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Sample records for wangiella exophiala dermatitidis

  1. Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis and cystic fibrosis - Prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebecque, Patrick; Leonard, Anissa; Huang, Daniel; Reychler, Grégory; Boeras, Anca; Leal, Teresinha; Symoens, Françoise

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to assess the prevalence of Exophiala dermatitidis in respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to identify risk factors for its presence. The results of all cultures performed over a 2-year period in non lung-transplant patients in our CF clinic were included in the study. Samples consisted of sputum (whenever possible) or deep pharyngeal aspirate after a session of physiotherapy. Specimens were inoculated onto Sabouraud gentamicin-chloramphenicol agar (SGCA) medium (Becton-Dickinson) and incubated at 35°C for 2 days and then at ambient temperature (15-25°C) for 3 weeks. The whole study group included 154 patients (mean age ± SD: 18.5 y ± 11.69). E. dermatitidis was isolated from 58 specimens (2.8%) of nine patients (5.8%) out of total of 2065 cultures prepared during the study period. All E. dermatitidis culture-positive patients were pancreatic insufficient and ≥12 y of age. Almost all (8/9) were homozygous for the F508 del mutation. Aspergillus fumigatus colonization and genotype seemed to be predisposing factors. No other significant characteristic was identified in this group, either in terms of predominant bacterial pathogen or treatment. A distinct comparative study performed over 3 months in our laboratory revealed that the use of SGCA yielded identical isolation rates of E. dermatitidis as erythritol-chloramphenicol agar (ECA).

  2. Cytolocalization of the class V chitin synthase in the yeast, hyphal and sclerotic morphotypes of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis.

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    Abramczyk, Dariusz; Park, Changwon; Szaniszlo, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis is a polymorphic fungus that produces polarized yeast and hyphae, as well as a number of non-polarized sclerotic morphotypes. The phenotypic malleability of this agent of human phaeohyphomycosis allows detailed study of its biology, virulence and the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the transitions among the morphotypes. Our prior studies have demonstrated the existence of seven chitin synthase structural genes in W. dermatitidis, each of which encodes an isoenzyme of a different class. Among them, the class V chitin synthase (WdChs5p) is most unique in terms of protein structure, because it has an N-terminal myosin motor-like domain with a P-loop (MMD) fused to its C-terminal chitin synthase catalytic domain (CSCD). However, the exact role played by WdChs5p in the different morphotypes remains undefined beyond the knowledge that it is the only single chitin synthase required for sustained cell growth at 37 degrees C and consequently virulence. This report describes the expression in Escherichia coli of a 12kDa polypeptide (WdMyo12p) of WdChs5p, which was used to raise in rabbits a polyclonal antibody that recognized exclusively its MMD region. Results from the use of the antibody in immunocytolocalization studies supported our previous findings that WdChs5p is critically important at infection temperatures for maintaining the cell wall integrity of developing yeast buds, elongating tips of hyphae, and random sites of expansion in sclerotic forms. The results also suggested that WdChs5p localizes to the regions of cell wall growth in an actin-dependent fashion.

  3. Development of a novel PCR assay for the identification of the black yeast, Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis from adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yuriko; Elborn, J Stuart; Millar, B Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin E; Rendall, Jackie; Moore, John E

    2008-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may suffer increased morbidity and mortality through colonisation, allergy and invasive infection from fungi. The black yeast, Exophiala dermatitidis (synonym Wangiella dermatitidis) has been found with increasing frequency in sputum specimens of CF patients, with reported isolation rates ranging from 1.1 to 15.7%. At present, no diagnostic PCR exists to aid with the clinical laboratory detection and identification of this organism. A novel species-specific PCR-based assay was developed for the detection of E. dermatitidis, based on employment of rDNA operons and interspacer (ITS) regions between these rDNA operons. Two novel primers, (designated ExdF & ExdR) were designed in silico with the aid of computer-aided alignment software and with the alignment of multiple species of Exophiala, as well as with other commonly described yeasts and filamentous fungi within CF sputum, including Candida, Aspergillus and Scedosporium. An amplicon of approximately 455 bp was generated, spanning the partial ITS1 region - the complete 5.8S rDNA region - partial ITS2 region, employing ExdF (forward primer [16-mer], 5'-CCG CCT ATT CAG GTC C-3' and ExdR (reverse primer [16-mer], 5'-TCT CTC CCA CTC CCG C-3', was employed and optimised on extracted genomic DNA from a well characterised culture of E. dermatitidis, as well as with high quality genomic DNA template from a further 16 unrelated fungi, including Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Pichia guilliermondii, Rhodotorula sp., Trichosporon sp., Aureobasidium pullulans, Fusarium sp., Mucor hiemalis, Bionectria ochroleuca, Gibberella pulicaris. Results demonstrated that only DNA from E. dermatitidis gave an amplification product of the expected size, whilst none of the other fungi were amplifiable. Subsequent employment of this primer pair detected this yeast from mycological cultures

  4. New Biosynthetic Step in the Melanin Pathway of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis: Evidence for 2-Acetyl-1,3,6,8-Tetrahydroxynaphthalene as a Novel Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The predominant cell wall melanin of Wangiella dermatitidis, a black fungal pathogen of humans, is synthesized from 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (D2HN). An early precursor, 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (T4HN), in the pathway leading to D2HN is reportedly produced as a pentaketide directly by an iter...

  5. Systemic phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala (Wangiella) in an immunocompetent child.

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    Alabaz, Derya; Kibar, Filiz; Arikan, Sevtap; Sancak, Banu; Celik, Umit; Aksaray, Necmi; Turgut, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    We report a rare case of systemic lymphadenitis and hepatic involvement due to Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis in a pediatric patient. An 8-year-old immunocompetent boy with chronic fever was examined through the use of sonography and CT scan which demonstrated cervical and mesenteric lymph node enlargement and numerous small hepatic lesions. The etiologic agent was isolated by means of lymph node aspiration. The fungus was identified by its morphological characteristics and through DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. Despite initial amphotericin B and voriconazole therapy, the child's jaundice subsided and he died 7 months later. In addition to pathogenic aspects of Exophiala dermatitidis, the diagnostic approaches and relevant therapeutic strategies are discussed.

  6. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis

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    S Sood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and frequently fatal disease. We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a young immuno competent male presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.

  7. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis.

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    Sood, S; Vaid, V K; Sharma, M; Bhartiya, H

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and frequently fatal disease. We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a young immuno competent male presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.

  8. RNA interference of WdFKS1 mRNA expression causes slowed growth, incomplete septation and loss of cell wall integrity in yeast cells of the polymorphic, pathogenic fungus Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis.

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    Guo, Pengfei; Szaniszlo, Paul J

    2011-11-01

    As one of the main components of the fungal cell wall, β-1,3-glucan provides the mechanical strength to protect fungal protoplasts. The enzyme responsible for the synthesis of β-1,3-glucans in fungi is β-1,3-glucan synthase. Here we report the cloning, sequencing and characterization of the WdFKS1 gene, which in the pathogenic fungus Wangiella dermatitidis encodes the catalytic domain of its β-1, 3-glucan synthase. Because our research suggested that WdFKS1 is a single copy essential gene, we used RNA interference to reduce its expression. Reduction of the WdFKS1 messenger retarded growth and caused the loss of cell wall integrity of yeast cells, but not hyphae or sclerotic cells. We suggest that the WdFKS1 in this polymorphic agent of phaeohyphomycosis is not only required for cell wall construction and maintenance, but also is involved in septum formation.

  9. Effects of disrupting the polyketide synthase gene WdPKS1 in Wangiella [Exophiala] dermatitidis on melanin production and resistance to killing by antifungal compounds, enzymatic degradation, and extremes in temperature

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    Mandal Piyali

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wangiella dermatitidis is a human pathogenic fungus that is an etiologic agent of phaeohyphomycosis. W. dermatitidis produces a black pigment that has been identified as a dihydroxynaphthalene melanin and the production of this pigment is associated with its virulence. Cell wall pigmentation in W. dermatitidis depends on the WdPKS1 gene, which encodes a polyketide synthase required for generating the key precursor for dihydroxynaphthalene melanin biosynthesis. Results We analyzed the effects of disrupting WdPKS1 on dihydroxynaphthalene melanin production and resistance to antifungal compounds. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wdpks1Δ-1 yeast had thinner cell walls that lacked an electron-opaque layer compared to wild-type cells. However, digestion of the wdpks1Δ-1 yeast revealed small black particles that were consistent with a melanin-like compound, because they were acid-resistant, reacted with melanin-binding antibody, and demonstrated a free radical signature by electron spin resonance analysis. Despite lacking the WdPKS1 gene, the mutant yeast were capable of catalyzing the formation of melanin from L-3,4-dihyroxyphenylalanine. The wdpks1Δ-1 cells were significantly more susceptible to killing by voriconazole, amphotericin B, NP-1 [a microbicidal peptide], heat and cold, and lysing enzymes than the heavily melanized parental or complemented strains. Conclusion In summary, W. dermatitidis makes WdPKS-dependent and -independent melanins, and the WdPKS1-dependent deposition of melanin in the cell wall confers protection against antifungal agents and environmental stresses. The biological role of the WdPKS-independent melanin remains unclear.

  10. Nature and identification of Exophiala werneckii.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The morphological and physiological characteristics of 44 isolates of Exophiala werneckii recovered from human and environmental sources were indistinguishable from 2 isolates that caused tinea nigra. Casein hydrolysis and inability to decompose tyrosine differentiate E. werneckii from Exophiala jeanselmei, Exophiala spinifera, and Wangiella dermatitidis.

  11. Emerging pathogen in immunocompromised hosts: Exophiala dermatitidis mycosis in graft-versus-host disease.

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    Chalkias, S; Alonso, C D; Levine, J D; Wong, M T

    2014-08-01

    Infection with the dematiaceous environmental fungus Exophiala, an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised individuals, poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Herein, we report the first Exophiala dermatitidis fungemia case, to our knowledge, in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient with graft-versus-host disease, expanding the clinical setting where Exophiala species mycosis should be suspected.

