WorldWideScience

Sample records for war cold war

  1. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  2. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  3. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  4. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will... National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The teleconference meeting will be...

  5. Scientists study 'cold war' fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the epidemiological studies being carried out to determine radiation doses to the public from intentional and accidental releases of radioactive compounds during the Cold War. These studies at present are focused on Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Fernald, with studies beginning at Rocky Flats and Savannah

  6. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  7. Mapping Anomalous Democracies During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the Cold War, a number of countries established stable democracies despite low levels of modernization and a relative lack of democratic neighbour countries—factors otherwise consistently related to the endurance of democracy. Meanwhile, the Cold War superpowers often supported autocracies...... are identified, including Bolivia, Botswana, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turkey....

  8. Dismantling the Cold War economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markusen, A.; Yudkin, J.

    1992-01-01

    End-of-the-Cold-War economic realities include political jockeying over the future of weapons systems, a paucity of meaningful conversion efforts, and a suspicion that a weak economy will be unable to compensate for the loss of jobs and purchasing power as defense budgets are reduced. The authors of this book present three interrelated hypotheses: The first is that the existence of a large military production sector has depleted the civilian economy of key resources and has preempted creation of the kind of broad-base civilian-oriented industrial policies needed for economic revitalization. The second is that a large military production sector creates barriers to the movement of resources. The third is that economic depletion and the barriers to moving resources to civilian production make conversion planning essential. This book explains why conversion is difficult, but offers only a few pages of specific conversion proposals

  9. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  10. Sizing Post-Cold War Nuclear Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oelrich, I

    2001-01-01

    This study addresses the utility of, and need for, nuclear weapons a decade after the end of the Cold War with special focus on the numbers and types of nuclear weapons appropriate for particular requirements...

  11. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  12. Training to Fight Training and Education During the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, David

    1997-01-01

    ... requirements of military missions." One of Legacy's nine task areas is the Cold War Project, which seeks to "inventory, protect, and conserve DoD's physical and literary property and relics" associated with the Cold War. In early 1993, Dr...

  13. Indian foreign policy during the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    This article examines India's foreign policy priorities during the years of the Cold War with a focus on international relations. As in the rest of the world, the India's foreign policy was marked by the dynamics of continuity and change in world policy, associated with the historical period of the Cold War (1947-90) and its impact on the neighbouring and regional context of India. As its hypothesis this article argues that this period was characterized by the challenges of consolidating the autonomy of independence, which means: achieving development; solving disputes arising from conflicts with neighbours; and, presenting India as a country committed to peace, which explains not only its position against war and the use of nuclear weapons, but also, with respect to one of the most original aspects of Indian foreign policy, its status as a non-aligned country

  14. Educational Exchange as a Cold War Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    2014-01-01

    American President Harry S. Truman called the Cold War a "struggle for the minds of men," and assigned journalists an important role in the conflict. This study finds that the U.S. Depeartment of State, via the American Embassy in Copenhagen, consciously attempted to shape Danish journalits' view...

  15. Why the end of the Cold War doesn't matter: the US war of terror in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Doug

    2003-01-01

    Orthodox narratives of US foreign policy have been employed as uncontested modes of historical interpretation with US post-Cold War foreign policy in the Third World characterised by discontinuity from its earlier Cold War objectives. Chomsky's work adopts an alternative revisionist historiography that views US post-Cold War foreign policy as characterised by continuity with its earlier Cold War objectives. This article examines the continuities of US post-Cold War policy in Colombia, and exp...

  16. The Cold War is over. What now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  17. The Cold War is Over. What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, S. S.

    1995-04-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  18. The Built Environment of Cold War Era Servicewomen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Dawn A; Enscore, Susan I

    2006-01-01

    ..., training, and workspaces of military women. This reconsideration led to ever-evolving regulations and standard operating procedures throughout the course of the Cold War concerning this matter...

  19. The cold wars a history of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Matricon, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Among the most peculiar of matter¡¦s behaviors is superconductivity„oelectric current without resistance. Since the 1986 discovery that superconductivity is possible at temperatures well above absolute zero, research into practical applications has flourished. The Cold Wars tells the history of superconductivity, providing perspective on the development of the field and its relationship with the rest of physics. Superconductivity offers an excellent example of the evolution of physics in the twentieth century: the science itself, its foundations, and its social context. The authors also introduce the reader to the fascinating scientific personalities, including 2003 Nobel Prize winners Alexei Alexeievich Abrikosov and Vitali Ginzburg, and political struggles behind this research.

  20. Technophilic hubris and espionage styles during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrakis, Kristie

    2010-06-01

    During the Cold War the United States developed an espionage style that reflected its love affair with technology (technophilia) whereas the Soviet Union and the East Bloc continued a tradition of using humans to collect intelligence. This essay places the origins and development of these espionage styles during the Cold War in historical and social context, and assesses their strengths and weaknesses by drawing on examples from particular cases. While the United States won the Cold War, the East Bloc won the spy wars because of a more effective espionage style. I conclude with some reflections on the uses of history for future policy, and suggest areas for further study.

  1. The legacy of the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, M.

    1998-01-01

    More than fifty-two years have elapsed since the atomic bomb-was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Over this period, the United States and the Soviet Union have engaged in a constant nuclear arms-race, in an effort to build a growing number of warheads and launching systems of increasingly higher destructive power, reflecting the logic of the balance of terror and the threat of mutually assured destruction. The years of the Cold War have, in fact, been dominated by the incredibly rapid growth of nuclear arsenals. The end of the Cold War, which was marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, coincided with the beginning of the process of nuclear disarmament and a diversion of funds from the industrial military complex. Nevertheless, 45 years of development and sophistication in nuclear armaments can't be immediately wiped off, for many reasons, the most evident of which being that the nuclear materials that forms the heart of atomic weapons, more precisely known as weapon-grade materials, can't be simply eliminated, as will be explained later in this text. Their dismantlement requires special technical means, which are not yet available to all nuclear powers. There are also other reasons why nuclear disarmament is such a complex and uneven process

  2. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  3. Nationalism, Nuclear Policy and Children in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Theorizes the place of children in America's "Cold War Consensus" of the 1950s-60s. Counterposes dominant Cold War images of abstract, generic children (inevitably white middle class) to actual children most vulnerable to risks associated with nuclear weapons production and testing. Concludes that in various ways, these children were all…

  4. The Roots of the Religious Cold War: Pre-Cold War Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Kirby

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is an examination of the roots of the amalgam of complex forces that informed the ‘religious cold war’. It looks at the near and the more distant past. Naturally this includes consideration of the interwar years and those of the Second World War. It also means addressing divisions in Christianity that can be traced back to the end of the third century, to the official split of 1054 between Catholic and Orthodox, the impact of the Crusades and the entrenched hostility that followed the fifty-seven years imposition on Constantinople of a Latin Patriarch. It surveys the rise of significant forces that were to contribute to, as well as consolidate and strengthen, the religious cold war: civil religion, Christian fundamentalism and the Religious Right. The article examines both western and eastern mobilization of national religious resources for political purposes.

  5. Secret Science: Exploring Cold War Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the early Cold War - from the immediate postwar period through the 1960s - the United States military carried out extensive scientific studies and pursued technological developments in Greenland. With few exceptions, most of these were classified - sometimes because new scientific knowledge was born classified, but mostly because the reasons behind the scientific explorations were. Meteorological and climatological, ionospheric, glaciological, seismological, and geological studies were among the geophysical undertakings carried out by military and civilian scientists--some in collaboration with the Danish government, and some carried out without their knowledge. This poster will present some of the results of the Exploring Greenland Project that is coming to a conclusion at Denmark's Aarhus University.

  6. Legacy of Cold War still plagues Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, L. [Socio-Ecological Union`s Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    Seventy years of communist rule and a half-century of nuclear-arms development have left Russia the world`s most polluted country, reports Lydia Popova, director of the Center for Nuclear Ecology and Energy Policy in Moscow. {open_quotes}Russia`s communist government invested enormous sums of money in the military but paid scant attention to environmental protection,{close_quotes} Popova writes. Most of Russia`s radioactive pollution has resulted from poor reprocessing technology, inadequate waste management, nuclear testing, and accidents in the nuclear-power sector. Though the end of the Cold War has been accompanied by disarmament programs, Popova insists that these initiatives will create an additional burden on the environment of the former Soviet Union in the form of nuclear waste products.

  7. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. American historians on the Cold War: A historiographical interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article categorizes the American historical scholarship on the Cold War into five, perhaps six, clusters. After discussing these clusters, it argues that in spite of paradigmatic differences, there are also areas of agreement in the literature. For one thing, it is clear that before the end of World War II, and therefore before the ...

  9. Human rhinoviruses: the cold wars resume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Ian M

    2008-08-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most common cause of viral illness worldwide but today, less than half the strains have been sequenced and only a handful examined structurally. This viral super-group, known for decades, has still to face the full force of a molecular biology onslaught. However, newly identified viruses (NIVs) including human metapneumovirus and bocavirus and emergent viruses including SARS-CoV have already been exhaustively scrutinized. The clinical impact of most respiratory NIVs is attributable to one or two major strains but there are 100+ distinct HRVs and, because we have never sought them independently, we must arbitrarily divide the literature's clinical impact findings among them. Early findings from infection studies and use of inefficient detection methods have shaped the way we think of 'common cold' viruses today. To review past HRV-related studies in order to put recent HRV discoveries into context. HRV infections result in undue antibiotic prescriptions, sizable healthcare-related expenditure and exacerbation of expiratory wheezing associated with hospital admission. The finding of many divergent and previously unrecognized HRV strains has drawn attention and resources back to the most widespread and frequent infectious agent of humans; providing us the chance to seize the advantage in a decades-long cold war.

  10. Security in Northern Europe after the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Besserudhagen, Svein

    1995-01-01

    The end of the Cold War came with dramatic changes in Europe. NATO is searching for its future in a Europe threatened by instability and break down of government control and law and order in Russia...

  11. Focus: new perspectives on science and the Cold War. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyck, Hunter; Kaiser, David

    2010-06-01

    Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War looks ever more like a slice of history rather than a contemporary reality. During those same twenty years, scholarship on science, technology, and the state during the Cold War era has expanded dramatically. Building on major studies of physics in the American context--often couched in terms of "big science"--recent work has broached scientific efforts in other domains as well, scrutinizing Cold War scholarship in increasingly international and comparative frameworks. The essays in this Focus section take stock of current thinking about science and the Cold War, revisiting the question of how best to understand tangled (and sometimes surprising) relationships between government patronage and the world of ideas.

  12. Surface Combatant Planning Since the End of the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillen, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    .... This reduction was part of the U.S. military transformation in the post-Cold War period. This thesis examined the major factors that influenced the change in surface combatant planning since 1990, i.e...

  13. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  14. Spinifex People as Cold War Moderns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Castillo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} Aboriginal Australian contemporary artists create works that express indigenous traditions as well as the unprecedented conditions of global modernity. This is especially true for the founders of the Spinifex Arts Project, a collective established in 1997 to create so-called “government paintings”: the large-scale canvases produced as documents of land tenure used in negotiations with the government of Western Australia to reclaim expropriated desert homelands. British and Australian nuclear testing in the 1950s displaced the Anangu juta pila nguru, now known to us as the Spinifex people, from their nomadic lifeworld. Exodus and the subsequent struggle to regain lost homelands through paintings created as corroborating evidence for native title claims make Spinifex canvases not simply expressions of Tjukurpa, or “Dreamings,” but also artifacts of the atomic age and its impact on a culture seemingly far from the front lines of cold war conflict.

  15. ROSEE cleans up after the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a robot named ROSEE, designed by engineers at the DOE's Hanford site to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to workers cleaning up to residue left by America's manufacture of nuclear weapons. ROSEE is the acronym for Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment, a robot designed to vacuum sediment and debris from a nuclear fuels storage pool at the Department of Energy's Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Richland, Wash. The task facing ROSEE involves cleaning out the N basin at Hanford. Work is schedules to begin before the fall. The basin houses nuclear fuel refined during 24 years of the Cold War era. This water-filled structure is 24 feet deep, 87 feet long, and 56 feet wide, approximately three times larger than an Olympic-size swimming pool. Nuclear fuel was contained in honeycomb cells mounted 1 inch from the bottom of the pool. The cells rise 10 feet from the bottom of the basin, and each cell is 21 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The cells now hold radioactive residues that must be removed for final safe disposal

  16. How Nuclear South Asia is Like Cold War Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom states that the stability-instability paradox does not explain the effect of nuclear proliferation on the conflict propensity of South Asia and that nuclear weapons have had a different and more dangerous impact in South Asia than Cold War Europe. I argue that the paradox...... Europe and South Asia. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf may have adopted more moderate foreign policy towards India after experiencing fear of imminent nuclear war during the ten month mobilised crisis in 2002 as Nikita Khrushchev did forty years earlier. I argue that the stability-instability...... explains nuclear South Asia, that the similarities between nuclear South Asia and Cold War Europe are strong, and that conventional instability does not cause revisionist challenges in the long run. I develop and probe a psychological causal mechanism that explains the impact of nuclear weapons on Cold War...

  17. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  18. A radiological legacy. Radioactive residues of the Cold War period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    A dominating feature of the historical period known as the Cold War was the large-scale production and testing, of nuclear weapons. These military activities brought with them an unprecedented generation of radioactive substances. A fraction of these 'Cold War residues' ended up in the atmosphere and were dispersed throughout the world. Some remained in relatively isolated states in underground geological environments at the production or test site. Others have contaminated areas at times accessible to humans. Augmenting this picture are other scenes of a Cold War legacy. Large amounts of radioactive waste and byproducts are in storage from the production of weapons material. At some point, they are expected to be converted to peaceful applications or sent for final disposal. Over the past decade, the IAEA has been asked to play a greater role in helping countries address this Cold War legacy. A number of scientific assessments of radiological situations created by the Cold War have been carried out by experts convened by the IAEA - at nuclear test sites, nuclear production facilities, and waste dumping sites. This edition of the IAEA Bulletin highlights these cooperative activities in the context of international developments and concerns

  19. Science and technology in the global Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, John

    2014-01-01

    The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state. These goals varied from nation to nation; weapons research was emphasized in the United States and the Soviet Unio...

  20. Challenges to the Japan-U.S. Security Alliance in the Post-Post Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nodomi, Mistsuru

    2005-01-01

    The Japan-U.S. security alliance experienced the Cold War and post Cold War during the twentieth century, and is now facing a post-post Cold War environment triggered by the September 11 terrorist attacks...

  1. Overview of U.S. Navy Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Organization During the Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manke, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    ...) conducted by the United States during the Cold War. Books and articles have begun to capture the historic context, the strategic intent, and the operational realization of this important element of the Cold War...

  2. The Victory Disease and the US Army After the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, John

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the US Army after the end of the Cold War, specifically how the "Victory Disease" resulting from winning the Cold War caused a complacency in the US Army which eventually led...

  3. POST-COLD WAR MILITARY INTERVENTION IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nations Charter, and one of the international community‟s decisive factors in ... evolved since the end of the Cold War in terms of theory, practice and the way .... internal civil strife evolved as an extension of the duty to preserve international.

  4. Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War "Idealists."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a procedure for identifying metaphorical concepts guiding the rhetorical invention of three Cold War "idealists": Henry Wallace, J. William Fulbright, and Helen Caldicott, whose collective failure to dispel threatening images of the Soviets is located in a recurrent system of metaphors that promotes a reversal of the enemy-image…

  5. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  6. Competing Foreign Policy Visions: Rhetorical Hybrids after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines ways in which two very different political actors, George Bush and Bill Clinton, attempted to construct a new foreign policy consensus by blending the rhetorical forms of the Cold War with other foreign policy metaphors. Argues that these hybrids have not proven persuasive as justifications for American actions in foreign policy. (SR)

  7. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  8. Overlapping Rivalries : The two Germanys, Israel and the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vita, L.

    2017-01-01

    The case of early German-Israeli relations offers unique insight into the dynamics of the German Cold War. As this article shows, the two Germanys were ideologically and geopolitically antithetical, but vis-a-vis the question of relations with Israel East and West German representatives faced a

  9. Tracing Cold War in Post-Modern Management's Hot Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTracing Cold War in post-modern managerial science and ideology one encounters hot issues linking contemporary liberal dogmas and romanticized view of organizational leadership to the dismantling of a welfare state disguised as a liberation of an individual employee, empowerment of an

  10. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  11. UNITED STATES DURING THE COLD WAR 1945-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Mujiyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available United States and the Soviet Union is a country on the part of allies who emerged as the winner during World War II. However, after reaching the Allied victory in the situation soon changed, man has become an opponent. United States and the Soviet Union are competing to expand the influence and power. To compete the United States strive continuously strengthen itself both in the economic and military by establishing a defense pact and aid agencies in the field of economy. During the Cold War the two are not fighting directly in one of the countries of the former Soviet Union and the United States. However, if understood, teradinya the Korean War and the Vietnam War is a result of tensions between the two countries and is a direct warfare conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union. Cold War ended in conflict with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as the winner of the country.

  12. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-10-26

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning &apos

  13. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning 'crisis stability', 'first-strike stability', and 'arms race

  14. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanu Keti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis and Alecos Xenos, the writer describes the repercussions of this phenomenon in Greek musical life and creativity.

  15. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic

  16. "This war for men's minds": the birth of a human science in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of work on the history of the human sciences during the Cold War. This work, however, does not engage with one of the leading human sciences of the period: linguistics. This article begins to rectify this knowledge gap by investigating the influence of linguistics and its concept of study, language, on American public, political and intellectual life during the postwar and early Cold War years. I show that language emerged in three frameworks in this period: language as tool, language as weapon, and language as knowledge. As America stepped onto the international stage, language and linguistics were at the forefront: the military poured millions of dollars into machine translation, American diplomats were required to master scores of foreign languages, and schoolchildren were exposed to language-learning on a scale never before seen in the United States. Together, I argue, language and linguistics formed a critical part of the rise of American leadership in the new world order - one that provided communities as dispersed as the military, the diplomatic corps, scientists and language teachers with a powerful way of tackling the problems they faced. To date, linguistics has not been integrated into the broader framework of Cold War human sciences. In this article, I aim to bring both language, as concept, and linguistics, as discipline, into this framework. In doing so, I pave the way for future work on the history of linguistics as a human science.

  17. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  18. ‘Resource Wars’ in the Post-Cold War Era: The Persian Gulf Oil, US, and the Iraq War

    OpenAIRE

    S Naji

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the strategic region of the Persian Gulf and its oil resources, the US energy policy, and the Iraq War as a case in point. It refers to the importance of the Persian Gulf oil in the US policies and the US geopolitical practices to launch conflicts and wars in the post-Cold War era that scholars have categorized as “resource wars.” Reviewing relevant studies has revealed that amongst the natural resources oil as the most vital commodity has always played a major role in ...

  19. Apollo's Warriors: US Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hass, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... Attempting to capture the history of USAF special operations from the beginning of the cold war to the end of the Second Indochina War is an exercise in humility the historian's worst nightmare in some respects...

  20. China’s Bargaining Strategies after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2014-01-01

    Applying bargaining theory of international conflicts, we examine the successes and challenges of China’s strategic choices in its ascent after the Cold War. We suggest that China needs to alleviate information and commitment problems in order to rise peacefully. Since 2008, China’s “peaceful rise...... disputes. China should engage in rule-based, institution building, such as a security community between China and ASEAN, to reinforce its peaceful rise commitments....

  1. ANFSQ-7 the computer that shaped the cold war

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    One of the most impressive computer systems ever was the vacuum tube based behemoth AN/FSQ-7, which was the heart of the ""Semi Automatic Ground Environment"". Machines of this type were children of the Cold War and had a tremendous effect not only on this episode in politics but also generated a vast amount of spin-offs which still shape our world.

  2. A perspective on the history of health and human rights: from the Cold War to the Gold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of human rights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and human rights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners.

  3. Understanding the Global Cold War Legacy: Narrating through Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Klein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War brought the shrinking and dismantling of vast nuclear weapons complexes. As a result, some landscape architects will find themselves reclaiming a new, very specific type of Cold War landscape: those degraded by nuclear arms testing, production and waste storage. Nuclear landscapes pose multiple and complex challenges. Before designing nuclear reclamations, one must ask: what are the issues? If designers misunderstand the nuclear landscape 'problem', it will be 'solved' in the wrong way. My position is based on the assumption that society desires these landscapes to be reclaimed safely and in ways that allow them to educate the public. Landscape architects can find ways to reclaim nuclear landscapes safely while leaving narratives for generations to come. Perhaps it is too early to describe how nuclear reclamations will look. It is not too early to discuss what designs for nuclear reclamations should accomplish. This paper raises questions critical to the design of nuclear reclamations, both globally and locally. Near precedents - past reclamations that narrate other types of degraded landscapes - are discussed, and it is noted how we can learn from them when considering nuclear landscape reclamation. This paper does not articulate a specific design theory or solution to Cold War nuclear landscapes, but rather, it seeks to pose critical questions that designers should ask. These questions will be broad because we consider nuclear landscapes globally. The questions will require in-depth investigation of local issues as each unique nuclear landscape is considered.

