Sample records for waning basaltic field

  1. Decreasing Magmatic Footprints of Individual Volcanos in a Waning Basaltic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A> Valentine; F.V. Perry


    The distribution and characteristics of individual basaltic volcanoes in the waning Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field provide insight into the changing physical nature of magmatism and the controls on volcano location. During Pliocene-Pleistocene times the volumes of individual volcanoes have decreased by more than one order of magnitude, as have fissure lengths and inferred lava effusion rates. Eruptions evolved from Hawaiian-style eruptions with extensive lavas to eruptions characterized by small pulses of lava and Strombolian to violent Strombolian mechanisms. These trends indicate progressively decreasing partial melting and length scales, or magmatic footprints, of mantle source zones for individual volcanoes. The location of each volcano is determined by the location of its magmatic footprint at depth, and only by shallow structural and topographic features that are within that footprint. The locations of future volcanoes in a waning system are less likely to be determined by large-scale topography or structures than were older, larger volume volcanoes.

  2. Architecture and emplacement of flood basalt flow fields: case studies from the Columbia River Basalt Group, NW USA (United States)

    Vye-Brown, C.; Self, S.; Barry, T. L.


    The physical features and morphologies of collections of lava bodies emplaced during single eruptions (known as flow fields) can be used to understand flood basalt emplacement mechanisms. Characteristics and internal features of lava lobes and whole flow field morphologies result from the forward propagation, radial spread, and cooling of individual lobes and are used as a tool to understand the architecture of extensive flood basalt lavas. The features of three flood basalt flow fields from the Columbia River Basalt Group are presented, including the Palouse Falls flow field, a small (8,890 km2, ˜190 km3) unit by common flood basalt proportions, and visualized in three dimensions. The architecture of the Palouse Falls flow field is compared to the complex Ginkgo and more extensive Sand Hollow flow fields to investigate the degree to which simple emplacement models represent the style, as well as the spatial and temporal developments, of flow fields. Evidence from each flow field supports emplacement by inflation as the predominant mechanism producing thick lobes. Inflation enables existing lobes to transmit lava to form new lobes, thus extending the advance and spread of lava flow fields. Minimum emplacement timescales calculated for each flow field are 19.3 years for Palouse Falls, 8.3 years for Ginkgo, and 16.9 years for Sand Hollow. Simple flow fields can be traced from vent to distal areas and an emplacement sequence visualized, but those with multiple-layered lobes present a degree of complexity that make lava pathways and emplacement sequences more difficult to identify.

  3. Basalt models for the Mars penetrator mission: Geology of the Amboy Lava Field, California (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Bunch, T. E.


    Amboy lava field (San Bernardino County, California) is a Holocene basalt flow selected as a test site for potential Mars Penetrators. A discussion is presented of (1) the general relations of basalt flow features and textures to styles of eruptions on earth, (2) the types of basalt flows likely to be encountered on Mars and the rationale for selection of the Amboy lava field as a test site, (3) the general geology of the Amboy lava field, and (4) detailed descriptions of the target sites at Amboy lava field.

  4. Field Detection of Chemical Assimilation in A Basaltic Lava Flow (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Needham, D. H.; Evans, C. A.; Whelley, P. L.; Scheidt, S. P.; Williams, D. A.; Rogers, A. D.; Glotch, T.


    Lava channels are features seen throughout the inner Solar System, including on Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Flow emplacement is therefore a crucial process in the shaping of planetary surfaces. Many studies, including some completed by members of this team at the December 1974 lava flow, have investigated the dynamics of lava flow emplacement, both on Earth and on the Moon and how pre-flow terrain can impact final channel morphology, but far fewer have focused on how the compositional characteristics of the substrate over which a flow was em-placed influenced its final flow morphology. Within the length of one flow, it is common for flows to change in morphology, a quality linked to rheology (a function of multiple factors including viscosi-ty, temperature, composition, etc.). The relationship between rheology and temperature has been well-studied but less is known about the relationship between an older flow's chemistry and how the interaction between this flow and the new flow might affect lava rheology and therefore emplacement dynamics. Lava erosion. Through visual observations of active terrestrial flows, mechanical erosion by flowing lava has been well-documented. Lava erosion by which flow composition is altered as the active lava melts and assimilates the pre-flow terrain over which it moves is also hypothesized to affect channel formation. However, there is only one previous field study that geochemically documents the process in recent basaltic flow systems.

  5. Controls on volcanism at intraplate basaltic volcanic fields (United States)

    van den Hove, Jackson C.; Van Otterloo, Jozua; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent; Cas, Ray A. F.


    A broad range of controlling mechanisms is described for intraplate basaltic volcanic fields (IBVFs) in the literature. These correspond with those relating to shallow tectonic processes and to deep mantle plumes. Accurate measurement of the physical parameters of intraplate volcanism is fundamental to gain an understanding of the controlling factors that influence the scale and location of a specific IBVF. Detailed volume and geochronology data are required for this; however, these are not available for many IBVFs. In this study the primary controls on magma genesis and transportation are established for the Pliocene-Recent Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) of south-eastern Australia as a case-study for one of such IBVF. The NVP is a large and spatio-temporally complex IBVF that has been described as either being related to a deep mantle plume, or upper mantle and crustal processes. We use innovative high resolution aeromagnetic and 3D modelling analysis, constrained by well-log data, to calculate its dimensions, volume and long-term eruptive flux. Our estimates suggest volcanic deposits cover an area of 23,100 ± 530 km2 and have a preserved dense rock equivalent of erupted volcanics of least 680 km3, and may have been as large as 900 km3. The long-term mean eruptive flux of the NVP is estimated between 0.15 and 0.20 km3/ka, which is relatively high compared with other IBVFs. Our comparison with other IBVFs shows eruptive fluxes vary up to two orders of magnitude within individual fields. Most examples where a range of eruptive flux is available for an IBVF show a correlation between eruptive flux and the rate of local tectonic processes, suggesting tectonic control. Limited age dating of the NVP has been used to suggest there were pulses in its eruptive flux, which are not resolvable using current data. These changes in eruptive flux are not directly relatable to the rate of any interpreted tectonic driver such as edge-driven convection. However, the NVP and other

  6. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two ...

  7. High paleointensities of the geomagnetic field from thermomagnetic studies on rift valley pillow basalts from the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. (United States)

    Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, S.; Lecaille, A.


    Nineteen pillow basalts dredged within the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 36.8oN were studied by the Thellier stepwise heating method in order to determine the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field when they erupted on to the sea floor. Previously reported fission track ages are 2000-6000 yr for the youngest rocks (mainly olivine basalts) and 10 000-100 000 yr for the others (mainly plagioclase basalts and pyroxene basalts). All but three pillow basalts meet the conditions commonly considered as indicative of quite reliable paleointensity estimates; stability of the direction of NRM during its thermal demagnetization, constant ratio of NRM/TRM (natural remanent magnetization to thermoremanent magnetization) over 50% or more of the original NRM intensity (80 to 94% for 11 specimens), and reproducibility of low-temperature partial TRM(PTRM). However, strong field thermomagnetic measurements indicate that 11 of these 16 samples display a significant increase in Curie temperature (15 to 80oC) during the paleointensity experiments below 250oC, notwithstanding the linearity of the NRM-TRM plot in this temperature interval. This alteration, probably due to low-temperature oxidation of the specimens, seems typical of young pillow basalts and may result in paleointensity estimates which are too high.-from Authors

  8. Field-trip guide to Columbia River flood basalts, associated rhyolites, and diverse post-plume volcanism in eastern Oregon (United States)

    Ferns, Mark L.; Streck, Martin J.; McClaughry, Jason D.


    The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest and best preserved continental flood basalt province on Earth, linked in space and time with a compositionally diverse succession of volcanic rocks that partially record the apparent emergence and passage of the Yellowstone plume head through eastern Oregon during the late Cenozoic. This compositionally diverse suite of volcanic rocks are considered part of the La Grande-Owyhee eruptive axis (LOEA), an approximately 300-kilometer-long (185 mile), north-northwest-trending, middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic belt located along the eastern margin of the Columbia River flood basalt province. Volcanic rocks erupted from and preserved within the LOEA form an important regional stratigraphic link between the (1) flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau on the north, (2) bimodal basalt-rhyolite vent complexes of the Owyhee Plateau on the south, (3) bimodal basalt-rhyolite and time-transgressive rhyolitic volcanic fields of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau, and (4) the High Lava Plains of central Oregon.This field-trip guide describes a 4-day geologic excursion that will explore the stratigraphic and geochemical relationships among mafic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group and coeval and compositionally diverse volcanic rocks associated with the early “Yellowstone track” and High Lava Plains in eastern Oregon. Beginning in Portland, the Day 1 log traverses the Columbia River gorge eastward to Baker City, focusing on prominent outcrops that reveal a distal succession of laterally extensive, large-volume tholeiitic flood lavas of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalt formations of the CRBG. These “great flows” are typical of the well-studied flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau, where interbedded silicic and calc-alkaline lavas are conspicuously absent. The latter part of Day 1 will highlight exposures of middle to late Miocene silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolite domes, and

  9. Osmium isotope variations accompanying the eruption of a single lava flow field in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (United States)

    Vye-Brown, C.; Gannoun, A.; Barry, T. L.; Self, S.; Burton, K. W.


    Geochemical interpretations of continental flood basalts usually assume that individual lava flows represent compositionally homogenous and rapidly erupted products of large well-mixed magma reservoirs. However, inflated pāhoehoe lavas may develop over considerable periods of time and preserve chemical variations that can be temporally linked through flow formation to eruption sequence thus providing an understanding of magma evolution over the timescale of a single eruption. This study presents comprehensive major, trace element and Re-Os isotope data for a single eruption that formed the 2660 km3 Sand Hollow flow field in the Columbia River Basalt Province, USA. Major and trace element variations accompanying flow emplacement (e.g. MgO 3.09-4.55 wt%, Ni 17.5-25.6 ppm) are consistent with fractional crystallisation, but other petrogenetic processes or variable sources cannot be distinguished. However, there is a systematic shift in the initial 187Os/188Os isotope composition of the magma (age corrected to 15.27 Ma), from 0.174 (lava core) to 1.444 (lava crust) within a single 35 m thick sheet lobe. Lava crust values are more radiogenic than any known mantle source, consistent with previous data indicating that neither an enriched reservoir nor the sub-continental lithospheric mantle are likely to have sourced these basalts. Rather, these data indicate that lavas emplaced during the earliest stages of eruption have higher degrees of crustal contamination. These results highlight the limitations of applying chemostratigraphic correlation across continental flood basalt provinces, the use of single data points to define melt sources and magmatic processes, and the dangers of using conventional isochron techniques in such basalt sequences for absolute chronology.

  10. Extrinsic controls on inter-basaltic plant ecosystems in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, USA (United States)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.; Hartley, Adrian J.


    The impact Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism may have had on paleoclimate, fauna and flora is still controversy. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems have the potential to record in detail the effects LIPs had on the environment in the immediate vicinity of volcanic activity. The Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP), Washington State, USA, provides excellent exposure of an entire LIP stratigraphy and offers a detailed record of inter-basaltic plant ecosystems throughout LIP evolution. The CRBP lava field comprise numerous basaltic lava flows that are intercalated with fluvial and lacustrine sediments which formed during phases of volcanic quiescence. The LIP volcanic evolution is characterised by an initial phase of high eruption volumes and eruptions rates, which is followed by waning volcanism associated with longer interbed intervals. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems are expected to correlate with phases of volcanic evolution: short interbed intervals should be dominated by early seral succession, while longer intervals should record more mature seral successions. The palynological record of the sedimentary interbeds however indicates a decline in successional status within the long interbed intervals of CRBP stratigraphy. An integrated analysis of sedimentary facies and geochemistry suggests intense volcanic ash fall derived from the adjacent Yellowstone hot spot as a major trigger for repetitive successional re-setting. This implies that inter-lava field ecosystem maturity was controlled by extrinsic forcing, and argues against environmental changes solely driven by LIPs of similar scale and magnitude to that of the CRBP.

  11. Isotopic and chemical evidence concerning the genesis and contamination of basaltic and rhyolitic magma beneath the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (United States)

    Hildreth, W.; Halliday, A.N.; Christiansen, R.L.


    Since 2.2 Ma, the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field has produced ~6000 km3 of rhyolite tuffs and lavas in >60 separate eruptions, as well as ~100 km3 of tholeiitic basalt from >50 vents peripheral to the silicic focus. Intermediate eruptive products are absent. Early postcollapse rhyolites show large shifts in Nd, Sr, Pb, and O isotopic composition caused by assimilation of roof rocks and hydrothermal brines during collapse and resurgence. Younger intracaldera rhyolite lavas record partial isotopic recovery toward precaldera ratios. Thirteen extracaldera rhyolites show none of these effects and have sources independent of the subcaldera magma system. Contributions from the Archaean crust have extreme values and wide ranges of Nd-, Sr, and Pb-isotope ratios, but Yellowstone rhyolites have moderate values and limited ranges. This requires their deep-crustal sources to have been pervasively hybridized by distributed intrusion of Cenozoic basalt, most of which was probably contemporaneous with the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism. Most Yellowstone basalts had undergone cryptic clinopyroxene fractionation in the lower crust or crust-mantle transition zone and, having also ascended through or adjacent to crustal zones of silicic-magma generation, most underwent some crustal contamination. -from Authors

  12. Field-trip guide to the vents, dikes, stratigraphy, and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group, eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Reidel, Stephen P.; Ross, Martin E.; Brown, Richard J.; Self, Stephen


    The Columbia River Basalt Group covers an area of more than 210,000 km2 with an estimated volume of 210,000 km3. As the youngest continental flood-basalt province on Earth (16.7–5.5 Ma), it is well preserved, with a coherent and detailed stratigraphy exposed in the deep canyonlands of eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The Columbia River flood-basalt province is often cited as a model for the study of similar provinces worldwide.This field-trip guide explores the main source region of the Columbia River Basalt Group and is written for trip participants attending the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon, USA. The first part of the guide provides an overview of the geologic features common in the Columbia River flood-basalt province and the stratigraphic terminology used in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The accompanying road log examines the stratigraphic evolution, eruption history, and structure of the province through a field examination of the lavas, dikes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

  13. A field investigation of the basaltic ring structures of the Channeled Scabland and the relevance to Mars (United States)

    Kestay, Laszlo P.; Jaeger, Windy L.


    The basaltic ring structure (BRS) is a class of peculiar features only reported in the Channeled Scabland of eastern Washington State. They have been suggested to be good analogs, however, for some circular features on Mars. BRSs are found where Pleistocene floods scoured the Columbia River Basin, stripping off the uppermost part of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group and exposing structures that were previously embedded in the lava. The “Odessa Craters,” near Odessa, WA, are 50–500-m-wide BRSs that are comprised of discontinuous, concentric outcrops of subvertically-jointed basalt and autointrusive dikes. Detailed field investigation of the Odessa Craters in planform and a cross-sectional exposure of a similar structure above Banks Lake, WA, lead us to propose that BRSs formed by concurrent phreatovolcanism and lava flow inflation. In this model, phreatovolcanic (a.k.a., “rootless”) cones formed on a relatively thin, active lava flow; the lava flow inflated around the cones, locally inverting topography; tensile stresses caused concentric fracturing of the lava crust; lava from within the molten interior of the flow exploited the fractures and buried the phreatovolcanic cones; and subsequent erosive floods excavated the structures. Another population of BRSs near Tokio Station, WA, consists of single-ringed, raised-rimmed structures that are smaller and more randomly distributed than the Odessa Craters. We find evidence for a phreatovolcanic component to the origin as well, and hypothesize that they are either flood-eroded phreatovolcanic cones or Odessa Crater-like BRSs. This work indicates that BRSs are not good analogs to the features on Mars because the martian features are found on the uneroded surfaces. Despite this, the now superseded concepts for BRS formation are useful for understanding the formation of the martian features.

  14. Unusual ruby-sapphire transition in alluvial megacrysts, Cenozoic basaltic gem field, New England, New South Wales, Australia (United States)

    Sutherland, Frederick L.; Graham, Ian T.; Harris, Stephen J.; Coldham, Terry; Powell, William; Belousova, Elena A.; Martin, Laure


    Rare ruby crystals appear among prevailing sapphire crystals mined from placers within basaltic areas in the New England gem-field, New South Wales, Australia. New England ruby (NER) has distinctive trace element features compared to those from ruby elsewhere in Australia and indeed most ruby from across the world. The NER suite includes ruby (up to 3370 ppm Cr), pink sapphire (up to 1520 ppm Cr), white sapphire (up to 910 ppm) and violet, mauve, purple, or bluish sapphire (up to 1410 ppm Cr). Some crystals show outward growth banding in this respective colour sequence. All four colour zones are notably high in Ga (up to 310 ppm) and Si (up to 1820 ppm). High Ga and Ga/Mg values are unusual in ruby and its trace element plots (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and suggests that magmatic-metasomatic inputs were involved in the NER suite genesis. In situ oxygen isotope analyses (secondary ion mass spectrometry) across the NER suite colour range showed little variation (n = 22; δ18O = 4.4 ± 0.4, 2σ error), and are values typical for corundum associated with ultramafic/mafic rocks. The isolated NER xenocryst suite, corroded by basalt transport and with few internal inclusions, presents a challenge in deciphering its exact origin. Detailed consideration of its high Ga chemistry in relation to the known geology of the surrounding region was used to narrow down potential sources. These include Late Palaeozoic-Triassic fractionated I-type granitoid magmas or Mesozoic-Cenozoic felsic fractionates from basaltic magmas that interacted with early Palaeozoic Cr-bearing ophiolite bodies in the New England Orogen. Other potential sources may lie deeper within lower crust-mantle metamorphic assemblages, but need to match the anomalous high-Ga geochemistry of the New England ruby suite.

  15. Influence of Basalt Mesh Induced Increase of Heterogeneity of Cement Composites with Dispersed Fibers on Its Resistance under Near-Field Blast (United States)

    Zíma, J.; Foglar, M.


    This paper describes the influence of multiple basalt meshes in the cement composite specimens on the damage induced by near-field blast. Experimental measurements performed in the Boletice military area in 2014 and 2015 are evaluated by numerical simulations. The evaluation of the results is mainly focused on the stress propagation in the cement composite with dispersed fibers, the propagation of the overpressure caused by the blast and velocity of the ejected parts from the specimen. The influence of the presence and position of the basalt meshes in the specimen on its damage induced by delamination is also examined.

  16. Surface shape analysis of rough lumber for wane detection (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt


    The initial breakdown of hardwood logs into lumber produces boards with rough surfaces. These boards contain wane (missing wood that emanates from the log exterior, often containing residual bark) that is removed by edge and trim cuts prior to sale. Because hardwood lumber value is determined based on board size and quality, knowledge of wane position and defects is...

  17. Transition of basaltic lava from pahoehoe to aa, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: Field observations and key factors (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.; Tilling, Robert I.


    Nearly all Hawaiian basaltic lava erupts as pahoehoe, and some changes to aa during flowage and cooling; factors governing the transition involve certain critical relations between viscosity and rate of shear strain. If the lava slows, cools, and stops in direct response to concomitant increase in viscosity before these critical relations are reached, it remains pahoehoe. But, if flow mechanics (flow rate, flow dimensions, slope, momentum, etc.) impel the lava to continue to move and deform even after it has become highly viscous, the critical relations may be reached and the lava changes to aa.Typical modes of transition from pahoehoe to aa include: (1) spontaneous formation of relatively stiff clots in parts of the flowing lava where shear rate is highest; these clots grow into discrete, rough, sticky masses to which the remaining fluid lava incrementally adheres; (2) fragmentation and immersion of solid or semi-solid surface crusts of pahoehoe by roiling movements of the flow, forming cores of discrete, tacky masses; (3) sudden renewed movement of lava stored and cooled within surface reservoirs to form clots. The masses, fragments, and clots in these transition modes are characterized by spinose, granulated surfaces; as flow movement continues, the masses and fragments aggregate, fracture, and grind together, completing the transition to aa.Observations show that the critical relation between viscosity and rate of shear strain is inverse: if viscosity is low, a high rate of shear is required to begin the transition to aa; conversely, if viscosity is high, a much lower rate of shear will induce the transition. These relations can be demonstrated qualitatively with simple graphs, which can be used to examine the flow history of any selected finite lava element by tracing the path represented by its changing viscosity and shear rate. A broad, diffuse “transition threshold zone” in these graphs portrays the inverse critical relation between viscosity and shear

  18. The origin of plagioclase phenocrysts in basalts from continental monogenetic volcanoes of the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands field, New Zealand: implications for magmatic assembly and ascent (United States)

    Coote, Alisha; Shane, Phil; Stirling, Claudine; Reid, Malcolm


    Late Quaternary, porphyritic basalts erupted in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands area, New Zealand, provide an opportunity to explore the crystallization and ascent history of small volume magmas in an intra-continental monogenetic volcano field. The plagioclase phenocrysts represent a diverse crystal cargo. Most of the crystals have a rim growth that is compositionally similar to groundmass plagioclase ( An65) and is in equilibrium with the host basalt rock. The rims surround a resorbed core that is either less calcic ( An20-45) or more calcic (> An70), having crystallized in more differentiated or more primitive melts, respectively. The relic cores, particularly those that are less calcic (< An45), have 87Sr/86Sr ratios that are either mantle-like ( 0.7030) or crustal-like ( 0.7040 to 0.7060), indicating some are antecrysts formed in melts fractionated from plutonic basaltic forerunners, while others are true xenocrysts from greywacke basement and/or Miocene arc volcanics. It is envisaged that intrusive basaltic forerunners produced a zone where various degrees of crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization occurred. The erupted basalts represent mafic recharge of this system, as indicated by the final crystal rim growths around the entrained antecrystic and xenocrystic cargo. The recharge also entrained cognate gabbros that occur as inclusions, and produced mingled groundmasses. Multi-stage magmatic ascent and interaction is indicated, and is consistent with the presence of a partial melt body in the lower crust detected by geophysical methods. This crystallization history contrasts with traditional concepts of low-flux basaltic systems where rapid ascent from the mantle is inferred. From a hazards perspective, the magmatic system inferred here increases the likelihood of detecting eruption precursor phenomena such as seismicity, degassing and surface deformation.

  19. Benchmarking Competitiveness: Is America's Technological Hegemony Waning? (United States)

    Lubell, Michael S.


    For more than half a century, by almost every standard, the United States has been the world's leader in scientific discovery, innovation and technological competitiveness. To a large degree, that dominant position stemmed from the circumstances our nation inherited at the conclusion of the World War Two: we were, in effect, the only major nation left standing that did not have to repair serious war damage. And we found ourselves with an extraordinary science and technology base that we had developed for military purposes. We had the laboratories -- industrial, academic and government -- as well as the scientific and engineering personnel -- many of them immigrants who had escaped from war-time Europe. What remained was to convert the wartime machinery into peacetime uses. We adopted private and public policies that accomplished the transition remarkably well, and we have prospered ever since. Our higher education system, our protection of intellectual property rights, our venture capital system, our entrepreneurial culture and our willingness to commit government funds for the support of science and engineering have been key components to our success. But recent competitiveness benchmarks suggest that our dominance is waning rapidly, in part because other nations have begun to emulate our successful model, in part because globalization has ``flattened'' the world and in part because we have been reluctant to pursue the public policies that are necessary to ensure our leadership. We will examine these benchmarks and explore the policy changes that are needed to keep our nation's science and technology enterprise vibrant and our economic growth on an upward trajectory.

  20. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of Field-. Spec spectral profiles and the ...

  1. Geology of the Mid-Miocene Rooster Comb Caldera and Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field, eastern Oregon: Silicic volcanism associated with Grande Ronde flood basalt (United States)

    Benson, Thomas R.; Mahood, Gail A.


    The Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field (LOVF) of eastern Oregon consists of rhyolitic caldera centers and lava fields contemporaneous with and spatially related to Mid-Miocene Columbia River flood basalt volcanism. Previous studies delineated two calderas in the southeastern part of LOVF near Owyhee Reservoir, the result of eruptions of two ignimbrites, the Tuff of Leslie Gulch and the Tuff of Spring Creek. Our new interpretation is that these two map units are differentially altered parts of a single ignimbrite produced in a major phreatomagmatic eruption at ~ 15.8 Ma. Areas previously mapped as Tuff of Spring Creek are locations where the ignimbrite contains abundant clinoptilolite ± mordenite, which made it susceptible to erosion. The resistant intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch has an alteration assemblage of albite ± quartz, indicative of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Our new mapping of caldera lake sediments and pre- and post-caldera rhyolitic lavas and intrusions that are chemically similar to intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch point to a single ~ 20 × 25 km caldera, which we name the Rooster Comb Caldera. Erosion of the resurgently uplifted southern half of the caldera created dramatic exposures of intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch cut by post-caldera rhyolite dikes and intrusions that are the deeper-level equivalents of lava domes and flows that erupted into the caldera lake preserved in exposures to the northeast. The Rooster Comb Caldera has features in common with more southerly Mid-Miocene calderas of the McDermitt Volcanic Field and High Rock Caldera Complex, including formation in a basinal setting shortly after flood basalt eruptions ceased in the region, and forming on eruption of peralkaline ignimbrite. The volcanism at Rooster Comb Caldera postdates the main activity at McDermitt and High Rock, but, like it, begins ~ 300 ky after flood basalt volcanism begins in the area, and while flood basalts don't erupt through the silicic focus, are

  2. The eruption characteristics of the Tarim flood basalt


    Shangguan, ShiMai; Tian, Wei; Xu, YiGang; Guan, Ping; Pan, Lu


    Integration of field investigation, regional stratigraphic comparison, remote sensing and image interpretation allow us to divide the Tarim Permian flood basalt province into three eruptive cycles listed by decreasing age; Kupukuziman flood basalt (KP), Felsic pyroclastic rocks (FP), Kaipaizileike flood basalt (KZ). KP features flood basalt and tuff; in the outcrop in Keping and Yingmaili areas, it can be differentiated into two units containing three thick layers of basaltic lava flows. Thes...

  3. Field and geochemical constraints on the relationship between the Apoteri basalts (northern Brazil, southwestern Guyana) and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (United States)

    Pinto, Viter M.; Santos, João Orestes S.; Ronchi, Luiz H.; Hartmann, Léo A.; Bicudo, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Vladimir


    In northern Brazil, Roraima state and southwestern Guyana, basalt flows characterized by inflated pahoehoe structure occur along the margins of the Tacutu Rift Valley, dykes intrude the Paleoproterozoic basement close to the boundary of the rift system with concordant, NE-trend. The dykes and flows belong to Apoteri magmatism. New field, geochemical data (major, trace and rare-earth elements) and chemical stratigraphy of the Apoteri magmatism indicate petrographic and chemical homogeneity characteristic of continental tholeiitic basalts. The basalt flows of Morro Redondo and Nova Olinda sites show two distinct chemical groups: a) the lower flows with intermediate TiO2 content (ITi group) ranging from 1.09 to 1.41 wt%, MgO (5.64-6.46 wt%) and Ni (43-53 ppm) contents; and b) the upper flows with lower TiO2 content (LTi group) = 0.75 to 0.78 wt%, higher MgO = 7.95-8.85 wt% and Ni = 105-115 ppm. The two magma types share many characteristics in high field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE), but in detail significant differences exist in REE ratios, e.g. (La/Yb)N of ∼4.0 for ITi and 3.2 for LTi and this may be explained by fractional crystallization. The chemical compositions of the Apoteri dykes are similar the ITi group analyses, suggesting that they have the same origin. The La/Ba versus La/Nb diagram is indicative of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and LILE/HFSE fractionation in the mantle source, and the data favor a dominant subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) component in the origin of the Apoteri flows and dykes. These data show consistent similar chemical characteristics and correspond to other tholeiitic flows from the large Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), especially eastern USA.

  4. Thermal study of the unilluminated surface of the waning moon (United States)

    Raine, W. L.; Segewitz, M. W.; Fountain, W. F.; Fountain, J. A.; White, M. K.; Van Swearingen, J.


    A program of lunar infrared radiometry which uses large-area scanning is described. Procedures for atmospheric-attenuation correction and data reduction to temperature by relative radiometry are outlined. The scan data of the waning moon taken during ten evenings in the 10- to 12-micron window are presented as isothermal contour maps of the lunar disk. More than 160 areas of anomalous thermal emission have been found in the lunar dark-side data. These are tabulated and are also shown on an accompanying map. An error analysis, derived from accuracy estimates of the independent parameters, is included.

  5. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.


    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  6. Climate-dependent sediment production: numerical modeling and field observations of variable grain size distributions from heterogeneous hillslope weathering of fractured basalt flows, Kohala Peninsula, Hawaii (United States)

    Murphy, B. P.; Johnson, J. P.


    We present a numerical model for hillslope sediment production that includes climate-dependent chemical weathering rates and bedrock fracture spacings, and predicts how grain size distributions vary with climate and hillslope erosion rate. Understanding sediment preparation, or the in situ reduction of fractured bedrock to coarse sediment by heterogeneous weathering on hillslopes, is critical to understanding the evolution of mountainous landscapes, as sediment supply rates and size distributions can strongly influence river incision rates. The majority of soil production models assume a homogenous substrate and uniform weathering front, and therefore do not track the size of rock fragments and corestones, which become the sediment supplied to channels by hillslope erosion. Our model is inspired by the Kohala Peninsula on the big island of Hawaii, which has a gradient of mean annual precipitation (MAP) spanning over an order of magnitude that has been shown to influence the weathering rates of the basalt. Previous geochemical studies have constrained climate-dependent weathering rates for local soil production. Using these inputs, we developed a kinetics-based numerical model for the chemical weathering of initially fractured basalt into soil and coarse sediment over 150ky. Following first-order reaction kinetics, chemical weathering in the model decreases exponentially with both depth below the surface and time. The model starts with a column of repeating basalt flows (typically 1 m thick), each with fracture spacing distributions consistent with thermal-mechanical cooling characteristics. Each individual fracture-bound block is assumed to weather from the surface inwards, similar in form to a weathering rind. Since the model is constructed of discrete blocks, larger blocks remain as unweathered corestones (the "sediment"), surrounded by weathered material. In addition to a MAP-dependent initial surface weathering rate and rate constant, climate is also reflected

  7. Lava field evolution and emplacement dynamics of the 2014-2015 basaltic fissure eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland (United States)

    Pedersen, G. B. M.; Höskuldsson, A.; Dürig, T.; Thordarson, T.; Jónsdóttir, I.; Riishuus, M. S.; Óskarsson, B. V.; Dumont, S.; Magnusson, E.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Sigmundsson, F.; Drouin, V. J. P. B.; Gallagher, C.; Askew, R.; Gudnason, J.; Moreland, W. M.; Nikkola, P.; Reynolds, H. I.; Schmith, J.


    The 6-month long eruption at Holuhraun (August 2014-February 2015) in the Bárðarbunga-Veiðivötn volcanic system was the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since the 1783-1784 CE Laki eruption. The lava flow field covered 84 km2 and has an estimated bulk (i.e., including vesicles) volume of 1.44 km3. The eruption had an average discharge rate of 90 m3/s making it the longest effusive eruption in modern times to sustain such high average flux. The first phase of the eruption (August 31, 2014 to mid-October 2014) had a discharge rate of 350 to 100 m3/s and was typified by lava transport via open channels and the formation of four lava flows, no. 1-4, which were emplaced side by side. The eruption began on a 1.8 km long fissure, feeding partly incandescent sheets of slabby pāhoehoe up to 500 m wide. By the following day the lava transport got confined to open channels and the dominant lava morphology changed to rubbly pāhoehoe and 'a'ā. The latter became the dominating morphology of lava flows no. 1-8. The second phase of the eruption (Mid-October to end November) had a discharge of 100-50 m3/s. During this time the lava transport system changed, via the formation of a system, which formed as lava ponded in the open lava channels creating sufficient lavastatic pressure in the fluid lava to lift the roof of the lava channels. This allowed new lava into the previously active lava channel lifting the channel roof via inflation. The final (third) phase, lasting from December to end-February 2015 had a mean discharge rate of 50 m3/s. In this phase the lava transport was mainly confined to lava tubes within lava flows no. 1-2, which fed breakouts that resurfaced > 19 km2 of the flow field. The primary lava morphology from this phase was spiny pāhoehoe, which superimposed on the 'a'ā lava flows no. 1-3 and extended the entire length of the flow field (i.e. 17 km). This made the 2014-2015 Holuhraun a paired flow field, where both lava morphologies had similar length

  8. Oral nicorandil recaptures the waned protection from preconditioning in vivo. (United States)

    Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Cokkinos, Philip; Zoga, Anastasia; Steliou, Ioulia; Vrettou, Agathi R; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th


    1. Protection from preconditioning (PC) wanes and is eventually lost when multiple bouts of short ischemia or a prolonged reperfusion interval precedes the following sustained ischemia. The activation of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels plays a pivotal role in the intracellular signaling of PC. We tested whether the K(ATP) channel opener nicorandil (nic) preserves the given protection from PC in conditions where this benefit decays and is lost. 2. Eight groups of rabbits were divided into two equal series of experiments, one without nic (placebo) and one with nic treatment. Nic was given orally for 5 consecutive days in a dose of 5 mg kg(-1) d(-1). In a second step, four additional groups were treated with nic plus the K(ATP) channel blocker 5HD and 1 additional control group with nitroglycerin only. All the animals were anesthetized and then subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion with one of the following interventions before the sustained ischemia: Control groups to no intervention; 3PC groups to three cycles of 5-min ischemia-10-min reperfusion; 8PC groups to eight cycles of 5-min ischemia - 10-min reperfusion; and 3PC90 groups to the same interventions as the 3PC groups but with a prolonged (90 min) intervening reperfusion interval before the sustained ischemia. The infarcted and the risk areas were expressed in percent. 3. There was no significant change in infarct size between the placebo, the nic and the 5HD-nic in the control groups (41.5+/-4.7, 43.9+/-7.1 and 48.7+/-6.4%) and 3PC groups (10.3+/-3.4, 12.2+/-3.9 and 12.6+/-4.5%). However, there was a significant decrease after nic treatment in groups 8PC (47.7+/-8.8% vs 13.0+/-2.6%, P38.2+/-4.7 and 42.7+/-4.4%, respectively, for 8PC and 3PC90 groups). Nitroglycerin had no effect on infarct size (39.1+/-3.1%, P=NS vs other controls). 4. Oral treatment with nic recaptures the waned protection of PC, both after repetitive bouts of short ischemia or after a prolonged reperfusion interval

  9. Investigating Weathering of Basaltic Materials in Gale Crater, Mars: A Combined Laboratory, Modeling and Terrestrial Field Approach (United States)

    Hausrath, Elisabeth; Ralston, Stephanie J.; Bamisile, Toluwalope; Ming, Douglas; Peretyazhko, Tanya; Rampe, Elizabeth; Gainey, Seth


    Recent observations from Gale Crater, Mars document past aqueous alteration both in the formation of the Stimson sandstone unit, as well as in the formation of altered fractures within that unit. Geochemical and mineralogical data from Curiosity also suggest Fe-rich amorphous weathering products are present in most samples measured to date. Here we interpret conditions of possible past weathering in Gale Crater using a combination of field, laboratory, and modeling work. In order to better understand secondary Fe-rich phases on Mars, we are examining formation of weathering products in high Fe and Mg and low Al serpentine soils in the Klamath Mountains, CA. We have isolated potential weathering products from these soils, and are analyzing them using synchrotron µXRF and µXRD as well as FullPat for a direct comparison to analyses from Gale Crater. In order to interpret the implications of the persistence of potential secondary Fe-containing phases on Mars, we are also measuring the dissolution rates of the secondary weathering products allophane, Fe-rich allophane, and hisingerite. Ongoing dissolution experiments of these materials suggest that they dissolve significantly more rapidly than more crystalline secondary minerals with similar chemical compositions. Finally, to quantify the specific conditions of past aqueous alteration in Gale Crater we are performing reactive transport modeling of a range of possible past environmental conditions. Specifically, we are testing the conditions under which a Stimson unit-like material forms from a parent material similar to Rocknest or Bagnold eolian deposits, and the conditions under which observed altered fracture zones form from a Stimson unit-like parent material. Our modeling results indicate that the formation of the Stimson unit is consistent with leaching of an eolian deposit with a solution of pH = 6-8, and that formation of the altered fracture zones is consistent with leaching with a very acidic (pH = 2-3) high

  10. Emplacement dynamics and lava field evolution of the flood basalt eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland: Observations from field and remote sensing data (United States)

    Pedersen, Gro; Höskuldsson, Armann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Thórdarson, Thorvaldur; Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Durmont, Stephanie


    The Holuhraun eruption (Aug 2014- Feb 2015) is the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, with an estimated lava volume of ~1.6 km3 covering an area of ~83 km2. The eruption provides an unprecedented opportunity to study i) lava morphologies and their emplacement styles, ii) Morphological transitions iii) the transition from open to closed lava pathways and iv) the implication of lava pond formation. This study is based on three different categories of data; field data, airborne data and satellite data. The field data include tracking of the lava advancement by Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements and georeferenced GoPro cameras allowing classification of the lava margin morphology. Furthermore, video footage on-site documented lava emplacement. Complimentary observations have been provided from aircraft platforms and by satellite data. Of particular importance for lava morphology observations are 1-12 m/pixel airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images (x-band), as well as SAR data from TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed satellites. The Holuhraun lava field comprises a continuum of morphologies from pāhoehoe to 'a'ā, which have varied temporally and spatially. Shelly pāhoehoe lava was the first morphology to be observed (08-29). Spatially, this lava type was not widely distributed, but was emplaced throughout the eruption close to the vent area and the lava channels. Slabby pāhoehoe lava was initially observed the 08-31 and was observed throughout most of the eruption during the high-lava-flux phase of new lava lobe emplacement. 'A'ā lavas were the dominating morphology the first three months of the eruption and was first observed 09-01 like Rubbly pāhoehoe lava. Finally, Spiny pāhoehoe lava was first observed the 09-05 as a few marginal outbreaks along the fairly inactive parts of the 'a'ā lava lobe. However, throughout the eruption this morphology became more important and from mid-November/beginning of December the

  11. Mantle xenolith-xenocryst-bearing monogenetic alkali basaltic lava field from Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India: Estimation of magma ascent rate (United States)

    Ray, Arijit; Hatui, Kalyanbrata; Paul, Dalim Kumar; Sen, Gautam; Biswas, S. K.; Das, Brindaban


    Kutch rift basin of northwestern India is characterized by a topography that is controlled by a number of fault controlled uplifted blocks. Kutch Mainland Uplift, the largest uplifted block in the central part of the basin, contains alkali basalt plugs and tholeiitic basalt flows of the Deccan age. Alkali plugs often contain small, discoidal mantle xenoliths of spinel lherzolite and spinel wehrlite composition. Olivine occurs as xenocrysts (coarse, fractured, broken olivine grains with embayed margin; Fo> 90), phenocrysts (euhedral, smaller, and less forsteritic ~ Fo80), and as groundmass grains (small, anhedral, Fo75) in these alkali basalts. In a few cases, the alkali plugs are connected with feeder dykes. Based on the width of feeder dykes, on the sizes of the xenocrysts and xenoliths, thickness of alteration rim around olivine xenocryst, we estimate that the alkali magmas erupted at a minimum speed of 0.37 km per hour. The speed was likely greater because of the fact that the xenoliths broke up into smaller fragments as their host magma ascended through the lithosphere.

  12. Eruption of magmatic foams on the Moon: Formation in the waning stages of dike emplacement events as an explanation of ;irregular mare patches; (United States)

    Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W.


    Volcanic eruptions on the Moon take place in conditions of low gravity and negligible atmospheric pressure, very different from those on Earth. These differences lead to characteristic lunar versions of hawaiian and strombolian explosive activity, and to the production of unusual eruption products neither predicted nor observed on Earth in the terminal stages of eruptions. These include the unusual mounds and rough (hummocky, blocky) floors of some small-shield summit pit crater floors, elongate depressions and mare flows (similar to those named ;irregular mare patches;, IMPs, by Braden et al., 2014). We examine the ascent and eruption of magma in the waning stages of the eruptive process in small-shield summit pit crater floors and show that many IMP characteristics can be plausibly explained by basaltic magma behavior as the rise rate of the ascending magma slows to zero, volatiles exsolve in the dike and lava lake to form a very vesicular foam, and the dike begins to close. Stresses in the very vesicular and porous lava lake crust produce fractures through which the foam extrudes at a rate determined by its non-Newtonian rheology. Waning-stage extrusion of viscous magmatic foams to the surface produces convex mounds whose physical properties inhibit typical impact crater formation and regolith development, creating an artificially young crater retention age. This mechanism for the production and extrusion of very vesicular magmatic foams is also applicable to waning-stage dike closure associated with pit craters atop dikes, and fissure eruptions in the lunar maria, providing an explanation for many irregular mare patches. This mechanism implies that IMPs and associated mare structures (small shields, pit craters and fissure flows) formed synchronously billions of years ago, in contrast to very young ages (less than 100 million years) proposed for IMPs by some workers.

  13. Rare earth element contents and multiple mantle sources of the transform-related Mount Edgecumbe basalts, southeastern Alaska (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Lanphere, M.A.; Brew, D.A.


    Pleistocene basalt of the Mount Edgecumbe volcanic field (MEF) is subdivided into a plagioclase type and an olivine type. Th/La ratios of plagioclase basalt are similar to those of mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB), whereas those of olivine basalt are of continental affinity. Rare earth element (REE) contents of the olivine basalt, which resemble those of transitional MORB, are modelled by 10-15% partial melting of fertile spinel-plagioclase lherzolite followed by removal of 8-13% olivine. It is concluded that olivine basalt originated in subcontinental spinel lherzolite and that plagioclase basalt may have originated in suboceanic lithosphere of the Pacific plate. -from Authors

  14. Geochemical study of young basalts in East Azerbaijan (Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Amel


    Full Text Available The young basalts in East Azerbaijan are placed in West Alborz – Azerbaijan zone. Volcanic activities have extended from the Pliocene to the Quaternary by eruption from fracture systems and faults. Rocks under study are olivine-basalt and trachybasalts. The main minerals are olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase set in glassy or microcrystalline matrix and olivine are present as phenocryst. The textures in the studied rocks are mainly hyaloporphyric, hyalomicrolitic and porphyritic. Trace elements and rare earth elements on spider diagrams have high LREE/HREE ratio. Rare earth elements on diagram display negative slope indicating alkaline nature for the basalts under study. As it may be observed, on tectonic diagrams, the Marand basalts are placed on Island Arc basalt (IAB field, whereas the Ahar, Heris, Kalaibar and Miyaneh basalts are classified as Ocean Island Basalts (OIB and finally the basalts of Sohrol area are plotted on continental rift Basalt (CRB field. The Marand and Sohrol basalts were likely originated from lithospheric - astenospheric mantle with 2 to 5 % partial melting whereas, the Ahar, Heris and Kalaibar basalts having same source experienced 1-2% partial melting rate and the Miyaneh basalts possibly produced from lithospheric mantle with 10-20% partial melting rate pointing to shallow depth of mantle and the higher rate of melting. Based on tectonic setting diagrams, all the rocks studied are plotted in post collisional environments.

  15. Estimation of vaccine efficacy in the presence of waning: application to cholera vaccines. (United States)

    Durham, L K; Longini, I M; Halloran, M E; Clemens, J D; Nizam, A; Rao, M


    The authors present a nonparametric method for estimating vaccine efficacy as a smooth function of time from vaccine trials. Use of the method requires a minimum of assumptions. Estimation is based on the smoothed case hazard rate ratio comparing the vaccinated with the unvaccinated. The estimation procedure allows investigators to assess time-varying changes in vaccine-induced protection, such as those produced by waning and boosting. The authors use the method to reanalyze data from a vaccine trial of two cholera vaccines in rural Bangladesh. This analysis reveals the differential protection and waning effects for the vaccines as a function of biotype and age.

  16. Rheological evolution of planetary basalts during cooling and crystallization (United States)

    Sehlke, Alexander

    Basaltic lavas cover large portions of the surface of the Earth and other planets and moons. Planetary basalts are compositionally different from terrestrial basalts, and show a variety of unique large-scale lava flow morphologies unobserved on Earth. They are usually assumed to be much more fluid than basalts on Earth, such as Hawaiian basalt, but their rheology is largely unknown. I synthesized several synthetic silicate melts representing igneous rock compositions of Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Io and Vesta. I measured their viscosity, as well as several terrestrial lavas including Hawaiian basalt, by concentric cylinder and parallel plate viscometry. Planetary melts cover a wide range of viscosity at their liquidus, overlapping with terrestrial basaltic melts. I derived a new viscosity model that is based on the Adam-Gibbs theory of structural relaxation, predicting these viscosities much more accurately than previously published viscosity models. During crystallization, the rheological behavior changes from Newtonian to pseudoplastic. Combining rheology experiments with field observations, the rheological conditions of the pahoehoe to `a`a morphological transition for Hawaiian basalt were determined in strain rate-viscosity space. This transition occurs at temperatures around 1185+/-15°C. For Mercurian lavas, this transition is predicted to occur at higher temperatures around 1250+/-30°C. We find that the rheology of these lavas is broadly similar to terrestrial ones, suggesting that the large smooth volcanic plains observed on Mercury's northern hemisphere are due to flood basalt volcanism rather than unusually fluid lavas. We also show that KREEP lavas, a type of basalt associated with sinuous rilles on the lunar surface, is more likely to form rilles through levee construction, as the high and rapidly increasing viscosity prohibits sufficient thermo-mechanical erosion.

  17. Pertussis outbreak in primary and secondary schools in Ludwigslust, Germany demonstrating the role of waning immunity. (United States)

    Sin, Muna Abu; Zenke, Rosemarie; Rönckendorf, Rita; Littmann, Martina; Jorgensen, Pernille; Hellenbrand, Wiebke


    A pertussis outbreak primarily affecting school-age children in Ludwigslust, Germany, was investigated in 2006 to estimate attack rates and relative risk of pertussis according to time since last vaccination, after a complete primary course. Results suggested waning immunity beginning approximately 5 years after the last dose of pertussis vaccination. Most cases could have been prevented by earlier booster vaccination.

  18. Chlorine in Lunar Basalts (United States)

    Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.


    In the context of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) model, it is anticipated that chlorine (and other volatiles) should have been concentrated in the late-stage LMO residual melts (i.e., the dregs enriched in incompatible elements such as K, REEs, and P, collectively called KREEP, and in its primitive form - urKREEP, [1]), given its incompatibility in mafic minerals like olivine and pyroxene, which were the dominant phases that crystallized early in the cumulate pile of the LMO (e.g., [2]). When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks (e.g., [3-4]), lunar samples often display heavy chlorine isotope compositions [5-9]. Boyce et al. [8] found a correlation between delta Cl-37 (sub Ap) and bulk-rock incompatible trace elements (ITEs) in lunar basalts, and used this to propose that early degassing of Cl (likely as metal chlorides) from the LMO led to progressive enrichment in remaining LMO melt in Cl-37over Cl-35- the early degassing model. Barnes et al. [9] suggested that relatively late degassing of chlorine from urKREEP (to yield delta Cl-37 (sub urKREEP greater than +25 per mille) followed by variable mixing between KREEPy melts and mantle cumulates (characterized by delta Cl-370 per mille) could explain the majority of Cl isotope data from igneous lunar samples. In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed an in situ study of chlorine isotopes and abundances of volatiles in lunar apatite from a diverse suite of lunar basalts spanning a range of geochemical types.

  19. Geochronological, morphometric and geochemical constraints on the Pampas Onduladas long basaltic flow (Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Mendoza, Argentina) (United States)

    Espanon, Venera R.; Chivas, Allan R.; Phillips, David; Matchan, Erin L.; Dosseto, Anthony


    The Pampas Onduladas flow in southern Mendoza, Argentina, is one of the four longest Quaternary basaltic flows on Earth. Such flows (> 100 km) are relatively rare on Earth as they require special conditions in order to travel long distances and there are no recent analogues. Favourable conditions include: a gentle topographic slope, an insulation process to preserve the melt at high temperature, and a large volume of lava with relatively low viscosity. This study investigates the rheological and geochemical characteristics of the ~ 170 km long Pampas Onduladas flow, assessing conditions that facilitated its exceptional length. The study also reports the first geochronological results for the Pampas Onduladas flow. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analyses of groundmass reveal an eruption age of 373 ± 10 ka (2σ), making the Pampas Onduladas flow the oldest Quaternary long flow. The methods used to assess the rheological properties include the application of several GIS tools to a digital elevation model (DEM) to determine the length, width, thickness, volume and topographic slope of the flow as well as algorithms to determine its density, viscosity and temperature. The slope of the Pampas Onduladas flow determined from the initial part of the flow on the eastern side of La Carbonilla Fracture to its end point in the province of La Pampa is 0.84% (0.29°), the steepest substrate amongst long Quaternary flows. The rheological properties, such as density viscosity and temperature from the Pampas Onduladas flow are similar to values reported for other long Quaternary flows. However, the minimum volume calculated is relatively low for its length compared with other long Quaternary flows. Therefore, the extension of the Pampas Onduladas flow was probably controlled by a steep slope, combined with an insulating mechanism, which helped in providing optimal conditions for a travel length of almost 170 km.

  20. Chemical magnetization when determining Thellier paleointensity experiments in oceanic basalts (United States)

    Tselebrovskiy, Alexey; Maksimochkin, Valery


    The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of oceanic basalts selected in the rift zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Red Sea has been explored. Laboratory simulation shows that the thermoremanent magnetization and chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) in oceanic basalts may be separated by using Tellier-Coe experiment. It was found that the rate of CRM destruction is about four times lower than the rate of the partial thermoremanent magnetization formation in Thellier cycles. The blocking temperatures spectrum of chemical component shifted toward higher temperatures in comparison with the spectrum of primary thermoremanent magnetization. It was revealed that the contribution of the chemical components in the NRM increases with the age of oceanic basalts determined with the analysis of the anomalous geomagnetic field (AGF) and spreading theory. CRM is less than 10% at the basalts aged 0.2 million years, less than 50% at basalts aged 0.35 million years, from 60 to 80% at basalts aged 1 million years [1]. Geomagnetic field paleointensity (Hpl) has been determined through the remanent magnetization of basalt samples of different ages related to Brunhes, Matuyama and Gauss periods of the geomagnetic field polarity. The value of the Hpl determined by basalts of the southern segment of MAR is ranged from 17.5 to 42.5 A/m, by the Reykjanes Ridge basalts — from 20.3 to 44 A/m, by the Bouvet Ridge basalts — from 21.7 to 34.1 A/m. VADM values calculated from these data are in good agreement with the international paleointensity database [2] and PISO-1500 model [3]. Literature 1. Maksimochkin V., Tselebrovskiy A., (2015) The influence of the chemical magnetization of oceanic basalts on determining the geomagnetic field paleointensity by the thellier method, moscow university physics bulletin, 70(6):566-576, 2. Perrin, M., E. Schnepp, and V. Shcherbakov (1998), Update of the paleointensity database, Eos Trans. AGU, 79, 198. 3. Channell JET, Xuan C, Hodell DA (2009

  1. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.


    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  2. Basalt: Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Abercromby, A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Kobayashi, L.; Hughes, S. S.; Chappell, S.; Bramall, N. E.; Deans, M. C.; Heldmann, J. L.; Downs, M.; Cockell, C. S.; Stevens, A. H.; Caldwell, B.; Hoffman, J.; Vadhavk, N.; Marquez, J.; Miller, M.; Squyres, S. W.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Cohen, T.; Smith, T.; Lee, G.; Frank, J.; Colaprete, A.


    This presentation will provide an overview of the BASALT (Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains) program. BASALT research addresses Science, Science Operations, and Technology. Specifically, BASALT is focused on the investigation of terrestrial volcanic terrains and their habitability as analog environments for early and present-day Mars. Our scientific fieldwork is conducted under simulated Mars mission constraints to evaluate strategically selected concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities with respect to their anticipated value for the joint human and robotic exploration of Mars. a) Science: The BASALT science program is focused on understanding habitability conditions of early and present-day Mars in two relevant Mars-analog locations (the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) and the East Rift Zone (ERZ) flows on the Big Island of Hawai'i and the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in Idaho) to characterize and compare the physical and geochemical conditions of life in these environments and to learn how to seek, identify, and characterize life and life-related chemistry in basaltic environments representing these two epochs of martian history. b) Science Operations: The BASALT team will conduct real (non-simulated) biological and geological science at two high-fidelity Mars analogs, all within simulated Mars mission conditions (including communication latencies and bandwidth constraints) that are based on current architectural assumptions for Mars exploration missions. We will identify which human-robotic ConOps and supporting capabilities enable science return and discovery. c) Technology: BASALT will incorporate and evaluate technologies in to our field operations that are directly relevant to conducting the scientific investigations regarding life and life-related chemistry in Mars-analogous terrestrial environments. BASALT technologies include the use of mobile science platforms, extravehicular informatics, display technologies, communication

  3. Identifying long-term memory B-cells in vaccinated children despite waning antibody levels specific for Bordetella pertussis proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H.; Ozturk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie


    Whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. Since the 1950s in developed countries pertussis vaccinations are included in the national immunization program. However, antibody levels rapidly wane after both whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccination. Therefore

  4. geochemistry of the potassic basalts from the bufumbira volcanic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Bufumbira volcanic field is the southernmost of the four Ugandan small Pleistocene to Recent volcanic fields within the western branch of the East African rift system. The rocks consist of silica undersaturated and vesicular basalts with numerous primary structures. The rocks consist of basanites, leucitites ...

  5. Elastic Anisotropy of Basalt (United States)

    Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.


    Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are

  6. Transition Element Abundances in MORB Basalts (United States)

    Yang, S.; Humayun, M.; Salters, V. J.; Fields, D.; Jefferson, G.; Perfit, M. R.


    The mineralogy of the mantle sources of basalts is an important, but hard to constrain parameter, especially with the basalts as chemical probes of major element mantle composition. Geophysical models imply that the deep mantle may have significant variations in Fe and Si relative to the ambient mantle sampled by MORB. Some petrological models of sub-ridge melting involve both pyroxenite and peridotite, implying that basalts preferentially sample a pyroxenite endmember. The First-Row Transition Elements (FRTE), Ga and Ge are compatible to moderately incompatible during partial melting, and are sensitive to mineralogical variability in the mantle and thus can provide constraints on mantle source mineralogy for MORB. We have analyzed major elements, FRTE, Ga and Ge on 231 basaltic glasses from the Middle Atlantic Ridge (MAR between -23°S to 36.44°N), 30 Mid-Cayman Rise basaltic glasses, 12 glasses from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone (EPR), 9 glasses from the Blanco Trough, Juan de Fuca ridge, and Galapagos Spreading Centers (EPR), and 4 Indian Ocean MORB. Large spots (150 μm) were precisely (±1%) analyzed by a New Wave UP193FX excimer (193 nm) laser ablation system coupled to a high-resolution ICP-MS at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory using a high ablation rate (50 Hz) to yield blank contributions <1% for all elements, particularly Ge. The data demonstrate that the Ge/Si (6.96 x 10E-6 ± 3%, 1σ) and Fe/Mn (55 ± 2%) ratios for MORB are insensitive to fractional crystallization within the MgO range 6%-10%. MORB have Zn/Fe (9.9 x 10E-4 ± 7%), Ga/Sc (0.37-0.50), Ga/Al (2.2 x 10E-4 ± 11%) ratios, with the variations mostly due to the effects of fractional crystallization. Recent experimental determination of FRTE, Ga and Ge partition coefficients provide a framework within which to interpret these data [1]. Using these new partition coefficients, we have modeled the sensitivity of each element to mineralogical variations in the mantle source. Olivine

  7. Pahoehoe-a‧a transitions in the lava flow fields of the western Deccan Traps, India-implications for emplacement dynamics, flood basalt architecture and volcanic stratigraphy (United States)

    Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Gadpallu, Purva; Shaikh, Tahira N.; Cardin, Neha


    Unlike pahoehoe, documentation of true a‧a lavas from a modern volcanological perspective is a relatively recent phenomenon in the Deccan Trap (e.g. Brown et al., 2011, Bull. Volcanol. 73(6): 737-752) as most lava flows previously considered to be a‧a (e.g. GSI, 1998) have been shown to be transitional (e.g. Rajarao et al., 1978, Geol. Soc. India Mem. 43: 401-414; Duraiswami et al., 2008 J. Volcanol. Geothermal. Res. 177: 822-836). In this paper we demonstrate the co-existence of autobrecciation products such as slabby pahoehoe, rubbly pahoehoe and a‧a in scattered outcrops within the dominantly pahoehoe flow fields. Although volumetrically low in number, the pattern of occurrence of the brecciating lobes alongside intact ones suggests that these might have formed in individual lobes along marginal branches and terminal parts of compound flow fields. Complete transitions from typical pahoehoe to 'a‧a lava flow morphologies are seen on length scales of 100-1000 m within road and sea-cliff sections near Uruli and Rajpuri. We consider the complex interplay between local increase in the lava supply rates due to storage or temporary stoppage, local increase in paleo-slope, rapid cooling and localized increase in the strain rates especially in the middle and terminal parts of the compound flow field responsible for the transitional morphologies. Such transitions are seen in the Thakurwadi-, Bushe- and Poladpur Formation in the western Deccan Traps. These are similar to pahoehoe-a‧a transitions seen in Cenozoic long lava flows (Undara ˜160 km, Toomba ˜120 km, Kinrara ˜55 km) from north Queensland, Australia and Recent (1859) eruption of Mauna Loa, Hawaii (a‧a lava flow ˜51 km) suggesting that flow fields with transitional tendencies cannot travel great lengths despite strong channelisation. If these observations are true, then it arguably limits long distance flow of Deccan Traps lavas to Rajahmundry suggesting polycentric eruptions at ˜65 Ma in

  8. An update on vaccines for tuberculosis - there is more to it than just waning of BCG efficacy with time. (United States)

    Romano, Marta; Huygen, Kris


    Apart from better diagnostics and new anti-microbial drugs, an effective vaccine for tuberculosis is urgently needed to halt this poverty-related disease, afflicting millions of people worldwide. After a general introduction on the global threat of tuberculosis, the pros and cons of the existing M. bovis BCG vaccine are discussed. As the correlates of protection against tuberculosis remain largely unknown, new findings in biomarker research are described. Next, an update on the ongoing Phase I and Phase II clinical trials is given. Finally, some of the most promising novel pre-clinical developments using live attenuated vaccines, sub-unit vaccines, prime-boost strategies, and new vaccination routes are discussed. The field has made considerable progress and 12 vaccine candidates have now actually entered Phase I or Phase IIa and IIb clinical trials. It is argued that the variable protection conferred by the existing BCG vaccine against reactivation of latent TB is caused not only by waning of its efficacy with time but also by its weak induction of MHC class I restricted responses. Prime-boost strategies based on the actual BCG vaccine may not be sufficient to overcome this hurdle. The use of plasmid DNA vaccination might offer a solution.

  9. Petrography of basalts from the Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    and olivine phenocrysts, in addition to numerous filled and unfilled vesicles. These basalts are of the moderately plagioclase phyric basalts (MPPB) variety and are comparable to those of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge...

  10. Petrogenesis of Late Cenozoic basaltic rocks from southern Vietnam (United States)

    An, A.-Rim; Choi, Sung Hi; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Der-Chuen


    Major and trace element concentrations, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic (4.1 to 13.8 Ma) basaltic rocks from southern Vietnam have been determined to understand the nature of their mantle source. The volcanic rocks are composed of tholeiite basalt, alkaline basanite, trachybasalt, basaltic trachyandesite, and trachyandesite. The alkaline rocks show light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment, with (La/Yb)N = 10.3-29.8. The tholeiite basalts are distinguished by much lower values (8.8-9.5) of (La/Yb)N. On a primitive mantle-normalized trace element distribution diagram, they show oceanic island basalt (OIB)-like large-ion lithophile element enrichment without high field strength element depletion. However, some samples exhibit positive anomalies in K and Pb and negative anomalies in Sm, suggesting K-rich residual amphibole in the source. The samples contain Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703794-0.704672), Nd (ɛNd = + 1.7-5.7), Hf (ɛHf = + 4.0-10.9), and Pb (206Pb/204Pb = 18.23-18.75; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.53-15.59; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.32-38.88) isotopes, plotting among OIBs, with depleted mid-ocean ridge basalt mantle-enriched mantle type 2 (DMM-EM2) characteristics. There are no discernible isotopic differences between tholeiite and the alkaline series, reflecting the same source. The Nd and Hf isotopic compositions are coupled, and plot along the mantle-crust array, ruling out the possibility of lithospheric mantle in the source. Plots of NiO against the Fo numbers of olivines from the basaltic rocks are within the range of Hainan and Hawaiian basalt olivines, implying that hybrid pyroxenite is present in the source. Also note that the estimated primary melt compositions fall within the experimental field defined by partial melting of silica-poor eclogite and peridotite. The effective melting pressure (Pf) and melting temperature (T) of the primary melts are Pf = 29.6-32.8 kbar and T = 1470-1480 °C. We suggest that Vietnamese basaltic rocks may be produced by

  11. Radiation shielding concrete made of Basalt aggregates. (United States)

    Alhajali, S; Yousef, S; Kanbour, M; Naoum, B


    In spite of the fact that Basalt is a widespread type of rock, there is very little available information on using it as aggregates for concrete radiation shielding. This paper investigates the possibility of using Basalt for the aforementioned purpose. The results have shown that Basalt could be used successfully for preparing radiation shielding concrete, but some attention should be paid to the choice of the suitable types of Basalt and for the neutron activation problem that could arise in the concrete shield.

  12. Electromagnetic Mapping of Electrical Conductivity Beneath the Columbia Basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H. Frank; Shoham, Yoram; Hoversten, G. Michael; Torres-Verdin, Carlos


    Sedimentary rocks beneath the Columbia River Basalt Group are recognized as having potential for oil and gas production, but the overlying layered basalts effectively mask seismic reflections from the underlying sediments. Four electromagnetic (EM) methods have been applied on profiles crossing Boylston Ridge, a typical east-west trending anticline of the Yakima Fold Belt, in an attempt to map the resistivity interface between the basalts and the sediments and to map variations in structure and resistivity within the sediments. The EM surveys detected strong variations in resistivity within the basalts, and in particular the continuous magnetotelluric array profiling (EMAP) revealed resistivity lows beneath the surface anticlines. These low resistivity zones probably coincide with fracturing in the core of the anticlines and they appear to correlate well with similar zones of low seismic velocity observed on a nearby seismic profile. The controlled-source EM surveys (in-loop transient, long-offset transient, and variable-offset frequency-domain) were designed in anticipation of relatively uniform high resistivity basalts, and were found to have been seriously distorted by the intrabasalt conductors discovered in the field. In particular, the resistivity sections derived from 1D inversions were found to be inconsistent and misleading. The EMAP survey provided the most information about the subsurface resistivity distribution, and was certainly the most cost-effective. However, both controlled-source and EMAP surveys call for accurate 2D or 3D inversion to accommodate the geological objectives of this project. [References: 18

  13. Electromagnetic mapping of electrical conductivity beneath the Columbia basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H.F.; Hoversten, G.M [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shoham, Y. [Shell Development Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Torres-Verdin, C. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)


    Sedimentary rocks beneath the Columbia River Basalt Group are recognized as having potential for oil and gas production, but the overlying layered basalts effectively mask seismic reflections from the underlying sediments. Four electromagnetic (EM) methods have been applied on profiles crossing Boylston Ridge, a typical east-west trending anticline of the Yakima Fold Belt, in an attempt to map the resistivity interface between the basalts and the sediments and to map variations in structure and resistivity within the sediments. The EM surveys detected strong variations in resistivity within the basalts, and in particular the continuous magnetotelluric array profiling (EMAP) revealed resistivity lows beneath the surface anticlines. These low resistivity zones probably coincide with fracturing in the core of the anticlines and they appear to correlate well with similar zones of low seismic velocity observed on a nearby seismic profile. The controlled-source EM surveys (in-loop transient, long-offset transient, and variable-offset frequency-domain) were designed in anticipation of relatively uniform high resistivity basalts, and were found to have been seriously distorted by the intrabasalt conductors discovered in the field. In particular, the resistivity sections derived from 1D inversions were found to be inconsistent and misleading. The EMAP survey provided the most information about the subsurface resistivity distribution, and was certainly the most cost-effective. However, both controlled-source and EMAP surveys call for accurate 2D or 3D inversion to accommodate the geological objectives of this project.