  12. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis: A case report and literature review

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    Mei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis. An adult male presented with a 1 month history of erythematous swelling and ulcer on the right forearm. E. dermatitidis was identified from the lesion through microscopic examination, in vitro culture, cutaneous biopsy and molecular analysis. He was treated with oral itraconazole (400 mg/day and showed improvement.

  13. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis: A case report and literature review.

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    Chen, Mei; Zhang, Jingdong; Dong, Zhengbang; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis. An adult male presented with a 1 month history of erythematous swelling and ulcer on the right forearm. E. dermatitidis was identified from the lesion through microscopic examination, in vitro culture, cutaneous biopsy and molecular analysis. He was treated with oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) and showed improvement.

  14. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

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    Barbara Blasi

    Full Text Available Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs.

  15. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

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    Blasi, Barbara; Tafer, Hakim; Tesei, Donatella; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs.

  16. The neurotropic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis has a possible origin in the tropical rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudhadham, M.; Prakitsin, S.; Sivichai, S.; Chaiyarat, R.; Dorrestein, G.M.; Menken, S.B.J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    The black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis is known as a rare etiologic agent of neurotropic infections in humans, occurring particularly in East and Southeast Asia. In search of its natural habitat, a large sampling was undertaken in temperate as well as in tropical climates. Sampling sites were select

  17. The Transcriptome of Exophiala dermatitidis during Ex-vivo Skin Model Infection

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    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Arcalis, Elsa; Mirastschijski, Ursula; Sterflinger, Katja; Tafer, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    The black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis is a widespread polyextremophile and human pathogen, that is found in extreme natural habitats and man-made environments such as dishwashers. It can cause various diseases ranging from phaeohyphomycosis and systemic infections, with fatality rates reaching 40%. While the number of cases in immunocompromised patients are increasing, knowledge of the infections, virulence factors and host response is still scarce. In this study, for the first time, an artificial infection of an ex-vivo skin model with Exophiala dermatitidis was monitored microscopically and transcriptomically. Results show that Exophiala dermatitidis is able to actively grow and penetrate the skin. The analysis of the genomic and RNA-sequencing data delivers a rich and complex transcriptome where circular RNAs, fusion transcripts, long non-coding RNAs and antisense transcripts are found. Changes in transcription strongly affect pathways related to nutrients acquisition, energy metabolism, cell wall, morphological switch, and known virulence factors. The L-Tyrosine melanin pathway is specifically upregulated during infection. Moreover the production of secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids, is increased. Our study is the first that gives an insight into the complexity of the transcriptome of Exophiala dermatitidis during artificial skin infections and reveals new virulence factors. PMID:27822460

  18. Adaptation of the black yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to ionizing radiation: molecular and cellular mechanisms.

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    Kelly L Robertson

    Full Text Available Observations of enhanced growth of melanized fungi under low-dose ionizing radiation in the laboratory and in the damaged Chernobyl nuclear reactor suggest they have adapted the ability to survive or even benefit from exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism of fungal responses to such radiation remains poorly understood. Using the black yeast Wangiella dermatitidis as a model, we confirmed that ionizing radiation enhanced cell growth by increasing cell division and cell size. Using RNA-seq technology, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of the wild type and the melanin-deficient wdpks1 mutant under irradiation and non-irradiation conditions. It was found that more than 3000 genes were differentially expressed when these two strains were constantly exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation and that half were regulated at least two fold in either direction. Functional analysis indicated that many genes for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism and cell cycle progression were down-regulated and that a number of antioxidant genes and genes affecting membrane fluidity were up-regulated in both irradiated strains. However, the expression of ribosomal biogenesis genes was significantly up-regulated in the irradiated wild-type strain but not in the irradiated wdpks1 mutant, implying that melanin might help to contribute radiation energy for protein translation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that long-term exposure to low doses of radiation significantly increased survivability of both the wild-type and the wdpks1 mutant, which was correlated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increased production of carotenoid and induced expression of genes encoding translesion DNA synthesis. Our results represent the first functional genomic study of how melanized fungal cells respond to low dose ionizing radiation and provide clues for the identification of biological processes, molecular pathways and

  19. The transcriptome of Exophiala dermatitidis during ex-vivo kin model infection

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    Caroline Poyntner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis is a widespread polyextremophile and humanpathogen, that is found in extreme natural habitats and man-made environments suchas dishwashers. It can cause various diseases ranging from phaehyphomycosis andsystemic infections, with fatality rates reaching 40%. While the number of cases inimmunocompromised patients are increasing, knowledge of the infections, virulencefactors and host response is still scarce. In this study, for the first time, an artificialinfection of an ex-vivo skin model with Exophiala dermatitidis was monitoredmicroscopically and transcriptomically. Results show that Exophiala dermatitidis is ableto actively grow and penetrate the skin. The analysis of the genomic andRNA-sequencing data delivers a rich and complex transcriptome where circular RNAs,fusion transcripts, long non-coding RNAs and antisense transcripts are found. Changesin transcription strongly affect pathways related to nutrients acquisition, energymetabolism, cell wall, morphological switch, and known virulence factors. TheL-Tyrosine melanin pathway is specifically upregulated during infection. Moreover theproduction of secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids, is icreased. Our study is thefirst that gives an insight into the complexity of the transcriptome of Exophialadermatitidis during artificial skin infections and reveals new virulence factors.

  20. Exophiala dermatitidis pneumonia successfully treated with long-term itraconazole therapy.

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    Mukai, Yutaka; Nureki, Shin-ichi; Hata, Masahiro; Shigenaga, Takehiko; Tokimatsu, Issei; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Yarita, Kyoko; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2014-07-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis pneumonia is extremely rare. Here we report a case of E. dermatitidis pneumonia successfully treated with long-term itraconazole therapy. A 63-year-old woman without a remarkable medical history developed a dry and chest pain. Chest radiographs revealed consolidation in the middle lobe of the lung. Cytologic examination by bronchoscopy showed filamentous fungi and E. dermatitidis was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. After 5 months of itraconazole therapy, her symptoms improved and the area of consolidation diminished. Two weeks after discontinuing the itraconazole therapy, the area of consolidation reappeared. Itraconazole therapy was restarted and continued for 7 months. The abnormal shadow observed on the chest X-ray gradually diminished. Over a 27-month follow-up with periodic examination, there was no relapse and the patient had a favorable clinical course.

  1. Consistent high prevalence of Exophiala dermatitidis, a neurotropic opportunist, on railway sleepers.

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    Yazdanparast, S A; Mohseni, S; De Hoog, G S; Aslani, N; Sadeh, A; Badali, H

    2017-06-01

    Environmental isolation of black yeasts potentially causing human disorders is essential for understanding ecology and routes of infection. Several Exophiala species show prevalence for man-made environments rich in monoaromatic compounds, such as creosote-treated or petroleum-stained railway sleepers. Ambient climatic conditions play a role in species composition in suitable habitats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the composition of Exophiala species in railway stations as a potential source of human infections in a subtropical region with evaluation of their antifungal susceptibility profiles. We examined 150 railway samples using cotton swabs moistened with sterile physiological saline. Black yeasts and relatives were selected on theirs colony morphology and identified based on ITS rDNA sequencing. Overall, 36 (24%) of samples were positive for black yeast-like fungi, i.e., Exophiala dermatitidis (n=20, 55.6%) was predominant, followed by E. phaeomuriformis (n=9, 25%), E. heteromorpha (n=5, 13.9%), and E. xenobiotica (n=2, 5.6%). Massive contaminations of E. dermatitidis were seen on railway sleepers on creosoted oak wood at the region close to the sea level, while in cold climates were primarily contaminated with clinically insignificant or rare human opportunists (E. crusticola). It seems that, high temperature and humidity are significant effect on species diversity. Moreover, the MIC results for all E. dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis strains revealed the widest range and the highest MICs to caspofungin (range 1-16mg/L, Geometric mean 4.912mg/L), and the lowest MIC for posaconazole (0.016-0.031mg/L, G mean 0.061mg/L). However, their clinical effectiveness in the treatment of Exophiala infections remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. High rate of Exophiala dermatitidis recovery in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis is associated with pancreatic insufficiency.

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    Kondori, Nahid; Gilljam, Marita; Lindblad, Anders; Jönsson, Bodil; Moore, Edward R B; Wennerås, Christine

    2011-03-01

    The black-pigmented fungus Exophiala dermatitidis is considered to be a harmless colonizer of the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The aim of this study was to establish the recovery rate of E. dermatitidis in respiratory specimens from CF patients, transplant recipients, and subjects with other respiratory disorders in Sweden. Second, we wished to determine if particular clinical traits were associated with E. dermatitidis colonization of the airways and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Exophiala strains. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples (n = 492) derived from 275 patients were investigated. E. dermatitidis was isolated in respiratory specimens from 19% (18/97) of the CF patients but in none of the other patient categories. All isolates were recovered after 6 to 25 days of incubation on erythritol-chloramphenicol agar (ECA) medium. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed species identity. Pancreatic insufficiency was positively associated with the presence of E. dermatitidis in sputum samples (P = 0.0198). Antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that voriconazole and posaconazole had the lowest MICs against E. dermatitidis. In conclusion, E. dermatitidis is a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tract in CF patients in Sweden and appears to be associated with more advanced disease. Whether E. dermatitidis is pathogenic remains to be elucidated.