  4. The post-cold war decade in the Caucasus: the wars in Chechnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the conflict in Chechnya, its origins, development and international repercussions within the context of the Russian Federation and the more general context of the Caucasus, which since the end of the cold war has experienced the appearance of new conflicts and the re-emergence of old ones, largely as a result of the economic and strategic value given to the region due both to the region’s lying on the most direct route between the Caspian and Black Seas and well as to its natural gas and petroleum reserves.

  5. China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei FAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the historical role of geography in the Sino–Burmese relationship in the context of the Cold War, both before and after the Chinese–American détente and rapprochement in the 1970s. It describes Burma’s fear and distrust of China throughout the Cold War, during which it maintained a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Burma’s geographic location, sandwiched between its giant neighbours India and China, led it to adopt a realist paradigm and pursue an independent foreign policy. Charac-terizing China’s threat to Burmese national security as “grave” during its period of revolutionary export, the article notes that Burma was cowed into deference and that it deliberately avoided antagonizing China. It also looks at the history of China’s attempts to break out of U.S. encirclement after the Korean War and its successful establishment of Burma as an important buffer state. After the U.S.–China rapprochement in 1972, however, Bur-ma’s geographical significance for Beijing declined. In this context, Burma’s closed-door policy of isolation further lessened its strategic importance for China. Since 1988, however, Burma’s strategic importance to China has been on the rise once again, as it plays a greater role as China’s land bridge to the Indian Ocean and in its energy security and expansion of trade and exports.

  6. Lobotomies and Botulism Bombs: Beckett's Trilogy and the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages. The article goes on to consider the figure of the brain-damaged mind as a Cold War trope in the references to botulism and the motif of the penetrated skull in The Unnamable.

  7. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  8. Implications of Sino-American Strategic Competition on Southeast Asia's Post-Cold War Regional Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suryodipuro, Sidharto

    2003-01-01

    .... The study of international politics after the Cold War has rediscovered the importance of regional interaction as the framework for understanding countries' security strategies and the great powers...

  9. U.S. War Powers in the 21st Century: Do Post Cold War Conditions Facilitate Abuse of Executive Prerogative in Foreign Affairs?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anders, R

    2001-01-01

    ...: The Legislative Branch declared, or at least authorized and funded, military intervention. The Cold War led directly to an expedient shift of War Powers towards the Executive Branch, during this period to restore balance...

  10. Spies, Assassins, and Statesmen in Mexico’s Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wil G. Pansters

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Essay Eclipse of the Assassins. The CIA, Imperial Politics, and the Slaying of Mexican Journalist Manuel Buendía, by Russell H. Bartley and Sylvia Erickson Bartley. University of Wisconsin Press, 2015. Mexico’s Cold War. Cuba, the United States, and the Legacy of the Mexican Revolution, by Renata Keller. Cambridge University Press, 2015. The Logic of Compromise in Mexico. How the Countryside Was Key to the Emergence of Authoritarianism, by Gladys I. McCormick. The University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

  11. NEMESIS: Keeping Russia an Enemy through Cold War Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Crosston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the openly adversarial neoconservative foundation under George Bush to the supposedly more ‘engaged’diplomatic interaction under Barack Obama. What will be exposed is a fairly uninspired and non-innovative American policy that not only fails to consider Russian initiatives from Russia’s own national security perspectives, but aims to contain it within a continued Cold War box that not only sours opportunities for collaboration but guarantees the absence of partnership in areas of global security. This piece examines the consequences of imagining Russia only as nemesis. 

  12. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  13. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  14. The Third World Perspective on the Cold War: Making Curriculum and Pedagogy Relevant in History Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2017-01-01

    American and global history curriculum frameworks for high schools across the 50 states generally present the topic of the Cold War from the Western political perspective and contain material about the impact of the US-Soviet ideological rivalry on American society. This article argues that since the Cold War impacted the lives of people in the…

  15. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  16. Rethinking Little Rock: The Cold War Politics of School Integration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong-Lambert, William

    2007-01-01

    Though the impact of the cold war on the civil rights movement continued long after the desegregation crisis in Little Rock, the timing of the events in Arkansas, particularly the events at Central High School, constituted a unique moment in the history of the cold war. Up until the fall of 1957, the Soviet Union had been perceived as less…

  17. Coming in From the Cold ... War: Defense Humint Services Support to Military Operations Other Than War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) and theater commander in chiefs (CINCs) in military operations other than war (MOOTW). The examination included a study into the recent history of military HUMINT, and the Department of Defense's (DoD's...

  18. Causes of the Vietnam War: An Academic Look at Wilsoniasm and Cold War Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belanger, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    At the end of World War II Europe was divided by two ideological super powers. President Truman had hoped that newly conquered Eastern Europe would hold free elections and determine their own course of government...

  19. Manila and the World Dance Space: Nationalism and Globalization in Cold War Philippines and South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamomo, M.; Villaruz, B.E.; Balme, C.B.; Szymanski-Düll, B.

    2017-01-01

    The rise of South East Asia as a region is inextricably linked to the birth of the Cold War. In no other region did the Cold War feel quite so ‘hot’. After decolonization, South East Asian nation-states forming new national identities each found allegiances with one or other of the two Cold War

  20. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaar-Jacobsen, Anja [Niels Bohr Archive, Copenhagen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  1. Dealing with a dangerous surplus from the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear materials is a threat to national security and world peace. This threat complicates the safeguarding and management of fissile materials that have become surplus since the end of the Cold War. The dismantling of weapons and the cessation of new nuclear weapons manufacturing, while positive for world peace, have raised a problem: what to do about the fissile materials recovered from the weapons or in inventories that will remain unused. These materials--primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium--are environmental, safety, and health concerns. But of more urgency is the threat they pose to national and international security if they fall into the hands of terrorists or rogue nations. As arms reduction continues and amounts of surplus fissile materials increase, the potential for such security breaches will increase

  2. An Overdue Post-Cold War Army Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dixon, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ...). The Army has rapidly aligned itself with the Department of Defense (DoD) Transformation plan and is aggressively identifying and building required capabilities now in support of the Global War on Terrrorism (GWOT...

  3. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my

  4. Cold War Space Sleuths The Untold Secrets of the Soviet Space Program

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Cold War Space Sleuths reads like a Cold War espionage novel, but the reality of the story about the dedicated amateur observers bent on finding out about Soviet spaceflight during the Cold War is just as exciting and absorbing. Told in the sleuth's own words, each chapter unfolds a piece of the hidden history of what was happening behind the Iron Curtain. Coming from all over the world, including Russia itself, the amateur spies give first-hand accounts of often-forgotten aspects of the Cold War space race. Amongst others, their stories include: - the history of the Kettering Group; - looking inside the Russian archives; - unsolved mysteries, such as why cosmonauts were airbrushed out of the official archives; - reading between the lines of the Soviet media; - the impact of Gorbachev's glasnost on sleuthing; - new research, including chapters by James Oberg, Asif Siddiqi, and Bart Hendrickx.

  5. China's Quest for Security in the Post-Cold War World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Smauel

    1996-01-01

    China's security behavior, riddled with contradictions and paradoxes, seemed made to order for challenging scholars and policymakers concerned about the shape of things to come in post-Cold War international life...

  6. Covert Action: Cold War Dinosaur or "Tool" for the 21st Century?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonham, Gordon C

    1999-01-01

    .... During the height of the Cold War, while "Mission Impossible" and "Secret Agent" dominated television viewing, covert operations were frequently the instrument of choice to achieve foreign policy objectives...

  7. Nuclear De-Alerting and the Search for Post-Cold War Nuclear Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fortney, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...... you just can't seem to get rid of it." While no longer the predominant defense issue, many still grapple with the strategic nuclear issue, wondering what we need to do with our "Cold War" nuclear arsenal...

  8. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon , Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  9. PROPAGANDA WITH NO RULES, OR INFORMATION CONFLICT IN COLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Анатольевна Котеленец

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the ways and methods of the ideological struggle between the USSR and the West after the Second World War (1947-1991 including open and secret forms of ideological influence, new technical means, and information institutions. The article focuses on the propaganda actions supporting the Vietnam and Afghan wars, and the conflicts between the NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organization. It also demonstrates the forms of the national image-making (how a positive or a negative image of a country was constructed, the using of sanctions and the undermining of the pacifist movement.

  10. Red Dawn – the final episode of the Cold war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period of renewal of the Cold war, after 1980, movies which abandon the idea of the dentate appear, and they represent the response to Soviet expansion taking place under the auspices of diminished military confrontation. Of course, the Hollywood reaction to the real expansion of communism was not at adequate response, but it is a part of the wider restructuring of American politics regarding the Soviet Union, which was evidenced by strengthening defenses through the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, forcible intervention in Grenada, helping anti-communist movements around the world etc. In opposition to part of the US political scene which shut down attempts to stop the spread of communism across the world, action through popular culture, especially film, created a new climate in which multifaceted pressures on the socialist block were prepared. The movie Red Dawn can be considered part of the reaction of US politics on the particularistic view of the dentate as a shield for military and political spread of the USSR in Africa and other parts of the world. This pressure played on the inherent weaknesses of Soviet society in the 1980’s, a society which, after a brief period of failed transformation fell apart at the start of the final decade of the 20th century.

  11. Scaling up: human genetics as a Cold War network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindee, Susan

    2014-09-01

    In this commentary I explore how the papers here illuminate the processes of collection that have been so central to the history of human genetics since 1945. The development of human population genetics in the Cold War period produced databases and biobanks that have endured into the present, and that continue to be used and debated. In the decades after the bomb, scientists collected and transferred human biological materials and information from populations of interest, and as they moved these biological resources or biosocial resources acquired new meanings and uses. The papers here collate these practices and map their desires and ironies. They explore how a large international network of geneticists, biological anthropologists, virologists and other physicians and scientists interacted with local informants, research subjects and public officials. They also track the networks and standards that mobilized the transfer of information, genealogies, tissue and blood samples. As Joanna Radin suggests here, the massive collections of human biological materials and data were often understood to be resources for an "as-yet-unknown" future. The stories told here contain elements of surveillance, extraction, salvage and eschatology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Post-Cold War frameworks for US nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, L.S. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis contends that the passing of the Cold War has produced a disintegration of the fit between the grand strategy of containment and the nuclear policy of strategic deterrence. The primary sources of that disintegration are: the altered political circumstances from both of largescale military conflict; and the emergence of nuclear proclivities and capabilities in developing states. This thesis uses a three step process to construct a framework for a successor U.S. nuclear policy given the national goals of economic liberty, conservation of national institutions, promotion of democratic principles, and collegiality with like-minded states. The first part is dedicated to the construction of a policy-relevant and paradigmatic description of the nascent security environment. The most useful description is one which emphasizes the structural antipathy between the coterie of economically advanced, culturally similar, and politicially liberal states of western Europe, North America, and northeast Asia, and other, lesser developed polities. The second part, with the aid of simple analytic models, examines the theory of nuclear weapons doctrine as it pertains to an archetypally defined deterrence. Further models incorporating sequential decision making, relative gains analysis, and power/preference asymmetries demonstrate the prevalence and relative strengths and limitations of Prisoner's Dilemma as a deterrence system. The third part integrates the core-periphery paradigm and the analytic insights into a two-tiered framework of companion U.S. nuclear policies. A fourth part summarizes the implications of this analysis for U.S. forces and doctrine

  13. THE POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC DIMENSION OF CULTURE: INTELLECTUALITY AND ART DURING THE CULTURAL COLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO J. RUIZ DURÁN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The central paradigm of the Cold War was a battle of ideas, not a military, economic or political battle. This article analyses the contribution of intellectuals and artists to the propaganda war during the 20th century. It is argued that culture proved to be a very effective weapon back then. Left-wing intellectuals who were contrary to the Soviet Union project forged a novel no-communist thinking that, being supported by the US intelligent services, succeeded in the creation of a new Worldwide cultural paradigm in the context of the Cultural Cold War.

  14. New Trends in Cold War History Studiesin China, 2000-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The study of Cold War history in China has made great progress in the past decade.The works of Chinese scholars are increasingly operating on a comparable level ofresearch and sophistication to their foreign colleagues. In some areas, such as Sino-Soviet relations, Sino-American relations, Japanese-American relations, and thehistory of the Korean War, Chinese scholarship has really blossomed. A number ofChinese Cold War historians have conducted innovative research in new areas, andpresented their findings on a variety of heretofore untapped issues.

  15. Cold War Transgressions: Christian Realism, Conservative Socialism, and the Longer 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Thomas Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the convergence of the Protestant left and traditionalist right during the 1950s. Reinhold Niebuhr and the World Council of Churches challenged Cold War liberalism from within. As they did, they anticipated and even applauded the anti-liberalism of early Cold War conservatives. While exploring intellectual precursors of the New Left, this essay forefronts one forgotten byproduct of the political realignments following World War II: The transgressive politics of “conservative socialism.” Furthermore, this work contributes to growing awareness of ecumenical Christian impact within American life.

  16. Learning Large Lessons: The Evolving Roles of Ground Power and Air Power in the Post-Cold War Era. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, David E

    2007-01-01

    U.S. post-Cold War military operations have witnessed a shift in the relative roles of ground power and air power in war fighting, but the joint war fighting potential of this shift is not being fully realized...

  17. Romania and the New Cold War Security Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Rossisskiy” refers to citizens of the Russian Federation.199 The Moscow objective is to protect these populations and at the same time to gain influence over...social media with deep economic repercussions. The continuous changes in the Eastern Europe have a great influence on the Romanian security...the nation and the organization that is part of. 15. SUBJECT TERMS National security strategy, Russian way of war, Russian influence in Romania

  18. Medicine against Cold War. Physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 1980ies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The book on physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 19080ies covers the following issues: (I) Frame of the subject: methodology, research fields and actors; (II) The social dimension of the physician's movement; (III) IPPNW (International physicians for the prevention of nuclear war) - a political idea is medicalized and organized, 1980 - 1984; (IV) Borderlines of the international peace idea during the Cold War - IPPNW 1980 - 1986.

  19. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  20. Do not panic: Hawkwind, the Cold War and “the imagination of disaster”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ihde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The English rock band, Hawkwind, was amongst the founders of the genre known as “space rock”. From the early 1970s to the early 1990s, their work also included references to Cold War issues. An examination of their concert appearances, musical output and printed matter reveals that relevant material often reflected the “imagination of disaster” made famous in an essay by Susan Sontag. As well, there are correlations between the waxing and waning of Cold War tensions, and the presence and absence of such themes in their work. Thus, their work provides an example of how popular music could serve as a barometer of the impact of the Cold War on popular culture.

  1. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  2. The myth of nuclear deterrence: The lessons of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has provided a great opportunity and an urgent need for recasting a long-range policy for nuclear weapons. At the moment, however, there is not much prospect of nuclear disarmament by the United States and Russia beyond START II, and no prospect of nuclear disarmament by the other states, while the chances of nuclear proliferation remain high. This paper explores the implications of the Cold War for further nuclear disarmament and preventing future nuclear proliferation, focusing on the notion of nuclear deterrence and the 'crystal ball effect' of nuclear weapons

  3. Transcending Rationalism and Constructivism: Chinese Leaders’ Operational Codes, Socialization Processes, and Multilateralism after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2015-01-01

    ’ argument to explain China’s pro-multilateralist diplomacy after the Cold War. Using operational code analysis to examine belief changes across three generations of Chinese leadership and on different occasions, we argue that China’s pro-multilateralist behavior is a product of ‘superficial socialization......This paper challenges both rationalist and constructivist approaches in explaining China’s foreign policy behavior toward multilateral institutions after the Cold War. Borrowing insights from socialization theory and operational code analysis, this paper suggests a ‘superficial socialization...

  4. Howard Hughes and the Cold War Aviation Film Jet Pilot (1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andrew Voeltz

    2016-10-01

    War.  But sexual intimacy, conspicuous consumption, and aviation technology also inserted themselves into the perfect safetly of American domestic bliss. This paper will analyze how the eccentric Cold War romantic comedy Jet Pilot (1957 so associated with the compulsiveness of Howard Hughes, produced and written by Jules Furthman, directed ( partially by Josef von Sternburg and starring John Wayne and Janet Leigh, reflects all these themes making it the paradigmatic Cold Film that remains a camp classic from the American popular cultyre of the 1950s.

  5. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  6. Power Lines: The Rhetoric of Maps as Social Change in the Post-Cold War Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of state socialism in Eastern and Central Europe, cartographers were faced with choices on how the new post-Cold War political landscape would be mapped. One such group called the Pluto Project had been producing atlases since 1981 with a progressive point of view about the nature of state power…

  7. Cold War Arms Control Motivations and Techniques - A Guide for the Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Elmer

    1996-01-01

    .... This paper provides a brief historical account of some of the arms control agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, examines their major motivations to enter into negotiations, and illustrates some successful negotiation techniques. The author hypothesizes on the utility of this Cold War arms control experience as a useful guide for arms control in a single superpower world.

  8. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  9. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere.

  10. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  11. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  12. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  13. Working with the Cold War: Types of Knowledge in Swedish and Australian History Textbook Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammert, Niklas; Sharp, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of pupils' activities dealing with the Cold War in Swedish and Australian history textbooks. By focusing on textbook activities to which pupils respond in relation to their learning of a particular topic, this study identifies knowledge types included in a selection of history textbooks. The study also…

  14. On the Cultural Legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US Educational Exchange (1949-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges…

  15. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  16. Environmental histories of the Visegrad Countries. Cold War and the Environmental Sciences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšáková, Doubravka; Oldfield, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2012), s. 359-361 ISSN 0523-8587 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP410/11/P007 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Cold War * environmental history * Visegrad Subject RIV: AB - History

  17. Curriculum Evolution at Air Command and Staff College in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, William Robert, II.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a historical research method to eliminate the gap in the historical knowledge of Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) curriculum evolution in the post-Cold War era. This study is the only known analysis of the forces that influenced the ACSC curriculum and the rationale behind curricular change at ACSC in the post-Cold…

  18. Post-cold war international relations and foreign policies in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that international relations in Africa have changed especially in content since the abatement of the Cold War. These changes have been accelerated by the pressures unleashed by the international environment, including the reality of Africa's marginalisation and the forces of globalisation. These, along ...

  19. The American-Israeli Relationship Relevance in a Post-Cold War Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... This relationship has been critical during the period of cold war politics from 1948-1989. However, since the breakup of the Soviet Union, this relationship has been the basis for much of the intensified hatred aimed at the U.S...

  20. The Nordic Trade Union Movement and Transnational Anti-Communist Networks in the Early Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Dino Knudsen investigates how the American trade union movement, including figures such as Jay Lovestone and Irving Brown, established anti-Communist networks among the Nordic Non-Communist Left during the early Cold War. What were the implications of these networks, in the context of the Marshall...

  1. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... These sanctions and U.S. attitudes and perceptions were based on objectives driven by the Cold War and as such are outdated and overtaken by events. The sanctions should be lifted and diplomatic ties once again established both to support United States goals in the region and for quality of life improvements for Cuba.

  2. Determinants and Politics of German Military Transformation in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Cold War. Additionally, the prevalent antimilitarism called for armed forces that had to break with their historic record of authoritarianism and... paternalism ‖ in NATO affairs. In light of these diverging perceptions, the new Strategic Concept (SC 99), approved at the anniversary summit in

  3. The Influence of the Cold War on the Racial Desegregation of American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of the Cold War, federal officials in the United States sought to end the racial segregation that the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted in the 1896 decision of "Plessy v. Ferguson." Although the reforms began with changes in the armed services, they moved to reduce racial segregation in schools. Many forces brought about the…

  4. The Battle for the History Books: Who Won the Cold War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Adam

    1990-01-01

    Discusses liberal and conservative foreign policy contributions to the end of the Cold War, as marked by the rapid liberalization of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Emphasizes that the collapse of the Soviet empire occurred at the end of a decade of sustained conservative government in every major country of the Western world. (FMW)

  5. Engineering Science Education and the Indian Institutes of Technology: Reframing the Context of the "Cold War and Science" (1950-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a revival of research interest in the Cold War, and on science during the Cold War, from a revised social theoretic perspective. Part of this reframing is evident in explorations of the relationship underpinning the Cold War discourse and modernisation theory. Drawing on this new turn, this article switches the…

  6. Dardanel Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet EYİCİL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army

  7. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  8. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  9. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  10. 1948 AND THE COLD WAR IN MALAYA: SAMPLINGS OF MALAY REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Haji Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary report of an on-going research on the reactions of the Malays in Malaya to the coming of the Cold War to the region, with particular reference to the importance of the year 1948. For the majority of the Malays, the Cold War was most popularly associated with the Emergency, which British authorities had declared in the effort to quell the armed uprising mounted by the MCP. The vast majority of Malays in Malaya were not interested in the on-going Cold War between the Western bloc led by the United States on the side the Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union on the other. The preoccupations of the Malays during the immediate post-Pacific War period was nationalism and the concomitant effort to gain independence for Malaya from Britain. In particular, they had been rather anxious that the Malays, who were the native of the land, were not robbed of the custodianship over Malaya and political privileges of the Malays in independent Malaya. Consumed with these issues, the Malays had little interests in external affairs. It was perhaps the lack of Malay support that foredoomed the fate of communism in Malaya.

