WorldWideScience

Sample records for wapa

  1. 76 FR 28767 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region..., Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ... Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ 85005-6457, (602...

  2. 76 FR 8730 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region.... Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration... ancillary service rates for the Desert Southwest Customer Service Region in accordance with section 302 of...

  3. 78 FR 35022 - Parker-Davis Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ...), a power marketing administration within the Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to extend the... transmission service, firm transmission service of Salt Lake City Area/Integrated Projects power, and non-firm...

  4. 78 FR 56692 - Colorado River Storage Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-161

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... existing Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Firm Power Rate and the Colorado River Storage...-6372, email [email protected] , or Mr. Rodney Bailey, Power Marketing Manager, CRSP Management Center...: Western Area Power Administration Temporary Extension for Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Firm...

  5. 75 FR 57912 - Boulder Canyon Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... by the Contractor's contingent capacity percentage as provided by contract. Forecast Rates Energy... existing formula, the rates for BCP electric service consist of a base charge, a capacity rate, and an energy rate. The provisional base charge is $75,182,522, the provisional capacity rate is $1.90 per...

  6. 77 FR 34381 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-157

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... factor of the rate increase is when the existing rates were developed, purchase power was handled at the... and comment period to be considered in Western's decision process. As access to Western facilities is... designed to recover an annual revenue requirement that includes operation and maintenance, purchase power...

  7. 75 FR 6380 - Provo River Project Rate Order No. WAPA-149

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... kilowatts. The PRP power is marketed according to a marketing plan that was approved and published in the Federal Register on November 21, 1994. This marketing plan allows Western to market the output of the PRP to customers of Utah Municipal Power Agency, Utah Associated Municipal Power Systems, and Heber Light...

  8. 78 FR 19700 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-157

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... the proposed rates. Response: These costs are associated with the PPW program for Western's BA in the... program, including required reserves, and will work collaboratively with customers as additional... by the service agreement or contract. Adjustments for Reactive Power: There shall be no entitlement...

  9. 75 FR 5315 - Boulder Canyon Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ..., and uprating program payments. The total costs are offset by the projected revenue from water sales, visitor center, water pump energy sales, facilities use charges, regulation, reactive supply and voltage...

  10. 76 FR 56433 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... of transmission was included in the Point-to-Point Transmission Service, Rate Schedules L- FPT1 and L... integrates resource plans ahead of time, maintains load- interchange-generation balance within a Balancing... Allocation Criteria (Marketing Plan). Firm Point-to-Point Transmission The highest priority Service...

  11. 76 FR 61183 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... of transmission was included in the Point-to-Point Transmission Service, Rate Schedules L- FPT1 and L... integrates resource plans ahead of time, maintains load-interchange- generation balance within a Balancing... Allocation Criteria (Marketing Plan). Firm Point-to-Point Transmission The highest priority transmission...

  12. 76 FR 5148 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... depreciation expenses. The calculation is: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TN28JA11.017 This represents a change in... environmental impact statement should be prepared or if this action can be categorically excluded from those...

  13. Live-cell and super-resolution imaging reveal that the distribution of wall-associated protein A is correlated with the cell chain integrity of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y; Su, Q P; Xue, B; Shao, S; Zhu, Y; Xu, X; Wei, S; Sun, Y

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a primary pathogen responsible for dental caries. It has an outstanding ability to form biofilm, which is vital for virulence. Previous studies have shown that knockout of Wall-associated protein A (WapA) affects cell chain and biofilm formation of S. mutans. As a surface protein, the distribution of WapA remains unknown, but it is important to understand the mechanism underlying the function of WapA. This study applied the fluorescence protein mCherry as a reporter gene to characterize the dynamic distribution of WapA in S. mutans via time-lapse and super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The results revealed interesting subcellular distribution patterns of WapA in single, dividing and long chains of S. mutans cells. It appears at the middle of the cell and moves to the poles as the cell grows and divides. In a cell chain, after each round of cell division, such dynamic relocation results in WapA distribution at the previous cell division sites, resulting in a pattern where WapA is located at the boundary of two adjacent cell pairs. This WapA distribution pattern corresponds to the breaking segmentation of wapA deletion cell chains. The dynamic relocation of WapA through the cell cycle increases our understanding of the mechanism of WapA in maintaining cell chain integrity and biofilm formation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 77 FR 66457 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...: Arizona Public Service Company. Description: WAPA Bouse Switchyard Construction Agreement, Rate Schedule..., Casselman Windpower LLC, Colorado Green Holdings LLC, Dillon Wind LLC, Dry Lake Wind Power, LLC, Dry Lake...