  3. Antifungal activity of antifungal drugs, as well as drug combinations against Exophiala dermatitidis.

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    Sun, Yi; Liu, Wei; Wan, Zhe; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of common antifungal drugs, as well as the interactions of caspofungin with voriconazole, amphotericin B, or itraconazole against the pathogenic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis from China, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of terbinafine, voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, and caspofungin against 16 strains of E. dermatitidis were determined by using CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A2). The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were also determined. Additionally, the interactions of caspofungin with voriconazole, amphotericin B, itraconazole or fluconazole, that of terbinafine with itraconazole, or that of fluconazole with amphotericin B were assessed by using the checkerboard technique. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was used to categorize drug interactions as following, synergy, FICI ≤ 0.5; indifference, FICI > 0.5 and ≤4.0; or antagonism, FICI > 4.0. The MIC ranges of terbinafine, voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, and caspofungin against E. dermatitidis were 0.06-0.125 mg/l, 0.25-1.0 mg/l, 1.0-2.0 mg/l, 1.0-2.0 mg/l, 16-64 mg/l, and 32-64 mg/l, respectively. The in vitro interactions of caspofungin with voriconazole, amphotericin B, and itraconazole showed synergic effect against 10/16(62.5%), 15/16(93.75%), and 16/16(100%) isolates, while that of caspofungin with fluconazole showed indifference. Besides, the interaction of terbinafine with itraconazole as well as that of fluconazole with amphotericin B showed indifference. Terbinafine, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B have good activity against E. dermatitidis. The combinations of caspofungin with voriconazole, amphotericin B or itraconazole present synergic activity against E. dermatitidis. These results provide the basis for novel options in treating various E. dermatitidis infections.

  4. Isolation of Exophiala dermatitidis from pigmented sputum in a cystic fibrosis patient.

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    Griffard, Emily A; Guajardo, Jesus R; Cooperstock, Michael S; Scoville, Caryn L

    2010-05-01

    A 16-year-old female with cystic fibrosis (CF) presented with an acute respiratory exacerbation during which black flecks were observed in the spontaneously expectorated sputum. The production of this pigmented sputum was subsequently attributed to Exophiala dermatitidis hyphae. Treatment with antibiotics, corticosteroids, and antifungal medications led to an initial resolution of symptoms and clearance of the black pigment from her sputum. However, the patient again presented nine months later with reappearance of the pigmented flecks and concomitant clinical deterioration and was subsequently treated with an extended course of voriconazole. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of fungal colonization by E. dermatitidis presenting as black flecks spontaneously expectorated in CF sputum.

  5. Relationships between free living amoebae and Exophiala dermatitidis: a preliminary study.

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    Cateau, Estelle; Mergey, Tiphaine; Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Rodier, Marie-Helene

    2009-02-01

    Free living amoebae can play a role as reservoirs for pathogens isolated from hospital water. We have investigated the potential interactions between two protozoa (Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmanella vermiformis) that may be recovered from hospital water tips and Exophiala dermatitidis, a black yeast often recovered from water sources. We showed that the presence of trophozoites or supernatants of culture of H. vermiformis increased fungal growth, whereas the same phenomenon was observed only with the supernatant of A. castellanii cultures. These preliminary results highlight the fact that the recovering of free-living amoebae in hospital water taps could lead to the development of fungal nosocomial pathogens.

  6. Elucidation of distribution patterns and possible infection routes of the neurotropic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis using AFLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudhadham, M.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; Sihanonth, P.; Sivichai, S.; Chaiyarat, R.; Menken, S.B.J.; van Belkum, A.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Distribution of populations of the opportunistic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis was studied using AFLP. This fungus has been hypothesized to have a natural habitat in association with frugivorous birds and bats in the tropical rain forest, and to emerge in the human-dominated environment, where

  7. Use of ribosomal introns as new markers of genetic diversity in Exophiala dermatitidis.

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    Machouart, Marie; Gueidan, Cécile; Khemisti, Arnaud; Dulongcourty, Rémy; Sudhadham, Montarop; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2011-10-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis is one of the prevalent black yeasts found as opportunistic pathogens or colonizers in humans. In the tropics its natural habitat is thought to be fruit surfaces and it is also found in the digestive system of fruit-eating animals. However, it has recently been abundantly isolated from human-made environments (steam baths, railway ties, dishwashers) in tropical and temperate climates. Two genotypes have been distinguished within this species: genotype A, mostly corresponding to strains isolated from patients, and genotype B, to strains isolated from the natural environment. In human-made environments, both genotypes A and B occur. A previous study suggested that one genotype had been selected for in the human host. In our study, the distribution of ribosomal insertions agrees with an ecological specialization of E. dermatitidis genotypes by showing a significantly higher frequency of ribosomal insertions in clinical strains in comparison to environmental ones. The characterization of these insertions shows that they correspond to introns of group IC or IE, the most frequent types within the fungal kingdom. These ribosomal group I introns could be used as new markers for populations of E. dermatitidis.

  8. In vitro susceptibility of environmental isolates of Exophiala dermatitidis to five antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Paula Miranda; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Baron, Noemi Carla; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Palmeira, Gislene Aparecida; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Attili-Angelis, Derlene

    2013-06-01

    Several dematiaceous fungi frequently isolated from nature are involved in cases of superficial lesions to lethal cerebral infections. Antifungal susceptibility data on environmental and clinical isolates are still sparse despite the advances in testing methods. The objective of this study was to examine the activities of 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and terbinafine against environmental isolates of Exophiala strains by minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) determination. The strains were obtained from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, ant cuticle and fungal pellets from the infrabuccal pocket of attine gynes. Broth microdilution assay using M38-A2 reference methodology for the five antifungal drugs and DNA sequencing for fungal identification were applied. Terbinafine was the most active drug against the tested strains. It was observed that amphotericin B was less effective, notably against Exophiala spinifera, also studied. High MICs of 5-flucytosine against Exophiala dermatitidis occurred. This finding highlights the relevance of studies on the antifungal resistance of these potential opportunistic species. Our results also contribute to a future improvement of the standard methods to access the drug efficacy currently applied to black fungi.

  9. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Zupančič

    Full Text Available We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium. Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within

  10. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Jerneja; Novak Babič, Monika; Zalar, Polona; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium). Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular) in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within dishwashers. We

  11. Protein functional analysis data in support of comparative proteomics of the pathogenic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis under different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Tesei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study a comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the response of the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis toward temperature treatment. Protein functional analysis – based on cellular process GO terms – was performed on the 32 temperature-responsive identified proteins. The bioinformatics analyses and data presented here provided novel insights into the cellular pathways at the base of the fungus temperature tolerance. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the data can be found in “Proteome of tolerance fine-tuning in the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis” by Tesei et al. (2015 [1].

  12. Microdilution in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala dermatitidis, a systemic opportunist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H; de Hoog, G S; Sudhadham, M; Meis, J F

    2011-11-01

    The in vitro activities of eight antifungal agents were determined against clinical (n = 63 genotype A, n = 3 genotype B) and environmental (n = 2 genotype A, n = 13 genotype B) strains of Exophiala dermatitidis. The resulting MIC(90)s for all strains (N = 81) were, in increasing order, as follows: posaconazole, 0.125 μg/ml; itraconazole, 0.25 μg/ml; voriconazole, 0.5 μg/ml; amphotericin B, 0.5 μg/ml; isavuconazole, 1 μ/ml; caspofungin, 8 μg/ml; anidulafungin, 8 μg/ml and fluconazole, 16 μg/ml. There were no significant differences in the patterns of susceptibility between genotypes A and B, environmental and clinical strains, isolates recovered from cutaneous and deep locations and strains from different geographical areas (P > 0.05). The difference in the MIC(90)s between each of these groups was not more than one dilution. The present study demonstrated that, based on in vitro activity, posaconazole and itraconazole have the highest activity against this fungus. In addition, voriconazole and the experimental broad-spectrum antifungal triazole, isavuconazole, both of which are available as intravenous preparations, have adequate activity against E. dermatitidis. However, in vivo efficacy remains to be determined.

  13. Massive contamination of Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis in railway stations in subtropical Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döğen, Aylin; Kaplan, Engin; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2013-06-01

    In order to reveal the source of contamination of opportunistic fungi, their natural habitat has to be understood. Black yeast-like fungi are abundant in man-made environments, particularly in those that are rich in toxic hydrocarbons such as railway ties. In this study, we investigated the presence of black fungi on creosote-treated oak railway ties and concrete sleepers stained with petroleum oil. Samples were collected at two central stations in Turkish cities, Mersin and Adana, and from Tarsus town station located between these two. The sample locations had subtropical climates. A total of 570 railway samples, including 320 from oak and 250 from concrete, were collected. Cotton swabs moistened with sterile physiological saline were applied to the ties and inoculated onto malt extract agar followed by incubation at 37 °C. Overall, we recovered 97 black yeast-like fungi (17.0 % positive). Sixty-three fungi (19.7 %) were collected from creosote-treated oak, whereas 34 isolates (13.6 %) were derived from concrete; the difference was significant (P = 0.05). Identification using rDNA internal transcribed spacer revealed Exophiala dermatitidis (57.7 %) and Exophiala phaeomuriformis (42.3 %). This study suggested that hydrocarbons enrich these opportunistic black yeasts. An eventual health risk is discussed.

