state of war is precisely that for

  9. Edit wars in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Sumi, Róbert; Rung, András; Kornai, András; Kertész, János

    2011-01-01

    We present a new, efficient method for automatically detecting severe conflicts `edit wars' in Wikipedia and evaluate this method on six different language WPs. We discuss how the number of edits, reverts, the length of discussions, the burstiness of edits and reverts deviate in such pages from those following the general workflow, and argue that earlier work has significantly over-estimated the contentiousness of the Wikipedia editing process.

  10. Military Adaptation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    the Germans believed they had won the war. General Alfred Jodl, the OKW’s (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, the Armed Forces High Command) chief of staff...was soon in the hands of Britain’s political and military leaders: “OPERATION ADLER [EAGLE]. Within a short period you will wipe out the British air...in Airpower and Warfare, Proceedings of the Eighth Military History Symposium, ed. by Colonel Alfred F. Hurley and Major Robert C. Ehrhart

  11. Suicide among War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Vsevolod Rozanov; Vladimir Carli

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to ex...

  12. [From memories about war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, B A

    2010-04-01

    The article presents publication of memories of a military physician Spivak B.A., finished the First Kiev medical institute in 1941. The author held rank: from August 1941--chief of sanitary service of a separated battalion, April 1942-June 1945--chief of operation-bandaging unit of 246 SMSB SD. After war served in military treatment institutes on ranks of surgical profile, finished the military service in the rank of chief of surgical unit of Kovel garrison hospital in 1964.

  13. Firepower in Limited War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    utmost nerve and skill for pilots to weave their planes between mountain peaks as they tried to fly under the weather. 86 The French had hoped to lessen...the open k The Second mndochina War 73 meadow that came to be known as LZ Albany. Artillerymen only a short distance away listened to the frenzied ...principally tanks. Firing cannon and rockets as close as 10 to 20 meters from friendlies takes great skill and nerve , and to be used effectively and

  14. The cost of crime to society: new crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Fang, Hai

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than 10 years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost to society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime.

  15. Prediction of crime and early interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from...... birth to early adulthood in 2006. The predictors represent the major crime reduction paradigms, such as family circumstance and individual skills. A discrete-time Cox model is used to allow for changing covariates over time. The population had 6,075 first time contacts with the police over the 300......,591 person-years available. More than twenty risk factors were significantly predicting first-time contact with the police. Predictions were substantially more accurate than chance. Results also showed that the proportion of ‘false-positives’ were about 77 % of estimated high-risk subjects when observing...

  16. Modelling crime linkage with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Jacob; Sjerps, Marjan; Lagnado, David; Fenton, Norman

    2015-05-01

    When two or more crimes show specific similarities, such as a very distinct modus operandi, the probability that they were committed by the same offender becomes of interest. This probability depends on the degree of similarity and distinctiveness. We show how Bayesian networks can be used to model different evidential structures that can occur when linking crimes, and how they assist in understanding the complex underlying dependencies. That is, how evidence that is obtained in one case can be used in another and vice versa. The flip side of this is that the intuitive decision to "unlink" a case in which exculpatory evidence is obtained leads to serious overestimation of the strength of the remaining cases.

  17. ELECTORAL CRIMES - CONCEPT AND EVOLUTION UNTIL 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRCEA CONSTANTIN SINESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this paper, the author tries to configure the concept of electoral crime, by presenting the legal, philosophical and historical opinions emerged centuries ago and also by drawing a line between political criminality and ordinary criminality. Furthermore, the study aims also to synthetically highlight the important moments of the legislative evolution in the specified area of interest, starting from the early nineteenth century, during the monarchical regime and ending with the totalitarian government of Romania until the Revolution in 1990. Taking into consideration the new incrimination of electoral frauds in the New Criminal Code adopted in 2009, examining the historical - teleological conditions of the former regulations of these crimes appears as a necessary intercession, in order to ponder upon the new Criminal policy of the legislator.