  11. Canadians, nuclear weapons, and the Cold War security dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation provides a history of Canadian ideas about nuclear weapons from the late 1950s until the end of the Trudeau era in 1984. Throughout this period, Canadians reacted to the insecurity they felt in the world around them by expressing many conflicting, often irreconcilable views about a range of nuclear weapon issues, including Canada's acquisition of nuclear warheads in 1963, the U.S. ABM program in the 1960s and early 1970s, the role of Canadian nuclear technology in the development of India's first nuclear explosion, and the Trudeau government's decision to allow the U.S. military to test cruise missiles in northern Canada The dissertation concludes with an examination of the emergence of a broadly-based, increasingly mainstream and influential anti-nuclear movement in the early 1980s, the clearest manifestation of the insecurity Canadians experienced at the time. .The nuclear debates examined in this dissertation reveal that Canadians were divided over nuclear weapons, nuclear strategy, the arms race, proliferation, and arms control and disarmament. In particular, they came to fundamentally different conclusions about how Canada's nuclear weapon policies, and its support for the nuclear policies of its alliances, would contribute to international stability and order. Some believed that their security rested on the maintenance of a strong Western nuclear deterrent and supported Canada contributing to its credibility; others believed that the constant modernisation of nuclear arsenals fuelled by the superpower arms race posed a serious threat to their security. This conceptual dilemma-the security through nuclear strength argument versus the fear that the quest for security through quantitative and qualitative improvements of nuclear stockpiles increased the likelihood of nuclear war-left Canadians divided over the value and utility of nuclear weapons and the strategies developed around them. At the same time, Canadians' ideas about nuclear weapons

  12. From Research to Reality: A Retrospective on the Development and Acquisition of Naval Capabilities During the Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colvard, James

    2002-01-01

    .... Perhaps at no other period in the Navy's history has the adoption of new technology in the Navy been as pronounced and effective as during the Cold War throughout the fifty or so years following the end of World War II...

  13. Canadians, nuclear weapons, and the Cold War security dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, M.A

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation provides a history of Canadian ideas about nuclear weapons from the late 1950s until the end of the Trudeau era in 1984. Throughout this period, Canadians reacted to the insecurity they felt in the world around them by expressing many conflicting, often irreconcilable views about a range of nuclear weapon issues, including Canada's acquisition of nuclear warheads in 1963, the U.S. ABM program in the 1960s and early 1970s, the role of Canadian nuclear technology in the development of India's first nuclear explosion, and the Trudeau government's decision to allow the U.S. military to test cruise missiles in northern Canada The dissertation concludes with an examination of the emergence of a broadly-based, increasingly mainstream and influential anti-nuclear movement in the early 1980s, the clearest manifestation of the insecurity Canadians experienced at the time. .The nuclear debates examined in this dissertation reveal that Canadians were divided over nuclear weapons, nuclear strategy, the arms race, proliferation, and arms control and disarmament. In particular, they came to fundamentally different conclusions about how Canada's nuclear weapon policies, and its support for the nuclear policies of its alliances, would contribute to international stability and order. Some believed that their security rested on the maintenance of a strong Western nuclear deterrent and supported Canada contributing to its credibility; others believed that the constant modernisation of nuclear arsenals fuelled by the superpower arms race posed a serious threat to their security. This conceptual dilemma-the security through nuclear strength argument versus the fear that the quest for security through quantitative and qualitative improvements of nuclear stockpiles increased the likelihood of nuclear war-left Canadians divided over the value and utility of nuclear weapons and the strategies developed around them. At the same time, Canadians

  14. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  15. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region: Beyond the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Joon Ahn

    1995-01-01

    Linked inexorably by geopolitics and geo-economics, Asia and North America are facing a number of common challenges in the aftermath of the Cold War. The prospects of a North Korea armed with nuclear weapons and medium-range ballistic missiles, and of China becoming another superpower, are impelling both Asia and America, and the US, Japan, and South Korea in particular, to strengthen their partnership for security, interdependence, and democracy. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region are at a crossroads, facing a new era of post-Cold War uncertainty. This chapter addresses the major trends emerging in the region in terms of changing national and international perspectives. It is important to examine what these changes imply for a new security and economic framework in Asia and the Pacific. The gravity of the world's political economy is shifting to this region

  16. Not Just About the Science: Cold War Politics and the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2016-12-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition broke ground for a series of multi-national oceanographic expeditions starting in the late 1950s. In and of itself, it would have been historically significant—like the International Geophysical Year (1957-58)—for pulling together the international scientific community during the Cold War. However, US support for this and follow-on Indian Ocean expeditions were not just about the science; they were also about diplomacy, specifically efforts to bring non-aligned India into the US political orbit and out of the clutches of its Cold War enemy, the Soviet Union. This paper examines the behind-the-scenes efforts at the highest reaches of the US government to extract international political gain out of a large-scale scientific effort.

  17. Eugene Onegin the Cold War Monument: How Edmund Wilson Quarreled with Vladimir Nabokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Conley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tale of how Edmund Wilson quarreled with Vladimir Nabokov over the latter’s 1964 translation of Eugene Onegin can be instructively read as a politically charged event, specifically a “high culture” allegory of the Cold War. Dissemination of anti-Communist ideals (often in liberal and literary guises was the mandate of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, whose funding and editorial initiatives included the publication of both pre-Revolution Russian literature and, more notoriously, the journal Encounter (1953-1990, where Nabokov’s fiery “Reply” to Wilson appeared. This essay outlines the propaganda value of the Onegin debate within and to Cold War mythology.

  18. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Ellen P.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-09-08

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  19. Competing with the Soviets science, technology, and the state in Cold War America

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2013-01-01

    For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the sup...

  20. European Security Organizations in the Post-Cold-War Security Environment. The New Frame of European Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bugai, Veaceslav

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, it gives an over view of the transformations that occurred within NATO and OSCE in the post-Cold War period, which have created and developed new security mechanisms and policies for dealing with crises...

  1. The Shifting Paradigm of Post-Cold War Counterintelligence Support to USAF Operations: A Middle Eastern Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lajeunesse, CGabriel

    1999-01-01

    The threat to US Operations in the Middle East has changed significantly since the end of the Cold War, and although counterintelligence methodology has changed with it, additional modifications are needed...

  2. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jager, Sheila M

    2007-01-01

    ... of memory, identity, and nationalism. The potential for violent military clashes in the Taiwan Strait and the Korean peninsula largely involve disputes over history and territory, linked as they are to the unresolved legacies of the Cold War...

  3. Between anti-communist hysteria and anti-yankee resentment. Salvador Abascal and cold war scenarios in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alejandro García Naranjo

    2015-01-01

    nation, over Mexico and the world. Confronted with Cold War scenarios, this public leader discredited both communism and the United States for “threatening”, the catholic integrity of the country, in several ways.

  4. Commemorating a war that never came

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war......The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...

  5. "Noi Donne" and "Famiglia Cristiana": Communists, Catholics, and American Female Culture in Cold War Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    Italy's Cold War cultural contest for the hearts and minds of Italian women was a three way struggle between the Catholic Church, the Italian Communists, and the United States. The arrival of American consumer products and models in postwar Italy and their growing influence on upper to middle-class, and eventually working-class women, provided the two domestic groups, who previously had been engaged in a bipolar struggle with each other, with a common enemy - the materialistic, immoral, and a...

  6. GREECE DURING THE EARLY COLD WAR THE VIEW FROM THE WESTERN ARCHIVES:DOCUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chourchoulis , Dionysios; Christidis , Christos; Kalogrias , Vaios; Karavis , Periklis-Stelios; Koumas , Manolis; Papastamkou , Sofia

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Greece‘s relation with the West during the Cold War era has constantly attracted theattention of Greek and international scholarship. In this relationship, continuities andbreaks become evident. The postwar era was marked by the continuation of theagonizing Greek effort to integrate in the West. Thus, there was an effort to bringrelations with the major Western European states (Britain, France, West Germany,Italy) back to a kind of normalcy. This, as could be expected,...

  7. Why we must abolish nuclear weapons after the end of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Hitoshi

    1997-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has offered a great opportunity to reduce or even abolish nuclear weapons, but the international community seemed to lose interest in nuclear weapons issues. Today, however, there are a lot of other major menaces to the survival of the mankind: pollution, hunger, poverty, ethnic conflicts. So the nuclear weapons issue is merely one of the most pressing threats to survival

  8. External Interventions and Conflicts in Africa after the End of the Cold War

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa de Sousa, Ricardo Real

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In light of the persistence of armed conflict within the context of exten-sive foreign interventions, this research investigates the effect of external interventions on state-based conflict intensity. The main study comprises four papers using a mixed method approach analysing conflict interven-tions in Africa from the end of the Cold War up to 2010. An additional paper focuses on the legality of institutional decisions over military inter-ventions in Africa using...

  9. Swedish Military Bases of the Cold War The Making of a New Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Strömberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union completely transformed the military-political situation in the Nordic countries. The movement from invasion defence to input defence in Sweden has made many of the subter-ranean modern fortresses and permanent defence systems of the Cold War unnec-essary. The current problem is what the administration authorities will do with the superfluous military buildings: let them fall into decay, preserve or reuse them – and for what purpose? The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the cultural as well as spatial foundation of a new genre of heritage industry in Sweden – the cultural heritage of the Cold War – whose value is negotiated through a range of processes by the different stakeholders involved – emotional, social and cultural processes as well as legal and economic processes. The subterranean fortresses of Hemsö and Aspö are used as empirical case studies in the article. They both describe the making of a cultural heritage and illustrate the problems related to the ambitions of convert-ing cultural heritage into tourist attractions. One of the conclusions is that the previous making of the industrial cultural heritage in the 1980s and 1990s has many things in common with the one of the Cold War. The “post-military” landscape of bunkers and rusting barbed wires is regarded with the same romanticism and with similar preservation ideologies and economic interests as the post-industrial landscape was earlier. Similar negotiation issues appear, and these negotiations are carried out by similar stakeholders. The difference is that the military culture heritage of the Cold War was developed through a deeply centralized selection process directed by administration authori-ties, but was also influenced by certain persuasion campaigns and preservation actions made by local stakeholders such as retired officers and municipality ad-ministrations.

  10. Evaluating and managing Cold War era historic properties : the cultural significance of U.S. Air Force defensive radar systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whorton, M.

    1999-01-20

    Aircraft and later missile radar early warning stations played an important role in the Cold War. They are associated with important technological, social, political, and military themes of the Cold War and are worthy of preservation. The scope and scale of these systems make physical preservation impractical, but the U.S. Air Force program of historical evaluation and documentation of these systems will provide valuable information to future generations studying this historic period.

  11. War Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...

  12. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  13. Rockets and ray guns the sci-fi science of the Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The Cold War saw scientists in East and West racing to create amazing new technologies, the like of which the world had never seen. Yet not everyone was taken by surprise. From super-powerful atomic weapons to rockets and space travel, readers of science fiction (SF) had seen it all before. Sometimes reality lived up to the SF vision, at other times it didn’t. The hydrogen bomb was as terrifyingly destructive as anything in fiction, while real-world lasers didn't come close to the promise of the classic SF ray gun. Nevertheless, when the scientific Cold War culminated in the Strategic Defence Initiative of the 1980s, it was so science-fictional in its aspirations that the media dubbed it “Star Wars”. This entertaining account, offering a plethora of little known facts and insights from previously classified military projects, shows how the real-world science of the Cold War followed in the footsteps of SF – and how the two together changed our perception of both science and scientists, and paved the w...

  14. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  15. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  16. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  17. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211

  18. Mathematical models, rational choice, and the search for Cold War culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2010-06-01

    A key feature of the social, behavioral, and biological sciences after World War II has been the widespread adoption of new mathematical techniques drawn from cybernetics, information theory, and theories of rational choice. Historians of science have typically sought to explain this adoption either by reference to military patronage, or to a characteristic Cold War culture or discursive framework strongly shaped by the concerns of national security. This essay explores several episodes in the history of game theory--a mathematical theory of rational choice--that demonstrate the limits of such explanations. Military funding was indeed critical to game theory's early development in the 1940s. However, the theory's subsequent spread across disciplines ranging from political science to evolutionary biology was the result of a diverse collection of debates about the nature of "rationality" and "choice" that marked the Cold War era. These debates are not easily reduced to the national security imperatives that have been the focus of much historiography to date.

  19. A REASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 1948 MADIUN UPRISING TO THE COLD WAR IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine McGregor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which the Madiun Uprising of 1948 shaped the Cold War in Indonesia. The uprising resulted in severe and lasting antagonisms between the Indonesian Communist Party and members of the Islamic Party Masyumi due to reprisals against Masyumi members after the failure of the uprising and the death of key members of the Communist Party at the hands of the Republic. Although 1948 can be seen as an important flash point in the Cold War for Indonesia, it was not a significant turning point because the communist party recovered from this episode. After surveying a range of interpretations of the Madiun uprising and its significance internationally, this paper provides an overview of the ongoing significance of the Madiun uprising to the image of the Indonesian Communist Party in the 1950s and 1960s. The paper examines an early history war between the Communist Party and Masyumi over how the events at Madiun would be remembered. These debates signal continuing and intense hostility towards the communist party from Masyumi supporters, which endured throughout and even after the 1965–1966 anti-communist killings.

  20. Nowhere to run, rabbit: the cold-war calculus of disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick

    2017-06-01

    During the cold war, Frank Fenner (protégé of Macfarlane Burnet and René Dubos) and Francis Ratcliffe (associate of A. J. Nicholson and student of Charles Elton) studied mathematically the coevolution of host resistance and parasite virulence when myxomatosis was unleashed on Australia's rabbit population. Later, Robert May called Fenner the "real hero" of disease ecology for his mathematical modeling of the epidemic. While Ratcliffe came from a tradition of animal ecology, Fenner developed an ecological orientation in World War II through his work on malaria control (with Ratcliffe and Ian Mackerras, among others)-that is, through studies of tropical medicine. This makes Fenner at least a partial exception to other senior disease ecologists in the region, most of whom learned their ecology from examining responses to agricultural challenges and animal husbandry problems in settler colonial society. Here I consider the local ecologies of knowledge in southeastern Australia during this period, and describe the particular cold-war intellectual niche that Fenner and Ratcliffe inhabited.

  1. Visualizing a monumental past: Archeology, Nasser's Egypt, and the early Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, William

    2017-09-01

    This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies. The dig took place as a result of an Egyptian-American collaboration designed to institute the possibility of archeology taking place along the lines of the Point Four modernization program promoted by the United States. The article discusses how this situation not only engendered contention surrounding the role of the international 'experts' appointed to run this excavation work, but also - and as a result - helped to constitute the monumental visual and material shape that archeological evidence relating to the Egyptian past could now take. Egypt's revolution sat within wider Cold War political struggles, yet the 'ground-up' realities of this relationship helped to constitute the sort of past (and future) monumentality proposed by Nasser's government.

  2. The Falkland Islands War: An Image of War in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, J

    1997-01-01

    .... By any reckoning, it was a war that should never have been fought. It was a war unlike any other war in the twentieth century, and since 1945 it was the first war to erupt outside the construct of the Cold War paradigm...

  3. "Who's winning the human race?"Cold war as pharmaceutical political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2009-10-01

    Between 1959 and 1962, Senator Estes Kefauver led a congressional investigation into the pricing practices of U.S. drug firms. As part of its defense, the industry mobilized the rhetoric of cold war and promoted the industry as a critical national asset in the global war against communism. The industry argued that any effort to undermine corporate innovation by inviting, as Kefauver proposed, greater government involvement in drug development threatened the public's health and invited socialism-in the form of socialized medicine-into the domestic political economy. This strategy proved critical to the industry's efforts to build political support for itself, particularly among the medical profession, and undermine Kefauver's reform agenda.

  4. Reanalysis of Korean War Anthropological Records to Support the Resolution of Cold Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emily K

    2017-09-01

    Re-investigation of previously unidentified remains from the Korean War has yielded 55 new identifications, each with corresponding records of prior anthropological analyses. This study compares biological assessments for age at death, stature, and ancestry across (i) anthropological analyses from the 1950s, (ii) recent anthropological analyses of those same sets of remains, and (iii) the reported antemortem biological information for the identified individual. A comparison of long bone measurements from both the 1950s and during reanalysis is also presented. These comparisons demonstrate commonalities and continuing patterns of errors that are useful in refining both research on Korean War cold case records and forensic anthropological analyses performed using methods developed from the 1950s identifications. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Political Evolution at NATO Level in Post Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cătălin Tomiţă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the post Cold era sounds like that: „The world has changed dramatically. The Alliance has made an essential contribution. The peoples of North America and the whole of Europe can now join in a community of shared values based on freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. As an agent of change, a source of stability and the indispensable guarantor of its members' security, our Alliance will continue to play a key role in building a new, lasting order of peace in Europe: a Europe of cooperation and prosperity”[1].

  6. Perpetual War?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...

  7. Currency wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...

  8. Making a homefront without a battlefront: The manufacturing of domestic enemies in the early Cold War culture 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Gabilliet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the Cold War was an undeclared conflict without actual battlefront one of its earliest charcteristics was the emergence in the United States of a homefront-based “war culture” targetting domestic enemies. 1947 witnessed the rise in news media of anxieties over alleged threats to domestic stability: in the first few months of the year, a Crime Scare reactivating pre-war concerns about the Mob and, in the summer, the first reported UFO sightings. In both cases the media and public resp...

  9. Globalizing Contemporary War

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-01-01

    There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...

  10. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A

    2001-07-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  11. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  12. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L A

    2001-07-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  13. Uranium mining during the Cold War. The Wismut plant in the Soviet atomic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boch, Rudolf; Karlsch, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The book on the Wismut plant covers the following issues: Introduction: history of uranium mining of Wismut. Significance of uranium mining in politics and science: Uranium for the strategic equilibrium; the ore of the Cold War; special zones; ''Party within the Party'', radiation protection in uranium mining; Freiberg's geoscientists searching strategic metals in the 1940ies; end of the shift. Social history and daily routine: Good money for hard work; foreign among ''friends''; personnel data; gainful employment for women and emancipation in the frame of mining; from symphony orchestra to laymen circles; the fightning spirit of pitman-sportsmen.

  14. On the home front: The cold war legacy of the Hanford nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenehjem Gerber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford plutonium factory in Washington State is among the oldest and largest relics of the Cold War and is also among the dirtiest. In this book, the author states that the release of radiaoactive and toxic waste without public knowledge poses fundamental questions about American democracy. No conclusive answers to the problems at Hanford are presented, although the important questions are addressed. The reviewer feels the book may be of use as a reference catalog, within its context as a piece essentially concerned with public relations

  15. Transnational science during the Cold War: the case of Chinese/American scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.

  16. Hot Water after the Cold War – Water Policy Dynamics in (Semi-Authoritarian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article of the special section introduces the central question that the section addresses: do water policy dynamics in (semi-authoritarian states have specific features as compared to other state forms? The article situates the question in the post-Cold War global water governance dynamics, argues that the state is a useful and required entry point for water policy analysis, explores the meaning of (semi-authoritarian as a category, and finally introduces the three papers, which are on China, South Africa and Vietnam.

  17. John Foster Dulles, his medical history and its impact on Cold War politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Theodore N; Willett, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    John Foster Dulles was the United States Secretary of State during the administration of President Dwight D Eisenhower. At the height of the Cold War, Dulles was Eisenhower's emissary, traveling over 450,000 international miles, leading United States foreign policy. In November of 1956, during an international crisis involving the Suez Canal, Dulles became ill and underwent an operation for a perforated colon cancer. During much of his impactful term as Secretary of State, Dulles was being treated for this cancer that ultimately resulted in his death in May of 1959. This paper highlights the medical care of John Foster Dulles and the global events during his illness.

  18. Smog wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospodarek, M.P.

    1979-04-12

    International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.

  19. "Agricultural Statecraft" in the Cold War: a case study of Poland and the West from 1945 to 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Robert Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the rise and fall of Polish agriculture affected the larger political and economic relationship among Poland and three key members of the western alliance - the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany - in the first decade of the Cold War. This period is revealing precisely because the reversal of fortunes in the Polish agricultural economy required the Polish government and some western counterparts to maneuver through periods of both agricultural advantage and disadvantage. Agricultural strategies as means and ends motivated the Polish, British, West German, and American governments to actions that bent, stretched, and limited some well-established practices in Cold War relations across divided Europe. By explicating the political consequences of changing flows of agricultural exports and imports in one specific context, this essay serves as case study of the role of agriculture in the global context of the Cold War.