  15. National Dam Safety Program. Lock C-12 Dam, Inventory Number NY-796. Lake Champlain Basin, Washington County, NY. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-27

    Inspection Personnel R. WAPA0* DEk W. L’C c. Persons Contacted (Including Address & Phone No.) N S-DeT - £pI 1 W. CL&LLIGM ( CAMAL SEgT. OPF1M:SFII ST) 747...kI/_A, c. Unusual Conditions Which Affect Dam $I.E AM Q&ALOA CAMAL k 1 /P4 fb~t S4.OFE SLOQtH~im if FbpL 0=29- EflLQ FLE𔃾 IIQ 6) Area Downstream of

  16. The future of GPS-based electric power system measurements, operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizy, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, R.E. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States); Martin, K.E.; Litzenberger, W.H. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Overholt, P.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Much of modern society is powered by inexpensive and reliable electricity delivered by a complex and elaborate electric power network. Electrical utilities are currently using the Global Positioning System-NAVSTAR (GPS) timekeeping to improve the network`s reliability. Currently, GPS synchronizes the clocks on dynamic recorders and aids in post-mortem analysis of network disturbances. Two major projects have demonstrated the use of GPS-synchronized power system measurements. In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) sponsored Phase Measurements Project used a commercially available Phasor Measurements Unit (PMU) to collect GPS-synchronized measurements for analyzing power system problems. In 1995, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) under DOE`s and EPRI`s sponsorship launched the Wide Area Measurements (WAMS) project. WAMS demonstrated GPS-synchronized measurements over a large area of their power networks and demonstrated the networking of GPS-based measurement systems in BPA and WAPA. The phasor measurement technology has also been used to conduct dynamic power system tests. During these tests, a large dynamic resistor was inserted to simulate a small power system disturbance.

  17. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Frias, O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  18. Southpoint power plant final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document is the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for a proposed lease of acreage on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Mohave County, Arizona for development of a natural gas fired 500 megawatt combined cycle power plant. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) serves as the federal lead agency and the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe (FMIT) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) are cooperating agencies for the EIS process. The purpose of this document is to provide information to the public and to interested public agencies regarding the environmental consequences of the approval of a long-term lease for the construction and operation of the proposed Southpoint power plant. The FEIS, prepared by Hallock/Gross, Inc. under the direction of the BIA and in cooperation with the FMIT and WAPA, addresses the comparative analysis of alternatives and evaluates the environmental consequences of such alternatives on various resources and addresses public comments. A number of technical reports were used in the preparation of the Draft EIS and FEIS and are available for review as Appendices to this document under separate cover that can be reviewed at the BIA offices which are listed

  19. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Olis, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Warren, A.; Butt, R.; Lilienthal, P.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on the economic and technical feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies into the U.S. Virgin Islands transmission and distribution systems. The report includes three main areas of analysis: 1) the economics of deploying utility-scale renewable energy technologies on St. Thomas/St. John and St. Croix; 2) potential sites for installing roof- and ground-mount PV systems and wind turbines and the impact renewable generation will have on the electrical subtransmission and distribution infrastructure, and 3) the feasibility of a 100- to 200-megawatt power interconnection of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), and British Virgin Islands (BVI) grids via a submarine cable system.