  18. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...... people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  19. Emotional reactions to crime across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2015-10-01

    Information about the emotions experienced by observers when they witness crimes would have important theoretical and practical implications, but to date no study has broadly assessed such emotional reactions. This study addressed this gap in the literature. Observers in seven countries viewed seven videos portraying actual crimes and rated their emotional reactions to each using 14 emotion scales. Observers reported significantly high levels of negative emotions including anger, contempt, disgust, fear and sadness-related emotions, and anger, contempt and disgust were the most salient emotions experienced by viewers across all countries. Witnesses also reported significantly high levels of positive emotions as well (compared to not feeling the emotion at all), which was unexpected. Country moderated the emotion ratings; post-hoc analyses indicated that masculine-oriented cultures reported less nervousness, surprise, excitement, fear and embarrassment than feminine cultures.

  20. The Impact of Racial Slurs and Racism on the Perceptions and Punishment of Violent Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Donald A.; Hockett, Jericho M.; Wallenberg, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    When a crime is committed by an individual of one race against an individual of another race, there is the possibility that the crime is a hate crime. Legislation often mandates harsher penalties for perpetrators convicted of crimes determined to be hate crimes, yet this determination is difficult to make. This study used vignettes of violent…

  1. 22 CFR 40.21 - Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled... and Related Grounds-Conviction of Certain Crimes § 40.21 Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators. (a) Crimes involving moral turpitude—(1) Acts must constitute a crime under...

  2. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...... the link between the Vietnam War, the Afghanistan War, the Iraq War, and the background for the financial crisis that began in 2008....

  3. Physicists in times of war

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, B

    2006-01-01

    Though the majority of physicists would probably not support preemptive wars, nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction would not exist without their contributions. Einstein's anti-militaristic position has been well-documented and the present essay recalls the role of some contemporary and past physicists on this issue. The idea that the rationality of scientific thought is a reliable antidote against supporting wars in order to achieve political or ideological aims was neither correct in the past nor is it presently valid. In the physics community there always existed a minority of supporters of wars of domination or regime change. The ``preemptive'' war for the US hegemony in the middle east has given the problem of ``physicists in times of war'' new actuality. One of the most perplexing appologists of the agressive war of Nazi-Germany against ``the Bolshevist peril'' has been Pascual Jordan whose interesting scientific and controversial political biography is the main isue of this essay.

  4. Is crime in Turkey economically rational?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...

  5. Advancing crime scene computer forensics techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, Chet; Feldman, John; Giordano, Joe

    1999-02-01

    Computers and network technology have become inexpensive and powerful tools that can be applied to a wide range of criminal activity. Computers have changed the world's view of evidence because computers are used more and more as tools in committing `traditional crimes' such as embezzlements, thefts, extortion and murder. This paper will focus on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of the data recovery and evidence construction tools used in both the field and laboratory for prosection purposes.

  6. The Roadmap for Cyber Crime Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Singh; Sona Rani

    2013-01-01

    As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. This paper is intended to raise awareness of the different types of computer forensics systems and to identify c...

  7. Workshop on Wildlife Crime: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    a swift and intelligent response. Tigers , along with many other endangered species, are in danger of extinction from poaching. The global population...environmental crime in countries around the world; these international problems are leading to the extinction of species and the destruction of...problems are leading to the extinction of species and the destruction of ecosystems. The goal of this workshop was to bring together leading

  8. Is crime in Turkey economically rational?

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Jørgen T.; Zeren, Fatma; Ari, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...

  9. What makes a successful volume crime investigator?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to understand the role of volume crime investigators in the modern era. It attempted to gain officers` perceptions on the attributes required to be a successful at the role. In addition, the research sought to understand how modern investigators thought success should be defined and measured in relation to individual investigator performance. Chapter One explored previous research relating to police investigators and success, and identified the main research que...

  10. Political crimes in the transition to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This article is intended as a reflection piece on the question: what could be an anthropological contribution to the question of political crimes? The reflection will consist of three interrelated parts. In the first part, I wish to address the meaning of the words we use when bespeaking “crime” ...... anthropologists and sociologists, who, although known figures, have so far remained peripheral within political anthropology: Ferdinand Tönnies, Gabriel Tarde, Marcel Mauss, Gregory Bateson, Victor Turner and René Girard....