  20. Testing times: A nuclear weapons laboratory at the end of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusterson, H.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of discursive and other practices in the construction of two alternative regimes of truth in regard to nuclear weapons, and in the cultural production of persons at the Livermore Laboratory and in the local anti-nuclear movement. In the 1980s the scientists' regime of truth was challenged by a heterogeneous anti-nuclear movement recruited largely from the humanistic middle class - a class fragment profoundly hostile to the policies of the Reagan Administration. The movement attacked the Laboratory in a number of ways, ranging from local ballot initiatives and lobbying in Washington to civil disobedience at the Laboratory. By the end of the 1980s this movement, in combination with Gorbachev's reforms in the Soviet Union and a decade of internal scandals at the Laboratory, left the Laboratory weakened - though Laboratory scientists and managers are currently working to adapt the system of ideas and practices evolved during the Cold War to legitimate continued weapons work in a post-Cold War environment

  1. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  2. Proliferating problems: US management of strategic technology after the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The end of the Cold War, political revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe, the globalization of commercial markets, and the proliferation of dangerous technologies to many unstable regions present new challenges for the management of strategic technology. Technology controls designed to enhance national security must address the economic costs of such restrictions. In relations with former Cold War adversaries, technology transfer policy must find innovative ways to encourage cooperative problem solving and pluralistic, democratic, and market-oriented reforms. Also, policy must respond to new threats posed by proliferation in a way that recognizes the limits of technology controls and the need to balance US control interests with demands for technologies with legitimate commercial purposes. Recently, US strategic technology policy has reduced barriers that have traditionally impeded the ability of US exporters to do business in the global marketplace, and US policy is evolving to play a cautious but constructive role in East-West relations. To address more effectively the challenge of proliferation, however, policy makers must better coordinate technology controls with US arms, aid, and diplomatic initiatives toward nations and regions of concern. The first steps toward more effective policy will involve breaking down inter-agency barriers domestically and strengthening emerging multilateral institutions. 23 refs

  3. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  4. For or against gender equality? Evaluating the post-cold war 'Rule of Law' reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamu-Musembi, Celestine

    2005-01-01

    The central question explored in this paper is: has the post-Cold-War rule of law (ROL) reform agenda in sub-Saharan Africa enhanced or impeded gender equality? Rule of law (ROL) reforms are seen as indispensable to establishing a market economy and democratic rule, the two prongs of the neo-liberal project. In sub-Saharan Africa, legal and institutional reforms that originated with the 'second wave' of political reform in the immediate post-Cold-War era have been justified in terms of these ...

  5. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  6. Conceptual Readings into the Cold War: Towards Transnational Approaches from the Perspective of Latin American Studies in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Manke

    Full Text Available Abstract This bibliographical and conceptual essay summarizes recent research in Cold War Studies in Europe and the Americas, especially on smaller states in historiographical studies. Against the background of an increasing connectedness and globalization of research about the Cold War, the authors highlight the importance of the full-scale integration of countries and regions of the 'Global South' into Cold War Studies. Critical readings of the newly available resources reveal the existence of important decentralizing perspectives resulting from Cold War entanglements of the 'Global South' with the 'Global North.' As a result, the idea that these state actors from the former 'periphery' of the Cold War should be considered as passive recipients of superpower politics seems rather troubled. The evidence shows (at least partially autonomous and active multiple actors.

  7. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  8. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  9. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, "Minerva," and the Quest for Instituting "Science Studies" in the Age of Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Congress for Cultural Freedom is remembered as a paramount example of the "cultural cold wars." In this paper, I discuss the ways in which this powerful transnational organization sought to promote "science studies" as a distinct--and politically relevant--area of expertise, and part of the CCF broader agenda to offer a renewed framework for…

  10. Ideological Cooperation versus Cold War Realpolitik - The SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valur Ingimundarson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relationship between the East German Socialist Unity Party (SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party (SEI during the Cold War. It details the structural limitations of ideological cooperation between the two parties – Iceland’s NATO membership and the U.S. military presence – as well as its possibilities, especially in the 1950s, through the governmental participation of the SEI. Special attention is devoted to the role played by Einar Olgeirsson, the chairman of the SEI 1939–1968, who was instrumental in forging and developing political, economic, and cultural ties with the SED and the German Democratic Republic. The article argues that this experiment in transnational solidarity between socialist parties from two radically different political systems failed in the end due to several factors, including ideological differences and the political and economic development in Iceland.

  11. “The works themselves refute geographical separatism”: Exhibiting the Baroque in Cold War Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Clarkson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the collaborative exhibition Baroque in Bohemia (1969 to analyse the significance of the baroque style in Cold War cultural diplomacy between Britain and Czechoslovakia. The exhibition’s intended purpose and its ultimate lack of impact is contextualized by wider geo-political events, notably the Soviet suppression of the Prague Spring. It argues that the ambiguity of the term ‘baroque’ was helpful to the organizers, simultaneously emphasizing links with Western European artistic heritage and proclaiming a distinctive national style apart from Soviet control. However, the wider British public’s apparent lack of understanding of baroque aesthetics undermined the curators’ aim of demonstrating ‘solidarity’ between the Czech people and the West.

  12. Nuclear Italy. An International history of Italian Nuclear Policies during the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Elisabetta; Londer, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the history of Italy’s nuclear policies during the Cold War, by placing the Italian case in an international and comparative framework. It highlights the importance the international context had in shaping the country’s specific experience, and analyzes the ways in which international politics and economics, technological and scientific exchanges, as well as social and cultural movements, influenced Italian nuclear policies, both civilian and military. All the essays published in this volume assume that the history of nuclear energy should be written by adopting an international perspective. The spread of nuclear knowledge (scientific, civilian, as well as military), and the implementation of nuclear policies, have a specific international dimension that should be taken into consideration, since no nuclear program has ever had a distinctly national character, and every country pursuing a nuclear policy has been, in one way or another, deeply influenced by the international context.

  13. The Congress for Cultural Freedom seen from the dynamics of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ruiz Durán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how, at the height of the Cold War, the British intelligence services responded to the new spy system created by the Comintern developing a secret campaign of political and cultural propaganda, under the cover of prestigious foundations to channel intellectuals in defense of a liberal democracy. This spy system expected to carry out propaganda secret operations and manipulate the intellectuals from almost the very beginning of the Soviet Revolution. The keystone to win the battle of consciences was the Congress for Cultural Freedom and its editorials, magazines, exhibitions, scholarships, concerts, congresses and conferences. Finally, it will be noted how the Congress for Cultural Freedom implemented the political conception of "non-communist left" to sustain the social democracy in the Western bloc.

  14. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  15. "Shocking" masculinity: Stanley Milgram, "obedience to authority," and the "crisis of manhood" in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Stanley Milgram's study of "obedience to authority" is one of the best-known psychological experiments of the twentieth century. This essay examines the study's special charisma through a detailed consideration of the intellectual, cultural, and gender contexts of Cold War America. It suggests that Milgram presented not a "timeless" experiment on "human nature" but, rather, a historically contingent, scientifically sanctioned "performance" of American masculinity at a time of heightened male anxiety. The essay argues that this gendered context invested the obedience experiments with an extraordinary plausibility, immediacy, and relevance. Immersed in a discourse of masculinity besieged, many Americans read the obedience experiments not as a fanciful study of laboratory brutality but as confirmation of their worst fears. Milgram's extraordinary success thus lay not in his "discovery" of the fragility of individual conscience but in his theatrical flair for staging culturally relevant masculine performances.

  16. "All in the Day's Work": Cold War Doctoring and Its Discontents in William Burroughs's Naked Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael

    In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self. Through policing the health of citizens, the doctors are some of the novel's most overt "Senders," or agents of capital-C Control, commodifying and exploiting the individual's humanity (mind and body) as a raw material in the generation of a knowledge that functions only in the legitimation and reinforcement of itself as authoritative.

  17. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  18. Between the West and Asia: "Humanistic" Japanese Family Planning in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.

  19. Détente from the Air: Monitoring Air Pollution during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Rachel

    During the period of détente in the 1970s, a Norwegian proposal to construct an air pollution monitoring network for the European continent resulted in the first concrete collaboration between the communist and capitalist blocs after the 1975 Helsinki Accords. Known as the "European-wide monitoring programme" or EMEP, the network earned considerable praise from diplomats for facilitating cooperation across the Iron Curtain. Yet as this article argues, EMEP was strongly influenced by the politics of détente and the constraints of the Cold War even as it helped to decrease tensions. Concerns about national security and sharing data with the enemy shaped both the construction of the monitoring network and the modeling of pollution transport. The article also proposes that environmental monitoring systems like EMEP reveal the ways in which observational technologies can affect conceptions of the natural world and the role of science in public policy.

  20. A Waste of a Desert: Nevada and the Cold War Chemical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Don DeLillo’s epic novel Underworld (1997 – with its overarching theme of “waste” functioning as its unifying metaphor and its picture of the American deserts turned into hazardous waste dumps or missile depots – this essay provides a close reading of the empty spaces of the Nevada desert, spaces that bear the mark left by the nuclear exploitation and the hazardous waste which have plagued Nevada since the Fifties. By linking the history of Nevada to the Cold War, and to the chemical legacy of those years, with its notions of “containment” and “weather control”, Scarpino argues that they be read as interwoven threads of the same discourse.

  1. US policies on combating proliferation of nuclear weapons after the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaki, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    Combating nuclear proliferation has been one of the top priorities for the international community in the post post-Cold War era, and the United States has been taking initiative for tackling the problems. The current Bush administration has placed value high on the effective and concrete actions - including the use of military forces - for such efforts. It is imperative that such actions should be taken in resolving the nuclear proliferation. However, the United States has been criticized that it has disregarded the existing nuclear non-proliferation regime, and that its non-proliferation policy has given negative implications to the regime. Combating nuclear proliferation should be pursued in balanced approach with legitimacy, in consideration of the discriminately nature of the regime as well as of its three pillars - nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear disarmament and peaceful use of nuclear energy. (author)

  2. Building the general relativity and gravitation community during the Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    Lalli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents a new perspective on the history of general relativity. It outlines the attempts to establish an institutional framework for the promotion of the field during the Cold War. Readers will learn the difficulties that key figures experienced and overcame during this period of global conflict. The author analyzes the subtle interconnections between scientific and political factors. He shows how politics shaped the evolution of general relativity, even though it is a field with no military applications. He also details how different scientists held quite different views about what “political” meant in their efforts to pursue international cooperation. The narrative examines the specific epistemic features of general relativity that helped create the first official, international scientific society. It answers: Why did relativity bring about this unique result? Was it simply the product of specific actions of particular actors having an illuminated view of international relations in the...

  3. Sino­Pakistan Relations and the Challenges of Post-­Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China has emerged as the world’s second largest economy, and the largest exporter of goods with 9.6 per cent of the global share. Moreover, the last two decades have seen China emerging as an international and regional power of the 21st century. Thus, in order to continue with the economic benefits, China wants peace and stability as well as to play an active role on international and regional fronts. On the other hand, Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, is a major power of South Asia. While having a developed infrastructure and vibrant political and security institutions, Pakistan is nevertheless currently facing many challenges on the economic front, including political instability and religious extremism. This paper is an attempt to analyze the challenges faced by both China and Pakistan in the post-Cold War era.

  4. Nationalism, Mass Politics, and Sport: Cold War Case Studies at Seven Degrees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckel, Bart A

    2008-01-01

    .... The masses were mobilized around myths, legends, and symbols of extraordinary power. Sports and physical culture were viewed initially as a means of creating societies more fit for war and quickly became a tremendous social movement...

  5. [Georg Friedrich Nicolai: war physician against war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2017-01-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.

  6. Scientists in the classroom: Curriculum reform and the Cold War, 1949--1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, John Laurence

    This dissertation focuses on the origins of the National Science Foundation-supported curriculum reform movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Using the Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) as exemplars of the curriculum projects that proliferated during this era, this work provides a historical analysis of the shift in school curriculum from the life adjustment, functional approach to schooling prevalent after World War II to the discipline-centered approach characteristic of the 1960s. Important factors in this shift include the rising technological threat posed by the Soviet Union along with the Red Scare in the United States, which aroused public suspicion of the ideological underpinnings of the life adjustment curricular program. The efforts of the scientific elite to develop new science curricula were welcomed as a means to combat both the technological threat of the Soviets and, through science's identification with free inquiry and democracy, the ideological threat of communism. This dissertation specifically illustrates how the key elements of the new science curriculum materials---the focus on inquiry, laboratory work, and instructional technology---were shaped by the social and political atmosphere of the Cold War and how those elements were designed to advance the interests of the American scientific community in the postwar period. This social and political atmosphere, this work argues, was not only responsible for moving science instruction away from an emphasis on the every-day applications of science toward the disciplinary structure of scientific knowledge, but also contributed to a fundamental restructuring of the substantive content of the scientific knowledge itself that made up the subject matter of the new curricula.

  7. Fissile material and international security in the post-Cold War world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    Given the number of years this organization has devoted to the issue, the INMM must find it quite interesting that the control of fissile materials has become such a high profile issue in the policy and political communities. But, this evolution in policy is a natural outgrowth of the changing world situation. While just ten years ago the United States and the Soviet Union were churning out the fissile materials needed for weapons, today these former rivals are working together, hand in hand, to corral the danger posed by these materials. And, while it is clear that the world no longer lives on the edge of nuclear war, the nuclear danger still exists, though in a less obvious and perhaps more insidious form. It is a great challenge in this post Cold War-world to contain this nuclear threat. It is prudent and necessary for the United States to be in the forefront of efforts to address and tame this problem. The fundamental threat posed by the proliferation of nuclear weapons and materials is a direct challenge to US and world security. President Clinton has clearly recognized the changed nature of the nuclear danger. To meet this challenge, he also labored to put in place a comprehensive and integrated plan for addressing this threat. The Department of Energy has a unique role in this effort because, as an institution with man decades of experience in fissile material matters, it is able to provide expertise and technical analyses which are essential in defining and implementing policy prescriptions. The President's comprehensive plan to prevent nuclear proliferation and reduce the danger posed by weapons-usable nuclear materials has four essential elements: (1) secure existing stockpiles; (2) limit production and use; (3) eliminate warheads; and (4) strengthen the nonproliferation regime

  8. The English Catholic New Left: Battling the Religious Establishment and the Politics of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Corrin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s there appeared in England a group of young university educated Catholics who sought to merge radical Catholic social teachings with the ideas of Karl Marx and the latest insights of European and American sociologists and literary theorists. They were known as the English Catholic New Left (ECNL. Under the inspiration of their Dominican mentors, they launched a magazine called Slant that served as the vehicle for publishing their ideas about how Catholic theology along with the Social Gospels fused with neo-Marxism could bring a humanistic socialist revolution to Britain. The Catholic Leftists worked in alliance with the activists of the secular New Left Review to achieve this objective. A major influence on the ECNL was the Marxist Dominican friar Laurence Bright and Herbert McCabe, O. P. Slant took off with great success when Sheed and Ward agreed to publish the journal. Slant featured perceptive, indeed at times brilliant, cutting-edge articles by the Catholic Left’s young Turks, including Terry Eagleton, Martin Redfern, Bernard Sharratt, and Angela and Adrian Cunningham, among others. A major target of the Slant project was the Western Alliance’s Cold War strategy of nuclear deterrence, which they saw to be contrary to Christian just war theory and ultimately destructive of humankind. Another matter of concern for the Slant group was capitalist imperialism that ravaged the underdeveloped world and was a major destabilizing factor for achieving world peace and social equality. Despite their failure to achieve a social revolution “baptized by Christianity,” the English Catholic New Left broke new ground in terms of showing how a traditional religion with a highly conservative and sometimes reactionary history had the capacity to offer new paths forward and remain an inspiration to progressive thinking Christians trying to navigate the shoals of a post-modern world.

  9. Fissile materials and international security in the post-Cold War world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that members of industry, government and international organizations be able to come together to discuss the latest developments in this vital field at events such as this. Given the number of years this organization has devoted to the issue, the INMM must find it interesting that the control of fissile materials has become such a high-profile issue in the policy and political communities. But, this evolution in policy is a natural outgrowth of the changing world situation. While just 10 years ago the US and Soviet Union were churning out the fissile materials needed for weapons, today these former rivals are working together, hand in hand, to corral the danger posed by these materials. And, while it is clear that the world no longer lives on the edge of nuclear war, the nuclear danger still exists, though in a less obvious and perhaps more insidious form. It is a great challenge in this post-Cold War world to contain this nuclear threat. It is prudent and necessary for the US to be in the forefront of efforts to address and tame this problem. The fundamental threat posed by the proliferation of nuclear weapons and materials is a direct challenge to US and world security. President Clinton has clearly recognized the changed nature of the nuclear danger. To meet this challenge, he has labored to put in place a comprehensive and integrated plan for addressing this threat. The US Department of Energy has a unique role in this effort because, as an institution with many decades of experience in fissile material matters, it is able to provide expertise and technical analyses that are essential in defining and implementing policy prescriptions. The president's comprehensive plan to prevent nuclear proliferation and reduce the danger posed by weapons-usable nuclear materials has four essential elements: secure existing nuclear material stockpiles; limit fissile material production and use, eliminate warheads, and strengthen the nonproliferation regime

  10. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  11. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  12. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  13. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  14. Beyond the Cold-War Reprise of the Arctic Super-Powers. Decoding the Structural Meaning of the Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McMurtry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Ukraine crisis” repeats a script as old as the Cold War, of which the Arctic was one of its main theatres and that, as suggested by Irina Zhilina in her 2013 study about NATO in the far north for issue 8(1 of Nordicum-Mediterraneum, could regain such a role, were frictions between East and West to resurface. And they have resurfaced. The ongoing Cold-War-like narrative vis-à-vis Ukraine features rising attacks by corporate states and media on the traditional whipping boy of Russia. As usual, “escalating the crisis” is the other Arctic super-power: the US. As usual, alarm about “increasing lawless aggression” is projection of US policy itself.

  15. THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD: A GLOBAL LEADER OR HEGEMON?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jonev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper deal with the role of the USA in the post-Cold War world and their position from the standpoint of relevant indicators and theoretical considerations. This work also refers to path that the United States took from isolationism to the world domination and considers justification of the position of the USA in the period after the Cold War from the point of hegemonic stability theories, while at the end indicates the diversity of understanding of contemporary thinkers regarding the position of the United States as the hegemon or rather “just” a global leader. This paper does not prejudge the final definition of the position of the USA in international relations, but aims to launch discussions on the necessity and justification of the existence of such vision on a global scale.

  16. The history of Finnish nuclear non-proliferation policy during the cold war. What did the Finns know about nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahosniemi, A.

    2004-03-01

    This article is a summary of the Finnish historical survey during the Cold War. In the article, I try to show how the Finnish Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy during the Cold War is linked to the broader context of the Finnish foreign and security policy. In the research report I have focused on several questions. One of the most important is the following: What did the Finns know about nuclear weapons during the Cold War? And in this context scientific knowledge is meant by knowing something about nuclear weapons. Basically, the Finnish national based survey of nuclear non-proliferation policy attempted to investigate issues like the kind of research concerning Nuclear Technology in general, Nuclear weapons, and Nuclear weapon policies of super powers in Finland during the Cold War era. (author)

  17. Post-Cold War Russia/West Relations: U.S. Foreign Policy Initiatives, Sources of Friction, and Prospects for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lasica, Kristen

    2001-01-01

    .... With the fall of the Soviet Union, the West found itself in a period of global transition during which they had an opportunity to redefine the post-Cold War security arena and secure enduring peace...

  18. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  19. Cold (and hot) wars: Superconductivity and society, from Weissberg-Cibulsky 1931 to the 2003 Nobel prize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waysand, Georges

    2005-01-01

    Far from being a continous flow from its discovery down to its explanation, the actual history of superconductivity has been affected by numerous socio-political turbulences all along the XXth century, through hot and Cold wars. From the 30's to the 2003 Nobel prize for physics most of these turbulences are overviewed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Cold (and hot) wars: Superconductivity and society, from Weissberg-Cibulsky 1931 to the 2003 Nobel prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waysand, Georges [Groupe de Physique des Solides, Universites Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 and Denis Diderot Paris 7, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit de Rustrel-Pays d' Apt (Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis), La Grande Combe, 84400 Rustrel (France)

    2005-03-01

    Far from being a continous flow from its discovery down to its explanation, the actual history of superconductivity has been affected by numerous socio-political turbulences all along the XXth century, through hot and Cold wars. From the 30's to the 2003 Nobel prize for physics most of these turbulences are overviewed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  2. Cold War competition and food production in China, 1957-1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how Mao's grand strategy for Cold War competition inflicted a catastrophic agricultural failure in China and victimized tens of millions of Chinese peasants. It argues that Khrushchev's 1957 boast about the Soviet Union surpassing the United States in key economic areas inspired Mao to launch an industrialization program that would push the People's Republic past Great Britain in some production categories within fifteen years. Beginning in 1958 Mao imposed unrealistic targets on Chinese grain production to extract funds from agriculture for rapid industrial growth. Maoists placed relentless pressure on communist cadres for ruthless implementation of the Great Leap Forward. Contrary to Maoist plans, China's grain output in 1959-1960 declined sharply from 1957 levels and rural per capita grain retention decreased dramatically. Throughout China, party cadres' mismanagement of agricultural production was responsible for the decline in grain output, and the communist state's excessive requisition of grain caused food shortages for the peasants. But the key factor determining the famine's uneven impact on the peasantry in the provinces was the degree to which provincial leaders genuinely and energetically embraced Maoist programs. This is illustrated by a close examination of the Great Leap famine in Anhui Province.