  20. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  1. Unearthing Bacillus endophytes from desert plants that enhance growth of Arabidopsis thaliana under abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Bokhari, Ameerah M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we embarked a bioprospecting project that focuses on the isolation and characterization of plant root endophytes, collected from the Thar Desert. A total of 381 endophytes were isolated and based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, genus Bacillus (58 strains) was identified as the major taxon and only endophytes from this genus were isolated from all plant types. Of the 58 Bacillus strains, only 16 strains were selected for screening of plant growth promotion traits such as P and Zn solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore production, and antimicrobial activity. Based on the presence of specific plant growth promotion traits 10 strains were shortlisted for further in vitro screening with A. thaliana; to confirm that these bacteria can confer resilience to plants under salt stress conditions. B. circulans (PK3-15 and PK3-109), B. cereus (PK6-15) B. subtilis (PK3-9) and B. licheniformis (PK5-26) displayed the ability to increased the fresh weight of A. thaliana under salt stress conditions by more than 50 % compared to the uninoculated control. An interesting observation was that B. circulans (PK3-109) (shown to produce IAA exopolysaccharide) and B. circulans (PK3-138) (shown to produce IAA) in vitro results were substantially different as B. circulans (PK3-138) decreased the total fresh weight of A. thaliana by 47 %, whilst B. circulans (PK3-109) was one of the best performing strains. Thus, the genomes of these two strains were sequences to unravel the molecular versatility of B. circulans strains, specifically with respect to their interaction with plants. Most of the genome of these strains is identical but the most interesting feature was the presence of 1/ the DegS–DegU two-component system that is known to mediate the salt stress response and DegU also represses toxin wapA similar to antitoxin wapI, and 2/ YxiG, a gene in the unique orthogroup of PK3-109 was found to be linked to WapI. Thus, PK3-138 substantially decreasing the total fresh

  2. Enhanced extracellular production of L-asparaginase from Bacillus subtilis 168 by B. subtilis WB600 through a combined strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Liu, Song; Jiao, Yun; Gao, Hui; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-02-01

    L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1, ASN) exhibits great commercial value due to its uses in the food and medicine industry. In this study, we reported the enhanced expression of type II ASN from Bacillus subtilis 168 in B. subtilis WB600 through a combined strategy. First, eight signal peptides (the signal peptide of the ASN, ywbN, yvgO, amyE, oppA, vpr, lipA, and wapA) were used for ASN secretion in B. subtilis by using Hpa II promoter, respectively. The signal peptide wapA achieved the highest extracellular ASN activity (28.91 U/mL). Second, Hpa II promoter was replaced by a strong promoter, P43 promoter, resulting in 38.1 % enhanced ASN activity. By two rounds of error-prone PCR mutation, the P43 promoter variants with remarkably enhanced strength (D7, E2, H6, B2, and F3) were identified. B2 (-28: A → G, -13: A → G) achieved ASN activity up to 51.13 U/mL. Third, after deletion of the N-terminal 25-residues, ASN activity reached 102.41 U/mL, which was 100 % higher than that of the intact ASN. At last, the extracellular ASN of the B. subtilis arrived at 407.6 U/mL (2.5 g/L of ASN protein) in a 3-L bioreactor by using a fed-batch strategy. The purified ASN showed maximal activity at 65 °C and its half-life at 65 °C was 61 min. The K m and k cat of the ASN were 5.29 mM and 54.4 s -1 , respectively. To the best of our knowledge, we obtained the highest yield of ASN in a food-grade host ever reported, which may benefit the industrial production and application of ASN.

  3. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  4. Coastal circulation and water-column properties in the War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam: measurements and modeling of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, April-August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia M.; Lescinski, Jamie M.R.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) initiated an investigation in the National Park Service’s (NPS) War in the Pacific National Historical Park (WAPA) to provide baseline scientific information on coastal circulation and water-column properties along west-central Guam, focusing on WAPA’s Agat Unit, as it relates to the transport and settlement of coral larvae, fish, and other marine organisms. The oceanographic data and numerical circulation modeling results from this study demonstrate that circulation in Agat Bay was strongly driven by winds and waves at longer (>1 day) timescales and by the tides at shorter (Turbidity was relatively low in Agat Bay and was similar to levels measured elsewhere along west-central Guam. The numerical circulation modeling results provide insight into the potential paths of buoyant material released from a series of locations along west-central Guam under summer non-trade wind forcing conditions that characterize coral spawning events. This information may be useful in evaluating the potential zones of influence/impact resulting from transport by surface currents of material released from these select locations.