  11. Crime scene investigation (as seen on TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnal, Evan W

    2010-06-15

    A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  13. The justice of preventive war

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Henry Alan

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions including preventive war. Prevention, undertaken in the absence of an act of aggression or an imminent threat, is prohibited by modern conceptions of just war and international law. Many critics of the strategy fear that any legitimization of preventive war would e...

  14. Problematising internal security: Crime, community and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.

  15. Expansion of hate: Essential features of mass hate crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripković Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to advance the notion of ‘mass hate crimes’, a phenomenon that is to be located at the junction of hate crime and mass murder. The construction of such a notion can help us understand the phenomenon more clearly, as it elucidates some of the features of hate crimes that have not been noticed so far or have been overlooked. The main argument being made based on the examination of three such cases in the period 1989-2011, is that mass hate crimes, being at the same time mass murders and hate crimes, are in fact a graver phenomenon than both crimes that comprise it. Though important, such findings may have an even further goal of revisiting and contesting our ideas about hate crimes and the measures we employ to fight them.

  16. The difficulties of determining the notion of organized crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The author emphasizes the most significant difficulties and disagreements in determining the notion of organized crime, which, on one hand, come as a result of a complexity and dynamism of a contemporary organized crime, and on the other hand, may lead to passing the inadequate legislation and/or the failure of actions against the organized crime. Pointing out to the differences between contemporary organized crime and theoretical definitions of it from the first decades of the 20th century, the author concludes that the answer to the organized crime should be systematic, and need to include the rule of law and the principles of division and control of state power. The author suggests that the changes are necessary within the present criminal legislature of Serbia. In these changes the emphasis need to be on the protection of victims rather than on special legal solutions and special court, prosecution and police units for suppression of organized crime.

  17. Analysis and Prediction of Crimes by Clustering and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Kiani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Crimes will somehow influence organizations and institutions when occurred frequently in a society. Thus, it seems necessary to study reasons, factors and relations between occurrence of different crimes and finding the most appropriate ways to control and avoid more crimes. The main objective of this paper is to classify clustered crimes based on occurrence frequency during different years. Data mining is used extensively in terms of analysis, investigation and discovery of patterns for occurrence of different crimes. We applied a theoretical model based on data mining techniques such as clustering and classification to real crime dataset recorded by police in England and Wales within 1990 to 2011. We assigned weights to the features in order to improve the quality of the model and remove low value of them. The Genetic Algorithm (GA is used for optimizing of Outlier Detection operator parameters using RapidMiner tool.

  18. Crime scene units: a look to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Hayden B.

    1999-02-01

    The scientific examination of physical evidence is well recognized as a critical element in conducting successful criminal investigations and prosecutions. The forensic science field is an ever changing discipline. With the arrival of DNA, new processing techniques for latent prints, portable lasers, and electro-static dust print lifters, and training of evidence technicians has become more important than ever. These scientific and technology breakthroughs have increased the possibility of collecting and analyzing physical evidence that was never possible before. The problem arises with the collection of physical evidence from the crime scene not from the analysis of the evidence. The need for specialized units in the processing of all crime scenes is imperative. These specialized units, called crime scene units, should be trained and equipped to handle all forms of crime scenes. The crime scenes units would have the capability to professionally evaluate and collect pertinent physical evidence from the crime scenes.

  19. Institutional isolation and crime: The mediating effect of disengaged youth on levels of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shaun A; Shihadeh, Edward S

    2013-09-01

    We propose that structural resource deprivation and a weak civic participatory culture foster institutional isolation among youth, which, in turn, elevates rates of crime. Robust institutional attachments are essential to mainstream cultural learning, the internalization of mainstream values, the development of local network ties, and pro-social behavior. Communities that fail to embed residents, particularly youth, within a conventional institutional framework are ill-equipped for concerted action and unable to defend community interest and solve common problems, including crime. Using county-level census data we identify a group of youth who are simultaneously disengaged from a wide swath of mainstream social institutions, those we term "floaters." Analyses of aggregate levels of homicide, aggravated assault, robbery, and burglary around 2000 offer strong support for a mediation model indicating that structural deprivation and a weak civic participatory culture increase the presence of floaters which, in turn, raises levels of violent and property crime. We discuss the implications of our findings.