  14. Submarine basaltic fountain eruptions in a back-arc basin during the opening of the Japan Sea (United States)

    Hosoi, Jun; Amano, Kazuo


    Basaltic rock generated during the middle Miocene opening of the Japan Sea, is widely distributed on the back-arc side of the Japanese archipelago. Few studies have investigated on submarine volcanism related to opening of the Japan Sea. The present study aimed to reconstruct details of the subaqueous volcanism that formed the back-arc basin basalts (BABB) during this event, and to discuss the relationship between volcanism and the tectonics of back-arc opening, using facies analyses based on field investigation. The study area of the southern Dewa Hills contains well-exposed basalt related to the opening of the Japan Sea. Five types of basaltic rock facies are recognized: (1) coherent basalt, (2) massive platy basalt, (3) jigsaw-fit monomictic basaltic breccia, (4) massive or stratified coarse monomictic basaltic breccia with fluidal clasts, and (5) massive or stratified fine monomictic basaltic breccia. The basaltic rocks are mainly hyaloclastite. Based on facies distributions, we infer that volcanism occurred along fissures developed mainly at the center of the study area. Given that the rocks contain many fluidal clasts, submarine lava fountaining is inferred to have been the dominant eruption style. The basaltic rocks are interpreted as the products of back-arc volcanism that occurred by tensional stress related to opening of the Japan Sea, which drove strong tectonic subsidence and active lava fountain volcanism.

  15. Global threshold dynamics of an SIVS model with waning vaccine-induced immunity and nonlinear incidence. (United States)

    Yang, Junyuan; Martcheva, Maia; Wang, Lin


    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing the spread of infectious diseases. For many diseases, vaccine-induced immunity is not life long and the duration of immunity is not always fixed. In this paper, we propose an SIVS model taking the waning of vaccine-induced immunity and general nonlinear incidence into consideration. Our analysis shows that the model exhibits global threshold dynamics in the sense that if the basic reproduction number is less than 1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable implying the disease dies out; while if the basic reproduction number is larger than 1, then the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable indicating that the disease persists. This global threshold result indicates that if the vaccination coverage rate is below a critical value, then the disease always persists and only if the vaccination coverage rate is above the critical value, the disease can be eradicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of wanes on the bending strength of solid timber beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñiguez González, G.


    Full Text Available A theoretical analysis is conducted to determine the effect of wanes on the bearing capacity of timber in light of the reduction they entail in cross-sectional area compared to fully rectangular sections. The concomitant loss of bending strength is likewise evaluated. Parallel tests are run on 84 samples —51 with wanes— of large section, Scotch (Pinus sylvestris L. and Corsican (Pinus pinaster Ait. pine beams taken from old buildings. The bending strength, modulus of elasticity and density are found in accordance with European standard EN 408. The mechanical properties of the specimens with and without wanes are found to be very similar, and no statistically significant differences are recorded. The effect of the decline in section may be offset by greater continuity of surface fibers and the section shape effect. One practical consequence of this finding is that (within certain limits wanes may be disregarded when grading large section timber beams in existing structures, where this flaw is very common; this in turn would reduce the high percentage of rejected beams imposed by the present visual grading standards.Se ha realizado un análisis teórico del efecto de las gemas en la capacidad resistente de vigas de madera debida a la disminución de la sección con respecto a la sección rectangular, evaluando la pérdida de resistencia a flexión equivalente. Por otro lado, se han ensayado 84 piezas de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L. y pino pinaster (Pinus pinaster Ait. de gruesa escuadría procedente de edificios antiguos, de las que 51 presentaban el defecto de las gemas. Se ha obtenido la resistencia a flexión, el módulo de elasticidad a flexión y la densidad mediante ensayo según norma EN 408.Las propiedades mecánicas de las piezas con gemas y sin gemas resultan muy similares y no hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas. El efecto de pérdida de sección debida a la gema parece compensarse con la mayor continuidad

  17. Flood basalts and extinction events (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.


    The largest known effusive eruptions during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras, the voluminous flood basalts, have long been suspected as being associated with major extinctions of biotic species. Despite the possible errors attached to the dates in both time series of events, the significance level of the suspected correlation is found here to be 1 percent to 4 percent. Statistically, extinctions lag eruptions by a mean time interval that is indistinguishable from zero, being much less than the average residual derived from the correlation analysis. Oceanic flood basalts, however, must have had a different biological impact, which is still uncertain owing to the small number of known examples and differing physical factors. Although not all continental flood basalts can have produced major extinction events, the noncorrelating eruptions may have led to smaller marine extinction events that terminated at least some of the less catastrophically ending geologic stages. Consequently, the 26 Myr quasi-periodicity seen in major marine extinctions may be only a sampling effect, rather than a manifestation of underlying periodicity.

  18. Basaltic Magmatism: The Dominant Factor in the Petrologic and Tectonic Evolution of the Earth (United States)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.


    Silicate bodies such as the Moon, Mars, probably Mercury, and possibly Venus, appear to have evolved in three main stages: a first (felsic) differentiation, a late heavy bombardment, and a second (basaltic) differentiation. It has been proposed that the Earth underwent a similar sequence. This paper argues that the second differentiation, basaltic magmatism, has dominated the petrologic and tectonic evolution of the Earth for four billion years. A global andesitic crust, formed during and after accretion of the planet, was disrupted by major impacts that triggered mantle upwelling and sea-floor spreading about 4 billion years ago. The oceanic crust collectively has since been formed by basaltic volcanism, from spreading centers and mantle plumes. However, the continental crust has also been greatly affected. Basaltic underplating has promoted anatexis and diapiric intrusion of granitoids in granite-greenstone terrains, as well as providing heat for regional metamorphism. Basaltic intrusions, such as the Nipissing diabase of the Sudbury area, have added to the thickness of continental crust. Satellite magnetic surveys suggest that there are more such basaltic intrusions than previously realized; examples include the Bangui anomaly of central Africa and the Kentucky anomaly. Basaltic overplating from mafic dike swarms has repeatedly flooded continents; had it not been for erosion, they would be covered with basalt as Venus is today. The tectonic effects of basaltic volcanism on continents have only recently been realized. The World Stress Map project has discovered that continents are under horizontal compressive stress, caused by push from mid-ocean ridges, i.e., by basaltic volcanism. The stress fields are generally uniform over large intraplate areas, and could contribute to intraplate tectonism. Seafloor spreading has demonstrably been effective for at least 200 million years, and ridge push thus a contributor to tectonic activity for that long. Collectively, the

  19. Mineral CO2 Sequestration into Basalt: The Carbfix Project (United States)

    Gislason, S. R.; Broecker, W. S.; Oelkers, E. H.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Stefansson, A.; Wolff-Boenisch, D.; Matter, J.; Björnsson, G.


    The reduction of industrial CO2 emissions is considered one of the main challenges of this century. Among commonly proposed CO2 storage techniques, the injection of anthropogenic CO2 into deep geological formations is quite promising due their large potential storage capacity and geographic ubiquity. Finding a storage solution that is long lasting, thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign would be ideal. Storage of CO2, as solid calcium magnesium iron carbonate, in basaltic rocks may provide such a long lasting, thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign solution. In nature, the carbonization of basaltic rocks occurs in a variety of well-documented settings, such as the hydrothermal alteration in geothermal systems and in deep ocean vent systems. The goal of this research project is to optimize industrial methods for storing CO2 in basaltic rocks through a combined program consisting of, field scale injection of CO2 charged waters into basaltic rocks, laboratory based experiments, study of natural CO2 waters as natural analogue and state of the art geochemical modelling. A second and equally important goal of this research project is to generate the human capital and expertise to apply the advances made in this project in the future. Towards this goal the bulk of the research is to be performed by graduate student and post-doctoral trainees. At the Hellisheidi Iceland site, the hot gases released from geothermal energy production will be processed to separate the CO2. It will then be dissolved in water at about 25 bar pressure and pumped into the porous basalt at 400 to 700 m depth, at the rate of 30 000 tonnes per year. Model simulations, natural analogues and experimental work suggest that the CO2 charged waters will reacts with the basalt and form carbonate minerals such as FeCO3 - MgCO3 solid solutions and CaCO3. By this method the fixed CO2 will remain trapped as mineral for millions of years.

  20. Dengue vaccine safety signal: Immune enhancement, waning immunity, or chance occurrence? (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D; Halsey, Neal


    A new dengue vaccine was associated with increased risk of hospitalized virologically-confirmed disease during year 3 of follow-up among children age 2-5years. Among hypotheses to explain this finding, we could not distinguish definitively between antibody dependent enhancement, waning immunity, or chance occurrence. However, any theory must account for the following: (a) the signal occurred mainly because of decreased dengue among controls rather than increased dengue among vaccinees; (b) among 48 data points, a statistically significant increase in hospitalization among vaccinated children occurred for only one age group, during one year, and in one region; (c) cumulative risk was similar for vaccinated vs. control children age 2-5years at the end of year 5 and lower for vaccinated vs. control children among older age groups; (d) the protective effect of vaccine against hospitalization decreased from years 1-2 to years 3-5 of follow-up for all age groups and regions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of A Waning Vaccine and Altered Behavior on the Spread of Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia A. Pawelek


    Full Text Available Influenza remains one of the major infectious diseases that targets humankind. Understanding within-host dynamics of the virus and how it translates into the spread of the disease at a population level can help us obtain more accurate disease outbreak predictions. We created an ordinary differential equation model with parameter estimates based on the disease symptoms score data to determine various disease stages and parameters associated with infectiousness and disease progression. Having various stages with different intensities of symptoms enables us to incorporate spontaneous behavior change due to the onset/offset of disease symptoms. Additionally, we incorporate the effect of a waning vaccine on delaying the time and decreasing the size of an epidemic peak. Our results showed that the epidemic peak in the model was significantly lowered when public vaccination was performed up to two months past the onset of an epidemic. Also, behavior change in the earliest stages of the epidemic lowers and delays the epidemic peak. This study further provides information on the potential impact of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions during an influenza epidemic.

  2. Basalt: structural insight as a construction material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... needed research. An insight on inconsistency reported in the literature with respect to the behaviour of basalt-fibre-reinforced composites is also expressed in this paper. The overall idea is to gain information and identify and prioritize research areas of the possible applications of basalt towards sustainable construction.

  3. Anaglyph: Basalt Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina (United States)


    Basalt cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina show an unusual and striking pattern of erosion. Stereoscopic observation helps to clarify the landform changing processes active here. Many of the cliffs appear to be rock staircases that have the same color as the plateau's basaltic cap rock. Are these the edges of lower layers in the basalt or are they a train of slivers that are breaking off from, then sliding downslope and away from, the cap rock. They appear to be the latter. Close inspection shows that each stair step is too laterally irregular to be a continuous sheet of bedrock like the cap rock. Also, the steps are not flat but instead are little ridges, as one might expect from broken, tilted, and sliding slices of the cap rock. Stream erosion has cut some gullies into the cliffs and vegetation (appears bright in this infrared image) shows that water springs from and flows down some channels, but land sliding is clearly a major agent of erosion here.This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was

  4. Single and Multi-Date Landsat Classifications of Basalt to Support Soil Survey Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Mitchell


    Full Text Available Basalt outcrops are significant features in the Western United States and consistently present challenges to Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil mapping efforts. Current soil survey methods to estimate basalt outcrops involve field transects and are impractical for mapping regionally extensive areas. The purpose of this research was to investigate remote sensing methods to effectively determine the presence of basalt rock outcrops. Five Landsat 5 TM scenes (path 39, row 29 over the year 2007 growing season were processed and analyzed to detect and quantify basalt outcrops across the Clark Area Soil Survey, ID, USA (4,570 km2. The Robust Classification Method (RCM using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM method and Random Forest (RF classifications was applied to individual scenes and to a multitemporal stack of the five images. The highest performing RCM basalt classification was obtained using the 18 July scene, which yielded an overall accuracy of 60.45%. The RF classifications applied to the same datasets yielded slightly better overall classification rates when using the multitemporal stack (72.35% than when using the 18 July scene (71.13% and the same rate of successfully predicting basalt (61.76% using out-of-bag sampling. For optimal RCM and RF classifications, uncertainty tended to be lowest in irrigated areas; however, the RCM uncertainty map included more extensive areas of low uncertainty that also encompassed forested hillslopes and riparian areas. RCM uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of bright soil reflectance, while RF uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of shadows. Quantification of basalt requires continued investigation to reduce the influence of vegetation, lichen and loess on basalt detection. With further development, remote sensing tools have the potential to support soil survey mapping of lava fields covering expansive areas in the Western United States and other regions of the world with similar

  5. Basalt waste added to Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melanda Mendes


    Full Text Available Portland cement is widely used as a building material and more than 4.3 billion tons were produced in 2014, with increasing environmental impacts by this industry, mainly through CO2 emissions and consumption of non-removable raw materials. Several by-products have been used as raw materials or fuels to reduce environmental impacts. Basaltic waste collected by filters was employed as a mineral mixture to Portland cement and two fractions were tested. The compression strength of mortars was measured after 7 days and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS were carried out on Portland cement paste with the basaltic residue. Gains in compression strength were observed for mixtures containing 2.5 wt.% of basaltic residue. Hydration products observed on surface of basaltic particles show the nucleation effect of mineral mixtures. Clinker substitution by mineral mixtures reduces CO2 emission per ton of Portland cement.

  6. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 4. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time: Response to Sheth's comments and some additional thoughts. Gautam Sen. Volume 111 Issue 4 December 2002 pp 487-488 ...

  7. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux (United States)

    Ryder, G.


    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  8. Basaltic Asteroids in the Solar System (United States)

    Duffard, René


    Basaltic asteroids are small bodies connected to the processes of heating and melting that may have led to the mineralogical differentiation in the interiors of the largest asteroids. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the inventory of basaltic asteroids may help to estimate how many differentiated bodies actually formed in the asteroid Main Belt and this in turn may provide important constraints to the primordial conditions of the solar nebula. The identification of basaltic asteroids in the asteroid Main Belt and the description of their surface mineralogy are necessary to understand the diversity in the collection of basaltic meteorites. In this work the current work of our team is presented: (i) The mineralogical characterization of the Vesta family members; (ii) The search of new basaltic asteroids in the Main Belt. In the first case, the objective is to characterize the material excavated from the craterization event/s in the crust of Vesta. This work is related to the possible findings of DAWN mission when it arrives to Vesta in 2011. In the second case, the objective is to find the link between the diversity of basaltic material in the meteorite collection and the asteroids.

  9. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    During this fiscal year the information available in the fields of geology and hydrology of the Columbia Plateau was consolidated and two reports were issued summarizing this information. In addition, the information on engineered barriers was consolidated and a report summarizing the research to date on waste package development and design of borehole seals was prepared. The waste package studies, when combined with the hydrologic integration, revealed that even under extreme disruptive conditions, a repository in basalt with appropriately designed waste packages can serve as an excellent barrier for containment of radionuclides for the long periods of time required for waste isolation. On July 1, 1980, the first two heater tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility were started and have been successfully operated to this date. The papers on the Near-Surface Test Facility section of this report present the results of the equipment installed and the preliminary results of the testing. In October 1979, the US Department of Energy selected the joint venture of Kaiser Engineers/Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., to be the architect-engineer to produce a conceptual design of a repository in basalt. During the year, this design has progressed and concept selection has now been completed. This annual report presents a summary of the highlights of the work completed during fiscal year 1980. It is intended to supplement and summarize the nearly 200 papers and reports that have been distributed to date as a part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project studies.

  10. Pliocene and Pleistocene alkalic flood basalts on the seafloor north of the Hawaiian islands (United States)

    Clague, D.A.; Holcomb, R.T.; Sinton, J.M.; Detrick, R. S.; Torresan, M.E.


    The North Arch volcanic field is located north of Oahu on the Hawaiian Arch, a 200-m high flexural arch formed by loading of the Hawaiian Islands. These flood basalt flows cover an area of about 25,000 km2; the nearly flat-lying sheet-like flows extend about 100 km both north and south from the axis of the flexural arch. Samples from 26 locations in the volcanic field range in composition from nephelinite to alkalic basalt. Ages estimated from stratigraphy, thickness of sediment on top of the flows, and thickness of palagonite alteration rinds on the recovered lavas, range from about 0.75-0.9 Ma for the youngest lavas to somewhat older than 2.7 Ma for the oldest lavas. Most of the flow field consists of extensive sheetflows of dense basanite and alkalic basalt. Small hills consisting of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite of mainly nephelinite and alkalic basalt occur within the flow field but were not the source vents for the extensive flows. Many of the vent lavas are highly vesicular, apparently because of degassing of CO2. The lavas are geochemically similar to the rejuvenated-stage lavas of the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics and were generated by partial melting of sources similar to those of the Koloa Volcanics. Prior to eruption, these magmas may have accumulated at or near the base of the lithosphere in a structural trap created by upbowing of the lithosphere. ?? 1990.

  11. The Habitability of Basaltic Hydrovolcanic Tuffs: Implications for Mars (United States)

    Nikitczuk, M. P. C.; Schmidt, M. E.; Flemming, R. L.


    Reed and South Reed Rock are two hydrovolcanic tuff ring deposits in the Fort Rock Volcanic Field (FRVF), Oregon, where microbial ichnofossils (endolithic microbores) exist within basaltic glass pyroclasts. Their presence indicates that continental volcanic settings can provide a habitable environment. The secondary phase assemblage of smectite clays (nontronite), zeolites (chabazite), calcite and palagonite point to a contemporaneous to post depositional hydrothermal alteration temperature range (~25-120°C), below which microbes introduced through groundwater were able to inhabit. Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy reveals geochemical differences between fresh glass and microbore interiors (eg., Fe, Mg depletion and K and Ca enrichment). These differences are interpreted to reflect acquisition by microbes of nutrients and energy by oxidizing and dissolving fresh basaltic glass. The Black Hills, a second study area located 20 km south the Reed Rocks, consists of a series of at least 6 hydrovolcanic vents. Petrographic observations from the Black Hills also reveal microbial ichnofossil features within basaltic glass pyroclasts. Conditions necessary for a habitable environment may therefore be common throughout the FRVF. In both locations, eruptive, depositional, and hydrothermal processes led to an environment conducive to microbial activity in which glass-rich deposits possess a source of biogenic elements, energy, and water. The histories of these deposits however, may be quite different in terms of peak hydrothermal temperatures, age relationships, water content and timing. Comparison of the textural, mineralogical and geochemical properties of the Reed Rocks and Black Hills deposits is ongoing in order to gain a better understanding of the conditions of habitability in these types of deposits. These results have important astrobiological implications for Mars where basaltic pyroclastic materials are widely distributed and may represent a habitable environment.

  12. Waning Immunity Is Associated with Periodic Large Outbreaks of Mumps: A Mathematical Modeling Study of Scottish Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Hamami


    Full Text Available Vaccination programs for childhood diseases, such as measles, mumps and rubella have greatly contributed to decreasing the incidence and impact of those diseases. Nonetheless, despite long vaccination programmes across the world, mumps has not yet been eradicated in those countries: indeed, large outbreaks continue. For example, in Scotland large outbreaks occurred in 2004, 2005, and 2015, despite introducing the MMR (Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine more than 20 years ago. There are indications that this vaccine-preventable disease is re-emerging in highly vaccinated populations. Here we investigate whether the resurgence of mumps is due to waning immunity, and further, could a booster dose be the solution to eradicate mumps or would it just extend the period of waning immunity? Using mathematical modeling we enhance a seasonally-structured disease model with four scenarios: no vaccination, vaccinated individuals protected for life, vaccinated individuals at risk of waning immunity, and introduction of measures to increase immunity (a third dose, or a better vaccine. The model is parameterised from observed clinical data in Scotland 2004–2015 and the literature. The results of the four scenarios are compared with observed clinical data 2004–2016. While the force of infection is relatively sensitive to the duration of immunity and the number of boosters undertaken, we conclude that periodic large outbreaks of mumps will be sustained for all except the second scenario. This suggests that the current protocol of two vaccinations is optimal in the sense that while there are periodic large outbreaks, the severity of cases in vaccinated individuals is less than in unvaccinated individuals, and the size of the outbreaks does not decrease sufficiently with a third booster to make economic sense. This recommendation relies on continuous efforts to maintain high levels of vaccination uptake.

  13. Magmatic recharge buffers the isotopic compositions against crustal contamination in formation of continental flood basalts (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang


    Isotopic compositions of continental flood basalts are essential to understand their genesis and to constrain the character of their mantle sources. Because of potential crustal contamination, it needs to be evaluated if and to which degree these basalts record original isotopic signals of their mantle sources and/or crustal signatures. This study examines the Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic compositions of the late Cenozoic Xinchang-Shengzhou (XS) flood basalts, a small-scale continental flood basalt field in eastern China. The basalts show positive correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd, and negative correlations between 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf, which deviate from compositional arrays of crustal contamination and instead highlight variations in magmatic recharge intensity and mantle source compositions. The lava samples formed by high-volume magmatic recharge recorded signals of recycled sediments in the mantle source, which are characterized by moderate Ba/Th (91.9-106.5), excess 208Pb/204Pb relative to 206Pb/204Pb, and excess 176Hf/177Hf relative to 143Nd/144Nd. Thus, we propose that magmatic recharge buffers the original isotopic compositions of magmas against crustal contamination. Identifying and utilizing the isotope systematics of continental flood basalts generated by high volumes of magmatic recharge are thus crucial to trace their mantle sources.

  14. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range (United States)

    Pallister, J.S.; Budahn, J.R.; Murchey, B.L.


    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic, Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks. Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted from obduction faulting, but the lack of fault slabs of gabbro or peridotite suggests that obduction faults did not penetrate below oceanic layer 2, a likely occurrence if layer 2 were anomalously thick, as in the vicinity of an oceanic island. -from Authors

  15. Hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Estrup, Maja


    The dependence of the hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their degree of crystallisation has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses were achieved...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass was identified as augite. It was found that the hardness of the glass phase decreased slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreased....

  16. Basalt fibers: the green material of the XXI-century, for a sustainable restoration of historical buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Di Ruocco


    Full Text Available In recent decades in the construction industry, the need to experience consolidation techniques with non-corroding materials is being developed. Studies and tests have been led about integration of basalt fibers in concrete structures: they have shown improvements both in terms of mechanical strength and in terms of intervention of consolidation durability (Ólafsson, Thorhallsson, 2009. The basalt rock can be used to produce not only basalt bars, but also fabrics, paddings, continuous filaments and basalt network. Some applications of these basalt-composites materials concern the consolidation of civil construction structures, thermal and acoustic insulation, security clothing, etc. Some years ago the Italian company ENEA (National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development has signed an agreement with HG GBF (one of the world's leading companies in the production of basalt fibers, for the verification of possible applications of this material in the construction field but also in the nautical and automotive ones. The use of basalt fiber in construction could present a series of advantages: natural origin, a cycle of production to lower energy impact compared to other fibers, a high chemical inertia and thus a high degree of durability, low thermal conductivity, good mechanical and thermo-acoustic properties, high fire resistance, a competitive cost and, in general, more environmental compatibility and sustainability than other synthetic fibers.

  17. Molybdenum Valence in Basaltic Silicate Melts (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.


    XANES analyses of molybdenum were performed on basaltic glass run products experiments conducted at varying P, T, and fO2. The transition from Mo6+ to Mo4+ occurs around IW, only Mo4+ remains at IW-1 and below, conditions relevant to core formation.

  18. The biological consequences of flood basalt volcanism (United States)

    Clapham, M.


    Flood basalt eruptions are among the largest environmental perturbations of the Phanerozoic. The rapid release of CO2 from a large igneous province would have triggered a chain of events that can include climate warming, ocean acidification, reduced seawater carbonate saturation, and expanded oceanic anoxia. Those stressors have widely negative impacts on marine organisms, especially on calcified taxa, by affecting their respiratory physiology and reducing energy available for growth and reproduction. Many Phanerozoic extinctions, most notably the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions, coincided with flood basalt eruptions and shared distinctive patterns of taxonomic and ecological selectivity. In these extinctions, highly active organisms were more likely to survive because they possess physiological adaptations for maintaining internal pH during activity, which also proves useful when buffering pH against ocean acidification. In contrast, species that did not move and had low metabolic rates, such as brachiopods and sponges, suffered considerable losses during these extinctions. Heavily-calcified organisms, especially corals, were particularly vulnerable; as a result, ocean acidification and saturation state changes from flood basalt eruptions often triggered crises in reef ecosystems. This characteristic pattern of selectivity during "physiological" extinctions that closely coincided with flood basalts provides a template for assessing the causes of other extinction events. Because these crises also provide deep time analogues for the ongoing anthropogenic crisis of warming, ocean acidification, and expanded anoxia, the selectivity patterns can also help constrain "winners" and "losers" over upcoming decades.

  19. Increased corrosion resistance of basalt reinforced cement compositions with nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URKHANOVA Larisa Alekseevna


    Full Text Available Disperse fiber reinforcement is used to improve deformation and shrinkage characteristics, flexural strength of concrete. Basalt roving and thin staple fiber are often used as mineral fibers. The paper considers the problems of using thin basalt fiber produced by centrifugal-blow method. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of basalt fiber as part of the cement matrix was performed. Nanodispersed silica produced by electron beam accelerator was used to increase corrosion resistance of basalt fiber.

  20. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts (United States)

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.


    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of submarine lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali basalts are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali basalts. The primary ??D values of -80 for most basalts are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.

  1. Waning of maternal immunity and the impact of diseases: the example of myxomatosis in natural rabbit populations. (United States)

    Fouchet, D; Marchandeau, S; Langlais, M; Pontier, D


    Myxomatosis is a leporipoxvirus that infects the european rabbit, inducing a high mortality rate. Observations lead us to hypothesize that a rabbit carrying maternal antibodies (or having recovered) can be infected (or re-infected) upon being exposed (or re-exposed) to the virus. Infection will lead to mild disease, boosting host immune protection. Using a modelling approach we show that this phenomenon may lead to a difference of impact of myxomatosis according to its transmission rate. Young are exposed when they still carry maternal antibodies and develop a mild disease in high transmission populations. Our results show that the impact of myxomatosis is generally higher in epidemic situations compared to populations where the virus circulates all the year. As a consequence, waning of acquired immunity and the continuous supply of newborn along the year may reduce the impact of the disease.

  2. Effects of Basalt Fibres on Mechanical Properties of Concrete

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    El-Gelani A. M.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental program carried out to investigate the effects of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymers (BFRP on some fundamental mechanical properties of concrete. Basalt fibres are formed by heating crushed basalt rocks and funnelling the molten basalt through a spinneret to form basalt filaments. This type of fibres have not been widely used till recently. Two commercially available chopped basalt fibres products with different aspect ratios were investigated, which are dry basalt (GeoTech Fibre and basalt pre-soaked in an epoxy resin (GeoTech Matrix .The experimental work included compression tests on 96 cylinders made of multiple batches of concrete with varying amounts of basalt fibre additives of the two mentioned types, along with control batches containing no fibres. Furthermore, flexural tests on 24 prisms were carries out to measure the modulus of rupture, in addition to 30 prisms for average residual strength test. Results of the research indicated that use of basalt fibres has insignificant effects on compressive strength of plain concrete, where the increase in strength did not exceed about 5%. On the other hand, results suggest that the use of basalt fibres may increase the compressive strength of concrete containing fly as up top 40%. The rupture strength was increased also by 8% to 28% depending on mix and fibre types and contents. Finally, there was no clear correlation between the average residual strength and ratios of basalt fibres mixed with the different concrete batches.

  3. Petrology and chemistry of the Huntzinger flow, Columbia River basalt, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, A.W. Jr.


    Drill core samples of basalts of the Columbia River Group from the Hanford Reservation reveal a spotted, diabasic flow of up to 60 meters in thickness. These samples and those from the flow outcropping at Wahatis Peak (Saddle Mountains, Washington) were examined in detail to document intraflow textural, mineralogical, and chemical variations, which are of importance in basalt flow correlations. Analyses were by atomic absorption, instrumental neutron activation, electron microprobe, natural gamma well logging, K-Ar age dating, X-ray fluorescence, field (portable) magnetometer, and petrographic microscope.

  4. A brief analysis on contribution of Emeishan basalt to the formation of deposits in Guizhou (United States)

    Cui, Tao


    All Based on previous data and field research, we consider that Emeishan basalt is important for genesis of numerous mineral resources in the southwest and northwest of Guizhou Province, and distribution of different types of mineral resources may be used as reference for geological surveys. With the advancement of technologies, aluminium and rare earth elements will have great potential for development.

  5. Physiological and morphological characterization of basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes): Basis for plant improvement (United States)

    Kishor Bhattarai; Douglas A. Johnson; Thomas A. Jones; Kevin J. Connors; Dale R. Gardner


    Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray (basalt milkvetch or threadstalk milkvetch) is a legume that is widely distributed in western North America andholds promise for revegetation and restoration programs in the western United States. Seed of 67 accessions was collected in 2003 from Utah, Nevada, Idaho, Oregon, California, and Washington. Field-collected forage samples...

  6. Microbial Diversity in the Columbia River Basalt Group and the Context for Life in Subsurface Basalts (United States)

    Lavalleur, H. J.; Smith, A.; Fisk, M. R.; Colwell, F. S.


    Large igneous provinces constitute a sizable volume of porous and fractured materials in the Earth's crust and many of these environments exist within the boundaries of survival for subsurface life. The results of microbiological studies of basalts and other igneous materials in subsurface settings hint at the types of microbes that dwell in these environments. We investigated the microbes in aquifers in the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and also considered the microbial communities in subsurface basalts more broadly to determine if there are recurrent themes in the types of microbes and the nature of diversity present in these geological systems. Bacteria and Archaea collected from five intervals in the CRBG were examined using high-throughput DNA sequencing directed at the 16S rRNA genes. The highest bacterial biomass and the highest bacterial diversity were observed in the deepest samples (>1018 meters below land surface) whereas the highest archaeal diversity was detected in the shallowest samples (Crenarchaeota. Based on 16S rRNA sequence similarities to known microbes, both basaltic regions have taxa with representative physiologies likely to include hydrogen oxidation, iron and sulfur metabolism, acetogenesis, and hydrocarbon metabolism. Research on the microbiology of basalt rich provinces on the planet has informed our understanding of biogeochemical cycling where igneous rocks dominate. The knowledge gained in these investigations also promotes our ability to verify the remediation of contaminants and the sequestration of carbon in basalts.

  7. Application of D-CRDM Method in Columnar Jointed Basalts Failure Analysis

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    Changyu Jin


    Full Text Available Columnar jointed basalt is a type of joint rock mass formed by the combined cutting effect of original joints and aphanitic microcracks. After excavation unloading, such rock mass manifested distinct mechanical properties including discontinuity, anisotropy, and proneness of cracking. On the basis of former research findings, this paper establishes a D-CRDM method applicable to the analysis of columnar jointed basalt, which not only integrates discrete element and equivalent finite-element methods, but also takes into account the coupling effect of original joints and aphanitic microcracks. From the comparative study of field monitoring data and strain softening constitutive model calculated results, it can be found that this method may well be used for the simulation of mechanical properties of columnar jointed basalts and the determination of rock failure mechanism and failure modes, thus providing references for the selection of supporting measures for this type of rock mass.

  8. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers (United States)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.


    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  9. Hydrothermal alteration and diagenesis of terrestrial lacustrine pillow basalts: Coordination of hyperspectral imaging with laboratory measurements (United States)

    Greenberger, Rebecca N.; Mustard, John F.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Wilson, Janette H.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Robertson, Kevin M.; Salvatore, Mark R.; Edwards, Christopher S.


    We investigate an outcrop of ∼187 Ma lacustrine pillow basalts of the Talcott Formation exposed in Meriden, Connecticut, USA, focusing on coordinated analyses of one pillow lava to characterize the aqueous history of these basalts in the Hartford Basin. This work uses a suite of multidisciplinary measurements, including hyperspectral imaging, other spectroscopic techniques, and chemical and mineralogical analyses, from the microscopic scale up to the scale of an outcrop. The phases identified in the sample are albite, large iron oxides, and titanite throughout; calcite in vesicles; calcic clinopyroxene, aegirine, and Fe/Mg-bearing clay in the rind; and fine-grained hematite and pyroxenes in the interior. Using imaging spectroscopy, the chemistry and mineralogy results extend to the hand sample and larger outcrop. From all of the analyses, we suggest that the pillow basalts were altered initially after emplacement, either by heated lake water or magmatic fluids, at temperatures of at least 400-600 °C, and the calcic clinopyroxenes and aegirine identified in the rind are a preserved record of that alteration. As the hydrothermal system cooled to slightly lower temperatures, clays formed in the rind, and, during this alteration, the sample oxidized to form hematite in the matrix of the interior and Fe3+ in the pyroxenes in the rind. During the waning stages of the hydrothermal system, calcite precipitated in vesicles within the rind. Later, diagenetic processes albitized the sample, with albite replacing plagioclase, lining vesicles, and accreting onto the exterior of the sample. This albitization or Na-metasomatism occurred when the lake within the Hartford Basin evaporated during a drier past climatic era, resulting in Na-rich brines. As Ca-rich plagioclase altered to albite, Ca was released into solution, eventually precipitating as calcite in previously-unfilled vesicles, dominantly in the interior of the pillow. Coordinated analyses of this sample permit

  10. The Disruption of Tephra Fall Deposits by Basaltic Lava Flows (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.; Blake, S.


    Complex physical and stratigraphic relationships between lava and proximal tephra fall deposits around vents of the Roza Member in the Columbia River Basalt Province, (CRBP), USA, illustrate how basaltic lavas can disrupt, dissect (spatially and temporally) and alter tephra fall deposits. Thin pahoehoe lobes and sheet lobes occur intercalated with tephra deposits and provide evidence for synchronous effusive and explosive activity. Tephra that accumulated on the tops of inflating pahoehoe flows became disrupted by tumuli, which dissected the overlying sheet into a series of mounds. During inflation of subjacent tumuli tephra percolated down into the clefts and rubble at the top of the lava, and in some cases came into contact with lava hot enough to thermally alter it. Lava breakouts from the tumuli intruded up through the overlying tephra deposit and fed pahoehoe flows that spread across the surface of the aggrading tephra fall deposit. Non-welded scoria fall deposits were compacted and welded to a depth of ~50 cm underneath thick sheet lobes. These processes, deduced from the field relationships, have resulted in considerable stratigraphic complexity in proximal regions. We also demonstrate that, when the advance of lava and the fallout of tephra are synchronous, the contacts of some tephra sheets can be diachronous across their extent. The net effect is to reduce the usefulness of pyroclastic deposits in reconstructing eruption dynamics.

  11. Basalts of the Khodzhirbulak Suite and Assessment their Feasibility for Basalt Fiber (Surkhantau Mountains, Southwestern Shoots of the Hissar Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Khakberdyev


    Full Text Available The results of preliminary assessment of basalt of the Khodzhirbulakskoy Suite of Surkhantau Mountains for the basalt fiber production are presented. According to petrographic study, the rocks are described as basalts of amygdaloidal structure. On the base of content of the amount of glassy form and nodular calcite, three groups of basalts were identified. The inverse relationship between the bulk content of the volcanic rock and the content of calcite: the greater volume of volcanic rocks, the less content of calcite, and vice versa. The basalt material demonstrates average pH module of 3.52.

  12. Biogenic Mn-Oxides in Subseafloor Basalts. (United States)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Gustafsson, Håkan; Holm, Nils G


    The deep biosphere of the subseafloor basalts is recognized as a major scientific frontier in disciplines like biology, geology, and oceanography. Recently, the presence of fungi in these environments has involved a change of view regarding diversity and ecology. Here, we describe fossilized fungal communities in vugs in subseafloor basalts from a depth of 936.65 metres below seafloor at the Detroit Seamount, Pacific Ocean. These fungal communities are closely associated with botryoidal Mn oxides composed of todorokite. Analyses of the Mn oxides by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR) indicate a biogenic signature. We suggest, based on mineralogical, morphological and EPR data, a biological origin of the botryoidal Mn oxides. Our results show that fungi are involved in Mn cycling at great depths in the seafloor and we introduce EPR as a means to easily identify biogenic Mn oxides in these environments.

  13. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.


    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses....

  14. Back-arc with frontal-arc component origin of Triassic Karmutsen basalt, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Barker, F.; Sutherland, Brown A.; Budahn, J.R.; Plafker, G.


    The largely basaltic, ???4.5-6.2-km-thick, Middle to Upper Triassic Karmutsen Formation is a prominent part of the Wrangellian sequence. Twelve analyses of major and minor elements of representative samples of pillowed and massive basalt flows and sills from Queen Charlotte and Vancouver Islands are ferrotholeiites that show a range of 10.2-3.8% MgO (as normalized, H2O- and CO2-free) and related increases in TiO2 (1.0-2.5%), Zr (43-147 ppm) and Nb (5-16 ppm). Other elemental abundances are not related simply to MgO: distinct groupings are evident in Al2O3, Na2O and Cr, but considerable scatter is present in FeO* (FeO + 0.9Fe2O3) and CaO. Some of the variation is attributed to alteration during low-rank metamorphism or by seawater - including variation of Ba, Rb, Sr and Cu, but high-field-strength elements (Sc, Ti, Y, Zr and Nb) as well as Cr, Ni, Cu and rare-earth elements (REE's) were relatively immobile. REE's show chondrite-normalized patterns ranging from light-REE depleted to moderately light-REE enriched. On eleven discriminant plots these analyses fall largely into or across fields of within-plate basalt (WIP), normal or enriched mid-ocean-ridge tholeiite (MORB) and island-arc tholeiite (IAT). Karmutsen basalts are chemically identical to the stratigraphically equivalent Nikolai Greenstone of southern Alaska and Yukon Territory. These data and the fact that the Karmutsen rests on Sicker Group island-arc rocks of Paleozoic age suggest to us that: 1. (1) the basal arc, after minor carbonate-shale deposition, underwent near-axial back-arc rifting (as, e.g., the Mariana arc rifted at different times); 2. (2) the Karmutsen basalts were erupted along this rift or basin as "arc-rift" tholeiitite; and 3. (3) after subsequent deposition of carbonates and other rocks, and Jurassic magmatism, a large fragment of this basalt-sediment-covered island arc was accreted to North America as Wrangellia. The major- and minor-elemental abundances of Karmutsen basalt is modeled

  15. The Influence of Topographic Obstacles on Basaltic Lava Flow Morphologies (United States)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.; Samuels, R.


    Smooth pāhoehoe and jagged ´áā represent two end-members of a textural spectrum that reflects the emplacement characteristics of basaltic lava flows. However, many additional textures (e.g., rubbly and slabby pāhoehoe) reflect a range of different process due to lava flow dynamics or interaction with topography. Unfortunately the influence of topography on the distribution of textures in basaltic lava flows is not well-understood. The 18 ± 1.0 ka Twin Craters lava flow in the Zuni-Bandera field (New Mexico, USA) provides an excellent site to study the morphological changes of a lava flow that encountered topographic obstacles. The flow field is 0.2-3.8 km wide with a prominent central tube system that intersects and wraps around a 1000 m long ridge, oriented perpendicular to flow. Upstream of the ridge, the flow has low-relief inflation features extending out and around the ridge. This area includes mildly to heavily disrupted pāhoehoe with interdispersed agglutinated masses, irregularly shaped rubble and lava balls. Breakouts of ´áā and collapse features are also common. These observations suggest crustal disruption due to flow-thickening upstream from the ridge and the movement of lava out and around the obstacle. While the ridge influenced the path of the tube, which wraps around the southern end of the ridge, the series of collapse features and breakouts of ´áā along the tube system are more likely a result of changes in flux throughout the tube system because these features are found both upstream and downstream of the obstacle. This work demonstrates that topography can significantly influence the formation history and surface disruption of a flow field, and in some cases the influence of topography can be separated from the influences of changes in flux along a tube system.

  16. Volatiles in High-K Lunar Basalts (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Messenger, Scott R.; Nguyen, Ann; Boyce, Jeremy


    Chlorine is an unusual isotopic system, being essentially unfractionated ((delta)Cl-37 approximately 0 per mille ) between bulk terrestrial samples and chondritic meteorites and yet showing large variations in lunar (approximately -4 to +81 per mille), martian, and vestan (HED) samples. Among lunar samples, the volatile-bearing mineral apatite (Ca5(PO4)3[F,Cl,OH]) has been studied for volatiles in K-, REE-, and P (KREEP), very high potassium (VHK), low-Ti and high-Ti basalts, as well as samples from the lunar highlands. These studies revealed a positive correlation between in-situ (delta)Cl-37 measurements and bulk incompatible trace elements (ITEs) and ratios. Such trends were interpreted to originate from Cl isotopic fractionation during the degassing of metal chlorides during or shortly after the differentiation of the Moon via a magma ocean. In this study, we investigate the volatile inventories of a group of samples for which new-era volatile data have yet to be reported - the high-K (greater than 2000 ppm bulk K2O), high-Ti, trace element-rich mare basalts. We used isotope imaging on the Cameca NanoSIMS 50L at JSC to obtain the Cl isotopic composition [((Cl-37/(35)Clsample/C-37l/(35)Clstandard)-1)×1000, to get a value in per thousand (per mille)] which ranges from approximately -2.7 +/- 2 per mille to +16.1 +/- 2 per mille (2sigma), as well as volatile abundances (F & Cl) of apatite in samples 10017, 10024 & 10049. Simply following prior models, as lunar rocks with high bulk-rock abundances of ITEs we might expect the high-K, high-Ti basalts to contain apatite characterized by heavily fractionated (delta)Cl-37 values, i.e., Cl obtained from mixing between unfractionated mantle Cl (approximately 0 per mille) and the urKREEP reservoir (possibly fractionated to greater than +25 per mille.). However, the data obtained for the studied samples do not conform to either the early degassing or mixing models. Existing petrogentic models for the origin of the high

  17. Dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in basalts due to reactions with carbonic acid (United States)

    Kanakiya, Shreya; Adam, Ludmila; Esteban, Lionel; Rowe, Michael C.; Shane, Phil


    One of the leading hydrothermal alteration processes in volcanic environments is when rock-forming minerals with high concentrations of iron, magnesium, and calcium react with CO2 and water to form carbonate minerals. This is used to the advantage of geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Here we experimentally investigate how mineral carbonation processes alter the rock microstructure due to CO2-water-rock interactions. In order to characterize these changes, CO2-water-rock alteration in Auckland Volcanic Field young basalts (less than 0.3 Ma) is studied before and after a 140 day reaction period. We investigate how whole core basalts with similar geochemistry but different porosity, permeability, pore geometry, and volcanic glass content alter due to CO2-water-rock reactions. Ankerite and aluminosilicate minerals precipitate as secondary phases in the pore space. However, rock dissolution mechanisms are found to dominate this secondary mineral precipitation resulting in an increase in porosity and decrease in rigidity of all samples. The basalt with the highest initial porosity and volcanic glass volume shows the most secondary mineral precipitation. At the same time, this sample exhibits the greatest increase in porosity and permeability, and a decrease in rock rigidity post reaction. For the measured samples, we observe a correlation between volcanic glass volume and rock porosity increase due to rock-fluid reactions. We believe this study can help understand the dynamic rock-fluid interactions when monitoring field scale CO2 sequestration projects in basalts.

  18. Making rhyolite in a basalt crucible (United States)

    Eichelberger, John


    Iceland has long attracted the attention of those concerned with the origin of rhyolitic magmas and indeed of granitic continental crust, because it presents no alternative for such magmas other than deriving them from a basaltic source. Hydrothermally altered basalt has been identified as the progenitor. The fact that rhyolite erupts as pure liquid requires a process of melt-crustal separation that is highly efficient despite the high viscosity of rhyolite melt. Volcanoes in Iceland are foci of basaltic magma injection along the divergent plate boundary. Repeated injection produces remelting, digestion, and sometimes expulsion or lateral withdrawal of material resulting in a caldera, a "crucible" holding down-dropped and interlayered lava flows, tephras, and injected sills. Once melting of this charge begins, a great deal of heat is absorbed in the phase change. Just 1% change in crystallinity per degree gives a melt-present body an effective heat capacity >5 times the subsolidus case. Temperature is thus buffered at the solidus and melt composition at rhyolite. Basalt inputs are episodic ("fires") so likely the resulting generation of rhyolite by melting is too. If frequent enough to offset cooling between events, rhyolite melt extractions will accumulate as a rhyolite magma reservoir rather than as discrete crystallized sills. Evidently, such magma bodies can survive multiple firings without themselves erupting, as the 1875 eruption of Askja Caldera of 0.3 km3 of rhyolite equilibrated at 2-km depth without previous leakage over a ten-millennium period and the surprise discovery of rhyolite magma at 2-km depth in Krafla suggest. Water is required for melting; otherwise melting cannot begin at a temperature lower than that of the heat source. Because the solubility of water in melt is pressure-dependent and almost zero at surface pressure, there must be a minimum depth at which basalt-induced melting can occur and a rhyolite reservoir sustained. In practice, the

  19. Wax and wane of the cross-sectional momentum and contrarian effects: Evidence from the Chinese stock markets (United States)

    Shi, Huai-Long; Zhou, Wei-Xing


    This paper investigates the time-varying risk-premium relation of the Chinese stock markets within the framework of cross-sectional momentum and contrarian effects by adopting the Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Fama-French three-factor model. The evolving arbitrage opportunities are also studied by quantifying the performance of time-varying cross-sectional momentum and contrarian effects in the Chinese stock markets. The relation between the contrarian profitability and market condition factors that could characterize the investment context is also investigated. The results reveal that the risk-premium relation varies over time, and the arbitrage opportunities based on the contrarian portfolios wax and wane over time. The performance of contrarian portfolios are highly dependent on several market conditions. The periods with upward trend of market state, higher market volatility and liquidity, lower macroeconomics uncertainty are related to higher contrarian profitability. These findings are consistent with the Adaptive Markets Hypothesis and have practical implications for market participants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich


    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  1. Variations in magnetic properties of target basalts with the direction of asteroid impact: Example from Lonar crater, India (United States)

    Arif, Md.; Basavaiah, N.; Misra, S.; Deenadayalan, K.


    The Lonar crater in Maharashtra state, India, has been completely excavated on the Deccan Traps basalt (approximately 65 Ma) at approximately 570 ± 47 ka by an oblique impact of a possible chondritic asteroid that struck the preimpact target from the east at an angle of approximately 30-45o to the horizon where the total duration of the shock event was approximately 1 s. It is shown by our early work that the distribution of ejecta and deformation of target rocks around the crater rim are symmetrical to the east-west plane of impact (Misra et al. 2010). The present study shows that some of the rock magnetic properties of these shocked target basalts, e.g., low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), natural remanent magnetization (NRM)/bulk susceptibility (χ), and high-coercivity and high-temperature (HC_HT) magnetization component, are also almost symmetrically oriented with reference to the plane of impact. Studies on the relative displacements of K3 (minimum) AMS axes of shocked basalts from around the crater rim and from the adjacent target rocks to the approximately 2-3 km west of the crater center suggest that the impact stress could have branched out into the major southwestward and northwestward components in the downrange direction immediately after the impact. The biaxial distribution of AMS axes in stereographic plots for the unshocked basalts transforms mostly into triaxial distribution for the shocked basalts, although transitional type distribution also exists. The degree of anisotropy (P') of AMS ellipsoids of the shocked basalts decreases by approximately 2% when compared with those of the unshocked target (approximately 1.03). The NRM/χ (Am-1) values of the shocked basalts on the rim of the Lonar crater do not show much change in the uprange or downrange direction on and close to the east-west plane of impact, and the values are only approximately 1.5 times higher on average over the unshocked basalts around the crater. However, the

  2. 182W in Modern Ocean Island Basalts (United States)

    Mundl, A.; Touboul, M.; Walker, R. J.; Jackson, M. G.; Kurz, M. D.; Day, J. M.; Horan, M. F.; Helz, R. L.


    The short lived Hf-W isotopic system (182Hf → 182W, t½ = 8.9 Ma) can be used as an important tracer for very early geochemical processes in the Earth's mantle, as well as for possible detection of core-mantle interactions. To date, most high precision 182W/184W data have been obtained for ancient rocks, with most of these characterized by having positive 182W anomalies. Here we report data for modern ocean island basalts (OIB). Although most OIB examined to date show no 182W anomalies, some basalts from Hawaii and Samoa are characterized by well-resolved negative anomalies with µ182W values ranging to -16 (µ182W is the ppm deviation in 182W/184W of a sample relative to a terrestrial reference standard). Further, for both OIB systems the W isotopic data are negatively correlated with 3He/4He, whereby the samples with the lowest µ182W values are characterized by the highest 3He/4He. Thus, both OIB systems sample one or more primordial reservoirs. A primordial mantle domain characterized by negative 182W anomalies could have been created as a result of silicate crystal-liquid fractionation, such as by a magma ocean process, within the first 50 Ma of Solar System history. Tungsten is similarly incompatible to U and Th (from which 4He is generated), so it is difficult to envision a single-stage, early Earth process that would lead to the low Hf/W and high He/(U+Th) implied by the observed correlation. A second option is that the mantle sources of the 182W-depleted, 3He/4He-enriched basalts contain a core component. This is difficult to reconcile with the normal abundances of highly siderophile elements in the rocks. Positive 182W anomalies have been reported for high-3He/4He samples from the 60 Ma Baffin Bay picrites, so isotopically anomalous W is accessed by modern OIB and flood basalt systems from at least two high 3He/4He domains.

  3. On the origin of Luna 24 basalts and soils (United States)

    Ryder, G.; Marvin, U. B.


    Analyses of fine-grained very low titanium (VLT) basalt from the Luna 24 drill core suggest that a single homogeneous magma is represented by the sample. In particular, the small variation in MgO contents of the fine-grained basalt, together with the tight clustering of the compositions of brown glasses (which may be pyroclastic equivalents of the VLT basalt), provides evidence for the single-magma hypothesis. The high-Mg component in the soil samples, though not obviously explainable in petrographic terms, may be derived from material similar to olivine vitrophyre and its degraded products, or from some other high-Mg VLT basalt.

  4. Characterization of basaltic material in the outer Solar System (United States)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Lazzaro, D.; Fulvio, D.; Perna, D.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Fulchignoni, M.


    The majority of basaltic objects in the main belt are dynamically connected to Vesta, the largest differentiated asteroid known. Others, due to their current orbital parameters, cannot be easily linked to Vesta and could be fragments of another differentiated asteroid. A recent statistical analysis performed by our group pointed out that, while basaltic objects in the inner main belt can be compatible with a Vesta origin, this seems not the case for basaltic asteroids beyond 2.5 a.u. We present a spectroscopic survey for 25 basaltic candidates in the middle and outer main belt obtained between 2015 and 2016 at TNG and ESO-NTT.

  5. Geochemistry of Apollo 15 basalt 15555 and soil 15531. (United States)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Philpotts, J. A.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Thomas, H. H.


    Data are presented on major and trace element concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and isotope dilution in Apollo 15 mare basalt 15555 from the Hadley Rille area, as well as on trace element concentrations determined in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from basalt 15555 and in soil 15531 from the same area. Most of the chemical differences between basalt 15555 and soil 15531 could be accounted for if the soil were a mixture of 88% basalt, 6% KREEP (a component, identified in other Apollo soils, rich in potassium, rare-earth elements, and phosphorus), and 6% plagioclase.

  6. Disruption of tephra fall deposits caused by lava flows during basaltic eruptions (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.; Blake, S.


    Observations in the USA, Iceland and Tenerife, Canary Islands reveal how processes occurring during basaltic eruptions can result in complex physical and stratigraphic relationships between lava and proximal tephra fall deposits around vents. Observations illustrate how basaltic lavas can disrupt, dissect (spatially and temporally) and alter sheet-form fall deposits. Complexity arises through synchronous and alternating effusive and explosive activity that results in intercalated lavas and tephra deposits. Tephra deposits can become disrupted into mounds and ridges by lateral and vertical displacement caused by movement (including inflation) of underlying pāhoehoe lavas and clastogenic lavas. Mounds of tephra can be rafted away over distances of 100 s to 1,000 s m from proximal pyroclastic constructs on top of lava flows. Draping of irregular topography by fall deposits and subsequent partial burial of topographic depressions by later lavas can result in apparent complexity of tephra layers. These processes, deduced from field relationships, have resulted in considerable stratigraphic complexity in the studied proximal regions where fallout was synchronous or alternated with inflation of subjacent lava sheets. These mechanisms may lead to diachronous contact relationships between fall deposits and lava flows. Such complexities may remain cryptic due to textural and geochemical quasi-homogeneity within sequences of interbedded basaltic fall deposits and lavas. The net effect of these processes may be to reduce the usefulness of data collected from proximal fall deposits for reconstructing basaltic eruption dynamics.

  7. Geochemical correlation of Black Mountain basalt flows from surface exposures to boreholes in western Fort Irwin, California (United States)

    Buesch, D.


    To help constrain groundwater modeling in the Superior Basin (SB) of the southwestern Fort Irwin National Training Center, California, three boreholes were drilled in 2010 that penetrated porphyritic olivine basalt flows, but the age and distribution of these basalts is unknown. The basalts are interbedded with sandstone and conglomerate at depths 62-65 m in two boreholes, and 72-85 m in a third borehole (which terminated in basalt), and these rocks are in the saturated zone. The basin has 37 pre-2010 boreholes, and 17 are monitored for depth to water, but none were logged in a way that enabled identification of basalt flows. The geochemistry of SB borehole cuttings derived from the basalts was compared to basalts exposed in outcrop throughout the region to establish possible correlations. Conventional XRF data (WD-XRF) on powdered whole-rock samples are from basalts in 3 volcanic fields; Black Mountain (BM; 3.8 Ma, Oskin and Iriondo, 2004), Bicycle Mesa (BiM; 5.6 Ma, Schermer et al., 1996), and Goldstone Mesa (GM; 16 Ma, Schermer et al., 1996). Relative to the SB boreholes, BM is >8 km SW, BiM is >40 km E, and GM is >19 km ENE. On a Zn versus Sr bivariate plot, the 3 volcanic fields plot in unique clusters (some with small overlaps), which suggests there are distinctive geochemical signatures for each field. Laboratory analysis using a portable XRF (p-XRF) was performed on hand specimens and powdered samples of BM and powdered samples of SB and a set of international standards. BM WD-XRF and pXRF data are similar (with slight shifts in values due to instrumental differences), and plot in 3 sub-clusters. SB samples plot near two of the BM samples, suggesting a likely correlation. Four SB samples (two each from two boreholes) are very similar, and the fifth sample differs somewhat, which might indicate a different flow. Based on these geochemical correlations, the SB borehole basalts are probably 3.4 Ma, and flowed eastward >8 km from the BM volcanic field.

  8. Crystal Stratigraphy of Two Basalts from Apollo 16: Unique Crystallization of Picritic Basalt 606063,10-16 and Very-Low-Titanium Basalt 65703,9-13 (United States)

    Donohue, P. H.; Neal, C. R.; Stevens, R. E.; Zeigler, R. A.


    A geochemical survey of Apollo 16 regolith fragments found five basaltic samples from among hundreds of 2-4 mm regolith fragments of the Apollo 16 site. These included a high-Ti vitrophyric basalt (60603,10-16) and one very-low-titanium (VLT) crystalline basalt (65703,9-13). Apollo 16 was the only highlands sample return mission distant from the maria (approx. 200 km). Identification of basaltic samples at the site not from the ancient regolith breccia indicates input of material via lateral transport by post-basin impacts. The presence of basaltic rocklets and glass at the site is not unprecedented and is required to satisfy mass-balance constraints of regolith compositions. However, preliminary characterization of olivine and plagioclase crystal size distributions indicated the sample textures were distinct from other known mare basalts, and instead had affinities to impact melt textures. Impact melt textures can appear qualitatively similar to pristine basalts, and quantitative analysis is required to distinguish between the two in thin section. The crystal stratigraphy method is a powerful tool in studying of igneous systems, utilizing geochemical analyses across minerals and textural analyses of phases. In particular, trace element signatures can aid in determining the ultimate origin of these samples and variations document subtle changes occurring during their petrogenesis.

  9. Using 40Ar/39Ar ages of intercalated silicic tuffs to date flood basalts: Precise ages for Steens Basalt Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group (United States)

    Mahood, Gail A.; Benson, Thomas R.


    To establish causality between flood basalt eruptions and extinction events and global environmental effects recorded by isotopic excursions in marine sediments, highly accurate and precise ages for the flood basalts are required. But flood basalts are intrinsically difficult to date. We illustrate how 40Ar/39Ar feldspar ages for silicic tuffs intercalated with and overlying sections of Steens Basalt, the earliest lavas of the Middle Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group in the northwestern United States, provide high-precision ages that, for the first time, make it possible to resolve age differences with stratigraphic position within a section of these flood lavas. The stratigraphically lowest rhyolitic tuff, a fall deposit, yielded an age of 16.592 ± ± 0.028 Ma (FCs = 28.02 Ma), and the uppermost, the alkali rhyolite ignimbrite Tuff of Oregon Canyon, is 16.468 ± ± 0.014 Ma. The argon and stratigraphic data indicate that Steens Basalt eruptions occurred from ∼16.64 to 16.43 Ma in the southern end of its distribution. We estimate that the Steens Mountain geomagnetic reversal occurred at 16.496 ± ± 0.028 Ma (±0.18 Ma total error). Our estimates of the timing for initiation of volcanism and volumetric eruptive rates do not seem to support volcanic forcing by the initial stages of Columbia River Basalt Group eruptions as an explanation for the abrupt warming and carbonate dissolution at the beginning of the Miocene Climatic Optimum.

  10. Petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts. Part 2: An open system model to explain the pigeonite basalt compositions (United States)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.


    Original petrogenetic models suggested that the pigeonite basalts were the evolved equivalents of the olivine basalts. Rhodes et al. concluded that the olivine and pigeonite basalts were co-magmatic, but Neal et al. have demonstrated that these two basaltic groups are distinct and unrelated. The pigeonite suite is comprised of porphyritic basalts with a fine-grained ground mass and range continuously to coarse-grained microgabbros with ophitic to graphic textures. Although it was generally recognized that the pigeonite basalts were derived from the olivine basalts by olivine + minor Cr-spinel fractionation, the compositional gap between these groups is difficult to reconcile with such a model. Indeed, Baldridge et al. concluded that these two basaltic groups could not have been co-magmatic. In this paper, we suggest an open system AFC model for pigeonite basalt petrogenesis. The assimilant is lunar anorthositic crust and the r value used is 0.6. While the choice of assimilant composition is difficult to constrain, the modeling demonstrates the feasibility of this model.

  11. Preparation of basalt-based glass ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Local and conventional raw materials–massive basalt from the Vrelo locality on Kopaonik mountain–have been used as starting materials to test their suitability for the production of glass-ceramics. Crystallization phenomena of glasses of the fused basalt rocks were studied by X-ray phase analysis, optical microscopy and other techniques. Various heat treatments were used, and their influences, on controlling the microstructures and properties of the products were studied with the aim of developing high strength glass-ceramic materials. Diopside CaMg(SiO32 and hypersthene ((Mg,FeSiO3 were identifies as the crystalline phases. The final products contained considerable amounts of a glassy phase. The crystalline size was in range of 8–480 mm with plate or needle shape. Microhardness, crashing strength and wears resistence of the glass-ceramics ranged from 6.5–7.5, from 2000–6300 kg/cm2 and from 0.1–0.2 g/cm, respectively.

  12. Boosting BCG-primed responses with a subunit Apa vaccine during the waning phase improves immunity and imparts protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (United States)

    Nandakumar, Subhadra; Kannanganat, Sunil; Dobos, Karen M; Lucas, Megan; Spencer, John S; Amara, Rama Rao; Plikaytis, Bonnie B; Posey, James E; Sable, Suraj B


    Heterologous prime-boosting has emerged as a powerful vaccination approach against tuberculosis. However, optimal timing to boost BCG-immunity using subunit vaccines remains unclear in clinical trials. Here, we followed the adhesin Apa-specific T-cell responses in BCG-primed mice and investigated its BCG-booster potential. The Apa-specific T-cell response peaked 32-52 weeks after parenteral or mucosal BCG-priming but waned significantly by 78 weeks. A subunit-Apa-boost during the contraction-phase of BCG-response had a greater effect on the magnitude and functional quality of specific cellular and humoral responses compared to a boost at the peak of BCG-response. The cellular response increased following mucosal BCG-prime-Apa-subunit-boost strategy compared to Apa-subunit-prime-BCG-boost approach. However, parenteral BCG-prime-Apa-subunit-boost by a homologous route was the most effective strategy in-terms of enhancing specific T-cell responses during waning in the lung and spleen. Two Apa-boosters markedly improved waning BCG-immunity and significantly reduced Mycobacterium tuberculosis burdens post-challenge. Our results highlight the challenges of optimization of prime-boost regimens in mice where BCG drives persistent immune-activation and suggest that boosting with a heterologous vaccine may be ideal once the specific persisting effector responses are contracted. Our results have important implications for design of prime-boost regimens against tuberculosis in humans.

  13. Boosting BCG-primed responses with a subunit Apa vaccine during the waning phase improves immunity and imparts protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (United States)

    Nandakumar, Subhadra; Kannanganat, Sunil; Dobos, Karen M.; Lucas, Megan; Spencer, John S.; Amara, Rama Rao; Plikaytis, Bonnie B.; Posey, James E.; Sable, Suraj B.


    Heterologous prime–boosting has emerged as a powerful vaccination approach against tuberculosis. However, optimal timing to boost BCG-immunity using subunit vaccines remains unclear in clinical trials. Here, we followed the adhesin Apa-specific T-cell responses in BCG-primed mice and investigated its BCG-booster potential. The Apa-specific T-cell response peaked 32–52 weeks after parenteral or mucosal BCG-priming but waned significantly by 78 weeks. A subunit-Apa-boost during the contraction-phase of BCG-response had a greater effect on the magnitude and functional quality of specific cellular and humoral responses compared to a boost at the peak of BCG-response. The cellular response increased following mucosal BCG-prime–Apa-subunit-boost strategy compared to Apa-subunit-prime–BCG-boost approach. However, parenteral BCG-prime–Apa-subunit-boost by a homologous route was the most effective strategy in-terms of enhancing specific T-cell responses during waning in the lung and spleen. Two Apa-boosters markedly improved waning BCG-immunity and significantly reduced Mycobacterium tuberculosis burdens post-challenge. Our results highlight the challenges of optimization of prime–boost regimens in mice where BCG drives persistent immune-activation and suggest that boosting with a heterologous vaccine may be ideal once the specific persisting effector responses are contracted. Our results have important implications for design of prime–boost regimens against tuberculosis in humans. PMID:27173443

  14. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in eastern Iceland: Facies architecture and structure of simple aphyric basalt groups (United States)

    Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Riishuus, Morten S.


    Simple flows (tabular) in the Neogene flood basalt sections of Iceland are described and their mode of emplacement assessed. The flows belong to three aphyric basalt groups: the Kumlafell group, the Hólmatindur group and the Hjálmadalur group. The groups can be traced over 50 km and originate in the Breiðdalur-Thingmuli volcanic zone. The groups have flow fields that display mixed volcanic facies architecture and can be classified after dominating type morphology. The Kumlafell and the Hólmatindur groups have predominantly simple flows of pāhoehoe and rubbly pāhoehoe morphologies with minor compound or lobate pāhoehoe flows. The Hjálmadalur group has simple flows of rubbly pāhoehoe, but also includes minor compound or lobate flows of rubble and 'a'ā. Simple flows are most common in the distal and medial areas from the vents, while more lobate flows in proximal areas. The simple flows are formed by extensive sheet lobes that are several kilometers long with plane-parallel contacts, some reaching thicknesses of ~ 40 m (aspect ratios structures. Their internal structure consists generally of a simple upper vesicular crust, a dense core and a thin basal vesicular zone. The brecciated flow-top is formed by clinker and crustal rubble, the clinker often welded or agglutinated. The simple flows erupted from seemingly short-lived fissures and have the characteristics of cooling-limited flows. We estimate the effusion rates to be ~ 105 m3/s for the simple flows of the Kumlafell and Hólmatindur groups and ~ 104 m3/s for the Hjálmadalur group. The longest flows advanced 15-20 km from the fissures, with lava streams of fast propagating flows inducing tearing and brecciation of the chilled crust. Compound or lobate areas appear to reflect areas of low effusion rates or the interaction of the lava with topographic barriers or wetlands, resulting in chaotic flowage. Slowing lobes with brecciated flow-tops developed into 'a'ā flows. The groups interdigitated with lava

  15. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  16. Basalt Weathering and the Volatile Budget of Early Mars (United States)

    Baker, L. L.