  14. Biofilm formation of the black yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis and its susceptibility to antiinfective agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff , Lisa; Olsowski, Maike; Zilmans, Katrin; Dittmer, Silke; Haase, Gerhard; Sedlacek, Ludwig; Steinmann, Eike; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter-Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Various fungi have the ability to colonize surfaces and to form biofilms. Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to targeted treatment because of resistance to antifungal drugs. One fungus that frequently colonises the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the opportunistic black yeast–like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. We investigated the biofilm-forming ability of E. dermatitidis and its susceptibility to various antiinfective agents and natural compounds. We tested 58 E. dermatitidis isolates with a biofilm assay based on crystal violet staining. In addition, we used three isolates to examine the antibiofilm activity of voriconazole, micafungin, colistin, farnesol, and the plant derivatives 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucopyranose (PGG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with an XTT reduction assay. We analysed the effect of the agents on cell to surface adhesion, biofilm formation, and the mature biofilm. The biofilms were also investigated by confocal laser scan microscopy. We found that E. dermatitidis builds biofilm in a strain-specific manner. Invasive E. dermatitidis isolates form most biomass in biofilm. The antiinfective agents and the natural compounds exhibited poor antibiofilm activity. The greatest impact of the compounds was detected when they were added prior cell adhesion. These findings suggest that prevention may be more effective than treatment of biofilm-associated E. dermatitidis infections. PMID:28211475

  15. Bioproduction and anticancer activity of biosurfactant produced by the dematiaceous fungus Exophiala dermatitidis SK80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiewpattanakul, Paramaporn; Phonnok, Sirinet; Durand, Alain; Marie, Emmanuelle; Thanomsub, Benjamas Wongsatayanon

    2010-12-01

    A new biosurfactant producer was isolated from palm-oilcontaminated soil and later identified through morphology and DNA sequencing as the yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. Biosurfactant production was catalyzed by vegetable oil, supplemented with a basal medium. The culture conditions that provided the biosurfactant with the highest surface activity were found to be 5% palm oil with 0.08% NH4NO3, at a pH of 5.3, with shaking at 200 rpm, and a temperature of 30 degrees C for a 14-day period of incubation. The biosurfactant was purified, in accordance with surfactant properties, by solvent fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. The chemical structure of the strongest surface-active compound was elucidated through the use of NMR and mass spectroscopy, and noted to be monoolein, which then went on to demonstrate antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer (HeLa) and leukemia (U937) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, no cytotoxicity was observed with normal cells even when high concentrations were used. Cell and DNA morphological changes, in both cancer cell lines, were observed to be cell shrinkage, membrane blebbling, and DNA fragmentation.

  16. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Highlights the Problem of Distinguishing Between Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis Using MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Çağrı; Gök, Yaşar; Bayğu, Yasemin; Gümral, Ramazan; Özhak-Baysan, Betil; Döğen, Aylin; Öğünç, Dilara; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared two chemical-based methods, namely, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, to understand the misidentification of Exophiala dermatitidis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis. The study utilized 44 E. dermatitidis and 26 E. phaeomuriformis strains, which were partially treated with strong acids and bases for further evaluation. MALDI-TOF MS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data of the two Exophiala species were compared. Data groupings were observed for the chromic acid- and nitric acid-treated species when the black yeast sources were categorized as creosoted-oak sleepers, concrete sleepers, or dishwasher isolates. The MALDI-TOF MS data for the metalloenzyme-containing regions were consistent with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data. These results indicated that environmental isolates might contain metals not found in human isolates and might interfere with chemical-based identification methods. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS reference libraries should be created for clinical strains and should exclude petroleum-associated environmental isolates.

  17. Rapid screening for genotypes as possible markers of virulence in the neurotropic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhadham, M; de Hoog, G S; Menken, S B J; Gerrits van den Ende, A H G; Sihanonth, P

    2010-02-01

    A simple method for fungal genotype screening was developed for the black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis based on RFLP of ribosomal ITS regions currently used as potential virulence markers. In a study set of 502 strains of the species, two main genotypes were recognized. Only 0.97% of lanes were difficult to interpret as they did not clearly present one of the expected genotypes. Twenty strains were deviating and proved to be E. spinifera after sequencing. Eight common, related species (based on SSU data) with clinical significance yielded different patterns with TaqI digestion, and thus the method is also usable for routine diagnostics.

  18. Fatal Exophiala infections in China, with a report of seven cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.M.; Li, R.Y.; de Hoog, G.S.; Sudhadham, M.; Wang, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past four decades, seven patients were documented in China to have died from Exophiala infections. Causative agents were Exophiala dermatitidis, Exophiala spinifera, Exophiala jeanselmei and a new Exophiala species, Exophiala asiatica. We retrospectively analysed the clinical characterist

  19. Elucidation of distribution patterns and possible infection routes of the neurotropic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis using AFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhadham, Montarop; Gerrits van den Ende, A H G; Sihanonth, P; Sivichai, S; Chaiyarat, R; Menken, S B J; van Belkum, A; de Hoog, G S

    2011-10-01

    Distribution of populations of the opportunistic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis was studied using AFLP. This fungus has been hypothesized to have a natural habitat in association with frugivorous birds and bats in the tropical rain forest, and to emerge in the human-dominated environment, where it occasionally causes human pulmonary or fatal disseminated and neurotropic disease. The hypothesis of its natural niche was investigated by comparing a set of 178 strains from natural and human-dominated environments in Thailand with a worldwide selection of 107 strains from the reference collection of the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, comprising 75.7% clinical isolates. Many isolates had unique AFLP patterns and were too remote for confident comparison. Eight populations containing multiple isolates could be distinguished, enabling determination of geographic distributions of these populations. Some of the populations were confined to Thailand, while others occurred worldwide. The local populations from Thailand contained strains from natural and urban environments, suggesting an environmental jump of the fungus. Strains from human brain belonged to widely dispersed populations. In some cases cerebral isolates were identical to isolates from the human intestinal tract. The possibility of cerebral infection through intestinal translocation was thus not excluded.

  20. Analyses of black fungi by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): species-level identification of clinical isolates of Exophiala dermatitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondori, Nahid; Erhard, Marcel; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Groenewald, Marizeth; Verkley, Gerard; Moore, Edward R B

    2015-01-01

    Conventional mycological identifications based on the recognition of morphological characteristics can be problematic. A relatively new methodology applicable for the identification of microorganisms is based on the exploitation of taxon- specific mass patterns recorded from abundant cell proteins directly from whole-cell preparations, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This study reports the application of MALDI-TOF MS for the differentiation and identifications of black yeasts, isolated from the respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial phenotypic and DNA sequence-based analyses identified these isolates to be Exophiala dermatitidis. The type strains of E. dermatitidis (CBS 207.35(T)) and other species of Exophiala were included in the MALDI-TOF MS analyses to establish the references for comparing the mass spectra of the clinical isolates of Exophiala. MALDI-TOF MS analyses exhibited extremely close relationships among the clinical isolates and with the spectra generated from the type strain of E. dermatitidis. The relationships observed between the E. dermatitidis strains from the MALDI-TOF MS profiling analyses were supported by DNA sequence-based analyses of the rRNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions. These data demonstrated the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS as a reliable, rapid and cost-effective method for the identification of isolates of E. dermatitidis and other clinically relevant fungi and yeasts that typically are difficult to identify by conventional methods.

  1. Bioconversion of 2,6-dimethylpyridine to 6-methylpicolinic acid by Exophiala dermatitidis (Kano) de Hoog DA5501 cells grown on n-dodecane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toyokazu; Sada, Yuki; Nagasawa, Toru

    2010-04-01

    Alkane-assimilating microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures using n-octane, n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, or pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) as a sole carbon source to find microbial catalysts oxidizing methyl groups of 2,6-dimethylpyridine. The cells of Exophiala dermatitidis (Kano) de Hoog DA5501, an n-dodecane-assimilating fungus, oxidized a single methyl group of 2,6-dimethylpyridine to produce 6-methylpicolinic acid (6-methylpyridine-2-carboxylic acid) without the formation of dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid); 67 mM 6-methylpicolinic acid (9.2 g/l) accumulated with a molar conversion yield of 89% by 54-h incubation. The fungus cells also oxidized the methyl group of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine regioselectively.

  2. Fatal Exophiala infections in China, with a report of seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D-M; Li, R-Y; de Hoog, G S; Sudhadham, M; Wang, D-L

    2011-07-01

    During the past four decades, seven patients were documented in China to have died from Exophiala infections. Causative agents were Exophiala dermatitidis, Exophiala spinifera, Exophiala jeanselmei and a new Exophiala species, Exophiala asiatica. We retrospectively analysed the clinical characteristics of these infections in China and confirmed the identity of aetiological agents of Chinese fatal cases using rDNA ITS sequence analysis. While E. dermatitidis displayed neurotropism, E. spinifera showed osteotropism. The other two species, E. jeanselmei and E. asiatica had caused brain infections in China.

  3. Comparative virulence of three species of Exophiala in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Enrique; Rodríguez, M Mar; Mariné, Marçal; Mayayo, Emilio; Pastor, F Javier; Guarro, Josep

    2010-09-01

    The virulence of Exophiala dermatitidis, E. oligosperma and E. xenobiotica, three of the most common members of the genus that cause human infections, was evaluated using experimental models of disseminated infection in immunocompromised mice. Exophiala dermatitidis, and to a lesser extent E. oligosperma, were the two species causing the highest mortality, while mice infected with E. xenobiotica had the lowest mortality. Tissue burden and histopathology studies demonstrated the neurotropism of E. dermatitidis, while E. oligosperma and E. xenobiotica had a limited capacity for invading brain tissue. These models could be useful for testing new therapies against Exophiala infections.