  20. Current approaches and problems in social crime prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Vuković, Slaviša

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the topic of consideration focuses on current methods and forms of implementation social crime prevention, as well as problems that often arise in practice during its implementation. This is one of the most important areas in crime prevention, which is also known as crime prevention through social development, and often includes legal activities of state and non-state actors aimed at preventing delinquency of children and minors through the weakening and, if possible, eliminatin...

  1. DETERMINANTS OF STUDENTS' WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR VIOLENT CRIME REDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Aurora A.C.; MAFALDA SOEIRO

    2013-01-01

    We apply the contingent valuation method to estimate how much a specific group of society, which is relatively prone to falling victim to crime, is willing to pay to reduce the likelihood of being the victim of violent crime. Based on responses from 1122 students, we found that younger and female students revealed that they are more inclined to pay so as to avoid violent crime. Students' field of study, cautious behavior and a strong opinion about policies and payment vehicles with potential ...

  2. Testing a General Model on the Fear of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    1991b) which was later reduced to three categories: 18 to 25, 26 to 35, and over 35. Cow unity Incivility Community incivility was measured by having... work of LaGrange, et al. (1992), who informed the necessary link between perceived incivilities , perceived crime seriousness, and fear. The test of the...the differential effects of victimization, perceived community incivilities , and perceived crime seriousness in the neighborhood on fear of crime at two

  3. From old wars to new wars and global terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E; Zarama, R

    2005-01-01

    Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-G7 countries. Here we analyze two ongoing, high-profile wars on opposite sides of the globe - Colombia and Iraq. Our analysis uses our own unique dataset for killings and injuries in Colombia, plus publicly available data for civilians killed in Iraq. We show strong evidence for power-law behavior within each war. Despite substantial differences in contexts and data coverage, the power-law coefficients for both wars are tending toward 2.5, which is a value characteristic of non-G7 terrorism as opposed to old wars. We prop...

  4. Crime Forecasting System (An exploratory web-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen Ahmed Meenai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous rise in crimes in some big cities of the world like Karachi and the increasing complexity of these crimes, the difficulties the law enforcing agencies are facing in tracking down and taking out culprits have increased manifold. To help cut back the crime rate, a Crime Forecasting System (CFS can be used which uses historical information maintained by the local Police to help them predict crime patterns with the support of a huge and self-updating database. This system operates to prevent crime, helps in apprehending criminals, and to reduce disorder. This system is also vital in helping the law enforcers in forming a proactive approach by helping them in identifying early warning signs, take timely and necessary actions, and eventually help stop crime before it actually happens. It will also be beneficial in maintaining an up to date database of criminal suspects includes information on arrest records, communication with police department, associations with other known suspects, and membership in gangs/activist groups. After exploratory analysis of the online data acquired from the victims of these crimes, a broad picture of the scenario can be analyzed. The degree of vulnerability of an area at some particular moment can be highlighted by different colors aided by Google Maps. Some statistical diagrams have also been incorporated. The future of CFS can be seen as an information engine for the analysis, study and prediction of crimes.

  5. Crimes In New York And Seoul A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia G. Patino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Across the world highly populated urban areas are widely regarded as generators of various crimes. From petty crimes to organized crime activities cities and other urban areas provide some form of haven for criminal activities and their proponents. In this paper we look at two highly-urbanized areas New York City and Seoul South Korea. We look to compare the crime trends and activities in these two areas and see if there are points of comparison by which these two are similar or if they are separated by some factors..