    Basalt weathering on Earth consumes CO2 and water and may have affected terrestrial climate. I apply a mass balance derived from terrestrial data to examine the effect surficial basalt weathering may have had on the CO2 budget of early Mars.

  17. Mineral chemistry of Pangidi basalt flows from Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper elucidates the compositional studies on clinopyroxene, plagioclase, titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite of basalts of Pangidi area to understand the ... basalt flow is represented by higher temperatures which shows high modal values of opaques and glass whereas the medium to lower temperatures of middle ...

  18. Rapid solubility and mineral storage of CO2 in basalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Sigurdur R.; Broecker, W.S.; Gunnlaugsson, E.


    rich in divalent metal cations such as basalts and ultra-mafic rocks. We have demonstrated the dissolution of CO2 into water during its injection into basalt leading to its geologic solubility storage in less than five minutes and potential geologic mineral storage within few years after injection [1...

  19. Biogeochemistry of Methane-Driven Destruction of Trichloroethylene in a Basalt Aquifer (United States)

    Colwell, F.; Conrad, M.; Paszcynski, A.; Brodie, E.; Delwiche, M.; Radtke, C.; Lee, H.; Paidisetti, R.; Crawford, R.; Bernardini, N.; Johnson, A.; Starr, R.; Swift, D.; Newby, D.; Barnes, J.


    We studied the biogeochemical processes responsible for cycling methane and the fortuitous destruction of trichloroethylene (TCE) across spatially distinct locations in a basalt aquifer. This field study was accomplished by examining the attached and unattached microbial communities inherent to the aquifer by using a flow-through in situ reactor (FTISR) and large volumes of aquifer water from which microbial communities were concentrated. After incubation for 238 days, basalt and water were collected from the FTISR and analyzed using proteomics, gene expression, metabolic activity, microbial community structure, and kinetics of TCE degradation. Stable carbon isotopes and PhyloChip gene hybridization analyses were done on groundwater samples. Microbes from the FTSIR co-metabolically degraded approximately 7.5 mg of TCE per liter of groundwater. Proteins from aerobic methanotrophs were detected in the aquifer and on the basalt from the FTISR. Methanotrophic activity in the groundwater and on the FTISR basalt was also confirmed by combined use of enzyme biochemical probes and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Real-time PCR identified ca. 3000 copies of mmoX (a methanotrophic gene) per g of basalt and reverse transcriptase PCR determined that the mmoX subunit was actively transcribed. Stable carbon isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved methane indicated increased levels of methane oxidation with distance from the source of the TCE (-55 to 28 per mil for methane; >8 to -13 per mil for DIC) corresponding to increased dissolved oxygen concentrations in the aquifer. These geochemistry data are consistent with community composition and activity determinations that identified a gradient of methanogenic to methanotrophic populations along the contaminant plume. Multiple analyses using samples from the FTISR and aquifer water comprehensively demonstrate that both attached and unattached microbial communities are responsible for methane-driven co

  20. Hydrothermal interactions of cesium and strontium phases from spent unreprocessed fuel with basalt phases and basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B.E.; McCarthy, G.J.; Coons, W.E.


    This investigation is a segment of an extensive research program aimed at investigating the feasibility of long-term, subsurface storage of commercial nuclear waste. Specifically, it is anticipated that the waste will be housed in a repository mined from the basalt formations which lie beneath the Hanford Site. The elements monitored during the present experiments were Cs and Sr. These two elements represent significant biohazards if released from a repository and are the major heat producing radionuclides present in commercial radioactive waste. Several Cs phases and/or solutions were reacted with either isolated basalt phases or bulk-rock basalt, and the resulting solids and solutions were analyzed. The hydrothermal reactivity of SrZrO/sub 3/, which is believed to be a probable host for Sr in SFE was investigated. While so far no evidence exists which indicates that Sr is present in a water soluble phase in spent fuel elements (SFE), detailed investigation of a potential hazard is warranted. This investigation has determined that some Cs compounds likely to be stable components of spent fuel (i.e., CsOH, Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/, Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/) have significant hydrothermal solubilities. These solubilities are greatly decreased in the presence of basalt and/or basalt minerals. The decrease in the amount of Cs in solution results from reactions which form pollucite and/or CsAlSiO/sub 4/, with the production of pollucite exceeding that of CsAlSiO/sub 4/. Dissolution of ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ implies solubilizing a uranium species to an undetermined extent. The production of schoepite (UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O) during some experiments containing basalt phases, indicates a tendency to oxidize U/sup 4 +/ to U/sup 6 +/. When diopside (nominally CaMgSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ were hydrothermally reacted, at 300/sup 0/C both UO/sub 2/ and UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O were produced. Results of experiments on SrZrO/sub 3/ show it to be

  1. Assimilation of Consanguineous Mafic Intrutions: Layered Crustal Sill Complexes as Reactive Filters for Continental Basalts (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Vetter, S. K.


    Continental basalts commonly display variations in their chemical compositions that are inferred to reflect fractionational crystallization (FC), recharge-FC (RFC), assimilation-FC (AFC), or recharge-AFC (RAFC). The dominance of AFC-related processes reflects the intrinsic linkage between crystallization (which releases latent heat) and assimilation (which consumes latent heat). One of the central questions in any assimilation process, however, is what exactly is being assimilated. It is commonly assumed in most AFC models for the intrusion of basalt into continental crust that the contaminant is pre-existing continental crust - that is, felsic gneiss of roughly granodioritic to tonalitic composition, which is enriched in K2O and other large ion lithophiles relative to mantle-derived basalts. These continental gneisses are commonly Precambrian in age and are enriched in the lithophilic isotope ratios 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb, and depleted in 143Nd/144Nd. As a result, AFC-related processes involving this ancient continental crust component typically result in basaltic lavas that are enriched in LILE (e.g., K) relative to high-field strength elements (e.g., Ti, P) and enriched in the heavy isotopes of Sr, Pb, and Nd compared to the primary or parental magma. Contrary to these expectations, basalts of the Snake River volcanic province that display chemical variations diagnostic of AFC (e.g., increasing La/Lu with decreasing mg#) are commonly characterized by essentially constant isotopic ratios of Sr, Pb and Nd, and by LILE/HFSE ratios (e.g., K/P) that decrease with decreasing mg#. We propose that these basalts assimilated a ferrogabbro derived from a parent magma that was the same or similar to the magmas being intruded to recharge the system. Melts derived from this ferrogabbro would be low in K and enriched in Fe, Ti, P, and La/Lu relative to the primitive recharge magma; the isotopic composition would be the same as the primitive recharge magma. We

  2. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmora, Adilson C. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDÆA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Teixeira, Elba C. [Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500. Bairro Agronomia. CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others


    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano

  3. Effect of Fluorine on Near-Liquidus Phase Equilibria of Basalts (United States)

    Filiberto, Justin; Wood, Justin; Loan, Le; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Treiman, Allan H.


    Volatile species such as H2O, CO2, F, and Cl have significant impact in generation and differentiation of basaltic melts. Thus far experimental work has primarily focused on the effect of water and carbon dioxide on basalt crystallization, liquid-line of descent, and mantle melting [e.g., 1, 2] and the effects of halogens have received far less attention [3-4]. However, melts in the planetary interiors can have non-negligible chlorine and fluorine concentrations. Here, we explore the effects of fluorine on near-liquidus phase equilibria of basalt. We have conducted nominally anhydrous piston cylinder experiments using graphite capsules at 0.6 - 1.5 GPa on an Fe-rich model basalt composition. 1.75 wt% fluorine was added to the starting mix in the form of AgF2. Fluorine in the experimental glass was measured by SIMS and major elements of glass and minerals were analyzed by EPMA. Nominally volatile free experiments yield a liquidus temperature from 1330 C at 0.8GPa to 1400 at 1.6GPa and an olivine(Fo72)-pyroxene(En68)-liquid multiple saturation point at 1.25 GPa and 1375 C. The F-bearing experiments yield a liquiudus temperature from 1260 C at 0.6GPa to 1305 at 1.5GPa and an ol(Fo66)-pyx(En64)-MSP at 1 GPa and 1260 C. This shows that F depresses the basalt liquidus, extends the pyroxene stability field to lower pressure, and forces the liquidus phases to be more Fe-rich. KD(Fe-Mg/mineral-melt) calculated for both pyroxenes and olivines show an increase with increasing F content of the melt. Therefore, we infer that F complexes with Mg in the melt and thus increases the melt s silica activity, depressing the liquidus and changing the composition of the crystallizing minerals. Our study demonstrates that on a weight percent basis, the effect of fluorine is similar to the effect of H2O [1] and Cl [3] on freezing point depression of basalts. But on an atomic fraction basis, the effect of F on liquidus depression of basalts is xxxx compared to the effect of H. Future

  4. Crystallization of tholeiitic basalt in Alae Lava Lake, Hawaii (United States)

    Peck, D.L.; Wright, T.L.; Moore, J.G.


    The eruption of Kilauea Volcano August 21-23, 1963, left 600,000 cubic meters of basaltic lava in a lava lake as much as 15 meters deep in Alae pit crater. Field studies of the lake began August 27 and include repeated core drilling, measurements of temperature in the crust and melt, and precise level surveys of the lake surface. The last interstitial melt in the lake solidified late in September 1964; by mid August 1965 the maximum temperature was 690??C at a depth of 11.5 meters. Pumice air-quenched from about 1140??C contains only 5 percent crystals - clinopyroxene, cuhedral olivine (Fo 80), and a trace of plagioclase, (An 70). Drill cores taken from the zone of crystallization in the lake show that olivine continued crystallizing to about 1070??C; below that it reacts with the melt, becoming corroded and mantled by pyroxene and plagioclase. Below 1070??C, pyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at a constant ratio. Ilmenite first appeared at about 1070??C and was joined by magnetite at about 1050??C; both increased rapidly in abundance to 1000??C. Apatite first appeared as minute needles in interstitial glass at 1000??C. Both the abundance and index of refraction of glass quenched from melt decreased nearly linearly with falling temperature. At 1070??C the quenched lava contains about 65 percent dark-brown glass with an index of 1.61; at 980??C it contains about 8 percent colorless glass with an index of 1.49. Below 980??C, the percentage of glass remained constant. Progressive crystallization forced exsolution of gases from the melt fraction; these formed vesicles and angular pores, causing expansion of the crystallizing lava and lifting the surface of the central part of the lake an average of 19.5 cm. The solidified basalt underwent pneumatolitic alteration, including deposition of cristobalite at 800??C, reddish alteration of olivine at 700??C, tarnishing of ilmenite at 550??C, deposition of anhydrite at 250??C, and deposition of native sulfur at 100??C

  5. Volcanology and hazards of phreatomagmatic basaltic eruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmith, Johanne

    projections ash grains in the size range 125-63 μm. Loose bulk samples from the deposits of 6 different basaltic eruptions were analyzed and 20,000 shape measurements of 26 shape parameters for each were obtained within ∼45 min using the Particle InsightTM dynamic shape analyzer (PIdsa). The RI modeling...... of paroxysmal peaks at 25± 6 km. A new quantitative method producing grain shape data of bulk samples of volcanic ash was developed to correlate the bulk average grain shape with magma fragmentation mechanisms. The new shape index: the regularity index (RI) was developed from a manually classified reference...... morphology dataset using principal component analysis. The systematic change in RI between wet and dry eruptions supports that the RI can be used to assess the relative roles of magmatic versus phreatomagmatic fragmentation. Surtseyan ash has an RI of 0.207-0.191 ± 0.002 (2σ), whereas Hawaiian ash has an RI...

  6. Effect of Chopped Basalt Fibers on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehmina Ayub


    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the high performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC containing up to 3% volume fraction of chopped Basalt fibers. Three types of the concrete were prepared, out of which, the first type was prepared by utilizing 100% cement content. The other two types of the concrete were prepared by replacing 10% cement content with silica fume and the locally produced metakaolin. Using each concrete type, four mixes were prepared in which Basalt fibers were added in the range of 0–3%; that is, total twelve mixes of the HPFRC concrete were prepared. From each of the twelve concrete mixes, total twelve specimens were cast to determine the mechanical properties of the HPFRC including compressive strength (cube and cylinder, splitting tensile strength, and the flexural strength. In this way, a total of 108 specimens were cast and tested in this study. Test results showed that the addition of the Basalt fibers significantly increased the tensile splitting strength and the flexural strength of the HPFRC, while there was slight improvement in the compressive strength with the addition of Basalt fibers. The microstructure of HPFRC was examined to determine the interfacial transition zone (ITZ between the aggregates and the paste by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, which showed the improvement of the ITZ due to the addition of the Basalt fibers.

  7. Thermal and mass implications of magmatic evolution in the Lassen volcanic region, California, and minimum constraints on basalt influx to the lower crust (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.


    We have analyzed the heat and mass demands of a petrologic model of basaltdriven magmatic evolution in which variously fractionated mafic magmas mix with silicic partial melts of the lower crust. We have formulated steady state heat budgets for two volcanically distinct areas in the Lassen region: the large, late Quaternary, intermediate to silicic Lassen volcanic center and the nearby, coeval, less evolved Caribou volcanic field. At Caribou volcanic field, heat provided by cooling and fractional crystallization of 52 km3 of basalt is more than sufficient to produce 10 km3 of rhyolitic melt by partial melting of lower crust. Net heat added by basalt intrusion at Caribou volcanic field is equivalent to an increase in lower crustal heat flow of ???7 mW m-2, indicating that the field is not a major crustal thermal anomaly. Addition of cumulates from fractionation is offset by removal of erupted partial melts. A minimum basalt influx of 0.3 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is needed to supply Caribou volcanic field. Our methodology does not fully account for an influx of basalt that remains in the crust as derivative intrusives. On the basis of comparison to deep heat flow, the input of basalt could be ???3 to 7 times the amount we calculate. At Lassen volcanic center, at least 203 km3 of mantle-derived basalt is needed to produce 141 km3 of partial melt and drive the volcanic system. Partial melting mobilizes lower crustal material, augmenting the magmatic volume available for eruption at Lassen volcanic center; thus the erupted volume of 215 km3 exceeds the calculated basalt input of 203 km3. The minimum basalt input of 1.6 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is >5 times the minimum influx to the Caribou volcanic field. Basalt influx high enough to sustain considerable partial melting, coupled with locally high extension rate, is a crucial factor in development of Lassen volcanic center; in contrast. Caribou volcanic field has failed to develop into a large silicic center primarily because basalt supply

  8. Paleoproterozoic plume-related basaltic rocks in the Mana gold district in western Burkina Faso, West Africa: Implications for exploration and the source of gold in orogenic deposits (United States)

    Augustin, Jérôme; Gaboury, Damien


    Birimian volcanic rocks of the Mana District are located in the an important gold-mineralized segment of the Paleoproterozoic Houndé greenstone belt, western Burkina Faso, which contains cumulative resources of ∼11 Moz. Five orogenic gold deposits (∼8 Moz) are hosted in or close to basaltic rocks. Theses rocks were studied to investigate their possible role as a gold source in younger orogenic gold deposits. They are Fe-rich tholeiitic basalts with flat REE patterns, with (La/Yb)N = 0.96-1.3 and without negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.92-1.26). The basalts also have low initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.693612-0.702190) and positive εNd values (+2.25 to +3.14). Using a Ce/Nb vs. Th/Nb diagram and various plume-related basalts worldwide for comparison, the Mana basalts are shown to be plume-related. In addition, using Zr/Nb vs. Nb/Th and Nb/Y vs. Zr/Y binary diagrams and reference fields, the Mana basaltic rocks appear to have formed directly above the plume head. Because plume-related basalts tend to be enriched in gold relative to MORB, we propose that the gold endowment of the Mana district is mostly related to the occurrence of plume-related basaltic rocks, which may have served as an important metal stock during subsequent remobilization for forming the orogenic gold deposits. We also propose that for gold exploration, two simple geochemical diagrams involving Zr, Y, Nb and Th could be used at an early stage to test the origin of the basaltic rocks and hence indirectly establish the fertility of a specific belt for hosting orogenic gold deposits.

  9. Deep degassing and the eruptibility of flood basalt magmas (United States)

    Black, B. A.; Manga, M.


    Individual flood basalt lavas often exceed 103 km3 in volume, and many such lavas erupt during emplacement of flood basalt provinces. The large volume of individual flood basalt lavas demands correspondingly large magma reservoirs within or at the base of the crust. To erupt, some fraction of this magma must become buoyant and overpressure must be sufficient to encourage failure and dike propagation. Because the overpressure associated with a new injection of magma is inversely proportional to the total reservoir volume, buoyancy overpressure has been proposed as a trigger for flood basalt eruptions. To test this hypothesis, we develop a new one-dimensional model for buoyancy overpressure-driven eruptions that combines volatile exsolution, bubble growth and rise, assimilation, and permeable fluid escape through the surrounding country rocks. Degassing during emplacement of flood basalt provinces may have major environmental repercussions. We investigate the temporal evolution of permeable degassing through the crust and degassing during eruptive episodes. We find that assimilation of volatile-rich country rocks strongly enhances flood basalt eruptibility, implying that the eruptive dynamics of flood basalts may be intertwined with their climatic consequences.

  10. Sardinian basalt. An ancient georesource still en vougue (United States)

    Careddu, Nicola; Grillo, Silvana Maria


    Commercially quarried Sardinian basalt was the result of extensive volcanic activity during the Pliocene and Pleistocene ages, following the opening of the Campidano plain and Tyrrhenian sea rift. Extensive areas of Sardinia have been modelled by large volumes of basalt and andesite rock. An example is provided by the 'Giare' tablelands and other large plateaus located in central Sardinia. Other basalt-rich areas exist in the Island. Sardinia is featured by a vast array of basalt monuments, dating back to the II-I millennium BC, bearing witness to the great workability, durability and resistance to weathering of the rock. The complex of circular defensive towers, known as "Su Nuraxi di Barumini" was included in the World Heritage List by Unesco in 1997. Basalt is currently produced locally to be used for architectural and ornamental purposes. It is obtained by quarrying stone deposits or mining huge boulders which are moved and sawn by means of mechanical machinery. Stone-working is carried out in plants located in various sites of the Island. The paper begins with an historical introduction and then focusses on the current state of the art of Sardinian basalt quarrying, processing and using. An analysis of the basalt market has been carried out.

  11. Thicknesses of Mare Basalts from Gravity and Topograhy (United States)

    GONG, S.; Wieczorek, M.; Nimmo, F.; Kiefer, W.; Head, J.; Smith, D.; Zuber, M.


    Mare basalts are derived from partial melting of the lunar interior and are mostly located on the near side of the Moon [1, 2]. Their iron-rich composition gives rise to their dark color, but also causes their density to be substantially higher than normal crustal rocks. The total volume of mare basalts can provide crucial information about the Moon's thermal evolution and volcanic activity. Unfortunately, the thicknesses of the mare are only poorly constrained. Here we use gravity data from NASA's GRAIL mission to investigate the thickness of mare basalts.

  12. Recent volcanism in the Siqueiros transform fault: picritic basalts and implications for MORB magma genesis (United States)

    Perfit, M. R.; Fornari, D. J.; Ridley, W. I.; Kirk, P. D.; Casey, J.; Kastens, K. A.; Reynolds, J. R.; Edwards, M.; Desonie, D.; Shuster, R.; Paradis, S.


    Small constructional volcanic landforms and very fresh-looking lava flows are present along one of the inferred active strike-slip faults that connect two small spreading centers (A and B) in the western portion of the Siqueiros transform domain. The most primitive lavas (picritic and olivine-phyric basalts), exclusively recovered from the young-looking flows within the A-B strike-slip fault, contain millimeter-sized olivine phenocrysts (up to 20 modal%) that have a limited compositional range (Fo 91.5-Fo 89.5) and complexly zoned CrAl spinels. High-MgO (9.5-10.6 wt%) glasses sampled from the young lava flows contain 1-7% olivine phenocrysts (Fo 90.5-Fo 89) that could have formed by equilibrium crystallization from basaltic melts with Mg# values between 71 and 74. These high MgO (and high Al 2O 3) glasses may be near-primary melts from incompatible-element depleted oceanic mantle and little modified by crustal mixing and/or fractionation processes. Phase chemistry and major element systematics indicate that the picritic basalts are not primary liquids and formed by the accumulation of olivine and minor spinel from high-MgO melts (10% Siqueiros lavas are more primitive and depleted in incompatible elements. Phase equilibria calculations and comparisons with experimental data and trace element modeling support this hypothesis. They indicate such primary mid-ocean ridge basalt magmas formed by 10-18% accumulative decompression melting in the spinel peridotite field (but small amounts of melting in the garnet peridotite field are not precluded). The compositional variations of the primitive magmas may result from the accumulation of different small batch melt fractions from a polybaric melting column.

  13. Stereo Pair: Basalt Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina (United States)


    Basalt cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina show an unusual and striking pattern of erosion. Stereoscopic observation helps to clarify the landform changing processes active here. Many of the cliffs appear to be rock staircases that have the same color as the plateau's basaltic cap rock. Are these the edges of lower layers in the basalt or are they a train of slivers that are breaking off from, then sliding downslope and away from, the cap rock. They appear to be the latter. Close inspection shows that each stair step is too laterally irregular to be a continuous sheet of bedrock like the cap rock. Also, the steps are not flat but instead are little ridges, as one might expect from broken, tilted, and sliding slices of the cap rock. Stream erosion has cut some gullies into the cliffs and green vegetation shows that water springs from and flows down some channels, but landsliding is clearly a major agent of erosion here.This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota

  14. Attrition of T-Cell Functions and Simultaneous Upregulation of Inhibitory Markers Correspond with the Waning of BCG-Induced Protection against Tuberculosis in Mice (United States)

    Nandakumar, Subhadra; Kannanganat, Sunil; Posey, James E.; Amara, Rama Rao; Sable, Suraj B.


    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most widely used live attenuated vaccine. However, the correlates of protection and waning of its immunity against tuberculosis is poorly understood. In this study, we correlated the longitudinal changes in the magnitude and functional quality of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell response over a period of two years after mucosal or parenteral BCG vaccination with the strength of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. The BCG vaccination-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells exhibited comparable response kinetics but distinct functional attributes in-terms of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α co-production and CD62L memory marker expression. Despite a near life-long BCG persistence and the induction of enduring CD4+ T-cell responses characterized by IFN-γ and/or TNF-α production with comparable protection, the protective efficacy waned regardless of the route of vaccination. The progressive decline in the multifactorial functional abilities of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in-terms of type-1 cytokine production, proliferation and cytolytic potential corresponded with the waning of protection against M. tuberculosis infection. In addition, simultaneous increase in the dysfunctional and terminally-differentiated T cells expressing CTLA-4, KLRG-1 and IL-10 during the contraction phase of BCG-induced response coincided with the loss of protection. Our results question the empirical development of BCG-booster vaccines and emphasize the pursuit of strategies that maintain superior T-cell functional capacity. Furthermore, our results underscore the importance of understanding the comprehensive functional dynamics of antigen-specific T-cell responses in addition to cytokine polyfunctionality in BCG-vaccinated hosts while optimizing novel vaccination strategies against tuberculosis. PMID:25419982

  15. Sclerosing Pneumocytoma with a Wax-and-Wane Pattern of Growth: A Case Report on Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and a Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Pyo; Lee, Sung Soo; Park, Heae Surng; Park, Chul Hwan; Kim, Tae Hoon [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Sclerosing pneumocytoma (SP) of the lung is a rare benign neoplasm. Here, we describe an unusual presentation of SP with a wax-and-wane pattern of growth in a 47-year-old woman. Tumor diameter decreased over a 3-year follow-up period and then increased on serial follow-up computed tomography scans. The mass showed high signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and early enhancement with a plateau on dynamic MRI. We speculate that intratumoral bleeding and resorption processes accounted for the changes in tumor size.

  16. Petrological and tectono-magmatic significance of ophiolitic basalts from the Elba Island within the Alpine Corsica-Northern Apennine system (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Principi, G.


    Two distinct ophiolitic units, which represent remnants of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, crop out in the Elba Island. They are the Monte Strega unit in central-eastern Elba and the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit in western Elba. Ophiolitic rocks from the Monte Strega unit are commonly affected by ocean floor metamorphism, whereas those from the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit are affected to various extent by thermal metamorphism associated with the Late Miocene Monte Capanne monzogranitic intrusion. Both ophiolitic units include pillow lavas and dykes with compositions ranging from basalt to basaltic andesite, Fe-basalt, and Fe-basaltic andesite. Basaltic rocks from these distinct ophiolitic units show no chemical differences, apart those due to fractional crystallization processes. They display a clear tholeiitic nature with low Nb/Y ratios and relatively high TiO2, P2O5, Zr, and Y contents. They generally display flat N-MORB normalized high field strength element patterns, which are similar to those of N-MORB. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns show light REE / middle REE (LREE/MREE) depletion and marked heavy (H-) REE fractionation with respect to MREE. This HREE/MREE depletion indicates a garnet signature of their mantle sources. Accordingly, they can be classified as garnet-influenced MORB (G-MORB), based on Th, Nb, Ce, Dy, and Yb systematics. We suggest that the Elba Island ophiolitic basalts were generated at a magma starved, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. REE, Th, and Nb partial melting modelling shows that the compositions of the relatively primitive Elba Island ophiolitic basalts are compatible with partial melting of a depleted MORB mantle (DMM) source bearing garnet-pyroxenite relics. Hygromagmatophile element ratios suggest that basalts from both ophiolitic units were originated from chemically very similar mantle sources. A comparison with basalts and metabasalts from Alpine Corsica and northern Apennine ophiolitic units shows

  17. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes. (United States)

    Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; de Brum, Irineu A S; Silva, Luis F O


    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in

  18. A comparison of the magnetic properties of synthetic titanomaghemites and some oceanic basalts (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Banerjee, Subir K.


    The variation of some magnetic properties of (1) synthetic titanomaghemites and (2) oceanic basalts from DSDP site 417 D as a function of grain size and oxidation is presented. The synthesis of the initial titanomagnetite (x = 0.6) was carried out, using controlled fugacity and self-buffering techniques. Single-phase titanomaghemites were produced by heating the titanomagnetite in air at low temperatures (<350°C). The magnetic properties studied on the synthetic titanomagnetite (grain size ˜ 1 μm) show the following variations with increasing degrees of oxidation (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.6): (1) Curie temperature (Tc) increases, (2) saturation magnetization (Js) at room temperature increases, (3) Js measured at 77°K decreases for z ≲ 0.3 and then increases for 0.3 < z ≲ 0.6, (4) bulk and remanent coercivities (Hc and Hr) increase slightly initially (z < 0.2) and then decrease at both room temperature and 77°K, (5) susceptibility (χ0) decreases for z ≲ 0.3 and then increases, (6) the magnetic viscosity acquisition and decay coefficients (Sa and Sd) increase and (7) the median destructive fields for an anhystretic remanent magnetization and a viscous remanent magnetization increase for z ≲ 0.3 and then decrease. These magnetic data also suggest that the synthetic titanomaghemites are pseudo-single domained (PSD) and with increasing degrees of oxidation these PSD grains become more SD-like. The basalt samples from site 417D are divided into fine-grained pillow basalts and coarse-grained massive flows. Most of the magnetic properties measured are distinctly different between these two groups. The magnetic data indicate that the domain states of these basalts are probably PSD. Although it is difficult to separate the effects of grain size and oxidation on the magnetic properties of these basalts, it appears that grain size effects predominate. A preliminary investigation of the magnetic viscosity of the synthetic and oceanic titanomaghemites suggests that a

  19. Hafnium isotope variations in oceanic basalts (United States)

    Patchett, P. J.; Tatsumoto, M.


    Hafnium isotope ratios generated by the beta(-) decay of Lu-176 are investigated in volcanic rocks derived from the suboceanic mantle. Hf-176/Hf-177 and Lu/Hf ratios were determined to precisions of 0.01-0.04% and 0.5%, respectively, by routine, low-blank chemistry. The Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio is found to be positively correlated with the Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio and negatively correlated with the Sr-87/Sr-86 and Pb-206/Pb-204 ratios, and to increase southwards along the Iceland-Reykjanes ridge traverse. An approximate bulk earth Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio of 0.28295 is inferred from the bulk earth Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio, which requires a bulk earth Lu/Hf ratio of 0.25, similar to the Juvinas eucrite. Midocean ridge basalts are shown to account for 60% of the range of Hf isotope ratios, and it is suggested that Lu-Hf fractionation is decoupled from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr fractionation in very trace-element-depleted source regions as a result of partial melting.

  20. Geochemical characterization of oceanic basalts using artificial neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, P.; Iyer, S.D.

    method is specifically needed to identify the OFB as normal (N-MORB), enriched (E-MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB). Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique as a supervised Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ) is applied to identify the inherent...

  1. A note on incipient spilitisation of central Indian basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Iyer, S.D.

    Rocks dredged in the vicinity of the 79 degrees E fracture zone, in the Central Indian Basin, are sub-alkaline basalts, which are regarded as precursors to spilites. The minerals identified are mainly albitic plagioclase, augite, olivine, and less...

  2. Notice of release of NBR-1 Germplasm basalt milkvetch (United States)

    Douglas A. Johnson; Thomas A. Jones; Kevin J. Connors; Kishor Bhattarai; B. Shaun Bushman; Kevin B. Jensen


    A selected-class pre-variety germplasm of basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray [Fabaceae]) has been released for reclamation, rehabilitation, and restoration of semiarid rangelands in the northern Great Basin Region of the western US.

  3. Integrating Diverse Datasets to Assess Approaches for Characterizing Mare Basalts (United States)

    Deitrick, S. R.; Lawrence, S. J.


    This research utilizes new LROC data to re-evaluate the composition of the mare basalt flows in the Marius Hills Volcanic Complex to provide new insights about the relative ages of the low shields and surrounding flows.

  4. Quickly erupted volcanic sections of the Steens Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group: Secular variation, tectonic rotation, and the Steens Mountain reversal (United States)

    Jarboe, Nicholas A.; Coe, Robert S.; Renne, Paul R.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Mankinen, Edward A.


    The Steens Basalt, now considered part of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), contains the earliest eruptions of this magmatic episode. Lava flows of the Steens Basalt cover about 50,000 km2 of the Oregon Plateau in sections up to 1000 m thick. The large number of continuously exposed, quickly erupted lava flows (some sections contain over 200 flows) allows for small loops in the magnetic field direction paths to be detected. For volcanic rocks, this detail and fidelity are rarely found outside of the Holocene and yield estimates of eruption durations at our four sections of ∼2.5 ka for 260 m at Pueblo Mountains, 0.5 to 1.5 ka for 190 m at Summit Springs, 1–3 ka for 170 m at North Mickey, and ∼3 ka for 160 m at Guano Rim. That only one reversal of the geomagnetic field occurred during the eruption of the Steens Basalt (the Steens reversal at approximately 16.6 Ma) is supported by comparing 40Ar/39Ar ages and magnetic polarities to the geomagnetic polarity timescale. At Summit Springs two 40Ar/39Ar ages from normal polarity flows (16.72 ± ± 0.29 Ma (16.61) and 16.92 ± ± 0.52 Ma (16.82); ± ± equals 2σ error) place their eruptions after the Steens reversal, while at Pueblo Mountains an 40Ar/39Ar age of 16.72 ± ± 0.21 Ma (16.61) from a reverse polarity flow places its eruption before the Steens reversal. Paleomagnetic field directions yielded 50 nontransitional directional-group poles which, combined with 26 from Steens Mountain, provide a paleomagnetic pole for the Oregon Plateau of 85.7°N, 318.4°E, K = 15.1, A95 = 4.3. Comparison of this new pole with a reference pole derived from CRBG flows from eastern Washington and a synthetic reference pole for North America derived from global data implies relative clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 7.4 ± 5.0° or 14.5 ± 5.4°, respectively, probably due to northward decreasing extension of the basin and range.

  5. Geochemistry of the Potassic Basalts from the Bufumbira Volcanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various basalts are low in SiO2 wt %, Al2O3 wt % and Na2O wt % but high in MgO wt %, TiO2 wt %, CaO wt %, K2O wt % with K2O/Na2O = 1.08 to 2.07. These are potassic belonging to the kamafugite series. Plots discriminate two geochemical trends corresponding to the picritic and clinopyroxene rich basalts.

  6. Mechanical Characterization of Basalt and Glass Fiber Epoxy Composite Tube


    Lapena, Mauro Henrique; Marinucci,Gerson


    The application of basalt fibers are possible in many areas thanks to its multiple and good properties. It exhibits excellent resistance to alkalis, similar to glass fiber, at a much lower cost than carbon and aramid fibers. In the present paper, a comparative study on mechanical properties of basalt and E-glass fiber composites was performed. Results of apparent hoop tensile strength test of ring specimens cut from tubes and the interlaminar shear stress (ILSS) test are presented. Tensile te...

  7. Radiolytic hydrogen production in the subseafloor basaltic aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Dzaugis


    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H2 is produced in geological settings by dissociation of water due to radiation from radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium (238U, 235U, thorium (232Th and potassium (40K. To quantify the potential significance of radiolytic H2 as an electron donor for microbes within the South Pacific subseafloor basaltic aquifer, we use radionuclide concentrations of 43 basalt samples from IODP Expedition 329 to calculate radiolytic H2 production rates in basement fractures. The samples are from three sites with very different basement ages and a wide range of alteration types. U, Th and K concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude from sample to sample at each site. Comparison of our samples to each other and to the results of previous studies of unaltered East Pacific Rise basalt suggests that significant variations in radionuclide concentrations are due to differences in initial (unaltered basalt concentrations (which can vary between eruptive events and post-emplacement alteration. In our samples, there is no clear relationship between alteration type and calculated radiolytic yields. Local maxima in U, Th, and K produce hotspots of H2 production, causing calculated radiolytic rates to differ by up to a factor of 80 from sample to sample. Fracture width also greatly influences H2 production, where microfractures are hotspots for radiolytic H2 production. For example, H2 production rates normalized to water volume are 190 times higher in 1 μm wide fractures than in fractures that are 10 cm wide. To assess the importance of water radiolysis for microbial communities in subseafloor basaltic aquifers, we compare electron transfer rates from radiolysis to rates from iron oxidation in subseafloor basalt. Radiolysis appears likely to be a more important electron donor source than iron oxidation in old (>10 Ma basement basalt. Radiolytic H2 production in the volume of water adjacent to a square cm of the most radioactive SPG basalt may

  8. Plate tectonics and continental basaltic geochemistry throughout Earth history (United States)

    Keller, Brenhin; Schoene, Blair


    Basaltic magmas constitute the primary mass flux from Earth's mantle to its crust, carrying information about the conditions of mantle melting through which they were generated. As such, changes in the average basaltic geochemistry through time reflect changes in underlying parameters such as mantle potential temperature and the geodynamic setting of mantle melting. However, sampling bias, preservation bias, and geological heterogeneity complicate the calculation of representative average compositions. Here we use weighted bootstrap resampling to minimize sampling bias over the heterogeneous rock record and obtain maximally representative average basaltic compositions through time. Over the approximately 4 Ga of the continental rock record, the average composition of preserved continental basalts has evolved along a generally continuous trajectory, with decreasing compatible element concentrations and increasing incompatible element concentrations, punctuated by a comparatively rapid transition in some variables such as La/Yb ratios and Zr, Nb, and Ti abundances approximately 2.5 Ga ago. Geochemical modeling of mantle melting systematics and trace element partitioning suggests that these observations can be explained by discontinuous changes in the mineralogy of mantle partial melting driven by a gradual decrease in mantle potential temperature, without appealing to any change in tectonic process. This interpretation is supported by the geochemical record of slab fluid input to continental basalts, which indicates no long-term change in the global proportion of arc versus non-arc basaltic magmatism at any time in the preserved rock record.

  9. Geochemical characterization of oceanic basalts using Artificial Neural Network. (United States)

    Das, Pranab; Iyer, Sridhar D


    The geochemical discriminate diagrams help to distinguish the volcanics recovered from different tectonic settings but these diagrams tend to group the ocean floor basalts (OFB) under one class i.e., as mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB). Hence, a method is specifically needed to identify the OFB as normal (N-MORB), enriched (E-MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB). We have applied Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique as a supervised Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ) to identify the inherent geochemical signatures present in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) basalts. A range of N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB dataset was used for training and testing of the network. Although the identification of the characters as N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB is completely dependent upon the training data set for the LVQ, but to a significant extent this method is found to be successful in identifying the characters within the CIOB basalts. The study helped to geochemically delineate the CIOB basalts as N-MORB with perceptible imprints of E-MORB and OIB characteristics in the form of moderately enriched rare earth and incompatible elements. Apart from the fact that the magmatic processes are difficult to be deciphered, the architecture performs satisfactorily.

  10. Geochemical characterization of oceanic basalts using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Sridhar D


    Full Text Available Abstract The geochemical discriminate diagrams help to distinguish the volcanics recovered from different tectonic settings but these diagrams tend to group the ocean floor basalts (OFB under one class i.e., as mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB. Hence, a method is specifically needed to identify the OFB as normal (N-MORB, enriched (E-MORB and ocean island basalts (OIB. We have applied Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique as a supervised Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ to identify the inherent geochemical signatures present in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB basalts. A range of N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB dataset was used for training and testing of the network. Although the identification of the characters as N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB is completely dependent upon the training data set for the LVQ, but to a significant extent this method is found to be successful in identifying the characters within the CIOB basalts. The study helped to geochemically delineate the CIOB basalts as N-MORB with perceptible imprints of E-MORB and OIB characteristics in the form of moderately enriched rare earth and incompatible elements. Apart from the fact that the magmatic processes are difficult to be deciphered, the architecture performs satisfactorily.

  11. Thermal infrared spectroscopy and modeling of experimentally shocked basalts (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Staid, M.I.; Kraft, M.D.


    New measurements of thermal infrared emission spectra (250-1400 cm-1; ???7-40 ??m) of experimentally shocked basalt and basaltic andesite (17-56 GPa) exhibit changes in spectral features with increasing pressure consistent with changes in the structure of plagioclase feldspars. Major spectral absorptions in unshocked rocks between 350-700 cm-1 (due to Si-O-Si octahedral bending vibrations) and between 1000-1250 cm-1 (due to Si-O antisymmetric stretch motions of the silica tetrahedra) transform at pressures >20-25 GPa to two broad spectral features centered near 950-1050 and 400-450 cm-1. Linear deconvolution models using spectral libraries composed of common mineral and glass spectra replicate the spectra of shocked basalt relatively well up to shock pressures of 20-25 GPa, above which model errors increase substantially, coincident with the onset of diaplectic glass formation in plagioclase. Inclusion of shocked feldspar spectra in the libraries improves fits for more highly shocked basalt. However, deconvolution models of the basaltic andesite select shocked feldspar end-members even for unshocked samples, likely caused by the higher primary glass content in the basaltic andesite sample.

  12. Insulation from basaltic stamp sand. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F. D.


    A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of basaltic sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local basaltic sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from basaltic stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a basalt fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a basalt fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of basaltic insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds. (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E


    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  14. Experimental shock metamorphism of terrestrial basalts: Agglutinate-like particle formation, petrology, and magnetism (United States)

    Badyukov, Dmitrii D.; Bezaeva, Natalia S.; Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Kars, Myriam; Egli, Ramon; Raitala, Jouko; Kuzina, Dilyara M.


    Hypervelocity impacts occur on bodies throughout our solar system, and play an important role in altering the mineralogy, texture, and magnetic properties in target rocks at nanometer to planetary scales. Here we present the results of hypervelocity impact experiments conducted using a two-stage light-gas gun with 5 mm spherical copper projectiles accelerated toward basalt targets with 6 km s-1 impact velocities. Four different types of magnetite- and titanomagnetite-bearing basalts were used as targets for seven independent experiments. These laboratory impacts resulted in the formation of agglutinate-like particles similar in texture to lunar agglutinates, which are an important fraction of lunar soil. Materials recovered from the impacts were examined using a suite of complementary techniques, including optical and scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and high- and low-temperature magnetometry, to investigate the texture, chemistry, and magnetic properties of newly formed agglutinate-like particles and were compared to unshocked basaltic parent materials. The use of Cu-projectiles, rather than Fe- and Ni-projectiles, avoids magnetic contamination in the final shock products and enables a clearer view of the magnetic properties of impact-generated agglutinates. Agglutinate-like particles show shock features, such as melting and planar deformation features, and demonstrate shock-induced magnetic hardening (two- to seven-fold increases in the coercivity of remanence Bcr compared to the initial target materials) and decreases in low-field magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization.

  15. Constructing the volcanic architecture of Kalkarindji, an ancient flood basalt province, using a multidisciplinary approach (United States)

    Marshall, P.; Widdowson, M.; Kelley, S. P.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Murphy, D. T.


    The Kalkarindji Continental Flood Basalt Province (CFBP) is the oldest igneous province in the Phanerozoic. Erupted in the mid-Cambrian (505-510 Ma) [1], it is estimated volumes of lava up to 1.5 x 105 km3could have been erupted, making this similar in size to the better known Columbia River Basalts, USA. Relatively little is known about the province, due in part to its remote location, though large swathes remain well preserved (c. 50,000 km2). This study, based on rigorous field investigations, utilises 4 different analytical techniques to construct a volcanic architecture for the Kalkarindji basalts, drawing together these complimentary datasets to generate a series of detailed stratigraphies from around the province. Mineralogy and petrography form the basis while geochemical data aides in defining lava flow stratigraphies and distinguishing individual flow packages in disparate locations around the province. 40Ar/39Ar dating of key stratigraphic marker horizons support stratigraphical correlation across the province whilst the use of palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy has allowed for correlation on a broader scale. Indications from this study point towards an unusual eruption among CFBPs in the Phanerozoic; a lack of tumescence, immediate subsidence of the lava pile following cessation of eruption; and, in the main sub-province, we map a simple volcanic structure thinning to the east from a single source. 1. L. M. Glass, D. Phillips, (2006). Geology. 34, 461-464.

  16. CO2 diffusion into pore spaces limits weathering rate of an experimental basalt landscape (United States)

    van Haren, Joost; Dontsova, Katerina; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Troch, Peter A.; Chorover, Jon; DeLong, Stephen B.; Breshears, David D.; Huxman, Travis E.; Pelletier, Jon D.; Saleska, Scott; Zeng, Xubin; Ruiz, Joaquin


    Basalt weathering is a key control over the global carbon cycle, though in situ measurements of carbon cycling are lacking. In an experimental, vegetation-free hillslope containing 330 m3 of ground basalt scoria, we measured real-time inorganic carbon dynamics within the porous media and seepage flow. The hillslope carbon flux (0.6–5.1 mg C m–2 h–1) matched weathering rates of natural basalt landscapes (0.4–8.8 mg C m–2 h–1) despite lacking the expected field-based impediments to weathering. After rainfall, a decrease in CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in pore spaces into solution suggested rapid carbon sequestration but slow reactant supply. Persistent low soil [CO2] implied that diffusion limited CO2 supply, while when sufficiently dry, reaction product concentrations limited further weathering. Strong influence of diffusion could cause spatial heterogeneity of weathering even in natural settings, implying that modeling studies need to include variable soil [CO2] to improve carbon cycling estimates associated with potential carbon sequestration methods.

  17. Microbially mediated alteration of crystalline basalts as identified from analogical reactive percolation experiments (United States)

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte; Stéphant, Sylvian; Dupraz, Sébastien; Ranchou-Peyruse, Magali; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Gérard, Emmanuelle


    Alteration in the ocean crust through fluid circulation is an ongoing process affecting the first kilometers and at low temperatures some alteration may be microbially mediated. Hydrothermal activity through the hard rock basement supports diverse microbial communities within the rock by providing nutrient and energy sources. Currently, the impact of basement hosted microbial communities on alteration is poorly understood. In order to identify and quantify the nature of microbially mediated alteration two reactive percolation experiments mimicking circulation of CO2 enriched ground water were performed at 35 °C and 30 bar for 21 days each. The experiments were performed using a crystalline basalt substrate from an earlier drilled deep Icelandic aquifer. One experiment was conducted on sterile rock while the other was conducted with the addition of a microbial inoculate derived from groundwater enrichment cultures obtained from the same aquifer. µCT on the experimental basaltic substrate before and after the reactive percolation experiment along with synchrotron radiation x-ray tomographic microscopy and the mineralogical characterization of resulting material allows for the comparative volumetric quantification of dissolution and precipitation. The unique design of this experiment allows for the identification of alteration which occurs solely abiotically and of microbially mediated alteration. Experimental results are compared to natural basaltic cores from Iceland retrieved following a large field CO2 injection experiment that stimulated microbial activity at depth.

  18. Pore water chemistry reveals gradients in mineral transformation across a model basaltic hillslope (United States)

    Pohlmann, Michael; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Robert; Ruiz, Joaquin; Troch, Peter; Chorover, Jon


    The extent of weathering incongruency during soil formation from rock controls local carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, as well as the evolution of hydrologic flow paths. Prior studies of basalt weathering, including those that have quantified the dynamics of well-mixed, bench-scale laboratory reactors or characterized the structure and integrated response of field systems, indicate a strong influence of system scale on weathering rate and trajectory. For example, integrated catchment response tends to produce lower weathering rates than do well mixed reactors, but the mechanisms underlying these disparities remain unclear. Here we present pore water geochemistry and physical sensor data gathered during two controlled rainfall-runoff events on a large-scale convergent model hillslope mantled with 1 m uniform depth of granular basaltic porous media. The dense sampler and sensor array (1488 samplers and sensors embedded in 330 m3 of basalt) showed that rainfall-induced dissolution of basaltic glass produced supersaturation of pore waters with respect to multiple secondary solids including allophane, gibbsite, ferrihydrite, birnessite and calcite. The spatial distribution of saturation state was heterogeneous, suggesting an accumulation of solutes leading to precipitation of secondary solids along hydrologic flow paths. Rapid dissolution of primary silicates was widespread throughout the entire hillslope, irrespective of up-gradient flowpath length. However, coherent spatial variations in solution chemistry and saturation indices were observed in depth profiles and between distinct topographic regions of the hillslope. Colloids (110-2000 nm) enriched in iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and phosphorus (P) were mobile in soil pore waters.

  19. Emplacing a Cooling-Limited Rhyolite Lava Flow: Similarities with Basaltic Lava Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Magnall


    Full Text Available Accurate forecasts of lava flow length rely on estimates of eruption and magma properties and, potentially more challengingly, on an understanding of the relative influence of characteristics such as the apparent viscosity, the yield strength of the flow core, or the strength of the lava's surface crust. For basaltic lavas, the relatively high frequency of eruptions has resulted in numerous opportunities to test emplacement models on such low silica lava flows. However, the flow of high silica lava is much less well understood due to the paucity of contemporary events and, if observations of flow length change are used to constrain straightforward models of lava advance, remaining uncertainties can limit the insight gained. Here, for the first time, we incorporate morphological observations from during and after flow field evolution to improve model constraints and reduce uncertainties. After demonstrating the approach on a basaltic lava flow (Mt. Etna 2001, we apply it to the 2011–2012 Cordón Caulle rhyolite lava flow, where unprecedented observations and syn-emplacement satellite imagery of an advancing silica-rich lava flow have indicated an important influence from the lava flow's crust on flow emplacement. Our results show that an initial phase of viscosity-controlled advance at Cordón Caulle was followed by later crustal control, accompanied by formation of flow surface folds and large-scale crustal fractures. Where the lava was unconstrained by topography, the cooled crust ultimately halted advance of the main flow and led to the formation of breakouts from the flow front and margins, influencing the footprint of the lava, its advance rate, and the duration of flow advance. Highly similar behavior occurred in the 2001 Etna basaltic lava flow. In our comparison of these two cases, we find close similarities between the processes controlling the advance of a crystal-poor rhyolite and a basaltic lava flow, suggesting common controlling

  20. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer


    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  1. Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province (United States)

    Rossetti, Lucas M.; Lima, Evandro F.; Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M.; Barreto, Carla J.


    The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province records the volcanism of the Early Cretaceous that precedes the fragmentation of the South-Gondwana supercontinent. Traditionally, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic stack as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil and where the Parana-Etendeka basalts are well preserved. This work provides a detailed analysis of lithofacies and facies architecture, integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. We identified seven distinct lithofacies grouped into four facies associations related to different flow morphologies. The basaltic lava flows in the area can be divided into two contrasting units: Unit I - pahoehoe flow fields; and Unit II - simple rubbly flows. The first unit is build up by innumerous pahoehoe lava flows that cover the sandstones of Botucatu Formation. These flows occur as sheet pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, and ponded lavas morphologies. Compound lavas are olivine-phyric basalts with intergranular pyroxenes. In ponded lavas and cores of sheet flows coarse plagioclase-phyric basalts are common. The first pahoehoe lavas are more primitive with higher contents of MgO. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flows is related to low volume eruptions, while sheet lavas were emplaced during sustained eruptions. In contrast, Unit II is formed by thick simple rubbly lavas, characterized by a massive core and a brecciated/rubbly top. Petrographically these flows are characterized by plagioclase-phyric to aphyric basalts with high density of plagioclase crystals in the matrix. Chemically they are more differentiated lavas, and the emplacement is related to sustained high effusion rate eruptions. Both units are low TiO2 and have geochemical characteristics of Gramado magma type. The Torres Syncline main valley has a similar evolution when compared to other Large Igneous Provinces

  2. The entry heating and abundances of basaltic micrometeorites (United States)

    Genge, Matthew J.


    Basaltic micrometeorites (MMs) derived from HED-like parent bodies have been found among particles collected from the Antarctic and from Arctic glaciers and are to date the only achondritic particles reported among cosmic dust. The majority of Antarctic basaltic particles are completely melted cosmic spherules with only one unmelted particle recognized from the region. This paper investigates the entry heating of basaltic MMs in order to predict the relative abundances of unmelted to melted basaltic particles and to evaluate how mineralogical differences in precursor materials influence the final products of atmospheric entry collected on the Earth's surface. Thermodynamic modeling is used to simulate the melting behavior of particles with compositions corresponding to eucrites, diogenites, and ordinary chondrites in order to evaluate degree of partial melting and to make a comparison between the behavior of chondritic particles that dominate the terrestrial dust flux and basaltic micrometeroids. The results of 120,000 simulations were compiled to predict relative abundances and indicate that the phase relations of precursor materials are crucial in determining the relative abundances of particle types. Diogenite and ordinary chondrite materials exhibit similar behavior, although diogenite precursors are more likely to form cosmic spherules under similar entry parameters. Eucrite particles, however, are much more likely to melt due to their lower liquidus temperatures and small temperature interval of partial melting. Eucrite MMs, therefore, usually form completely molten cosmic spherules except at particle diameters <100 μm. The low abundance of unmelted basaltic MMs compared with spherules, if statistically valid, is also shown to be inconsistent with a low velocity population (12 km s-1) and is more compatible with higher velocities which may suggest a near-Earth asteroid source dominates the current dust production of basaltic MMs.

  3. Volatiles and the tempo of flood basalt magmatism (United States)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael


    Individual flood basalt lavas often exceed 103 km3 in volume, and many such lavas erupt during emplacement of flood basalt provinces. The large volume of individual flood basalt lavas implies correspondingly large magma reservoirs within or at the base of the crust. To erupt, some fraction of this magma must become buoyant and overpressure must be sufficient to encourage failure and dike propagation. The overpressure associated with a new injection of magma is inversely proportional to the total reservoir volume, and as a large magma body heats the surrounding rocks thermally activated creep will relax isotropic overpressure more rapidly. Here, we examine the viability of buoyancy overpressure as a trigger for continental flood basalt eruptions. We employ a new one-dimensional model that combines volatile exsolution, bubble growth and rise, assimilation, and permeable fluid escape from Moho-depth and crustal chambers. We investigate the temporal evolution of degassing and the eruptibility of magmas using the Siberian Traps flood basalts as a test case. We suggest that the volatile inventory set during mantle melting and redistributed via bubble motion controls ascent of magma into and through the crust, thereby regulating the tempo of flood basalt magmatism. Volatile-rich melts from low degrees of partial melting of the mantle are buoyant and erupt to the surface with little staging or crustal interaction. Melts with moderate volatile budgets accumulate in large, mostly molten magma chambers at the Moho or in the lower crust. These large magma bodies may remain buoyant and poised to erupt-triggered by volatile-rich recharge or external stresses-for ∼106 yr. If and when such chambers fail, enormous volumes of magma can ascend into the upper crust, staging at shallow levels and initiating substantial assimilation that contributes to pulses of large-volume flood basalt eruption. Our model further predicts that the Siberian Traps may have released 1019-1020 g of CO2

  4. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell


    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  5. Similar microbial communities found on two distant seafloor basalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eSinger


    Full Text Available The oceanic crust forms two thirds of the Earth’s surface and hosts a large phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms. While advances have been made in the sedimentary realm, our understanding of the igneous rock portion as a microbial habitat has remained limited. We present the first comparative metagenomic microbial community analysis from ocean floor basalt environments at the Lō’ihi Seamount, Hawai’i, and the East Pacific Rise (EPR (9˚N. Phylogenetic analysis indicates the presence of a total of 43 bacterial and archaeal mono-phyletic groups, dominated by Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, as well as Thaumarchaeota. Functional gene analysis suggests that these Thaumarchaeota play an important role in ammonium oxidation on seafloor basalts. In addition to ammonium oxidation, the seafloor basalt habitat reveals a wide spectrum of other metabolic potentials, including CO2 fixation, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and sulfur oxidation. Basalt communities from Lō’ihi and the EPR show considerable metabolic and phylogenetic overlap down to the genus level despite geographic distance and slightly different seafloor basalt mineralogy.

  6. Stratigraphy of Oceanus Procellarum basalts - Sources and styles of emplacement (United States)

    Whitford-Stark, J. L.; Head, J. W., III


    The basaltic fill of Oceanus Procellarum has been formally subdivided into four lithostratigraphic formations: The Repsold Formation, the Telemann Formation, the Hermann Formation, and the Sharp Formation. The Repsold Formation is composed of high-Ti basalts and pyroclastic deposits with an estimated age of 3.75 + or - 0.05 b.y. and an estimated volume of about 2.1 x 10 to the 5th cu km. This is overlain by the Telemann Formation composed of very low-Ti basalts and pyroclastic deposits with an estimated age of 3.6 + or - 0.2 b.y. and a volume of 4.2 x 10 to the 5th cu km. The Hermann Formation, composed of intermediate basalts with an estimated age of 3.3 + or - 0.3 b.y., represents the next youngest unit with an estimated volume of 2.2 x 10 to the 5th cu km. The youngest materials in Procellarum are the medium-to-high-Ti basalts comprising the Sharp Formation with an estimated age of 2.7 + or - 0.7 b.y. and a volume of 1.8 x 10 to the 4th cu km.

  7. Coseismic Pit Crater, Normal Fault, and Extensional Fissure Formation in Unconsolidated Sediment and Basalt in Northern Iceland (United States)

    Ferrill, D. A.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Smart, K. J.


    Two rifting-related seismic events in 1975 and 1978 along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the northern coast of Iceland produced an array of surface deformation features in Holocene basalt flows and overlying unconsolidated sediments. New field mapping and aerial photograph interpretation is coupled with analysis of maps of seismic activity and level-line survey results to constrain the timing, style, and magnitude of this deformation. Fault scarps and fissures in basalts can be traced laterally down a gentle northward dip projecting into unconsolidated braided stream deposits, providing an impressive view of the deformation style in the two contrasting mechanical layers. We report on detailed field mapping of two of these laterally traceable structures conducted in the summer of 2008 and analysis of a suite of aerial photographs from 1958 to 1998. Map-scale structures in the basalts with little or no sedimentary cover include (i) fault scarps, (ii) fissures, and (iii) locally-developed gentle dip away from the related normal fault. Dilation of faults and extension fractures in the basalt has led to rock toppling and rock fall causing widening of fissures. Wedging of toppled rock blocks at the tops of fissures has locally produced keystone arches and bridges across the tops of open fissures. Different stages in the progression of fissure formation and collapse, including (i) fissure, (ii) widened fissure with cavern, (iii) localized collapse pit, and (iv) elongate collapsed fissure, can be observed over along-strike distances of 10's of meters. Where unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits >3 m thick cover the basalts (200 m to the north along strike) structural geomorphologic features are dominated by (i) grabens, (ii) pit craters, and (iii) elongate troughs. Graben-bounding normal faults cutting the sedimentary cover in many cases have displacements >1 m. Pit craters have cone to bowl shapes, commonly occur within grabens, and have depths up to 2.8 m. The mapped

  8. Chemical dispersion among Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Steele, Alison


    Analysis of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts for major and minor elements suggests that the hypothesis that the coarser-grained varieties (olivine microgabbros) consist of two chemical groups is incorrect. Instead, it is found that there is a single group including vesicular, coarse-grained, and fine-grained basalts. For the entire suite, the dispersion of compositions along the olivine trend is too great to be explained by short-range unmixing of an unfractionated flow. It is suggested that the general trend for the suite is olivine separation, probably through crystal settling. The textures, mineralogical characteristics, and chemical variation of the olivine-normative basalts are shown to be consistent with a sequence of thin fractionating flows, all from a common parent.

  9. Petrogenesis of pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen


    The pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan have been inferred to bear Dupal signautres based on their Th/Ce ratio, linking the Baolai basalts to the South China Sea (SCS) seamounts that are characterized by Dupal Pb isotope signatures (Smith and Lewis, 2007). In this study, thirty-two Baolai basalt samples were analyzed for abundances of major and trace elements as well as Pb and Nd isotope ratios to verify their Dupal characters and to constrain their petrogenesis significance. The Baolai basalts contain 4-10 % L.O.I.. Three stages of alteration are inferred from plots of L.O.I. abundance versus concentrations major oxides as well as mineral textures and compositions. The first alteration stage was characterized by albitization that converted Ca-rich plagioclase to albite. The second alteration stage was dominated by chloritization of olivine and augite, resulting in increases in L.O.I. abundance. The last alteration stage is represented by formation of secondary calcite in vesicles and cracks. These alteration processes reflect interaction with seawater and apparently did not affect the magmatic Pb isotope composition for the low Pb concentration in seawater. Relative to the North Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL), the Baolai pillow basalts have higher 208Pb/204Pb ratios at a given 206Pb/204Pb value, showing Dupal anomaly. For their relatively higher 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the Baolai basalts are distinct from majority of the Cenozoic basalts in the Hainan-Leizhou peninsula, the Indochina peninsula, and the SCS seamounts, for which derivation from the Hainan mantle plume has been recently proposed (Wang et al., 2013). In contrast, the Baolai basalts and the Cenozoic basalts from eastern Guangdong at southeastern China have similar Pb and Nd isotope compositions, indicating derivation from similar mantle sources. However, the Baolai basalts have lower abundance ratios of Zr/Hf (40.3-45.6 versus 46.5-50.5), La/Yb (12

  10. One atmosphere melting experiments on ilmenite basalt 12008 (United States)

    Rhodes, J. M.; Lofgren, G. E.; Smith, D. P.


    An evaluation of a crystal-fractionation model for Apollo 12 ilmenite basalts with melting experiments under controlled oxygen fugacities is reported. The crystallization sequence including olivine, chromium spinel, and pigeonite phases was determined, showing that the changes in melt composition are dominated by olivine crystallization and the decrease in MgO with a corresponding increase in CaO, Al2O3, and TiO2. It is concluded that the bulk composition of the ilmenite basalts was established by crystallization of olivine and minor spinel prior to the onset of pyroxene and plagioclase.

  11. Distribution and stratigraphy of basaltic units in Maria Tranquillitatis and Fecunditatis: A Clementine perspective (United States)

    Rajmon, D.; Spudis, P.


    Maria Tranquillitatis and Fecunditatis have been mapped based on Clementine image mosaics and derived iron and titanium maps. Impact craters served as stratigraphic probes enabling better delineation of compositionally different basaltic units, determining the distribution of subsurface basalts, and providing estimates of total basalt thickness and the thickness of the surface units. Collected data indicate that volcanism in these maria started with the eruption of low-Ti basalts and evolved toward medium- and high-Ti basalts. Some of the high-Ti basalts in Mare Tranquillitatis began erupting early and were contemporaneous with the low- and medium-Ti basalts; these units form the oldest units exposed on the mare surface. Mare Tranquillitatis is mostly covered with high- Ti basalts. In Mare Fecunditatis, the volume of erupting basalts clearly decreased as the Ti content increased, and the high-Ti basalts occur as a few patches on the mare surface. The basalt in both maria is on the order of several hundred meters thick and locally may be as thick as 1600 m. The new basalt thickness estimates generally fall within the range set by earlier studies, although locally differ. The medium- to high-Ti basalts exposed at the surfaces of both maria are meters to tens of meters thick.

  12. Phase equilibria in subducting basaltic crust: implications for H 2O release from the slab (United States)

    Forneris, Juliette F.; Holloway, John R.


    , is the most likely explanation for this difference, and suggests that chloritoid does not play an important role in the overall dehydration process of the basaltic layer in subduction zones. At pressures above the stability field of amphibole, zoisite/clinozoisite becomes the stable hydrous phase at temperatures above 645°C, whereas lawsonite is stable at lower temperatures. The positions of the zoisite-out and lawsonite-out reactions determined in this study indicate that, for an intermediate temperature subduction zone, the basaltic layer of the slab would be completely dehydrated between 90 and 110 km depth.

  13. Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (United States)

    Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne; Barbieri, Giulio


    The geology of the central part of Ethiopia exhibits a variety of rock types that can potentially be developed for construction stone production, of which the most wide spread and important one is the Termaber basalt. Even though some preliminary work is done on these rocks towards construction material application, it remains largely that this resource is untouched and needs further scientific characterization for the use in large scale industrial application. Basaltic rocks have been widely used in many parts of the world as concrete aggregate and dimension stone for various civil structures. The present research study was carried out for Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (around Debre Birhan). The main objective of the present research study was to assess the general suitability of the Termaber basalt to be used as coarse aggregate for concrete mix and/or to utilize it as cut stone at industrial level. Only choice made with full knowledge of the basic characteristics of the material, of its performance and durability against the foreseen solicitations will ensure the necessary quality of the stone work and thereby a possibility to reach its intended service life. In order to meet out the objective of the present study, data from both field and laboratory were collected and analyzed. The field data included geological investigations based on different methods and sample collection while the laboratory work included, uniaxial compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elasticity modulus, bulk density, water absorption, specific gravity, open porosity, aggregate impact value, petrographic examination and XRF, aggregate crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion value, sodium sulfate soundness, X-ray diffraction and alkali silica reactivity tests. The field and laboratory data were compiled and compared together to reveal the engineering performance of the rock mass in

  14. Petrology of offshore basalts of Bombay harbour area, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    Recent marine geological and geophysical surveys indicate that the Deccan Traps extend to the offshore area of Bombay. Cores from bore holes in Deccan Traps collected from Bombay Harbour have been classified as basalts, olivine basalts, spilitic...

  15. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Swaidani Aref M.


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction. Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289 and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260 have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida’a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  16. Fertilization of the Neoproterozoic ocean by phosphorus from flood basalts (United States)

    Horton, F.


    The weathering of voluminous large igneous provinces (LIPs) fertilized the Neoproterozoic ocean with the biolimiting nutrient phosphorus (P). The consequent increase in primary productivity contributed to profound climatic and biologic developments, including ocean-atmosphere oxygenation, global glaciations, and rapid biologic diversification. Flood basalt volcanism began at 850 Ma as the supercontinent Rodinia began to break apart and culminated with the massive Franklin LIP at 720 Ma. Prior to eruption, LIP magmas became variably enriched in P during liquid-crystal fractionation and by entraining metasomatized parts of the lithosphere. The mafic dike swarms through which the magmas erupted cover 3.7 × 106 km2, or 4% of the Neoproterozoic land surface. The flood basalts (now largely eroded) may have covered twice that area. Assuming chemical weathering liberated much of the P contained in these basalts, a bioavailable LIP-derived P flux of 1-5 × 109 mol/yr may have been sustained for millions of years, increasing the global flux of dissolved P to the ocean by a factor of two or more. This fertilization would have increased the burial of organic carbon and therefore the rate of O2 production in the ocean. Meanwhile, the removal of CO2 from the ocean-atmosphere system by basalt weathering and photosynthesis may have triggered the Sturtian glaciation. These tectonically driven events set the stage for the development of complex multicellular life.