  3. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Molecular Basis of Evolution and Disease: A Cold War Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2017-03-28

    This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected in Christian Anfinsen's The molecular basis of evolution, with a political reading of Emilé Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling's identification of molecular disease and evolution. Beyond atomic fallout, these advances constituted a rationale for the promotion of genetic surveys of human populations in the Third World, in connection with international health programs. Light is shed not only on the experimental roots of the molecular challenge but on the broader geopolitical context where the rising role of biomedicine and public health (particularly the malaria eradication campaigns) had an impact on evolutionary biology.

  5. Between the West and Asia: “Humanistic” Japanese Family Planning in the Cold War1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan’s international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective “humanistic” was used to underscore the originality of Japan’s family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan’s delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and “underdeveloped” Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western “acceptors” subjected to the population control programs. PMID:29046737

  6. Xruščev and 1959. Contesting Consumption in the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Moretto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates an important battle-front of the Cold War: the competition on consumption. It focuses on the year 1959, year of the Soviet exhibition in New York, of the American exhibition in Moscow and of Xruščev’s trip to the U.S., considering the Soviet attempts to develop alternative models of modernity. The “consumption contest” is here analyzed with a particular emphasis on the Soviet culture of consumption in its differences with the American one. The paper uses both official and popular Soviet sources as well as the American press when this helps to clarify the difference between Soviet and American propaganda attitudes, as well as archival documents from the RGAE (Russian State Archive of the Economy. As far as the popular press is concerned, here we have mostly used the Soviet weekly magazine “Ogonek” and the monthly “L’Union Soviétique”. As regards popular American sources, the article takes into consideration the “Ogonek” counterpart “Life”.

  7. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department's first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department's legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle

  8. The use of blood-type tattoos during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Elizabeth K; Laumann, Anne E

    2008-03-01

    We have seen a number of individuals who received blood-type tattoos on the left side of the chest as schoolchildren in northwest Indiana during the 1950s. To investigate the history of blood-type tattooing. Historical research was conducted using newspaper and journal articles found in medical libraries, online archives, American Medical Association archives, Chicago Historical Society records, local medical society documents, in addition to personal interviews. Blood-type tattoos were used during the Cold War to enable rapid transfusions as part of a "walking blood bank" in case of atomic attack. Nationwide blood-typing programs occurred to inform individuals of their own blood types and to provide local communities with lists of possible donors. The blood-type tattooing program was part of this effort, but community-wide tattooing occurred only in two parts of the United States: Lake County, Indiana, and Cache and Rich counties, Utah. In these communities, during 1951 and 1952, schoolchildren were tattooed to facilitate emergency transfusions. Events occurred more than 50 years ago, so we relied on original documents and interviews from individuals involved in the program who are still alive. The use of blood-type tattoos was short lived, lasting less than a year, and ultimately failed because physicians did not trust tattoos for medical information.

  9. Petrobarter: oil, inequality, and the political imagination in and after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Douglas

    2014-04-01

    Petrobarter--the exchange of oil for goods and services without reference to monetary currency--has been a widespread and underappreciated practice among corporations, states, and state agencies over the past half century. Analyzing this practice with reference to anthropological theories of barter adds to our understandings of two significant and intertwined concerns in contemporary social science: (1) the production and reproduction of inequality at various scales, from subnational regions to the international system as a whole, and (2) the generation and fate of mobilizing political imaginaries that challenge the abstracted, universalizing imaginaries so often associated with monetized exchange, especially in capitalist contexts. Barter exchanges featuring oil are, therefore, as analytically significant as the much more commonly studied transactions of oil and money. Ethnographic and historical case studies of petrobarter are drawn from the Perm region of the Russian Urals in the post-Soviet period and the global oil trade in the early Cold War. This view from the perspective of the socialist and postsocialist world, it is argued, provides an instructive counterpoint to the many existing studies of oil and money, both in and beyond anthropology, that are situated in the European-American colonial and postcolonial periphery.

  10. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. War in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1981-01-01

    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  12. The cold war context of the golden jubilee, or, why we think of mendel as the father of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2012-01-01

    In September 1950, the Genetics Society of America (GSA) dedicated its annual meeting to a "Golden Jubilee of Genetics" that celebrated the 50th anniversary of the rediscovery of Mendel's work. This program, originally intended as a small ceremony attached to the coattails of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) meeting, turned into a publicity juggernaut that generated coverage on Mendel and the accomplishments of Western genetics in countless newspapers and radio broadcasts. The Golden Jubilee merits historical attention as both an intriguing instance of scientific commemoration and as an early example of Cold War political theatre. Instead of condemning either Lysenko or Soviet genetics, the Golden Jubilee would celebrate Mendel - and, not coincidentally, the practical achievements in plant and animal breeding his work had made possible. The American geneticists' focus on the achievements of Western genetics as both practical and theoretical, international, and, above all, non-ideological and non-controversial, was fully intended to demonstrate the success of the Western model of science to both the American public and scientists abroad at a key transition point in the Cold War. An implicit part of this article's argument, therefore, is the pervasive impact of the Cold War in unanticipated corners of postwar scientific culture.

  13. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  14. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963; Experten im Kalten Krieg. Kriegserfahrungen und Friedenskonzeptionen US-amerikanischer Kernphysiker 1920-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  15. Hollywood "Takes" on Domestic Subversion: The Role of Women in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role Hollywood and films had in defining the image of women in post-World War II in the United States. Focuses on the film, "Mildred Pierce," and offers a discussion of the content of this film. Includes a film based lesson plan and three accompanying handouts. (CMK)

  16. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  17. James V. Neel and Yuri E. Dubrova: Cold War debates and the genetic effects of low-dose radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna M; Stawkowski, Magdalena E

    2015-01-01

    This article traces disagreements about the genetic effects of low-dose radiation exposure as waged by James Neel (1915-2000), a central figure in radiation studies of Japanese populations after World War II, and Yuri Dubrova (1955-), who analyzed the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In a 1996 article in Nature, Dubrova reported a statistically significant increase in the minisatellite (junk) DNA mutation rate in the children of parents who received a high dose of radiation from the Chernobyl accident, contradicting studies that found no significant inherited genetic effects among offspring of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Neel's subsequent defense of his large-scale longitudinal studies of the genetic effects of ionizing radiation consolidated current scientific understandings of low-dose ionizing radiation. The article seeks to explain how the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data remain hegemonic in radiation studies, contextualizing the debate with attention to the perceived inferiority of Soviet genetic science during the Cold War.

  18. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  19. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  20. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  1. Arms Diffusion and War

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...

  2. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  3. Cold War Agency: The United States and the Failure of the DIEM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    the United States by complying with Western norms of democratic leadership , only later developing into an autocratic tyrant; or was Diem’s...2000s to establish democratic regimes in Afghanistan and Iraq reflect an American foreign policy tradition that began at the end of World War II. The...would eventually serve in Vietnam in a failed effort to prevent the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from uniting the country under a communist regime

  4. From Kites through Cold War: The Evolution of United States Air Force Manned Airborne ISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    regarding the Chinese use of kites in war. Likewise, Bernhard Laufer’s comprehensive The Prehistory of Aviation details many of the stories...Cayley (1773-1857) (London, UK: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1968), 3. 5 Berthold Laufer, The Prehistory of Aviation (Chicago, IL: Field Museum...11 Laufer, The Prehistory of Aviation, 35. 12 Ibid., 36. 13 Pelham, Penguin Book of Kites, 9

  5. The inner cold war: state party control and East German society

    OpenAIRE

    Willet, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The twentieth century suffered from deep ideological conflict linked to the epoch of total war and the divided character of the international political economy, punctuated by a struggle between Eastern and Western ideas, communism versus liberal democracy. To the surprise of many, this struggle culminated with the complete collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolized by the tearing down of the Berlin Wall between the Ger...

  6. Military cold injury during the war in the Falkland Islands 1982: an evaluation of possible risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R P

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the history of war, there have been many instances when the cold has ravaged armies more effectively than their enemies. Delineated risk factors are restricted to negro origins, previous cold injury, moderate but not heavy smoking and the possession of blood group O. No attention has been directed to the possibility that abnormal blood constituents could feasibly predispose to the development of local cold injury. This study considers this possibility and investigates the potential contribution of certain components of the circulating blood which might do so. Three groups of soldiers from two of the battalions who served during the war in the Falklands Islands in 1982 were investigated. The risk factors which were sought included the presence or absence of asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, abnormal total protein, albumin, individual gamma globulin or complement C3 or C4 levels, plasma hyperviscosity or evidence of chronic alcoholism manifesting as high haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, MCV or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). No cases of cryoglobulinaemia were isolated and there was no haematological evidence to suggest that any of those men who had developed cold injury, one year before this study was performed, had abnormal circulating proteins, plasma hyperviscosity or indicators of alcohol abuse. Individual blood groups were not incriminated as a predisposing factor although the small numbers of negroes in this series fared badly. Although this investigation has excluded a range of potential risk factors which could contribute to the development of cold injury, the problem persists. Two areas of further study are needed: the first involves research into the production of better protective clothing in the form of effective cold weather boots and gloves and the second requires the delineation of those dietary and ethnic factors which allow certain communities to adapt successfully to the cold. A review of the literature in this latter area is presented.

  7. La Nación, Peronism, and the Origins of the Cold War in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Román, José Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the international dimension of Argentine domestic policies by exploring one of the strategies of the conservative daily newspaper La Nación, between 1946 and 1950, in order to challenge Juan Perón’s hegemony. La Nación presented the Peronist regime as akin to the totalitarian regimes established under the Soviet Union’s vigilance. This is not surprising, but revealing the complex ideological mechanisms employed by La Nación in its strategy is a noteworthy endeavor. This work will provide a thorough exploration of the process through which La Nación shifted from its former opposition to Peronism, initially identified as a Nazi-Fascist movement, to a new articulation of the regime as a totalitarian one. To some extent this was not so different from the strategy that the United States’ (US intellectual elites were carrying out in order to justify their struggle against a former ally in war as a continuation of purpose and not a rupture. Yet, the most interesting aspect of this evolution in the Argentine case is that it emerged in an autonomous way as a result of specific national and international phenomena. This shows that the characteristics of the early phase of the Cold War were shaped by transnational processes of convergence rather than US hegemony alone.Este artículo analiza la dimensión internacional de la política interna argentina explorando la estrategia del diario conservador La Nación, entre 1946 y 1950 en su enfrentamiento con el gobierno de Juan Domingo Perón. La Nación presentó el régimen peronista como similar a los regímenes totalitarios establecidos bajo el control de la Unión Soviética. Esto no resulta sorprendente, pero comprender los complejos mecanismos ideológicos empleados por La Nación en esta estrategia es un objetivo relevante de investigación. Este artículo ofrece un análisis detallado del proceso que permitió a La Nación transformar su descripción del peronismo como

  8. Ukrainian Hybrid War – Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotărescu Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known for a long time, hybrid war taken place in Ukraine under the umbrella of Russian Federation surprised the whole world and produced the greatest worry for humankind’s fate since the World War II. The political and military analysts appreciate if the World War III does not come will at least follow a long time of a new cold war. Remembering the hybrid war is not declared, can be prolonged in time and the adversary is unknown, thus neither the aggressor state, it is hard to settle which are the countermeasures and how should be act when this clever adversary attacks you using hostile propaganda, to the limit of trick and war perfidy (the first is allowed as method of war, the latter is not, influences the political decision-makers by blackmail, military, economic and energetic deterrence or nuclear bombardments and undergoes subversive, clandestine actions and particularly it is hard to predict their consequences.

  9. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 1: Command Lineage Scientific Achievement and Major Tenant Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Cambridge Research Laboratories AFCS Air Force Communications Service AFETR Air Force Eastern Test Range AFFDL Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory...Sacramento Air Logistics Center SMAMA Sacramento Air Materiel Area SOM Skidmore, Owings & Merrill SPACERAD Space Radiation Effects SPADATS Space...a unique post-World War II phenomenon that had a lasting effect —addressed here to illustrate some of the subtleties of the earliest Cold War years

  10. 'Co-operation and Communism cannot work side by side': Organized Consumers and the Early Cold War in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Peter

    2018-04-02

    This article contributes to a better understanding of labour anti-communism in Britain through an exploration of the evolution of ideas and attitudes within the co-operative movement during the early Cold War. It demonstrates that the period witnessed an increasingly rigid separation of co-operation from communism and argues that this separation made it harder for activists within the co-operative movement to imagine a total or utopian alternative to capitalism. Drawing particularly on a close reading of the co-operative press as well as other sources, the study is divided into three main parts. The first section discusses sympathy among co-operators for the achievements of the Soviet Union, which increased during the war against fascism. The article then moves on to consider the continuing dialogue between British co-operators and their counterparts in European communist states and how international tensions shaped co-operators' views. The final major section explores the hardening of attitude towards communism after Marshall Aid was declared in June 1947, and underlines the role played by figures such as A. V. Alexander and Jack Bailey who worked with the Information Research Department at the Foreign Office to spread anti-communism within the movement. The conclusion reflects, more speculatively, on what implications this shift may have had for the medium and long-term decline of co-operation and the hegemony of capitalist consumerism post-war.

  11. Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly

  12. The 1965 coup and reformasi 1998: two critical moments in Indonesia-Malaysia relations during and after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksum, Ali; Bustami, Reevany

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the significant impact of the two crucial moments in Indonesia namely, the 1965 coup and reformasi (reformation) in May 1998 and the impact towards the Indonesia-Malaysia relationship. History had demonstrated that both events were followed by some changes in the bilateral relationship. The 1965 coup for instance resulted the fall of Sukarno and the collapse of PKI, while reformasi brought the fall of Suharto and the collapse of New Order. However, it was undeniable that the demands of international situation especially during and after the Cold War were significant factor in driving of those events.

  13. The US role in South Asia since the end of the cold war: from partisan to a balancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    It is increasingly becoming clear that the United States (US) is playing the role of a balancer in the South Asian region. The role has relevance as its presence is required by the greater mutual suspicions of each other amongst China, India and Pakistan than fears of these countries towards the US. Only the development of a trilateral common perception of shared interests amongst the three neighbours can keep the US out from the region. On the other hand, the introduction of the cold war might once again bring back the US role as a partisan. 35 refs

  14. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  15. Thucydides: Theorist of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to

  16. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  17. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  18. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  19. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  20. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  1. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  2. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  3. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  4. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  5. Nordic Narratives of the Second World War : National Historiographies Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    How have the dramatic events of the Second World War been viewed in the Nordic countries? In Nordic Narratives of the Second World War, leading Nordic historians analyse post-war memory and historiography. They explore the relationship between scholarly and public understandings of the war. How have national interpretations been shaped by official security-policy doctrines? And in what way has the end of the Cold War affected the Nordic narratives? The authors not only present the ...

  6. Revolution or Realism? United States-Iran Relations in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    a onally, psychologically and physically emasculated by the revolution. As the principal group supportimg the monarchy, the armed forces were viewed...12-14 and Patrick 0. Ada.., The Fal of th a S dhah n theLmperid Irainm For erM Air Command and Staff Collge , June, 1983. 96Ir," AwW~aU& _ p. 255. 97Fer...36.40. l2 %U~gdý B. Allmbon, Mutin Aueunen of fth AMi&l East. 19-91-96 Strategi Studwe Iztituse,ý U.S. Army War Collge 1992, p. 34. 1992 p. 26W

  7. Cold War salons, social science, and the cure for modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Cole, Jamie

    2009-06-01

    This essay examines how post-World War II Americans linked their understanding of domestic society and international affairs by using a common lens of psychological and characterological analysis for both. That lens was fashioned by social scientists and developed to study conformity and its opposite, creative and autonomous selfhood. Creativity offered a means to achieve the liberal national society they desired. Social scientists managed their technical definitions of conformity and autonomy as a way of defining reasonable political sentiment. This essay details how, ultimately, the forms of self and sociality they advocated for America were grounded in the kinds of community and interpersonal interaction they valued in their own professional lives.

  8. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristine C

    2008-03-01

    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane snuffing...weather control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  9. U.S. Maritime Strategy In a Post-Cold War World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-16

    worlo in wnIcn zne East-West squarea off across an iron curzain nas oeen- aramatically transformed . A chain reaction of nhslocic events in Eastern Europe...research will n e to exam int- tne -- ri :.me Componen t ot the Un itec St ates Natioanal M ~r z a , egov ,71tni1n the context of the changing geoo~o...experience. 12 :Zi. Historical BacKqrouna By maritime strategy we mean the principies wnicn govern a war in which the sea is a suostantia! factor. Naval

  10. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Gerow, “Fantasies of War and Nation in Recent Japanese Cinema ,” Japan Focus, accessed at www.japanfocus.org/ products/details/1707J, p. 5. In his...about their country’s remarkable economic resurgence after the Korean War. President Bush was referring to the recent anti- Japanese protests in...interests, the emotional debates surrounding 3 the history of World War II and Japanese colonialism are treated as mere shibboleths of competing elites

  11. Private Military Contractors, War Crimes and International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The end of the Cold War witnessed the growth and spread of legally established private military contractors (PMCs) playing largely undefined roles in wars, international security and post-conflict reconstruction. The operations of PMCs in Iraq and Afghanistan in the 21st century have been marked by gross human rights ...

  12. Political Leaders after the Cold War. The Case of Slobodan Milošević: Toxic vs. Charismatic Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Popoiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War is often associated with the close of the year 1989, characterizedby the regaining of independence in Eastern Europe countries that were under dictatorships.The endof the Cold War was also connected with the fall of the Berlin Wall or with the disintegration of theSoviet Union in 1991. This paper is aimed to present Slobodan Milošević, analyzed as a toxic but alsoas a charismatic leader. Furthermore, this paper analyses the role of this political leader in Serbia andalso in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The paper presents the concept of “toxic” leader, with thepurpose of identifying characteristics of this type of leaders. In order to perceive the complexity of theconcept, the paper is focused on a multidimensional study that should emphasize the intentions, thebehaviors, the character of a “toxic” leader, the impact and also the consequences of his decisions andactions. Focusing on Slobodan Milošević, this paper also outlines essential aspects which describe“charismatic” leaders and addresses the challenging possibility of the “charismatic” leaders being“toxic” leaders simultaneously.

  13. Graphical methods and Cold War scientific practice: the Stommel Diagram's intriguing journey from the physical to the biological environmental sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.

  14. The Ukraine Crisis and the End of the Post-Cold War European Order: Options for NATO and the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struwe, Lars Bangert; Hoffmann, Rune; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    of economies and societies after the end of the Cold War. An important element in the idea of a united, free Europe is that conflicts must be resolved by peaceful means and not by force of arms. 3. It demonstrates that a number of the partnerships, etc., that have formed the foundation for EU and NATO policies......, have been inadequate. Therefore, the crisis creates a need to rethink Western strategy. In the light of this new risk, the West’s existing policy is inadequate. This does not necessarily mean that the policy hitherto has been mistaken, and it absolutely does not mean that we are facing a new Cold War....... These consequences will apply not least to the West itself because the crisis has revealed differences in priorities among the Western powers and challenged the world view that the West’s policy has been based on. Furthermore, the West must acknowledge that Russia is willing to use military means to accomplish its...

  15. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear deterrence in the 21. century. Lessons from the cold war for a new era of strategic piracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Deterrence remains a primary doctrine for dealing with the threat of nuclear weapons in the 21. century. In this book, the author calls for a renewed intellectual effort to address the relevance of the traditional concepts of first strike, escalation, extended deterrence, and other Cold War-era strategies in today's complex world of additional superpowers (e.g., China), smaller nuclear powers (e.g., Pakistan and North Korea), and non-state actors (e.g., terrorists), as well as the extension of defense and security analysis to new domains, such as outer space and cyber-space. The author draws upon the lessons of the bipolar Cold War era to illustrate new concepts of deterrence that properly account for the variety of nuclear actors, the proliferation of missiles and thermonuclear weapons, and the radical ideologies that all are part of the nuclear scene today. Contents: 1- Introduction, 2 - Why Is This Subject Important?, 3 - Concepts, 4 - Lessons from Crises, 5 - The Age of Small Powers, 6 - Ahead of Us: The Big Piracy Game?, 7 - Space and Cyber-deterrence

  17. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  18. The Relation between Hollywood and the New Threat Perception of the USA after the End of the Cold War from the Perspective of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Deger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available After the end of Cold War, the USA became the only super power and there was no threat perception from outside, in other words no enemy anymore. In fact, throughout history the USA faced different threats, that is to say, enemies. The terrorist events experienced in America after the end of Cold War brought about that the new enemy was Middle Easterners. Accordingly, the place of cinema in postmodernism is very significant as it becomes the reflection of the zeitgeist and the mindset of the era in which the film is shot.