  4. 皮炎外瓶霉所致中枢神经系统感染一例并文献复习%Central nervous system infection caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a case and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡冰; 李绍英; 胡惠丽; 陈天明; 郭欣; 张智晓; 董芳; 李峥; 王荃

    2014-01-01

    clinical features,imaging characteristics,diagnosis and treatment of a case with central nervous system infection caused by Exophiala dermatitidis,as well as to review the related literature.Method Associated literature and clinical data of an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed as central nervous system infection caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University and hospitalized twice from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively.Result The boy was 8 years old with the chief complaint of dizziness for 2 months,intermittent fever for 1 month accompanied with spasm twice.He was diagnosed as bile ducts spaceoccupying lesions 2 years ago,when the pathological diagnosis was fungal infection.The boy was treated with iiregular anti-fungal therapy.Then the boy developed nervous symptoms,impaired consciousness and abnormal physical activity that developed gradually.After hospitalization the cerebral MRI of the boy showed space-occupying lesions accompanied with edema of surrounding area.Filamentous fungi was found by brain biopsy,which was culture positive for Exophiala dermatitidis.After diagnosis the boy was treated with amphotericin B (AMB),voriconazole and 5-Fu,as well as symptomatic treatment.The state of the boy was improved gradually.Two months later,the boy could communicate with others normally and move personally.The lesions and edema seen on the MRI was decreased moderately.Accordingly,the boy was treated with oral voriconazole maintenance treatment for about 1 year and 4 months after discharge.During this period,the state of him was stable without symptoms.The lesions shown by MRI did not disappear but decreased on regular examination.However,recently the disease of the boy progressed again,with dizziness,neck pain,headache and progressive nervous symptoms (intermittent spasm,inability to cough,and impaired consciousness).The boy died at last,even with the active treatment at the second hospitalization.Exophiala

  5. Clinical spectrum of exophiala infections and a novel Exophiala species, Exophiala hongkongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tsang, Chris C C; Ling, Ian W H; Chan, Jasper F W; Leung, Shui-Yee; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P

    2013-01-01

    We characterized 12 Exophiala strains isolated from patients over a 15-year period to the species level using phenotypic tests and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and Rpb1 sequencing and described the clinical spectrum of the 12 patients. Eight patients had nail or skin infections, two had invasive infections, and two had colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. ITS and Rpb1 sequencing showed that 11 of the 12 strains were known Exophiala species (E. oligosperma [n = 3], E. jeanselmei [n = 2], E. lecanii-corni [n = 2], E. bergeri [n = 1], E. cancerae [n = 1], E. dermatitidis [n = 1], and E. xenobiotica [n = 1]), which included the first reported cases of onychomycosis caused by E. bergeri and E. oligosperma. The 12th strain (HKU32(T)), isolated from the nail clipping of the right big toe of a 68-year-old female patient with onychomycosis, possessed unique morphological characteristics distinct from other Exophiala species. It grew very slowly and had a velvety colony texture after 28 days, short conidiophores of the same olivaceous color as the supporting hyphae, numerous spores, and no chlamydospore-like cells. ITS, Rpb1, β-tubulin, and β-actin gene sequencing unambiguously showed that HKU32(T) was clustered with but formed branches distinct from other Exophiala species in phylogenetic trees. We propose the new species Exophiala hongkongensis to describe this novel fungus.

  6. 皮炎外瓶霉临床和环境分离株对6种常用抗真菌药物的敏感性测定%In vitro susceptibility testing of 16 strains of Exophiala dermatitidis to 6 commonly used antifungal agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙毅; 刘伟; 万喆; 陈伟; 李若瑜

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 16 strains of Exophiala dermatitidis to 6 commonly used antifungal agents. Methods The Glinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)M27-A2 protocol was carried out to determine the MIGs of terbinafine (TRB), itraconazole (ITC), amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and caspofungin (GAS) to 16 strains of E. dermatitidis, and E-test was performed to determine those of VRG, ITC and AMB. Besides, the minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFGs) of the above antifungal agents to the 16 strains of E. dermatitidis were further assessed.The activity of TRB in combination with ITC and VRG against E. dermatitidis was also estimated. Results The MIC ranges of TRB, VRC, ITC, AMB, FLC, and CAS were 0.125 - 0.25 mg/L, 0.25 - 0.5 mg/L, 2.0 mg/L,2.0 mg/L, 16 - 32 mg/L and 16 - 64 mg/L respectively as shown by M27-A2 microdilution assay, while the MIC ranges of VRG, ITG and AMB, as determined by E-test, were 0.032 - 0.094 mg/L, 0.047 - 0.5 mg/L and 0.125 - 3.0 mg/L, respectively. The MFC ranges of TRB, VRC, ITG, AMB and FLG were 0.125 - 0.5 mg/L,0.25 - 0.5 mg/L, 2.0 - 4.0 mg/L, 2.0 - 4.0 mg/L and 16 - 64 mg/L, respectively. No synergism in the acitivity against E. dermatitidis was observed for the combination of TBR with ITC or VRC. Conclusion E. dermatitidis is susceptible to TRB, ITC, AMB, and VRC, but less sensitive to both FLC and GAS.%目的 探讨临床分离的皮炎外瓶霉对6种常用抗真菌药物的敏感性.方法 参考美国临床实验室标准化研究所M27-A2方案测定特比萘芬(TRB)、伊曲康唑(ITC)、两性霉素B(AMB)、氟康唑(FLC)、伏立康唑(VRC)及卡泊芬净(CAS)对16株皮炎外瓶霉的最低抑菌浓度(MIC),同时以E-test法测定VRC、ITC和AMB对16株皮炎外瓶霉的MIC,并进一步测定每种药物的最低杀菌浓度(MFC).在此基础上,观察TRB与ITC及vRC联合应用时对皮炎外瓶霉的抗菌作用.结果 微量液基稀释法测得TRB

  7. Spectrum of clinically relevant Exophiala species in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, J S; Sutton, D A; Fothergill, A W; Rinaldi, M G; Harrak, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2007-11-01

    Numerous members of the genus Exophiala are potential agents of human and animal mycoses. The majority of these infections are cutaneous and superficial, but also fatal systemic infections are known. We re-identified 188 clinical isolates from the United States, which had a preliminary morphological identification of Exophiala species, by sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA. Molecular identifications of the strains were as follows, in order of frequency: 55 E. dermatitidis (29.3%), 37 E. xenobiotica (19.7%), 35 E. oligosperma (18.6%), 13 E. lecanii-corni (6.9%), 12 E. phaeomuriformis (6.4%), 7 E. jeanselmei (3.7%), 7 E. bergeri (3.7%), 6 E. mesophila (3.2%), 5 E. spinifera (2.7%), 3 Exophiala sp. 1 (1.6%), 3 E. attenuata (1.6%), 3 Phialophora europaea (1.3%), 1 E. heteromorpha (0.5%), and 1 Exophiala sp. 2 (0.5%) strains. Exophiala strains were repeatedly isolated from deep infections (39.9%) involving lung, pleural fluid, sputum, digestive organs (stomach, intestines, bile), heart, brain, spleen, bone marrow, blood, dialysis fluid, lymph node, joint, breast, middle ear, throat, and intraocular tissues. About 38.3% of the Exophiala spp. strains were agents of cutaneous infections including skin, mucous membranes, nail, and corneal epithelium lesions. The other strains caused superficial infections (0.5%, including hair) or subcutaneous infection (12.0%, including paranasal sinusitis, mycetoma, and subcutaneous cyst). The systemic infections were preponderantly caused by E. dermatitidis, E. oligosperma, E. phaeomuriformis, E. xenobiotica, and E. lecanii-corni. Strains of E. bergeri, E. spinifera, E. jeanselmei, E. mesophila, and E. attenuata mainly induced cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. Since relatively few unknown ITS motifs were encountered, we suppose that the list of opportunistic Exophiala species in temperate climates is nearing completion, but a number of species still have to be described.

  8. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of black yeasts of the genus Exophiala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özhak-Baysan, Betil; Öğünç, Dilara; Döğen, Aylin; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of Exophiala species. The analysis included a total of 110 Exophiala isolates, including 15 CBS strains representing 4 species, Exophiala dermatitidis (61), E. phaeomuriformis (36), E. crusticola (9), and E. heteromorpha (4), that had been previously identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. We also compared the relative efficacies of Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA) and Columbia agar (CA) for use in MALDI-TOF MS. Remarkably, we obtained a log-score value ≥2.0 by using either SGA or CA for all 15 CBS strains, indicating species-level identification. The remaining 95 Exophiala strains were identified to the genus or species levels, with identification rates of 96.8% and 90.5%, using SGA or CA, respectively. Most of the E. dermatitidis (100% and 92.9%), E. phaeomuriformis (80.6% and 83.9%), E. crusticola (50% and 100%), and E. heteromorpha (100% and 100%) isolates were correctly identified using SGA or CA, respectively. Furthermore, 58.9% and 26.3% of the strains had log-score values of ≥2.0 by using SGA and CA, respectively. Our results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and reliable technique with high rates of correct taxonomic identification.

  9. Adaptation of the Black Yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to Ionizing Radiation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    related species have been characterized as having remarkable thermotolerance, halotolerance and pH tolerance [16], the combination of which are...seqa RT-PCRb ORF04957 DNA polymerase eta subunit UDc 210.0 ORF07449 Sugar transporter 17 14 ORF07093 NRPS like enzyme 23 46 ORF01314 catalase A 6.3...Table 6). Two genes coding for glutathione S-transferases were induced ,2.5 fold. Most notable were a gene encoding the cytosolic catalases (CTT1

  10. Molecular typing and antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packeu, Ann; Lebecque, Patrick; Rodriguez-Villalobos, Hector; Boeras, Anca; Hendrickx, Marijke; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Symoens, Françoise

    2012-09-01

    The black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis is a frequent agent of colonization of the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A total of 71 clinical isolates of Exophiala from 13 patients were identified at the species level by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 of the rDNA genes and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), using two different primers, BG-2 and ERIC-1. In vitro susceptibility of these isolates to some systemic antifungal drugs was investigated using the CLSI method. Almost all the isolates were identified as E. dermatitidis, but long-term colonization with the closely related species E. phaeomuriformis was observed in one patient. No clustering was found according to the geographical origin of the isolates, the isolation date or the antifungal susceptibility. Variations were seen in the susceptibility of studied isolates to antifungals but most of them exhibited low susceptibility to amphotericin B and although some patients were successively colonized by two distinct genotypes, most of the isolates were distributed in patient-specific clusters. This phenomenon may be due to genomic variations of E. dermatitidis in the lung environment of CF patients. These results are typical of colonization of the airways of patients by a poorly distributed environmental fungus, which occupies particular reservoirs that need to be defined.