  17. Vesicularity and CO2 in mid-ocean ridge basalt (United States)

    Moore, J.G.


    Vesicles and included CO2are enriched in deep-sea basalts that are also enriched in light rare earth and incompatible elements. This enrichment probably results from a unique deep mantle origin of such melts but may have been modified by CO2 bubbles rising in shallow magma chambers. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Age of the youngest Palaeogene flood basalts in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Piasecki, Stefan; Abrahamsen, Niels


    results, this constrains the termination of the East Greenland Paleogene Igneous Province to the Early-Middle Eocene transition (nannoplankton chronozones NP13-NP14/earliest NP15). This is 6-8 Ma younger than according to previous biostratigraphic age assignments. The new data show that flood basalt...

  19. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This project is aimed at examining the feasibility and providing the technology to design and construct a radwaste repository in basalt formations beneath and within the Hanford Site. The project is divided into seven areas: systems integration, geosciences, hydrologic studies, engineered barriers, near-surface test facility, engineering testing, and repository engineering. This annual report summarizes key investigations in these seven areas. (DLC)

  20. Petrography and chemistry of basalts from the Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    interior through a variolitic zone. The silica-alkalies relation show these basalts to be of sub-alkaline nature. Variable normative compositions and Mg number, increase in alkali index, differences in Al2O3/CaO and FeO/MgO ratios, variable trace element...

  1. Alteration of basaltic glasses from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    chemical changes are the loss of Si, Mg and Ca and a gain of Na and K whilst, Fe and Ti remained immobile. It reflects that the basaltic glasses have undergone initial to intermediate stages of palagonitisation under low temperature oxidative alterations...

  2. Flame-resistant pure and hybrid woven fabrics from basalt (United States)

    Jamshaid, H.; Mishra, R.; Militky, J.


    This work has been formulated to investigate the burning behavior of different type of fabrics. The main concentration is to see how long the fabric resists after it catches the fire and the propagation of fire can be reduced by using flame resistant fiber i.e basalt. Basalt fiber is an environmental friendly material with low input, high output, low energy consumption and less emission. The goal of present investigations is to show the dependence of fabric flammability on its structure parameters i.e weave type, blend type etc. Fabric weaves have strong effect on flammability properties. Plain weave has the lowest burning rate as the density of the plain weave fabric is more and the structure is tight which gives less chances of flame passing through the fabric. Thermal stability is evaluated with TGA of all hybrid and nonhybrid fabrics and compared. The thermal stability of the basalt fiber is excellent. When comparing thermal analysis curves for hybrid samples it demonstrates that thermal stability of the samples containing basalt is much higher than the non- hybrid samples. Percentage weight loss is less in hybrid samples as compared to non-hybrid samples. The effectiveness of hybridization on samples may be indicated by substantial lowering of the decomposition mass. Correlation was made between flammability with the infrared radiations (IR)

  3. Geochemistry of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Twelve ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from Jiangsu province, eastern China have been analyzed for major, trace, Sr–Nd isotopic composition and mineral chemical compositions and the origin of these ultramafic xenoliths is discussed based on the geochemical constraints. Based on classification norms, the ...

  4. Alkali norite, troctolites, and VHK mare basalts from breccia 14304 (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Warren, P. H.


    Six pristine rocks, two mare basalts, and four nonpristine highlands rocks were separated from breccia 14304 for consortium study. The pristine highlands rocks include representatives of the Mg troctolite-anorthosite and alkali suites of the Apollo 14 site. Two troctolite clasts have olivine and plagioclase compositions similar to one group of Apollo 14 troctolites and one also contains spinel. Incompatible element abundances in one are similar to those of 14305 troctolites, although the heavy rare earth elements pattern is distinct among Apollo 14 troctolites. Alkali lithologies include an alkali anorthosite and an alkali norite, the latter having a pristine igneous texture and resembling alkali gabbronites from Apollo 14 and 67975 in mineralogy and mineral compositions. It is suggested that Apollo 14 alkali lithologies and PO4-bearing Mg anorthosites formed from Mg-rich magmas that assimilated various amounts of material rich in P and REE. Another pristine clast from 14304 is an Mg-gabbronorite. The two mare basalt clasts are very high potassium basalts, whose parent magmas could have formed from a typical low-Ti, high-Al basaltic magmas by assimilation of K-rich material. Nonpristine 14304 clasts include melt-textured anorthosites and an augite-rich poikilitic melt rock.

  5. Heat resistance study of basalt fiber material via mechanical tests (United States)

    Gao, Y. Q.; Jia, C.; Meng, L.; Li, X. H.


    This paper focuses on the study of the relationship between the fracture strength of basalt rovings and temperature. Strong stretching performance of the rovings has been tested after the treatment at fixed temperatures but different heating time and then the fracture strength of the rovings exposed to the heating at different temperatures and cooled in different modes investigated. Finally, the fracture strength of the basalt material after the heat treatment was studied. The results showed that the room-temperature strength tends to decrease with an increase of the heat treatment time at 250 °C, but it has the local maximum after 2h heating. And the basalt rovings strength increased after the heat treatment up to 200 °C. It was 16.7 percent higher than the original strength. The strength depends not only on the temperature and duration of the heating, but also on the cooling mode. The value of the strength measured after cold water cooling was less by 6.3% compared with an ambient air cooling mode. The room-temperature breaking strength of the rovings heated at 200 °C and 100 °C for 2 hours each increased by about 14.6% with respect to unpretreated basalt rovings.

  6. Late Devonian and Triassic basalts from the southern continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Late Devonian and Early-to-Late Triassic times, the southern continental margin of the Eastern European Platform was the site of a basaltic volcanism in the Donbas and Fore-Caucasus areas respectively. Both volcanic piles rest unconformably upon Paleoproterozoic and Late Paleozoic units respectively, and emplaced ...

  7. Nature and composition of interbedded marine basaltic pumice in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 2. Nature and composition of interbedded marine basaltic pumice in the ~52–50 Ma Vastan lignite sequence, western India: Implication for Early Eocene MORB volcanism offshore Arabian Sea. Sarajit Sensarma Hukam Singh R S Rana Debajyoti Paul ...

  8. Petrology of rift-related basalts at Bombay High waters, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Iyer, S.D.

    .39% and FeO super(t) 11.79 to 15.5%. The iron enrichment and the low Mg numbers suggest derivation of these basalts from extensive fractional crystallisation. These basalts are compositionally similar to rift related basaltic rocks associated with the opening...

  9. High-Ti type N-MORB parentage of basalts from the south Andaman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    and CaO/TiO2 ratios classify these basalts as high-Ti type basalt. On the basis of these ratios and many discriminant functions and diagrams, it is suggested that the studied basalts, associated with Andaman ophiolite suite, were derived from magma similar to N-MORB and emplaced in the mid-oceanic ridge tectonic setting.

  10. Depleted basaltic lavas from the proto-Iceland plume, Central East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Baker, Joel A.


    New geochemical and isotopic data are presented for volumetrically minor, depleted low-Ti basalts that occur in the Plateau Basalt succession of central East Greenland (CEG), formed during the initial stages of opening of the North Atlantic at 55 Ma. The basalts have MORB-like geochemistry (e.g. ...

  11. The Abakaliki Volcaniclastic Rocks: Field relations from resistivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field geological descriptions shows that these rocks are pumices interstratified with thin dark grey to bluish shales, amygdoloidal lapilli basalts and pillow basalts. Apparent resistivity values of 240-275 ohm m suggests the presence of coarse grained agglomerates, breccias and microbrecias with angular to subangular ...

  12. Age and petrology of the Tertiary As Sarat volcanic field, southwestern Saudi Arabia (United States)

    du Bray, E.A.; Stoeser, D.B.; McKee, E.H.


    Harrat As Sarat forms the second smallest and southernmost of the basalt fields of western Saudi Arabia and is part of a voluminous Red Sea rift-related continental alkali basalt province. The rocks of the As Sarat were emplaced during the first stage of Red Sea rifting and represent the northernmost extension of the Tertiary Trap Series volcanics that occur mainly in the Yemen Arab Republic and Ethiopia. The field consists of up to 580 m of basalt flows, that are intruded by basaltic plugs, necks, minor dikes, and highly evolved peralkaline trachyte intrusions. K-Ar ages indicate that the As Sarat field formed between 31 and 22 Ma and contains an eruption hiatus of one million years that began about 25 Ma ago. Pre-hiatus flows are primarily hypersthene normative intersertal subalkaline basalt, whereas the majority of post-hiatus flows are nepheline normative alkali basalt and hawaiite with trachytic textures. Normative compositions of the basalts are consistent with their genesis by partial melting at varying depths. Trace element abundances in the basalt indicate that varying degrees of partial melting and fractional crystallization (or crystal accumulation) had major and minor roles, respectively, in development of compositional variation in these rocks. Modeling indicates that the pre-hiatus subalkaline basalts represent 8-10 percent mantle melting at depths of about 70 km and the post-hiatus alkali basalts represent 4-9 percent mantle melting at depths greater than 70 km. ?? 1991.

  13. Neogene to Quaternary basalts of the Jabal Eghei (Nuqay) area (south Libya): Two distinct volcanic events or continuous volcanism with gradual shift in magma composition? (United States)

    Radivojević, Maša; Toljić, Marinko; Turki, Salah M.; Bojić, Zoran; Šarić, Kristina; Cvetković, Vladica


    This study reports and discusses a set of new K/Ar age and new petrochemical data on basalts of the Jabal Eghei (Nuqay) area (south Libya). This area is part of a > 1000 km long NNW-SSE Libyan volcanic field that stretches from the Mediterranean coastal near Tripoli to the Tibesti massif in Chad. Whole rock K/Ar ages, stratigraphy, volcanology and rock petrochemistry indicate that the Jabal Eghei developed during two volcanic events. The first occurred from the Middle Miocene to the Pliocene (K/Ar ages from ~ 16 to ~ 5 Ma) when large volumes of low aspect ratio lava flows of transitional basalts formed. The second event happened in Pliocene-mid-Pleistocene time (4-≤ 1 Ma) and it gave rise to basanite spatter to scoria pyroclastic cones and subordinate lava flow facies. The transitional basalts are less primitive and less enriched in incompatible trace elements than the basanites. Petrochemical characteristics reveal that the transitional basalts underwent weak to moderate olivine-dominated fractionation and that crustal assimilation had negligible effects. REE geochemical modeling shows that primary magmas of both transitional basalts and basanites formed by melting of a similar garnet-bearing, primitive mantle-like source with degree of melting of 3-5% and ≤ 1%, respectively. It is also demonstrated that the transitional basalts show systematic compositional changes in time because progressively younger rocks are petrochemically more similar to basanites. We argue that our data definitely prove that the age pattern along the entire Libyan volcanic field is much more complex than it was thought before.

  14. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei


    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. M. Konstantinov


    are clustered in the fourth sector of the stereogram (sample Igy179m1, Fig. 10, Fig. 14 А, Table 2. Found in outcrop 16/10. Component А is metachronic Inm that formed due to heating of basalts by dolerites of the Ygyatta sill, which suggests the dyke-type of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS (Fig. 6 C and a high oxidation level of titanomagnetites (sample 179, Fig. 8.2. Component B – steep positive vectors of the characteristic Inch (samples Igy224m2, Mrh142m2 and Mrh176t2, Fig. 10, Fig. 14 А, Table. 2. Found in outcrops 20/10 and 16÷18/14. Component В is typical of the outcrops with significant deviations of the axes of the AMS ellipse (Fig. 6 D, E, which suggests epigenetic changes in the basalts. New occurrences of titanomaghemites are observed in the studied outcrops (sample 228, Fig. 8, which leads to an almost complete destruction of vector In0 and formation of viscous NRM – Inv, which are oriented in the direction similar to the geomagnetic field. This conclusion is supported by the ‘artificial magnetization reversal’ tests (Fig. 11 А.3. Component C – negative vectors of the characteristic NRM are clustered in the first sector of the stereogram at angles varying from –50 to –40° (Fig. 12, Fig. 14, Table 2. Found in four outcrops at the Ygyatta river (outcrops 17/10, and 21÷23/10.4. Component D – positive vectors of the characteristic NRM are clustered in the third sector of the stereogram at angles varying from 40 to 50° (Fig. 13, Fig. 14, Table 2. Found in four outcrops at the Markha river (outcrops 20А, 20В, and 20С/14.The primary origin of characteristic components C and D of the basalts is determined as follows:- The ‘sedimentary’ type of AMS (Fig. 6 E, and Fig. 6 F;- According to the differential thermomagnetic analysis (DTMA, the mineral carrier of magnetization is virtually unaltered titanomagnetite with the Curie point of ≈550°C (samples 254 and 204, Fig. 8;- The presence of samples with negative NRM

  16. Geochemistry of komatiites and basalts from the Rio das Velhas and Pitangui greenstone belts, São Francisco Craton, Brazil: Implications for the origin, evolution, and tectonic setting (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.; Silva, Paola M.; Moreno, Juan A.; Amaral, Wagner S.


    The Neoarchean Rio das Velhas and Pitangui greenstone belts are situated in the southern São Francisco Craton, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These greenstone belts were formed between ca. 2.79-2.73 Ga, and consist mostly of mafic to ultramafic volcanics and clastic sediments, with minor chemical sediments and felsic volcanics that were metamorphosed under greenschist facies. Komatiites are found only in the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, which is composed of high-MgO volcanic rocks that have been identified as komatiites and high-Mg basalts, based on their distinctive geochemical characteristics. The Rio das Velhas komatiites are composed of tremolite + actinolite + serpentine + albite with a relict spinifex-texture. The Rio das Velhas komatiites have a high magnesium content ((MgO)adj ≥ 28 wt.%), an Al-undepleted Munro-type [(Al2O3/TiO2)adj and (CaO/Al2O3)adj] ratio ranging from 27 to 47 and 0.48 to 0.89, relatively low abundances of incompatible elements, a depletion of light rare earth elements (LREE), a pattern of non-fractionated heavy rare- earth elements (HREE), and a low (Gd/Yb)PM ratio (≤ 1.0). Negative Ce anomalies suggest that alteration occurred during greenschist facies metamorphism for the komatiites and high-Mg basalts. The low [(Gd/Yb)PM 18] and high HREE, Y, and Zr content suggest that the Rio das Velhas komatiites were derived from the shallow upper mantle without garnet involvement in the residue. The chemical compositions [(Al2O3/TiO2)adj, (FeO)adj, (MgO)adj, (CaO/Al2O3)adj, Na, Th, Ta, Ni, Cr, Zr, Y, Hf, and REE] indicate that the formation of the komatiites, high-Mg basalts and basalts occurred at different depths and temperatures in a heterogeneous mantle. The komatiites and high-Mg basalts melted at liquidus temperatures of 1450-1550 °C. The Pitangui basalts are enriched in the highly incompatible LILE (large-ion lithophile elements) relative to the moderately incompatible HFS (high field strength) elements. The Zr/Th ratio ranging from 76 to

  17. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Unraveling the Spatio-Temporal Relationships of Basalt Flows within Northermost Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Downs, D. T.; Stelten, M. E.; Champion, D. E.; Sherrod, D. R.; Robinson, J. E.; Hassan, K. H.; Muquyyim, F. A.; Ashur, M. S.


    The Harrat Rahat volcanic field in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers ~20,000 km2 and has a volume of ~2,000 km3, making it the largest intraplate volcanic field in that country. The vast majority of this field is rural and uninhabited land. However, sitting on basalt flows at the northernmost limit of this volcanic field is a city that is home to >1.5 million people and ~3 million pilgrims annually. Over the centuries, population growth and city expansion have led to levelling of and construction atop the surrounding lava flows. Although mapped previously, none of these basalt flows have been dated, and hence, it is unknown how many times the area encompassed by this city has been inundated by these lava flows. As part of an ongoing collaboration between the USGS and the Saudi Geological Survey, which allowed access throughout, we have conducted new field mapping, petrography, 40Ar-39Ar dating, paleomagnetism, and geochemistry studies to define the number, age, and areal extent of basaltic lava flows that have reached areas that are now populated. More than 50 samples have been collected from within the city and analyzed. New ages on five of the flows range from ~340 to 100 ka, a sharp contrast with previous age estimates that extended as far back as 2.5 Ma. In addition, paleomagnetic, petrographic, and geochemical analyses indicate that four basalt flows within the western half of the city are from individual eruptions. At least five flows underlie the eastern half of the city, and several of these flows may be from a single eruptive episode. The youngest flow (part of the 1256 AD eruption) came within ~5 km of the city center. Our results indicate that pre-1256 AD basalt flows inundated the populated areas more frequently, and are younger than previously thought. This new temporal and geochemical record will help improve the accuracy and precision of future modeling and quantitative hazard assessments.

  18. Continental Flood Basalt Chemistry, Age and Volcanic Volumes (United States)

    Humler, E.; Doubre, C.; Doubre, C.


    We have compiled a large collection of published chemical analyses of the 11 known continental flood basalts of the last 250 millions years. Only basaltic lavas and some related basic intrusive rocks are considered to be representative of the major episodes. Differentiation trends exhibit varying amounts of scatter, the trends for SiO2, FeO, and TiO2 are quite well defined, have slopes of the same sign, and can be represented adaquately by straigth lines. In contrast, the trends of CaO, Al2O3 and Na2O are often poorly defined. There are clear differences in major element abundances between volcanic suites, particularly for elements with well defined slopes. The results of our regressions are generally consistent with those of Turner and Hawkesworth (1995), Peng et al (1994) and Lassister and DePaolo (1997), although some differences exist. Examination of the global data base shows that there are systematic global variations in continental flood basalt chemistry that correlate with age. Old CFB, such as the Central Atlantic and Karoo-Ferrar, show the following characteristics: low Na2O, TiO2 and FeO, high SiO2. In contrast, basalts associated with recent breakups such as Afar-Yemen and Ethiopia, show the opposite chemical trends. Between these old and young continental breakup, a continuum of compositions is observed. The observed chemical systematics suggest that basalts associated with old breakups are derived by larger extent of melting at shallower mean pressures of melt segregation. Estimating the original volumes of lava in flood basalt provinces is rendered difficult due to subsequent erosion, partial destruction during continental collisions or burial beneath passive margin sedimentation wedges. Many CFBs were erupted in geologically brief intervals (0.5 to 2 Ma) although some, notably the Siberian Traps and Brito-Arctic Province, were emplaced in two or more distinct phases separeted by quiescent intervals. Our calculated emplacement rate show correlation

  19. Investigation on mechanical properties of basalt composite fabrics (experiment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi H.


    Full Text Available To fully appreciate the role and application of composite materials to structures, correct understanding of mechanical behaviors required for selection of optimum material. Fabric reinforced composites are composed of a matrix that is reinforced with pliable fabric, glass fabric is most popular reinforcement for different application specially in aircraft structure, although other fabric material are also used. At this study new fabric material called basalt with epoxy resin introduced and mechanical behaviors of this material investigated from view point of testing. For this study two type of fabric with different thickness used. Comparison between this composite reinforcement with popular reinforcement as carbon, glass, kevlar performed. To determine mechanical properties of epoxy based basalt fabric following test procedure performed : 1. Tensile testing according to ASTM D3039 in 0° and 90° direction to find ultimate strength in tension and shear, modulus of elasticity, elangation and ultimate strain. 2. Compression testing according to EN 2850 ultimate compression strength and maximum deformation under compression loading. 3. Shear testing according to ASTM D3518-94 to find in plane shear response of polymer matrix composites materials. 4. Predict flexural properties of sandwich construction which manufactured from basalt facing with PVC foam core according to ASTM C393-94. Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material to meet the test procedure specifications [1]. For this reason six specimens were manufactured for testing and the tests were performed on them using an INSTRON machine model 5582. In the study, the effect of percent of resin in basalt reinforced composite was investigated. Also the weights of the ballast based composites with different percent of resin were measured with conventional composites. As the weight is an important parameter in aerospace industry when the designer wants to replace one

  20. Investigation on mechanical properties of basalt composite fabrics (experiment study) (United States)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi, H.; Zamani, H.


    To fully appreciate the role and application of composite materials to structures, correct understanding of mechanical behaviors required for selection of optimum material. Fabric reinforced composites are composed of a matrix that is reinforced with pliable fabric, glass fabric is most popular reinforcement for different application specially in aircraft structure, although other fabric material are also used. At this study new fabric material called basalt with epoxy resin introduced and mechanical behaviors of this material investigated from view point of testing. For this study two type of fabric with different thickness used. Comparison between this composite reinforcement with popular reinforcement as carbon, glass, kevlar performed. To determine mechanical properties of epoxy based basalt fabric following test procedure performed : 1). Tensile testing according to ASTM D3039 in 0° and 90° direction to find ultimate strength in tension and shear, modulus of elasticity, elangation and ultimate strain. 2). Compression testing according to EN 2850 ultimate compression strength and maximum deformation under compression loading. 3). Shear testing according to ASTM D3518-94 to find in plane shear response of polymer matrix composites materials. 4). Predict flexural properties of sandwich construction which manufactured from basalt facing with PVC foam core according to ASTM C393-94. Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material to meet the test procedure specifications [1]. For this reason six specimens were manufactured for testing and the tests were performed on them using an INSTRON machine model 5582. In the study, the effect of percent of resin in basalt reinforced composite was investigated. Also the weights of the ballast based composites with different percent of resin were measured with conventional composites. As the weight is an important parameter in aerospace industry when the designer wants to replace one material with

  1. Surface modification of basalt with silane coupling agent on asphalt mixture moisture damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Yahong; Fang, Ying; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Yinhui; Li, Wensheng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Yuan, Jianmin [College of Materials Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Tan, Ligang [College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wang, Shuangyin [State Key Laboratory of Chem/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wu, Zhenjun, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new silane coupling agent was synthesized based on KH570. • Basalt surface was modified using the new silane coupling agent. • Chemical bond between basalt and the new silane coupling agent was formed. • Asphalt mixture which used modified basalt show superior water stability. - Abstract: A new silane coupling agent was synthesized based on γ-(methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane (KH570). The surface of basalt rocks was modified by KH570 and the new silane coupling agent (NSCA), and the interfacial interaction between silane coupling agent and basalt was also studied. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that the silane coupling agent molecule bound strongly with basalt rocks. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observation showed that a thin layer of coupling agent was formed on the surface of modified basalt. The boiling test and immersion Marshall test confirmed that the moisture sensitivity of basalt modified with the new silane coupling agent increased more significantly than that untreated and treated with KH570. The Retained Marshall Strength of basalt modified with the new coupling agent increased from 71.74% to 87.79% compared with untreated basalt. The results indicated that the new silane coupling agent played an important role in improving the interfacial performance between basalt and asphalt.

  2. Waning immunity and booster responses in nursing and medical technology students who had received plasma-derived or recombinant hepatitis B vaccine during infancy. (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chiang; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Shih, Ching-Tang; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Huang, Yeou-Lih


    The national hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program was launched in Taiwan in 1984. After November 1992, a recombinant HBV vaccine replaced the plasma-derived HBV vaccine. A total of 1,812 nursing and medical technology freshman students was tested to evaluate their waning immunity toward hepatitis B. In the 2007 (2008) academic year, 438 (382) students testing nonprotective antibodies received 3 (1) booster doses of HBV vaccine according to suggestions from Taiwan's Center for Disease Control (CDC). The seroprevalences of hepatitis B surface antigen (+) were 0.8% and 0.7% in the plasma-derived and recombinant group, respectively; for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) (+), they were 43.2% and 33.3% (P students previously vaccinated with plasma-derived HBV vaccine exhibited anti-HBs seroconversion. In the 2008 freshman group, the booster dose induced anti-HBs seroconversions of 92.1% and 95.9% in the students who had received the plasma-derived and recombinant HBV vaccine, respectively (P = .370). Most students exhibited signs of immune memory after receiving the booster, regardless of having received plasma-derived or recombinant HBV. Only a small number of vaccinees lost their immune memory after 16 years, suggesting that some students might benefit from boosting before proceeding to clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical trends in the Ice Springs basalt, Black Rock Desert, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, W.C.; Nash, W.P.


    The Holocene Ice Springs volcanic field of west-central Utah consists of 0.53 km/sup 3/ of tholeiitic basalts erupted as a sequence of nested cinder cones and associated lava flows. Whole rock x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption analysis of ninety-six samples of known relative age document statistically significant inter- and intra-eruption chemical variations. Elemental trends include increases in Ti, Fe, Ca, P, and Sr and decreases in Si, K, Rb, Ni, Cr, and Zr with decreasing age. Microprobe analyses of microphenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase, and Fe-Ti oxides and of groundmass olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene indicate limited chemical variation between mineral assemblages of the eruptive events. Petrographic analyses have identified the presence of minor amounts of silicic xenoliths, orthopyroxene megacrysts, and plagioclase xenocrysts. Potassium-argon determinations establish the existence of excess argon in the basaltic cinder (30.05 x 10/sup -12/ moles/gm) and in distal lava flows (8.29 x 10/sup -12/ moles/gm) which suggest apparent ages of 16 and 4.3 million years respectively. Strontium isotopic data (Puskar and Condie, 1973) show systematic variations from oldest eruptions (87Sr/86Sr=0.7052) to youngest eruptions (87Sr/86Sr=0.7059).

  4. Origin of CaCl2 brines by basalt-seawater interaction: Insights provided by some simple mass balance calculations (United States)

    Hardie, Lawrence A.


    Modern rift zone hydrothermal brines are typically CaCl2-bearing brines, an unusual chemical signature they share with certain oil field brines, fluid inclusions in ore minerals and a few uncommon saline lakes. Many origins have been suggested for such CaCl2 brines but in the Reykjanes, Iceland, geothermal system a strong empirical case can be made for a basalt-seawater interaction origin. To examine this mechanism of CaCl2 brine evolution some simple mass balance calculations were carried out. Average Reykjanes olivine tholeiite was “reacted” with average North Atlantic seawater to make an albite-chlorite-epidotesphene rock using Al2O3 as the conservative rock component and Cl as the conservative fluid component. The excess components released by the basalt to the fluid were “precipitated” at 275° C as quartz, calcite, anhydrite, magnetite and pyrite to complete the conversion to greenstone. The resulting fluid was a CaCl2 brine of seawater chlorinity with a composition remarkably similar to the actual Reykjanes brine at 1750 m depth. Thus, the calculations strongly support the idea that the Reykjanes CaCl2 brines result from “closed system” oceanic basalt-seawater interaction (albitization — chloritization mechanism) at greenschist facies temperatures. The calculation gives a seawater: basalt mass ratio of 3∶1 to 4∶1 (vol. ratio of 9∶1 to 12∶1), in keeping with experimental results, submarine vent data and with ocean crust cooling calculations. The brine becomes anoxic because there is insufficient dissolved or combined oxygen to balance all the Fe released from the basalt during alteration. Large excesses of Ca are released to the fluid and precipitate out in the form of anhydrite which essentially sweeps the brine free of sulfate leaving an elevated Ca concentration. The calculated rock-water interaction basically involves Na + Mg + SO4 ⇌ Ca + K, simulating chemical differences observed between oceanic basalts and greenstones from many

  5. Continental flood basalts derived from the hydrous mantle transition zone. (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Ya-Nan


    It has previously been postulated that the Earth's hydrous mantle transition zone may play a key role in intraplate magmatism, but no confirmatory evidence has been reported. Here we demonstrate that hydrothermally altered subducted oceanic crust was involved in generating the late Cenozoic Chifeng continental flood basalts of East Asia. This study combines oxygen isotopes with conventional geochemistry to provide evidence for an origin in the hydrous mantle transition zone. These observations lead us to propose an alternative thermochemical model, whereby slab-triggered wet upwelling produces large volumes of melt that may rise from the hydrous mantle transition zone. This model explains the lack of pre-magmatic lithospheric extension or a hotspot track and also the arc-like signatures observed in some large-scale intracontinental magmas. Deep-Earth water cycling, linked to cold subduction, slab stagnation, wet mantle upwelling and assembly/breakup of supercontinents, can potentially account for the chemical diversity of many continental flood basalts.

  6. The solubility of olivine in basaltic liquids - An ionic model (United States)

    Herzberg, C. T.


    A model is presented which enables the temperature at which olivine is in equilibrium with any alkali-depleted basaltic compound to be calculated to within + or - 30 C. It is noted that the error increases substantially when applied to terrestrial basalts which contain several weight percent alkalis. In addition the model predicts and quantifies the reduced activity of SiO4(4-) monomers due to increasing SiO2 concentrations in the melt. It is shown that the coordination of alumina in melts which precipitate olivine only appears to be dominantly octahedral, while titanium acts as a polmerizing agent by interconnecting previously isolated SiO4(4-) monomers. It is concluded that the model is sufficiently sensitive to show that there are small repulsive forces between Mg(2+) and calcium ions which are in association with normative diopside in the melt.

  7. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  8. Investigation on mechanical properties of basalt composite fabrics (experiment study)


    Talebi Mazraehshahi H.; Zamani H.


    To fully appreciate the role and application of composite materials to structures, correct understanding of mechanical behaviors required for selection of optimum material. Fabric reinforced composites are composed of a matrix that is reinforced with pliable fabric, glass fabric is most popular reinforcement for different application specially in aircraft structure, although other fabric material are also used. At this study new fabric material called basalt with epoxy resin introduced ...

  9. Dissolved amino acids in oceanic basaltic basement fluids (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Ting; Amend, Jan P.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Cowen, James P.


    The oceanic basaltic basement contains the largest aquifer on Earth and potentially plays an important role in the global carbon cycle as a net sink for dissolved organic carbon (DOC). However, few details of the organic matter cycling in the subsurface are known because great water depths and thick sediments typically hinder direct access to this environment. In an effort to examine the role of water-rock-microorganism interaction on organic matter cycling in the oceanic basaltic crust, basement fluid samples collected from three borehole observatories installed on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge were analyzed for dissolved amino acids. Our data show that dissolved free amino acids (1-13 nM) and dissolved hydrolyzable amino acids (43-89 nM) are present in the basement. The amino acid concentrations in the ridge-flank basement fluids are at the low end of all submarine hydrothermal fluids reported in the literature and are similar to those in deep seawater. Amino acids in recharging deep seawater, in situ amino acid production, and diffusional input from overlying sediments are potential sources of amino acids in the basement fluids. Thermodynamic modeling shows that amino acid synthesis in the basement can be sustained by energy supplied from inorganic substrates via chemolithotrophic metabolisms. Furthermore, an analysis of amino acid concentrations and compositions in basement fluids support the notion that heterotrophic activity is ongoing. Similarly, the enrichment of acidic amino acids and depletion of hydrophobic ones relative to sedimentary particulate organic matter suggests that surface sorption and desorption also alters amino acids in the basaltic basement. In summary, although the oceanic basement aquifer is a net sink for deep seawater DOC, similar amino acid concentrations in basement aquifer and deep seawater suggest that DOC is preferentially removed in the basement over dissolved amino acids. Our data also suggest that organic carbon

  10. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques (United States)

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  11. The flexural stiffness and tension state of basalt filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalmuradovich Sattarov Laziz


    Full Text Available In recent years, there is a growing demand in Uzbekistan for new, cheap and competitive products from local raw materials, the demand being directly connected with the expansion and development opportunities of the mining, metallurgical and processing industries. In such conditions, the need for providing a solution of the problems faced by these industries is a very urgent one and requires further comprehensive studies. One of these tasks includes assessment of the force parameters and bending stiffness of basalt fibre filters, aimed at further improving the efficiency of local basalt raw materials and aiding in the manufacture of new, long-lasting, reliable and high-quality products. In this case, we studied the interaction of basalt fibre filter with a gas or liquid medium, the deformed state of the fibres under the action force of the gas or liquid, and the filter recovery process after removal of the load, all of which occur during mechanical filtration. These tasks are of interest because during the mechanical filtration of a gas or liquid (hereinafter, mechanical filtration from solids, all attention is paid to the quality of the filtering process. The filtering quality, as known, is determined by the degree of contamination in the liquid undergoing treatment, duration of separation of the pulp into solid and liquid phases during the decantation process of the mixture and the amount of gas/ liquid released into the atmosphere along with carbon monoxide and toxic impurities. At the same time, the state and behaviour of the filtering material remain as minor factors, the consideration of which can play a decisive role in the establishment of filter life and work capacity. Solutions to these problems are very urgent and allow one to create new technologies for the production of basalt filters based on force parameters and bending stiffness, wherein the purification occurs without the intervention of chemicals.

  12. Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military Applications (United States)


    Fibres Fire Blocking Textiles , Basaltex R&D Department, Masureel Group, Wevelgem, Belgium, TUT N 49–3rd Quarter 2003. 3. Swink, M. Continuous Filament...Along with the 2 obvious uses as toughening and insulation material, it is claimed that the fibers are naturally resistant to ultraviolet (UV) and...always increase production cost. Since natural basalt already contains these ingredients, these steps are eliminated from the manufacturing process

  13. Oxidation state of iron in plagioclase from lunar basalts. (United States)

    Hafner, S. S.; Virgo, D.; Warburton, D.


    Determination of the oxidation state of iron in the plagioclase from the coarse-grained basalts 10044 and 12021, using Mossbauer spectroscopy. The location of iron in the crystal structure was also investigated. The spectra show that iron is in the high-spin ferrous state, and they located at least two distinct positions with different coordination numbers. Some excess resonant absorption is probably due to Fe(3+), although the Fe(3+) doublet could not be positively resolved.

  14. The flexural stiffness and tension state of basalt filter (United States)

    Khalmuradovich, Sattarov Laziz; Ahmedovich, Kurbanov Abdirahim


    In recent years, there is a growing demand in Uzbekistan for new, cheap and competitive products from local raw materials, the demand being directly connected with the expansion and development opportunities of the mining, metallurgical and processing industries. In such conditions, the need for providing a solution of the problems faced by these industries is a very urgent one and requires further comprehensive studies. One of these tasks includes assessment of the force parameters and bending stiffness of basalt fibre filters, aimed at further improving the efficiency of local basalt raw materials and aiding in the manufacture of new, long-lasting, reliable and high-quality products. In this case, we studied the interaction of basalt fibre filter with a gas or liquid medium, the deformed state of the fibres under the action force of the gas or liquid, and the filter recovery process after removal of the load, all of which occur during mechanical filtration. These tasks are of interest because during the mechanical filtration of a gas or liquid (hereinafter, mechanical filtration) from solids, all attention is paid to the quality of the filtering process. The filtering quality, as known, is determined by the degree of contamination in the liquid undergoing treatment, duration of separation of the pulp into solid and liquid phases during the decantation process of the mixture and the amount of gas/ liquid released into the atmosphere along with carbon monoxide and toxic impurities. At the same time, the state and behaviour of the filtering material remain as minor factors, the consideration of which can play a decisive role in the establishment of filter life and work capacity. Solutions to these problems are very urgent and allow one to create new technologies for the production of basalt filters based on force parameters and bending stiffness, wherein the purification occurs without the intervention of chemicals.

  15. The Columbia River flood basalt province: Current status (United States)

    Hooper, Peter R.

    The Columbia River flood basalt province is smaller by an order of magnitude than the Deccan, Karoo, Paraná, and Siberian continental flood basalt provinces. Its smaller size, relative youth (17-6 Ma), excellent exposure, and easy accessibility have allowed development of a flow-by-flow stratigraphy in which many flows can be traced across the Columbia Plateau, often linked directly to their strongly oriented feeder dikes in the southeast quadrant. The detailed stratigraphy provides a precise record of the changes in magma composition and volume with time and demonstrates more clearly here than in other provinces that single fissure eruptions had volumes in excess of 2,000 km3 and flowed across the plateau for distances up to 600 km with negligible changes in chemical or mineralogical composition. Current evidence suggests that the Columbia River flood basalts resulted from impingement of a small mantle plume, the Yellowstone hotspot, on the base of the lithosphere near the Nevada-Oregon-Idaho border at 16.5 Ma and that the main focus of eruption then moved rapidly north to the Washington-Oregon-Idaho border from where the main eruptions occurred. The rapid northerly translation of the main eruptive activity may have been controlled by weakened or thinned zones in the lithosphere. The few earliest flows have typical mantle plume compositions and the last, small-volume flows are contaminated by continental crust. In between, the great majority of flows carry a strong lithospheric signature, the source of which remains controversial—either an enriched continental lithospheric mantle or assimilated continental crust. The physical nature and rate of magma eruption are also controversial. Recent work suggests flows grew by internal injection rather than by turbulent surface flow and this has been used to imply significantly lower eruption rates than previously envisaged. However, the chemical and mineralogical homogeneity of single Columbia River basalt flows across

  16. Joint inversion of 3-D seismic, gravimetric and magnetotelluric data for sub-basalt imaging in the Faroe-Shetland Basin (United States)

    Heincke, B.; Moorkamp, M.; Jegen, M.; Hobbs, R. W.


    Imaging of sub-basalt sediments with reflection seismic techniques is limited due to absorption, scattering and transmission effects and the presence of peg-leg multiples. Although many of the difficulties facing conventional seismic profiles can be overcome by recording long offset data resolution of sub-basalt sediments in seismic sections is typically still largely restricted. Therefore multi-parametric approaches in general and joint inversion strategies in particular (e.g. Colombo et al., 2008, Jordan et al., 2012) are considered as alternative to gain additional information from sub-basalt structures. Here, we combine in a 3-D joint inversion first-arrival time tomography, FTG gravity and MT data to identify the base basalt and resolve potential sediments underneath. For sub-basalt exploration the three methods complement each other such that the null space is reduced and significantly better resolved models can be obtained than would be possible by the individual methods: The seismic data gives a robust model for the supra-basalt sediments whilst the gravity field is dominated by the high density basalt and basement features. The MT on the other hand is sensitive to the conductivity in both the supra- and sub-basalt sediments. We will present preliminary individual and joint inversion result for a FTG, seismic and MT data set located in the Faroe-Shetland basin. Because the investigated area is rather large (~75 x 40 km) and the individual data sets are relatively huge, we use a joint inversion framework (see Moorkamp et al., 2011) which is designed to handle large amount of data/model parameters. This program has moreover the options to link the individual parameter models either petrophysically using fixed parameter relationships or structurally using the cross-gradient approach. The seismic data set consists of a pattern of 8 intersecting wide-angle seismic profiles with maximum offsets of up to ~24 km. The 3-D gravity data set (size :~ 30 x 30 km) is

  17. The consanguinity of the oldest Apollo 11 mare basalts (United States)

    Gamble, R. P.; Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.


    The textural, mineralogical, and chemical relationships between three of the oldest dates lunar mare basalt samples returned by Apollo 11 (10003, 10029 and 10062) were investigated. Very strong resemblances were noted between the modal minerologies of 10003 and 10029. Significantly more modal olivine and cristobalite was observed in 10062 than in the other basalt samples. A detailed examination of mineral-chemical relationships among the samples revealed similarities between 10003 and 10062 and differences between these two rocks and 10029, the most significant of which is the presence of akaganeite in 10029, implying that lawrencite was present in the pristine sample of 10029 but not in 10003 and 10062. Results of a Wright-Doherty mixing program used to test various fractional crystallization schemes show that 10062 can be derived from a liquid with the composition of either 10003 or 10029 by removing 2-5% ilmenite and 5% olivine. By removing about 6% plagioclase, 10003 can be derived from a liquid with the bulk composition of 10062. It is concluded that 10003 and 10029 may have come from different basaltic flows, whereas it is possible that 10003 and 10062 were derived from the same parental magma by near-surface fractionation of olivine plus ilmenite or of plagioclase plus or minus olivine.

  18. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.


    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Assessing eruption column height in ancient flood basalt eruptions (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.


    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at ∼ 45 ° N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the ∼ 180km of known Roza fissure length could have supported ∼36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (∼ 66Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained flood basalt eruptions could have influenced

  20. Hydrothermal Alteration on Basaltic Mauna Kea Volcano as a Template for Identification of Hydrothermal Alteration on Basaltic Mars (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Bell, J. F., III


    Certain samples of palagonitic tephra from Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii) are spectral analogues for bright martian surface materials at visible and near-IR wavelengths because both are characterized by a ferric absorption edge extending from about 400 to 750 nm and relatively constant reflectivity extending from about 750 nm to beyond 2000 nm. Palagonite is a yellow or orange isotropic mineraloid formed by hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass. For Mars-analogue palagonite, the pigment is nanometersized ferric oxide particles (np-Ox) dispersed throughout an allophane-like hydrated basaltic glass matrix. Crystalline phyllosilicates are not generally detected, and the hydration state of the is not known. The poorly crystalline nature of glass alteration products implies relatively low temperature formation pathways. We report here x-ray diffraction, major element, Mossbauer, and VNIR data for 9 basaltic tephras. Thermal emission spectra are reported in a separate abstract. Our multidisciplinary approach both tightly constrains mineralogical interpretations and maximizes overlap with datasets available for the martian surface available now and in the future.

  1. Rates of mineral dissolution and carbonation in peridotite and basalt (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J. M.


    We study natural rates and processes of mineral carbonation in peridotite (olivine-rich rock) in mantle rocks exposed to weathering in northern Oman to learn effective mechanisms from natural processes, and seek ways to accelerate them to achieve significant CO2 capture and storage via mineral carbonation at the lowest possible cost. In our first paper (1), we fit data on mantle olivine carbonation from the DOE Albany Research Center (2,3, ARC). These data, and data from Arizona State University (4, ASU) suggest that a peridotite rock volume heated to 185°C and infused with H2O+CO2 at PCO2 > 75 bars could consume ~ 1 ton CO2 per cubic meter of rock per year. Because it is more abundant than peridotite, other workers focus on carbonation of the most common type of lava on Earth, basalt, whose main mineral constituent is generally labradorite, part of the plagioclase feldspar solid solution series. Our intuition is that labradorite carbonation is much slower than mantle olivine carbonation. To quantify this, we compiled data on dissolution of mantle olivine, labradorite, crystalline basalt, and basaltic glass in aqueous fluids, as well as data on mantle olivine carbonation. The dissolution data are calibrated as a function of surface area (i.e., grain size and shape) and pH, as well as temperature, whereas most of the ARC and ASU experiments were done at a single pH and grain size. Thus, for comparison, we calculated dissolution rates for 70 micron spheres at pH 8, close to the ARC and ASU experimental conditions. At these conditions, olivine carbonation observed by ARC and ASU is 100 to 1000 times faster than labradorite and crystalline basalt, and faster than conventionally measured olivine dissolution rates. The ARC and ASU experiments were different from conventional dissolution experiments in several ways that could lead to an enhancement in olivine reaction rates: (a) they may have lower a(Mg) in fluid due to solid MgCO3 (magnesite) precipitation, (b) they

  2. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.


    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  3. Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts - New bulk compositional data, magma types, and petrogenesis (United States)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Conrad, G. H.; Northrop, H. R.; Barker, S.; Keil, K.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R.


    Bulk compositional and mineral chemical data for 28 previously unanalyzed samples support the classification of Apollo-17 high-Ti mare basalts into three-types (A, B, and C), defined on the basis of analyses of fine-grained basalts. The most MgO- and TiO2-rich fine-grained basalts of these types appear to be the best choices for representing the compositions of the parent magmas.

  4. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation.

  5. A Brillouin scattering study of hydrous basaltic glasses: the effect of H2O on their elastic behavior and implications for the densities of basaltic melts (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Yang, De-Bin; Liu, Jun-Xiu; Hu, Bo; Xie, Hong-Sen; Li, Fang-Fei; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wen-Liang; Gao, Chun-Xiao


    Hydrous basalt glasses with water contents of 0-6.82% were synthesized using a multi-anvil press at 1.0-2.0 GPa and 1200-1400 °C. The starting materials were natural Mesozoic basalts from the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Their sound velocities and elastic properties were measured by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The longitudinal ( V P) and shear ( V S) wave velocities decreased with increasing water content. Increasing the synthesis pressure resulted in the glass becoming denser, and finally led to an increase in V P. As the degree of depolymerization increased, the V P, V S, and shear and bulk moduli of the hydrous basalt glasses decreased, whereas the adiabatic compressibility increased. The partial molar volumes of water (ν) under ambient conditions were independent of composition, having values of 11.6 ± 0.8, 10.9 ± 0.6 and 11.5 ± 0.5 cm3/mol for the FX (Feixian), FW (Fuxin), and SHT (Sihetun) basalt glasses, respectively. However, the {{V}_{{{{H}}_{{2}}}{O}}} values measured at elevated temperatures and pressures are increasing with increasing temperature or decreasing pressure. The contrasting densities of these hydrous basalt melts with those previously reported for mid-ocean ridge basalt and preliminary reference Earth model data indicate that hydrous basalt melts may not maintain gravitational stability at the base of the upper mantle.

  6. Basalt weathering in an Arctic Mars-analog site (United States)

    Yesavage, Tiffany; Thompson, Aaron; Hausrath, Elisabeth M.; Brantley, Susan L.


    The martian surface has undergone chemical and physical weathering in the past, and these processes may continue intermittently today. To explore whether martian rocks are likely to retain features indicative of weathering, we investigated how basaltic material weathers on Earth. Specifically, we investigated weathering of a Quaternary-aged basaltic flow at the Sverrefjell volcano in Svalbard, above the Arctic Circle. This flow weathered since deglaciation under cold, dry (allophane as the predominant secondary phase. Selective chemical extractions targeting SRO phases indicated lower Al/Si ratios than those observed in volcanic soils reported in warmer localities, which we attribute to Si-rich allophane and/or abundant Si-rich rock coatings. The oxic circumneutral-pH colloidal dispersion experiments mobilized Al, Fe and Ti primarily as 260-415 nm particles and Ca, Mg and Na as solutes. Si was lost both in the colloidal and dissolved forms. Dispersed colloids likely contain allophane and ferrihydrite. Under anoxic conditions, dissolution of Fe oxide cements also released fines. The experiments help to explain elemental loss from the clay-sized regolith fraction at Svalbard: observed depletions in Ca, K, Mg and Na were likely due to solute loss, while particle-reactive Al, Fe, Si and Ti were mostly retained. Wetting/drying was observed to be as effective as freeze/thaw in driving material loss. It is thus possible that cyclic adsorption of water onto basaltic rocks in this dry climate may result in high physical spalling rates that in turn promote chemical leaching. Many observations at Sverrefjell are similar to inferences from Mars: the presence of SRO phases, Si-rich coatings, and/or Si-rich allophane, as well as the persistence of olivine. Given these similarities, it is inferred that Sverrefjell volcano is a good analog for martian weathering and that other processes operating at Sverrefjell may also have occurred on Mars, including Na leaching, surface

  7. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.


    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Genetic aspects of basalts from the Carlsberg Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    . Table 1. Average composition of basalts of this study and prev i ous analyses from CR and CIR Wt% A B C SiO 2 50.8 49.14 48.17 TiO 2 1.29 1.65 1.63 Al 2 O 3 15.30 16.22 16.22 Fe 2... and Matthew 2 on the origin of seafloor magnetic anomalies. The CR was so named by Farquar h son 3 whose cruise was sponsored by the famous Carlsberg beer co m- pany. During the Swedish expedition, petrological studies on CR rocks were carried out 4...

  9. Geology of the Sabie River Basalt Formation in the Southern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Sweeney


    Full Text Available The Sabie River Basalt Formation (SRBF in the central Lebombo is a virtually continuous sequence of basaltic lavas some 2 500 m thick that was erupted 200 - 179 Ma ago. Flows are dominantly pahoehoe in character and vary from 2 m to 20 m in thickness. Dolerite dykes cross-cutting the basalt sequence probably represent feeders to this considerable volcanic event. Volcanological features observed within the SRBF are described. Two chemically distinct basaltic magma types are recognised, the simultaneous eruption of which presents an intriguing geochemical problem as to their origins.

  10. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry (United States)

    Karavaeva, E.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Nikitin, V.; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A.


    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice.

  11. Radiation shielding properties of a novel cement–basalt mixture for nuclear energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipbüker, Cagatay; Nulk, Helena; Gulik, Volodymyr [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Biland, Alex [HHK Technologies, Houston (United States); Tkaczyk, Alan Henry, E-mail: [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia)


    Highlights: • Basalt fiber is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement. • Gamma-ray attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Neutron attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Cement–basalt mixture has a good potential for use in nuclear energy applications. - Abstract: The radiation shielding properties of a new proposed building material, a novel cement–basalt fiber mixture (CBM), are investigated. The authors analyze the possibility of this material to be a viable substitute to outgoing materials in nuclear energy applications, which will lead to a further sustained development of nuclear energy in the future. This computational study involves four types of concrete with various amounts of basalt fiber in them. The gamma-ray shielding characteristics of proposed CBM material are investigated with the help of WinXCom program, whereas the neutron shielding characteristics are computed by the Serpent code. For gamma-ray shielding, we find that the attenuation coefficients of concretes with basalt fibers are not notably influenced by the addition of fibers. For neutron shielding, additional basalt fiber in mixture presents negligible effect on neutron radiation shielding. With respect to radiation shielding, it can be concluded that basalt fibers have good potential as an addition to heavyweight concrete for nuclear energy applications.

  12. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility (United States)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.


    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  13. Geochemical stratigraphy and correlation within large igneous provinces: The final preserved stages of the Faroe Islands Basalt Group (United States)

    Millett, J. M.; Hole, M. J.; Jolley, D. W.; Passey, S. R.


    The Faroe Islands Basalt Group (FIBG) comprises a gross stratigraphic thickness of over 6.5 km of dominantly extrusive basaltic facies erupted during the Late Palaeocene to Early Eocene. In this study we present 140 major and trace element analyses from flow by flow field and borehole sample profiles, through the Enni Formation, which comprises the final phase of volcanism preserved on the Faroe Islands. The sample profiles target geographically spaced and overlapping stratigraphic sequences tied relative to a 3D ArcGIS surface for the regionally extensive volcaniclastic Argir Beds marker unit. From these profiles five geochemical groups including one low TiO2 (Low-Ti 1.5 wt%) groups differentiated by Nb, Zr, Y and V variations are identified in conjunction with previous studies. The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of these groups is mapped across the islands and demonstrates a complex inter-digitated flow field evolution. Within the finer scale variations, broad spatial and temporal development trends are identified demonstrating the potential for correlation within the volcanic succession at the local, tens of kilometers scale. Low-Ti lavas formed in association with lithospheric thinning and developed extensive flow fields between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland contemporaneous to the eruption of High-Ti smaller melt fraction lava flows in both locations. The progression of High-Ti lava groups preserved on either side of the developing rift zone is very similar, but is not, however, chronostratigraphic due to multiple inter-digitations of the chemical types. We tentatively suggest that a previously proposed rift-oblique transfer zone between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland enabled non-uniform lithospheric thinning and the preservation of a near-continuous High-Ti melting region between these areas beyond the onset of Low-Ti eruptions which were initially fed from the west. This study highlights the complex nature of late stage flood basalt

  14. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennecke, William M. [Boise State Univ., ID (United States)


    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well.

  15. Sunset Crater, AZ: Evolution of a highly explosive basaltic eruption as indicated by granulometry and clast componentry (United States)

    Allison, C. M.; Clarke, A. B.; Pioli, L.; Alfano, F.


    Basaltic scoria cone volcanoes are the most abundant volcanic edifice on Earth and occur in all tectonic settings. Basaltic magmas have lower viscosities, higher temperatures, and lower volatile contents than silicic magmas, and therefore generally have a lower potential for explosive activity. However, basaltic eruptions display great variability in eruptive style, from mild lava flows to more energetic explosions with large plumes. The San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona, active from 6 Ma-present, consists of over 600 volcanoes, mostly alkali basalt scoria cones, and five silicic centers [Wood and Kienle (1990), Cambridge University Press]. The eruption of Sunset Crater in the SFVF during the Holocene was an anomalously large basaltic explosive eruption, consisting of eight tephra-bearing phases and three lava flows [Amos (1986), MS thesis, ASU]. Typical scoria cone-forming eruptions have volumes gold glassy and iridescent surfaces. The glassy and iridescent clasts likely represent fresh, juvenile ejecta, which were quenched rapidly, whereas the red and grey rounded clasts may be the result of recycling of the cone or vent-fill material. Alternatively, the differences among the populations may represent lateral variations in conduit flow conditions. In general, phases associated with large volumes and large dispersal areas tend to contain larger proportions of the glassy/iridescent clasts. Phase 1 has a large proportion of glassy clasts. Phase 2 has approximately half red and half grey clasts, as well as a small fraction of glassy material. Phase 3, which is the phase with the largest dispersal area, has a similar proportion of glassy clasts as phase 1. Phase 4, the largest by volume at ~0.11km3 DRE [Amos (1986)], has the highest proportion of glassy clasts. Phase 5 is comparable to phase 4 (similar fractions of each clast type), although the glassy surface changes from gold to black as clast size decreases. Each phase is well- to very well

  16. The Brazos River (Texas) Sequence Shows Significant Cooling in the Waning Stages of the Tsunami Surges Caused by the Chicxulub Impact (United States)

    Smit, J.; Vellekoop, J.


    The Brazos river K-Pg sequences are among the best preserved and studied in the world, yet any interpretation remains highly controversial. Most researchers, however, agree that the coarse clastic deposits are the direct result of a train of Chicxulub impact triggered tsunami surges. Alternative interpretations such as low stand deposits or (super) storm deposits lack sedimentological support. The entire impact related deposit starts with a strong ground shaking from the impact-induced earthquake, disintegrating unconsolidated uppermost Maastrichtian muds, and opening 0.5m deep and 5 m long fissures filled with spherule-rich debris. The disintegrated debris has been taken up in a coarse mass-flow, just underlying the first coarse tsunami deposit containing impact spherules from Chicxulub. One to four distinct tsunami surges follow the basal surge, each leaving a graded coarse to medium sand deposit assembled from coarse debris strewn on the local seafloor such as glauconitic pellets, fish-debris and near coastal foraminifers. The medium-grained sand layers are typically cross-bedded in linguoid and linguoid-climbing current-ripple sets, indicating a dominant S to SE seaward directed flow. Such climbing ripple-sets are found in most tsunami deposits in NE Mexico. These climbing ripples indicate an extremely high suspension load, quickly settling on the seafloor in the waning tsunami surge backflow-currents. Occasionally, the climbing ripple directions are reversed, showing the upflow direction of the incoming tsunami surge. Such linguoid climbing ripple sets have often been mistaken for storm-wave induced hummocky cross-bedding (HCS), leading to storm-deposit hypotheses. The final phase of settling out of the tsunami surges, may be re-suspension due to impact-triggered storms in the Gulf, is represented by continuously graded, very fine-grained sand to silt deposit. This is initially a hard 10 cm thick silty lime-mudstone layer with plant debris, grading into drab

  17. Temporal redox variation in basaltic tephra from Surtsey volcano (Iceland) (United States)

    Schipper, C. Ian; Moussallam, Yves


    The oxidation state of magma controls and/or tracks myriad petrologic phenomena, and new insights into oxidation are now made possible by high-resolution measurements of Fe3+/∑Fe in volcanic glasses. We present new μ-XANES measurements of Fe3+/∑Fe in a time series of basaltic tephra from the 1963-1967 eruption of Surtsey (Iceland), to examine if the magma mixing between alkalic and tholeiitic basalts that is apparent in the major and trace elements of these glasses is also represented in their oxidation states. Raw Fe3+/∑Fe data show a temporal trend from oxidized to reduced glasses, and this is accompanied by decreasing indices of mantle enrichment (e.g., La/Yb, Zr/Y). When expressed as composition- and temperature-corrected fO2, the trend has a similar magnitude ( 0.3 log units) to the variation in fO2 due to ridge-plume interaction along the Reykjanes Ridge. These data indicate that the oxidation state of mixed magmas can be retained through fractionation and degassing processes, and that matrix glass Fe3+/∑Fe in tephras can be used to make inferences about the relative oxidation states of parental magmas during nuanced magma mixing.

  18. Basalts dredged from the Amirante ridge, western Indian ocean (United States)

    Fisher, R.L.; Engel, C.G.; Hilde, T.W.C.


    Oceanic tholeiitic basalts were dredged from 2500 to 3000 m depth on each flank of the Amirante Ridge, 1200 km southeast of Somalia in the western Indian Ocean, by R.V. Argo in 1964. One sample, probably shed from a flow or dike in basement beneath the coralline cap, gave a wholerock KAr age of 82??16??106 years. The age is similar to those reported by others for agglomerate from Providence Reef, nearer Madagascar, and for gabbro from Chain Ridge, the southwest member of Owen Fracture Zone, nearer the Somali coast. The Amirante Cretaceous-Early Tertiary occurrence lies between the "continental" 650 ?? 106 years granites of Seychelles Archipelago and the large Precambrian "continental" block of Madagascar. Trends of major structures and distribution of the related topographic and magnetic-anomaly lineations in 7-8 ?? 106 km2of the surrounding Indian Ocean suggest that in addition to spreading of the seafloor from the seismically-active Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge-Carlsberg Ridge complex there has been, since mid-Mesozoic time, distributed left-lateral shear along 52??-54??E that has moved Madagascar at least 700 km south relative to Seychelles Bank. Measurements by other indicate the absolute movement of Madagascar has been southward as well. The emplacement of oceanic tholeiitic basalts at shallow depth, the development of volcanic topography between the sedimented Somali and Mascarene basins, and the existence of the faulted Amirante Trench and Ridge are consequences of the displacement. ?? 1968.

  19. Flow mechanism and viscosity in basaltic magma chambers (United States)

    Nicolas, A.; Ildefonse, B.

    Magmatic flow in the dense suspension of crystallizing gabbros below the free surface of basaltic magma chambers is considered from the point of view of flow mechanisms and rheology. Hyperdense suspensions (˜20% melt fraction) may arise if flat plagioclase crystals develop a strong preferred orientation induced by magmatic flow. With the help of Nomarski differential interference contrast and back scattered electron figures, we show that suspension flow is possible even for smaller melt fractions if impingements between moving crystals are reduced by chemical dissolution at their contact points. This dissolution process is rate controlling. With strain rates near 10-9 s-1 and viscosities near 1014-16 Pa.s, such crystalline mushes should be closer to plastically deforming solids than to the overlying basaltic suspension. If we characterize magma chambers by suspension flow, no matter how small the melt fraction, magma chambers below oceanic fast spreading centers should not be restricted to a perched melt lens, but should extend to the Moho and comprise the entire volume of observed strong seismic attenuation.

  20. Fungal colonies in open fractures of subseafloor basalt (United States)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica


    The deep subseafloor crust is one of the few great frontiers of unknown biology on Earth and, still today, the notion of the deep biosphere is commonly based on the fossil record. Interpretation of palaeobiological information is thus central in the exploration of this hidden biosphere and, for each new discovery, criteria used to establish biogenicity are challenged and need careful consideration. In this paper networks of fossilized filamentous structures are for the first time described in open fractures of subseafloor basalts collected at the Emperor Seamounts, Pacific Ocean. These structures have been investigated with optical microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray powder diffraction as well as synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy, and interpreted as fossilized fungal mycelia. Morphological features such as hyphae, yeast-like growth and sclerotia were observed. The fossilized fungi are mineralized by montmorillonite, a process that probably began while the fungi were alive. It seems plausible that the fungi produced mucilaginous polysaccharides and/or extracellular polymeric substances that attracted minerals or clay particles, resulting in complete fossilization by montmorillonite. The findings are in agreement with previous observations of fossilized fungi in subseafloor basalts and establish fungi as regular inhabitants of such settings. They further show that fossilized microorganisms are not restricted to pore spaces filled by secondary mineralizations but can be found in open pore spaces as well. This challenges standard protocols for establishing biogenicity and calls for extra care in data interpretation.

  1. Evaluation of thermobarometry for spinel lherzolite fragments in alkali basalts (United States)

    Ozawa, Kazuhito; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; McKenzie, Dan; Nagahara, Hiroko


    Geothermobarometry of solid fragments in kimberlite and alkali basalts, generally called "xenoliths", provides information on thermal and chemical structure of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle, based on which various chemical, thermal, and rheological models of lithosphere have been constructed (e.g., Griffin et al., 2003; McKenzie et al., 2005; Ave Lallemant et al., 1980). Geothermobarometry for spinel-bearing peridotite fragments, which are frequently sampled from Phanerozoic provinces in various tectonic environments (Nixon and Davies, 1987), has essential difficulties, and it is usually believed that appropriated barometers do not exist for them (O'Reilly et al., 1997; Medaris et al., 1999). Ozawa et al. (2016; EGU) proposed a method of geothermobarometry for spinel lherzolite fragments. They applied the method to mantle fragments in alkali basalts from Bou Ibalhatene maars in the Middle Atlas in Morocco (Raffone et al. 2009; El Azzouzi et al., 2010; Witting et al., 2010; El Messbahi et al., 2015). Ozawa et al. (2016) obtained 0.5GPa pressure difference (1.5-2.0GPa) for 100°C variation in temperatures (950-1050°C). However, it is imperative to verify the results on the basis of completely independent data. There are three types of independent information: (1) time scale of solid fragment extraction, which may be provided by kinetics of reactions induced by heating and/or decompression during their entrapment in the host magma and transportation to the Earth's surface (Smith, 1999), (2) depth of the host basalt formation, which may be provided by the petrological and geochemical studies of the host basalts, and (3) lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depths, which may be estimated by geophysical observations. Among which, (3) is shown to be consistent with the result in Ozawa et al. (2016). We here present that the estimated thermal structure just before the fragment extraction is fully supported by the information of (1) and (2). Spera (1984) reviewed

  2. Deep structure and sub-basalt exploration of the mid-Norwegian margin with emphasis on the Moere margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynisson, Reynir Fjalar


    This thesis addresses the use of potential field data in two main topics: sub-basalt exploration and structure of the deeper crust. Synthetic models and forward models of the Moere margin were constructed to test the sensitivity of the various potential field methods. The synthetic models demonstrate that forward modelling of the gravity and magnetic data is a valuable tool in basement recognition in sub-basaltic settings and the use of gravity gradients further limits the modelling ambiguity and improves the basement mapping. Deep sills, as observed in the Moere Basin, cannot be identified from the gravity and magnetic data alone but the lava flows have a clear effect on the gravity and magnetic signature if thicker than approx1 km. Experiments with Euler Deconvolution reveal the limitations of the method in sub-basaltic settings. A 3D regional gravity and magnetic model of the Moere margin integrated with seismic and well data gives a novel view on the architecture of the continental crust, the distribution of high density lower crust, and the Moho topography. The isostatic response of the water and sediment loading reflected by the Moho provides further insight in the evolution of the margin. The results from the Moere margin model merged with results from a 3D model of the Voering and Lofoten margins give a regional view on the deep structures on the mid-Norwegian margin. Combination of the modelling results and isostatic considerations provide means to address the origin of the lower crustal body on the margin and the evolution of the whole mid-Norwegian margin. (Author)

  3. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Quarterly report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.


    This report presents the technical progress for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 1980. The overall Basalt Waste Isolation Project is divided into the following principal work areas: systems integration; geosciences; hydrology; engineered barriers; near-surface test facility; engineering testing; and repository studies. Summaries of major accomplishments for each of these areas are reported.

  4. Prokaryotic diversity, distribution, and insights into their role in biogeochemical cycling in marine basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Di Meo-Savoie, Carol A.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Fisk, Martin R.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.


    We used molecular techniques to analyze basalts of varying ages that were collected from the East Pacific Rise, 9 oN, from the rift axis of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and from neighboring seamounts. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Polymorphism data revealed that basalt endoliths are distinct from seawater and that communities clustered, to some degree, based on the age of the host rock. This age-based clustering suggests that alteration processes may affect community structure. Cloning and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes revealed twelve different phyla and sub-phyla associated with basalts. These include the Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, the candidate phylum SBR1093 in the c, andin the Archaea Marine Benthic Group B, none of which have been previously reported in basalts. We delineated novel ocean crust clades in the gamma-Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria that are composed entirely of basalt associated microflora, and may represent basalt ecotypes. Finally, microarray analysis of functional genes in basalt revealed that genes coding for previously unreported processes such as carbon fixation, methane-oxidation, methanogenesis, and nitrogen fixation are present, suggesting that basalts harbor previously unrecognized metabolic diversity. These novel processes could exert a profound influence on ocean chemistry.