  5. Collagen-binding proteins of Streptococcus mutans and related streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Reyes, A; Miller, J H; Lemos, J A; Abranches, J

    2017-04-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms used by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Collagen Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans and Related Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Miller, James H.; Lemos, José A.; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms utilized by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. PMID:26991416

  7. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    main simulation tool used to simulate the dispatch of hydropower plants at GCD and other plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). The research team used extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration’s (WAPA’s) power purchase prices in the modeling process. In addition to estimating the financial impact of the HFE, the team used the GTMax model to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the experimental releases, and WAPA operating practices.

  8. Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Donadee, Jon; Lai, Judy; Megel, Olivier; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-02-06

    Together with OSIsoft LLC as its private sector partner and matching sponsor, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) won an FY09 Technology Commercialization Fund (TCF) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to commercialize Berkeley Lab's optimizing program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) using a software as a service (SaaS) model with OSIsoft as its first non-scientific user. OSIsoft could in turn provide optimization capability to its software clients. In this way, energy efficiency and/or carbon minimizing strategies could be made readily available to commercial and industrial facilities. Specialized versions of DER-CAM dedicated to solving OSIsoft's customer problems have been set up on a server at Berkeley Lab. The objective of DER-CAM is to minimize the cost of technology adoption and operation or carbon emissions, or combinations thereof. DER-CAM determines which technologies should be installed and operated based on specific site load, price information, and performance data for available equipment options. An established user of OSIsoft's PI software suite, the University of California, Davis (UCD), was selected as a demonstration site for this project. UCD's participation in the project is driven by its motivation to reduce its carbon emissions. The campus currently buys electricity economically through the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA). The campus does not therefore face compelling cost incentives to improve the efficiency of its operations, but is nonetheless motivated to lower the carbon footprint of its buildings. Berkeley Lab attempted to demonstrate a scenario wherein UCD is forced to purchase electricity on a standard time-of-use tariff from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), which is a concern to Facilities staff. Additionally, DER-CAM has been set up to consider the variability of carbon emissions throughout the day and seasons. Two

  9. Coastal Circulation and Sediment Dynamics in War-in-the-Pacific National Historical Park, Guam; measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, June 2007-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    , and their impact on reef health and ecology are essential for effective reef management. Two of the main anthropogenic activities along west-central Guam's coastline that may impact the region's coral reef ecosystems include pollution and coastal land use/development, as discussed in the review by Porter and others (2005). The pollution threats include point-sources, such as municipal wastewater (Northern District, Hagatna, Naval Station Guam, and Agat-Santa Rita Waster Water Treatment Plants), cooling water (Tanguisson Steam and Cabras Power Plants), and numerous storm water, ballast water, and tank bottom draw outfalls; nonpoint sources include septic systems, urban runoff, illegal dumping, and groundwater discharges. Poor land-use practices include development without the use of runoff management measures, increased areal extent of impervious surfaces and decreased extent of vegetative barriers, and recreational off-road vehicle use. Furthermore, feral ungulates and illegal wildfires remove protective vegetative cover and generally result in increased soil erosion. While anthropogenic point-sources have been reduced in many areas due to better management practices, nonpoint sources have either stayed constant or increased. Between 1975 and 1999, it is estimated that Guam lost more than a quarter of its tree cover, and more than 750 wildfires each year have resulted in a greater proportion of badlands and other erosion-prone land surfaces with high erosion rates (Forestry and Soil Resources Division, 1999). Approximately 1.8 square kilometers (km2) of Asan Bay, west-central Guam, lies within the National Park Service's (NPS) War-in-the-Pacific National Historical Park's (WAPA) Asan Unit; the bay is the sink for material coming out of the Asan watershed. Anthropogenic modifications of the watersheds adjacent to Asan Bay, which include intentionally-set wildfires, construction, and agriculture (Minton, 2005), are believed to have increased over the past 25