  11. Detection and identification of opportunistic Exophiala species using the rolling circle amplification of ribosomal internal transcribed spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh, M J; Dolatabadi, S; Saradeghi Keisari, M; Naseri, A; Feng, P; de Hoog, G S

    2013-09-01

    Deep infections by melanized fungi deserve special attention because of a potentially fatal, cerebral or disseminated course of disease in otherwise healthy patients. Timely diagnostics are a major problem with these infections. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a sensitive, specific and reproducible isothermal DNA amplification technique for rapid molecular identification of microorganisms. RCA-based diagnostics are characterized by good reproducibility, with few amplification errors compared to PCR. The method is applied here to species of Exophiala known to cause systemic infections in humans. The ITS rDNA region of five Exophiala species (E. dermatitidis, E. oligosperma, E. spinifera, E. xenobiotica, and E. jeanselmei) was sequenced and aligned in view of designing specific padlock probes to be used for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Exophiala species concerned. The assay proved to successfully amplify DNA of the target fungi at the level of species; while no cross-reactivity was observed. Amplification products were visualized on 1% agarose gels to verify the specificity of probe-template binding. Amounts of reagents were minimized to avoid the generation of false positive results. The sensitivity of RCA may help to improve early diagnostics of these difficult to diagnose infections.

  12. Exophiala pisciphila. A study of its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, J E; Cheung, P J

    1986-03-01

    Exophiala pisciphila is a dematiaceous fungus that belongs to a group of fungi known as the 'black yeasts'. It was isolated from the skin lesions of a smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis Mitchill, that had been born in the shark exhibit tank of the New York Aquarium. The different stages of development of this fungus were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to illustrate the morphology and surface structures of conidia and mycelium. The list of marine and fresh water fish, which have been infected by Exophiala spp. and Exophiala-like fungi has been up-dated. Potato Dextrose Agar and Malt Agar proved to be the best growth media, while Corn Meal Agar proved to be the best medium for studying the morphological features of the conidia and mycelial development of E. pisciphila, which exhibited polymorphic conidiogenesis.

  13. Eumycetoma pedis due to Exophiala jeanselmei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capoor M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of eumycetoma of foot in an 8-year old male child was clinically diagnosed as chronic osteomyelitis and was microbiologically confirmed as eumycetoma. The case is being reported for its uncommon clinical presentation and etiological agent, Exophiala jeanselmei. The patient recovered completely after treatment with ketoconazole.

  14. Exophiala Pneumonia Presenting with a Cough Productive of Black Sputum

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala species are black, yeast-like molds that can cause subcutaneous cysts as well as disseminated disease. Isolated pneumonia due to Exophiala species is extremely uncommon. We report a case of isolated Exophiala pneumonia in a patient with bronchiectasis who presented with worsening dyspnea and a cough productive of black sputum. The production of black sputum, known as melanoptysis, is an uncommon physical finding with a limited differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the fi...

  15. Exophiala Pneumonia Presenting with a Cough Productive of Black Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Z. Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exophiala species are black, yeast-like molds that can cause subcutaneous cysts as well as disseminated disease. Isolated pneumonia due to Exophiala species is extremely uncommon. We report a case of isolated Exophiala pneumonia in a patient with bronchiectasis who presented with worsening dyspnea and a cough productive of black sputum. The production of black sputum, known as melanoptysis, is an uncommon physical finding with a limited differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Exophiala pneumonia presenting with a cough productive of black sputum.

  16. Onychomycosis Associated with Exophiala oligosperma in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu-Min; Rajendran, Ranjith Kumar; Lin, Ying-Fang; Kirschner, Roland; Hu, Sindy

    2016-02-01

    A fungus was isolated from a nail of a 54-year-old female patient with onychomycosis in Taiwan. Based on ITS rDNA as well as beta tubulin gene sequences and microscopic analyses, this fungus was identified as Exophiala oligosperma. This is the first record of E. oligosperma in Taiwan. Negative keratin azure test indicates that keratin degradation is not involved in cases of E. oligosperma associated with skin and nail diseases.

  17. Identification of Exophiala mesophila Isolated from Treated Dental Unit Waterlines

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Members of the genus Exophiala are often difficult to identify to the species level because of their variable morphological appearances. This paper describes the methods used to identify Exophiala mesophila and provides salient differential features for distinguishing other mesophilic members of the genus.

  18. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chuan; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Chen-Chi; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Fan, Kou-Sheng; Liu, Keng-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei, a saprobe in the environment, is an opportunistic pathogen. We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by E jeanselmei in a man aged 66 years with a 3-month history of a tender swelling on the dorsal area of the left middle finger. Purulent fluid was aspirated from the area, and the culture yielded black colonies composed of conidiophores, phialides, and yeast cells. After sequencing of the rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene, the pathogen was confirmed as E jeanselmei. The patient was cured by surgical excision without any antifungal agents.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Exophiala mesophila, a Black Yeast with High Bioremediation Potential

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The fungal genus Exophiala comprises both pathogen species, which cause severe infections in humans, and environmental species, which are able to degrade alkylbenzene compounds. The draft genome sequence of Exophiala mesophila presented here is the first genome assembly of an alkylbenzene-degrading organism belonging to the genus Exophiala.

  20. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Ahn; Park, Kyung Sun; Lee, Jang Ho; Sung, Ki-Sun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of subcutaneous infection in a 55-yr-old Korean diabetic patient who presented with a cystic mass of the ankle. Black fungal colonies were observed after culturing on blood and Sabouraud dextrose agar. On microscopic observation, septated ellipsoidal or cylindrical conidia accumulating on an annellide were visualized after staining with lactophenol cotton blue. The organism was identified as Exophiala salmonis by sequencing of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. Phaeohyphomycosis is a heterogeneous group of mycotic infections caused by dematiaceous fungi and is commonly associated with immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical manifestations of subcutaneous lesions are abscesses or cystic masses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in Korea of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. salmonis that was confirmed by molecular analysis and identification of morphological characteristics. This case suggests that E. salmonis infections are no longer restricted to fish.

  1. Delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Exophiala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Estades, Jose Alberto; Walter, Scott; Valenzuela, Felipe; Amescua, Guillermo

    2015-02-17

    Exophiala is a genus of slow-growing, melanin-producing, saprophytic fungi most commonly found in soil, faeces and decaying plant matter. It is an unusual fungal pathogen capable of causing a variety of ophthalmic manifestations, including keratitis, scleritis and endophthalmitis. In this report, we present a rare case of delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis confined to the anterior segment, secondary to Exophiala species. Previous reported cases of delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis have been treated medically, with suboptimal outcomes. Our experience supports the use of anterior segment surgery to clear the nidus of disease combined with intravitreal voriconazole to prevent recurrence of the infection.

  2. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  3. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  4. Exophiala spinifera and its allies: diagnostics from morphology to DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, J S; De Hoog, G S

    2008-05-01

    Diagnostic features of morphology, physiology, serology and genetics of species belonging to the Exophiala spinifera clade (including 11 species: Exophiala oligosperma, E. spinifera, E. xenobiotica, E. jeanselmei, E. exophialae, E. nishimurae, E. bergeri, E. nigra, Rhinocladiella similis, Ramichloridium basitonum and Phaeoannellomyces elegans), comprising a large number of human-associated Exophiala species, are summarized. Several species have closely similar morphological characters and physiological profiles. Taxonomy is therefore primarily based on sequence diversity of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Multilocus sequencing has shown that ITS is reliable for identification of the species in this clade, and is a therefore a good candidate for barcoding species of Exophiala. Species-specific fragments were searched in the ITS region of species in the Exophiala spinifera clade and can be used to design probes for diagnosis by hybridization.

  5. Species Diversity and Polymorphism in the Exophiala spinifera Clade Containing Opportunistic Black Yeast-Like Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A monophyletic group of black yeast-like fungi containing opportunistic pathogens around Exophiala spinifera is analyzed using sequences of the small-subunit (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of ribosomal DNA. The group contains yeast-like and annellidic species (anamorph genus Exophiala) in addition to sympodial taxa (anamorph genera Ramichloridium and Rhinocladiella). The new species Exophiala oligosperma, Ramichloridium basitonum, and Rhinocladiella similis are introduced...

  6. 长白山分解纤维素的瓶霉属和外瓶霉属真菌%CELLULOLYTIC PHIALOPHORA & EXOPHIALA IN THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩立刚; 袁毅

    2000-01-01

    瓶霉属、外瓶霉属真菌在自然界中广泛分布,是有着重要经济意义的一类真菌.迄今,我国已报道疣状瓶霉(Phialophora verrucosa)、裴氏瓶霉(Ph.pedrosoi)、棘状外瓶霉(Exophiala spinifera)、皮炎外瓶霉(E dermatitidis)和甄氏外瓶霉(E jeanselmei=Ph.gougerotii)5种,均是分离自人体的病原真菌.在长白山自然保护区的原始林中,用生长锥取样器随机钻取腐朽林木髓心,在实验室进行分离培养.共鉴定出瓶霉属真菌2种,外瓶霉属真菌3种,其中美州瓶霉(Ph.americana、烂木瓶霉(Ph.richardsiae)和鲑外瓶霉(E salmonis)为国内新记录种.

  7. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala xenobiotica as a cause of fungal arthritis in an HIV-infected patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morio, F.; Le Berre, J.-Y.; Garcia-Hermoso, D.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; de Hoog, S.; Benard, L.; Michau, C.