  19. Book Review: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk).......Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk)....

  20. Nuclear arms control in the post-Cold War era. New conditions, new requirements, and nonproliferation (with special emphasis on Japan and East Asia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1994-01-01

    The paper starts with a general survey of post-Cold War nuclear disarmament, pointing out Japan's positions, policies, and problems in the process. The discussion is not Japan-centered, nor is it an explanation of the Japanese view. It is useful, in this context, to recall that during the Cold War period, Japan was firmly in the ''Western Camp'', relying on the protection of the extended nuclear deterrence provided by the United States. This article is written with that history very much in mind, and by an author who for some years was in a position to represent Japan in such a context. (orig./DG)

  1. Aeschylus and War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....

  2. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  3. Revisiting and renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  4. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  5. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  6. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  7. Children of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)

  8. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  9. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  10. INTERNAL WARS: RETHINKING PROBLEM AND RESPONSE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max

    2001-01-01

    ...)--are the most pervasive and likely type of conflict in the post-Cold War era. It is almost certain that the United States will become involved directly or indirectly in some of these conflicts...

  11. Spines of Steel: A Case of Surgical Enthusiasm in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Just as the prevalence of scoliosis began to decline precipitously after World War II, American orthopedic surgeon Dr. Paul R. Harrington devised a new, invasive surgical system whereby implantable prosthetic metal rods and hooks were used to straighten curved backs. By the 1970s, "Harrington rods" had become the gold standard of surgical scoliosis care in the United States, replacing more conventional methods of exercise, bracing, and casting. This article situates the success of Harrington rods within a much larger and historically longer debate about why, when compared to those in other nations, American surgeons appear to be "more aggressive" and "knife-happy." Using Harrington's papers and correspondence, I argue that patients played a vital role in the rise of spinal surgery. As such, this article examines not only how surgical enthusiasm has been historically measured, defined, and morally evaluated, but also how scoliosis became classified as a debility in need of surgical management.

  12. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  13. Maslow, Needs, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    for individual‟s remains equally true for groups and nations.ŗ Abraham H. Maslow did groundbreaking work on a hierarchy of needs; he identified five...Penguin Press, 1991), 48. 3 Ibid, 49. 4 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, Second Edition. (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 35-58. 5... Maslow , Needs, and War by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Baker United States Air Force United States Army War College

  14. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  15. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a

  16. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...

  17. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  18. Children and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  19. The Application of Hermeneutical Analysis to Research on the Cold War in Soviet Animation Media Texts from the Second Half of the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cold War era, which spawned a mutual ideological confrontation between communist and capitalist countries, left its mark on all categories of media texts, including cartoons and animations. Cartoons were used by the authorities as tools for delivering the necessary confrontational ideological content in an attractive folkloric, fairy-tale…

  20. "If You Had Told Me before That These Students Were Russians, I Would Not Have Believed It": An International Project about the (New) "Cold War"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Bjorn; Zuiker, Itzél; Wubbels, Theo; Kamman, Maurits; Akkerman, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Bjorn Wansink and his co-authors have aligned their teaching of a recent and controversial historical issue--the Cold War--in the light of a contemporary incident. This article demonstrates a means of ensuring that students understand that different cultures' views of their shared past are nuanced, rather than monolithic--a different concept in…

  1. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  2. Device physics vis-à-vis fundamental physics in Cold War America: the case of quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Joan Lisa

    2006-06-01

    Historians have convincingly shown the close ties U.S. physicists had with the military during the Cold War and have raised the question of whether this alliance affected the content of physics. Some have asserted that it distorted physics, shifting attention from fundamental problems to devices. Yet the papers of physicists in quantum electronics and quantum optics, fields that have been exemplary for those who hold the distortion thesis, show that the same scientists who worked on military devices simultaneously pursued fundamental and foundational topics. This essay examines one such physicist, Marlan O. Scully, with attention to both his extensive foundational studies and the way in which his applied and basic researches played off each other.

  3. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  4. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  5. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  6. The Fukushima War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We know that henceforth there will be a 'before' and an 'after' Fukushima, just as there is a before and an after Hiroshima-Nagasaki. However, these two nuclear-related events are quite different in nature, and the characteristics they do share are not those we might expect. Although atomic fission is the common denominator, the consequences of their respective origins diverge - an industrial accident for Fukushima, military attacks for Hiroshima-Nagasaki - even (paradoxically, as we shall see) with respect to radioactivity. Yet their catastrophic proportions and geopolitical implications draw them together. Represented in Japan by well-known numbers that refer to the dates on which they occurred - 3.11 for March 11, 2011; 8.6 and 8.9 for August 6 and 9, 1945 - Fukushima and Hiroshima-Nagasaki are geopolitical markers, each having both a temporal and a spatial dimension. In other words, to quote the late Pierre Gentelle, these are major spatial events generating widespread repercussions, both locally and globally, and affecting political action and ideological discourse in a number of countries. Their geography is fully fledged in that it comprises a physical and geophysical dimension, thus reflecting natural phenomena, nature itself, and the individualized perception that everyone has of it - scientists, individuals, and populations alike. This is also about war. An actual war that ended with Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And a war now being fought against the invisible enemy of radiation at Fukushima and in other areas of Japan, with the country's 'hot spots' (hotto supoto), 'evacuation zones' (hinan kuiki), and other such 'exclusion zones' (haijo kuiki). A war with devastated landscape, theoretically unaffected hinterland, and a division of the land dictated by emerging battlefields; and with its front lines and a population caught in the crossfire or forced to leave. In this war against radiation, the 2011 US military (Japan's occupiers in 1945) limited Operation

  7. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  8. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  9. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  10. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  11. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  12. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  13. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  14. Nuclear war effects studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  15. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    This 11th edition of Why nations go to war analyses ten case studies covering major ... of the time (Germany, Russia, Serbia and Austria in particular), Stoessinger depicts ... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American ... to war. The nuclear option is available to both countries and the strategic.

  16. Iowa and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  17. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  18. The biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents the consensus of a group of biologists on the likely biological effects of a large-scale nuclear war. Such a war would leave, at most, scattered survivors in the Northern Hemisphere. Those survivors would be facing extreme cold, hunger, water shortages, heavy smog and darkness without the support of an organized society. The ecosystems would be severly stressed and changing in ways that can't be predicted. In the Southern Hemisphere, events would depend on the degree of propagation of the atmospheric effects from North to South. People living in those areas will be very strongly affected by the war

  19. Commentary: Warring ants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...

  20. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...

  1. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier....... Many of the German advisors to the Chinese Army had been through the war in the trenches and took the tactics they had honed there with them to Shanghai. This resulted in near-impregnable Chinese defenses in and around the city, and it also manifested itself in the introduction of shock tactics...

  2. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  3. Education and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people…

  4. Wars of Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    , both political and military, war between the two forms, the post-napoleonic, Fichtean notion of nationality (1807-8) and the historical notion of imperium. “Nationality” entered the political semantics witch such a force and shook the existing political order of empires to the ground because of its...

  5. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  6. Blasphemy: How the U.S. Government Practiced a Type of Operational Art to Defend Latin America During the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    western hemisphere, explains how U.S. policy towards Latin America successfully married a Hobbesian realism with Kantian idealism during the Cold War.4...361. 63 Hendrix, 176. 64 Grandin, 211. 27 hemisphere, and reconciled America’s Kantian idealism with its newfound Hobbesian realism to justify a...Doctrine, permanently locking America’s Hobbesian realism and Kantian idealism into a continuity that protected American interests as it embroiled

  7. Among cosmopolitan values and strategic interests: liberal and realist discourses of canada’s international security policy during post- cold war

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez M., Federmán

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to explain the liberal and realist discourses that underpinned the Canadian International Security Policy (CISP) during the post-Cold War. In particular, it offers evidence to show that Canadian governments inevitably debate between cosmopolitan values and strategic interests in formulating their respective policies of international security. After considering how liberal and realist orientations of this policy have been studied in the literature on CISP, it expl...

  8. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    the downtrodden, he stresses his own childhood experience with poverty to connect with followers...29 Cammack, “Democracy and Dictatorship in Latin America, 1930-1980,” 163. 30 Castañeda, Utopia Unarmed: The Latin American Left after the Cold War...46. 31 Cammack, “Democracy and Dictatorship in Latin America, 1930-1980,” 164. 32 Ibid., 165. 12 Nationalism is an integral part of his appeal. In

  9. [The war at home: "war amenorrhea" in the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In 1917, the Göttingen gynaecologist Dietrich published a short article about a phenomenon which he called "war amenorrhea" ("Kriegsamenorrhoe"). The article attracted the attention of his colleagues. While the affected women did not pay much attention to their amenorrhea, the physicians considered the phenomenon a new disease which was mainly caused by the war. This new disease gave the gynaecologists the opportunity to present their specialty as a discipline with high relevance for medicine in times of war. Nevertheless, there was no consensus about the importance, the incidence, the diagnostic criteria, the causes and the appropriate therapy of"war amenorrhea". Although the gynaecologists failed to define a uniform clinical syndrome, they maintained the construction of "war amenorrhea" after the war and subsumed it under well known types of amenorrhea. We can conclude that under the conditions of war a new disease emerged which was not sharply defined.

  10. Organizing complexity: the hopeful dreams and harsh realities of interdisciplinary collaboration at the rand corporation in the early cold war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Historians argue that in the early Cold War an interdisciplinary research culture defined the RAND Corporation. However, a significant epistemological gap divided the members of RAND's Social Science Division (SSD) from the rest of the organization. While the social scientists used qualitative methods, most RAND researchers embraced quantified approaches and derided the social sciences as unscientific. This encouraged RAND's social scientists to develop a political-military simulation that embraced everything-politics, culture, and psychology-that RAND's other analysts largely ignored. Yet the fact that the SSD embraced gaming, a heuristic practiced throughout RAND, suggests that the political simulation was nonetheless inspired by social scientists' engagement with their colleagues. This indicates that the concept of interdisciplinarity should move beyond its implication of collaboration to incorporate instances in which research agendas are defined against but also shaped by colleagues in other disciplines. Such a rethinking of the term may make it possible to trace how varieties of interdisciplinary interaction historically informed knowledge production. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  12. A social theory of war: Clausewitz and war reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    of war. I then show how this framework helps us understand some key problems in the political science literature on war and conflict. I attempt to show two main things: (1) that there are different types of wars (and that these differences are not necessarily related to the standing of the actors, i......This article presents a new theory of war that is grounded in the insights of Clausewitz on the social nature of conflict. Clausewitz had argued that war is a political process; he therefore distinguished between ‘war’—understood in political terms—and warfare—understood as fighting. He...... then created a typology covering a spectrum of war ranging from total to limited, the political stakes of a conflict determining where it would fall on the spectrum. I develop and modify this basic framework by arguing that the social organization of the actors has a determining role in predicting the stakes...

  13. Peace and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, A.

    1981-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties, Albert Schweitzer fought for a policy of peace and warned of the dangers of nuclear war in speeches and publications. Reading his appeals again today, we find that they have lost nothing of their uncanny up-to-dateness. Just the opposite: The disaster predicted by Albert Schweitzer is a stronger threat now than it was at his time. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Technology of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1973-01-01

    This Article is the Note of a lecture, which was hold by Engelbert Borda at the Catholic-Theological Faculty of the University of Vienna in 27. 03. 1973. The author describes the development of modern nuclear weapon systems and the resulting war strategies. He is concerned about a possible end of the ‚balance of terror’ and the development in automation of nuclear strike back strategies. (rössner) [de

  15. Australia and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denborough, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume compiles the papers presented in the conference held in May 1983 under the auspices of the Center for Continuing Education at the Australian National University. It also includes some previously unpublished scientific research. The papers range from analyses of the atmospheric and medical consequences of nuclear war to summaries of the efforts of people in all walks of life to prevent a global catastrophe

  16. Military Adaptation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    war, there was little role for air defense. In a 1924 memorandum, the air staff explicitly stated “as a principle that the bombing squa- drons ...pulling his squa- drons back from southeastern England, if the pressure on them became too great and then redeploying them forward again, if the...minute as more and more British air- craft arrived in the area. Before reality set in, the controllers had scrambled three squa- drons of Hurricanes and

  17. Cosmopolitan Counterpoint : Overt and Covert Musical Warfare and Diplomacy in the Early Cold War, 1945-1961

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenkamp, H.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343083434

    2014-01-01

    Around 1950, when the members of the anti-Nazi alliance found themselves locked into a political and ideological stalemate that none of them could afford to escalate into another ‘hot’ war, culture assumed unprecedented significance as the domain for the performance of superpower rivalries and the

  18. A literature review of medical aspects of post-cold war UN peacekeeping operations: trends, lessons learnt, courses of action and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2016-08-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of 'force protection' and optimising operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will conform to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of medical aspects crucial to UN PKOs. The intent of this article is to report on a review of principal medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKOs. This review was assembled through a comprehensive, grounded, systematic iterative inquiry of open-source articles. This inquiry revealed that the principal medical aspects in post-Cold War UN missions were the following: (1) the changed nature of UN PKOs, (2) new challenges in terms of proximity and distance to medical care, (3) expanded need for preventive medicine and disease contagion prevention and (4) increased propensity for psychological morbidity and need for intervention. Post Cold War, the dramatically changed nature of UN PKOs has resulted in new challenges mainly in terms of medical logistics, preventive medicine and psychiatry. The changed nature of post-Cold War UN PKOs altered the character of medical support most notably regarding (1) a need for emphasis on immediate response proximate to medical events and rapid transport over long distances and traversing barriers to higher levels of care, (2) proactive contagion and hazard identification and prevention and (3) interventions designed to reduce psychological morbidity. Recommendations are offered about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in identified medical aspects of PKOs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  19. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  20. American Naval Thinking in the Post-Cold War Era: The U.S. Navy and the Emergence of a Maritime Strategy, 1989-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    reoccurrence of global depression and world war by establishing regimes soon after the Second World War that addressed the factors that were thought to have...Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 1986), 164. 8 John B. Hattendorf, John R. Wadleigh, and B. Mitchell Simpson, Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial ...Simpson. Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial History of the United States Naval War College. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1984. 387

  1. The Aftermath of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Using an event-study methodology, the article analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on cases where the end of conflict marks the beginning of relatively lasting peace. The analysis considers 41 countries involved in internal wars over the period 1960--2003. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, a range of social areas is considered: basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demograp...

  2. The War on Cancer: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Is Fighting the Good Fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Located on the north shore of Long Island in New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (Figure 1) started out with a marine biology emphasis at the end of the 19th century, but it soon established itself as a prominent cancer research facility. That strong emphasis on cancer work continues today as this private, not-for-profit research institution enters its 127th year (Figure 2).

  3. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Lee E

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  4. War Without Politics: A Critique of Clausewitz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sellers, Robin B

    1997-01-01

    Perhaps no aspect of Carl von Clausewitz's classic "On War" has more continuing relevance for strategists than his assertion that war "is an act of policy" and further that "war is not merely an act...

  5. Airpower in Three Wars (WWII, Korea, Vietnam)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momyer, William

    2003-01-01

    ... (Operation Allied Force), and the war in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom). It is not my intent to analyze air operations in these wars but to see if there are trends that might be appropriate for another war...

  6. Bringing radical behaviorism to revolutionary Brazil and back: Fred Keller's Personalized System of Instruction and Cold War engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akera, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    This article traces the shifting epistemic commitments of Fred S. Keller and his behaviorist colleagues during their application of Skinnerian radical behaviorism to higher education pedagogy. Building on prior work by Alexandra Rutherford and her focus on the successive adaptation of Skinnerian behaviorism during its successive applications, this study utilizes sociologist of science Karin Knorr Cetina's concept of epistemic cultures to more precisely trace the changes in the epistemic commitments of a group of radical behaviorists as they shifted their focus to applied behavioral analysis. The story revolves around a self-paced system of instruction known as the Personalized System of Instruction, or PSI, which utilized behaviorist principles to accelerate learning within the classroom. Unlike Skinner's entry into education, and his focus on educational technologies, Keller developed a mastery-based approach to instruction that utilized generalized reinforcers to cultivate higher-order learning behaviors. As it happens, the story also unfolds across a rather fantastic political terrain: PSI originated in the context of Brazilian revolutionary history, but circulated widely in the U.S. amidst Cold War concerns about an engineering manpower(sic) crisis. This study also presents us with an opportunity to test Knorr Cetina's conjecture about the possible use of a focus on epistemic cultures in addressing a classic problem in the sociology of science, namely unpacking the relationship between knowledge and its social context. Ultimately, however, this study complements another historical case study in applied behavioral analysis, where a difference in outcome helps to lay out the range of possible shifts in the epistemic commitments of radical behaviorists who entered different domains of application. The case study also has some practical implications for those creating distance learning environments today, which are briefly explored in the conclusion. © 2017 Wiley

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi, cancer and the Cold War Trypanosoma cruzi, câncer e a Guerra Fria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Krementsov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 1946, the international community of cancer researchers was inspired by the announcement that two Soviet scientists, Nina Kliueva and Grigorii Roskin, had discovered anticancer properties in culture extracts made from the South American protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, and had produced a preparation - named after its discoverers KR - which showed clear therapeutic effects on cancer patients. Research teams from various countries enthusiastically pursued the promising new line of investigation. The story of the rise and fall of interest in the anticancer properties of T. cruzi in different countries suggests that during the second half of the twentieth century, the Cold War competition between the superpowers played an important role in shaping the research agendas of cancer studies.No verão de 1946, a comunidade internacional que desenvolve pesquisas sobre o câncer, inspirou-se no anúncio de que dois cientistas soviéticos, Nina Kliueva e Grigorii Roskin, descobriram propriedades anticancerígenas em cultura extraída do protozoário existente na América Latina, o Trypanosoma cruzi e produziram um preparado que foi denominado com as iniciais KR - em sua homenagem. Grupos de pesquisadores de diversos países buscaram com entusiasmo as promessas dessa nova linha de investigação. A história da ascensão e queda do interesse nas propriedades anticâncer do T. cruzzi em diferentes países sugere que durante a segunda metade do século 20, a Guerra Fria teve um papel importante na definição das agendas de pesquisas sobre o câncer.

  8. Historic preservation requirements and the evaluation of cold war era nuclear facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    Project design for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of federal facilities must address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act which includes compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Section 106 of the NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider any effect their activities may have on historic properties. While a cultural property is not usually considered historic until it has reached an age of 50 years or older, special consideration is given to younger properties if they are of exceptional importance in demonstrating unique development in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, or culture. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) D and D program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), site properties are evaluated within the context of the Cold War Era and within themes associated with nuclear technology. Under this program, ANL-E staff have conducted archival research on three nuclear reactor facilities, one accelerator, and one laboratory building. DOE and ANL-E have been working closely with the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA) to determine the eligibility of these properties for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1998, in consultation with the IHPA, the DOE determined that the reactor facilities were eligible. Memoranda of Agreement were signed between the DOE and the IHPA stipulating mitigation requirements for the recordation of two of these properties. The laboratory building was recently determined eligible and will likely undergo similar documentation procedures. The accelerator was determined not eligible. Similar studies and determinations will be required for all future D and D projects

  9. U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Latvia During the Inter-War Period, 1917- 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Latvia. and Lithuania in Lhe Twentieth Century. New York: Longman, 1991. Hixson, Walter L. George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast . New York: Columbia...Walter L. George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast . New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. Hodgson, Godfrey. The Colonel: The Life and Wars of...Cold War Iconoclast (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989), 7. 64 The Russian Section furnished the State Department with considerable evidence that

  10. Reexamining Fourth Generation War as a Paradigm for Future War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Charter of the League of Nations and the subsequent Kellogg -Briand Pact “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.” To demonstrate...twenty-years after the Kellogg -Briand Pact. Although the 1945-1991 period did see a decline in major interstate war relative to the immediately

  11. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  12. The Cost of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibey Asthappan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spending almost US$700 billion to combat insurgents in Afghanistan, the U.S. population should be hopeful that they “bought” something of value as the Afghan War concludes. This exploratory study focuses on evaluating operations within Afghanistan by accounting for enemy and civilian losses. Integration of civilian losses offers an opportunity to evaluate operations that represent societal losses to the Afghan people. Regression estimates using zero-inflated negative-binomial models indicate that military operations resulted in more civilian casualties than enemy losses.

  13. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  14. Fear of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radil, T.

    1987-01-01

    Problem of psychological consequences of nuclear war threat is considered. Two categories of persons are distinguished: persons who are not decision-making but whose life is threatened, and persons who make decisions but are not responsible for them. An active approach to problems, related to a possible nuclear disaster, appears to be a powerfull socio-political means against nuclear danger and also has both psychotherapeutic and preventive meaning from the viewpoint of at least a partial liberation and protecion of people against the fear of nuclear death. By their effective activity among people, physicians and psychologists can effectively struggle against the fear of nuclear death

  15. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  16. NETmundial: only a landmark event if 'Digital Cold War' rhetoric abandoned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While internet privacy has been a central concern for quite a long time, the revelations by Edward Snowden about the US National Security Agency’s massive surveillance programme have highlighted the extent to which it is a core political issue. The privacy-surveillance controversy has prompted what is perhaps the most prominent and ambitious call in internet governance history to break the dominance of the United States' control over internet infrastructure: the Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance, or NETmundial (April 2014. The article analyses the current state of multi-stakeholderism in internet governance in light of this event. In particular, it argues for the necessity to leave the ‘Digital Cold War’ rhetoric behind if the internationalisation and the globalisation of internet governance is to move to the next level.