  5. Immiscible iron- and silica-rich melt in basalt petrogenesis documented in the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kløve; Veksler, Ilya; Tegner, Christian


    Silicate liquid immiscibility in basalt petrogenesis is a contentious issue. Immiscible iron and silica-rich liquids were reported in melt inclusions of lunar basalt and in groundmass glasses of terrestrial volcanics. In fully crystallized plutonic rocks, however, silicate liquid immiscibility has...

  6. Melting systematics in mid-ocean ridge basalts: Application of a plagioclase-spinel melting model to global variations in major element chemistry and crustal thickness


    Behn, Mark; Grove, Timothy L.


    We present a new model for anhydrous melting in the spinel and plagioclase stability fields that provides enhanced predictive capabilities for the major element compositional variability found in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). The model is built on the formulation of Kinzler and Grove (1992) and Kinzler (1997) but incorporates new experimental data collected since these calibrations. The melting model is coupled to geodynamic simulations of mantle flow and mid-ocean ridge temperature struct...

  7. Magnetic properties of high-Ti basaltic rocks from the Krušné hory/Erzgebirge Mts. (Bohemia/Saxony), and their relation to mineral chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnabl, Petr; Novák, Jiří Karel; Cajz, Vladimír; Lang, Miloš; Balogh, K.; Pécskay, Z.; Chadima, Martin; Šlechta, Stanislav; Kohout, Tomáš; Pruner, Petr; Ulrych, Jaromír


    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2010), s. 77-94 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : high-Ti basaltic rocks * magnetic petrology * thermomagnetic experiments * Curie temperature variation * field-dependent susceptibility * Ohře/Eger Rift Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.123, year: 2010

  8. Basalt Magma, Whisky and Tequila: finely-crafted mixes of small liquid batches that defy the parent liquid concept but whose complexities teach us much (United States)

    Rubin, K. H.; Sinton, J. M.; Perfit, M. R.


    Basalt is the most ubiquitous magma type we know of in the solar system. It comes in various varieties manifested as compositional sub groups, erupts from a wide variety of volcanic systems and tectonic settings, and its eruptions span many order of magnitude in duration and volume. Igneous petrology, thermodynamics, geochemistry, and geodynamical modelling have been used to develop a sophisticated understanding of source lithologies, compositions and formation conditions (e.g., pressure and temperature) for parent melts and their subsequent transport, storage and evolution. These demonstrate some striking systematics as a function of volcano tectonic setting (on Earth). Yet much like Whisky, what makes it into the bottle, or the eruption, is a mixture of different liquids with unique characteristics, sometimes stirred so well that successive batches are indistinguishable, and sometimes stirred more incompletely, preserving small batch characters that are unique. Recently, geochemical and petrological studies in high spatial density within the products of individual eruptions have shown chemical and mineralogical evidence for incompletely mixed heterogeneous magmas in a majority of systems examined, begging the question of when, if ever, is it realistic to speak of a single parent magma composition, and even in cases where it apparently is, if these are instead just more thoroughly stirred multi-parent magmas. For instance, do monogenetic fields really erupt basalts of more varied parent melt compositions than large hot spot and flood basalt eruptions, or are they just more poorly stirred? This presentation will focus on work by ourselves and others constraining spatial and temporal single-eruption basaltic magma histories at different settings, using them to unravel the time and space scales of magma formation and mixing, how these translate to the assembly of an erupted basalt magma, and the implications for deducing things about and from presumed parents.

  9. Exceptionally high Water, Other Volatile and LILE Concentrations in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions from the Yellowstone Hotspot and Columbia River Flood Basalts (United States)

    Mukasa, S. B.; Stefano, C.; Leeman, W. P.; Shimizu, N.


    The Yellowstone hotspot track, comprising the Snake River Plain (SRP) and Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, is widely attributed to mantle melting in response to impingement of a deep seated mantle plume on the southwesterly migrating North American Plate. Origin of the mid-Miocene Columbia River Basalts (CRB) and coeval basalts in Oregon and northern Nevada is also attributed by many to effects of the Yellowstone plume, although the lithosphere in that region consists of accreted Permian to Cretaceous oceanic terranes. Propagation of Basin & Range extension into this region raises the possibility that some of these basalts may be melts of lithospheric rather than plume mantle. Other complicating factors such as lateral variation in lithosphere age, composition, and thickness may also contribute. Water and other volatiles (S, F, Cl), as well as major and trace elements have been analyzed in over 150 olivine-hosted melt inclusions from 15 basalt samples taken throughout the CRB-SRP region and covering both lavas contemporaneous with formation of the local caldera - during passage of the North American Plate over the hypothesized plume - and post-caldera lavas erupted well after that event. H2O concentrations as high as 3.3 wt% have been observed in melt inclusions in a syn-caldera Gerritt Basalt at Mesa Falls, Idaho. Some melt inclusions from the Malheur Gorge area of east central Oregon preserve H2O concentrations as high as 4.2 wt%. The highest H2O concentrations are in all cases found in the most primitive melt inclusions, and thus are interpreted as magmatic minima. These values significantly exceed the maximum H2O concentrations observed in Hawaiian melt inclusions of 0.9 wt%. Maximum observed concentrations of other volatiles are 2854 ppm S in the Malheur Gorge, 2606 ppm F in Picture Gorge Basalt (within the CRB), and 1100 ppm F in a Gerritt Basalt flow. High large-ion lithophile-element (LILE) concentrations in these melt inclusions - particularly Ba - and

  10. Ice-Confined Basaltic Lava Flows: Review and Discussion (United States)

    Skilling, I.; Edwards, B. R.


    Basaltic lavas that are interpreted as having been emplaced in subglacial or ice-confined subaerial settings are known from several localities in Iceland, British Columbia and Antarctica. At least four different types of observations have been used to date to identify emplacement of basaltic lavas in an ice-rich environment: i) gross flow morphology, ii) surface structures, iii) evidence for ice-confined water during emplacement, and iv) lava fracture patterns. Five types of ice-confined lava are identified: sheets, lobes, mounds, linear ridges and sinuous ridges. While the appearance of lavas is controlled by the same factors as in the submarine environment, such as the geometry and configuration of vents and lava tubes, flow rheology and rates, and underlying topography, the presence of ice can lead to distinct features that are specific to the ice-confined setting. Other types have very similar or identical equivalents in submarine environment, albeit with some oversteepening/ice contact surfaces. Ice-confined lavas can form as (1) subaerial or subaqueous lavas emplaced against ice open to the air, (2) subaqueous lavas emplaced into pre-existing sub-ice drainage networks, and (3) subaqueous lavas emplaced into ponded water beneath ice. Their surface structures reflect the relationship between rates of lava flow emplacement at the site of ice-water-lava contact, ice melting and water drainage. Variations in local lava flow rates could be due to lava cooling, constriction, inflation, tube development, ice melting, ice collapse, lava collapse, changes in eruption rate etc. Episodes of higher lava flow rate would favour direct ice contact and plastic compression against the ice, generating oversteepened and/or overthickened chilled margins, cavities in the lava formed by melting of enveloped ice blocks (cryolith cavities) and structures such as flattened pillows and lava clasts embedded into the glassy margins. Melting back of the confining ice generates space to

  11. Potential for microbial oxidation of ferrous iron in basaltic glass. (United States)

    Xiong, Mai Yia; Shelobolina, Evgenya S; Roden, Eric E


    Basaltic glass (BG) is an amorphous ferrous iron [Fe(II)]-containing material present in basaltic rocks, which are abundant on rocky planets such as Earth and Mars. Previous research has suggested that Fe(II) in BG can serve as an energy source for chemolithotrophic microbial metabolism, which has important ramifications for potential past and present microbial life on Mars. However, to date there has been no direct demonstration of microbially catalyzed oxidation of Fe(II) in BG. In this study, three different culture systems were used to investigate the potential for microbial oxidation of Fe(II) in BG, including (1) the chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing "Straub culture"; (2) the mixotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing organism Desulfitobacterium frappieri strain G2; and (3) indigenous microorganisms from a streambed Fe seep in Wisconsin. The BG employed consisted of clay and silt-sized particles of freshly quenched lava from the TEB flow in Kilauea, Hawaii. Soluble Fe(II) or chemically reduced NAu-2 smectite (RS) were employed as positive controls to verify Fe(II) oxidation activity in the culture systems. All three systems demonstrated oxidation of soluble Fe(II) and/or structural Fe(II) in RS, whereas no oxidation of Fe(II) in BG material was observed. The inability of the Straub culture to oxidize Fe(II) in BG was particularly surprising, as this culture can oxidize other insoluble Fe(II)-bearing minerals such as biotite, magnetite, and siderite. Although the reason for the resistance of the BG toward enzymatic oxidation remains unknown, it seems possible that the absence of distinct crystal faces or edge sites in the amorphous glass renders the material resistant to such attack. These findings have implications with regard to the idea that Fe(II)-Si-rich phases in basalt rocks could provide a basis for chemolithotrophic microbial life on Mars, specifically in neutral-pH environments where acid-promoted mineral dissolution and

  12. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Rajahmundry trap basalts of Krishna-Godavari Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Manikyamba


    Full Text Available The Rajahmundry Trap Basalts (RTB are erupted through fault-controlled fissures in the Krishna-Godavari Basin (K-G Basin of Godavari Triple Junction, occurring as a unique outcrop sandwiched between Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments along the east coast of India. Detailed geochemical studies have revealed that RTB are mid-Ti (1.74–1.92 to high-Ti (2.04–2.81 basalts with a distinct quartz tholeiitic parentage. MgO (6.2–13.12 wt.%, Mg# (29–50 and Zr (109–202 ppm suggest that these basalts evolved by fractional crystallization during the ascent of the parent magma along deep-seated fractures. Moderate to high fractionation of HREE, as indicated by (Gd/YbN ratios (1.71–2.31 of RTB, suggest their generation through 3–5% melting of a Fe-rich mantle corresponding to the stability fields of spinel and garnet peridotite at depths of 60–100 km. Low K2O/P2O5 (0.26–1.26, high TiO2/P2O5 (6.74–16.79, La/Nb (0.89–1.45, Nb/Th > 8 (8.35–13, negative anomalies at Rb reflect minimum contamination by granitic continental crust. (Nb/LaPM ratios (0.66–1.1 of RTB are attributed to endogenic contamination resulted through recycling of subducted oceanic slab into the mantle. Pronounced Ba enrichment with relative depletion in Rb indicates assimilation of Infra- and Inter-trappean sediments of estuarine to shallow marine character. Geochemical compositions such as Al2O3/TiO2 (3.88–6.83, medium to high TiO2 (1.74–2.81 wt.%, positive Nb anomalies and LREE enrichment of these RTB attest to their mantle plume origin and indicate the generation of parent magma from a plume-related enriched mantle source with EM I signature. Ba/Th (46–247, Ba/La (3.96–28.51 and Th/Nb (0.08–0.13 ratios suggest that the source enrichment process was marked by recycling of subduction-processed oceanic crust and lithospheric components into the mantle. Zr/Hf (37–41 and Zr/Ba (0.51–3.24 indicate involvement of an asthenospheric mantle source. The

  13. Microbial community diversity in seafloor basalt from the Arctic spreading ridges. (United States)

    Lysnes, Kristine; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Steinsbu, Bjørn Olav; Øvreås, Lise; Torsvik, Terje; Pedersen, Rolf B


    Microbial communities inhabiting recent (Actinobacteria. The archaeal sequences were restricted to the marine Group 1: Crenarchaeota. Our results indicate that the basalt harbors a distinctive microbial community, as the majority of the sequences differed from those retrieved from the surrounding seawater as well as from sequences previously reported from seawater and deep-sea sediments. Most of the sequences did not match precisely any sequences in the database, indicating that the indigenous Arctic ridge basalt microbial community is yet uncharacterized. Results from enrichment cultures showed that autolithotrophic methanogens and iron reducing bacteria were present in the seafloor basalts. We suggest that microbial catalyzed cycling of iron may be important in low-temperature alteration of ocean crust basalt. The phylogenetic and physiological diversity of the seafloor basalt microorganisms differed from those previously reported from deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  14. Effect of Moisture Absorption Behavior on Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amuthakkannan Pandian


    Full Text Available The study of mechanical properties of fibre reinforced polymeric materials under different environmental conditions is much important. This is because materials with superior ageing resistance can be satisfactorily durable. Moisture effects in fibre reinforced plastic composites have been widely studied. Basalt fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites were subjected to water immersion tests using both sea and normal water in order to study the effects of water absorption behavior on mechanical properties. Composites specimens containing woven basalt, short basalt, and alkaline and acid treated basalt fibres were prepared. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing specimens in water at room temperature for different time periods till they reached their saturation state. The tensile, flexural, and impact properties of water immersed specimens were conducted and compared with dry specimens as per the ASTM standard. It is concluded that the water uptake of basalt fibre is considerable loss in the mechanical properties of the composites.

  15. Influence of surface modified basalt fiber on strength of cinder lightweight aggregate concrete (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Li, Jiheng; Liu, Qingshun


    In order to improve the bonding and bridging effect between volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete cement and basalt fiber, The basalt fiber was subjected to etching and roughening treatment by NaOH solution, and the surface of the basalt fiber was treated with a mixture of sodium silicate and micro-silica powder. The influence of modified basalt fiber on the strength of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete was systematically studied. The experimental results show that the modified basalt fiber volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete has a flexural strength increased by 47%, the compressive strength is improved by 16% and the toughness is increased by 27% compared with that of the non-fiber.

  16. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.


    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  17. New Data on mid-Miocene Rhyolite Volcanism in Eastern Oregon Extend Early, co-CRBG Rhyolite Flare up and Constrain Storage Sites of Grande Ronde Flood Basalts (United States)

    Streck, M. J.; Ferns, M. L.; McIntosh, W. C.


    The classical view of relating mid-Miocene rhyolites of the tri-state area of Oregon, Nevada, and Idaho to the flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt was that a mantle plume impinging along the Oregon-Idaho border first causes eruption of the flood basalts but shortly thereafter causes generation of rhyolites at the McDermitt volcanic field from which then hot-spot track rhyolites developed progressively younging towards Yellowstone. More recent work reveals rhyolites as old as found at McDermitt (~16.5 Ma) to occur along a wide E-W tangent along the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho border. And now, our data extend such early rhyolites (>16 Ma) to several locations further north within and in the periphery of the Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field (LOVF) adding to the geographically orphaned old age of 16.7 Ma of the Silver City Rhyolite, Idaho. Hence, the rhyolite flare-up associated with flood basalt magmatism occurred within a circular area of ~400 km centered 100 km NNE of McDermitt. Consequently, no south-to-north progression exists in the onset of rhyolite volcanism; instead, rhyolites started up at the same time over this large area. Province-wide rhyolite volcanism was strongest between ~16.4 and 15.4 Ma coincident with eruptions of the most voluminous member of the CRBG - the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB). Field evidence for such bimodal volcanism consists of intercalated local GRB units with the Dinner Creek Tuff and Littlefield Rhyolite in the Malheur River Gorge corridor. GRB eruption sites exist and were likely fed from reservoirs residing below or near rhyolitic chambers. Presently, we have petrological evidence for pinning down GRB storages sites to areas from where rhyolites of the Dinner Creek Tuff and lava flows of the Littlefield Rhyolite erupted. In summary, input of GRG and other CRBG magmas were driving co-CRBG rhyolite volcanism which in turn may have influenced whether flood basalt magmas erupted locally or travelled in dikes to more distally located areas.

  18. Geoscience parameter data base handbook: granites and basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy has the responsibility for selecting and constructing Federal repositories for radioactive waste. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission must license such repositories prior to construction. The basic requirement in the geologic disposal of radioactive waste is stated as: placement in a geologic host whereby the radioactive waste is not in mechanical, thermal or chemical equilibrium with the object of preventing physical or chemical migration of radionuclides into the biosphere or hydrosphere in hazardous concentration (USGS, 1977). The object of this report is to document the known geologic parameters of large granite and basalt occurrences in the coterminous United States, for future evaluation in the selection and licensing of radioactive waste repositories. The description of the characteristics of certain potential igneous hosts has been limited to existing data pertaining to the general geologic character, geomechanics, and hydrology of identified occurrences. A description of the geochemistry is the subject of a separate report.

  19. Friction Joint Between Basalt-Reinforced Composite and Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Glejbøl, Kristian; Sivebæk, Ion Marius


    The purpose of this study was to anchor basalt-reinforced polymers in an aluminum grip using dry friction. Dry friction clamping is considered the optimal solution for post-mounting of load-bearing terminations on composite structures. A new test method is presented for characterizing...... the frictional load transfer behavior of the grip. To carry out the study, a custom-built test rig was used to examine the relation between pullout force and clamping force. The anchoring method was found to be successful. The paper presents details on the custom-built test rig, along with the use of digital...... image correlation for displacement monitoring. Pullout results and validation tests are presented. In the discussion, the results and the importance of the grips surface finish with regard to pullout force are discussed. The discussion was backed by investigations on wear patterns using SEM....

  20. The effect of deformation on the crystallization kinetics of basalts (United States)

    Tripoli, B. A.; Manga, M.; Fauria, K.; Mayeux, J.; Barnard, H.; MacDowell, A. A.


    Crystals and bubbles nucleate and grow in a magma that experiences a range of temperatures, pressures and strain-rates. We have a good conceptual and sometimes quantitative understanding of how crystallization and bubble nucleation are controlled by decompression and cooling. However, the effect of strain rate on the crystallization kinetics of magmas is at present poorly constrained. In order to understand the interaction between deformation and crystallization, samples of basalt were deformed during their crystallization. We made measurements between 1080 and 1175°C and deformed samples in compression and in tension at strain rates varying from 3·10-5 to 2·10-2 s-1. We simultaneously imaged the samples using X-Ray micro-tomography at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. We find that in general crystallization rates, both growth and nucleation rate, increase with increasing deformation rate.

  1. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.


    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Fire performance of basalt FRP mesh reinforced HPC thin plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup


    An experimental program was carried out to investigate the influence of basalt FRP (BFRP) reinforcing mesh on the fire behaviour of thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates applied to sandwich elements. Samples with BFRP mesh were compared to samples with no mesh, samples with steel mesh...... on a linear increase of the volume of melted epoxy and the outflow of moisture from the concrete matrix. It was concluded that the use of a BFRP mesh to reinforce HPC exposed to fire reduces the mechanical strength despite a beneficial effect related to spalling....... and samples displaying a full sandwich structure. Final results confirmed the bond loss between concrete and BFRP mesh with temperature. The available void where the epoxy burnt away allowed the concrete matrix to release pressure and limit pore stresses, delaying spalling. It also reduced the mechanical...

  3. Shallow Subsurface transport and eruption of basaltic foam (United States)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Mitchell, K. L.


    Volcanic fissure vents are difficult to quantify, and details of eruptive behavior are elusive even though it is the most common eruption mechanism on Earth and across the solar system. A fissure's surface expression is typically concealed, but when a fissure remains exposed, its subsurface conduit can be mapped post-eruptively with VolcanoBot. The robot uses a NIR structured light sensor that reproduces a 3D surface model to cm-scale accuracy, documenting the shallow conduit. VolcanoBot3 has probed >1000m3 of volcanic fissure vents at the Mauna Ulu fissure system on Kilauea. Here we present the new 3D model of a flared vent on the Mauna Ulu fissure system. We see a self-similar pattern of irregularities on the fissure walls throughout the entire shallow subsurface, implying a fracture mechanical origin similar to faults. These irregularities are typically 1 m across, protrude 30 cm horizontally into the drained fissure, and have a vertical spacing of 2-3 m. However, irregularity size is variable and distinct with depth, potentially reflecting stratigraphy in the wall rock. Where piercing points are present, we infer the dike broke the wall rock in order to propagate upwards; where they are not, we infer that syn-eruptive mechanical erosion has taken place. One mechanism for mechanical erosion is supersonic shocks, which may occur in Hawaiian fountains. We are calculating the speed of sound in 64% basaltic foam, which appears to be the same velocity (or slightly slower) than inferred eruption velocities. Irregularities are larger than the maximum 10% wall roughness used in engineering fluid dynamic studies, indicating that magma fluid dynamics during fissure eruptions are probably not as passive nor as simple as previously thought. We are currently using the mapped conduit geometries and derived speed of sound for basaltic foam in fluid dynamical modeling of fissure-fed lava fountains.

  4. Noble gas and carbon isotopes in Mariana Trough basalt glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, M. [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Rue Notre-Dame des Pauvres, BP 20, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Jambon, A. [Laboratoire de Magmatologie et Geochimie Inorganique et Experimentale, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Gamo, T. [Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku Tokyo 164 (Japan); Nishio, Y. [Geological Institute, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113 (Japan); Sano, Y. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama Higashi Hiroshima 739 (Japan)


    oble gas elemental and isotopic compositions have been measured as well as the abundance of C and its isotopic ratios in 11 glasses from submarine pillow basalts collected from the Mariana Trough. The {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios of 8.22 and 8.51 R{sub atm} of samples dredged from the central Mariana Trough (similar18N) agree well with that of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) glasses (8.4{+-}0.3 R{sub atm}), whereas a mean ratio of 8.06{+-}0.35 R{sub atm} in samples from the northern Mariana Trough (similar20N) is slightly lower than those of MORB. One sample shows apparent excess of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 21}Ne relative to atmospheric Ne, suggesting incorporation of solar-type Ne in the magma source. There is a positive correlation between {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar ratios, which may be explained by mixing between MORB-type and atmospheric noble gases. Excess {sup 129}Xe is observed in the sample which also shows {sup 20}Ne and {sup 21}Ne excesses. Observed {delta}{sup 13}C values of similar20N samples vary from -3.76 per thousand to -2.80 per thousand, and appear higher than those of MORB, and the corresponding CO{sub 2}/{sup 3}He ratios are higher than those of MARA samples at similar18N, suggesting C contribution from the subducted slab. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Investigating the explosivity of shallow sub-aqueous basaltic eruptions (United States)

    Murtagh, R.; White, J. D. L.


    Volcanic eruptions produce pyroclasts containing vesicles, clearly implying exsolution of volatiles from the magma has occurred. Our aim is to understand the textural characteristics of vesiculated clasts as a quantitative indicator of the eruptive behaviour of a volcano. Assessing water's role in volatile degassing and outgassing has been and is being well documented for terrestrial eruptions; the same cannot be said, however, for their shallow subaqueous counterparts. The eruptive behaviour of Surtseyan volcanoes, which include both subaqueous and subaerial phases (for example, the type-location Surtsey, Iceland in 1963) is under investigation here and for good reason. Volcanic eruptions during which water and basaltic magma come into contact appear to ignite violent eruptions of many of the small "monogenetic" volcanoes so abundant on Earth. A key problem remains that detailed conditions of water-magma interactions are not yet fully understood. Field samples obtained from exposed sequences deposited originally in a subaqueous environment allow for the necessary analysis of lapilli. With the aid of experimental data, mathematical modelling and terrestrial analogues the ambition is to unravel volatile degassing, ascent histories and fragmentation processes, allowing us ultimately to identify both the role water plays in the explosivity of shallow subaqueous eruptions, and the rise history of magma to the point of interaction. The first site, Pahvant Butte is located in southwest Utah, U.S. It is a well preserved tuff cone overlying a subaqueously deposited mound of glassy ash composed of sideromelane and tachylite. It was erupted under ~85m of water into Lake Bonneville approximately 15,300 years ago. Our focus is on samples collected from a well-bedded, broadly scoured coarse ash and lapilli lithofacies on the eastern flank of the edifice. Vesicularity indices span from 52.6% - 60.8%, with very broad vesicularity ranges, 20.6% - 81.0% for one extreme sample. The

  6. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole


    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau geothermal assessment is acquiring and interpreting comprehensive field data that can provide quantitative constraints on the recovery of heat from the Columbia River Basalts at depths greater than those currently tested by deep boreholes.

  7. Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of three basalt waste isolation project staff hydrologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.


    The present study implemented a probability encoding method to estimate the probability distributions of selected hydrologic variables for the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior, and the anisotropy ratio of the interior of the Cohassett basalt flow beneath the Hanford Site. Site-speciic data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. However, this information is required to complete preliminary performance assessment studies. Rockwell chose a probability encoding method developed by SRI International to generate credible and auditable estimates of the probability distributions of effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity anisotropy. The results indicate significant differences of opinion among the experts. This was especially true of the values of the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow interior for which estimates differ by more than five orders of magnitude. The experts are in greater agreement about the values of effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top; their estimates for this variable are generally within one to two orders of magnitiude of each other. For anisotropy ratio, the expert estimates are generally within two or three orders of magnitude of each other. Based on this study, the Rockwell hydrologists estimate the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top to be generally higher than do the independent experts. For the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a smaller uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts. On the other hand, for the effective porosity and anisotropy ratio of the Cohassett basalt flow interior, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a larger uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts.

  8. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean back-arc of western Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernadno, I R; Aragón, E; Frei, Robert


    caldera 8 km wide) and Payún Liso (a smaller stratovolcano). The volcanic field includes about 200 scoria cones and alkali basaltic and trachybasaltic lava flows, forming two basaltic fields around Payún Matrú. New 40Ar–39Ar ages extend the activity of Payún Matrú up to 700 ka. The major and trace element...

  9. Acidic weathering of basalt and basaltic glass: 1. Near-infrared spectra, thermal infrared spectra, and implications for Mars (United States)

    Horgan, Briony H. N.; Smith, Rebecca J.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Christensen, Philip R.


    Acid-leached rinds and coatings occur in volcanic environments on Earth and have been identified using orbital spectroscopy on Mars, but their development is poorly understood. We simulated long-term open-system acidic weathering in a laboratory by repeatedly rinsing and submerging crystalline and glassy basalts in pH 1 and pH 3 acidic solutions for 213 days and compared their visible/near-infrared (0.3-2.5 µm) and thermal infrared (5-50 µm) spectral characteristics to their microscopic physical and chemical properties from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We find that while alteration at moderately low pH ( 3) can produce mineral precipitates from solution, it has very little spectral or physical effect on the underlying parent material. In contrast, alteration at very low pH ( 1) results in clear silica spectral signatures for all crystalline samples while glasses exhibit strong blue concave-up near-infrared slopes. SEM indicates that these spectral differences correspond to different modes of alteration. In glass, alteration occurs only at the surface and produces a silica-enriched leached rind, while in more crystalline samples, alteration penetrates the interior to cause dissolution and replacement by silica. We confirm that glass is more stable than crystalline basalt under long-term acidic leaching, suggesting that glass could be enriched and common in terrains on Mars that have been exposed to acidic weathering. Leached glasses are consistent with both OMEGA and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra of the Martian northern lowlands and may contribute to the high-silica phases detected globally in TES Surface Type 2. Thus, both glass-rich deposits and acidic weathering may have been widespread on Mars.

  10. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation. (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang Yeon


    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber's suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then the tensile strength of fiber was measured according to fiber orientation. The test results showed that basalt fiber has a strong chemical bond with the cementitious matrix, 1.88 times higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol fibers with it. However, other properties of basalt fiber such as slip-hardening coefficient and strength reduction coefficient were worse than PVA and polyethylene fibers in terms of fiber bridging capacity. Theoretical fiber-bridging curves showed that the basalt fiber reinforcing system has a higher cracking strength than the PVA fiber reinforcing system, but the reinforcing system showed softening behavior after cracking.

  11. Concentrations and isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in ocean-floor basalts. (United States)

    Sakai, H; Des Marais, D J; Ueda, A; Moore, J G


    Fresh submarine basalt glasses from Galapagos Ridge, FAMOUS area, Cayman Trough and Kilauea east rift contain 22 to 160 ppm carbon and 0.3 to 2.8 ppm nitrogen, respectively, as the sums of dissolved species and vesicle-filling gases (CO2 and N2). The large range of variation in carbon content is due to combined effect of depth-dependency of the solubility of carbon in basalt melt and varying extents of vapour loss during magma emplacement as well as in sample crushing. The isotopic ratios of indigenous carbon and nitrogen are in very narrow ranges, -6.2 +/- 0.2% relative to PDB and +0.2 +/- 0.6% relative to atmospheric nitrogen, respectively. In basalt samples from Juan de Fuca Ridge, however, isotopically light carbon (delta 13 C = around -24%) predominates over the indigenous carbon; no indigenous heavy carbon was found. Except for Galapagos Ridge samples, these ocean-floor basalts contain 670 to 1100 ppm sulfur, averaging 810 ppm in the form of both sulfide and sulfate, whereas basalts from Galapagos Ridge are higher in both sulfur (1490 and 1570 ppm) and iron (11.08% total iron as FeO). the delta 34S values average +0.3 +/- 0.5% with average fractionation factor between sulfate and sulfide of +7.4 +/- 1.6%. The sulfate/sulfide ratios tend to increase with increasing water content of basalt, probably because the oxygen fugacity increases with increasing water content in basalt melt.

  12. Bacterial diversity and successional patterns during biofilm formation on freshly exposed basalt surfaces at diffuse-flow deep-sea vents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara K. Gulmann


    Full Text Available Many deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems are regularly impacted by volcanic eruptions, leaving fresh basalt where abundant animal and microbial communities once thrived. After an eruption, microbial biofilms are often the first visible evidence of biotic re-colonization. The present study is the first to investigate microbial colonization of newly exposed basalt surfaces in the context of vent fluid chemistry over an extended period of time (4 to 293 days by deploying basalt blocks within an established diffuse-flow vent at the 9o50’N vent field on the East Pacific Rise (EPR. Additionally, samples obtained after a recent eruption at the same vent field allowed for comparison between experimental results and those from natural microbial re-colonization. Over 9 months, the community changed from being composed almost exclusively of Epsilonproteobacteria to a more diverse assemblage, corresponding with a potential expansion of metabolic capabilities. The process of biofilm formation appears to generate similar surface-associated communities within and across sites by selecting for a subset of fluid-associated microbes, via species sorting. Furthermore, the high incidence of shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs over time and across different vent sites suggests that the microbial communities colonizing new surfaces at diffuse-flow vent sites might follow a predictable successional pattern.

  13. Sampling Mantle Heterogeneity through Oceanic Basalts: Isotopes and Trace Elements (United States)

    Hofmann, A. W.


    Early History of Mantle GeochemistryUntil the arrival of the theories of plate tectonics and seafloor spreading in the 1960s, the Earth's mantle was generally believed to consist of peridotites of uniform composition. This view was shared by geophysicists, petrologists, and geochemists alike, and it served to characterize the compositions and physical properties of mantle and crust as "Sial" (silica-alumina) of low density and "Sima" (silica-magnesia) of greater density. Thus, Hurley and his collaborators were able to distinguish crustal magma sources from those located in the mantle on the basis of their initial strontium-isotopic compositions (Hurley et al., 1962; and Hurley's lectures and popular articles not recorded in the formal scientific literature). In a general way, as of early 2000s, this view is still considered valid, but literally thousands of papers have since been published on the isotopic and trace-elemental composition of oceanic basalts because they come from the mantle and they are rich sources of information about the composition of the mantle, its differentiation history and its internal structure. Through the study of oceanic basalts, it was found that the mantle is compositionally just as heterogeneous as the crust. Thus, geochemistry became a major tool to decipher the geology of the mantle, a term that seems more appropriate than the more popular "chemical geodynamics."The pioneers of this effort were Gast, Tilton, Hedge, Tatsumoto, and Hart (Hedge and Walthall, 1963; Gast et al., 1964; Tatsumoto, et al., 1965; Hart, 1971). They discovered from isotope analyses of strontium and lead in young (effectively zero age) ocean island basalts (OIBs) and mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) that these basalts are isotopically not uniform. The isotope ratios 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb increase as a function of time and the respective radioactive-parent/nonradiogenic daughter ratios, 87Rb/86Sr, 238U/204Pb, 235U/204Pb, and 232Th

  14. Mesozoic rift magmatism in the North Sea region: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Scanian basalts and geochemical constraints (United States)

    Bergelin, Ingemar; Obst, Karsten; Söderlund, Ulf; Larsson, Kent; Johansson, Leif


    More than 100 volcanic necks composed of basanites and melanephelinites occur in Scania, southern Sweden, at the junction of two major tectonic lineaments, the Phanerozoic Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone (STZ) and the Proterozoic Protogine Zone. New 40Ar/39Ar isotope analyses of whole rock fragments of nine selected basalt necks suggest that the Mesozoic alkaline volcanism in the Scanian province commenced earlier than previously reported and comprised three separate volcanic episodes that span a total period of ca. 80 Myr: a first Jurassic (191-178 Ma), a second at the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary (ca. 145 Ma), and a final middle Cretaceous episode (ca. 110 Ma). The new results allow for precise time correlations between eruption events in the Scanian and those in the North Sea volcanic provinces. The older, early Jurassic event in Scania is largely synchronous with that in the Egersund Basin and the Forties field whereas the event at ca. 145 Ma is correlated with activity in the Central Graben. These volcanic episodes also correlate in age with Kimmerian tectonic activity. Volcanic activity in the middle Cretaceous period has also been dated in the triple junction in the North Sea and offshore in the Netherland Sector. The correlation of basalt volcanism in Scania with the Egersund nephelinites strongly suggest that volcanism was triggered by repeated tectonic activity along the STZ. Geochemical data of alkaline mafic rocks in the Scanian and the North Sea volcanic provinces imply that different provinces have largely unique geochemical signatures in favour of a heterogeneous mantle in the North Sea volcanic region. However, basalts of different generations in one and the same province cannot be readily separated on the basis of geochemistry, suggesting that the same lithospheric mantle was the source of repeated volcanism over time in each province. The data suggest a low degree of melting of a volatile-bearing mantle lherzolite enriched in incompatible elements with

  15. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole


    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...... in the selected samples. Uncontaminated Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts appear to have sampled the same broad range in mantle compositions seen in Recent Iceland basalts. In contrast to the peripheral lava suites from the British Isles and Southeast Greenland, where the inferred uncontaminated magmas have...

  16. Evolution of the basalts from three back-arc basins of southwest Pacific

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mudholkar, A.V.; Paropkari, A.L.

    are discussed in detail in the following sections. Dobu Seamount, Western Woodlark Basin The basaltic rock of this basin, collected from the Dobu Seamount, is very fresh and highly vesicular (about 25}30% in volume) with vesicles ranging in size from 3 to 6 mm... but small circular vesicles are scattered throughout the basalt indicating a comparatively low concentration of volatiles. These two samples from this basin have similar chem- ical composition. On the Mg d vs. CaO/Al 2 O 3 graph (Fig. 3a) these basalts show...

  17. Mantle Metasomatism in Mars: Evidence from Bulk Chemical Compositions of Martian Basalts (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.


    Bulk compositions of martian meteorite basalts suggest that they formed from a highly depleted mantle that was variably metasomatised and enriched in incompatible elements. These results are consistent with radio-isotope results. Bulk chemical compositions of basaltic rocks retain clues and tracers to their origins and histories. Interpretations of bulk compositions are not so straight-forward as once envisioned, because real-world magmatic processes can be far from theoretical simple models like one-stage partial melting or closed-system fractional crystallization. Yet, bulk chemistry can shed a broad (if dim) light on Martian basalt petrogenesis that complements the sharply focussed illumination of radio-isotope systematics.

  18. A combined analysis of basaltic melting and shear wave velocity anomalies to constrain dynamic support of western North America (United States)

    Klöcking, Marthe; White, Nicky; Maclennan, John; Fitton, Godfrey


    The region of western North America that encompasses the Basin and Range Province, the Snake River Plain and the Colorado Plateau is about 2 km higher than cratonic North America. This topographic difference broadly coincides with variations in lithospheric thickness (i.e. 260 samples from volcanic centers throughout western North America for major, trace and rare earth elements using ICP-MS and XRF techniques. For asthenospheric samples, we observe a correlation between slow shear wave velocity anomalies and basaltic geochemistry. Using a combination of petrologic observations, forward and inverse modeling of major and rare earth elements, and shear wave velocity anomalies from tomographic models, we determine depth of melting and melt fraction. We explore the possibility that volatiles, anomalous source composition and/or temperature can give rise to basaltic magmatism and regional uplift. We then calculate mantle temperatures from shear wave velocity profiles beneath each volcanic field. In this way, we exploit a variety of approaches to constrain lithospheric thickness and mantle potential temperature. Our combined geochemical and geophysical results yield excess temperatures of 50-80 °C beneath a 60 km thin lithospheric plate. A dynamic topographic model of progressive lithospheric erosion over anomalously hot upper mantle can account for regional uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America.

  19. Data Processing Methods for 3D Seismic Imaging of Subsurface Volcanoes: Applications to the Tarim Flood Basalt. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tian, Wei; Shi, Yongmin


    The morphology and structure of plumbing systems can provide key information on the eruption rate and style of basalt lava fields. The most powerful way to study subsurface geo-bodies is to use industrial 3D reflection seismological imaging. However, strategies to image subsurface volcanoes are very different from that of oil and gas reservoirs. In this study, we process seismic data cubes from the Northern Tarim Basin, China, to illustrate how to visualize sills through opacity rendering techniques and how to image the conduits by time-slicing. In the first case, we isolated probes by the seismic horizons marking the contacts between sills and encasing strata, applying opacity rendering techniques to extract sills from the seismic cube. The resulting detailed sill morphology shows that the flow direction is from the dome center to the rim. In the second seismic cube, we use time-slices to image the conduits, which corresponds to marked discontinuities within the encasing rocks. A set of time-slices obtained at different depths show that the Tarim flood basalts erupted from central volcanoes, fed by separate pipe-like conduits.

  20. Linking hydrothermal geochemistry to organismal physiology: physiological versatility in Riftia pachyptila from sedimented and basalt-hosted vents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C Robidart

    Full Text Available Much of what is known regarding Riftia pachyptila physiology is based on the wealth of studies of tubeworms living at diffuse flows along the fast-spreading, basalt-hosted East Pacific Rise (EPR. These studies have collectively suggested that Riftia pachyptila and its chemoautotrophic symbionts are physiologically specialized, highly productive associations relying on hydrogen sulfide and oxygen to generate energy for carbon fixation, and the symbiont's nitrate reduction to ammonia for energy and biosynthesis. However, Riftia also flourish in sediment-hosted vents, which are markedly different in geochemistry than basalt-hosted systems. Here we present data from shipboard physiological studies and global quantitative proteomic analyses of Riftia pachyptila trophosome tissue recovered from tubeworms residing in the EPR and the Guaymas basin, a sedimented, hydrothermal vent field. We observed marked differences in symbiont nitrogen metabolism in both the respirometric and proteomic data. The proteomic data further suggest that Riftia associations in Guaymas may utilize different sulfur compounds for energy generation, may have an increased capacity for energy storage, and may play a role in degrading exogenous organic carbon. Together these data reveal that Riftia symbionts are far more physiologically plastic than previously considered, and that--contrary to previous assertions--Riftia do assimilate reduced nitrogen in some habitats. These observations raise new hypotheses regarding adaptations to the geochemical diversity of habitats occupied by Riftia, and the degree to which the environment influences symbiont physiology and evolution.

  1. Primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debaille, Vinciane; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Brandon, Alan D.


    and appear to be contaminated at a shallow level. The 187Os/188Os ratios in the remaining lavas with >30 ppt Os (n = 17) range between 0.12117 and 0.13324. These values are surprisingly low for oceanic island basalts and include some samples that are less than putative present-day primitive upper mantle (PUM...... with 187Os/188Os of 0.1296). These low 187Os/188Os preclude significant shallow-level contamination from oceanic crust. The 187Os/188Os ratios for Jan Mayen lavas are less than PUM, severely limiting the presence of any continental crust in their mantle source. A positive correlation between 143Nd/144Nd......-members. One end-member, characterized in particular by its unradiogenic 187Os/188Os and 143Nd/144Nd, low 3He/4He and high 87Sr/86Sr, is represented by subcontinental lithospheric mantle stranded and disseminated in the upper mantle during the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The second end-member corresponds...

  2. Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts (United States)

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.


    THE noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea1-3. We find a systematic enrichment in 20Ne and 21Ne relative to 22Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth.

  3. Hydrogen partition coefficients between nominally anhydrous minerals and basaltic melts (United States)

    Aubaud, Cyril; Hauri, Erik H.; Hirschmann, Marc M.


    We have measured hydrogen partition coefficients between nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxenes) and basaltic melts in 13 hydrous melting experiments performed at upper mantle P-T conditions (1-2 GPa and 1230-1380°C). Resulting liquids have 3.1-6.4 wt.% H2O and average mineral/melt partition coefficients as follows: DHol/melt = 0.0017 +/- 0.0005 (n = 9), DHopx/melt = 0.019 +/- 0.004 (n = 8), and DHcpx/melt = 0.023 +/- 0.005 (n = 2). Mineral/mineral partition coefficients are DHol/opx = 0.11 +/- 0.01 (n = 4), DHol/cpx = 0.08 +/- 0.01 (n = 2) and DHcpx/opx = 1.4 +/- 0.3 (n = 1). These measurements confirm that water behaves similarly to Ce during mantle melting (DHperidotite/melt is ~0.009). For mantle water concentrations of 50-200 ppm, the onset of melting is 5-20 km deeper than the dry solidus, less than previous estimates.

  4. A note on sulphide-oxide mineralisation in Carlsberg Ridge basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Pillow basalts from the Carlsberg Ridge at 3 degrees 35'N contain disseminated chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite. The euhedral shape of the pyrite grains indicate them to be early formed and grown unobstructed while magnetite occurs as skeletal...

  5. Mineral/groundmass partition coefficients for nepheline, melilite, clinopyroxene and perovskite in melilitenepheline basalt, Nyiragongo, Zaire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Onuma, Naoki; Ninomiya, Shuji; Nagasawa, Hiroshi


    Four new partition coefficient versus ionic radius diagrams have been presented for nepheline-, melilite-, perovskite-, and clinopyroxene-groundmass of a melilite-nepheline basalt, Nyiragongo volcano, Zaire, Africa...

  6. Basalt microlapilli in deep sea sediments of Indian Ocean in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Iyer, S.D.

    Two cores recovered from the flanks of Mid-India oceanic ridge in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone consist of discrete pyroclastic layers at various depths. These layers are composed of coarse-grained, angular basaltic microlapilli in which...

  7. Petrologic Variations Within Submarine Basalt Pillows of the South Pacific-Antarctic Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paster, Theodore P


    .... In an effort to define alteration criteria, variations in the mineralogical, chemical and magnetic parameters of one alkalic and eight tholeiitic basalt pillows from abyssal hills in eight widely...

  8. Mineral chemistry of Carlsberg Ridge basalts at 3 degrees 35'- 3 degrees 41' N

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.

    Mineral chemical analyses of transitional basalts from the Carlsberg Ridge show plagioclase (An approximately 87 mole %), phenocrysts, and microphenocrysts have a K sub(2)O depletion as compared to the laths (approximately 79 mole %). Olivine...

  9. Petrology of dune sand derived from basalt on the Ka'u Desert, Hawaii (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.


    Dune sand from the Ka'u Desert, southwest flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, is moderately well-sorted (median = 1.60 Phi, deviation = 0.60, skewness = 0.25, kurtosis = 0.68) and composed mostly of frosted subangular particles of basalt glass ('unfractionated' olivine-normative tholeitte), olivine, lithic fragments (subophitic and intersertal basalts; magnetite-ilmenite-rich basalts), reticular basalt glass, magnetite, ilmenite, and plagioclase, in approximately that order of abundance. Quantitative lithological comparison of the dune sand with sand-sized ash from the Keanakakoi Formation supports suggestions that the dune sand was derived largely from Keanakakoi ash. The dune sand is too well sorted to have been emplaced in its present form by base-surge but could have evolved by post-eruption reworking of the ash.

  10. The hardness of synthetic products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ogrean


    Full Text Available The Hardness of Synthetic Products Obtained from Cooled and Crystallized Basaltic Melts. Hardness is one of the main properties of the products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts under a controlled thermal regime. It influences the abrasion tear resistance of the resulted material. The microhardness measurements on the samples (bricks, boards, gutters, armour plates, tubes indicated Vickers hardness value between 757–926 for the materials obtained from Şanovita basalts (Timiş district and between 539–958 respectively, in case of the Racoş basalts (Braşov district. There is a certain variation of the hardness within the same sample, in various measurement points, within the theoretical limits of the hardnesses of the pyroxenes and that of the spinels.

  11. Planetary Basalt Construction of a Launch/Landing Pad - PISCES Project Update (United States)

    Kelso, R. M.


    Provide a briefing on the progress of a joint project between the PISCES and NASA to develop and demonstrate technologies associated with planetary robotic construction using basalt: called “Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement” (ACME).

  12. Combined Thickness of the Modeled Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton Interbed Geomodel Units (smthk_f) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The smthk_f grid represents the modeled combined thickness of the Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton interbed geomodel units at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid...

  13. Different mechanisms for acid weathering of crystalline basalt vs. basaltic glass and implications for detection on Mars (United States)

    Horgan, B. H. N.; Smith, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Cloutis, E.


    Silica-rich acid leached rinds and coatings occur in volcanic environments on Earth and have been identified using orbital spectroscopy on Mars, but their development is poorly understood. We simulated long-term open-system acid weathering in a laboratory by repeatedly submerging and rinsing crystalline and glassy basalts in pH 1 and 3 acidic solutions for 220 days. Visible/near-infrared (VNIR; 0.3-2.5 μm) and thermal-infrared (TIR; 5-50 μm) spectra of the samples were compared to their microscopic properties from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While previous studies have shown that exposure to moderately low pH ( 3) solutions can produce mineral precipitates, we find that there is very little spectral or microphysical effect on the underlying parent material. In contrast, materials exposed to very low pH ( 1) solutions were visibly altered in SEM images, and contained regions enriched in amorphous silica. These samples exhibited clear silica VNIR and TIR spectral signatures that increased in intensity with their glass content. In addition, glass exposed to low pH solutions often exhibited blue and concave up VNIR slopes. SEM indicates that these spectral differences correspond to different modes of alteration. In glass, low pH alteration occurs only at the surface and produces a silica-enriched rind. In more crystalline samples, alteration penetrates the interior to cause dissolution and replacement by silica. Thus, along with the pH of the aqueous environment, the crystallinity of a rock can greatly affect the way and the degree to which it is weathered. Because alteration is restricted to the surface of glassy materials, bulk glass is more stable than crystalline basalt under long-term acidic leaching. Leached glasses are consistent with OMEGA and TES spectra of the martian northern lowlands, and may contribute to the high-silica phases detected globally in TES Surface Type 2. Thus, both glass-rich deposits and acidic weathering may have been widespread

  14. Ambient noise tomography reveals basalt and sub-basalt velocity structure beneath the Faroe Islands, North Atlantic (United States)

    Sammarco, Carmelo; Cornwell, David G.; Rawlinson, Nicholas


    Ambient noise tomography is applied to seismic data recorded by a portable array of seismographs deployed throughout the Faroe Islands in an effort to illuminate basalt sequences of the North Atlantic Igneous Province, as well as underlying sedimentary layers and Precambrian basement. Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions between all station pairs are extracted from the data via cross-correlation of long-term recordings, with phase weighted stacking implemented to boost signal-to-noise ratio. Dispersion analysis is applied to extract inter-station group travel-times in the period range 0.5-15 s, followed by inversion for period-dependent group velocity maps. Subsequent inversion for 3-D shear wave velocity reveals the presence of significant lateral heterogeneity (up to 25%) in the crust. Main features of the final model include: (i) a near-surface low velocity layer, interpreted to be the Malinstindur Formation, which comprises subaerial compound lava flows with a weathered upper surface; (ii) a sharp velocity increase at the base of the Malinstindur Formation, which may mark a transition to the underlying Beinisvørð Formation, a thick laterally extensive layer of subaerial basalt sheet lobes; (iii) a low velocity layer at 2.5-7.0 km depth beneath the Beinisvørð Formation, which is consistent with hyaloclastites of the Lopra Formation; (iv) an upper basement layer between depths of 5-9 km and characterized by S wave velocities of approximately 3.2 km/s, consistent with low-grade metamorphosed sedimentary rocks; (v) a high velocity basement, with S wave velocities in excess of 3.6 km/s. This likely reflects the presence of a crystalline mid-lower crust of Archaean continental origin. Compared to previous interpretations of the geological structure beneath the Faroe Islands, our new results point to a more structurally complex and laterally heterogeneous crust, and provide constraints which may help to understand how continental fragments are rifted from the

  15. The Salittu Formation in southwestern Finland, part II: Picritic-basaltic volcanism in mature arc environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nironen


    Full Text Available Svecofennian orogen that contain ultramafic rocks. New samples were collected from the picritic and basaltic rocks as well as spatially associated gabbroic rocks, and their major and trace element compositions are presented and discussed here. Although the metavolcanic rocks have experienced primary alteration and two metamorphic events, elements that are insensitive to alteration (rare earth elements, Zr, Nb, Ni have been used to infer their source and evolution. Based on the similar shapes of the rare earth element patterns in the metabasalt and metapicrite, basaltic melt derived from picritic one by fractional crystallization. The high Ni and Mg contents, Ni/MgO and Zr/Nb ratios, and multielement patterns make a slightly enriched garnet lherzolite a likely source for the metapicrite. With the exception of synvolcanic gabbros within the metavolcanic rocks, the gabbroic intrusions at Salittu have no genetic link to the metavolcanic rocks. Geochemical comparison with modern basalts suggests that the picritic and basaltic melts were generated in a mature arc environment during a rifting event. Picritic melt rose from convective mantle to the crust and formed a magma chamber. Basaltic melt fractionated in the chamber and extruded upon an earlier formed volcanic pile as basalt and synvolcanic gabbro. Soon after extrusion of the basalt, picritic melts, similar in composition to the earlier picrite, rose through the crust and extruded on top of the basalt. Comparison with three other metapicrite occurrences in southern Finland suggests that although the occurrences may be considered broadly comagmatic, each had their specific sources and probably also tectonic environments during emplacement.

  16. Experimental petrology of ancient lunar mare basalt Asuka-881757: Spinel crystallization as a petrologic indicator (United States)

    Tomoko, Arai; Hiroshi, Takeda; Masamichi, Miyamoto

    The paucity of titanian chromites in lunar-meteorite basalt Asuka (A)-881757 is unusual compared to the general occurrence of co-existing chromites and ulvospinels in the Apollo and Luna mare basalts. The unique spinel crystallization of A-881757 is expected to hold a key to elucidate the crystallization and cooling episodes of the basalt. In this study, we investigated the possible reason for the missing chromite by conducting isothermal and cooling experiments on the bulk-rock composition of A-881757 and discuss the petrogenesis of the ancient low-Ti mare basalt in light of spinel crystallization. A series of isothermal experiments showed the A-881757 basalt magma is not saturated with chromite under the expected lunar oxygen fugacity condition (IW???IW-1). A peritectic reaction among chromite, melt, and pyroxene is present for A-881757 basalt magma under the more oxidized condition which is one or two log unit higher than the lunar condition. The cooling experiment successfully reproduced the chromian ulvospinels with similar compositions to those in A-881757. The result of the cooling experiments further implies that ulvospinels solely crystallized from highly-fractionated interstitial melts in the late crystallization stage. The disparity in the crystallization of the liquidus chromite between the low-Ti and very low-Ti basalts might reflect the difference of bulk Cr_2O_3 concentration. The low liquidus temperature and the paucity of the liquidus olivine in A-881757 infer that the A-881757 basalt represents a liquid derived from near-surface fractionation processes. Chromites might possibly have been present during that near-surface fractionation episode prior to the eruption of the magma.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration and diagenesis of terrestrial lacustrine pillow basalts: Coordination of hyperspectral imaging with laboratory measurements (United States)

    Greenberger, Rebecca N; Mustard, John F; Cloutis, Edward A; Mann, Paul; Wilson, Janette H.; Flemming, Roberta L; Robertson, Kevin; Salvatore, Mark R; Edwards, Christopher


    We investigate an outcrop of ∼187 Ma lacustrine pillow basalts of the Talcott Formation exposed in Meriden, Connecticut, USA, focusing on coordinated analyses of one pillow lava to characterize the aqueous history of these basalts in the Hartford Basin. This work uses a suite of multidisciplinary measurements, including hyperspectral imaging, other spectroscopic techniques, and chemical and mineralogical analyses, from the microscopic scale up to the scale of an outcrop.

  18. Petrographical indicators of petrogenesis: Examples from Central Indian Ocean Basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    for the ‘fresh’ fragments, to brown and its variations for the altered ones. In few cases, on slicing the samples, minute rounded to semi-rounded vesicles occur. In well-preserved basalts, three broad textural zones can be noted from the glassy top... of the ferrobasalts, minute titanomagnetite crystals occur between the plagioclase fibres. Vesicles are few and are usually empty or at times partly filled by cryptocrystalline materials. Besides the basalts, few other interesting samples were noted...

  19. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.


    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

  20. Hydrogeology and groundwater flow in a basalt-capped Mesozoic sedimentary series of the Ethiopian highlands (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Nyssen, Jan; Clymans, Wim; Moeyersons, Jan; Martens, Kristine; van Camp, Marc; Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; Desmedt, Florimond; Deckers, Jozef; Walraevens, Kristine


    A hydrogeological study was undertaken in the Zenako-Argaka catchment, near Hagere Selam in Tigray, northern Ethiopia, during the rainy season of 2006. A geological map was produced through geophysical measurements and field observations, and a fracture zone identified in the north west of the catchment. A perched water table was found within the Trap Basalt series above the laterized upper Aram Aradam Sandstones. A map of this water table was compiled. Water-level variation during the measurement period was at least 4.5 m. Variation in basal flow for the whole catchment for the measurement period was between 12 and 276 m3/day. A groundwater flow model was produced using Visual MODFLOW, indicating the general direction of flow to be towards the south, and illustrating that the waterways have only a limited influence on groundwater flow. The soil water budget was calculated for the period 1995-2006, which showed the important influence of the distribution of rainfall in time. Although Hagere Selam received some 724 mm of rainfall per year over this period, the strong seasonal variation in rainfall meant there was a water deficit for on average 10 months per year.

  1. The Origin of Nanoscopic Grooving on Vesicle Walls in Submarine Basaltic Glass: Implications for Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. French


    Full Text Available Dendritic networks of nanoscopic grooves measuring 50–75 nm wide by <50 nm deep occur on the walls of vesicles in the glassy margins of mid-ocean ridge pillow basalts worldwide. Until now, their exact origin and significance have remained unclear. Here we document examples of such grooved patterns on vesicle walls in rocks from beneath the North Atlantic Ocean, and give a fluid mechanical explanation for how they formed. According to this model, individual nanogrooves represent frozen viscous fingers of magmatic fluid that were injected into a thin spheroidal shell of hot glass surrounding each vesicle. The driving mechanism for this process is provided by previous numerical predictions of tangential tensile stress around some vesicles in glassy rocks upon cooling through the glass transition. The self-assembling nature of the dendritic nanogrooves, their small size, and overall complexity in form, are interesting from the standpoint of exploring new applications in the field of nanotechnology. Replicating such structures in the laboratory would compete with state-of-the-art nanolithography techniques, both in terms of pattern complexity and size, which would be useful in the fabrication of a variety of grooved nanodevices. Dendritic nanogrooving in SiO2 glass might be employed in the manufacturing of integrated circuits.

  2. Eruption History and Geochemical Evolution of Servilleta Basalt Along the Rio Grande Gorge, Colorado and New Mexico (United States)

    Cosca, M. A.; Thompson, R. A.; Turner, K. J.; Morgan, L. E.


    Subalkaline basalt to basaltic andesite lava flows formally known as Servilleta Basalt (SB) are the most voluminous rock type forming the Pliocene Taos Plateau volcanic field. Pleistocene incision by the Rio Grande into the bedrock-floored plateau has resulted in spectacular exposures of occasionally thick ( 240 m) accumulations of SB within the Rio Grande gorge. Incremental CO2 laser heating of individual rock fragments, the SB within and along the length of the Rio Grande gorge has been precisely dated by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to between 5.3 Ma and 3.3 Ma. SB older than 4 Ma is restricted to some lava flows exposed between La Junta point, at the confluence of the Red River and Rio Grande, and the Gorge Bridge crossing northwest of Taos, NM. Vertical sampling through thick SB flow sequences within the gorge yields precise emplacement histories and also reveals small but systematic major and minor element concentration variations (including Si, Rb, Sr, Cu and Zn). 40Ar/39Ar data show that these trends developed over short (0-250 ka) timescales, and probably relate to partial assimilation of crust, possibly at multiple depths. Combined field, geochemical, and 40Ar/39Ar data consequently record short-lived changes in tholeiitic melt compositions in response to regional extension and development of the Rio Grande rift. The age, lateral extent, and thickness of exposed SB partially reflect the paleotopographic surface of the southern San Luis Basin prior to onset of Pliocene Taos Plateau volcanic field magmatism; paleotopographic highs diverted some flows while topographic lows were areas of infilling and accumulation. Heterogeneous basin paleotopography developed during contemporaneous or precursory andesitic to dacitic volcanism, extensional faulting and subsidence of sub-basins within the San Luis Basin, and deposition of prograding alluvial fans that originated in the Sangre de Cristo and Picuris Mountains. SB flowed into the southern San Luis Valley beginning 5

  3. Water-rich basalts at mid-ocean-ridge cold spots. (United States)

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cipriani, Anna; Ottolini, Luisa


    Although water is only present in trace amounts in the suboceanic upper mantle, it is thought to play a significant role in affecting mantle viscosity, melting and the generation of crust at mid-ocean ridges. The concentration of water in oceanic basalts has been observed to stay below 0.2 wt%, except for water-rich basalts sampled near hotspots and generated by 'wet' mantle plumes. Here, however, we report unusually high water content in basaltic glasses from a cold region of the mid-ocean-ridge system in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. These basalts are sodium-rich, having been generated by low degrees of melting of the mantle, and contain unusually high ratios of light versus heavy rare-earth elements, implying the presence of garnet in the melting region. We infer that water-rich basalts from such regions of thermal minima derive from low degrees of 'wet' melting greater than 60 km deep in the mantle, with minor dilution by melts produced by shallower 'dry' melting--a view supported by numerical modelling. We therefore conclude that oceanic basalts are water-rich not only near hotspots, but also at 'cold spots'.

  4. The durability of fired brick incorporating textile factory waste ash and basaltic pumice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binici, Hanifi [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Univ., Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Yardim, Yavuz [Epoka Univ., Tirana (Albania). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    This study investigates the durability of fired brick produced with additives of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice. The effects of incorporating waste ash and basaltic pumice on durability and mechanical properties of the clay bricks were studied. Samples were produced with different ratios of the textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice added and at different fire temperatures of 700, 900, and 1 050 C for 8 h. The bricks with additives were produced by adding equal amounts of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice, separately and together, with rates of 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The produced samples were kept one year in sodium sulphate and sodium nitrate and tested under freezing - unfreezing and drying - wetting conditions. Then compression strength and mass loss of the samples with and without additives were investigated. The test results were compared with standards and results obtained from control specimens. The results showed that incorporations up to 10 wt.% of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice is beneficial to the fired brick. Both textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice were suitable additives and could be used for more durable clay brick production at 900 C fire temperature. (orig.)

  5. Carbon sequestration via reaction with basaltic rocks: geochemical modeling and experimental results (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Thomas, Burt; Bischoff, James L.; Palandri, James


    Basaltic rocks are potential repositories for sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) because of their capacity for trapping CO2 in carbonate minerals. We carried out a series of thermodynamic equilibrium models and high pressure experiments, reacting basalt with CO2-charged fluids over a range of conditions from 50 to 200 °C at 300 bar. Results indicate basalt has a high reactivity to CO2 acidified brine. Carbon dioxide is taken up from solution at all temperatures from 50 to 200 °C, 300 bar, but the maximum extent and rate of reaction occurs at 100 °C, 300 bar. Reaction path simulations utilizing the geochemical modeling program CHILLER predicted an equilibrium carbonate alteration assemblage of calcite, magnesite, and siderite, but the only secondary carbonate identified in the experiments was a ferroan magnesite. The amount of uptake at 100 °C, 300 bar ranged from 8% by weight for a typical tholeite to 26% for a picrite. The actual amount of CO2 uptake and extent of rock alteration coincides directly with the magnesium content of the rock suggesting that overall reaction extent is controlled by bulk basalt Mg content. In terms of sequestering CO2, an average basaltic MgO content of 8% is equivalent to 2.6 × 108 metric ton CO2/km3 basalt.

  6. Geochemical Characteristics of Cenozoic Jining Basalts of the Western North China Craton: Evidence for the Role of the Lower Crust, Lithosphere, and Asthenosphere in Petrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Suan Ho


    Full Text Available The Jining volcanic field located in the southern margin of the Mongolian plateau and the western North China Block consists of four rock types: quartz tholeiite, olivine tholeiite, alkali olivine basalt and basanite. These rocks have a wide range of K-Ar ages from ~36 to < 0.2 Ma. The early volcanism was voluminous and dominated by flood-type fissure eruptions of tholeiites, whereas the later phase was represented by sparse eruptions of basanitic lavas. Thirty-six samples analyzed in this study show a wide range in SiO2 contents from 44% ~ 54%. They all are sodium-rich and high-Ti basalts that, however, show marked isotopic variations between two end-members: (1 tholeiites that have higher 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7048 ~ 0.7052, and lower £`Nd of -0.8 to -2.4 and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb of 16.9 ~ 17.2, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.3 ~ 15.4 and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.1 ~ 37.7; and (2 basanites that have lower 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7035 ~ 0.7044, and higher £`Nd of +1.3 to +4.9 and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb of 17.7 ~ 18.0, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.4 ~ 15.5 and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.8 ~ 38.2. Alkali olivine basalt that occurs as a subordinate rock type is geochemically similar to the basanites, but isotopically similar to the tholeiites, characterized by the highest 87Sr/86Sr ratio among the three basaltic suites, coupled with a low Nb/U value (~33.

  7. Weathering Rinds and Soil Development on Basaltic Andesite, Guadeloupe (United States)

    Sak, P. B.; Murphy, M.; Ma, L.; Engel, J.; Pereyra, Y.; Gaillardet, J.; Brantley, S. L.


    An oriented clast of basaltic andesite collected from the B horizon of a soil developed in a late Quaternary volcanoclastic debris flow on the eastern, windward side of Basse Terre Island, Guadeloupe exhibits weathering patterns like that observed in many clasts from tropical settings. The sample consists of unweathered core material overlain by a ~19 mm thick weathering rind and a narrow ≤ 2mm thick indurated horizon separating the outer portion of the rind from the overlying >10mm of soil matrix material. Elemental variations are constrained by a seven point bulk ICP-AES vertical transect extending from the core, across the rind and ~15 mm into the overlying soil matix and six parallel electron microprobe transections. The porous-hydrated fraction increases from the core to the rind to the surrounding soil from 7±4% to 45±18% to 60±15%, respectively. Like the well-studied clast from the nearby Bras David watershed (Sak et al., 2010) the isovolumetric transformation from core to rind material is marked by a narrow (Ba>K≈Mn>Mg>Si>Al≈P>Fe»Ti, consistent with the relative reactivity of phases in the clast from plagioclasepyroxeneglass>apatite>ilmenite. Unlike previously studied clasts, the preservation of the rind-soil interface permits characterization of weathering reactions between the weathering clast and surrounding soil matrix. The abrupt (Mn, Ba, Al, Mg and K. The enrichment trends may result from soil waters percolating through atmospherically depositioned dust within the upper few meters of the soil profile, as documented in a deep soil profile in the Bras David watershed. The lack of an enrichment signal within the weathering rind suggests that weathering processes active within clasts are distinct from surrounding soil formation processes.

  8. Like a cannonball: origin of dense spherical basaltic ejecta (United States)

    Di Piazza, Andrea; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Mollo, Silvio; Vona, Alessandro; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Masotta, Matteo


    Cannonballs are rare spherical to sub-spherical eruptive products associated with basaltic explosive activity. The origin of cannonballs is still debated and subjected to a wide spectrum of different interpretations. In order to better understand the physicochemical mechanisms controlling the formation of these explosive products, we investigated the textural and chemical features of cannonballs from the Cerro Chopo monogenetic volcano (Costa Rica). These explosive products ubiquitously show a core domain with coalesced bubbles (30-36% porosity) wrapped in a dense rim domain with small, isolated bubbles (20-27% porosity). Both domains are identical in terms of bulk rock composition and mineral chemistry and are portions of the same magma batch. Results from combined petrological and thermodynamic modeling indicate that a low-viscosity ( 20 Pa s) melt containing early-formed olivine phenocrysts ( 9 vol.%) ascended from storage at a decompression rate of 0.5 MPa s-1 until it reached a depth of 4.5 km (equivalent to a pressure of 150 MPa). While rising from depth to 4.5 km, the melt underwent rapid decompression (0.5-2.6 MPa s-1) and H2O exsolution, driving late-stage crystallization of the groundmass. The fast ascent velocity (21-110 m s-1) while rising between 4.5 km and the surface induced turbulent (Re >103), annular flow development in the uppermost region of the conduit. We propose that cannonballs represent blebs of fluid magmas that underwent shear-driven detachment from the annulus of magma lining the conduit walls at depths lower than 4.5 km. The formation of such cannonballs is dictated by magma transport dynamics of low-viscosity, phenocryst-poor, and volatile-rich melts that rapidly accelerate within the shallow conduit.