    2012-01-01

    Black yeasts including Exophiala species are increasingly recognized as agents of human disease. In recent years, progress in molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Exophiala has led to the description of numerous novel species. The 'classical' but highly variable species Exophiala jeanselmei

  8. Phaeohyphomycosis of the face caused by Exophiala oligosperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhisa, Yumie; Hagiya, Yumiko; Hiruma, Masataro; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2011-07-01

    A 57-year-old previously healthy woman who works in the fish-processing industry presented with a 1-year history of a slightly pruritic, hyperkeratotic, brownish, erythematous lesion of the left cheek measuring 5 × 5 mm in diameter. Histopathology revealed granuloma formation in the superficial dermal layer by multinucleated giant cells that contained pale-brown septate hyphae. Periodic acid-Schiff stain showed many hyphae and catenate spores within the multinucleated giant cells. Tissue specimens and skin scrapings were obtained and incubated on mycosel agar, yielding black, velvety colonies that were morphologically identified as belonging to Exophiala species. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene showed 99-100% homology to Exophiala oligosperma sequences. This report describes a rare case of phaeohyphomycosis of the face caused by E. oligosperma.

  9. Exophiala oligosperma involved in a refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H; Hedayati, M T; Bahoosh, M; Kasir, A; Ghasemi, M; Motahari, J; Meis, J F; De Hoog, G S

    2011-03-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis refers to a wide variety of conditions caused by fungal infections of the paranasal sinuses. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and sinus fungus balls are mostly noted in healthy individuals. Aspergillus species are supposed to be the most common etiologic agents of the disorder, but melanized fungi also occur, and these potentially are able to lead to fatal dissemination into brain parenchyma. We report on a case of fungus ball in a 20-year-old female with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (RCRS) and bronchial asthma due to the black yeast Exophiala oligosperma which was confirmed by mycological and molecular (sequences of ITS rDNA) investigations. Exophiala oligosperma has previously not been reported to cause fungus balls or invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Patient underwent functional endoscopic sinusitis surgery and the hypertrophic mucosa was removed completely. Without antifungal therapy, successful cure was achieved after spray therapy with corticosteroids for 1 month, without any relapse after a 6 month-follow up.

  10. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in collagen disease patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Masayo; Maeda, Manabu; Seishima, Mariko

    2010-12-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare fungal infection that is more commonly associated with compromised patients. We present herein an 81-year-old man with collagen disease and chronic interstitial pneumonia who developed subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei. The main pathogen of phaeohyphomycosis had been considered to be E. jeanselmei complex. This has recently been divided into several species by using a molecular technique. The main pathogen of phaeohyphomycosis is Exophiala xenobiotica, and E. jeanselmei is rather a rare pathogen of this disease. Although p.o. itraconazole and terbinafine administration was not effective for this patient, these antifungal agents were used for preventing systemic dissemination in this immunocompromised host.

  11. Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Soil-Derived Fungus Exophiala Pisciphila

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A new polyketide compound 1 and a new naturally occurring chromone derivative 2, along with two known indole alkaloids 3–4 were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of a soil-derived fungal strain, Exophiala pisciphila PHF-9. The structures of compounds 1–4 were established by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by a modified Mosher’s method. Compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against A-549, Hela, ...

  12. Sauna lung: hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to Exophiala jeanselmei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Chen; Lu, Yin-Hsiu; Lin, Zih-Gong; Su, Wen-Lin

    2010-04-01

    A 55-year-old man developed progressive cough and dyspnoea after regular attendance at a public steam bath. Hypoxaemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and a predominance of lymphocytes with an increased percentage of CD8+ T cells in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid suggested hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Microbial cultures from the steam bath room and tank identified Exophiala jeanselmei. Immunoblotting assays from the patient's serum confirmed the major antigenic stimulus. The patient recovered fully after systemic corticosteroid treatment and cessation of further exposure.

  13. Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala attenuata in a Domestic Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P; Martin, Chelsea; Muckle, Anne; Lund, Lorraine; Wood, Jill; Hanna, Paul

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old female-spayed, domestic short-haired cat was presented to her veterinarian with a mass on the hind paw. Histopathologic examination of a tissue biopsy revealed nodular pyogranulomatous panniculitis with intralesional pigmented fungal hyphae. A dematiaceous fungal isolate was isolated with a micromorphological phenotype consistent with the anamorphic genus Exophiala: budding cells, torulose mycelium and annellidic conidiogenesis from simple conidiophores consisting of terminal and lateral cells that tapered to a short beak at the apex. Sequence homology of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA gene confirmed the identification of the isolate as Exophiala attenuata. Reported here is the first confirmed case of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. attenuata in North America. Similar to historical cases of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spp., there was no history or postmortem evidence to suggest the patient was in an immunocompromised state (e.g., suffering from FeLV or FIV). Although aggressive surgical excision of local lesions is recommended prior to drug treatment when dealing with subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, surgery followed by itraconazole treatment did not resolve the E. attenuata infection in this cat.

  14. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of black yeasts of the genus Exophiala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özhak-Baysan, Betil; Öğünç, Dilara; Döğen, Aylin; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of Exophiala species. The analysis included a total of 110 Exophiala isolates, including 15 CBS strains representing 4 species, Exoph

  15. Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Soil-Derived Fungus Exophiala Pisciphila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Kun Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new polyketide compound 1 and a new naturally occurring chromone derivative 2, along with two known indole alkaloids 3–4 were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of a soil-derived fungal strain, Exophiala pisciphila PHF-9. The structures of compounds 1–4 were established by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by a modified Mosher’s method. Compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against A-549, Hela, PANC-28 and BEL-7402 cell lines.

  16. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala spinifera in an immunocompromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Deepa; Jayalakshmi, G; Madhumathy, A; Banu, S Thasneem; Geethalakshmi, S; Sumathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A case of phaeohyphomycosis presenting as multiple subcutaneous abscesses in a young lady with deteriorating liver function was reported here. The lesion started as a solitary abscess in the neck, mimicking tuberculous cold abscess and rapidly involved the face, chest, arms, and legs within six months with ulceration and discharge of thick brownish foul smelling pus. Potassium hydroxide mount of pus from various sites revealed septate dematiaceous hyphae and pseudohyphae. Culture yielded pure growth of Exophiala spinifera. Tissue debridement was done along with initiation of antifungal therapy with ketoconazole. As liver function deteriorated, antifungal therapy was withdrawn after seven days. Patient expired three weeks after admission due to hepatic failure.

  17. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala spinifera in an immunocompromised host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Deepa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of phaeohyphomycosis presenting as multiple subcutaneous abscesses in a young lady with deteriorating liver function was reported here. The lesion started as a solitary abscess in the neck, mimicking tuberculous cold abscess and rapidly involved the face, chest, arms, and legs within six months with ulceration and discharge of thick brownish foul smelling pus. Potassium hydroxide mount of pus from various sites revealed septate dematiaceous hyphae and pseudohyphae. Culture yielded pure growth of Exophiala spinifera. Tissue debridement was done along with initiation of antifungal therapy with ketoconazole. As liver function deteriorated, antifungal therapy was withdrawn after seven days. Patient expired three weeks after admission due to hepatic failure.

  18. 皮炎外瓶霉分子鉴定的初步研究%Preliminary study on molecular identification of Exophiala dermatitidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东明; 李若瑜; 王端礼; 王晓红; 万哲; 马圣清

    2003-01-01

    目的:设计皮炎外瓶霉种特异性引物,并对其特异性及敏感性进行检测.方法:通过对暗色真菌核糖体DNA进行分析,设计皮炎外瓶霉种特异性引物;实验菌株包括标准株、参照株及临床分离株等皮炎外瓶霉,以及甄氏外瓶霉、裴氏着色霉、卡氏枝孢霉、疣状瓶霉等,应用常规聚合酶链反应(PCR)及快速PCR方法检测其特异性及敏感性.结果:序列分析显示皮炎外瓶霉rRNA基因转录内间隔区较为保守,特异引物对15株皮炎外瓶霉均可扩增出单一的特异性片断,将模板稀释成1万倍后仍可得到相同的结果,其他致病菌种均为阴性.结论:皮炎外瓶霉种特异性引物具有较高的特异性及敏感性,可试用于该菌种的鉴定.

  19. Exophiala angulospora causes systemic inflammation in atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, Mona Cecilie; Davey, Marie; Kvellestad, Agnar; Vrålstad, Trude

    2011-10-06

    Species of Exophiala are opportunistic fungal pathogens that may infect a broad range of warm- and cold-blooded animals, including salmonids and Atlantic cod. In the present study, we observed abnormal swimming behaviour and skin pigmentation and increased mortality in cod kept in an indoor tank. Necropsy revealed foci of different sizes with a greyish to brownish colour in internal organs of diseased fish. The foci consisted of ramifying darkly pigmented fungal hyphae surrounded by distinct layers of inflammatory cells, including macrophage-like cells. In the inner layer with many hyphae, the macrophage-like cells were dead. We observed no apparent restriction of fungal growth by the inflammatory response. A darkly pigmented fungus was repeatedly isolated in pure culture from foci of diseased fish and identified as Exophiala angulospora using morphological and molecular characters. This species has not been previously reported to cause disease in cod, but has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen of both marine and freshwater fish. Based on the morphology and sequence analysis presented here, we conclude that E. angulospora caused the observed chronic multifocal inflammation in internal organs of cod, leading to severe disease and mortality.

  20. Multifocal phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala xenobiotica in a kidney transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, A; Morio, F; Le Pape, P; Degli Antoni, A M; Ricci, R; Zucchi, A; Vaglio, A; Piotti, G; Antoniotti, R; Cremaschi, E; Buzio, C; Maggiore, U

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, black fungi have been increasingly reported as causing opportunistic infections after solid organ transplantation. Here, we report a case of insidious, relentless, and multifocal Exophiala xenobiotica infection in a kidney transplant recipient that eventually required multiple surgical excisions along with oral and intravenous antifungal combination therapy using liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole. We compare the present case with all previously reported cases of Exophiala infection after kidney transplantation.