  6. Examination of crime and similar concepts in the medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Crime is a human behavior that has captivated the thoughts of scholars of various disciplines throughout history. Philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and others have investigated and analyzed the concept of crime from different aspects. Crime is the main topic of criminal law, and in its legal meaning is a well-known term with a certain conceptual load that should not be confused with similar concepts such as guilt, civil crime (quasi tort), and particularly, the disciplinary transgression. Although crime has common points with all the above, it is an independent concept with unique effects, features, and descriptions that distinguish it from similar acts. This article aims to determine the difference between the concepts of crime, guilt, civil crime and disciplinary transgression through enumeration of the related issues as well as examples of medical disciplinary crimes and transgressions. Identifying and distinguishing these concepts can improve the procedure of prosecuting crimes and disciplinary transgression, bring punishment to criminals and transgressors, and facilitate compensation of pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses due to committers' fault or failure. Thus we may avoid taking a wrong route that can lead to infringement of individuals' rights.

  7. The nature of crime : Is cheating necessary for cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalek, R; Cohen, L E

    1991-09-01

    The classical social theorist Emile Durkheim proposed the counterintuitive thesis that crime is beneficial for society because it provokes punishment, which enhances social solidarity. His logic, however, is blemished by a reified view of society that leads to group-selectionist thinking and a teleological account of the causes of crime. Reconceptualization of the relationship between crime and punishment in terms of evolutionary game theory, however, suggests that crime (cheating) may confer benefits on cooperating individuals by promoting stability in their patterns of cooperation.

  8. Examination of crime and similar concepts in the medical law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Crime is a human behavior that has captivated the thoughts of scholars of various disciplines throughout history. Philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and others have investigated and analyzed the concept of crime from different aspects. Crime is the main topic of criminal law, and in its legal meaning is a well-known term with a certain conceptual load that should not be confused with similar concepts such as guilt, civil crime (quasi tort), and particularly, the disciplinary transgression. Although crime has common points with all the above, it is an independent concept with unique effects, features, and descriptions that distinguish it from similar acts. This article aims to determine the difference between the concepts of crime, guilt, civil crime and disciplinary transgression through enumeration of the related issues as well as examples of medical disciplinary crimes and transgressions. Identifying and distinguishing these concepts can improve the procedure of prosecuting crimes and disciplinary transgression, bring punishment to criminals and transgressors, and facilitate compensation of pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses due to committers’ fault or failure. Thus we may avoid taking a wrong route that can lead to infringement of individuals’ rights. PMID:27471587

  9. Developing support service for victims of hate crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Peter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the nature and development of Victim Support’s services to victims of hate crime in England and Wales. It provides definitions of hate crime, information about its extent, and considers why services for victims of some forms of hate crime have developed faster than others. It concludes with a summary of points made during a discussion at the 2004 European Forum for Victim Services conference about whether or not services to victims of hate crime should be provided by mainstream victim services or specialist agencies.

  10. Crime Prevention Programs: Evidence for a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Vergara

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of two anti-crime programs implemented in Chile in the late 1990s. The first (Quadrant Plan) is related to enhancing the quality of police work and the second one (Secure County Plan) to the involvement of the community in designing specific projects aimed at reducing the crime rate. It is found that only the Quadrant Plan has been successful in terms of reducing crime rates and has caused its impact through the effect of arrests in deterring crime. The Secure C...

  11. Does the Magnitude of the Link between Unemployment and Crime Depend on the Crime Level? A Quantile Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Entorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two alternative hypotheses – referred to as opportunity- and stigma-based behavior – suggest that the magnitude of the link between unemployment and crime also depends on preexisting local crime levels. In order to analyze conjectured nonlinearities between both variables, we use quantile regressions applied to German district panel data. While both conventional OLS and quantile regressions confirm the positive link between unemployment and crime for property crimes, results for assault differ with respect to the method of estimation. Whereas conventional mean regressions do not show any significant effect (which would confirm the usual result found for violent crimes in the literature, quantile regression reveals that size and importance of the relationship are conditional on the crime rate. The partial effect is significantly positive for moderately low and median quantiles of local assault rates.