  9. H2S Injection and Sequestration into Basalt - The SulFix Project (United States)

    Gudbrandsson, S.; Moola, P.; Stefansson, A.


    Atmospheric H2S emissions are among major environmental concern associated with geothermal energy utilization. It is therefore of great importance for the geothermal power sector to reduce H2S emissions. Known solutions for H2S neutralization are both expensive and include production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid that needs to be disposed of. Icelandic energy companies that utilize geothermal power for electricity production have decided to try to find an environmentally friendly and economically feasible solution to reduce the H2S emission, in a joint venture called SulFix. The aim of SulFix project is to explore the possibilities of injecting H2S dissolved in water into basaltic formations in close proximity to the power plants for permanent fixation as sulfides. The formation of sulfides is a natural process in geothermal systems. Due to basalt being rich in iron and dissolving readily at acidic conditions, it is feasible to re-inject the H2S dissolved in water, into basaltic formations to form pyrite. To estimate the mineralization rates of H2S, in the basaltic formation, flow through experiments in columns were conducted at various H2S concentrations, temperatures (100 - 240°C) and both fresh and altered basaltic glass. The results indicate that pyrite rapidly forms during injection into fresh basalt but the precipiation in altered basalt is slower. Three different alteration stages, as a function of distance from inlet, can be observed in the column with fresh basaltic glass; (1) dissolution features along with precipitation, (2) precipitation increases, both sulfides and other secondary minerals and (3) the basalt looks to be unaltered and little if any precipitation is observed. The sulfur has precipitated in the first half of the column and thereafter the solution is possibly close to be supersaturated with respect to the rock. These results indicate that the H2S sequestration into basalt is possible under geothermal conditions. The rate limiting

  10. Extended Follow-up Confirms Early Vaccine-Enhanced Risk of HIV Acquisition and Demonstrates Waning Effect Over Time Among Participants in a Randomized Trial of Recombinant Adenovirus HIV Vaccine (Step Study) (United States)

    Duerr, Ann; Huang, Yunda; Buchbinder, Susan; Coombs, Robert W.; Sanchez, Jorge; del Rio, Carlos; Casapia, Martin; Santiago, Steven; Gilbert, Peter; Corey, Lawrence; Robertson, Michael N.


    Background. The Step Study tested whether an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)–vectored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine could prevent HIV acquisition and/or reduce viral load set-point after infection. At the first interim analysis, nonefficacy criteria were met. Vaccinations were halted; participants were unblinded. In post hoc analyses, more HIV infections occurred in vaccinees vs placebo recipients in men who had Ad5-neutralizing antibodies and/or were uncircumcised. Follow-up was extended to assess relative risk of HIV acquisition in vaccinees vs placebo recipients over time. Methods. We used Cox proportional hazard models for analyses of vaccine effect on HIV acquisition and vaccine effect modifiers, and nonparametric and semiparametric methods for analysis of constancy of relative risk over time. Results. One hundred seventy-two of 1836 men were infected. The adjusted vaccinees vs placebo recipients hazard ratio (HR) for all follow-up time was 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.92; P = .03). Vaccine effect differed by baseline Ad5 or circumcision status during first 18 months, but neither was significant for all follow-up time. The HR among uncircumcised and/or Ad5-seropositive men waned with time since vaccination. No significant vaccine-associated risk was seen among circumcised, Ad5-negative men (HR, 0.97; P = 1.0) over all follow-up time. Conclusions. The vaccine-associated risk seen in interim analysis was confirmed but waned with time from vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00095576. PMID:22561365

  11. Geochemistry, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and geodynamic implications of Early Cretaceous basalts from the western Qinling orogenic belt, China (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Yuejun; Cawood, Peter A.; Dong, Yunpeng


    The Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt was formed by the collision of the North and South China Cratons during the Early Mesozoic and subsequently developed into an intracontinental tectonic process during late Mesozoic. Field investigations identified the presence of late Mesozoic basalts in the Duofutun and Hongqiang areas in the western Qinling orogenic belt. The petrogenesis of these basalts provides an important constraint on the late Mesozoic geodynamics of the orogen. The representative basaltic samples yield the 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of about 112 Ma. These samples belong to the alkaline series and have SiO2 ranging from 44.98 wt.% to 48.19 wt.%, Na2O + K2O from 3.44 wt% to 5.44 wt%, and MgO from 7.25 wt.% to 12.19 wt.%. They demonstrate the right-sloping chondrite-normalized REE patterns with negligible Eu anomalies (1.00-1.10) and PM-normalized patterns enriched in light rare earth element, large ion lithophile element and high field strength element, similar to those of OIB rocks. These samples additionally show an OIB-like Sr-Nd isotopic signature with εNd(t) values ranging from +6.13 to +10.15 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7028 to 0.7039, respectively. These samples are geochemically subdivided into two groups. Group 1 is characterized by low Al2O3 and high TiO2 and P2O5 contents, as well as high La/Yb ratios (>20), being the product of the high-pressure garnet fractionation from the OIB-derived magma. Group 2 shows higher Al2O3 but lower P2O5 contents and La/Yb ratios (<20) than Group 1, originating from asthenospheric mantle with input of delaminated lithospheric component. In combination with available data, it is proposed for the petrogenetic model of the Early Cretaceous thickened lithospheric delamination in response to the asthenospheric upwelling along the western Qinling orogenic belt.

  12. Multiple metasomatic events recorded in Kilbourne Hole peridotite xenoliths: the relative contribution of host basalt interaction vs. silicate metasomatic glass (United States)

    Hammond, S. J.; Yoshikawa, M.; Harvey, J.; Burton, K. W.


    Stark differences between bulk-rock lithophile trace element budgets and the sum of the contributions from their constituent minerals are common, if not ubiquitous in peridotite xenoliths [1]. In the absence of modal metasomatism this discrepancy is often attributed to the “catch-all”, yet often vague process of cryptic metasomatism. This study presents comprehensive Sr-Nd isotope ratios for variably metasomatized bulk-rock peridotites, host basalts, constituent peridotite mineral phases and interstitial glass from 13 spinel lherzolite and harzburgite xenoliths from the Kilbourne Hole volcanic maar, New Mexico, USA. Similar measurements were also made on hand-picked interstitial glass from one of the most highly metasomatized samples (KH03-16) in an attempt to unravel the effects of multiple metasomatic events. In all Kilbourne Hole peridotites analysed, hand-picked, optically clean clinopyroxenes preserve a more primitive Sr isotope signature than the corresponding bulk-rock; a pattern preserved in all but one sample for Nd isotope measurements. Reaction textures, avoided during hand-picking, around clinopyroxene grains are evident in the most metasomatized samples and accompanied by films of high-SiO2 interstitial glass. The margins of primary minerals appear partially resorbed and trails of glassy melt inclusions similar in appearance to those previously reported from the same locality [2], terminate in these films. Hand-picked glass from KH03-16 reveals the most enriched 87Sr/86Sr of any component recovered from these xenoliths (87Sr/86Sr = 0.708043 ± 0.00009; [Sr] = 81 ppm). Similarly, the 143Nd/144Nd of the glass is amongst the most enriched of the peridotite components (143Nd/144Nd = 0.512893 ± 0.000012; [Nd] = 10 ppm). However, the host basalt (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703953 ± 0.00012; 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512873 ± 0.000013), similar in composition to nearby contemporaneous Potrillo Volcanic Field basalts [3], contains nearly an order of magnitude more Sr and more

  13. Petrogenesis of Mt. Baker Basalts and Andesites: Constraints From Mineral Chemistry and Phase Equilibria (United States)

    Mullen, E.; McCallum, I. S.


    Basalts in continental arcs are volumetrically subordinate to andesites and this is the case for Mt. Baker in the northern Cascade magmatic arc. However, basalts provide indirect evidence on mantle compositions and processes that produce magmas parental to the abundant andesites and dacites of the stratocones. Basalts at Mt. Baker erupted from monogenetic vents peripheral to the andesitic stratocone. Flows are variable in composition; some samples would more appropriately be classified as basaltic andesites. The “basalts” have relatively low Mg/(Mg+Fe) indicating that they have evolved from their original compositions. Samples studied are Park Butte, Tarn Plateau, Lk. Shannon, Sulphur Cr. basalts, and Cathedral Crag, Hogback, and Rankin Ridge basaltic andesites. Mt. Baker lavas belong to the calc-alkaline basalt suite (CAB) defined by Bacon et al. (1997) and preserve arc geochemical features. High alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) are absent. Equilibrium mineral pairs and whole rock compositions were used to calculate pre-eruptive temperatures, water contents, and redox states of the “basalts.” All samples have zoned olivine phenocrysts with Fo68 to Fo87 cores and chromite inclusions. Cpx and zoned plagioclase occur in all flows, but opx occurs only in Cathedral Crag, Rankin Ridge, and Tarn Plateau. Ti-magnetite and ilmenite coexist in all flows except for Sulphur Cr., Lk. Shannon and Hogback, which contain a single Fe-Ti oxide. Liquidus temperatures range from 1080 to 1232°C and are negatively correlated with water contents. Water contents estimated using liquidus depression due to H2O (0.8 to 5.4 wt.%) agree well with plag core-whole rock equilibria estimates (1.2 to 3.9 wt.%). Park Butte, Sulphur Cr. and Lk. Shannon had phase diagrams in the multi-component basalt system relevant to arc basalts and andesites ranging from 0 to 3 GPa and variable water contents. Projections of Mt. Baker lava compositions (corrected for loss or gain of olivine and plag

  14. Natural fumarolic alteration of fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass, and implications for habitable environments on Mars. (United States)

    Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Tschauner, Oliver


    Fumaroles represent a very important potential habitat on Mars because they contain water and nutrients. Global deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols may also have been an important soil-forming process affecting large areas of Mars. Here we identify alteration from the Senator fumarole, northwest Nevada, USA, and in low-temperature environments near the fumarole to help interpret fumarolic and acid vapor alteration of rocks and soils on Mars. We analyzed soil samples and fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass placed at and near the fumarole in in situ mineral alteration experiments designed to measure weathering under natural field conditions. Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we clearly observe hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing fluorapatite as a fumarolic alteration product of the original material, fluorapatite. The composition of apatites as well as secondary phosphates has been previously used to infer magmatic conditions as well as fumarolic conditions on Mars. To our knowledge, the observations reported here represent the first documented instance of formation of hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing apatite from fluorapatite in a field experiment. Retreat of olivine surfaces, as well as abundant NH4-containing minerals, was also characteristic of fumarolic alteration. In contrast, alteration in the nearby low-temperature environment resulted in formation of large pits on olivine surfaces, which were clearly distinguishable from the fumarolic alteration. Raman signatures of some fumarolically impacted surfaces are consistent with detection of the biological molecules chlorophyll and scytenomin, potentially useful biosignatures. Observations of altered minerals on Mars may therefore help identify the environment of formation and understand the aqueous history and potential habitability of that planet.

  15. Role for syn-eruptive plagioclase disequilibrium crystallisation in basaltic magma ascent dynamics (United States)

    La Spina, Giuseppe; Burton, Mike; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Arzilli, Fabio


    Magma ascent dynamics in volcanic conduits play a key role in determining the eruptive style of a volcano. The lack of direct observations inside the conduit means that numerical conduit models, constrained with observational data, provide invaluable tools for quantitative insights into complex magma ascent dynamics. The highly nonlinear, interdependent processes involved in magma ascent dynamics require several simplifications when modelling their ascent. For example, timescales of magma ascent in conduit models are typically assumed to be much longer than crystallisation and gas exsolution for basaltic eruptions. However, it is now recognized that basaltic magmas may rise fast enough for disequilibrium processes to play a key role on the ascent dynamics. The quantification of the characteristic times for crystallisation and exsolution processes are fundamental to our understanding of such disequilibria and ascent dynamics. Using observations from Mount Etna's 2001 eruption and a magma ascent model we are able to constrain timescales for crystallisation and exsolution processes. Our results show that plagioclase reaches equilibrium in 1-2 h, whereas ascent times were 1 h. Furthermore, we have related the amount of plagioclase in erupted products with the ascent dynamics of basaltic eruptions. We find that relatively high plagioclase content requires crystallisation in a shallow reservoir, whilst a low plagioclase content reflects a disequilibrium crystallisation occurring during a fast ascent from depth to the surface. Using these new constraints on disequilibrium plagioclase crystallisation we also reproduce observed crystal abundances for different basaltic eruptions: Etna 2002/2003, Stromboli 2007 (effusive eruption) and 1930 (paroxysm) and different Pu'u' O'o eruptions at Kilauea (episodes 49-53). Therefore, our results show that disequilibrium processes play a key role on the ascent dynamics of basaltic magmas and cannot be neglected when describing basaltic

  16. Basalt identification by interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging measurements using fuzzy technique (case study from southern Syria). (United States)

    Asfahani, J; Abdul Ghani, B; Ahmad, Z


    Fuzzy analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear and electrical well logging data, which include natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, while the electrical well logging include long and short normal. The main objective of this work is to describe, characterize and establish the lithology of the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging measurements have been used and interpreted for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established lithological cross section shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt, which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The fuzzy analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data, and can be therefore utilized as a powerful tool for interpreting huge well logging data with higher number of variables required for lithological estimations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria). (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal


    Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Autogenous Tumbling Media Assessment to Clean Weathered Surfaces of Waste-Rock Particles from a Basalt Quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Tufan


    Full Text Available In this study, the optimum feed composition in autogenous tumbling of basalt waste-rock particles to clean their weathered surface was determined. The weathered surfaces of basalt are generally cut out consequent to extraction of basalt columns in quarry operations. The inefficiently cut out portions of basalt cause formation of huge quarry waste dumps causing visual pollution on roadsides. Mixtures of different particle size fractions of basalt waste-rock particles were experimented to achieve the optimum feed material composition. The minimum loss of commercially available basalt particles and maximum clear surface was intended. The results were compared with respect to weight loss (% and reflectance values of used and generated samples.

  19. Conduit convection driving persistent degassing at basaltic volcanoes (United States)

    Beckett, F. M.; Burton, M.; Mader, H. M.; Phillips, J. C.; Polacci, M.; Rust, A. C.; Witham, F.


    The persistent release of gas at basaltic volcanoes where there is a low magma eruption rate can be driven by an exchange flow of magma in the conduit, in which gas-rich magma ascends, degasses and crystallises and then sinks back down the conduit. The driving force of the flow is provided by the density difference between the buoyant bubble-rich magma at depth and the dense degassed crystallised magma at shallow levels. In this study we attempt to constrain the physical and chemical processes driving an exchange flow of magma at Stromboli, Aeolian Archipelago, Italy. The model uses a simple, cylindrical geometry. We define degassing and crystallisation paths of the ascending and descending magmas, constrained by gas flux and melt inclusion data given in the literature, to produce a three-phase model of ascending and descending magmas driving persistent gas fluxes. We calculate the viscosity of the three-phase magma using end-member rheological models for bubble and crystal suspensions. Combining our modelled magma properties with analogue exchange flow experiments we can relate the regime of magma flow driving persistent degassing to pressure. At pressures ≲ 90 MPa (≲ 3 km) the viscosity ratio is ≲ 100 and the regime is predicted to be side by side flow with both ascending and descending magmas adjacent to a portion of the conduit wall. At pressures ≳ 90 MPa (≳ 3 km) the viscosity ratio between the ascending and descending magma is ≳ 100 and the flow is predicted to be core annular flow, with the ascending vesiculating magma in the inner core and the more crystalline degassed magma flowing down along the conduit wall. By analogy, we hypothesise that degassed magma would flow down along the walls in dike-like plumbing geometries that have been proposed for the deeper Strombolian system. Analogue experiments suggest that exchange flows do not overturn under conditions of maximum volume flux; we use an empirical relationship to characterise the volume

  20. Carbon in MOR basalts, mantle and global C cycling (United States)

    Holloway, J. R.


    The carbon content of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) erupted magmas is well known from analysis of glassy rims on pillow basalts (1), is dissolved exclusively in the form of carbonate ion, and provides a measure of the minimum CO_2 content of pre-eruption MORB magmas. The solubility of CO_2 in MORB liquids is also well known (2) and shows that most MORB magmas were oversaturated in CO_2 at seafloor pressures (3) so the CO_2 content of MORB magma could be much greater than observed in MORB glasses. Possible hosts for C in MORB magma source regions are dolomite/magnesite or graphite/diamond depending on oxygen fugacity (4). Oxygen fugacities measured from MORB glasses (5) and mantle nodules (6) require that graphite/diamond is the C source (4). Assuming graphite as the source I constructed a model to calculate the CO_2 content of primary MORB magma and arrived at a probable value of 1800 ppm (7). That model predicts that le80 ppm of graphite/diamond in the MORB source mantle is consumed. That is a surprisingly low value; however simple mass balance shows that if the integrated melt fraction is 15 wt.% the amount of graphite required to generate 1800 ppm CO_2 in primary MORB magma is 74 ppm. A new equation of state (8) yields CO_2 fugacities up to 50% greater than used in (7) but this results in only minor differences with the previous model calculations, e.g. a 0.2 log unit increase in calculated oxygen fugacity. The 1800 ppm value for the CO_2 content of primary MORB magma erupted at present-day rates for the last 3.3 AE equals estimates of the Earth's global crustal, oceanic and atmospheric carbon content (7,9). (1) e.g. Dixon et al. 1988; (2) Pan, et al. (1991), Jendrzejewski, et al. 1997; (3) Dixon et al. 1995, Jendrzejewski, et al. 1997; (4) Eggler & Baker, 1982; (5) Christi, et al., 1986; (6) Wood et al., 1990; (7) Holloway, 1998; (8) Frost &Wood, 1997; Holloway &O'Day, 2000.

  1. The Effect of Shock on the Amorphous Component in Altered Basalt (United States)

    Eckley, S. A.; Wright, S. P.; Rampe, E. B.; Niles, P. B.


    Investigation of the geochemical and mineralogical composition of the Martian surface provides insight into the geologic history of the predominantly basaltic crust. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover has returned the first X-Ray diffraction data from the Martian surface. However, large proportions (27 +/- 14 with some estimates as high as 50 weight percentage) of an amorphous component have been reported. As a remedy to this problem, mass balance equations using geochemistry, volatile chemistry, and mineralogy have been employed to constrain the geochemistry of the amorphous component. However, "the nature and number of amorphous phases that constitute the amorphous component is not unequivocally known". Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of this amorphous component: Allophane (Al2O); Basaltic glass (Volcanic and impact); Palagonite (Altered basaltic glass); Hisingerite (Fe (sup 3 plus)-bearing phyllosilicate); S/Cl-rich component (sulfates and/or akaganeite); Nanophase ferric oxide component (npOx). Establishing a multi-phase amorphous component from a basaltic precursor that has undergone physical and chemical weathering within geochemical constraints is of paramount importance to better understand the composition of a large portion of the Martian surface (up to 50 weight percentage). Shocked basalts from Lonar Crater in India are valuable analogs for the Martian surface because it is a well-preserved impact crater in a basaltic target. Having undergone pre- and post-shock aqueous alteration, these rocks provide crucial data regarding the effect of shock on the amorphous component in altered basalt. By conducting mass balance equations similar to what has been performed for Gale crater materials, we attempt to calculate the geochemistry of the amorphous component in altered basalts ranging from unshocked to Class 5 (Table 1). This has the potential to reveal the nature and origin (i.e. primary

  2. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 7. Baseline rock properties-basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/7 Baseline Rock Properties--Basalt, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report contains an evaluation of the results of a literature survey to define the rock mass properties of a generic basalt, which could be considered as a geological medium for storing radioactive waste. The general formation and structure of basaltic rocks is described. This is followed by specific descriptions and rock property data for the Dresser Basalt, the Amchitka Island Basalt, the Nevada Test Site Basalt and the Columbia River Group Basalt. Engineering judgment has been used to derive the rock mass properties of a typical basalt from the relevant intact rock property data and the geological information pertaining to structural defects, such as joints and faults.

  3. A chemical model for generating the sources of mare basalts - Combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of the lunar magmasphere (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Neal, Clive R.


    A chemical model for simulating the sources of the lunar mare basalts was developed by considering a modified mafic cumulate source formed during the combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO). The parameters which influence the initial LMO and its subsequent crystallization are examined, and both trace and major elements are modeled. It is shown that major elements tightly constrain the composition of mare basalt sources and the pathways to their creation. The ability of this LMO model to generate viable mare basalt source regions was tested through a case study involving the high-Ti basalts.

  4. Characterization and utilization potential of basalt rock from East-Lampung district (United States)

    Isnugroho, K.; Hendronursito, Y.; Birawidha, D. C.


    The aim of this research was to study the petrography and chemical properties of basalt rock from East Lampung district, Lampung province. Petrography analysis was performed using a polarization microscope, and analysis of chemical composition using X-RF method. From the analysis of basalt rock samples, the mineral composition consists of pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, and opaque minerals. Basic mass of basalt rock samples is, composed of plagioclase and pyroxene with subhedral-anhedral shape, forming intergranular texture, and uniform distribution. Mineral plagioclase is colorless and blade shape, transformed into opaque minerals with a size of <0.2 mm, whereas pyroxene present among the blades of plagioclase, with a greenish tint looked and a size of <0.006 mm. Mineral opaque has a rectangular shape to irregular, with a size of <0.16 mm. The chemical composition of basalt rock samples, consisting of 37.76-59.64 SiO2; 10.10-20.93 Fe2O3; 11.77-14.32 Al2O3; 5.57-14.75 CaO; 5.37-9.15 MgO; 1.40-3.34 Na2O. From the calculation, obtained the value of acidity ratio (Ma) = 3.81. With these values, indicate that the basalt rock from East Lampung district has the potential to be utilized as stone wool fiber.

  5. Lateral heterogeneity of lunar volcanic activity according to volumes of mare basalts in the farside basins (United States)

    Taguchi, Masako; Morota, Tomokatsu; Kato, Shinsuke


    Estimates for volumes of mare basalts are essential to understand the thermal conditions of the lunar mantle and its lateral heterogeneity. In this study, we estimated the thicknesses and volumes of mare basalts within five farside basins, Apollo, Ingenii, Poincare, Freundlich-Sharonov, and Mendel-Rydberg, using premare craters buried by mare basalts and postmare craters that penetrated/nonpenetrated mare basalts employing topographic and multiband image data obtained by SELENE (Kaguya). Furthermore, using the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory crustal thickness model and the mare volumes estimated by this and previous studies, we investigated the relationship between the volumes of the mare basalts and the crustal thicknesses. The results suggest that the minimum crustal thicknesses within the basins were a dominant factor determining whether magma erupted at the surface and that the critical crustal thicknesses for magma eruption were 10 km on the farside and >20 km on the nearside. The total areas of the regions in which magmas could erupt at the surface are 10 times larger on the nearside than on the farside. A comparison between the mare volumes within the mare basins on the nearside and the farside shows that magma production in the farside mantle might have been 20 times smaller than that in the nearside mantle, implying a stronger dichotomy than previously estimated. These results suggest that the mare hemispherical asymmetry should be attributed to both the difference in the crustal thickness distribution and the difference in the quantity of magma production between the nearside and farside mantles.

  6. Seeking a paleontological signature for mass extinctions caused by flood basalt eruptions (United States)

    Payne, J.; Bush, A. M.; Chang, E. T.; Heim, N. A.; Knope, M. L.; Pruss, S. B.


    Flood basalt eruptions coincide with numerous extinction events in the fossil record. Increasingly precise absolute age determinations for both the timing of eruption and of species extinctions have strengthened the case for flood basalt eruptions as the single most important trigger for major mass extinction events in the fossil record. However, the extent to which flood basalt eruptions cause a pattern of biotic loss distinctive from extinctions triggered by other geological or biological processes remains an open question. In the absence of diagnostic mapping between geological triggers and biological losses, establishing the identities of causal agents for mass extinctions will continue to depend primarily on evidence for temporal coincidence. Here we use a synoptic database of marine animal genera spanning the Phanerozoic, including times of first and last occurrence, body size, motility, life position, feeding mode, and respiratory physiology to assess whether extinction events temporally associated with flood basalt eruptions exhibit a diagnostic pattern of extinction selectivity. We further ask whether any events not associated with known large igneous provinces nevertheless display extinction patterns suggestive of such a cause. Finally, we ask whether extinction events associated with other primary causes, such as glaciation or bolide impact, are distinguishable from events apparently triggered by flood basalt eruptions on the basis of extinction selectivity patterns

  7. Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon (United States)

    Keith, Terry E.C.; Staplese, Lloyd W.


    Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence that makes up part of the Eocene Siletz River Volcanics in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Regional zoning of zeolite assemblages is not apparent; the zeolites formed in joints, fractures, and interstices, although most occur in central cavities of basalt pillows. The zeolites and associated minerals identified, in general order of paragenetic sequence, are smectite, pyrite, calcite (small spheres), thomsonite, natrolite, analcime, scolecite, mesolite, stilbite, heulandite, apophyllite, chahazite, mordenite, calcite (scalenohedra and twinned rhombohedra), laumontite, and amethystine quartz. Common three-mineral assemblages are: natrolite-analcime-sfilbite, stilbite-heulandite-chabazite, stilbite-apophyllie-chabazite, and natrolite-mesolite-laumontite.Alteration of basaltic glass, which was initially abundant, appears to have been an important factor in formation of the zeolites. Isotopic data suggest that zeolitization occurred during a low-temperature (60 ~ 70°C submarine hydrothermal event, or by reactions of cold (~ 10°C meteoric water with basalt over a long time. The occurrence of different mineral assemblages in cavities of adjacent basalt pillows indicates that these minerals crystallized in dosed systems that were isolated as fractures and joints were sealed by deposition of smectite and early zeolites. Although the total chemical composition of the mineral assemblages in cavities is similar, different mineral species formed because of the sensitivity of zeolite minerals to slight variations in physical and chemical conditions within individual cavities.

  8. Investigation of Zn2+ and Cd2+ Adsorption Performanceby Different Weathering Basalts (United States)

    Xue, Q.; Shuo, Q.; Chen, H.


    Geological barriers play an important role in preventing pollution of groundwater. Basalts are common geological media; however, there have not been any studies that report the effect of basalt type on the metal ion adsorption performance. In this study, we explored the metal ion (Zn2+ and Cd2+) adsorption ability of two kinds of weathering basalts: the origin weathering basalt (WB) and the eluvial deposit (ED), both of which were derived from same basaltic formation. Characteristics of the sediments were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) measurement and the rapid potentiometric titration (RPT) method. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the Zn2+ and Cd2+ adsorption performance of WB and ED and how adsorption was affected by contact time, initial metal ion concentration, pH and ionic strength. Despite WB and ED having similar chemical compositions, WB exhibited better adsorption than ED likely due to the fact that WB was rougher and had more small-sized spherical structures and stronger electrostatic forces. The adsorption process fit the Freundlich isotherm model well. The adsorption efficiency decreased with a decrease of pH (from 4 to 2) and with increasing ionic strength. These results suggest that a geological barrier composed of WB media might be able to effectively sequester metallic contaminants to prevent them from reaching groundwater.

  9. Preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.L.; O' Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.; O' Connor, K.


    This report presents results of a study leading to preconceptual designs for plugging boreholes, shafts, and tunnels to a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Beginning design criteria include a list of preferred plug materials and plugging machines that were selected to suit the environmental conditions, and depths, diameters, and orientations of the accesses to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia River basalts located in eastern Washington State. The environmental conditions are described. The fiscal year 1979-1980 Task II work is presented in two parts: preliminary testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in a separate report); and preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in this report). To fulfill the scope of the Task II work, Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) was requested to: provide preconceptual systems for plugging boreholes, tunnels, and shafts in basalt; describe preconceptual borehole plugging equipment for placing the selected materials in man-made accesses; utilize the quality assurance program, program plan and schedule, and work plans previously developed for Task II; and prepare a preliminary report.

  10. Surface chemistry associated with the cooling and subaerial weathering of recent basalt flows (United States)

    White, A.F.; Hochella, M.F.


    The surface chemistry of fresh and weathered historical basalt flows was characterized using surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surfaces of unweathered 1987-1990 flows from the Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, exhibited variable enrichment in Al, Mg, Ca, and F due to the formation of refractory fluoride compounds and pronounced depletion in Si and Fe from the volatilization of SiF4 and FeF3 during cooling. These reactions, as predicted from shifts in thermodynamic equilibrium with temperature, are induced by diffusion of HF from the flow interiors to the cooling surface. The lack of Si loss and solid fluoride formation for recent basalts from the Krafla Volcano, Iceland, suggest HF degassing at higher temperatures. Subsequent short-term subaerial weathering reactions are strongly influenced by the initial surface composition of the flow and therefore its cooling history. Successive samples collected from the 1987 Kilauea flow demonstrated that the fluoridated flow surfaces leached to a predominantly SiO2 composition by natural weathering within one year. These chemically depleted surfaces were also observed on Hawaiian basalt flows dating back to 1801 AD. Solubility and kinetic models, based on thermodynamic and kinetic data for crystalline AlF3, MgF2, and CaF2, support observed elemental depletion rates due to chemical weathering. Additional loss of alkalis from the Hawaiian basalt occurs from incongruent dissolution of the basalt glass substrate during weathering. ?? 1992.

  11. Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Skeffington, Richard; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Self, Stephen; Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru; Ridgwell, Andy; Fowler, David; Wilson, Marjorie; Mann, Graham; Wignall, Paul; Carslaw, Ken


    Several biotic crises during the past 300 million years have been linked to episodes of continental flood basalt volcanism, and in particular to the release of massive quantities of magmatic sulphur gas species. Flood basalt provinces were typically formed by numerous individual eruptions, each lasting years to decades. However, the environmental impact of these eruptions may have been limited by the occurrence of quiescent periods that lasted hundreds to thousands of years. Here we use a global aerosol model to quantify the sulphur-induced environmental effects of individual, decade-long flood basalt eruptions representative of the Columbia River Basalt Group, 16.5-14.5 million years ago, and the Deccan Traps, 65 million years ago. For a decade-long eruption of Deccan scale, we calculate a decadal-mean reduction in global surface temperature of 4.5 K, which would recover within 50 years after an eruption ceased unless climate feedbacks were very different in deep-time climates. Acid mists and fogs could have caused immediate damage to vegetation in some regions, but acid-sensitive land and marine ecosystems were well-buffered against volcanic sulphur deposition effects even during century-long eruptions. We conclude that magmatic sulphur from flood basalt eruptions would have caused a biotic crisis only if eruption frequencies and lava discharge rates had been high and sustained for several centuries at a time.

  12. Palagonitic Mars: A Basalt Centric View of Surface Composition and Aqueous Alteration (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Bell, J. F., III; Le, L.; Mertzman, S. A.; Christensen, P. R.


    Palagonitic tephra from certain areas on Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii) are well-established spectral and magnetic analogues of high-albedo regions on Mars. By definition, palagonite is "a yellow or orange isotropic mineraloid formed by hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass." The yellow to orange pigment is nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles (np-Ox) dispersed throughout the hydrated basaltic glass matrix. The hydration state of the np-Ox particles and the matrix is not known, but the best Martian spectral analogues contain allophane-like materials and not crystalline phyllosilicates. Martian low-albedo regions are also characterized by a palagonite-like ferric absorption edge, but, unlike the highalbedo regions, they also show evidence for absorption by ferrous iron. Thermal emission spectra (TES) obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer suggest that basaltic (surface Type 1) and andesitic (surface Type 2) volcanic compositions preferentially occur in southern (Syrtis Major) and northern (Acidalia) hemispheres, respectively. The absence of a ferric-bearing component in the modeling of TES spectra is in apparent conflict with VNIR spectra of Martian dark regions, as discussed above. However, the andesitic spectra have also been interpreted as oxidized basalt using phyllosilicates instead of high-SiO2 glass as endmembers in the spectral deconvolution of surface Type 2 TES spectra. We show here that laboratory VNIR and TES spectra of rinds on basaltic rocks are spectral endmembers that provide a consistent explanation for both VNIR and TES data of Martian dark regions.

  13. A lithospheric instability origin for Columbia River flood basalts and Wallowa Mountains uplift in northeast Oregon. (United States)

    Hales, T C; Abt, D L; Humphreys, E D; Roering, J J


    Flood basalts appear to form during the initiation of hotspot magmatism. The Columbia River basalts (CRB) represent the largest volume of flood basalts associated with the Yellowstone hotspot, yet their source appears to be in the vicinity of the Wallowa Mountains, about 500 km north of the projected hotspot track. These mountains are composed of a large granitic pluton intruded into a region of oceanic lithosphere affinity. The elevation of the interface between Columbia River basalts and other geological formations indicates that mild pre-eruptive subsidence took place in the Wallowa Mountains, followed by syn-eruptive uplift of several hundred metres and a long-term uplift of about 2 km. The mapped surface uplift mimics regional topography, with the Wallowa Mountains in the centre of a 'bull's eye' pattern of valleys and low-elevation mountains. Here we present the seismic velocity structure of the mantle underlying this region and erosion-corrected elevation maps of lava flows, and show that an area of reduced mantle melt content coincides with the 200-km-wide topographic uplift. We conclude that convective downwelling and detachment of a compositionally dense plutonic root can explain the timing and magnitude of Columbia River basalt magmatism, as well as the surface uplift and existence of the observed melt-depleted mantle.

  14. Magnetic Modeling of Buried Basalt Near the Potential Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Constrained by New Paleomagnetic, Rock Magnetic, and Petrographic Studies (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Stamatakos, J.; Silver, M.


    Probability estimates for igneous disruption of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are affected by uncertainties in the number and age of basaltic volcanoes possibly buried in the area. To reduce these uncertainties, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored studies, including a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Yucca Mountain region, to identify potential sites of buried basaltic intrusions and their characteristics. The survey was conducted using a helicopter with an average sensor elevation of 40-50 m [131-164 ft] above terrain. Based on the resulting anomaly map, a subset of seven anomalies (A, G, I, JF5, JF6, O, and Q) was identified for additional testing. These seven anomaly sites were cored to determine whether buried basalt was the source of the anomalies. Basalt was encountered in four of the seven boreholes--A, G, JF5, and Q. Basalt samples from these four boreholes were collected for additional analyses, including radiometric age determinations and mineral identification. This paper reports petrographic, paleomagnetic, and geophysical modeling results from an independent review of the DOE aeromagnetic data and analysis of core samples. Experiments included measurements of (i) natural remanent magnetization, (ii) alternating field demagnetization and thermal demagnetization to isolate the inclination of the characteristic remanent magnetization,(iii) room-temperature bulk susceptibility, (iv) temperature dependence of low-field susceptibility to 700 °C [1,292 °F], and (v) hysteresis and coercivity. The paleomagnetic measurements characterized the magnetic properties of the samples and were used as input for the models. The modeling approach included development of two-dimensional forward models along optimally oriented profiles for each of the four magnetic anomalies. Magnetic source bodies were developed as geologically reasonable polygons with known or inferred magnetic properties for each forward model. Geometry of the

  15. Electron microscopic, rock magnetic and paleomagnetic studies of mid-ocean ridge basalts (United States)

    Wang, Daming

    Mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is the major source of marine magnetic anomalies which are the result of the earth's magnetic reversals recorded sequentially in progressively older oceanic crust, as embodied in the theory of sea-floor spreading. Titanomagnetite, the primary magnetic minerals in MORB, undergoes gradual low-temperature alteration to titanomaghemite after initial formation, presenting the paradoxical situation that apparently the original magnetic record stays well-preserved while carriers of this record undergo fundamental mineralogical transformations. An integrated electron microscopic, rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study of MORB has been carried out with the aim to understand the effects of low-temperaure alteration on magnetic properties of MORB. A component of this study documents the oxidation state of titanomagnetite in variably altered young (oxidized to a higher degree than those in the relatively unaltered gray interior. The titanomaghemite within the discolored rims appears to have oxidized relatively quickly. However, the alteration front of the discolored rims does not generally coincide with a pronounced jump in oxidation state, suggesting oxidation state of the Fe-Ti oxides and visible alteration in the discolored rims are not directly correlated. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of MORB shows comparatively higher intensity in early Tertiary and Cretaceous samples than in 10--30 Ma old samples. No compositional, petrological, rock-magnetic or paleomagnetic patterns are observed to account for the NRM variation trend. Geomagnetic field intensity is the only effect which can not be directly tested on the same samples, but shows a similar pattern as the measured NRM intensities. It is therefore concluded that the geomagnetic field strength was, on-average, significantly greater during the Cretaceous than during the Oligocene and Miocene. I proposed that the variability of oxidation state within a grain changes as a function of age

  16. Retrofitting Of RCC Piles By Using Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer BFRP Composite Part 1 Review Papers On RCC Structures And Piles Retrofitting Works.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ananda Kumar


    Full Text Available Abstract Retrofitting works are immensely essential for deteriorated and damaged structures in Engineering and Medical fields in order to keep or return to the originality for safe guarding the structures and consumers. In this paper different types of methods of retrofitting review notes are given based on the experimental numerical and analytical methods results on strengthening the Reinforced cement concrete RCC structures including RCC piles. Soil-pile interaction on axial load lateral load reviews are also presented. This review paper is prepared to find out the performance of basalt fibre reinforced polymer BFRP composite retrofitted reinforced cement concrete single end bearing piles.

  17. Subduction of hydrated basalt of the oceanic crust: Implications for recycling of water into the upper mantle and continental growth (United States)

    Rapp, R. P.


    Subduction zones are presently the dominant sites on Earth for recycling and mass transfer between the crust and mantle; they feed hydrated basaltic oceanic crust into the upper mantle, where dehydration reactions release aqueous fluids and/or hydrous melts. The loci for fluid and/or melt generation will be determined by the intersection of dehydration reaction boundaries of primary hydrous minerals within the subducted lithosphere with slab geotherms. For metabasalt of the oceanic crust, amphibole is the dominant hydrous mineral. The dehydration melting solidus, vapor-absent melting phase relationships; and amphibole-out phase boundary for a number of natural metabasalts have been determined experimentally, and the pressure-temperature conditions of each of these appear to be dependent on bulk composition. Whether or not the dehydration of amphibole is a fluid-generating or partial melting reaction depends on a number of factors specific to a given subduction zone, such as age and thickness of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, the rate of convergence, and the maturity of the subduction zone. In general, subduction of young, hot oceanic lithosphere will result in partial melting of metabasalt of the oceanic crust within the garnet stability field; these melts are characteristically high-Al2O3 trondhjemites, tonalites and dacites. The presence of residual garnet during partial melting imparts a distinctive trace element signature (e.g., high La/Yb, high Sr/Y and Cr/Y combined with low Cr and Y contents relative to demonstrably mantle-derived arc magmas). Water in eclogitized, subducted basalt of the oceanic crust is therefore strongly partitioned into melts generated below about 3.5 GPa in 'hot' subduction zones. Although phase equilibria experiments relevant to 'cold' subduction of hydrated natural basalts are underway in a number of high-pressure laboratories, little is known with respect to the stability of more exotic hydrous minerals (e.g., ellenbergite) and

  18. geochemistry of the potassic basalts from the bufumbira volcanic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    volcanic fields within the western branch of the East African rift system. The rocks consist of silica undersaturated and ..... Plot of total alkalis (K2O + N2O wt%) versus SiO2 wt% of the various rocks of the. Bufumbira field (Cox et al. 1979). The Le Maitre (1989) plot (Fig. 8) clusters most of the mafic rocks between the basanite.

  19. Modeling of the Sedimentary Interbedded Basalt Stratigraphy for the Idaho National Laboratory Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzette Payne


    This report summarizes how the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy were modeled in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Drill holes indicate the bedrock beneath INL facilities is composed of about 1.1 km of alternating layers of basalt rock and loosely consolidated sediments. Alternating layers of hard rock and “soft” loose sediments tend to attenuate seismic energy greater than uniform rock due to scattering and damping. The INL PSHA incorporated the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy by developing site-specific shear (S) wave velocity profiles. The profiles were used in the PSHA to model the near-surface site response by developing site-specific stochastic attenuation relationships.

  20. Modeling of the Sedimentary Interbedded Basalt Stratigraphy for the Idaho National Laboratory Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzette Payne


    This report summarizes how the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy were modeled in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Drill holes indicate the bedrock beneath INL facilities is composed of about 1.1 km of alternating layers of basalt rock and loosely consolidated sediments. Alternating layers of hard rock and “soft” loose sediments tend to attenuate seismic energy greater than uniform rock due to scattering and damping. The INL PSHA incorporated the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy by developing site-specific shear (S) wave velocity profiles. The profiles were used in the PSHA to model the near-surface site response by developing site-specific stochastic attenuation relationships.

  1. Influence of length-to-diameter ratio on shrinkage of basalt fiber concrete (United States)

    Ruijie, MA; Yang, Jiansen; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaojun


    In order to study the shrinkage performance of basalt concrete, using the shrinkage rate as index, the work not only studied the influence of different length-to-diameter ratio (LDR) on plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage of basalt fiber concrete, but also analyzed the action mechanism. The results show that when the fiber content is 0.1%, the LDR of 800 and 1200 take better effects on reducing plastic shrinkage, however the fiber content is 0.3%, that of LDR 600 is better. To improve drying shrinkage, the fiber of LDR 800 takes best effect. In the concrete structure, the adding basalt fibers form a uniform and chaotic supporting system, optimize the pore and the void structure of concrete, make the material further compacted, reduce the water loss, so as to decrease the shrinkage of concrete effectively.

  2. Study of crystallization of a basalt glass; Estudo de cristalizacao de um vidro de basalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Fernando Takahiro; Hashizume, Camila Mina; Toffoli, Samuel Marcio, E-mail: toffoli@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais


    Basalt vitreous ceramics posses industrial importance by presenting high mechanical resistance to the abrasion. It was studied the obtention and the crystallization of a glass obtained from a basalt of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, aiming to develop a material with great abrasive resistance. Fusions were made at 1400 deg Celsius in electrical oven and in alumina crucible, of fine residues of basalt mining. The obtained glass was treated in a crystallization temperature of 880 deg Celsius, determined by DSC, by various time of treatment. The present main crystalline phases, detected by XRD, were the magnesium-ferrite (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and the diopsid Ca(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al){sub 2}O{sub 6}. Analysing the density by the Archimedes methodology and the DRX it was possible to follow the crystallization kinetic up.

  3. Preparation of Basalt Incorporated Polyethylene Composite with Enhanced Mechanical Properties for Various Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bredikhin Pavel


    Full Text Available The present article showed the possibility of increasing the complex of mechanical properties of polyolefins with dispersed mineral fillers obtained by fine grinding of basalt rocks via ball mill processing. The composites based on dispersed basalt, which were derived from Samara rock mass (Russia with rare earth elements containing, were obtained by extrusion combining the binder and filler, followed by preparation injection-molded test samples. The study of mechanical properties of materials developed showed the possibility of a significant increase in strength characteristics of different types of polyethylene: the breaking stress at static bending for HDPE can be increasing more than 60% and the impact strength by more than 4 times. In addition the incorporation of the dispersed basalt also enhanced the thermal properties of the composites (the oxygen index of HDPE increases from 19 to 25%.

  4. Experimental partitioning of rare earth elements and scandium among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and mare basalt liquid (United States)

    Irving, A. J.; Merrill, R. B.; Singleton, D. E.


    An experimental study was carried out to measure partition coefficients for two rare-earth elements (Sm and Tm) and Sc among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and liquid coexisting in a system modeled on high-Ti mare basalt 74275. This 'primitive' sample was chosen for study because its major and trace element chemistry as well as its equilibrium phase relations at atmospheric pressure are known from previous studies. Beta-track analytical techniques were used so that partition coefficients could be measured in an environment whose bulk trace element composition is similar to that of the natural basalt. Partition coefficients for Cr and Mn were determined in the same experiments by microprobe analysis. The only equilibrium partial melting model appears to be one in which ilmenite is initially present in the source region but is consumed by melting before segregation of the high-Ti mare basalt liquid from the residue.

  5. Expanding the Planetary Analog Test Sites in Hawaii - Planetary Basalt Manipulation (United States)

    Kelso, R.


    The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) is one of the very few planetary surface research test sites in the country that is totally funded by the state legislature. In recent expansions, PISCES is broadening its work in planetary test sites to include much more R&D work in the planetary surface systems, and the manipulation of basalt materials. This is to include laser 3D printing of basalt, 'lunar-concrete' construction in state projects for Hawaii, renewable energy, and adding lava tubes/skylights to their mix of high-quality planetary analog test sites. PISCES Executive Director, Rob Kelso, will be providing program updates on the interest of the Hawaii State Legislature in planetary surface systems, new applied research initiatives in planetary basalts and interests in planetary construction.

  6. Petrologic Evolution of Karayazı Basaltic Plateau: Mixture of melts-derived from both spinel and garnet lherzolite (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Jourdan, Fred


    Collision-related volcanism in Eastern Anatolia spreads in a wide zone from the Erzurum-Kars Plateau in the northeast to the Karacadaǧ in the south. Volcanic activity in the region started 15 Ma ago (Middle Miocene) in the south of region following the continent-continent collision between Arabian and Eurasia plates, and continued up to historical times. Voluminous basaltic lava plateaus and basaltic lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. Karayazı basatic lava area located in the Northeast of Turkey is one of the most important and largest basaltic plateau in the East Anatolia. This area which is named to be Karayazı basaltic plateau has covered an area of approximately 200 km2. Lavas of the Karayazı basaltic plateau are characterized with alkali and subalkali basalt erupted from different centers up to from Miocene to Quaternary times. Lavas of the Karayazı basaltic plateau is characterized by alkali olivine basalts and subalkali basalts. These lavas are composed of olivine, plagioclase, augite and titanoaugite crystals and display porphyritic to aphyric textures. Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of the basaltic plateau vary between 0.703396-0.704976, 0.512730-0.512918 ve 0.282002-0.283029, respectively. MORB pattern of the lavas and isotopic composition imply that alkali and subalkali basalts erupted from Karayazı plateau could have been derived from a mantle source that had previously been enriched by a distinct subduction component. A partial melting model was conducted to evaluate partial melting processes in mantle source of the alkali and subalkali basalts. Results of this model suggest the presence of both strongly spinel and slightly garnet peridotite in the source, a partial melting degree of 2-10 % and mixing of the derivative melts from them in the genesis of the Karayazı basaltic volcanism. All these findings indicate that the source region of the Karayaz

  7. Late Paleozoic rift-related basalts from central Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Zhu, Wenping; Tian, Wei; Wei, Chunjing; Shao, Ji-an; Fu, Bin; Fanning, C. Mark; Chen, Mimi; Wang, Bin


    Late Paleozoic basaltic volcanism widely occurred in central Inner Mongolia, the southeastern part of the Central Asia Orogenic Blet (CAOB). Three volcanic pulses are identified by ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) zircon U-Pb analysis, which are Late Carboniferous (ca. 315 Ma), the latest Carboniferous (ca. 303 Ma) and early Permian (ca. 284 Ma). Basalts in the earliest stage are characterized by flat HREE, depletion in Nb and Ta, MORB-like Th/Yb ratios and depleted mantle (DM)-like Hf isotopic ratios. These are similar to forearc basalts, that have been generated by melting of a fluxed depleted mantle in an extensional environment. The latest Carboniferous basalts (sample D1363) have no Zr-Hf anomalies, relatively radiogenic Hf isotopic ratios (εHf(t) = +12.1 to +19.7) and high δ18O values up to 8.5‰, VSMOW. These are likely to be magmas originated from decompressional melting of a depleted mantle that interacted with ocean floor pillow basalts during their ascending through the crust. The early Permian sample D1380 have variable 206Pb/238U zircon ages with an interpreted magma crystallization age of 284.4 ± 2.5 Ma. These zircons have scattered Hf isotope (εHf(t) = +5 to +14) and δ18O (1.8-11.0‰, VSMOW), which suggest the involvement of a relatively enriched mantle source. Overall the temporal evolution of the Late Paleozoic basaltic volcanism from central Inner Mongolia suggests a rift-related tectonic setting.

  8. High-level waste-basalt interactions. Annual progress report, February 1, 1977--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Scheetz, B.E.


    Commercial radioactive waste can be placed under ground in a basalt repository to contain significant amounts of radioactive decay heat for the first hundred or so years, which constitutes the ''thermal period'' of waste isolation, if the feasibility is determined that a basalt geology is a suitable medium for storage of radioactive wastes. Several physical-chemical changes analogous to natural geochemical processes can occur in and around this repository during the thermal period. The waste canister can act as a heat source and cause changes in the mineralogy and properties of the surrounding basalts. Geochemically, this is ''contact metamorphism.'' This phenomenon needs to be investigated because it could affect the behavior of the basalt with regard to migration of long-lived radionuclides away from the immediate repository. It is well known that even the relatively low-grade hydrothermal conditions possible in the repository (temperatures up to 400 degrees Centigrade; pressures up to 300 bars) can cause extensive modifications in rocks and minerals. At the end of the thermal period, the residue of the original waste plus the waste-basalt interaction products would constitute the actual waste form (or ''source term'') subject to the low-temperature leaching and migration processes under investigation in other laboratories. During the last eight months of fiscal year 1977, a program was initiated at The Pennsylvania State University which had as its objective the determination of the nature and implication of any chemical or mineralogical changes in, or interactions between, each candidate radioactive waste form and representative Columbia River Basalt under the various relevant repository conditions during the thermal period. Results of these investigations are given.

  9. Experimental Study into the Stability of Whitlockite in Basaltic Magmas (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Barnes, J. J.; Srinivasan, P.; Whitson, E. S.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Boyce, J. W.


    latter treatment resulted in the dehydrogenation of whitlockite to form merrillite. The presence of merrillite vs. whitlockite was widely thought to serve as an indication that magmas were anhydrous [e.g., 6-7]. However, McCubbin et al., [8] determined that merrillite in the martian meteorite Shergotty had no discernible whitlockite component despite its coexistence with OH-rich apatite. Consequently, McCubbin et al., (2014) speculated that the absence of a whitlockite component in Shergotty merrillite and other planetary merrillites may be a consequence of the limited thermal stability of H in whitlockite (stable only at T less than1050degC), which would prohibit merrillite-whitlockite solid-solution at high temperatures. In the present study, we have aimed to test this hypothesis experimentally by examining the stability of whitlockite in basaltic magmas at 1.2 GPa and a temperature range of -1000- 1300degC.

  10. From shifting silt to solid stone: the manufacture of synthetic basalt in ancient mesopotamia (United States)

    Stone; Lindsley; Pigott; Harbottle; Ford


    Slabs and fragments of gray-black vesicular "rock," superficially resembling natural basalt but distinctive in chemistry and mineralogy, were excavated at the second-millennium B.C. Mesopotamian city of Mashkan-shapir, about 80 kilometers south of Baghdad, Iraq. Most of this material appears to have been deliberately manufactured by the melting and slow cooling of local alluvial silts. The high temperatures (about 1200 degreesC) required and the large volume of material processed indicate an industry in which lithic materials were manufactured ("synthetic basalt") for grinding grain and construction.

  11. Influences of chemical aging on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The impact of aging in high humidity and water on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers has been studied using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The results show that interaction between...... the fibers and the surrounding media (high humidity or water at 70 C) leads to chemical changes strongly affecting the surface morphology. The crystallization peak temperature of the basaltic glass fibers are increased without changing the onset temperature, this may be caused by a chemical depletion...

  12. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerilli, Francesca [Unicusano - Università degli Studi Niccolò Cusano Telematica Roma, 00166 Rome (Italy); Vairo, Giuseppe [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”- (DICII), 00133 Rome (Italy)


    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  13. A New Oxygen Barometer for Solar System Basaltic Glasses Based on Vanadium Valence (United States)

    Karner, J. M.; Sutton, S. R.; Papike, S. R.; Delaney, J. S.; Shearer, C. K.; Newville, M.; Eng, P.; Rivers, M.; Dyar, M. D.


    The determination of oxidation conditions for basaltic magmas derived by the melting of planetary mantles is critical to our understanding of the nature and evolution of planetary interiors. Yet, these determinations are compromised in terrestrial and especially extraterrestrial basalts by our analytical and computational methods for estimating oxygen fugacity (fO2). For example, mineralogical barometers (1, 2) can be reduced in effectiveness by subsolidus re-equilibration of mineral assemblages, inversion of mineralogical data to melt characteristics, and deviations of the natural mineral compositions from ideal thermodynamic parameters.

  14. Determination of Geochemical Bio-Signatures in Mars-Like Basaltic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Olsson-Francis


    Full Text Available Bio-signatures play a central role in determining whether life existed on early Mars. Using a terrestrial basalt as a compositional analog for the martian surface, we applied a combination of experimental microbiology and thermochemical modeling techniques to identify potential geochemical bio-signatures for life on early Mars. Laboratory experiments were used to determine the short-term effects of biota on the dissolution of terrestrial basalt, and the formation of secondary alteration minerals. The chemoorganoheterotrophic bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain B_33, was grown in a minimal growth medium with and without terrestrial basalt as the sole nutrient source. No growth was detected in the absence of the basalt. In the presence of basalt, during exponential growth, the pH decreased rapidly from pH 7.0 to 3.6 and then gradually increased to a steady-state of equilibrium of between 6.8 and 7.1. Microbial growth coincided with an increase in key elements in the growth medium (Si, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Experimental results were compared with theoretical thermochemical modeling to predict growth of secondary alteration minerals, which can be used as bio-signatures, over a geological timescale. We thermochemically modeled the dissolution of the basalt (in the absence of biota in very dilute brine at 25°C, 1 bar; the pH was buffered by the mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. Preliminary results suggested that at the water to rock ratio of 1 × 107, zeolite, hematite, chlorite, kaolinite, and apatite formed abiotically. The biotic weathering processes were modeled by varying the pH conditions within the model to adjust for biologic influence. The results suggested that, for a basaltic system, the microbially-mediated dissolution of basalt would result in “simpler” secondary alteration, consisting of Fe-hydroxide and kaolinite, under conditions where the abiotic system would also form chlorite. The results from this study demonstrate

  15. Solubility and partitioning of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in minerals and synthetic basaltic melts (United States)

    Broadhurst, C. L.; Drake, M. J.; Hagee, B. E.; Bernatowicz, T. J.


    The solubilities of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe gases were measured in natural samples of anorthite, diopside, forsterite, spinel, and synthetic basaltic melts, the samples which represent equilibrium pairs in the Fo-An-Di-SiO2 system. Results show that, in natural minerals, the solubilities of these gases increase with increasing atomic number. In contrast, the solubilities of noble gases in the synthetic basaltic melts decreased with increasing atomic number. The partition coefficients increased with increasing atomic number for all mineral/melt pairs.

  16. Hydrologic bibliography of the Columbia River basalts in Washington with selected annotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Wildrick, L.; Pearson, B.


    The objective of this compilation is to present a comprehensive listing of the published, unpublished, and open file references pertaining to the surface and subsurface hydrology of the Columbia River basalts within the State of Washington and is presented in support of Rockwell's hydrologic data compilation effort for the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. A comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the Pasco Basin (including the Hanford Site) hydrology has been prepared for Rockwell as part of the Pasco Basin hydrology studies. In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, no effort was made to include a complete list of bibliographic references on Hanford in this volume.

  17. Valence State Partitioning of Cr and V Between Pyroxene - Melt: Estimates of Oxygen Fugacity for Martian Basalt QUE 94201 (United States)

    Karner, J. M.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.; McKay, G.; Le, L.; Burger, P.


    Several studies, using different oxybarometers, have suggested that the variation of fO2 in martian basalts spans about 3 log units from approx. IW-1 to IW+2. The relatively oxidized basalts (e.g., pyroxene-phyric Shergotty) are enriched in incompatible elements, while the relatively reduced basalts (e.g., olivine-phyric Y980459) are depleted in incompatible elements. A popular interpretation of the above observations is that the martian mantle contains two reservoirs; 1) oxidized and enriched, and 2) reduced and depleted. The basalts are thus thought to represent mixing between these two reservoirs. Recently, Shearer et al. determined the fO2 of primitive olivine-phyric basalt Y980459 to be IW+0.9 using the partitioning of V between olivine and melt. In applying this technique to other basalts, Shearer et al. concluded that the martian mantle shergottite source was depleted and varied only slightly in fO2 (IW to IW+1). Thus the more oxidized, enriched basalts had assimilated a crustal component on their path to the martian surface. In this study we attempt to address the above debate on martian mantle fO2 using the partitioning of Cr and V into pyroxene in pyroxene-phyric basalt QUE 94201.

  18. Does the presence of bacteria effect basaltic glass dissolution rates? 1: Dead Pseudomonas reactants (United States)

    Stockmann, Gabrielle J.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Oelkers, Eric H.; Benezeth, Pascale


    Basaltic glass and crystalline basalt formations in Iceland have been suggested for industrial CO2 storage due to their porous and permeable properties and high reactivity. Acid CO2-saturated waters in contact with basaltic glass will lead to rapid dissolution of the glass and release of divalent cations, (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+) that can react to form stable carbonates and thereby trap the CO2. However, the basalt formations in Iceland not only contains glass and mineral assemblages, but also host microbiological communities that either by their presence or by active involvement in chemical reactions could affect the amount of basaltic glass being dissolved and CO2 being trapped. Samples of natural bacteria communities from the CO2 storage grounds in Iceland were collected, separated, and purified using agar plate technique and cultured under laboratory conditions in nutrient broth-rich media. Heterotrophic aerobic Gram-negative strain of Pseudomonas reactants was selected for a series of flow-through experiments aimed at evaluation of basaltic glass dissolution rate in the presense of increasing amounts of dead bacteria and their lysis products. The experiments were carried out using mixed-flow reactors at pH 4, 6, 8 and 10 at 25 °C. Each of the four reactors contained 1 gram of basaltic glass of the size fraction 45-125 μm. This glass was dissolved in ~ 0.01 M buffer solutions (acetate, MES, bicarbonate and carbonate+bicarbonate mixture) of the desired pH. All experiments ran 2 months, keeping the flowrate and temperature stable and only changing the concentration of dead bacteria in the inlet solutions (from 0 to 430 mg/L). Experiments were performed in sterile conditions, and bacterial growth was prevented by adding NaN3 to the inlet solutions. Routine culturing of bacteria on the agar plates confirmed the sterility of experiments. Samples of outlet solutions were analyzed for major cations and trace elements by ICP-MS. Results demonstrate a slight decrease in the

  19. Evidence for metasomatic enrichment in the oceanic lithosphere and implication for the generation of intraplate basalts (United States)

    Pilet, S.; Buchs, D.; Cosca, M. A.; Baumgartner, P.


    Petrological studies play a significant role in the debate regarding the origin of intraplate magmas by providing unequivocal constraints about the source(s) composition and melting processes related to basalt formation. Two major hypotheses are currently in debate: first, intraplate magmas are produced at depth (i.e. within the asthenosphere) by low-degrees melting of an enriched peridotitic source in the presence of CO2 [1]; second, alkaline magmas are produced by the melting of metasomatic hydrous veins present within the lithospheric mantle [2]. If the existence of metasomatic veins in the continental lithospheric mantle is well documented, their existence and the mechanism of their formation in an oceanic setting are still mostly unconstrained. Here we report new petrological data demonstrating that metasomatic veins can be produced within the oceanic lithosphere by percolation and differentiation of low-degree melts initially located in the low velocity zone [3]. The existence of metasomatic veins in the oceanic lithosphere is documented by cpx xenocrysts in accreted basaltic sills from northern Costa Rica. New field observations, 40Ar-39Ar radiometric dating, biostratigraphic ages and geochemical analyses indicate that the sills represent a possible, ancient analogue of petit-spot volcanoes produced off Japan by oceanic plate flexure [4]. The cpx xenocrysts are interpreted as a relic of metasomatic veins based on their composition, which is similar to that of cpx from metasomatic veins observed in mantle outcrops and xenoliths. The major and trace element contents of the studied cpx xenocrysts indicate that they crystallized at high pressure in a differentiated liquid. This liquid represents the last stage of a fractional crystallization process that produced early anhydrous cumulates followed by later hydrous cumulates, a mechanism similar to that proposed by Harte et al. [5] for the formation of metasomatic veins in the continental lithosphere. Monte Carlo

  20. The human impact on natural rock reserves using basalt, anorthosite, and carbonates as raw materials in insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Clausen, Anders U.; Hansen, Peter B.


    % basalt, 20 wt% anorthosite, and 40 wt% cement-bonded renewable materials. This study provides an overview of the natural cycle of these resources, including their abundances in nature, and sets the consumption by the stone wool industry and other human activities in perspective. Basalt, anorthosite......, and carbonates are widespread on all continents. Although basaltic rocks cover most of the ocean floor, these reserves are hidden below several kilometres of water and therefore are regarded as inaccessible. Instead, large igneous provinces on land constitute major basaltic reserves useful for human rock...... exploration. Globally, anorthositic provinces comprise smaller volumes than do limestone or basalt, but still occur in sufficient amounts to supply for the production of insulation materials indefinitely. An evaluation of the modern consumption rates and reserves shows that the crustal inventories...

  1. Calculation of water-bearing primary basalt and estimation of source mantle conditions beneath arcs: PRIMACALC2 model for WINDOWS (United States)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Ariskin, Alexey A.


    We present a new method for estimating the composition of water-bearing primary arc basalt and its source mantle conditions. The PRIMACALC2 model uses a thermodynamic fractional crystallization model COMAGMAT3.72 and runs with an Excel macro to examine the mantle equilibrium and trace element calculations of a primary basalt. COMAGMAT3.72 calculates magma fractionation in 0-10 kb at various compositions, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and water content, but is only applicable for forward calculations. PRIMACALC2 first calculates the provisional composition of a primary basalt from an observed magma. The basalt composition is then calculated by COMAGMAT3.72 for crystallization. Differences in elemental concentrations between observed and the closest-match calculated magmas are then adjusted in the primary basalt. Further iteration continues until the calculated magma composition converges with the observed magma, resulting in the primary basalt composition. Once the fitting is satisfied, back calculations of trace elements are made using stepwise addition of fractionated minerals. Mantle equilibrium of the primary basalt is tested using the Fo-NiO relationship of olivine in equilibrium with the primary basalt, and thus with the source mantle. Source mantle pressure, temperature, and degree of melting are estimated using petrogenetic grids based on experimental data obtained in anhydrous systems. Mantle melting temperature in a hydrous system is computed by adjusting T with a parameterization for a water-bearing system. PRIMACALC2 can be used either in dry or water-bearing arc magmas and is also applicable to mid-ocean ridge basalts and nonalkalic ocean island basalts.

  2. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Gou, Jihua


    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Polysiloxanes contain a silicon oxycarbide backbone when pyrolized up to 1000C. Polycarbosilane, an organosilicon polymer, contain a silicon-carbon backbone; around 1200C, beta-SiC begins to crystallize. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Basalt is a naturally occurring material found in volcanic rock. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. Thermal and mechanical testing includes oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing.

  3. Basalt waste isolation project. Quarterly report, April 1, 1981-June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.


    This document reports progress made in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project during the third quarter of fiscal year 1981. Efforts are described for the following programs of the project work breakdown structure: systems; waste package; site; repository; regulatory and institutional; test facilities; in situ test facilities.

  4. Tachylyte in Cenozoic basaltic lavas from the Czech Republic and Iceland: contrasting compositional trends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Teschner, C.; Řanda, Zdeněk; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Fediuk, F.; Adamovič, Jiří; Pokorný, R.


    Roč. 111, č. 5 (2017), s. 761-775 ISSN 0930-0708 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : basaltic glass * chemical composition * major genetic types * mineral composition * rift-related volcanites * Sr-Nd isotopes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.236, year: 2016

  5. Detection of sub-basaltic sediments by a multi-parametric joint ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To tackle such difficult situations,a joint inversion scheme incorporating seismic reflection and refraction, magnetotelluric and deep electrical resistivity datasets is presented. Efficacy of the scheme is tested for a model comprising a thin sedimentary layer sandwiched between a thick basalt cover and a granitic basement.