  17. Rearming for the Cold War, 1945-1960 (History of Acquisition in the Department of Defense. Volume 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    LeRoy Lutes, U.S. Army, RG 200 (National Archives Gift Collection), Archives II. 34. James W Bragg, Development of the Corporal: The Embryo of the...including America’s Tomorrow (1932), The Next Hundred Years (1936), and (with his wife, Sparkle) Man, Bread and Destiny (1937). During World War II...specific missile systems. For Corporal, see James W. Bragg, Development of the Corporal: The Embryo of the Army Missile Program, 2 vols., Reports and

  18. Necessary Evil: The Importance of Destruction and Occupation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    world wars, the Cold War, and many other military conflicts. As the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle said, “We make war so that we may live in...of ashes—the result of systematic burning at the hands of 1 Aristotle . Nichomachean Ethics...the defeated nation and stew in the rhetoric of how wrongly they had been treated. The small number of occupation soldiers physically present

  19. Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, E.; Kramer, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

  20. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  1. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  2. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war......, and in social theory and sociology as well, there is a missing link in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fulfil that gap (Gertrud Brücher; Krysztof Matuszek; Rasmus Beckmann; Barbara Kuchler; Tobias Kohl; Klaus Dammann) Luhmann (born 1927), who...... as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do initially with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832). The central point, then, is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war...

  3. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  4. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations

  5. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  6. Suicide among war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  7. ‘Introducing the Sensational Black Panther!’ Fantastic Four #52–53, the Cold War, and Marvel’s Imagined Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lund

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses 'Fantastic Four' #52–53 (July–August 1966, in which Black Panther, Marvel’s first black superhero, premiered. It argues that the character as he appeared in these issues is best read as an example of ‘white on black’ representation, or white images of blacks centered on white interests, filtered through Marvel’s then-prevalent Cold War focus. The article first looks at the Fantastic Four as Cold Warriors to contextualize Black Panther. It then goes on to look at how Wakanda, Black Panther’s tribe, and Klaw, the storyline’s villain, are configured in relation to this context, in order to highlight the importance in the story of Cold War conceptions of and fears about the process of decolonization that was taking place on the African continent. Finally, it argues that Black Panther is rhetorically ‘Americanized,’ to better fit with US self-conceptions and to alleviate worries about what Africa’s then-recent decolonization might mean for United States of America.

  8. Uranium mining during the Cold War. The Wismut plant in the Soviet atomic complex; Uranbergbau im Kalten Krieg. Die Wismut im sowjetischen Atomkomplex. Bd. 1. Studien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boch, Rudolf [TU Chemnitz (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte; Karlsch, Rainer (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    The book on the Wismut plant covers the following issues: Introduction: history of uranium mining of Wismut. Significance of uranium mining in politics and science: Uranium for the strategic equilibrium; the ore of the Cold War; special zones; ''Party within the Party'', radiation protection in uranium mining; Freiberg's geoscientists searching strategic metals in the 1940ies; end of the shift. Social history and daily routine: Good money for hard work; foreign among ''friends''; personnel data; gainful employment for women and emancipation in the frame of mining; from symphony orchestra to laymen circles; the fightning spirit of pitman-sportsmen.

  9. Review of Cold War Freud, Psychiatry in Communist Europe, and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis and Communist Culture: Ideological Battles in the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco

    2017-08-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Freud by D. Herzog (2016), Psychiatry in Communist Europe edited by M. Savelli and S. Marks (2015), and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, psychoanalysis and communist culture: Ideological battles in the Cold War] by H. Vezzetti. On the whole, the three books show how the Cold War influenced, in various ways, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic cultures. Beyond the Iron Curtain, as one can perceive from the book edited by Savelli and Marks (2015), politics explicitly set the agenda for the psychological sciences, using them even to invent ad hoc nosologies, useful for purposes related to power. In the United States, on the other hand, as Herzog (2016) pinpoints, the political situation affected the same field, even if indirectly, as in the Christianization of a discipline-psychoanalysis-the creator of which proudly declared himself an atheist Jew. In other Western countries, the relationship between psychiatry and power could bring about paradoxical results. From Vezzetti's (2016) book, one can ascertain that psychiatric culture might assume an overtly opposing stance toward political power. Vezzetti scans the case of Argentina, and partly of France, but they were not isolated cases. In Italy, for example, a movement of radical psychiatrists understood their role as a necessary opposition to political power, having as an aim the "liberation" of patients locked up in the psychiatric hospitals (Foot, 2015). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. After the War: Nation-Building from FDR to George W. Bush

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobbins, James; Poole, Michele A; Long, Austin; Runkle, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    .... The authors start with a review of the post World War II occupations of Germany and Japan. The end of the Cold War brought a second spate of such missions -- in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo...

  11. The Yuan vs. the Dollar: China and the United States are Already in a "Hot" War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, William R

    2005-01-01

    ...., "Hot" money in FOREX) reigns as an instrument of economic and financial power. Ironically, just as the Cold War symbolically ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall, this Hot War began with another fall...

  12. Emergency Physicians at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  13. Atomic war field Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, N.

    1980-01-01

    Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA) [de

  14. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  15. Emergency Physicians at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Givens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  16. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  17. Climate not to blame for African civil wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhaug, Halvard

    2010-01-01

    Vocal actors within policy and practice contend that environmental variability and shocks, such as drought and prolonged heat waves, drive civil wars in Africa. Recently, a widely publicized scientific article appears to substantiate this claim. This paper investigates the empirical foundation for the claimed relationship in detail. Using a host of different model specifications and alternative measures of drought, heat, and civil war, the paper concludes that climate variability is a poor predictor of armed conflict. Instead, African civil wars can be explained by generic structural and contextual conditions: prevalent ethno-political exclusion, poor national economy, and the collapse of the Cold War system. PMID:20823241

  18. Climate not to blame for African civil wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhaug, Halvard

    2010-09-21

    Vocal actors within policy and practice contend that environmental variability and shocks, such as drought and prolonged heat waves, drive civil wars in Africa. Recently, a widely publicized scientific article appears to substantiate this claim. This paper investigates the empirical foundation for the claimed relationship in detail. Using a host of different model specifications and alternative measures of drought, heat, and civil war, the paper concludes that climate variability is a poor predictor of armed conflict. Instead, African civil wars can be explained by generic structural and contextual conditions: prevalent ethno-political exclusion, poor national economy, and the collapse of the Cold War system.

  19. Krieg und Literatur War and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi N. Theis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt heißt der Band 19 der Schriften-Reihe des Erich-Maria-Remarque-Archivs, in dem es um Ingeborg Bachmann und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1980 geht. Der Band enthält die Beiträge zu einem Symposion, das am 14.-15. Januar 2005 an der Universität Nottingham stattgefunden hat. Im Mittelpunkt stand die Frage, welche Strategien im Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, zweitem Weltkrieg, Kaltem Krieg oder Vietnamkrieg und auch dem deutschen Kolonialismus bei Bachmann und anderen deutschsprachigen Autoren zu finden sind. Anlass zur Tagung war die in Wien und Salzburg konzipierte Ausstellung Schreiben gegen den Krieg: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973. In insgesamt dreizehn Beiträgen wird im vorliegenden Band die literarische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Gewalt und Krieg beleuchtet.Volume 19 of the series published by the Erich-Maria-Remarque Archive is entitled “Writing against War and Violence” (“Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt” and approaches Ingeborg Bachmann and German language literature from 1945 to 1980. The volume contains contributions based on a symposium that took place at the University of Nottingham on January 14-15, 2005. Central to the symposium was the question as to which strategies Bachmann and other German language authors utilized in their approach to National Socialism, the Holocaust, the Second World War, the Cold War, or the Vietnam War, as well as German colonialism. The impetus for the conference was the exhibition Writing Against the War: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973 conceived in Vienna and Salzburg. In the volume at hand, thirteen contributions in total illuminate literary confrontations with the themes of war and violence.

  20. The cultural dimension of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kochetkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present article introduces the concept of the culture wars. Reviewed the features and characteristics of the culture wars. Described the basic methods of the culture wars. Сoncluded that the theoretical design concept of the culture wars can be a uniting point for a number of important areas of the science of international relations.

  1. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  2. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  3. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  4. The War on War League: A South African pacifist movement, 1914 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Communist Party. This article however contends that it needs to be understood in its own terms, as a pacifist movement, reflecting a political moment of resistance to the plunge into global war. Keywords: War on War League, South Africa, Pacifism, Anti-War Movement, First World War, Syndicalism, Internationalism, ...

  5. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J

    2008-01-01

    ... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...

  6. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  7. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  8. Mapping the Sorrows of War

    OpenAIRE

    West, Philip; Philip, West

    2007-01-01

    The two keywords in this essay, mapping and sorrows, are used as heuristic devices to explore the sticky problems of reconciliation among former enemies from the Asia Pacific War, 1931-1945, primarily Japan and China, but also Korea and the United States. Sorrows, as a word and concept, offers an innovative approach to healing the wounds of war by countering the powerful influence of war memories in the familiar narratives of self-pity and self-glorification. In the language of politics and d...

  9. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  10. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation (1943-1987): a case study of the interface between physics and biology during the cold war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macuglia, Daniele [Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine, University of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    During its active period (1943-1987) the Hanford Nuclear Reservation shaped the history of US nuclear research. It also constitutes an interesting case study of the interface between physics, biology and the politics of Cold War society. Although supposed to turn the US into a stronger military force during the Cold War, the remarkable biological consequences of the nuclear research carried out in the facility ended up overshadowing its original political purpose. The high-level of radioactive waste harmed thousands of people living in the area, causing relevant environmental disasters which make the site the most contaminated area in the US even today. Nuclear research is uniquely dangerous since radiation can cause severe consequences both in terms of lives injured and environmental damage. I address various ways in which nuclear physics and biology were used - and abused - at the Hanford Site to combine the needs of politics with the needs of a healthy society. This paper further investigates the moral responsibility of science to society and the way in which biological research informed nuclear physics about the deleterious consequences of radiation on environment and on the human body.

  11. A Review of Supplementary Medical Aspects of Post-Cold War UN Peacekeeping Operations: Trends, Lessons Learned, Courses of Action, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of force protection and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will adjust to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of all medical aspects of UN PKO operations, including those considered supplementary, that is, less crucial but contributing nonetheless. Medical aspects considered paramount and key to UN PKOs have received relatively thorough treatment elsewhere. The intent of this article is to report on ancillary and supplemental medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKO operations assembled through an iterative inquiry of open-source articles. Recommendations are made about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in such medical aspects of PKOs and relevance of US/NATO/European Union models and research.

  12. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugos...

  13. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  14. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  15. Religious ethics, Christianity, and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Syse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1708

  16. Clausewitz Nuclear War and Deterrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, Alan W

    1991-01-01

    .... The advent of nuclear weapons and their role in the evolving east-west struggle following the second world war created a situation, however, unforeseen by Clausewitz, where the most basic political...

  17. The Justice of Preventive War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephenson, Henry

    2004-01-01

    In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions, including preventive war...

  18. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  19. Religion As a Dimension of the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weeden, Gary

    2004-01-01

    .... The enemy embraces a much different ideology than the enemy of the Cold War. Armed with a divine mandate and fueled by anger, Islamic militants have an exclusive strategy and a powerful message...

  20. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  1. Cyber-Physical War Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Sullivan, D. T.; Kott, A

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents general strategies for cyber war gaming of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) that are used for cyber security research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). Since Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and other CPSs are operational systems, it is difficult or impossible to perform security experiments on actual systems. The authors describe how table-top strategy sessions and realistic, live CPS war games are conducted at ARL. They also discuss how the recorde...

  2. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  3. Three wars that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W M S

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses three serious wars that were averted and the three men who averted them. In 1478-79, Pope Sixtus IV's hatred of the Medici culminated in aggressive war against Florence, supported by his powerful ally King Ferrante of Naples. The initial stags of this war were indecisive, but it was about to become much more serious, probably involving all the Italian states and possibly meaning the total destruction of Florence. Lorenzo il Magnifico sailed to Naples, convinced Ferrante this more serious war was against his interests and obtained a generous peace. In 1861, the British Government responded to the boarding of a British ship by a vessel of the American North with a peremptory letter. Albert, Prince Consort, though dying of typhoid fever amended the letter to save Lincoln's face and thus averted war with the North. From 1871 to 1890, Otto von Bismarck worked for a stable peace between the European powers to be attained by arranging meetings of most or all of them to accustom them to solving disputes by negotiation. Two such meetings in Berlin secured 36 years of peace between the powers, despite many disputes, and in particular averted war for possessions in Africa, which could have involved them all.

  4. Naval War College Review. Volume 61, Number 1, Winter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Healy, among others, would contest assertions that the doctrine represented an exercise in international philanthropy . David Healy, Drive to Hegemony...formed an elite force of truly innovative capabilities during the “cold war at sea” with the Soviet Navy. Since the end of the Cold War, the submarine...evidently has extreme respect for the U.S. submarine force, the San Francisco incident appeared to show awareness that even this elite force can make errors

  5. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0382 TITLE: Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0382 5b. GRANT...of the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by Gulf War illness (GWI), the chronic condition currently defined only by veterans’ self-reported symptoms

  6. The Just War or Just a War? A Proposal for Ethical Joint Doctrine of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Sarah J

    2005-01-01

    .... It is the foundation of joint professional military education and training, forming the basis for how the warfighter will prosecute a war, and is a reflection of the judgments of senior military leadership...

  7. Innominate artery war injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Radoje

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A case is reported of successfully surgically treated explosive war injury to the innominate artery. Case report. A 26 - year-old soldier was injured in combat by a fragment of mortar shell. In the field hospital, the wound gauze packing was applied, followed by orotracheal intubation and thoracic drainage. The soldier was admitted to MMA six hours later. Physical examination, on admission, revealed huge swelling of the neck, the absence of pulse in the right arm and the right common carotid artery. Chest x-ray revealed hemopneumothorax of the right side and the foreign metal body in the projection of the right sternoclavicular joint. Due to the suspicion of large vessel injury, a median sternotomy was immediately performed. Surgery revealed disrupted bifurcation of the right innominate artery, so the ligation was performed. Aortography was performed postoperatively, followed by the reconstruction of innominate bifurcation with synthetic grafts. Control aortography showed good graft patency, and the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition with palpable pulses and mild anisocoria as a sole neurological sequela. Conclusion. A rare and life-threatening injury was successfully managed, mainly due to the rational treatment carried out in the field hospital that helped the injured to survive and arrive to the institution capable of performing the most sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  8. Prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  9. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

  10. War of Images and Images of War: Rape and Sacrifice in the Iraq War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Rial

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses one of the great issues about which global media remains silent: the rape of Muslim women by U.S. soldiers in Iraq. Contemporary mediascape is prolix. But some silences remain, such as the issue of rape during war. With an anthropological approach to the meaning of war and through the analysis of images, the article focuses on the participation of women in this male space.

  11. Climate wars and fat wars: A new role for law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Kroeze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Public trust in science is eroding because of a number of conflicts. In the sphere of climate science and of nutrition science, a basic methodological difference between scientists has escalated into what can be called wars. These wars are the result of influences such as personalities of leading scientists and powerful commercial and political interests. The wars have escalated to such an extent that leading scientists are being threatened with legal action and disciplinary procedures for advocating divergent views. These legal processes are not primarily about the procedural aspects of their actions, but are couched as being ‘about the science’. This means that legal processes are being used to ‘settle’ the science – something that the law has never been required to do. This new role for law has implications for legal education and requires that lawyers become more capable to understand empirical research.

  12. A Lyrical War: Gallipoli War through Poetry in Anzac Diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Çelikel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the First World War, Dardanelles witnessed one of the fiercest clashes in history between the British and the Turkish forces. This eight-month-war caused the settlement of British army that included Australian and New Zealand Army Corps known as Anzacs on particularly the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Australian and New Zealander soldiers and officers constantly kept diaries and wrote letters that in a sense recorded history from the personal perspective contributing to history with individual observation. If Anzac diaries kept during the Gallipoli clashes in 1915 function as secondary historical sources, they also do function as reminiscences of military officers who found consolation in expressing themselves lyrically during harsh conflicts. Some Anzac officers quote poems in their diaries and some write their own poetry to cope with the violence of war using the aestheticism of poetry. Their poems, on the other hand, remain not only as the lyrical reflections of a deadly reality but also as even more painful portrayals of war. This paper aims to read poems either quoted or written in the diaries of Anzac soldiers and officers in order to analyse the emotional effects of war on individuals. The poems will be analysed through the perspective of cultural landscape and question the influence of landscape on the perception of war in the minds of the Anzacs. From the new historicist perspective, the diaries bearing poetry will be read not as the sources of historical information but as the texts that use history as the material for poetry. The paper will also question whether or not the individual observations change the perception of official history that does not become the main impulse behind the writing of poetry but turns merely into one of its sources.

  13. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  14. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  15. War Gamers Handbook: A Guide for Professional War Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    by McCarty Little in 1912 continues today. Others have also contributed to war gaming scholarship. McHugh (1966), a NWC war gamer from the mid-1930s...select areas of particular interest to the sponsor ( McHugh , 1966). The game-specific purposes, more recently referred to as objectives, are discrete...no intent to try to win. Such a design is used mainly to promote participant learning ( McHugh , 1966). Scenario A game scenario is the scenic

  16. Creativity, Freedom and the Crash: How the Concept of Creativity Was Used as a Bulwark against Communism during the Cold War, and as a Means to Reconcile Individuals to Neoliberalism Prior to the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    At first glance, creativity in the classroom and global capitalism have little in common, yet scratch beneath the surface of "creativity" and we find a discourse of economic and cultural freedom that was used as a bulwark against communism during the Cold War, and more recently to reconcile individuals to neoliberalism in the post-Cold…

  17. A Few Considerations on the Role of the President Ronald Reagan in the Collapse of the Communism and the End of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadrian Gorun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This short analysis tries to emphasize Ronald Reagan’s role to the collapse of Communist system in Central and Eastern Europe. During his first years as president, he took a hard line against Soviet Union. He described this superpower as „Evil Empire’’, suporting all anti-Communist movements from all over the world. Since 1985, a new era of American-Soviet relations has just begun. Reagan and Gorbachev held four summit conferences between 1985 and 1988: the first in Geneva, Switzerland, the second in Reykjavík, Iceland, the third in Washington, D.C., and the fourth in Moscow. Reagan believed that if he could persuade the Soviets to allow for more democracy and free speech, this would lead to the end of the Cold War and to the end of the Communist system.

  18. Genetic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the aftermath of a nuclear war, genetic effects may appear trivial in comparison with the enormity of the catastrophic development in the survivors' health and the environment. Gross effects are immediately or subtly demonstrable on the basis of diverse war scenarios. On the other hand, in a great number of organisms, genetic effects of radiation have been shown to occur according to a no-threshold dose-effect curve, thus implying that effects may be found even in situations and population groups where other direct effects are small. The discussions on the effects of nuclear war have indicated that whatever sector of effects is focused on, closer examination has, in each case - be it treatment of casualties, effects on climate, or effects on world trade - led to a picture of possible and often probable catastrophic collapse

  19. Possible consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war

  20. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...... outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. RESULTS: As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans...

  1. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  2. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  3. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Post-cold war United Nations peacekeeping operations: a review of the case for a hybrid level 2+ medical treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War, UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs) have become larger, more mobile, multi-faceted and conducted over vast areas of remote, rugged, and harsh geography. They have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. Yet progressively there have been expectations of financial restraint and austerity. Additionally, UN PKOs have become more "robust," that is, engaged in preemptive, assertive operations. A statistically positive and significant relationship exists between missions' size, complexity, remoteness, and aggressive tenor and a higher probability of trauma or death, especially as a result of hostile actions or disease. Therefore, in the interest of "force protection" and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is health care and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support must conform to the general intent and structure of current UN PKOs to become more streamlined, portable, mobile, compartmentalized, and specialized, but also more varied and complex to address the medical aspects of these missions cost-efficiently. This article contends that establishing a hybrid level 2-a level 2 with level 3 modules and components (i.e., level 2+)-is a viable course of action when considering trends in the medical aspects of Post-Cold War UN PKOs. A level 2 medical treatment facility has the potential to provide needed forward mobile medical treatment, especially trauma care, for extended, complex, large-scale, and comprehensive UN PKOs. This is particularly the case for missions that include humanitarian outreach, preventive medicine, and psychiatry. The level 2 treatment facility is flexible enough to expand into a hybrid level 2+ with augmentation of modules based on changes in mission requirements and variation in medical aspects.