  12. Testing a Crime Control Model: Does Strategic and Directed Deployment of Police Officers Lead to Lower Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. McElvain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to investigate whether implementation of a crime control model (based, in part, on the concepts of COMPSTAT in one southern California city was effective in reducing crime. Time series regression models were fitted to data collected from the Riverside County Sheriff’s Department, city of Perris, for the years 2000 through 2010. Additional data were collected from three other cities that served as controls. Results showed that the program was effective in reducing crime rates in Perris. The effect remained significant even after taking into account time trends and control cities. Analysis also found that while the program was more effective in lessening total and property crime rates, it was less so for violent crime rates. It was concluded that strategic and directed policing models (e.g., COMPSTAT, hot spot policing, etc. may be more effective in crime reduction efforts than reactive policing methods.

  13. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  14. Crime and health: a preliminary study into the effects of crime on the mental health of UK university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrall, P; Marshall, P; Pattison, S; Macdonald, G

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the findings from a preliminary study in the UK into the effects of crime on health. The aim of the study was to investigate what victims of crime report to be the effects of both actual crime and the fear of crime on their physical and psychological health (as well as social well-being) and what actions they take (if any) to deal with these effects. A survey method was adopted using a modified version of the 'Health, Quality of Life and Crime Questionnaire' with 866 undergraduate student respondents from three UK universities. University students were selected as the sample population because, as a group, they form a specific 'victim community'. Conclusions extrapolated from the respondents' replies were first, there are serious negative health effects (particularly on psychological health) of a considerable minority of those students who are victims of crime. Second, the vast majority of the victims did not initiate any health intervention. Third, a large minority of the victims did not report the crime to the police. Fourth, a majority of both victims and non-victims suffered psychological negative effects from the fear of crime. Fifth, there is a huge gender imbalance among those affected by crime with female students much more fearful of crime than men. Moreover, female students were much more likely to use specific strategies to lower the risk of crime. These conclusions suggest that there may be important policy implications for universities, the police, victim support organizations and mental health services, regarding the effects of crime on students. This study is intended as a preliminary stage for subsequent in-depth and larger projects.

  15. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  16. Soviet Style in War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    dominant position over the Donas... cutting off all the enemy’s escape routes out of the Donbas ." For the "victorious repoM that had been coming in...avoid battle in the Donbas and reach the western bank of the Dnepr as soon as possible. .... Vatutin, in command of the Southwestern Front... believed...Izdat Donbas , 1971. Erickson, 3., The Road to Stalingrad. Stalin’s War with Germany. Vol. 1, New York- Harper and Row, 1975. Eresthausen, A. V

  17. LEGO STAR WARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    去年有一款游戏以惊人的销量。让人们印象深刻,它就是《乐高星球大战》,经过一番传言过后,LucasArts终于发表了《乐高星球大战》的续作《乐高星球大战2:首部曲》(Lego Star Wars Ⅱ:The Original Trilog),而且登陆的平台还包括了任天堂的DS和GBA主机。

  18. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Anri Sala’s film 1395 Days Without Red (2011) provides a kind of reenactment of an accidental day during the 1992-95 siege of Sarajevo. Shot in today’s Sarajevo, the film revisits and embodies some of the widely circulated images of the siege, such as inhabitants sprinting across so-called Sniper...... Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...

  19. Exception in Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the Cold War, India mainly focused its Southeast Asia Strategy on preserving the regional peace and stability, fearing that changes in Southeast Asia would impact India. Generally speaking, India would like to see a relatively strong, stable and independent Southeast Asia, which would guarantee the stability of its east wing. However, fettered by its limited power, its non-alignment policy and its special relation with Soviet Union, India's policy toward Southeast Asia remained relatively passive and its relation with Southeast Asia was, to some extent, trapped in a historical "intermission."

  20. German War Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    director be freed from some rules, though not in assessing the effects of fire .51 He was not ready to make a complete break with the rigid style of...small game was conducted to test the effect of the fire of units, down to the smallest it was possible to evaluate. The forces were limited to four to...Darstellung von Gefechtsbildern mit Berück- sichtigung der Wirkung der jetzt gebräuch- lichen Waffen [Introduction to the Use of War Game Apparatus