  6. Detection of sub-basaltic sediments by a multi-parametric joint ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To tackle such difficult situations, a joint inversion scheme incorporating seismic reflection and refraction, magnetotelluric and deep electrical resistivity datasets is presented. Efficacy of the scheme is tested for a model comprising a thin sedimentary layer sandwiched between a thick basalt cover and a granitic basement.

  7. Investigation of the Reliability of Bridge Elements Reinforced with Basalt Plastic Fibers (United States)

    Koval', T. I.


    The poorly studied problem on the reliability and durability of basalt-fiber-reinforced concrete bridge elements is considered. A method of laboratory research into the work of specimens of the concrete under a manyfold cyclic dynamic load is proposed. The first results of such experiments are presented.

  8. Laboratory Study on Properties of Diatomite and Basalt Fiber Compound Modified Asphalt Mastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Cheng


    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of asphalt mastic, some researchers have added diatomite or basalt fiber as a modifier to the asphalt mastic, and the results show that some properties of the asphalt mastic were improved. For the simultaneous addition of diatomite and basalt fiber, two kinds of modifier, compound modified asphalt mastic had not been reported; in this paper, thirteen groups of diatomite and basalt fiber (DBFCMAM compound modified asphalt mastic with different content were prepared to study the performance. Softening point, cone penetration, viscosity, and DSR tests were conducted, for the high temperature performance evaluation of DBFCMAM, whereas force ductility and BBR tests were used in the low temperature performance study of the DBFCMAM. The results demonstrated that the high temperature performance of DBFCMAM was increased; moreover, the low temperature performance of DBFCMAM improved by diatomite and basalt fiber according to the results of the force ductility test; however, the conclusion of the BBR test data was inconsistent with the force ductility test. In summary, the high temperature and low temperature properties of DBFCMAM had been improved.

  9. Mobilization of manganese by basalt associated Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from the Indian Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; Mourya, B.S.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Meena, R.M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -oxide amended medium, suggesting that the community was more oxidative. Experiments were then conducted with basalt fragments at 4 ± 2 °C in the presence ‘G+’ and absence ‘G-’ of glucose (0.1%). Controls included set-ups, some of which were...

  10. Modeled Thickness of the Grande Ronde Basalt Geomodel Unit (grthk_f) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grthk_f grid represents the modeled thickness of the Gronde Ronde Basalt geomodel unit at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid of a geomodel that consists of...

  11. Modeled Combined Extent of All Columbia River Basalt Units (CRB_extent4xconnections) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile was created as a boundary for the Columbia River Basalt extent and a buffered version was used to clip the geomodel unit grids. As part of a U.S....

  12. Modeled Top of the Wanapum Basalt Geomodel Unit (wntop_f) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The wntop_f grid represents the modeled elevation of the top of the Wanapum Basalt geomodel unit at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid of a geomodel that consists...

  13. High-Ti type N-MORB parentage of basalts from the south Andaman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A complete dismembered sequence of ophiolite is well exposed in the south Andaman region that mainly comprises ultramafic cumulates, serpentinite mafic plutonic and dyke rocks, pillow lava, radiolarian chert, and plagiogranite. Pillow lavas of basaltic composition occupy a major part of the Andaman ophiolite suite (AOS) ...

  14. Modeled Top of the Saddle Mountains Basalt Geomodel Unit (smtop_f) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The smtop_f grid represents the modeled elevation of the top of the Saddle Mountains Basalt geomodlel unit at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid of a geomodel...

  15. Modeled Top of the Grande Ronde Basalt Geomodel Unit (grtop_f) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grtop_f grid represents the modeled elevation of the top of the Grande Ronde Basalt geomodel unit at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid of a geomodel that...

  16. Olivine Major and Trace Element Compositions in Southern Payenia Basalts, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj


    Olivine major and trace element compositions from 12 basalts from the southern Payenia volcanic province in Argentina have been analyzed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The olivines have high Fe/Mn and low Ca/Fe and many fall at the end...

  17. Petrochemistry and tectonic significance of Lower Cretaceous Barros Arana Formation basalts, southernmost Chilean Andes (United States)

    Stern, C. R.; Mohseni, P. P.; Fuenzalida, P. R.

    The Lower Cretaceous Barros Arana Formation (Albian, hornblende KAr age of 104 Ma), in the Magallanes region of Chile, consists of a sequence of spilitized clinopyroxene- and amphibole-bearing mafic dikes and lavas, and volcaniclastic breccias, occurring within the sedimentary infill of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and its eastward extension onto the Cretaceous continental platform. Although the original alkali and alkaline earth element concentrations of the basaltic lavas and dikes have been altered by spilitization, the presence of relict pargasitic amphibole phenocrysts, the absence of orthopyroxene, and high LREE contents and LREE/HREE ratios imply mildly alkaline affinities for these basalts. Their low TiO 2 and HFSE (Zr, Nb, Ta, and Hf) contents and high LREE/HFSE ratios suggest affinities with convergent plate boundary arc magmas. The Barros Arana basalts are interpreted as mafic members of the mildly alkaline shoshonitic rock suite of subduction-related arcs. They may have formed as subduction geometry began to undergo the changes (flattening) that ultimately led to the initiation of the closure, deformation, and uplift of the Rocas Verdes basin by the late or post-Albian. The low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7031) and high initial 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.51277) of the basalts indicate that a generally extensional tectonic regime east of the main calc-alkaline arc allowed eruption of these mafic shoshonites without interaction with continental crust (in contrast to the contemporaneous plutons of the Patagonian batholith).

  18. Sr Isotopic Evidence on the Spilitic Degradation of the Deccan Basalt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In contrast, a dramatic increase in the rare earth elements (REE) from basalt to spilite is rather puzzling as rare earths are considered to be relatively immobile. The geochemistry thus suggests that the process of spilitization is due to the reaction with a complex fluid having identical Sr-isotopic composition as that of the ...

  19. Characterization and Petrologic Interpretation of Olivine-Rich Basalts at Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    McSween, H. Y.; Wyatt, M. B.; Gellert, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Morris, R. V.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Milam, K. A.; Stockstill, K. R.; Tornabene, L. L.; hide


    Rocks on the floor of Gusev crater are basalts of uniform composition and mineralogy. Olivine, the only mineral to have been identified or inferred from data by all instruments on the Spirit rover, is especially abundant in these rocks. These picritic basalts are similar in many respects to certain Martian meteorites (olivine-phyric shergottites). The olivine megacrysts in both have intermediate compositions, with modal abundances ranging up to 20-30%. Associated minerals in both include low-calcium and high-calcium pyroxenes, plagioclase of intermediate composition, iron-titanium-chromium oxides, and phosphate. These rocks also share minor element trends, reflected in their nickel-magnesium and chromium-magnesium ratios. Gusev basalts and shergottites appear to have formed from primitive magmas produced by melting an undepleted mantle at depth and erupted without significant fractionation. However, apparent differences between Gusev rocks and shergottites in their ages, plagioclase abundances, and volatile contents preclude direct correlation. Orbital determinations of global olivine distribution and compositions by thermal emission spectroscopy suggest that olivine-rich rocks may be widespread. Because weathering under acidic conditions preferentially attacks olivine and disguises such rocks beneath alteration rinds, picritic basalts formed from primitive magmas may even be a common component of the Martian crust formed during ancient and recent times.

  20. Mossbauer spectroscopy of magnetic minerals in basalt on Earth and Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Rasmussen, H.; Kristjansson, L.


    Mossbauer spectroscopy of iron-titanium containing spinel phases is reviewed. New techniques are presented for determination of their composition using room-temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy. An example of thermal alteration processes is described. The speciality of olivine-containing basalt...

  1. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Wang, Xin; Gou, Jihua


    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Polysiloxanes contain a silicon oxycarbide backbone when pyrolized up to 1000 deg C. Polycarbosilane, an organosilicon polymer, contain a silicon-carbon backbone; around 1200 deg C, Beta-SiC begins to crystallize. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Basalt is a naturally occurring material found in volcanic rock. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. Thermal and mechanical testing includes oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing.

  2. Establishment and Evolution of a new Silicic Magma System North of Yellowstone Caldera: Geochronology, Geochemistry and Petrographic Relationships of Extracaldera Basalts and Rhyolites in the Norris-Mammoth Corridor (United States)

    Spell, T. L.; Smith, E. I.; Nastanski, N. M.; Bennett, K.


    Basalts and rhyolites erupted north of the Yellowstone Caldera following collapse at 640 ka. The geochronology, petrographic relationships and geochemistry of these rocks record the development of a new rhyolitic magma system in the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field. Basaltic lavas were erupted from at least seven shield volcanoes and a cinder cone between 358 ka to 209 ka (40Ar/39Ar eruption ages). Lavas for each center are associated with separate magma batches derived by melting of asthenospheric mantle and incorporating differing amounts of lithospheric mantle. For example, the Swan Lake Flat basalt erupted from four centers and displays decreasing 87Sr/86Sr and increasing ɛ Nd with decreasing age (87Sr/86Sr from 0.7062 to 0.7053, ɛ Nd from -2.5 to +0.18). Trace-element concentrations decrease (e.g., Ba decreases from OIB levels to 0.1 OIB). This change is modeled by a larger MORB and a smaller lithospheric component in the younger lavas. These patterns are similar to those seen prior to previous caldera-forming eruptions at Yellowstone. For example, just before the eruption of the Huckleberry Ridge tuff at 2.2 Ma, the Hepburn Mesa basalt evolved from ɛ Nd -6 to -1 signifying an increased input of asthenospheric mantle derived basalt just prior to caldera formation. Aside from two older rhyolite lavas erupted at 358 ka and 526 ka which are spatially and chemically distinct, all extracaldera rhyolites have characteristics which suggest they are derived from an evolving silicic magma system of substantial longevity (>326 ka to 80 ka). Eruptions occurred in an area ~5-7 km wide by 22 km long (north-south). Mingled lavas consisting of andesite enclaves in rhyolite characterize the early magma system from 316 ka to 263 ka, contemporaneous with Swan Lake Flat basaltic volcanism. Andesite enclave chemistry can be modeled as mixing of Swan Lake Flat basalt with rhyolite from mingled lavas. 206Pb/238U zircon ages from these early rhyolites indicate mean magma

  3. Simulation and Experimental Determination of Technological Liquid Molding Parameters of Tubing Basalt Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Badanina


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to one of the most important and urgent tasks in mechanical engineering development - the creation of low-density and environmentally-friendly thermoinsulation from available cheap basalt fibers for products to operate at temperatures up to 700°C.One of the most effective applications of such thermo-insulation is to develop and provide highly porous coatings from short basalt fibers by liquid filtration for tubing (T to supply superheated up to 420° C steam under pressure of 35 MPa in the deep layers with severe highviscosity oil. Tubing with the short low-density basalt insulation can be used for a greater depth than the vacuum-insulated tubing, which are also called "thermo-cases", and do not fully meet business needs for long-term reliability of oil vacuum tubes, too large mass per unit length of their design and, as a consequence, the impossibility to use such pipes for deep wells.The aim of the work is to simulate a liquid filtration process of short fibers and determine technological parameters of producing thermal insulation coatings of tubing pipes from basalt fibers and mineral binder shaped as cylinders and cylindrical shells. The paper proposes a mathematical model of free filtration deposition of short fibers from liquid slurry, which describes dynamics of creating thermal insulation products and allows us to determine the rational parameters of their manufacturing process. It shows methods to improve the products quality while forming the thermal insulation by filtration through additional vacuum deposition of a filtrate chamber and the final prepressing of sediment layer, giving dimensions and shape to the final product.The paper defines a prescription hydro mass composition. It shows that to increase the compressive strength of highly fibrous rings and cylindrical shells it is necessary to use based on oxide А12O3 5-7% by weight mineral binder, which fixes basalt fibers in places of their contacts. It

  4. Iridium content of basaltic tuffs and enclosing black shales of the balder formation, North Sea (United States)

    Crawford Elliott, W.; Aronson, James L.; Millard, Hugh T., Jr.


    The anomalous levels of Ir and the presence of shocked metamorphosed quartz deposited at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary worldwide is strong evidence that a meteorite impact took place during the K/T boundary interval. However, because of observed high Ir contents at Kilauea vents, it is still a major point of contention that the Ir anomaly could have been produced by flood basaltic volcanism. This might especially be true at Stevns Klint, Denmark, where the K/T boundary marl contains pyroclastic labradorite and Mg-smectite thought to have been produced by basaltic volcanism. However, up to now, no study has determined whether or not a depositional Ir anomaly has formed in association with a known major basaltic eruption. Herein, we report the concentrations of Ir, Pt, Au, and Ag in basaltic tuffs and enclosing marine black shales of the widespread Paleocene-Eocene Balder Formation. The tuffs in the Balder Formation represent explosive basaltic volcanism associated with the major volcano/tectonic activity of the opening of the northern North Atlantic Ocean. As such, they are the kind of eruption that could have possibly created a global K/T boundary-type Ir anomaly. Our results show that the tuffs and the shales on a per-weight basis both contain concentrations of Ir (0.1-0.25 ppb) that are higher than the Ir levels recently measured from terrestrial rocks including the Deccan Trap and Columbia River flood basalts, but are comparable to Hawaiian and Reunion Island basalts. Because of its thickness, the absolute amount of Ir expelled during the eruption of the main tuff sequence of the Balder Tuff is sizable. Yet for such an eruption to have produced a global Ir anomaly would mandate it having been one of an extremely high volatile content and it would have to have been erupted over a very short interval of time. Furthermore, such a high proportion of the volatilized Ir would have to have been injected into the stratosphere so that only small enrichments of

  5. Studies of Magmatic Inclusions in the Basaltic Martian Meteorites Shergotty, Zagami, EETA 79001 and QUE 94201 (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; McKay, Gordon A.


    Currently there are 12 meteorites thought by planetary scientists to be martian samples, delivered to the Earth after violent impacts on that planet's surface. Of these 12 specimens, 4 are basaltic: Shergotty, Zagami, EETA 79001 and QUE 94201. Basalts are particularly important rocks to planetary geologists- they are the most common rocks found on the surfaces of the terrestrial planets, representing volcanic activity of their parent worlds. In addition, because they are generated by partial melting of the mantle and/or lower crust, they can serve as guide posts to the composition and internal processes of a planet. Consequently these four meteorites can serve as 'ground-truth' representatives of the predominant volcanic surface rocks of Mars, and offer researchers a glimpse of the magmatic history of that planet. Unfortunately, unraveling the parentage of a basaltic rock is not always straightforward. While many basalts are simple, unaltered partial melts of the mantle, others have undergone secondary processes which change the original parental chemistry, such as assimilation of other crustal rocks, mixing with other magmas, accumulation, re-equilibration between mineral species after crystallization, loss of late-stage magmatic fluids and alteration by metamorphic or metasomatic processes. Fortunately, magmatic inclusions can trap the evolving magmatic liquid, isolating it from many of these secondary processes and offering a direct look at the magma during different stages of development. These inclusions form when major or minor phases grow skeletally, surrounding small amounts of the parental magma within pockets in the growing crystal. The inclusion as a whole (usually consisting of glass with enclosed crystals) continues to represent the composition of the parental magma at the time the melt pocket closed, even when the rock as a whole evolves under changing conditions. The four basaltic martian meteorites contain several distinct generations of melt

  6. Amorphous material from the rapid evaporation of basalt weathering solutions: Implications for Amazonian alteration (United States)

    Smith, R.; Horgan, B. H. N.; Christensen, P. R.


    Amorphous silicates of ambiguous origin are detected on the Martian surface through orbiter and rover measurements. Secondary amorphous silicates might precipitate from rapidly evaporating weathering solutions under Amazonian ( 3 BYA - present) surface conditions. Yet, such phases are poorly understood and are underrepresented in infrared spectral libraries. Amazonian weathering was simulated by dissolving two basaltic tephra compositions in DI water under two different atmospheres (1: oxidizing and 2: simulated Martian). The resulting weathering solutions were rapidly evaporated into sample cups. Precipitate mineralogy was studied using visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Solution compositions were analyzed using Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). All experiments formed hydrated amorphous silicates and nanophase iron-oxides, but precipitates from solutions formed under a simulated Martian atmosphere also contain crystalline carbonate and sulfate minerals. The oxidizing atmosphere precipitates are also S-bearing, based on solution chemistry, but no crystalline sulfates were unambiguously detected. The TIR spectra of all samples exhibit a spectral feature at 460 cm-1 that was previously only known to be present in the spectra of basaltic glass and some terrestrial palagonitized basalt samples, indicating that the precipitates are new to spectral libraries. Ongoing characterization will help determine the composition and structure of the amorphous phases. TIR spectral and XRD instruments on the Spirit and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rovers both indicate high abundances of basaltic glass in rock and soil samples, despite chemical evidence for aqueous alteration. Our results suggest that these measurements are consistent with secondary amorphous silicates formed through the rapid evaporation of basalt weathering solutions. Thus, transient water

  7. Tachylyte in Cenozoic basaltic lavas from the Czech Republic and Iceland: contrasting compositional trends (United States)

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Teschner, Claudia; Řanda, Zdeněk; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Fediuk, Ferry; Adamovič, Jiří; Pokorný, Richard


    Tachylytes from rift-related volcanic rocks were recognized as: (i) irregular veinlets in host alkaline lava flows of the Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic, (ii) (sub)angular xenoliths in alkaline lava of the feeding channel of the Bukovec volcano, Czech Republic, and (iii) paleosurface of a tholeiitic lava flow from Hafrafell, Iceland. The tachylyte from Kozákov is phonotephrite to tephriphonolite in composition while that from Bukovec corresponds to trachyandesite to tephriphonolite. Both glass and host rock from Hafrafell are of tholeiitic basalt composition. The tachylyte from Kozákov, compared with the host rock, revealed a substantial enrichment in major elements such as Si, Al and alkalis along with Rb, Sr, Ba, Nb, Zr, REE, Th and U. The tachylyte from Bukovec displays contrasting trends in the incompatible element contents. The similarity in composition of the Hafrafell tachylyte paleosurface layer and parental tholeiitic basalt is characteristic for lavas. The host/parent rocks and tachylytes have similar initial Sr-Nd characteristics testifying for their co-magmatic sources. The initial ɛNd values of host/parent rocks and tachylytes from the Bohemian Massif (+3.4 to +3.9) and those from Iceland (+6.3) are interpreted as primary magma values. Only the tachylyte from Bukovec shows a different ɛNd value of -2.1, corresponding to a xenolith of primarily sedimentary/metamorphic origin. The tachylyte from Kozákov is a product of an additional late magmatic portion of fluids penetrating through an irregular fissure system of basaltic lava. The Bukovec tachylyte is represented by xenoliths originated during the interaction of ascending basaltic melt with granitoids or orthogneisses, whereas the Hafrafell tachylyte is a product of a rapid cooling on the surface of a basalt flow.

  8. Detection of Fatigue Crack in Basalt FRP Laminate Composite Pipe using Electrical Potential Change Method (United States)

    Altabey, Wael A.; Noori, Mohammed


    Novel modulation electrical potential change (EPC) method for fatigue crack detection in a basalt fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) laminate composite pipe is carried out in this paper. The technique is applied to a laminate pipe with an embedded crack in three layers [0º/90º/0º]s. EPC is applied for evaluating the dielectric properties of basalt FRP pipe by using an electrical capacitance sensor (ECS) to discern damages in the pipe. Twelve electrodes are mounted on the outer surface of the pipe and the changes in the modulation dielectric properties of the piping system are analyzed to detect damages in the pipe. An embedded crack is created by a fatigue internal pressure test. The capacitance values, capacitance change and node potential distribution of ECS electrodes are calculated before and after crack initiates using a finite element method (FEM) by ANSYS and MATLAB, which are combined to simulate sensor characteristics and fatigue behaviour. The crack lengths of the basalt FRP are investigated for various number of cycles to failure for determining crack growth rate. Response surfaces are adopted as a tool for solving inverse problems to estimate crack lengths from the measured electric potential differences of all segments between electrodes to validate the FEM results. The results show that, the good convergence between the FEM and estimated results. Also the results of this study show that the electrical potential difference of the basalt FRP laminate increases during cyclic loading, caused by matrix cracking. The results indicate that the proposed method successfully provides fatigue crack detection for basalt FRP laminate composite pipes.

  9. Red Sea rift-related Quseir basalts, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrogenesis and tectonic processes (United States)

    Farahat, Esam S.; Ali, Shehata; Hauzenberger, Christoph


    Mineral and whole-rock chemistry of Red Sea rift-related Tertiary basalts from south Quseir city, central Eastern Desert of Egypt is presented to investigate their petrogenesis and relationship to tectonic processes. The south Quseir basalts (SQB) are classified as high-Ti (TiO2 >2 wt.%) subalkaline transitional lava emplaced in an anorogenic tectonic setting. Their Mg# varies from 48 to 53 indicating the evolved nature of the SQB. Pearce element ratios suggest that the SQB magmas evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine + clinopyroxene ± plagioclase, but the absence of Eu anomalies argues against significant plagioclase fractionation. Clinopyroxene compositions provide evidence for polybaric fractionation of the parental mafic magmas. Estimated temperatures of crystallization are 1015 to 1207 °C for clinopyroxene and 1076 to 1155 °C for plagioclase. These values are interpreted to result from early stage crystallization of clinopyroxene followed by concurrent crystallization of clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The incompatible trace element signatures of the SQB (La/Ba = 0.08-0.10 and La/Nb = 0.89-1.04) are comparable to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) generated from an asthenospheric mantle source unaffected by subduction components. Modeling calculations indicate that the SQB primary magmas were derived from 4-5% partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source. The NE Egyptian basaltic volcanism is spatially and temporally related to Red Sea rifting and to the local E-W striking faults, confirming a relationship to tectonic activity. Our results suggest that the extensional regime associated with Red Sea rifting controlled the generation of the Egyptian basalts, likely as a result of passive upwelling of asthenospheric mantle.

  10. Gas cluster ion beam for the characterization of organic materials in submarine basalts as Mars analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Naoko, E-mail:; Barlow, Anders J.; Cumpson, Peter J. [National EPSRC XPS Users' Service (NEXUS), School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Stephenson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Purvis, Graham W. H.; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Gray, Neil N. D. [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)


    The solar system contains large quantities of organic compounds that can form complex molecular structures. The processing of organic compounds by biological systems leads to molecules with distinctive structural characteristics; thus, the detection and characterization of organic materials could lead to a high degree of confidence in the existence of extra-terrestrial life. Given the nature of the surface of most planetary bodies in the solar system, evidence of life is more likely to be found in the subsurface where conditions are more hospitable. Basalt is a common rock throughout the solar system and the primary rock type on Mars and Earth. Basalt is therefore a rock type that subsurface life might exploit and as such a suitable material for the study of methods required to detect and analyze organic material in rock. Telluric basalts from Earth represent an analog for extra-terrestrial rocks where the indigenous organic matter could be analyzed for molecular biosignatures. This study focuses on organic matter in the basalt with the use of surface analysis techniques utilizing Ar gas cluster ion beams (GCIB); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to characterize organic molecules. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis was also used to support the data obtained using the surface analysis techniques. The authors demonstrate that organic molecules were found to be heterogeneously distributed within rock textures. A positive correlation was observed to exist between the presence of microtubule textures in the basalt and the organic compounds detected. From the results herein, the authors propose that ToF-SIMS with an Ar GCIB is effective at detecting organic materials in such geological samples, and ToF-SIMS combined with XPS and TMAH thermochemolysis may be a useful approach in the study of extra-terrestrial organic material and life.

  11. Textural history of recent basaltic-andesites and plutonic inclusions from Merapi volcano (United States)

    van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Chadwick, Jane P.; Troll, Valentin R.


    Mt. Merapi in Central Java is one of the most active stratovolcanoes on Earth and is underlain by a multistage plumbing system. Crystal size distribution analyses (CSD) were carried out on recent Merapi basaltic-andesites and co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions to characterise the crystallisation processes that operate during storage and ascent and to obtain information on respective time scales. The basaltic-andesites exhibit log-linear, kinked-upwards CSD curves for plagioclase and clinopyroxene that can be separated into two main textural populations. Large plagioclase phenocrysts (≥1.6 mm) make up one population, but correspond to crystals with variable geochemical composition and reflect a period of crystal growth at deep to mid-crustal levels. This population was subsequently influenced by crystal accumulation and the onset of crustal assimilation, including the incorporation of high-Ca skarn-derived xenocrysts. Textural re-equilibration is required for these crystals to form a single population in CSD. A second episode of crystal growth at shallower levels is represented by chemically homogenous plagioclase crystals <1.6 mm in size. Crustal assimilation is indicated by, for example, oxygen isotopes and based on the CSD data, crystallisation combined with contamination is likely semi-continuous in these upper crustal storage chambers. The CSD data observed in the basaltic-andesite samples are remarkably consistent and require a large-volume steady state magmatic system beneath Merapi in which late textural equilibration plays a significant role. Plagioclase CSDs of co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions may contain a third crystal population (<1 mm) not found in the lavas. This third population has probably formed from enhanced degassing of portions of basaltic-andesite magma at shallow crustal levels which resulted in increased crystallinity and basaltic-andesite mush inclusions. A suite of coarse plutonic inclusions is also present that

  12. Continental Flood Basalts of Bennett Island, East Siberian Sea: High Arctic Geodynamics (United States)

    Tegner, Christian; Pease, Victoria


    Volcanism provides a means of tracing mantle melting events and crustal evolution. The High Arctic includes a rich portfolio of volcanic rocks outcropping in the Circum-Arctic borderlands and imaged geophysically beneath the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge that have been lumped together as a High-Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). However, the ages (c. 440-60 Ma) and compositions (tholeiitic-alkaline-calc-alkaline) reported varies considerably and geological correlations remain elusive. One of the possible correlative events is the formation of continental flood basalts and sills in the Canadian Arctic Islands, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land and Bennett Island. These flood basalts have previously been linked to mantle plume melting and may represent a short-lived LIP event at c. 124-122 Ma. We present new data for a 350 m thick continental flood basalt succession at Bennett Island examined during fieldwork in Septemer 2013 on a joint Russian (VSEGEI) - Swedish (SWEDARCTIC) expedition to the De Long Archipelago. This volcanic succession is composed of 20 near-horisontal, undeformed flow units overlying a thin sedimentary succession of Cretaceous age (?) including coal seams and possibly volcaniclastic material that, in turn, unconformably overlies a more steeply dipping succession of Cambrian and Ordovician sediments. The flows are thinnest (c. 2-10 m) and aphyric to very-sparsely olivine-phyric in the lower portion. In contrast, the flows in the upper portion are thicker (>20 m) and aphyric to sparsely plagioclase-phyric. We will discuss new petrographic and compositional data for the Bennett Island flood basalts, possibly including new U-Pb age data. The aim is to evaluate their petrogenesis, to discuss their possible correlation to the flood basalt and sill successions of the Canadian Arctic Islands, Svalbard and Franz Josef Land and evaluate the geodynamic evolution of the High Arctic.

  13. Volcanic red-bed copper mineralisation related to submarine basalt alteration, Mont Alexandre, Quebec Appalachians, Canada (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Beaudoin, Georges


    Two types of native copper occur in Upper Silurian basaltic rocks in the Mont Alexandre area, Quebec Appalachians: (1) type 1 forms micrometric inclusions in plagioclase and is possibly magmatic in origin, whereas (2) type 2 occurs as coarse-grained patches rimmed by cuprite in altered porphyritic basalt. Type 1 has higher contents of sulphur (2,000-20,263 ppm) and arsenic (146-6,017 ppm), and a broader range of silver abundances (<65-2,186 ppm Ag) than type 2 (149-1,288 ppm S, <90-146 As, <65-928 ppm Ag). No mineral inclusions of sulphide or arsenide in native copper were observed at the electron-microprobe scale. Primary igneous fabrics are preserved, but the basaltic flows are pervasively oxidised and plagioclase is albitised. Chlorite replaces plagioclase and forms interstitial aggregates in the groundmass and has Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios ranging from 0.29 to 0.36 with calculated temperatures between 155°C and 182°C. Copper sulphides in vacuoles and veinlets are associated with malachite, fibro-radiating albite and yarrowite (Cu9S8 with up to 0.3 wt% Ag). Bulk-rock concentrations of thallium and lithium range from 70 to 310 ppb and 10 to 22 ppm, respectively, and thallium is positively correlated with Fe2O3. Such concentrations of thallium and lithium are typical of spilitisation during heated seawater-basalt interaction. Spilitisation is consistent with the regional geological setting of deepwater-facies sedimentation, but is different from current models for volcanic red-bed copper, which indicate subaerial oxidation of volcanic flows. The volcanic red-bed copper model should be re-examined to account for native copper mineralisation in basalts altered by warm seawater.

  14. Continental flood basalt weathering as a trigger for Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth (United States)

    Cox, Grant M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Stevenson, Ross K.; Vokaty, Michelle; Poirier, André; Kunzmann, Marcus; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Denyszyn, Steven W.; Strauss, Justin V.; Macdonald, Francis A.


    Atmospheric CO2 levels and global climate are regulated on geological timescales by the silicate weathering feedback. However, this thermostat has failed multiple times in Earth's history, most spectacularly during the Cryogenian (c. 720-635 Ma) Snowball Earth episodes. The unique middle Neoproterozoic paleogeography of a rifting, low-latitude, supercontinent likely favored a globally cool climate due to the influence of the silicate weathering feedback and planetary albedo. Under these primed conditions, the emplacement and weathering of extensive continental flood basalt provinces may have provided the final trigger for runaway global glaciation. Weathering of continental flood basalts may have also contributed to the characteristically high carbon isotope ratios (δ13 C) of Neoproterozoic seawater due to their elevated P contents. In order to test these hypotheses, we have compiled new and previously published Neoproterozoic Nd isotope data from mudstones in northern Rodinia (North America, Australia, Svalbard, and South China) and Sr isotope data from carbonate rocks. The Nd isotope data are used to model the mafic detrital input into sedimentary basins in northern Rodinia. The results reveal a dominant contribution from continental flood basalt weathering during the ca. 130 m.y. preceding the onset of Cryogenian glaciation, followed by a precipitous decline afterwards. These data are mirrored by the Sr isotope record, which reflects the importance of chemical weathering of continental flood basalts on solute fluxes to the early-middle Neoproterozoic ocean, including a pulse of unradiogenic Sr input into the oceans just prior to the onset of Cyrogenian glaciation. Hence, our new data support the hypotheses that elevated rates of flood basalt weathering contributed to both the high average δ13 C of seawater in the Neoproterozoic and to the initiation of the first (Sturtian) Snowball Earth.

  15. Similarities between Silurian and Cenozoic basalts in rock-magnetic properties and its implication for Silurian paleogeography (United States)

    Schnabl, P.; Pruner, P.; Cajz, V.; Tasaryova, Z.; Cizkova, K.; Kletetschka, G.


    We compare two groups of basalts produced in similar conditions of environment, but significantly different in age. The younger ones represent the Ústí Fm. volcanics of the České stredohorí Mts., situated inside the Eger Graben; and the others are developed in Silurian of the Prague Basin (Barrandian). Rocks of both groups were usually produced into the wet environs. Hyaloclastite are commonly observable rocks, documenting the environment in the time of their origin. We suppose similar primary composition of magnetic carriers because both groups represent the same petrologic type. The only difference is in their age - during the time, some secondary changes on magnetic carriers could take place. The set of Cenozoic basalts consists of 292 samples (23 locations) and the Silurian set includes 485 samples (32 locations). For the comparison, we have used magnetomineralogical properties like natural remanent magnetization (NRM; Silurian 1.1±3.8 A/m, Cenozoic 2.0±2.1 A/m) , magnetic susceptibility (MS; Silurian 7.0±16.1 x10-3SI, Cenozoic 24.4±11.5 x10-3SI), unblocking temperature (UT; Silurian 200-580°C, Cenozoic 150-580°C), mean destructive field (MDF; Silurian 4-58 mT, Cenozoic 3-60 mT), Königsberger 's parameter Q (Silurian 3.93, Cenozoic 2.05) and K-parameter (precision parameter coming from Fisher statistics; Silurian7-102, Cenozoic14-643). NRM reflects the quantity of ferromagnetic minerals; MS represents total amount of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic minerals; UT is the temperature of the steepest decrease of demagnetisation curve and it is close to transition between para- and ferromagnetic behaviour; MDF represents stability character of NRM during alternating field demagnetization when 50% of initial value is reached; Q-parameter is the ratio of the remanent magnetization to the induced magnetization (product of susceptibility and the Earth's magnetic field strength - a large Q-value indicates that the magnetic material will tend to maintain

  16. Use of Macro Basalt Fibre Concrete for Marine Applications


    Mohammadi Mohaghegh, Ali


    Deterioration of concrete structures due to the corrosion of embedded steel is a well-known universal problem. Norway with its numerous bridges, ports, offshore and floating structures along its coastline, is also encountered with corrosion degradation. The harsh environment of the Norwegian Sea regarding its low temperature, wind, and waves, makes the design and construction of marine structures more demanding. In recent years, usage of sustainable composite materials in the field of structu...

  17. Radiation shielding properties of high performance concrete reinforced with basalt fibers infused with natural and enriched boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorla, Eyüp; Ipbüker, Cagatay [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Biland, Alex [US Basalt Corp., Houston (United States); Kiisk, Madis [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Kovaljov, Sergei [OÜ Basaltest, Tartu (Estonia); Tkaczyk, Alan H. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Gulik, Volodymyr, E-mail: [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, Lysogirska 12, of. 201, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine)


    Highlights: • Basalt fiber infused with natural and enriched boron in varying proportions. • Gamma-ray attenuation remains stable with addition of basalt-boron fiber. • Improvement in neutron shielding for nuclear facilities producing fast fission spectrum. • Basalt-boron fiber could decrease the shielding thickness in thermal spectrum reactors. - Abstract: The importance of radiation shielding is increasing in parallel with the expansion of the application areas of nuclear technologies. This study investigates the radiation shielding properties of two types of high strength concrete reinforced with basalt fibers infused with 12–20% boron oxide, containing varying fractions of natural and enriched boron. The gamma-ray shielding characteristics are analyzed with the help of the WinXCom, whereas the neutron shielding characteristics are modeled and computed by Monte Carlo Serpent code. For gamma-ray shielding, the attenuation coefficients of the studied samples do not display any significant variation due to the addition of basalt-boron fibers at any mixing proportion. For neutron shielding, the addition of basalt-boron fiber has negligible effects in the case of very fast neutrons (14 MeV), but it could considerably improve the neutron shielding of concrete for nuclear facilities producing a fast fission spectrum (e.g. with reactors as BN-800, FBTR) and thermal neutron spectrum (Light Water Reactors (LWR)). It was also found that basalt-boron fiber could decrease the thickness of radiation shielding material in thermal spectrum reactors.

  18. Geochemical models of melting and magma storage conditions for basalt lava from Santorini Volcano, Greece (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Pantazidis, Avgoustinos; Klemme, Stephan; Berndt, Jasper; Asimow, Paul


    Santorini volcano sits ˜150 km above the Wadati-Benioff zone of the Aegean arc, where the African plate subducts northward beneath the Eurasian continent (Papazachos et al. 2000). Santorini volcano has a long history: activity started ca. 650 ka (mainly rhyolites and rhyodacites), with active pulses following ca. 550 ka (basalt to rhyodacite) and ca. 360 ka (large explosive eruptions of andesite to rhyodacite and minor basalt), culminating in the caldera-forming Bronze-age Minoan event (Druitt et al. 1999). As in many arc volcanoes, scenarios of fractional crystallization with or without mixing between felsic and mafic magmas have been proposed to explain the compositions, textures, and eruptive styles of Santorini products (e.g., Huijsmans & Barton 1989; Montazavi & Sparks 2004; Andújar et al. 2015). Here we focus on a basalt lava from the southern part of Santorini volcano (Balos cove, 36˚ 21.7'N, 25˚ 23.8'E), one of the few basaltic localities in the Aegean arc. The goals are to infer constraints on the magma chamber conditions which lead to mafic eruption at Santorini Volcano and to evaluate the slab and mantle wedge conditions via geochemical and petrological mass balance modelling. We collected and characterised 20 samples for texture (SEM), mineral chemistry (FE-EPMA) and whole-rock chemistry (XRF). The basalts contain phenocrystic olivine (Ol) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) (magnetite (Mt) with minor glass and rare xenocrystic quartz. Santorini basalts exhibit a pilotaxitic to trachytic texture defined by randomly to flow-oriented tabular Pl, respectively. The predominant minerals are calcic Pl (core An78-85 and rim An60-76; 45-50 vol.%), Cpx (En36-48Wo41-44Fs11-21; 10-15 vol.%) and Ol (Fo74-88; 10-12 vol.%). Idiomorphic to subidiomorphic Mt (<10μm diameter) with variable TiO2 contents (1.9-16.5 wt%) is a minor constituent (˜1-2 vol.%) in the less mafic samples. Observed mineralogy and major element chemistry suggest fractionation in a shallow magma chamber

  19. Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Tensile Behavior of Polymer Composites Reinforced by Basalt and Carbon Fibers (United States)

    Khalili, S. Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Moslem; Eslami-Farsani, Reza


    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of thermal cycling on the tensile behavior of three types of polymer-matrix composites — a phenolic resin reinforced with woven basalt fibers, woven carbon fibers, and hybrid basalt and carbon fibers — in an ambient environment. For this purpose, tensile tests were performed on specimens previously subjected to a certain number of thermal cycles. The ultimate tensile strength of the specimen reinforced with woven basalt fibers had by 5% after thermal cycling, but the strength of the specimen with woven carbon fibers had reduced to a value by 11% higher than that before thermal cycling.

  20. Magmatic evolution of the fresh basalts from the Ridge axis near Egaria Fracture Zone, Central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mudholkar, A.V.

    Volcanism on Terrestrial Planets. Basaltic Volcanism Study Project, Pergamon Press, New York, 1286p. BAXTER, A. N. (1990) Major and trace element variation in basalts from Leg US. In: R.A. Duncan et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program...-rich melt inclusions within spinel in oceanic tholeiites: Indicators of magma mixing and parental magma composition. Earth Planet Sci. Lett, v. 37, pp.81-89. DUNGAN, M. A. and RHODES, J. M. (1978) Residual glasses and melt inclusions in basalts from DSDP...

  1. Rocket motors incorporating basalt fiber and nanoclay compositions and methods of insulating a rocket motor with the same (United States)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor)


    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber, basalt fibers, and nanoclay is disclosed. Further disclosed is an insulation composition that comprises polybenzimidazole fibers, basalt fibers, and nanoclay. The basalt fibers may be present in the insulation compositions in a range of from approximately 1% by weight to approximately 6% by weight of the total weight of the insulation composition. The nanoclay may be present in the insulation compositions in a range of from approximately 5% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of the total weight of the insulation composition. Rocket motors including the insulation compositions and methods of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  2. Basalt fiber and nanoclay compositions, articles incorporating the same, and methods of insulating a rocket motor with the same (United States)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor)


    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber, basalt fibers, and nanoclay is disclosed. Further disclosed is an insulation composition that comprises polybenzimidazole fibers, basalt fibers, and nanoclay. The basalt fibers may be present in the insulation compositions in a range of from approximately 1% by weight to approximately 6% by weight of the total weight of the insulation composition. The nanoclay may be present in the insulation compositions in a range of from approximately 5% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of the total weight of the insulation composition. Rocket motors including the insulation compositions and methods of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  3. Preliminary geochemical and physical testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O' Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.


    The available data on environmental conditions (both natural and man-made) at the Hanford Site are sufficient for preconceptual plug system design. Results of the geochemical testing program indicate that preferred candidate plug materials are chemically nonreactive during laboratory tests that simulated some of the expected environmental conditions. Agitated, crushed-basalt samples and mixtures containing basalt were found to be self-cementing under the hydrothermal conditions. Materials considered most suitable for consideration in future test programs and preconceptual plug design are mixtures of natural materials (basalt, clay, glaciofluvial sand, gravel, and zeolite) and processed natural materials (portland cement Type V and grouts plus additives).

  4. Investigating the Influence of Waste Basalt Powder on Selected Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar (United States)

    Dobiszewska, Magdalena; Beycioğlu, Ahmet


    Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material in civil engineering applications. The consumption of cement and thus concrete, increases day by day along with the growth of urbanization and industrialization and due to new developments in construction technologies, population growing, increasing of living standard. Concrete production consumes much energy and large amounts of natural resources. It causes environmental, energy and economic losses. The most important material in concrete production is cement. Cement industry contributes to production of about 7% of all CO2 generated in the world. Every ton of cement production releases nearly one ton of CO2 to atmosphere. Thus the concrete and cement industry changes the environment appearance and influences it very much. Therefore, it has become very important for construction industry to focus on minimizing the environmental impact, reducing energy consumption and limiting CO2 emission. The need to meet these challenges has spurred an interest in the development of a blended Portland cement in which the amount of clinker is reduced and partially replaced with mineral additives – supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Many researchers have studied the possibility of using another mineral powder in mortar and concrete production. The addition of marble dust, basalt powder, granite or limestone powder positively affects some properties of cement mortar and concrete. This paper presents an experimental study on the properties of cement paste and mortar containing basalt powder. The basalt powder is a waste emerged from the preparation of aggregate used in asphalt mixture production. Previous studies have shown that analysed waste used as a fine aggregate replacement, has a beneficial effect on some properties of mortar and concrete, i.e. compressive strength, flexural strength and freeze resistance also. The present study shows the results of the research concerning the modification of cement

  5. The Waxing and Waning of Nongradedness. (United States)

    Pavan, Barbara Nelson

    Trends and research in nongraded schooling over the past three decades are described in this paper. The 1960s and early 70s were marked by a strong interest in the nongradedness movement and the British concept of open education, followed by a declining interest in the 1970s. A nongraded revival in the 1980s was facilitated by recognition of the…

  6. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease wanes with age. (United States)

    Hoozemans, Jeroen J M; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; van Haastert, Elise S; Eikelenboom, Piet; van Gool, Willem A


    Inflammation is a prominent feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been proposed that aging has an effect on the function of inflammation in the brain, thereby contributing to the development of age-related diseases like AD. However, the age-dependent relationship between inflammation and clinical phenotype of AD has never been investigated. In this study we have analysed features of the neuroinflammatory response in clinically and pathologically confirmed AD and control cases in relation to age (range 52-97 years). The mid-temporal cortex of 19 controls and 19 AD cases was assessed for the occurrence of microglia and astrocytes by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against CD68 (KP1), HLA class II (CR3/43) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). By measuring the area density of immunoreactivity we found significantly more microglia and astrocytes in AD cases younger than 80 years compared to older AD patients. In addition, the presence of KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP decreases significantly with increasing age in AD. Our data suggest that the association between neuroinflammation and AD is stronger in relatively young patients than in the oldest patients. This age-dependent relationship between inflammation and clinical phenotype of AD has implications for the interpretation of biomarkers and treatment of the disease. © 2011 Hoozemans et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease wanes with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoozemans Jeroen JM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is a prominent feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD. It has been proposed that aging has an effect on the function of inflammation in the brain, thereby contributing to the development of age-related diseases like AD. However, the age-dependent relationship between inflammation and clinical phenotype of AD has never been investigated. Methods In this study we have analysed features of the neuroinflammatory response in clinically and pathologically confirmed AD and control cases in relation to age (range 52-97 years. The mid-temporal cortex of 19 controls and 19 AD cases was assessed for the occurrence of microglia and astrocytes by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against CD68 (KP1, HLA class II (CR3/43 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Results By measuring the area density of immunoreactivity we found significantly more microglia and astrocytes in AD cases younger than 80 years compared to older AD patients. In addition, the presence of KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP decreases significantly with increasing age in AD. Conclusion Our data suggest that the association between neuroinflammation and AD is stronger in relatively young patients than in the oldest patients. This age-dependent relationship between inflammation and clinical phenotype of AD has implications for the interpretation of biomarkers and treatment of the disease.

  8. U-Pb zircon geochronology and geochemistry of Late Jurassic basalts in Maevatanana, Madagascar: Implications for the timing of separation of Madagascar from Africa (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Chen, Yu-Chuan; Hou, Ke-Jun; Liu, Shan-Bao; Liu, Jia-Jun


    Magmatic zircon ages for the Maevatanana basalts in Madagascar indicate that Madagascar separated from Africa at 149.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Rocks produced by this basaltic magmatism associated with rifting are characterized by low SiO2 (49.6-50.3 wt.%), high total FeO (>13.9 wt.%), TiO2 (>3.7 wt.%), and P2O5 (>0.5 wt.%), and extremely high Na2O/K2O (3.08-3.27). Geochemical variations can be ascribed to significant fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Maevatanana basalts suggest affinities with calc-alkaline basalt. Additionally the basalts have distinct ocean-island-basalt-like geochemical features that may be related to the Marion plume. We speculate that the Maevatanana basalts are the product of the Marion mantle plume related to separation of Madagascar from Africa in the Late Jurassic.

  9. Eclogite trace in evolution of Late Cenozoic alkaline basalt volcanism on the southwestern flank of the Baikal Rift Zone: Geochemical features and geodynamic consequences (United States)

    Perepelov, A. B.; Kuzmin, M. I.; Tsypukova, S. S.; Demonterova, E. I.; Ivanov, A. V.; Shcherbakov, Yu. D.; Puzankov, M. Yu.; Odgerel, D.; Bat-Ulzii, D.


    Eclogitized material from the oceanic lithosphere are the most likely source of alkaline basalt magmas in the formation of Late Cenozoic volcanic areas on the southwestern flank of the Baikal Rift Zone. Basaltic trachyandesites of the early stage of volcanism (Pg3 2 28-23 Ma) are rich in high field strength elements (HFSE), P2O5, F, Zn, Ga, Sr, Sn, and light rare earth elements (LREE); they are characterized by high values of the following ratios: Fe/Mn = 72-77, Sm/Yb = 7.7-8.5, Sr/Y = 57-63, and Ga/Sc = 2.1-2.3. At this stage, magmas are formed under conditions with a 2-8% degree of partial melting of the mantle substrate enriched with the material of the eclogite source (50-70%) (Cpx/Grt = 1.5-1.7). Basaltoid magmas of the final stage of volcanism (N1 3-N2 1 6-4 Ma) are formed from melting (1.5-4%) of a less fertilized mantle (Cpx/Grt = 2.1-3.1, Fe/Mn = 62-71, Sm/Yb = 3.5-4.6, Sr/Y = 29-44, Ga/Sc = 1.0-1.4). The directed variations of the compositions of the successive basaltoid magmas, which were formed in the Late Cenozoic, create an "eclogite trace" in this area.

  10. SEM-based methods for the analysis of basaltic ash from weak explosive activity at Etna in 2006 and the 2007 eruptive crisis at Stromboli (United States)

    Lautze, Nicole C.; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Andronico, Daniele; Cannata, Chiara; Tornetta, Lauretta; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Houghton, Bruce; Lo Castro, Maria Deborah


    We present results from a semi-automated field-emission scanning electron microscope investigation of basaltic ash from a variety of eruptive processes that occurred at Mount Etna volcano in 2006 and at Stromboli volcano in 2007. From a methodological perspective, the proposed techniques provide relatively fast (about 4 h per sample) information on the size distribution, morphology, and surface chemistry of several hundred ash particles. Particle morphology is characterized by compactness and elongation parameters, and surface chemistry data are shown using ternary plots of the relative abundance of several key elements. The obtained size distributions match well those obtained by an independent technique. The surface chemistry data efficiently characterize the chemical composition, type and abundance of crystals, and dominant alteration phases in the ash samples. From a volcanological perspective, the analyzed samples cover a wide spectrum of relatively minor ash-forming eruptive activity, including weak Hawaiian fountaining at Etna, and lava-sea water interaction, weak Strombolian explosions, vent clearing activity, and a paroxysm during the 2007 eruptive crisis at Stromboli. This study outlines subtle chemical and morphological differences in the ash deposited at different locations during the Etna event, and variable alteration patterns in the surface chemistry of the Stromboli samples specific to each eruptive activity. Overall, we show this method to be effective in quantifying the main features of volcanic ash particles from the relatively weak - and yet frequent - explosive activity occurring at basaltic volcanoes.

  11. Evidence for microbial carbon and sulfur cycling in deeply buried ridge flank basalt (United States)

    Lever, Mark A.; Rouxel, Olivier; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Ono, Shuhei; Coggon, Rosalind M.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Lapham, Laura; Elvert, Marcus; Prieto-Mollar, Xavier; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Inagaki, Fumio; Teske, Andreas


    Sediment-covered basalt on the flanks of mid-ocean ridges constitutes most of Earth's oceanic crust, but the composition and metabolic function of its microbial ecosystem are largely unknown. By drilling into 3.5-million-year-old subseafloor basalt, we demonstrated the presence of methane- and sulfur-cycling microbes on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Depth horizons with functional genes indicative of methane-cycling and sulfate-reducing microorganisms are enriched in solid-phase sulfur and total organic carbon, host δ13C- and δ34S-isotopic values with a biological imprint, and show clear signs of microbial activity when incubated in the laboratory. Downcore changes in carbon and sulfur cycling show discrete geochemical intervals with chemoautotrophic δ13C signatures locally attenuated by heterotrophic metabolism.

  12. Imogolite and allophane formed in saprolite of basalt on Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Wada, K.; Henmi, T.; Yoshinaga, N.; Patterson, S.H.


    Inorganic gel and allophane collected from basaltic saprolite on Maui, Hawaii, and studied by Patterson in 1964 were reexamined. The main constituent of the gel is imogolite, and gibbsite and allophane are the minor constituents. Electron and X-ray diffraction patterns, DTA curve, and an infrared spectrum of the gel are characteristic of imogolite. The allophane is virtually noncrystalline to X-rays but contains a small amount of imogolite in relatively short threads. High-resolution electron micrographs indicate differences in structural organization between allophane and imogolite and suggest crystallization of imogolite from allophane. The occurrence of imogolite as a weathering product has been reported in many localities from pyroclastic materials but not from massive rocks. Probably the exceptionally high rainfall, excellent subsurface permeability of the weathered material, and the low pH and high organic content of the leaching solution provide favorable conditions for formation of imogolite from basalt on Maui. ?? 1972.

  13. Some thoughts on the origin of lunar ANT-KREEP and mare basalts (United States)

    Wakita, H.; Laul, J. C.; Schmitt, R. A.


    It is suggested that a series of ANT (anorthosite-norite-troctolite)-KREEP type rocks and the source material for mare basalts sampled by Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 may have been derived from a common magmatic differentiation. This differentiation is studied on the basis of a model which proposes that, in the early history of the moon, extensive melting occurred in the outer lunar shell and a magma layer of 100-200 km was formed. The presence of a residual liquid which has not yet been sampled is suspected between high-K KREEP and the Apollo 11 basalt materials. This residual liquid would have a FeO/MgO ratio greater than one and would be significantly enriched in apatite, zircon, K-feldspar, and ilmenite minerals.

  14. Large-scale sodium-basalt concrete reaction test LSC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, M.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Colburn, R.P.; Winkel, B.V.


    The energy and hydrogen released from sodium-concrete reactions must be considered the analysis of beyond-design basis accidents for breeder reactors. Consequently, a large-scale sodium-basalt concrete reaction test was completed in the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). 454 kg of sodium at 593{sup 0}C was spilled onto 0.84 m{sup 2} of basalt concrete 0.61 m deep containing two layers of reinforcing steel bar. From the data obtained, it was possible to complete a mass and energy balance for this test. The hydrogen generation and generation rate as functions of time for the duration of the test were determined. The major contribution to the chemical energy was energy associated with the formation of hydrogen (sodium-water reactions).

  15. Reduction of lunar basalt 70035: Oxygen yield and reaction product analysis (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.; Bruenemen, David J.; Allen, Carlton C.; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Mckay, David S.


    Oxygen production from a lunar rock has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. A 10 g sample of high-Ti basalt 70035 was reduced with hydrogen in seven experiments at temperatures of 900-1050 C and pressures of 14.7-150 psia. In all experiments, water evolution began almost immediately and was essentially complete in tens of minutes. Oxygen yields ranged from 2.93 to 4.61% of the starting sample weight, and showed weak dependence on temperature and pressure. Analysis of the solid samples demonstrated total reduction of Fe(2+) in ilmenite and small degrees of reduction in olivine and pyroxene. Ti O2 was also partially reduced to one or more suboxides. Data from these experiments provide a basis for predicting the yield of oxygen from lunar basalt as well as new constraints on natural reduction in the lunar regolith.

  16. Effect of Crystallisation Degree on Hardness of Basaltic Glass-Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The dependence of hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their crystallisation degree has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses have been obtained...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The change of the relative degree of crystallisation with the heat treatment temperature can be described by an empirical model established in this work. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass has been identified as the pyroxene augite. The hardness...... of the augite crystals is in the range of the hardness of a similar pyroxene, i.e., a pure diopside crystal. The hardness of diopside has been both measured and calculated. The calculation has been done by considering the strength of each individual bond and the amount of bonds per volume, i.e., by using first...

  17. Post-impact mechanical characterisation of E-glass/basalt woven fabric interply hybrid laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Post-impact properties of different configurations (symmetrical and non-symmetrical of hybrid laminates including E-glass and basalt fibre composites, all with volume fraction of fibres equal to 0.38±0.02 and manufactured by RTM, have been studied. With this aim, interlaminar shear strength tests and four-point flexural tests of laminates impacted with different energies (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 J have been performed. Acoustic emission (AE localisation and AE evolution with applied flexural stress was studied to support impact damage characterisation, provided by SEM and transient thermography. The results indicate that a symmetrical configuration including E-glass fibre laminate as a core for basalt fibre laminate skins presents the most favourable degradation pattern, whilst intercalation of layers may bring to further improvement of the laminate properties, but also to more extended and complex damage patterns.

  18. Scenarios constructed for basaltic igneous activity at Yucca Mountain and vicinity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.; Dockery, H.; Barnard, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valentine, G.; Crowe, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Basaltic volcanism has been identified as a possible future event initiating a release of radionuclides from a potential repository at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository site. The performance assessment method set forth in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE, 1988) requires that a set of scenarios encompassing all significant radionuclide release paths to the accessible environment be described. This report attempts to catalogue the details of the interactions between the features and processes produced by basaltic volcanism in the presence of the presumed groundwater flow system and a repository structure, the engineered barrier system (EBS), and waste. This catalogue is developed in the form of scenarios. We define a scenario as a well-posed problem, starting from an initiating event or process and proceeding through a logically connected and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes (FEPs) to the release of contaminants.

  19. Rise and Collapse of Volcanic Plumes Produced By Explosive Basaltic Fissure Eruptions (United States)

    Paillat, S.; Kaminski, E. C.


    Explosive basaltic fissure eruptions, which release large amounts of sulfur gases in the atmosphere, can have a big impact on climate. The effect on climate depends on the rate of gas injection above the tropopause. The key parameter is the height reached by the eruptive plume as a function of mass flux and entrainment rate. We propose a model of entrainment in 2D volcanic plumes based on lab scale experiments on turbulent jets and plumes. In this model, entrainment varies with the Richardson number and we predict that the height of the column critically depends on the source buoyancy flux determined by the eruptive temperature and the amount of gas in the volcanic mixture at the vent. We obtain that "hot" basaltic planar plumes form stable eruptive columns, even for large eruption rates. Only if fragmentation is not efficient enough, the column collapse will prevent the injection of gas in the stratosphere.

  20. Optimal Design for Hybrid Ratio of Carbon/Basalt Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Resin Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Hong


    Full Text Available The optimum hybrid ratio range of carbon/basalt hybrid fiber reinforced resin composites was studied. Hybrid fiber composites with nine different hybrid ratios were prepared before tensile test.According to the structural features of plain weave, the unit cell's performance parameters were calculated. Finite element model was established by using SHELL181 in ANSYS. The simulated values of the sample stiffness in the model were approximately similar to the experimental ones. The stress nephogram shows that there is a critical hybrid ratio which divides the failure mechanism of HFRP into single failure state and multiple failure state. The tensile modulus, strength and limit tensile strain of HFRP with 45% resin are simulated by finite element method. The result shows that the tensile modulus of HFRP with 60% hybrid ratio increases by 93.4% compared with basalt fiber composites (BFRP, and the limit tensile strain increases by 11.3% compared with carbon fiber composites(CFRP.

  1. Crystallization behaviors and seal application of basalt based glass-ceramics (United States)

    Ateş, A.; Önen, U.; Ercenk, E.; Yılmaz, Ş.


    Basalt based glass-ceramics were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and subsequently converted to glass-ceramics by a controlled nucleation and crystallization process. Glass materials were obtained by melt at 1500°C and quenched in cold water. The powder materials were made by milling and spin coating. The powders were applied on the 430 stainless steel interconnector material, and heat treatment was carried out. The interface characteristics between the glass-ceramic layer and interconnector were investigated by using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the basalt base glass-ceramic sealant material exhibited promising properties to use for SOFC.

  2. Strength and Deformability of Fiber Reinforced Cement Paste on the Basis of Basalt Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Barabanshchikov


    Full Text Available The research object of the paper is cement paste with the particulate reinforcement of basalt fiber. Regardless of fibers’ length at the same fiber cement mix workability and cement consumption equality compressive solidity of the specimens is reduced with increasing fiber content. This is due to the necessity to increase the water-cement ratio to obtain a given workability. The flexural stability of the specimens with increasing fiber content increments in the same conditions. There is an optimum value of the fibers’ dosage. That is why stability has a maximum when crooking. The basaltic fiber particulate reinforcement usage can abruptly increase the cement paste level limiting extensibility, which is extremely important in terms of crack resistance.

  3. Lithium tracer-diffusion in an alkali-basaltic melt — An ion-microprobe determination (United States)

    Lowry, R. K.; Reed, S. J. B.; Nolan, J.; Henderson, P.; Long, J. V. P.


    An ion-microprobe-based technique has been used to measure lithium tracer-diffusion coefficients ( D Li) in an alkali-basaltic melt at 1300, 1350 and 1400°C. The results can be expressed in the form: D Li=7.5 ×10 -2exp(-27,600/RT)cm 2S -1 The results show significantly faster diffusion rates than those previously recorded for other monovalent, divalent and trivalent cations in a tholeiitic melt. Consequently, diffusive transport of ions acting over a given time in a basaltic melt can produce a wider range of transport distance values than hitherto supposed. Hence, it is concluded that great care should be exercised when applying diffusion data to petrological problems.

  4. Unusually large magmatic CO2 gas emissions prior to a basaltic paroxysm (United States)

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Guerrieri, Sergio; Liuzzo, Marco; Murè, Filippo; Salerno, Giuseppe


    The low-intensity activity of basaltic volcanoes is occasionally interrupted by short-lived but energetic explosions which, whilst frequently observed, are amongst the most enigmatic volcanic events in Nature. The combination of poorly understood and deep, challenging to measure, source processes make such events currently impossible to forecast. Here we report increases in quiescent degassing CO2 emissions (>10,000 t/day) prior to a powerful explosive event on Stromboli volcano on 15 March 2007. We interpret such large CO2 flux as being sourced by passive gas leakage from a deeply (>4 km) stored magma, whose depressurization, possibly caused by the onset of an effusive eruption on 28 February 2007, was the explosion trigger. Our observations suggest that continuous CO2 flux monitoring may allow anomalously large explosions to be accurately forecast at basaltic volcanoes.

  5. Construction Technology and Mechanical Properties of a Cement-Soil Mixing Pile Reinforced by Basalt Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Hong


    Full Text Available A new type of cement-soil mixing pile reinforced by basalt fibre is proposed for increasing the bearing capacity of cement-soil mixing piles. This work primarily consists of three parts. First, the process of construction technology is proposed, which could allow uniform mixing of the basalt fibre in cement-soil. Second, the optimal proportions of the compound mixtures and the mechanical properties of the pile material are obtained from unconfined compression strength test, tensile splitting strength test, and triaxial shear test under different conditions. Third, the reliability of the construction technology, optimal proportions, and mechanical properties are verified by testing the mechanical properties of the drilling core sample on site.

  6. Development of Braided Basalt FRP Rebar for Reinforcement of Concrete Structures


    Antonopoulou, Sofia; McNally, Ciaran; Byrne, Greg


    In recent years, the development and use of Fibre Reinforced Polymer composite materials in infrastructure have gained increasing attention worldwide. More specifically, natural mineral fibres such as basalt are currently being developed and are showing promising properties. Within an appropriate polymer matrix, their use as reinforcement in concrete structures offers performance benefits related to their environmentally friendly and non-corrodible nature. In particular, BFRPs have the potent...

  7. Evolution of porosity and diffusivity associated with chemical weathering of a basalt clast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Tomutsa, L.; Brantley, S.L.


    Weathering of rocks as a result of exposure to water and the atmosphere can cause significant changes in their chemistry and porosity. In low-porosity rocks, such as basalts, changes in porosity, resulting from chemical weathering, are likely to modify the rock's effective diffusivity and permeability, affecting the rate of solute transport and thus potentially the rate of overall weathering to the extent that transport is the rate limiting step. Changes in total porosity as a result of mineral dissolution and precipitation have typically been used to calculate effective diffusion coefficients through Archie's law for reactive transport simulations of chemical weathering, but this approach fails to account for unconnected porosity that does not contribute to transport. In this study, we combine synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography ({mu}CT) and laboratory and numerical diffusion experiments to examine changes in both total and effective porosity and effective diffusion coefficients across a weathering interface in a weathered basalt clast from Costa Rica. The {mu}CT data indicate that below a critical value of {approx}9%, the porosity is largely unconnected in the basalt clast. The {mu}CT data were further used to construct a numerical pore network model to determine upscaled, effective diffusivities as a function of total porosity (ranging from 3 to 30%) for comparison with diffusivities determined in laboratory tracer experiments. By using effective porosity as the scaling parameter and accounting for critical porosity, a model is developed that accurately predicts continuum-scale effective diffusivities across the weathering interface of the basalt clast.

  8. Effect of Moisture Absorption Behavior on Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites


    Amuthakkannan Pandian; Manikandan Vairavan; Winowlin Jappes Jebbas Thangaiah; Marimuthu Uthayakumar


    The study of mechanical properties of fibre reinforced polymeric materials under different environmental conditions is much important. This is because materials with superior ageing resistance can be satisfactorily durable. Moisture effects in fibre reinforced plastic composites have been widely studied. Basalt fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites were subjected to water immersion tests using both sea and normal water in order to study the effects of water absorption behavi...

  9. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric


    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dzugulov


    Full Text Available The compositions of fine-grained concrete with the application of volcanic ash are developed. Are investigated compositions and properties of fine-grained fiber concrete with the volcanic ash with the application of methods of the mathematical planning of experiment. It is revealed, that the reinforcement of finegrained concrete by basaltic fibers substantially increases their strength with the bend. 

  11. Performance evaluation of a reverse-gradient artificial recharge system in basalt aquifers of Maharashtra, India (United States)

    Bhusari, Vijay; Katpatal, Y. B.; Kundal, Pradeep


    Drinking water scarcity in rural parts of central India in basaltic terrain is common. Most of the rural population depends on groundwater sources located in the fractured and weathered zone of the basaltic aquifers. Long-term indiscriminate withdrawal has caused an alarming rate of depletion of groundwater levels in both pre- and post-monsoon periods. The aquifer is not replenished through precipitation under natural conditions. To overcome this situation, an innovative artificial recharge system, called the reverse-gradient recharge system (RGRS), was implemented in seven villages of Wardha district of Maharashtra. The study described here presents a comparative analysis of recharge systems constructed in the year 2012 downstream of dug-well locations in these seven villages. The post-project comparative analysis reveals that the area of influence (AOI) of the groundwater recharge system, within which increases in groundwater levels and yield are observed, is directly related to the specific yield, thickness of the weathered and fractured zone, porosity, and transmissivity of the aquifer, showing high correlation coefficients of 0.92, 0.88, 0.85 and 0.83, respectively. The study indicates that the RGRS is most effective in vesicular weathered and fractured basalt, recording a maximum increase in well yield of 65-82 m3/day, while a minimum increase in yield of 15-30 m3/day was observed in weathered vesicular basalt. The comparative analysis thus identifies the controlling factors which facilitate groundwater recharge through the proposed RGRS. After implementation of these projects, the groundwater availability in these villages increased significantly, solving their drinking water problems.