  5. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  7. Former Prisoner of War Statistical Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...

  8. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....

  9. The War in Afghanistan: A Strategic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herring, G

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a strategic analysis of the war in Afghanistan. It begins by articulating the United States' strategic objectives for the war, the approaches taken to achieve those objectives, and the resources employed in each approach...

  10. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  11. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugoslavs’ examples, where ethnic violence in after war period was overshadowed by general suffering from foreign occupants and local traitors in the Second World War. Instead of reassessment of existing ethnic and national identities, the process of reconciliation between Croatian and Serbian community after the Second World War was exhilarated with radical changes of collective identities.

  12. Patterns of War Termination: A Statistical Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, II, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    .... Specifically, this thesis addressed questions concerning the most relevant factors toward predicting both the outcomes of interstate wars and the winners of intrastate and extra-systemic wars, within...

  13. From World War to Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    The development of media attitudes to the Soviet Union from an alliance-loyalty attitude to division of aiitudes into support for and oppositon to and fear of the Soviet Union. A third voice accepted Soviet claims that they sought peace and cooperation with the West....

  14. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  15. Nuclear war as false memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Timberlake

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Timberlake outlines aspects of his creative practice as an artist, explaining his fascination for the ‘fictions of nuclear war’ – a war that never happened and so became the subject of ‘false memory’. Highlighting discontinued historical trajectories, the author shows how the cultural legacy of Britain’s nuclear test programme of the 1950s and ’60s may be explored meaningfully in paintings and photography resulting from his archival research at the Imperial War Museum in London.

  16. 17. The Thirty Years War

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, David

    2013-01-01

    Without any question the period of the Thirty Years War, from 1618 to 1648, was one of the most horrifying in the history of Germany. Not only were huge numbers of soldiers killed in battle in virtually every part of the Holy Roman Empire, but even greater numbers of the civilian population died in the conflict or through starvation or disease. Houses, churches, villages and towns were burnt and destroyed, and by the end of the war the population had been reduced from about sixteen millions t...

  17. War and Peace: an Economic Liberalist Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. HUNG

    2009-01-01

    In a simple formal model of two-country, two-good with an elementary Conflict Technology, we use a rudimentary game theoretics to study the matter of war and peace, where under peace, cooperative exchange takes place, and where, in case of war, the winner takes all through appropriation of the whole endowment left after payment of armament expenditures. We provide conditions under which war is inevitable, then go on to characterize situations where war, still probable, is not necessarily the ...

  18. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  19. Economic Origins of War and Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Why do wars happen, and what do societies fight over? Why are international relations sometimes fearful and aggressive and other times harmonious? I show that these questions can be fruitfully explored by importing some basic economic theory into the existing bargaining theory of war. A separate essay analyzes the interactions between the United States and countries that may be pursuing nuclear weapons. "Costly Peace: A New Rationalist Explanation for War" posits a new explanation for war: so...

  20. The Effect of War on the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan, Li; Lu, Wang

    2008-01-01

    Since 1991 the Gulf war occurred, global concern on human being health and environmental damages has continued to increase. This project assesses the damages caused by the war to environment. Wars started by countries could bring infinite damages to the natural environment; in this project we intend to discuss and clarify our viewpoint that” the impacts of war on the environment most have negative effects”. We also focus on the fundamental information for understanding the further developing ...

  1. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Bruck

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  2. North Dalmatian Outline Of War Ethnology

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Jadran

    2016-01-01

    The text presents the anthropological, ethnological and ethnographic interests in the war, problematizes them within the borders of North Dalmatia and suggests possible future disciplinary interests. The war ethnography is a type of text which can be useful in the local communities which are still recovering from the effects of the war. Compared with the global practice of dealing with these topics, it can be assumed that the corpus of the war ethnography would have cultural, social and scien...

  3. The State, War, and the State of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to offer an understanding of the relationship between war making and state creation in the world have been undertaken by many international relations and strategic studies scholars. In most of these attempts attention has been focused on how state making in Europe differed from that in other parts of the world.

  4. The Unprincipled War: Looking at the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-18

    Unidad Movid de Patrullaje Rural iv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Drug war - reality or rhetoric? Drugs from Latin America kill an estimated 10,000...PiP), the Peruvian equivalent to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Unidad Movil de Patrullaje Rural (UMOPR), the agency charged exclusively

  5. Penetrating abdominal war injuries among the war victims at Lacor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospital for prompt and appropriate treatment. All cases of such injuries should have exploratory laparotomy as soon as possible. Introduction. Penetrating abdominal injuries among the war wounded present a challenge in its management especially in a situation with limited human and financial resources such as ours.

  6. Effect of war on the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Antoine B; Nassar, Anwar H; Usta, Ihab M; Zreik, Tony G; Abu Musa, Antoine A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of a short period of war on the menstrual cycles of exposed women. Six months after a 16-day war, women in exposed villages aged 15-45 years were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their menstrual history at the beginning, 3 months after, and 6 months after the war. A control group, not exposed to war, was also interviewed. The data collected were analyzed to estimate the effect of war on three groups of women: those who stayed in the war zone for 3-16 days (Group A), those who were displaced within 2 days to safer areas (Group B), and women not exposed to war or displacement (Group C-control). More than 35% of women in Group A and 10.5% in Group B had menstrual aberrations 3 months after the cessation of the war. These percentages were significantly different from each other and from that in Group C (2.6%). Six months after the war most women regained their regular menstrual cycles with the exception of 18.6% in Group A. We found a short period of war, acting like an acute stressful condition, resulted in menstrual abnormalities in 10-35% of women and is probably related to the duration of exposure to war. This might last beyond the war time and for more than one or two cycles. In most women the irregular cycles reversed without any medical intervention. II.

  7. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  8. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  9. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  10. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  11. Churches, chaplains and the Great War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    When in 1914 the European nations mobilised for war, the churches followed suit. Notwithstanding pre-war church peace conferences and close international cooperation, most churches and churchmen immediately and whole-heartedly supported their nation’s participation in war and provided the religious

  12. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva; Erke Kartabayeva; Nurzipa Alpysbayeva

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  13. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  14. Preparing Potential Senior Army Leaders for the Future: An Assessment of Leader Development Efforts in the Post-Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, David

    2002-01-01

    ... that could prove problematic in future missions. The paper then describes the current institutional training most relevant to developing competencies for such missions and notes its limited attention to the nondoctrinal, other-than-war missions...

  15. The atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his recent research that has uncovered the fact that nuclear war may carry in its wake a climatic catastrophe, which he calls ''nuclear winter.'' He says the effects of nuclear war would not be restricted to the combatant nations. Agriculture in the Northern Hemisphere would be devasted by even a ''small'' nuclear war. The propagating ecological consequences all over the Earth are likely to be severe. The Southern Hemisphere will be cold and dark. Global arsenals, now about twenty times the nuclear winter threshold, are growing

  16. Receptor visualization and the atomic bomb. A historical account of the development of the chemical neuroanatomy of receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, J M; Mengod, G

    2018-03-01

    This is a historical account of how receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs got to be seen at the regional, cellular, and subcellular levels in brain, in the years going from the end of the World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War (1945-1991). The realization in the US of the problem of mental health care, as a consequence of the results of medical evaluation for military service during the war, let the US Government to act creating among other things the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). Coincident with that, new drug treatments for these disorders were introduced. War science also created an important number of tools and instruments, such as the radioisotopes, that played a significant role in the development of our story. The scientific context was marked by the development of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and the introduction in the early 80's of the DNA recombinant technologies. The concepts of chemical neurotransmission in the brain and of receptors for drugs and transmitters, although proposed before the war, where not generally accepted. Neurotransmitters were identified and the mechanisms of biosynthesis, storage, release and termination of action by mechanisms such as reuptake, elucidated. Furthermore, the synapse was seen with the electron microscope and more important for our account, neurons and their processes visualized in the brain first by fluorescence histochemistry, then using radioisotopes and autoradiography, and later by immunohistochemistry (IHC), originating the Chemical Neuroanatomy. The concept of chemical neurotransmission evolved from the amines, expanded to excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, then to neuropeptides and finally to gases and other "atypical" neurotransmitters. In addition, coexpression of more than one transmitter in a neuron, changed the initial ideas of neurotransmission. The concept of receptors for these and other messengers underwent a significant evolution from an abstract

  17. The Civil War and Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  18. Simulating the Fog of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    along with death , is what distinguishes war from peace, yet commercial board wargames have traditionally made no morc effort to impose the former upon the...shiny paper map. Burnside would have had no bridge named after him if he had ordered a single horseman to ride into the easily fordable Antietam Creek

  19. boer war (1899–1902)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    André Wessels, a professor of history at the University of the Free State in. Bloemfontein, South Africa, and currently also a Visiting Fellow in the School of. Humanities and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales, at the Australian. Defence Force Academy in Canberra, is an established Anglo-Boer War historian. In.

  20. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  1. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  2. The Operational Level of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Lessons from the Russo-Japanese War." United Service Magazine 30 (October 1904-March 1905):112+. Caemmerer, Rudolf von. The Development of Strategical...over the German operational plan for the western offensive, 1940.] Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1957. This is the best work on the subject. Kissel

  3. John Dumbrell, Rethinking the Vietnam War.

    OpenAIRE

    Gratale, Joseph Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the conclusion of the Vietnam War in the early 1970s, the USA has been involved in a number of wars and military interventions throughout the world.  From the US invasion of Grenada in 1983 and the Persian Gulf War of 1991, to the US wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in the early 21st century, the USA has found a variety of justifications and rationales in pursuing its national interests through the implementation of war.  In spite of the frequency and impacts of US military interventions ov...

  4. Political theology and eschatological war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griško Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to describe the antagonism that constitutes the eschatological position, i.e., the inseparability of eschatology from a concept of eschatological war, through 1 the political theology of Carl Schmitt, 2 Orthodox Christological anthropology and 3 the nomadology of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Schmitt's political theology can be understood as a theory of eschatological war. The theological character of Schimtt's work entails that 'the secularisation of theological concepts' is constitutive of the eschatological concept of cosmological finitude. Moreover, Schmitt's distinction between friend and enemy, which informs his concept of politics as the 'political', aims to identify the primary antagonism of eschatological history. For Schmitt, the liberal end of history is the absolutisation of the enemy, as liberalism denies the fundamental distinction of the political, namely, liberalism maintains that war is over on the basis of its claim to immanent historical truth. From the position of Orthodox Christological anthropology, liberalism also contains a clear eschatological element. The anthropology of liberalism is consistent with the gnomic will, which, according to St. Maximus the Confessor, is the fallen definition of human freedom, i.e., freedom as choice. Freedom as the natural will, in contrast, determines the ethical mission of man as the soteriological deification of cosmos. The lines of eschatological war can be further illustrated through the work of Deleuze and Guattari as well as Heinz Von Foerster, whose concepts of diagram/ abstract machine and trivial/non-trivial machine may contribute to an understanding of how a concept of war informs the transformative cosmology which belongs to the eschatological logic of cosmic finitude and deification, theosis.

  5. Food availability after nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of acute-phase food shortage vulnerabilities for 15 countries clearly indicates that in many countries massive levels of malnutrition and starvation are a possible outcome of a major nuclear war. The principal direct cause of such food shortages would be the climatic disturbances and societal disruptions during the initial post-war year. Even without climatic disturbances, import-dependent countries could suffer food shortages. Many of the countries with the highest levels of agricultural production and storage would probably be targets of nuclear weapons. It seems unlikely that food exports would continue from severely damaged countries, thus propagating effects to non-combatant countries. A similar analysis of food storage vulnerability in 130 countries indicates that a majority of people live in countries with inadequate food stores for such major perturbations. This is true even if consumption rates of 1,000 kcal . person/sup -1/ . day/sup -1/ are assumed rather than 1,500 kcal . person/sup -1/ . day/sup -1/. This vulnerability is particularly severe in Africa, and South America. Even though most of the countries of these continents have no nuclear weapons and are not likely to be targeted, the human consequences of a major nuclear war could be nearly as severe as in the principal combatant countries. Few countries would have sufficient food stores for their entire population and massive mortality would result if only pre-harvest levels were available. These conclusions represent an aspect of nuclear war that has only been recently realized. The possibility of climatic disturbances following a large nuclear war has introduced a new element to the global consequences expected. Not only are the populations of the major combatant countries at risk in a nuclear exchange, but also most of the global human population

  6. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    after his return.432 Seventy- five Gulf War personnel were hospitalized for chicken pox during deployment.1431 Only a few cases of viral hepatitis were...and independent of circulating uranium levels. Of particular interest are findings from an ongoing study at the University of New Mexico indicating that...periods, can produce chronic neurological or behavioral effects. The New Mexico study is an important example of a particularly relevant approach

  7. Nerves of steel: Canadians devised formula for international oil ventures behind enemy lines in the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2002-01-01

    development and to obtain a commitment to use them for community development rather than war. Talisman Energy is also ready to export the community relations and benefits techniques being learned in Sudan to all its international interests

  8. Nerves of steel: Canadians devised formula for international oil ventures behind enemy lines in the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2002-06-03

    proceeds from the oil development and to obtain a commitment to use them for community development rather than war. Talisman Energy is also ready to export the community relations and benefits techniques being learned in Sudan to all its international interests.

  9. Mars at war

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Whether the climate of early Mars was warm and wet or cold and dry remains unclear, but the debate is overheated. With a growing toolbox and increasing data to tackle the open questions, progress is possible if there is openness to bridging the divide.

  10. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  11. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  12. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  13. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations.

  14. The evolving war on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A; Gray, Nathanael S; Baselga, Jose

    2011-04-01

    Building on years of basic scientific discovery, recent advances in the fields of cancer genetics and medicinal chemistry are now converging to revolutionize the treatment of cancer. Starting with serendipitous observations in rare subsets of cancer, a paradigm shift in clinical research is poised to ensure that new molecular insights are rapidly applied to shape emerging cancer therapies. Could this mark a turning point in the "War on Cancer"? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling Cyber Physical War Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    games share similar constructs. We also provide a game-theoretic approach to mathematically analyze attacker and defender strategies in cyber war...Military Practice of Course-of-Action Analysis 4 2. Game-Theoretic Method 7 2.1 Mathematical Model 7 2.2 Strategy Selection 10 2.2.1 Pure...officers, hundreds of combat and support vehicles, helicopters, sophisticated intelligence and communication equipment and specialists , artillery and

  16. Japanese physicist during the war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Nambu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The japanese interest for the science is comparatively recent and one of the first japanese physicist is Hantoro Nagaoka with an atomic model in 1903. During the war the physicist take refuge in the theory and two universities proper in spite of difficult working conditions. This paper goes over the historical aspects of the japanese scientific research and contributions to the nucleus physic. (A.L.B.)

  17. War Termination: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    UA25 .L342 2009) Mandel, Robert . The Meaning of Military Victory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006. 190pp. (U163 .M266 2006) Marshall, Monty G., and...Ted Robert Gurr. Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy. College Park: Center for...18pp. (AD-A468-990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA468990 Raymer , James H. In Search of Lasting Results: Military War Termination Doctrine. Fort

  18. The Nature of War Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    of Positivism , 1848, Auguste Comte presents the Hierarchy of Science that is in general use today. Mathematics is at the top of Comte‟s hierarchy of...as those of September 11, 2001, should be punitive or legal and should not provoke full altruistic war. The final insight is that the Information...and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic governance. It is characterized by a state‟s right of political self-determination, legal

  19. Climatic effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent windstorms, toxic smog and persistent radioactive fallout - in short, the combination of conditions that has come to be known as nuclear winter. In brief, the authors' initial results, published in Science in December, 1983, showed that the potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war...are serious. Significant hemispherical attenuation of the solar radiation flux and subfreezing land temperatures may be caused by fine dust raised in high-yield nuclear surface bursts and by smoke from city and forest fires ignited by airbursts of all yields. Subsequent studies, based on more powerful models of the general circulation of the earth's atmosphere, have tended to confirm both the validity of the authors' investgative approach and the main thrust of their findings. Most of this article is devoted to reviewing the current state of knowledge on this vital issue

  20. Climatic effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covey, C.

    1985-01-01

    Global climatic consequences of a nuclear war have, until recently, been assumed to be insignificant compared with the obviously devastating direct effects from blast, heat, and short-term fallout. But a number of investigations carried out over the past few years indicate that climatic impact could actually be severe enough to threaten the global ecosystem significantly, including regions that may not have been directly involved in the war. This change in perception comes as researchers realize that the fires ignited by nuclear explosions would generate so much smoke that, even spread over a large portion of Earth's surface, densities could be high enough to block most of the sunlight normally reaching the ground. As a result, temperatures could decrease below freezing in a nuclear winter lasting weeks to months. Smoke from fires is what would make nuclear winter so severe. Of necessity, theoretical models are relied upon to estimate the climatic impact of nuclear war. The models incorporate many uncertain assumptions, particularly regarding the small-scale details of smoke production by fires

  1. Post Gulf War oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the spin-offs from the Gulf War will be a change in the old order within OPEC. With Iraq and Kuwait production stopped because of the war, output from OPEC countries is around 23.5 million barrels per day compared with about 20 million last August before the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. It is reported that there are some 225 to 235 million barrels of oil in inventory, worldwide, above normal levels. As seen in the accompanying graph, oil prices have drifted back to about the same level as in March 1990 from the wartime high of nearly $40/bbl. Before the invasion, Saudi Arabia's quota was 5.4 million bbls per day. Since then, Saudi has pumped at 7.7 to 7.9 bbls per day with plans to reactivate shut-in wells which will bring production capability to 10 million bbls per day. Other OPEC countries are at maximum capacity and some, Venezuela, for example, are also in the process of expanding production. This article discusses the effect of the war on the future oil supply, other countries' response to Iraq oil production, and prediction of possible oil price response

  2. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  3. Science, ethics and war: a pacifist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited.

  4. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  5. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  6. The War of Ideas: An Abandoned Front in the Global War on Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allegretti, Joseph A

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the United States is losing the "war of ideas." The U.S. Department of State is the lead agency for strategic communications in the war of ideas, as distinguished from the U.S...

  7. The 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War: An Analysis Using the Principles of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glazer, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War provides the operational commander with an excellent opportunity to examine the importance of the application, or misapplication, of the principles of war in a conflict...

  8. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called 'waste' is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented

  9. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  10. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of atomic power generation, and explained that it was already put into practice in the U.S. and Europe. The images of Japanese people enjoying the “blessing” of the “peaceful” use of atomic energy, ten years after the traumatic experience of A-bombs, were not only shown all over Japan, but also translated into different languages and shown in many countries, including the UK, Finland, Indonesia, Sudan, and Venezuela. The film was part of some fifty educational and documentary films produced for President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” campaign – a global information dissemination programs on the U.S. leadership in the civilian use of nuclear energy. This paper will explore the roles USIS films played in disseminating information on the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy in the early Cold War era.

  11. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  12. The physicians and the nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper shows that a lot of physicians in the world are worried about a new nuclear war and they created the International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War. The main objectives of the IPPNNW are to amplify the public or people knowledge of the medical aspects of the nuclear war and promote and coordinate researches about the medical and psychological effects of the nuclear weapon race. (author)

  13. What is New in New Wars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    it is appropriate to briefly summarize classical war theory. Many theorists and practitioners have studied war. Plato , Thucydides, Sun Tzu, Jomini and... rational purpose, where pride reigns, where emotions are paramount and where instinct is king.13 War is also a place where we are prevented from...be associated with the existence of societies or states, of state interests and of rational and irrational calculation on how they may be achieved

  14. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  15. Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0480 TITLE: Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D...Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0480 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ashok K...biodegradable polymer nanosystems (nCUR) for alleviating cognitive, memory and mood impairments in a rat model of gulf war illness (GWI). Specific

  16. Hybrid Wars: Israel’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Grachikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to summarize the experience of Israel in the fight against non-traditional threats, which escalated into a hybrid war. Feature of these wars lies in the fact that they are usually conducted between Western and non-Western countries in the border and poorly controlled space. West opponents favor alliances and associations of non-Western countries and non-state actors. In this case, to justify the war, the norms of international law are used.

  17. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the head...

  18. Russian deserters of World War I

    OpenAIRE

    Os'kin Maksim

    2014-01-01

    Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion sca...

  19. Food and War in Herodotus’ Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the way Herodotus relates food and war in his work. In the first part we consider the economic causes of war, those related to populations’ food supplies. In the second part we focus on the role of food in a war scenario. In spite of the great relevance given by Herodotus in the construction of his war narratives to the characters of kings and generals, the Greek historian is perfectly aware of the economic implications the military conflicts usually have throughout the history of mankind.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_7

  20. America’s Longest War – the War on Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrwisz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The problem of using illicit drugs in the United States, which is the largest drug consumer in the world, is an important and controversial subject. The prohibition, which aimed to eliminate alcohol from the American society, ended in a failure. In the case of federal drug legislation, the first acts appeared exactly one hundred years ago. The next, intense phase began in 1970 during the presidency of Richard Nixon, when the war on drugs has been declared. Until this day, the number of acts a...