  12. Kimberlites, flood basalts and mantle plumes: New insights from the Deccan Large Igneous Province (United States)

    Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Lehmann, B.


    A clear-cut temporal and spatial relationship between small-volume, volatile-rich and highly potassic continental melt fractions, such as kimberlites and related rocks, and large-volume continental flood basalts exists in several Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Many of these LIPs are also widely regarded as products of mantle plume-lithosphere interactions. The small-volume melts either immediately pre-date or post-date or even are co-eval with the main flood basalt event. The overlap of ages between the flood basalts and the kimberlites very likely reflects a cause and effect relationship via mantle plumes. Recently discovered end-Cretaceous diamondiferous kimberlites (orangeites) in the Bastar craton of central India which are synchronous with the flood basalts, carbonatites, lamprophyres and alkaline rocks of the Deccan LIP provide an opportunity to re-evaluate the role of mantle plume-lithosphere interactions in the generation of these disparate magmas. The geographical zonation of the kimberlite-lamprophyre-carbonatite-alkaline rock spectrum in the Deccan LIP is inferred to reflect variable thickness of the pre-Deccan Indian lithosphere with a thinner lithosphere along the known rift zones of northwestern and western India and a thickened lithosphere underlying the Bastar craton of central India. This heterogeneity is thought to have controlled the volume of melt generation and melt ascent, as well as the ultimate alkaline magma type. These findings are supported by the regional lithospheric thickness map, generated from converting seismic shear wave velocities into temperature profiles, which clearly depicts that the present-day lithosphere beneath the Bastar craton is thicker than that in western and NW India where the centre of the Deccan plume-head was located. Thermal weakening of the sub-Bastar craton due to mantle plume-lithosphere interaction at the end-Cretaceous resulting in a thin-spot is suggested to have controlled the Deccan-related mafic dyke

  13. Modified Murnaghan equation of state applied to shock compression of silica, basalt, and dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.A.


    An equation of state previously used by the author is developed further and applied to geologic media. The equation is of the same form as the Murnaghan equation of state, but with the elastic constant terms replaced by the cohesive energy density (internal pressure), and the exponential term given as a sum of the Gruneisen parameter and the gaseous adiabatic exponent. Data for shock compression of silica, basalt, and dolomite are analyzed according to the equation.

  14. The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare basalts (United States)

    Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.


    The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare basalt 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at saturation, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.

  15. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust (United States)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Lazor, Peter; Broman, Curt; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica


    We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf). The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites—remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust. PMID:26488482

  16. Hydrothermal processes related to some Triassic and Jurassic submarine basaltic complexes in northeastern Hungary, the Dinarides and Hellenides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriella B Kiss; Ferenc Molnár; Ladislav A Palinkas


      Comparative studies on hydrothermal alteration of submarine peperitic basalt occurrences related to the Triassic early rifting of the Neotethys were carried out in various parts of the Dinarides and Hellenides...

  17. Combined Thickness of the Modeled Wanapum Basalt and Vantage-Latah Interbed Geomodel Units (wnthk_f) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The wnthk_f grid represents the modeled combined thickness of the Wanapum Basalt and the Vantage/Latah interbed geomodel units at a 500 foot resolution. It is one...

  18. Clinopyroxene trace element compositions of cumulate mafic rocks and basalts from the Hercynian Moroccan Central Meseta: Petrogenetic implications (United States)

    Driouch, Y.; Béziat, D.; Grégoire, M.; Laguenini, F.; Abbou, M. Ben; Ntarmouchant, A.; Roddaz, M.; Dahire, M.; Bennouna, A.; Belkasmi, M.; Brusset, S.; Debat, P.


    In the Fourhal foreland basin, in the north-eastern part of the Marrocan Central Meseta, mafic series are represented by basalts interbedded with Early Namurian turbidites and by numerous mafic sills, including the Marziqallal sill detailed here. The study of the trace element compositions of the clinopyroxenes, a ubiquitous mineral in the gabbroic sill and basalts, indicate that these two formations are derived from a similar parental magma. This magma evolved following a general fractional crystallization process involving the cumulation of clinopyroxene, then of ilmenite, occurring within the sill and having a leading role in the composition of the associated basalts. Calculated parental melts inferred from clinopyroxene analyses from the various cumulative units of the sill have trace element patterns similar to the one found for the basaltic flows. These patterns are compatible with magma and clinopyroxene compositions from a subduction-related geotectonic setting.

  19. Continental basalts record the crust-mantle interaction in oceanic subduction channel: A geochemical case study from eastern China (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Continental basalts, erupted in either flood or rift mode, usually show oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like geochemical compositions. Although their depletion in Sr-Nd isotope compositions is normally ascribed to contributions from the asthenospheric mantle, their enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) is generally associated with variable enrichments in the Sr-Nd isotope compositions. This indicates significant contributions from crustal components such as igneous oceanic crust, lower continental crust and seafloor sediment. Nevertheless, these crustal components were not incorporated into the mantle sources of continental basalts in the form of solidus rocks. Instead they were processed into metasomatic agents through low-degree partial melting in order to have the geochemical fractionation of the largest extent to achieve the enrichment of LILE and LREE in the metasomatic agents. Therefore, the mantle sources of continental basalts were generated by metasomatic reaction of the depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) mantle with hydrous felsic melts. Nevertheless, mass balance considerations indicate differential contributions from the mantle and crustal components to the basalts. While the depleted MORB mantle predominates the budget of major elements, the crustal components predominate the budget of melt-mobile incompatible trace elements and their pertinent radiogenic isotopes. These considerations are verified by model calculations that are composed of four steps in an ancient oceanic subduction channel: (1) dehydration of the subducting crustal rocks at subarc depths, (2) anataxis of the dehydrated rocks at postarc depths, (3) metasomatic reaction of the depleted MORB mantle peridotite with the felsic melts to generate ultramafic metasomatites in the lower part of the mantle wedge, and (4) partial melting of the metasomatites for basaltic magmatism. The composition of metasomatites is quantitatively dictated by

  20. Processing and Material Characterization of Continuous Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Polymer Derived Ceramics. (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.


    The need for high performance vehicles in the aerospace industry requires materials which can withstand high loads and high temperatures. New developments in launch pads and infrastructure must also be made to handle this intense environment with lightweight, reusable, structural materials. By using more functional materials, better performance can be seen in the launch environment, and launch vehicle designs which have not been previously used can be considered. The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer matrix composites can be used for temperatures up to 260C. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in the composites. In this study, continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. The oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing have been performed on test panels and the test results are presented.

  1. Low Velocity Impact Behavior of Basalt Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites (United States)

    Shishevan, Farzin Azimpour; Akbulut, Hamid; Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.


    In this research, we studied low velocity impact response of homogenous basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) composites and then compared the impact key parameters with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) homogenous composites. BFRPs and CFRPs were fabricated by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) method. Fabricated composites included 60% fiber and 40% epoxy matrix. Basalt and carbon fibers used as reinforcement materials were weaved in 2/2 twill textile tip in the structures of BFRP and CFRP composites. We also utilized the energy profile method to determine penetration and perforation threshold energies. The low velocity impact tests were carried out in 30, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 160 J energy magnitudes, and impact response of BFRPs was investigated by related force-deflection, force-time, deflection-time and absorbed energy-time graphics. The related impact key parameters such as maximum contact force, absorbed energy, deflection and duration time were compared with CFRPs for various impact energy levels. As a result, due to the higher toughness of basalt fibers, a better low velocity impact performance of BFRP than that of CFRP was observed. The effects of fabrication parameters, such as curing process, were studied on the low velocity impact behavior of BFRP. The results of tested new fabricated materials show that the change of fabrication process and curing conditions improves the impact behavior of BFRPs up to 13%.

  2. Evolution of carbonated melt to alkali basalt in the South China Sea (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Liang; Chen, Li-Hui; Jackson, Matthew G.; Hofmann, Albrecht W.


    CO2 is considered to play a key role in the melting of the deep upper mantle, and carbonated silicate melts have been widely predicted by partial melting experiments to exist at mantle depths of greater than 80 km. However, such melts have not been shown to exist in nature. Thus, the relationship between CO2 and the origin of silicate melts is highly speculative. Here we present geochemical analyses of rocks sampled from the South China Sea, at the Integrated Ocean Discovery Program Site U1431. We identify natural carbonated silicate melts, which are enriched in light rare earth elements and depleted in Nb and Ta, and show that they were continuously transformed to alkali basalts that are less enriched in light rare earth elements and enriched in Nb and Ta. This shows that carbonated silicate melts can survive in the shallow mantle and penetrate through the hot asthenosphere. Carbonated silicate melts were converted to alkali basaltic melts through reactions with the lithospheric mantle, during which precipitation of apatite accounts for reduction of light rare earth elements and genesis of positive Nb-Ta anomalies. We propose that an extremely thin lithosphere (less than 20 km in the South China Sea) facilitates extrusion of the carbonated silicate melts, whereas a thickened lithosphere tends to modify carbonated silicate melt to alkali basalt.

  3. Validation of the BASALT model for simulating off-axis hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust (United States)

    Farahat, Navah X.; Archer, David; Abbot, Dorian S.


    Fluid recharge and discharge between the deep ocean and the porous upper layer of off-axis oceanic crust tends to concentrate in small volumes of rock, such as seamounts and fractures, that are unimpeded by low-permeability sediments. Basement structure, sediment burial, heat flow, and other regional characteristics of off-axis hydrothermal systems appear to produce considerable diversity of circulation behaviors. Circulation of seawater and seawater-derived fluids controls the extent of fluid-rock interaction, resulting in significant geochemical impacts. However, the primary regional characteristics that control how seawater is distributed within upper oceanic crust are still poorly understood. In this paper we present the details of the two-dimensional (2-D) BASALT (Basement Activity Simulated At Low Temperatures) numerical model of heat and fluid transport in an off-axis hydrothermal system. This model is designed to simulate a wide range of conditions in order to explore the dominant controls on circulation. We validate the BASALT model's ability to reproduce observations by configuring it to represent a thoroughly studied transect of the Juan de Fuca Ridge eastern flank. The results demonstrate that including series of narrow, ridge-parallel fractures as subgrid features produces a realistic circulation scenario at the validation site. In future projects, a full reactive transport version of the validated BASALT model will be used to explore geochemical fluxes in a variety of off-axis hydrothermal environments.

  4. Tracking the weathering of basalts on Mars using lithium isotope fractionation models (United States)

    Losa‐Adams, Elisabeth; Gil‐Lozano, Carolina; Gago‐Duport, Luis; Uceda, Esther R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Rodríguez, J. Alexis P.; Davila, Alfonso F.; McKay, Christopher P.


    Abstract Lithium (Li), the lightest of the alkali elements, has geochemical properties that include high aqueous solubility (Li is the most fluid mobile element) and high relative abundance in basalt‐forming minerals (values ranking between 0.2 and 12 ppm). Li isotopes are particularly subject to fractionation because the two stable isotopes of lithium—7Li and 6Li—have a large relative mass difference (∼15%) that results in significant fractionation between water and solid phases. The extent of Li isotope fractionation during aqueous alteration of basalt depends on the dissolution rate of primary minerals—the source of Li—and on the precipitation kinetics, leading to formation of secondary phases. Consequently, a detailed analysis of Li isotopic ratios in both solution and secondary mineral lattices could provide clues about past Martian weathering conditions, including weathering extent, temperature, pH, supersaturation, and evaporation rate of the initial solutions in contact with basalt rocks. In this paper, we discuss ways in which Martian aqueous processes could have lead to Li isotope fractionation. We show that Li isotopic data obtained by future exploration of Mars could be relevant to highlighting different processes of Li isotopic fractionation in the past, and therefore to understanding basalt weathering and environmental conditions early in the planet's history. PMID:27642264

  5. Strawberry Rhyolites, Oregon: Northwestern extent of mid-Miocene flood basalt related rhyolites of the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.


    Rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Columbia River-Steens flood basalts of the Pacific Northwest has traditionally been viewed to be centered at McDermitt caldera near the Oregon-Nevada border starting at ~16.5 Ma. In recent years, more rhyolitic centers along this latitude with ages between 16.5-15.5 Ma have been identified and associated with the inception of the Yellowstone hotspot. However the footprint of plume-head related rhyolites becomes much larger when silicic centers of mid-Miocene age in eastern Oregon are included extending the distribution of such rhyolites to areas near the towns of Baker City and John Day ~250 km north of McDermitt. This study addresses one of these rhyolitic centers that was virtually unknown and that constitutes the northwestern extent of mid-Miocene rhyolites. Rhyolites are centered ~40 km SSW of John Day and are considered part of the Strawberry Volcanic Field (SVF), which consists of a diverse group of volcanic rocks ranging from basalt to rhyolite with abundant intermediate compositions. One existing age date of 17.3 Ma ± 0.36 (Robyn, 1977) - if confirmed by our ongoing study - places these rhyolites at the very onset of plume-head related rhyolites. Strawberry rhyolitic lavas are most voluminous in the southwestern portion of the SVF covering approximately 500 km2 between Bear and Logan Valley. The rhyolitic lavas tend to be phenocryst-poor (Strawberry Rhyolites show minor variability except in, Sr (10 - 200 ppm), Zr (65 - 450 ppm), Ti (300 - 3500 ppm), and Ba (350 - 1600 ppm). When normalized to upper crustal values, Strawberry Rhyolites plot around 1 with significant troughs at Sr, P, Ti, and minor troughs in Ba, Nb, and Zr. REE patterns indicate slight LREE enrichment with LaN/YbN values ranging from 2.5 to 8.3 and higher values correlate positively with other differentiation indices (e.g. Ba, Sr, Eu/Eu*). Furthermore, major elements (e.g. SiO2 and FeO*) and trace elements (e.g. Ba, Sr, La, Zr/Hf) display common

  6. Porosity and permeability evolution of vesicular basalt reservoirs with increasing depth: constraints from the Big Island of Hawai'i (United States)

    Millett, John; Haskins, Eric; Thomas, Donald; Jerram, Dougal; Planke, Sverre; Healy, Dave; Kück, Jochem; Rossetti, Lucas; Farrell, Natalie; Pierdominici, Simona


    Volcanic reservoirs are becoming increasingly important in the targeting of petroleum, geothermal and water resources globally. However, key areas of uncertainty in relation to volcanic reservoir properties during burial in different settings remain. In this contribution, we present results from borehole logging and sampling operations within two fully cored c. 1.5 km deep boreholes, PTA2 and KMA1, from the Humúula saddle region on the Big Island of Hawai'i. The boreholes were drilled as part of the Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project (HGRP) between 2013-2016 and provide unique insights into the evolution of pore structure with increasing burial in a basaltic dominated lava sequence. The boreholes encounter mixed sequences of 'a'ā, pāhoehoe and transitional lava flows along with subsidiary intrusions and sediments from the shield to post-shield phases of Mauna Kea. Borehole wireline data including sonic, spectral gamma and Televiewer imagery were collected along with density, porosity, permeability and ultrasonic velocity laboratory measurements from core samples. A range of intra-facies were sampled for analysis from various depths within the two boreholes. By comparison with core data, the potential for high resolution Televiewer imaging to reveal spectacular intra-facies features including individual vesicles, vesicle segregations, 'a'ā rubble zones, intrusive contacts, and intricate pāhoehoe lava flow lobe morphologies is demonstrated. High quality core data enables the calibration of Televiewer facies enabling improved interpretation of volcanic reservoir features in the more common exploration scenario where core is absent. Laboratory results record the ability of natural vesicular basalt samples to host very high porosity (>50%) and permeability (>10 darcies) within lava flow top facies which we demonstrate are associated with vesicle coalescence and not micro-fractures. These properties may be maintained to depths of c. 1.5 km in regions of limited

  7. Insights into mantle heterogeneities: mid-ocean ridge basalt tapping an ocean island magma source in the North Fiji Basin (United States)

    Brens, R., Jr.; Jenner, F. E.; Bullock, E. S.; Hauri, E. H.; Turner, S.; Rushmer, T. A.


    The North Fiji Basin (NFB), and connected Lau Basin, is located in a complex area of volcanism. The NFB is a back-arc basin (BAB) that is a result of an extinct subduction zone, incorporating the complicated geodynamics of two rotating landmasses: Fiji and the Vanuatu island arc. Collectively this makes the spreading centers of the NFB the highest producing spreading centers recorded. Here we present volatile concentrations, major, and trace element data for a previously undiscovered triple junction spreading center in the NFB. We show our enrichment samples contain some of the highest water contents yet reported from (MORB). The samples from the NFB exhibit a combination of MORB-like major chemical signatures along with high water content similar to ocean island basalts (OIB). This peculiarity in geochemistry is unlike other studied MORB or back-arc basin (to our knowledge) that is not attributed to subduction related signatures. Our results employ the use of volatiles (carbon dioxide and water) and their constraints (Nb and Ce) combined with trace element ratios to indicate a potential source for the enrichment in the North Fiji Basin. The North Fiji Basin lavas are tholeiitic with similar major element composition as averaged primitive normal MORB; with the exception of averaged K2O and P2O5, which are still within range for observed normal MORB. For a mid-ocean ridge basalt, the lavas in the NFB exhibit a large range in volatiles: H2O (0.16-0.9 wt%) and CO2 (80-359 ppm). The NFB lavas have volatile levels that exceed the range of MORB and trend toward a more enriched source. In addition, when compared to MORB, the NFB lavas are all enriched in H2O/Ce. La/Sm values in the NFB lavas range from 0.9 to 3.8 while, Gd/Yb values range from 1.2 to 2.5. The NFB lavas overlap the MORB range for both La/Sm (~1.1) and Gd/Yb (~1.3). However, they span a larger range outside of the MORB array. High La/Sm and Gd/Yb ratios (>1) are indications of deeper melting within the

  8. Summary and evaluation of hydraulic property data available for the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system. For the past 40 years, hydrologic testing of the upper basalt confined aquifer has been conducted by a number of Hanford Site programs. Hydraulic property estimates are important for evaluating aquifer flow characteristics (i.e., ground-water flow patterns, flow velocity, transport travel time). Presented are the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydraulic properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system (i.e., the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt). Available hydrologic test data were reevaluated using recently developed diagnostic test analysis methods. A comparison of calculated transmissivity estimates indicates that, for most test results, a general correspondence within a factor of two between reanalysis and previously reported test values was obtained. For a majority of the tests, previously reported values are greater than reanalysis estimates. This overestimation is attributed to a number of factors, including, in many cases, a misapplication of nonleaky confined aquifer analysis methods in previous analysis reports to tests that exhibit leaky confined aquifer response behavior. Results of the test analyses indicate a similar range for transmissivity values for the various hydro-geologic units making up the upper basalt confined aquifer. Approximately 90% of the calculated transmissivity values for upper basalt confined aquifer hydrogeologic units occur within the range of 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 2} m{sup 2}/d, with 65% of the calculated estimate values occurring between 10{sup 1} to 10{sup 2} m{sup 2}d. These summary findings are consistent with the general range of values previously reported for basalt interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds within the Saddle Mountains Basalt.

  9. Multiphase Alkaline Basalts of Central Al-Haruj Al-Abyad of Libya: Petrological and Geochemical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Aal M. Abdel-Karim


    Full Text Available Al-Haruj basalts that represent the largest volcanic province in Libya consist of four lava flow phases of varying thicknesses, extensions, and dating. Their eruption is generally controlled by the larger Afro-Arabian rift system. The flow phases range from olivine rich and/or olivine dolerites to olivine and/or normal basalts that consist mainly of variable olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and glass. Olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene form abundant porphyritic crystals. In olivine-rich basalt and olivine basalt, these minerals occur as glomerophyric or seriate clusters of an individual mineral or group of minerals. Groundmass textures are variably intergranular, intersertal, vitrophyric, and flow. The pyroclastic, clastogenic flows and/or ejecta of the volcanic cones show porphyritic, vitrophric, pilotaxitic, and vesicular textures. They are classified into tholeiite, alkaline, and olivine basalts. Three main groups are recorded. Basalts of phase 1 are generated from tholeiitic to alkaline magma, while those of phases 3 and 4 are derived from alkaline magma. It is proposed that the tholeiitic basalts represent prerift stage magma generated by higher degree of partial melting (2.0–3.5% of garnet-peridotite asthenospheric mantle source, at shallow depth, whereas the dominant alkaline basalts may represent the rift stage magma formed by low degree of partial melting (0.7–1.5% and high fractionation of the same source, at greater depth in an intra-continental plate with OIB affinity. The melt generation could be also attributed to lithosphere extension associated with passive rise of variable enriched mantle.

  10. Bridging basalts and rhyolites in the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic province: The elusive intermediate step (United States)

    Szymanowski, Dawid; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Guillong, Marcel; Phillips, William M.


    Many magmatic provinces produce strongly bimodal volcanism with abundant mafic and silicic magmas yet a scarcity of intermediate (55-65 wt.% SiO2) compositions. In such bimodal settings, much debate revolves around whether the basaltic magmas act as heat sources to melt pre-existing crust, or whether they are the parents to the silicic magmas (a fractionation-dominated evolution). Until now, this lack of coeval intermediate compositions has commonly been used to support models involving large degrees of crustal melting. Detailed analysis of mineral cargoes of ignimbrites from the 6.6-4 Ma Heise volcanic field in the famously bimodal Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province has revealed the existence of intermediate liquids associated with main stage rhyolitic volcanism. Two closely spaced rhyolitic ignimbrites, the Wolverine Creek Tuff and the Conant Creek Tuff, contain pyroxene crystals with major and trace elemental compositions in equilibrium with intermediate melts prior to significant plagioclase fractionation. Hosted within these crystals are glassy melt inclusions that have compositions (57-67 wt.% SiO2) directly recording the intermediate liquids. The combined mineral and melt inclusion data provide the first evidence for the occurrence of intermediate melts, typically erased in the high temperature YSRP ignimbrites by crystal resorption or diffusive re-equilibration. The results suggest the existence of mostly unerupted mid-crustal reservoirs that drive magma compositions towards the erupted rhyolites via assimilation-fractional crystallisation (AFC).

  11. Basaltic scorias from Romania - complex building material us for concrete, glazing tiles, ceramic glazes, glass ceramics, mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marica, S.; Cetean, V. [PROCEMA S.A., Bucharest (Romania)


    The most spectacular deposit of basaltic scoria from Romania is the Heghes Hill from Racos, locality situated in the central part of country. This deposit emerged as grains of various dimensions, as volcanic ash with specific porosity up to 30% and vacuolar basaltic rocks. All types of basaltic scorias have specific vacuolar appearance, red- brick or blackish - grey coloured, scoria textures and similar chemical composition with others basalts of the world. The physical and mechanical characteristics determined included the scorias in the Heghes Hill in the following categories : light rocks (2,98 g/ dmc), porous(11,04%), similar to expanded slag, slightly absorbing rocks (3,86%), with low compression strengths (1700 daN/cmp). Basaltic scoria from Heghes is a very good row material for the manufacture of concrete, for obtain decorative cutting tiles glazing with ceramic and basaltic glazes (up to 40%) varied the range of colours and for obtaining glass ceramic, mineral wool, crushing sand for road maintenance, heat -insulating bricks and shid -proof material. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A. Valentine; F.V. Perry; D. Krier; G.N. Keating; R.E. Kelley; A.H. Cogbill


    Five Pleistocene basaltic volcanoes in Crater Flat (southern Nevada) demonstrate the complexity of eruption processes associated with small-volume basalts and the effects of initial emplacement characteristics on post-eruptive geomorphic evolution of the volcanic surfaces. The volcanoes record eruptive processes in their pyroclastic facies ranging from ''classical'' Strombolian mechanisms to, potentially, violent Strombolian mechanisms. Cone growth was accompanied, and sometimes disrupted, by effusion of lavas from the bases of cones. Pyroclastic cones were built upon a gently southward-sloping surface and were prone to failure of their down-slope (southern) flanks. Early lavas flowed primarily southward and, at Red and Black Cone volcanoes, carried abundant rafts of cone material on the tops of the flows. These resulting early lava fields eventually built platforms such that later flows erupted from the eastern (at Red Cone) and northern (at Black Cone) bases of the cones. Three major surface features--scoria cones, lava fields with abundant rafts of pyroclastic material, and lava fields with little or no pyroclastic material--experienced different post-eruptive surficial processes. Contrary to previous interpretations, we argue that the Pleistocene Crater Flat volcanoes are monogenetic, each having formed in a single eruptive episode lasting months to a few years, and with all eruptive products having emanated from the area of the volcanoes main cones rather than from scattered vents. Geochemical variations within the volcanoes must be interpreted within a monogenetic framework, which implies preservation of magma source heterogeneities through ascent and eruption of the magmas.

  13. Uranium-lead isotope systematics of Mars inferred from the basaltic shergottite QUE 94201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, A M; Borg, L E; Connelly, J N


    Uranium-lead ratios (commonly represented as {sup 238}U/{sup 204}Pb = {mu}) calculated for the sources of martian basalts preserve a record of petrogenetic processes that operated during early planetary differentiation and formation of martian geochemical reservoirs. To better define the range of {mu} values represented by the source regions of martian basalts, we completed U-Pb elemental and isotopic analyses on whole rock, mineral and leachate fractions from the martian meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 94201 (QUE 94201). The whole rock and silicate mineral fractions have unradiogenic Pb isotopic compositions that define a narrow range ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 11.16-11.61). In contrast, the Pb isotopic compositions of weak HCl leachates are more variable and radiogenic. The intersection of the QUE 94201 data array with terrestrial Pb in {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb-{sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb-{sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb compositional space is consistent with varying amounts of terrestrial contamination in these fractions. We calculate that only 1-7% contamination is present in the purified silicate mineral and whole rock fractions, whereas the HCl leachates contain up to 86% terrestrial contamination. Despite the contamination, we are able to use the U-Pb data to determine the initial {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb of QUE 94201 (11.086 {+-} 0.008) and calculate the {mu} value of the QUE 94201 mantle source to be 1.823 {+-} 0.008. This is the lowest {mu} value calculated for any martian basalt source, and, when compared to the highest values determined for martian basalt sources, indicates that {mu} values in martian source reservoirs vary by at least 100%. The range of source {mu} values further indicates that the {mu} value of bulk silicate Mars is approximately three. The amount of variation in the {mu} values of the mantle sources ({mu} {approx} 2-4) is greater than can be explained by igneous processes involving silicate phases alone. We suggest the possibility that a small

  14. The First Paleomagnetic data from the Cambrian basalts of Henrietta Island (De Long Archipelago, Arctic Ocean) (United States)

    Metelkin, D. V.; Zhdanova, A.; Vernikovskiy, V. A.; Matushkin, N. Y.


    Henrietta Island in De Long archipelago (East-Siberian sea) still remains poorly studied geologically but last investigations show that its volcano-sedimentary sequences can help reconstruct tectonic evolution of East Russian Arctic in Early Paleozoic stage. The deposits lying on Precambrian basements are deformed to varying degrees and intruded by mafic dykes.The study was carried out on two basaltic lava flows whose 40Ar/39Ar age is 520.6±9.5 Ma. Previously the age of these basalts was assumed Cretaceous. According to available data the underlaying sediments contain zircons with Cambrian and Ordovician ages but all boundaries between these basalts and other strata are tectonic. So we suppose the age of basalts as Middle Cambrian but more precise geochronological data are required. All magnetic measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Geodynamics and Paleomagnetism of Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics (Novosibirsk). Basalt samples has relatively high magnetic susceptibility values varying from 5x10-4 to 180x10-4SI units. NRM values range is from 3 to 170 mA/m. Petromagnetic parameters including also coercive characteristics point at the good potentially preserving primary magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization permits to isolate characteristic components of magnetization and calculate mean directions in two lava flows: 1. Ds=294.3°, Is=29.1°, K=81.1, α95=5.1; 2. Ds=301.0°, Is=28.3°, K=34.4, α95=7.9). The mean paleomagnetic pole has coordinates: Plat=20.9°, Plong = 42.6°, dp/dm=14.3/7.9. Paleolatitude was defined as 15.3° but the question of the hemisphere for De Long Islands is open yet. In case of south hemisphere in Middle Cambrian according to available paleomagnetic data De Long islands could be placed close to Taimyr margin of Siberia and in case of northern hemisphere they may be located near south (in present-day coordinates) margin of Siberia. The work was supported by grant RFBR 14-05-31399 and Russian Research Fund

  15. Low temperature CO2 mineralization into basalt: solution chemistry and secondary mineral assemblages (United States)

    Gysi, A.; Stefánsson, A.


    CO2 represents one of the most abundant acid supplies in nature and has an important impact on element fluxes and water chemistry on the Earth surface. CO2 emissions due to increased industrialization are causing an important imbalance in this surface system and affect the global climate. Therefore, different methods to trap CO2 are developed and studied in response to the CO2 increase. CO2 sequestration into secondary minerals is considered as one possible way of reducing those CO2 levels. The Carbfix project is a pilot study in SW Iceland aiming to inject CO2-loaded waters from the Hellisheidi geothermal powerplant into basaltic rock formations. The goal is to mineralize CO2 by reacting Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2 ions released by the basalt into carbonates. We investigated the geochemical aspects of CO2-water-basalt interaction at pCO2 between 0-20 bar and temperatures of 25-40°C by combining experiments and numerical modelling. The aim of our studies are to gain a better understanding of the key reactions, mass fluxes and porosity changes associated to CO2-water-basalt interaction. Modelling results show that at low reaction progress (pH 8) the main stable minerals precipitating from solution are (Ca)-Mg-Fe clays, Ca-Mg carbonates and zeolites (Gysi and Stéfansson 2008). Laboratory experiments were performed by reacting basaltic glass with aqueous solutions initially saturated at pCO2 ranging between 0-10 bar at 40°C for 120 days. Results from solution chemistry show that there are three different element mobility behaviors: i) Si+4 and Al+3 dissolve non-stochiometrically and/or precipitate into secondary minerals independent of the intial pCO2 and the water/rock ratios used in the experiments, b) Ca+2 and Mg+2 dissolve stochiometrically independent of the initial pCO2, but precipitate into secondary minerals at high water/rock ratios and low initial pCO2 after about 100 days, c) elements like Fe show a mixed behavior from mobile to immobile depending on the

  16. CO2 Geological Storage in Olivine Rich Basaltic Aquifers: New Insights From Flow-Through Experiments (United States)

    Peuble, S.; Godard, M.; Luquot, L.; Gouze, P.


    Injection of CO2-rich fluids into basaltic aquifers is one of the methods envisaged for mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2. Basalts are rich in Mg, Fe and Ca and have a high potential to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals. However, the role of reaction-transport processes has yet to be investigated in order to predict the capacity and sustainability for CO2 storage of these highly reactive systems. We present the results of three flow-through experiments performed at 180°C and total pressure 12 MPa. NaHCO3 rich water (0.5 mol/L) mixed with CO2 (PCO2 = 10 MPa) was injected through sintered analogues of olivine-accumulation zones in basaltic flows (~ 95% olivine Fo87, MORB glass, minor chromite). The injection rate was 1 mL/h for exp. 1 and 2, and 0.1 mL/h for exp. 3. The initial porosity and permeability of samples ranges from 3 to 7% and 250.10-18 to 2500.10-18 m2 respectively. All experiments show a strong permeability decrease (down to 10-18 m2) after 90 hours for exp. 1 and 2, earlier for exp 3. Yet dissolution occurs: high concentrations of Zr and Al and of Co in the outlet fluids indicate dissolution of basaltic glass and olivine respectively. Si concentration changes reveal a more complex system with olivine dissolution and the precipitation of Si rich phases: we observed the growth of relatively large (up to 5 microns) Mg-Fe rich phyllosilicates mostly perpendicular to olivine surface. This reaction is typically associated to hydration of (ultra-)mafic rocks and may explain the decrease in permeability during experiments. Finally, the low Ca and Mg fluid concentrations suggest trapping by Ca-Mg rich phases. Ankerite and dolomite were identified by Raman spectrometry in the reacted samples after exp. 1 and 2, while exp. 3 was characterized by precipitation of well-developed and abundant magnesite (Mg0.88 Fe0.11 Ca0.01 CO3) replacing dissolved olivine. Carbonation appears to be an efficient process: ~ 0.015g of CO2 per gram of sample is stored as carbonates

  17. Evidence for volatile-influenced differentiation in a layered alkali basalt flow, Penghu Islands, Taiwan (United States)

    Greenough, John D.; Lee, Chi-Yu; Fryer, Brian J.

    An approximately 20-m-thick alkali basalt flow on the Penghu Islands contains 20 cm thick, horizontally continuous (>50 m), vesicular layers separated by 1.5 m of massive basalt in its upper 8.5 m. The three layers contain ocelli-like "vesicles" filled with nepheline and igneous carbonate. They are coarse grained and enriched in incompatible elements relative to the massive basalt with which they form sharp contacts. These vesicular layers (segregation veins) formed when residual liquid in the underlying crystal mush was forced (gas filter pressing) or siphoned into three thermally induced horizontal cracks that opened successively in the advancing crystal mush of the flow's upper crust. Most vesicular layer trace elements can be modelled by residual melt extraction after 25-40% fractional crystallization of massive basalt underlying each layer. Sulphur, Cl, As, Zn, Pb, K, Na, Rb, and Sr show large concentration changes between the top, middle, and bottom layers, with each vesicular and underlying massive basalt forming a chemically distinct "pair." The large changes between layers are difficult to account for by crystal fractionation alone, because other incompatible elements (e.g., La, Sm, Yb, Zr, Nb) and the major elements change little. The association of these elements (S, Cl, etc.) with "fluids" in various geologic environments suggests that volatiles influenced differentiation, perhaps by moving alkali, alkaline earth, and chalcophile elements as magma-dissolved volatile complexes. Volatiles may have also led to large grain sizes in the segregation veins by lowering melt viscosities and raising diffusion rates. The chemical variability between layers indicates that a convection and concentration mechanism acted within the flow. The specific process cannot be determined, but different rates of vesicle plume rise (through the flow) and/or accumulation in the upper crust's crystal mush might account for the chemical pairing and extreme variations in Cl, S, As

  18. From olivine nephelinite, basanite and basalt to peralkaline trachyphonolite and comendite in the Ankaratra volcanic complex, Madagascar: 40Ar/39Ar ages, phase compositions and bulk-rock geochemical and isotopic evolution (United States)

    Cucciniello, Ciro; Melluso, Leone; le Roex, Anton P.; Jourdan, Fred; Morra, Vincenzo; de'Gennaro, Roberto; Grifa, Celestino


    The Ankaratra volcanic field covers an area of 3800 km2 in central Madagascar and comprises of lava flows, lava domes, scoria cones, tuff rings and maars emplaced at different ages (Miocene to Recent). The volcanic products include ultramafic-mafic (olivine-leucite nephelinite, basanite, alkali basalt, hawaiite and tholeiitic basalt), intermediate (mugearite and benmoreite) and felsic rocks (trachyphonolite, quartz trachyte and rhyolite), the latter often peralkaline. The 40Ar/39Ar determinations for mafic lavas yield ages of 17.45 ± 0.12 Ma, 16.63 ± 0.08 Ma and 8.62 ± 0.09 Ma, indicating a prolonged magmatic activity. The mineralogical and geochemical variations suggest that the magmatic evolution of the alkali basalt-hawaiite-mugearite-benmoreite-trachyte series can be accounted for by removal of olivine, feldspars, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides and accessory phases, producing residual trachytic and trachyphonolitic compositions mineralogically very similar to those of other volcanic areas and tectonic settings. The Ankaratra olivine leucite nephelinites, basanites and tholeiitic basalts do not seem to be associated with significant amounts of evolved comagmatic rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr (0.70504-0.71012), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51259-0.51244) and 206Pb/204Pb (17.705-18.563) isotopic ratios of trachytes and comendite are consistent with open-system processes. However, other trachyphonolites have 143Nd/144Nd (0.51280), 206Pb/204Pb (18.648), 207Pb/204Pb (15.582) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.795) similar to those of mafic rocks, suggesting differentiation processes without appreciable interaction with crustal materials. The Ankaratra volcanism is to be directly linked to a broadly E-W-trending intracontinental extension. A large-scale thermal anomaly, associated with an anomalously hot source region, is not required to explain the Cenozoic magmatism of Madagascar.

  19. Atmospheric outgassing and native-iron formation during carbonaceous sediment-basalt melt interactions (United States)

    Pernet-Fisher, John F.; Day, James M. D.; Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Ryabov, Victor V.; Taylor, Lawrence A.


    Organic carbon-rich sediment assimilation by basaltic magmas leads to enhanced emission of greenhouse gases during continental flood basalt eruptions. A collateral effect of these interactions is the generation of low oxygen fugacities (fO2) (below the iron-wüstite [IW] buffer curve) during magmatic crystallization, resulting in the precipitation of native-iron. The occurrence of native-iron bearing terrestrial basaltic rocks are rare, having been identified at three locations: Siberia, West Greenland, and Central Germany. We report the first combined study of Re-Os isotopes, highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re), and trace-element abundances for these three occurrences, in addition to host sediments at West Greenland. To quantify the amount of crustal assimilation experienced by the magmas, we present combined crystallization and assimilation models, together with fractional crystallization models, to assess how relative abundances of the HSE have been modified during crystallization. The radiogenic osmium isotopic compositions (γOsinitial +15 to +193) of mafic igneous samples are consistent with assimilation of old high Re/Os crustal contaminants with radiogenic 187Os/188Os, whereas the HSE inter-element fractionations (Pd/Os 2 to >10,000) suggest that some Siberian samples underwent an early stage of sulfide removal. Metalliferous samples from the Siberian intrusions of Khungtukun and Dzhaltul (associated with the Siberian flood basalts) yield internal 187Re-187Os ages of 266 ± 83Ma and 249 ± 50Ma, respectively, reflecting late-Permian emplacement ages. These results imply that crustal assimilation took place prior to crystallization of native-Fe. In contrast, metalliferous samples from Disko Island and Bühl (associated with the West Greenland flood basalts, and the Central European Volcanic Province, respectively) have trends in 187Re/188Os-187Os/188Os space corresponding to apparent ages older than their reported crystallization ages

  20. Experimental research on the microstructure and compressive and tensile properties of nano-SiO2 concrete containing basalt fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Ma


    Full Text Available Urban underground space resources are gaining increasing attention for the sustainable development of cities. Traditional concrete cannot meet the needs of underground construction. High-performance concrete was prepared using varying dosages of nano-SiO2 and basalt fiber, and its compressive and tensile strength was measured. The concrete microstructure was analyzed and used to assess the mechanisms through which the nano-SiO2 and basalt fibers affect the strength of concrete. The cement hydration productions in concrete produced varied with the dosage of nano-SiO2. When the nano-SiO2 dosage was between 0 and 1.8%, the mass of the C-S-H gel and AFt crystals increased gradually with the nano-SiO2 dosage. When the nano-SiO2 dosage was 1.2%, optimum amounts of C-S-H gel and AFt crystals existed, and the compactness of concrete was well, which agreed with the results of the compressive strength tests. When the basalt-fiber dosage was between 3 and 4 kg/m3, the basalt fibers and the cement matrix were closely bonded, and the splitting tensile strength of the concrete markedly improved. When the basalt-fiber dosage exceeded 5 kg/m3, the basalt fibers clustered together, resulting in weak bonding between the basalt fibers and the cement matrix, consequently, the basalt fibers were easily pulled apart from the cement. When the nano-SiO2 and basalt fiber dosages were 1.2% and 3 kg/m3, respectively, the compactness of the concrete microstructure was well and the strength enhancement was the greatest; additionally, the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength were 9.04% and 17.42%, respectively, greater than those of plain concrete. The macroscopic tests on the mechanical properties of the nano-SiO2 concrete containing basalt fibers agreed well with the results of microstructure analysis.

  1. The Middle Triassic evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean: evidence from analyses of OIB-type basalts and OIB-derived phonolites in northern Tibet (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Jun; Li, Cai; Liu, Jin-Heng; Wang, Ming; Liu, Yi-Ming; Xie, Chao-Ming


    In this paper, we present new major and trace element chemical data for the basalts and phonolites of the Nare ocean island fragment (NaOI), as well as zircon U-Pb age data and Hf isotope compositions for the NaOI phonolites in the middle segment of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone, northern Tibet. Our aim is to assess the genesis of these rocks and to reconstruct the Middle Triassic evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean (BNTO). The NaOI retains an ocean island-type double-layered structure comprising a basaltic basement and an oceanic sedimentary cover sequence (conglomerate and limestone, the latter accompanied by layers of erupted phonolite near the top of the sequence). The basalts in the NaOI are enriched in light rare earth elements and high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti), and they exhibit chondrite-normalized REE patterns and primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns similar to those of ocean island basalts. Taking into consideration their high Dy/Yb, Sm/Yb, and La/Sm ratios, we conclude that the NaOI basalts were derived from the partial melting of garnet peridotite in the mantle. The NaOI phonolites have LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.41-0.43) and primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns with enrichments in Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf, and depletions in Ba, U, Sr, P, and Ti. Given the high contents of Nb (172-256 ppm), Ta (11.8-16.0 ppm), Zr (927-1117 ppm), and Hf (20.8-26.9 ppm), and the very low contents of MgO (0.11-0.25 wt%), the very low Mg# values (5-10), and the near-zero contents of Cr (1.27-7.59 ppm), Ni (0.43-7.19 ppm), and Co (0.11-0.38 ppm), and the small and homogeneously positive ɛ Hf(t) values (+ 4.9 to + 9.5), we infer that the NaOI phonolites were formed by the fractional crystallization of an OIB-derived mafic parent magma. The phonolites of the NaOI contain zircons that yielded U-Pb ages of 239 and 242 Ma, indicating that the NaOI formed during

  2. A micro-scale investigation of melt production and extraction in the upper mantle based on silicate melt pockets in ultramafic xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Eniko; Zanetti, A.; Szabo, C.


    Mantle xenoliths in Neogene alkali basalts of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary) frequently have melt pockets that contain silicate minerals, glass, and often carbonate globules. Textural, geochemical and thermobarometric data indicate that the melt pockets formed...

  3. Fractal theory modeling for interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data and establishing lithological cross section in basaltic environment (case study from Southern Syria). (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal


    Fractal theory modeling technique is newly proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, for establishing the lithological cross section in basaltic environments. The logging data of Kodana well, localized in Southern Syria are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established cross section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The concentration- Number (C-N) fractal modeling technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells with much well logging data with a high number of variables are required to be interpreted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of silane coupling agents on basalt fiber-epoxidized vegetable oil matrix composite materials analyzed by the single fiber fragmentation technique


    Samper Madrigal, María Dolores; Petrucci, R.; Sánchez Nacher, Lourdes; Balart Gimeno, Rafael Antonio; Kenny, J.M.


    The fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of biobased epoxy composites reinforced with basalt fiber was investigated by the fragmentation method. Basalt fibers were modified with four different silanes, (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane, [3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyl]-trimethoxysilane, trimethoxy[2-(7-oxabicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-yl)ethyl]silane and (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane to improve the adhesion between the basalt fiber and the resin. The analysis of the fiber tensile strength...

  5. Lava Flow Interactions with Topographic Obstacles: Morphologic Analysis, Analogue Modeling, and Molten Basalt Experiments (United States)

    Dietterich, H. R.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Lev, E.; Dietrich, J. T.


    Underlying topography controls lava flow emplacement by influencing flow paths, lengths, and advance rates. The morphology of the pre-eruptive surface provides input into lava flow models and the design of artificial diversion barriers, although the dynamics of interactions between topographic obstacles and lava flows are not well known. We investigate these factors by combining morphologic analysis of Hawaiian lava flows with scaling derived from analogue and molten basalt experiments. A comparison of pre- and post-eruptive topographic data shows that flows thicken on the upslope side of topographic barriers, a feature that has been employed to calculate flow velocities from simple energy conversion. Observations also document effects of flow branching and confinement on flow advance rate, with confined flows in Hawai'i traveling further and faster than those that branch. To explain these observations we perform laboratory experiments using Newtonian and Bingham analogue fluids, as well as molten basalt. Conditions of flow splitting and subsequent advance are defined using experiments with both V-shaped and cylindrical obstacles that divide an unconfined flow. Oblique linear obstacles are used to explore flow confinement and diversion. We find that the degree of thickening, which determines the height of an obstacle capable of holding back the flow, is controlled by both initial flow velocity and obstacle geometry. Key is the ability of the flow to pass around the obstacle, such that larger and wider obstacles cause greater thickening than smaller and narrower obstacles. Flow advance rate is largely unaffected by branching in the Newtonian analogue experiments, but decreases after splitting in the molten basalt experiments because of surface cooling. Interestingly, flows into oblique obstacles are diverted but travel faster. Together these data provide the basis for a theoretical description of the interaction dynamics of viscous (and cooling) lava flows with

  6. Sulfides from Martian and Lunar Basalts: Comparative Chemistry for Ni Co Cu and Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Papike; P Burger; C Shearer; S Sutton; M Newville; Y Choi; A Lanzirotti


    Here Mars and Moon are used as 'natural laboratories' with Moon displaying lower oxygen fugacities ({approx}IW-1) than Mars ({approx}IW to FMQ). Moon has lower concentrations of Ni and Co in basaltic melts than does Mars. The major sulfides are troilite (FeS) in lunar basalts and pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S) in martian basalts. This study focuses on the concentrations of Ni, Co, Cu, and Se. We chose these elements because of their geochemical importance and the feasibility of analyzing them with a combination of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and electron microprobe (EPMA) techniques. The selenium concentrations could only be analyzed, at high precision, with SXRF techniques as they are <150 ppm, similar to concentrations seen in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Nickel and Co are in higher concentrations in martian sulfides than lunar and are higher in martian olivine-bearing lithologies than olivine-free varieties. The sulfides in individual samples show very large ranges in concentration (e.g., Ni ranges from 50 000 ppm to <5 ppm). These large ranges are mainly due to compositional heterogeneities within individual grains due to diffusion and phase separation. Electron microprobe wavelength-dispersive (WDS) mapping of Ni, Co, and Cu show the diffusion trajectories. Nickel and Co have almost identical diffusion trajectories leading to the likely nucleation of pentlandite (Ni,Co,Fe){sub 9}S{sub 8}, and copper diffuses along separate pathways likely toward chalcopyrite nucleation sites (CuFeS{sub 2}). The systematics of Ni and Co in lunar and martian sulfides clearly distinguish the two parent bodies, with martian sulfides displaced to higher Ni and Co values.

  7. Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab. (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Stegman, Dave R


    The origin of the Steens-Columbia River (SCR) flood basalts, which is presumed to be the onset of Yellowstone volcanism, has remained controversial, with the proposed conceptual models involving either a mantle plume or back-arc processes. Recent tomographic inversions based on the USArray data reveal unprecedented detail of upper-mantle structures of the western USA and tightly constrain geodynamic models simulating Farallon subduction, which has been proposed to influence the Yellowstone volcanism. Here we show that the best-fitting geodynamic model depicts an episode of slab tearing about 17 million years ago under eastern Oregon, where an associated sub-slab asthenospheric upwelling thermally erodes the Farallon slab, leading to formation of a slab gap at shallow depth. Driven by a gradient of dynamic pressure, the tear ruptured quickly north and south and within about two million years covering a distance of around 900 kilometres along all of eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. This tear would be consistent with the occurrence of major volcanic dikes during the SCR-Northern Nevada Rift flood basalt event both in space and time. The model predicts a petrogenetic sequence for the flood basalt with sources of melt starting from the base of the slab, at first remelting oceanic lithosphere and then evolving upwards, ending with remelting of oceanic crust. Such a progression helps to reconcile the existing controversies on the interpretation of SCR geochemistry and the involvement of the putative Yellowstone plume. Our study suggests a new mechanism for the formation of large igneous provinces.

  8. Impact of dissolution and carbonate precipitation on carbon storage in basalt (United States)

    Wells, R. K.; Xiong, W.; Tadeoye, J.; Menefee, A.; Ellis, B. R.; Skemer, P. A.; Giammar, D.


    The spatial evolution of silicate mineral dissolution, carbonate precipitation, and the transport of fluids influence the viability of carbon storage in basalt reservoirs. Dissolution of natural basalt and subsequent carbonate precipitation in systems with different transport processes operating were characterized using static and flow-through (5 mL/hr) experiments at 50, 100, and 150 °C, and 100 bar CO2. Intact samples and cores with milled pathways that simulate fractures were tested. Spatial and mineralogical patterns in dissolution and precipitation were analyzed using optical and electron microscopy, microCT scanning, and surface roughness data. Precipitates and fluid chemistry were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, SEM-EDS, and ICP-MS. Analysis of the bulk solution and surface topography suggests dissolution of olivine and pyroxene grains begins within hours of the start of the experiments. In flow-through experiments, total effluent cation concentrations reach a peak concentration within a few hours then drop towards a steady state within a few days. In static experiments, the initial rate of cation release is faster than it is after several weeks. In both cases Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+ are the dominant cations in solution in the initial stages of reaction. Lower concentrations of Na2+, K+, and Al3+, and the preservation of feldspar and matrix grains after several weeks of reaction indicate the slow reactivity of these minerals. As the reaction progresses, the surface roughness increases steadily with cavities developing at the sites of olivine and pyroxene grains. Post-reaction analysis of basalt samples reacted at static conditions with milled pathways reveals that both siderite and amorphous silica precipitated within diffusion-limited zones as early as 4-6 weeks. Siderite abundance varies with distance along the pathway with the highest concentration of carbonates 1-2 cm below the fracture opening. Siderite precipitates are large enough to fill fracture

  9. Smectite Formation From Basaltic Glass in the Presence of Sulfuric Acid on Mars (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T.; Niles, P. B.; Sutter, B.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.


    Phyllosilicates of the smectite group detected in Noachian and early Hesperian terrains on Mars were hypothesized to form under neutral to alkaline conditions. These pH conditions and the presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere during the Noachian and early Hesperian should have been favorable for the formation of large carbonate deposits. However, large-scale carbonate deposits have not been detected on Mars. Recent orbital and landed missions have detected phyllosilicates co-existing with minerals that usually form under acidic conditions including jarosite and alunite. The occurrence of sulfates co-existing with phyllosilicates minerals on Mars and absences of large-scale carbonate in Noachian terrains indicate that phyllosilicate formation under sulfuric acid conditions was at least locally important. The pH effect and the nature of phyllosilicate minerals forming during acid-sulfate weathering of basalt remain unknown. We investigated formation of smectite minerals in the presence of sulfuric acid from Mars-analogue, glass-rich, basalt simulant. Hydrothermal (200º C) 14 d experiments were performed with addition of sulfuric acid of variable concentration at a pH range from 1.8 to 8.4. Sulfuric acid did not suppress smectite formation and gradual acid neutralization during basalt weathering led to montmorillonite formation at pH 3 followed by saponite at pH 4 and higher. Smectite formed through glass phase alteration and was accompanied by precipitation of calcium sulfate (anhydrite). Similar smectite and sulfate formation under acid sulfate conditions may have occurred in near-surface hydrothermal areas near magma bodies on Mars.

  10. Microbial colonization of basaltic glasses in hydrothermal organic-rich sediments at Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolwenn eCallac


    Full Text Available Oceanic basalts host diverse microbial communities with various metabolisms involved in C, N, S and Fe biogeochemical cycles which may contribute to mineral and glass alteration processes at, and below the seafloor. In order to study the microbial colonization on basaltic glasses and their potential biotic/abiotic weathering products, two colonization modules called AISICS (Autonomous In Situ Instrumented Colonization System were deployed in hydrothermal deep-sea sediments at the Guaymas Basin for 8 days and 22 days. Each AISICS module contained 18 colonizers (including sterile controls filled with basaltic glasses of contrasting composition. Chemical analyses of ambient fluids sampled through the colonizers showed a greater contribution of hydrothermal fluids (maximum temperature 57.6°C for the module deployed during the longer time period. For each colonizer, the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic function of bacterial and archaeal communities were explored using a molecular approach by cloning and sequencing. Results showed large microbial diversity in all colonizers. The bacterial distribution is primarily linked to the deployment duration, as well as the depth for the short deployment time module. Some 16s rRNA sequences form a new cluster of Epsilonproteobacteria. Within the Archaea the retrieved diversity could not be linked to either duration, depth or substrata. However, mcrA gene sequences belonging to the ANME-1 mcrA-guaymas cluster were found sometimes associated with their putative sulfate-reducers syntrophs depending on the colonizers. Although no specific glass alteration texture was identified, nano-crystals of barite and pyrite were observed in close association with organic matter, suggesting a possible biological mediation. This study gives new insights into the colonization steps of volcanic rock substrates and the capability of microbial communities to exploit new environmental conditions.

  11. Earth's evolving subcontinental lithospheric mantle: inferences from LIP continental flood basalt geochemistry (United States)

    Greenough, John D.; McDivitt, Jordan A.


    Archean and Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SLM) is compared using 83 similarly incompatible element ratios (SIER; minimally affected by % melting or differentiation, e.g., Rb/Ba, Nb/Pb, Ti/Y) for >3700 basalts from ten continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces representing nine large igneous provinces (LIPs). Nine transition metals (TM; Fe, Mn, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in 102 primitive basalts (Mg# = 0.69-0.72) from nine provinces yield additional SLM information. An iterative evaluation of SIER values indicates that, regardless of age, CFB transecting Archean lithosphere are enriched in Rb, K, Pb, Th and heavy REE(?); whereas P, Ti, Nb, Ta and light REE(?) are higher in Proterozoic-and-younger SLM sources. This suggests efficient transfer of alkali metals and Pb to the continental lithosphere perhaps in association with melting of subducted ocean floor to form Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite terranes. Titanium, Nb and Ta were not efficiently transferred, perhaps due to the stabilization of oxide phases (e.g., rutile or ilmenite) in down-going Archean slabs. CFB transecting Archean lithosphere have EM1-like SIER that are more extreme than seen in oceanic island basalts (OIB) suggesting an Archean SLM origin for OIB-enriched mantle 1 (EM1). In contrast, OIB high U/Pb (HIMU) sources have more extreme SIER than seen in CFB provinces. HIMU may represent subduction-processed ocean floor recycled directly to the convecting mantle, but to avoid convective homogenization and produce its unique Pb isotopic signature may require long-term isolation and incubation in SLM. Based on all TM, CFB transecting Proterozoic lithosphere are distinct from those cutting Archean lithosphere. There is a tendency for lower Sc, Cr, Ni and Cu, and higher Zn, in the sources for Archean-cutting CFB and EM1 OIB, than Proterozoic-cutting CFB and HIMU OIB. All CFB have SiO2 (pressure proxy)-Nb/Y (% melting proxy) relationships supporting low pressure, high % melting

  12. XANES Measurements of Cr Valence in Olivine and their Applications to Planetary Basalts (Invited) (United States)

    Bell, A. S.; Burger, P.; Le, L.; Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J.; Sutton, S. R.; Newville, M.; Jones, J. H.


    The oxidation state and partitioning behavior of trace Cr in terrestrial and planetary basaltic magmas has long been a subject of petrologic inquiry. We have performed a series of experiments designed to examine the relationship between oxygen fugacity and the ratio of divalent to trivalent Cr present in olivine crystals grown from a basaltic liquid. The experimental olivine crystals were grown at fO2 values ranging from IW-1 to IW+3.4. The melt composition used in this work was modeled after the bulk composition of the primitive, basaltic martian meteorite Yamato 980459 (Y-98). Chromium valence in the olivine crystals was measured with X-ray-Absorption-Near-Edge-Spectroscopy (XANES) at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Chromium K-edge XANES data were acquired with the x-ray microprobe of GSECARS beamline 13-ID-E. Beam focusing was accomplished with dynamically-figured Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors; this configuration yielded a beam focused to a final spot size of ~ 4 μm2. Results from the XANES measurements indicate that the ratio of divalent to trivalent Cr in the olivine is systematically correlated with fO2 in a manner that is consistent with the expected redox systematics for Cr2+- Cr3+ in the melt. In this way, measurements of the Cr2+/Cr3+ in olivine phenocrysts can indirectly reveal information about the Cr valence ratio and fO2 the liquid from which it grew even in the absence of a quenched melt phase. Although the results from the experiments presented in this work specifically apply to the Yamato 98 parental liquid, the concepts and XANES analytical techniques used in this study present a novel, generalized methodology that may be applicable to any olivine-bearing basalt. Furthermore, the XANES based measurements are made on a micron-scale, thus potential changes of the Cr2+/Cr3+ in the melt occurring during crystallization may be recorded in detail.

  13. Devitrification Dating: A Pilot Study with Basalts from the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Hughes, S. S.


    The devitrification of glass in geological systems is of interest for many reasons. One means of quantitatively tracking the process is to measure the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity of the samples, i.e. the light produced by a sample as it is heated in the laboratory after exposure to a standard radiation dose, the natural TL signal having been previously removed. As crystallization occurs, the TL signal increases as luminescent crystals form in the glass. Kinetic studies of the devitrification of glass in basalts suggest that it the process takes many millions of years suggesting that TL sensitivity might be able to date lavas over this time-range. We collected five samples of basalt flows at the Craters of the Moon, Idaho, and surrounding areas as part of the FINESSE team, a member of SSERVI. Radiocarbon and Ar-Ar ages are 6500, 6600, 57,000, 116,000, and 120,000 years. After grinding to ~200 mm grains, 4 mg aliquots were placed in a TL rig and heated to 500oC to remove their natural TL signal. They were then irradiated with a 150 mCi 90Sr beta source for 3 minutes and the TL induced was measured. The TL counts obtained for these samples, in order of increasing age, are 150±25, 88.3±10, 153±53, 616±160, 533±76, the uncertainty being based on triplicate measurements. These data yield a relationship between TL sensitivity and age of Age = 232 x TL sensitivity - 1.638 x 104 with an R2 = 0.97. Many factors that influence the rate of devitrification need to be addressed before a quantitative method of dating, independent of isotopic methods, can be claimed. The composition of the glass, the amount of water in the basalt, and storage temperature, are all important factors. However, this small pilot study is encouraging and will be extended by further measurements of basalts from Idaho and Hawai'i before deciding whether it is worth investigating the complicating factors.

  14. Origin of Permian OIB-like basalts in NW Thailand and implication on the Paleotethyan Ocean (United States)

    Wang, Yuejun; He, Huiying; Zhang, Yuzhi; Srithai, Boontarika; Feng, Qinglai; Cawood, Peter A.; Fan, Weiming


    The basaltic rocks in NW Thailand belong to part of giant Southeast Asian igneous zone that delineates the extension of the Paleotethyan Ocean from SW China into NW Thailand. The Chiang Mai basaltic samples from the Chiang Dao, Fang, Lamphun and Ban Sahakorn sections are divisible into two groups of high-iron basalt. Group 1 has SiO2 of 38.30-49.18 wt.%, FeOt of 13.09-25.37 wt.%, MgO of 8.38-1.60 wt.%, TiO2 of 3.92-6.30 wt.%, which is rarely observed in nature. Group 2 shows SiO2 = 44.71-49.21 wt.%, FeOt = 10.88-14.34 wt.%, MgO = 5.24-16.11 wt.%, TiO2 = 2.22-3.07 wt.% and mg# = 44-70. Olivine and pyroxene are responsible for the fractionation of the Group 2 magma whereas low oxygen fugacity during the late-stage differentiation of the Group 1 magma prolonged fractionation of ilmenite and magnetite. The onset of ilmenite and magnetite fractionations controls the distinct differentiation commencing at MgO = 7 wt.%. Both groups show similar REE and primitive mantle-normalized patterns with insignificant Eu, Nb-Ta and Zr-Hf anomalies. They have similar Nd isotopic compositions with εNd (t) values ranging from + 2.8 to + 3.7 and similar Nb/La, Nb/U, Th/La, Zr/Nb, Th/Ta, La/Yb, Nb/Th, Nb/Y and Zr/Y, resembling those of OIB-like rocks. The representative basaltic sample yields the argon plateau age of 282.3 ± 1.4 Ma, suggestive of Early Permian origin. Our data argue for Group 1 and Group 2 are coeval in the intra-oceanic seamount setting within the Paleotethyan Ocean, which at least continued till 283 Ma. These data, along with other observations, suggest that the Inthanon zone defines the main Paleotethyan suture zone, which northerly links with the Changning-Menglian suture zone in SW China.

  15. Enhanced methane emission during carbonaceous sediment-basalt interactions as a mechanism for mass extinction (United States)

    Kubo, A. I.; Day, J. M.; Ryabov, V. V.; Taylor, L. A.


    Precise dating techniques have established the contemporaneous eruption of the Siberian Traps at the beginning of the Permian faunal mass extinction at 248 ± 2 Ma. Within a relatively limited time-period ( 1 Ma), the Siberian Traps expelled approximately ninety percent of its total volume ( 1.5 Mkm3), each episode of volcanism adding substantial amounts of CO2, CH4, and SO2 to the atmosphere. The Permian-Triassic Boundary shows average organic carbon isotope excursions of -6.4 ± 4.4‰ (253 Ma), from a long-term average δ13Corg of -25‰. Retallack and Jahren [2008; Journal of Geology] suggested that eruption into C-rich sediments and resulting methane degassing would satisfy necessary conditions to cause such large, variable perturbations in the carbon isotope record. To test this hypothesis, we measured C isotope variations in upper crustal sediments and metalliferous basalts from the Khungtukun and Dzhatul Intrusions, of the Siberian Traps. We find that δ13C values for Siberian coal and sandstones are restricted at -23 to -25‰, with similar values measured in the metalliferous basalts. Anticipated thermogenic methane from disassociation of these sources would be considerably lighter and consistent with low δ13C isotopic values. We further test this mechanism by employing a zero dimensional energy balance model to examine three key parameters: eruption duration, amounts of CO2 and CH4 emission, and the frequency of eruptions. Greater methane emissions than previously estimated due to carbonaceous sediment-basalt interactions have a sustained temperature effect due to high global warming potential (GWP), between 28 and 36 over 100 years compared to the CO2 reference value. Our model predicts that a quick succession of massive effusive eruptions would cause a sustained and substantial temperature effect consistent with estimated equatorial levels of 40°C during the Permian-Triassic Boundary. This mechanism could explain the deficit between the amount of

  16. Petrogenesis of the Northwest Africa 4898 high-Al mare basalt


    Li, Shaolin; Hsu, Weibiao; Guan, Yunbin; Wang, Linyan; Wang, Ying


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 4898 is the only low-Ti, high-Al basaltic lunar meteorite yet recognized. It predominantly consists of pyroxene (53.8 vol%) and plagioclase (38.6 vol%). Pyroxene has a wide range of compositions (En_(12–62)Fs_(25–62)Wo_(11–36)), which display a continuous trend from Mg-rich cores toward Ca-rich mantles and then to Fe-rich rims. Plagioclase has relatively restricted compositions (An_(87–96)Or_(0–1)Ab_(4–13)), and was transformed to maskelynite. The REE zoning of all sili...

  17. Modification of the epoxy binder for glass and basalt rebar. Mechanical test results (United States)

    Brusentseva, T. A.


    The paper presents the results of experimental studies on the modification of the epoxy binder LE-828 for the manufacture of glass and basalt rebar. The nano-size silica powder is used as a filler. The filler mass content ranged from 0% to 2%. It is shown that the nano-disperse filler introduced in the binder leads to the increasing breaking stress and tensile strength by 33% and 34%, respectively; the failure strain increased by 39% at the filler mass content of 0.6%.

  18. Undercooled water in basaltic regoliths and implications for fluidized debris flows on Mars (United States)

    Gooding, James L.


    Pursuant to the past attribution of many geomorphic features on Mars to the movements of water- or ice-lubricated debris, experiments have been conducted for water freezing in wet, sand-like basaltic substrates. It is found that substantial undercooling can be achieved under Martian conditions, independently of freezing-point depressions due to soluble salts. Attention is given to results for a clay-poor soil with negligible salinity from Mauna Kea, Hawaii, which demonstrate that the degree of undercooling is essentially independent of both soil particle size and water/soil mass ratio, albeit with cooling rate variations.

  19. A CO 2-rich gas trigger of explosive paroxysms at Stromboli basaltic volcano, Italy (United States)

    Allard, Patrick


    In addition to rhythmic slug-driven Strombolian activity, Stromboli volcano occasionally produces discrete explosive paroxysms (2 per year on average for the most frequent ones) that constitute a major hazard and whose origin remains poorly elucidated. Partial extrusion of the volatile-rich feeding basalt as aphy