  1. Dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão Dermatomycosis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Basso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, descreve-se o diagnóstico e a conduta terapêutica aplicada em caso de dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão com um ano e seis meses de idade. Os sinais clínicos incluíam alopecia, crostas, despigmentação e ulceração do plano nasal e focinho, e ceratite superficial bilateral no canto lateral dos olhos. Na cultura fúngica foi isolado Exophiala sp e o exame histopatológico da biopsia cutânea revelou dermatite nodular superficial e profunda granulomatosa. O tratamento com itraconazol sistêmico promoveu remissão dos sinais clínicos. Conclui-se que a realização de cultura fúngica e biópsia de pele são exames complementares eficazes no diagnóstico de dermatomicoses e que o emprego de itraconazol sistêmico pode ser efetivo no tratamento de dermatite fúngica e ceratite micótica causado por Exophiala sp em cão.This report describes the diagnosis and the therapeutic conduct applied to the cases of subcutaneous dermatomycosis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in a one and a half year-old dog. The clinical signs included alopecia, crusts, dispigmentation, ulcerations in the nose and superficial bilateral keratitis in the corner of the eyes. In the fungal cultures, Exophiala sp was isolated and the microscopic analysis revealed characteristics of fungal dermatitis. Systemic therapy with itraconazole evidenced remission of clinical signs. The realization of fungal cultures and cutaneous biopsy are efficient complementary procedures in the diagnosis of dermatomycosis and that the usage of oral itraconazole can be effective in the treatment of fungal dermatitis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in dogs.

  2. Dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão Dermatomycosis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho, descreve-se o diagnóstico e a conduta terapêutica aplicada em caso de dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão com um ano e seis meses de idade. Os sinais clínicos incluíam alopecia, crostas, despigmentação e ulceração do plano nasal e focinho, e ceratite superficial bilateral no canto lateral dos olhos. Na cultura fúngica foi isolado Exophiala sp e o exame histopatológico da biopsia cutânea revelou dermatite nodular superficial e profunda granuloma...

  3. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mador, M. Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  4. Exophiala sp. LHL08 reprograms Cucumis sativus to higher growth under abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul L; Hamayun, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nadeem; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Lee, In-Jung

    2011-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are potential sources of secondary metabolites; however, they are little known for phytohormones secretion and amelioration of plant growth under abiotic stresses. We isolated a novel endophyte from the roots of Cucumis sativus and identified it as a strain of Exophiala sp. by sequencing internal transcribed spacer/large subunit rDNA and phylogenetic analysis. Prior to identification, culture filtrate (CF) of Exophiala sp. has shown significant growth promotion of Waito-C [a gibberellins (GAs)-deficient mutant cultivar] and Dongjin-byeo (normal GAs biosynthesis cultivar) rice seedlings. CF analysis of Exophiala sp. showed the presence of physiologically active GAs (GA₁, GA₃, GA₄ and GA₇) and inactive GAs (GA₅, GA₈, GA₉, GA₁₂ and GA₂₀). Exophiala sp. had higher GAs in its CF than wild-type strain of Gibberella fujikuroi except GA₃. Influence of Exophiala sp. was assessed on cucumber plant's growth and endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and bioactive GAs under salinity and drought stresses. Exophiala sp.-treated plants have shown significantly higher growth and rescued the host plants from stress promulgated water deficit, osmotic and cellular damage. The altered levels of stress-responsive ABA showed low level of stress confined to endophyte-applied plants than control. Elevated levels of SA and bioactive GAs (GA₃ and GA₄) in endophyte-associated plants suggest stress-modulating response toward salinity and drought. In conclusion, symbiotic relations between Exophiala and cucumber have reprogrammed the host plant growth under abiotic stresses, thus indicating a possible threshold role of endophytic fungi in stress alleviation. This study could be extended for improving agricultural productivity under extreme environmental conditions.

  5. Exophiala crusticola anam. nov. (affinity Herpotrichiellaceae), a novel black yeast from biological soil crusts in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Scott T; Reddy, Gundlapally S N; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2006-11-01

    A novel black yeast-like fungus, Exophiala crusticola, is described based on two closely related isolates from biological soil crust (BSC) samples collected on the Colorado Plateau (Utah) and in the Great Basin desert (Oregon), USA. Their morphology places them in the anamorphic genus Exophiala, having affinities to the family Herpotrichiellaceae (Ascomycota). Phylogenetic analysis of their D1/D2 large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU nrRNA) gene sequences suggests that they represent a distinct species. The closest known putative relative to Exophiala crusticola is Capronia coronata Samuels, isolated from decorticated wood in Westland County, New Zealand. The holotype for Exophiala crusticola anam. nov. is UAMH 10686 and the type strain is CP141bT (=ATCC MYA-3639T=CBS 119970T=DSM 16793T). Dark-pigmented fungi appear to constitute an important heterotrophic component of soil crusts and Exophiala crusticola represents the first description of a dematiaceous fungus isolated from BSCs.

  6. INK128 exhibits synergy with azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujuan Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a

  7. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins.

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    Lisa R McTaggart

    Full Text Available Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s. Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1 the Nelson River drainage basin, (2 the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3 the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4 the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have

  8. Diversity of exophillic acid derivatives in strains of an endophytic Exophiala sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh-Ali, Zakaria; Glynou, Kyriaki; Ali, Tahir; Ploch, Sebastian; Kaiser, Marcel; Thines, Marco; Bode, Helge B; Maciá-Vicente, Jose G

    2015-10-01

    Members of the fungal genus Exophiala are common saprobes in soil and water environments, opportunistic pathogens of animals, or endophytes in plant roots. Their ecological versatility could imply a capacity to produce diverse secondary metabolites, but only a few studies have aimed at characterizing their chemical profiles. Here, we assessed the secondary metabolites produced by five Exophiala sp. strains of a particular phylotype, isolated from roots of Microthlaspi perfoliatum growing in different European localities. Exophillic acid and two previously undescribed compounds were isolated from these strains, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods using MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Bioassays revealed a weak activity of these compounds against disease-causing protozoa and mammalian cells. In addition, 18 related structures were identified by UPLC/MS based on comparisons with the isolated structures. Three Exophiala strains produced derivatives containing a β-d-glucopyranoside moiety, and their colony morphology was distinct from the other two strains, which produced derivatives lacking β-d-glucopyranoside. Whether the chemical/morphological strain types represent variants of the same genotype or independent genetic populations within Exophiala remains to be evaluated.

  9. Shared Physiological Traits of Exophiala Species in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, as Opportunistic Black Yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Furuie, Jason Lee; Gelinski, Jane Mary Lafayette; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Boeger, Walter Antonio Pereira; Vicente, Vania Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Several species of the genus Exophiala are found as opportunistic pathogens on humans, while others cause infections in cold-blooded waterborne vertebrates. Opportunism of these fungi thus is likely to be multifactorial. Ecological traits [thermotolerance and pH tolerance, laccase activity, assimila

  10. Exophiala sideris, a novel black yeast obtained by enrichment with toxic alkyl benzenes and arsenic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Badali, H.; Chlebicki, A.; Zhao, J.J.; Prenafeta-Boldú, F.X.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (order Chaetothyriales) is described. Strains were repeatedly obtained by enriching samples of wild berries from different plants, guano-rich soil and from oak railway ties treated with arsenic creosote under a toluene-rich atmosphere. An identical

  11. Exophiala spinifera as a cause of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis: case study and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, J.E.; Sutton, D.A.; Rubin, A.; Wickes, B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Kovarik, C.

    2009-01-01

    Exophiala spinifera has been reported as an agent of cutaneous disease 18 times in the literature. Clinical presentations of cutaneous lesions vary widely, including erythematous papules, verrucous plaques, and deep subcutaneous abscesses. The clinical distribution and course of disease are also

  12. Exophiala jeanselmei infection in solid organ transplant recipients: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lief, M H; Caplivski, D; Bottone, E J; Lerner, S; Vidal, C; Huprikar, S

    2011-02-01

    Dematiaceous fungi are an opportunistic pathogen seen in solid organ transplant recipients. We report 2 cases of Exophiala infection and review the medical literature to summarize the spectrum of disease this pathogen can cause in this patient population.

  13. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. Isolated from Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Lesions in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee K; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Sutton, Deanna A; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Lindner, Jonathan R; Fan, Hongxin; Sanders, Carmita; Guarro, Josep

    2015-09-01

    Exophiala species are capable of causing cutaneous and subcutaneous infections in immunocompromised patients. An Exophiala isolate was cultured from a biopsy specimen of a lesion on the forearm of a patient with myasthenia gravis. The patient also had lesions on the palm and distal aspects of the hand, which were successfully treated with a long-term course of itraconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the isolate was undertaken. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and portions of the β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes indicated that the isolate was a novel species closely related to but genetically distinct from species within the Exophiala spinifera clade; the name Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, E. polymorpha most closely resembles E. xenobiotica but it differs in possessing phialides bearing prominent, wide collarettes, and it does not produce chlamydospores.

  14. Feo-hifomicose subcutânea por Exophiala jeanselmei: registro de três casos em transplantados renais Subcutaneous phaeohyhomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei: report of three cases in kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sabbaga

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available São registrados três casos de feo-hifornicose subcutânea em transplantados renais provocados pela Exophiala jeanselmei (Langeron McGinnis et Padhye 1977, fungo demácio capaz, também, de produzir raramente eumicetoma de grãos pretos. Este fungo, segundo KWON-CHUNG & BENNETT, 1992(27 é antigenicamente muito heterogêneo, sendo identificados até o presente momento três sorotipos com subgrupos dentro de cada um deles. A feo-hifomicose subcutânea vem se tornando cada vez mais freqüente em transplantados renais, submetidos a terapêutica imunodepressora. Como a Exophiala jeanselmei já foi isolada do meio ambiente, torna-se dificil explicar a patogenia desses casos por um despertar ou reativação de processos quiescentes. Os Autores fizeram ampla revisão da literatura, registrando principalmente os casos de feo-hifomicose publicados no Brasil. Sugerem também, eventual ação fungistática da ciclosporina A sobre a Exophiala jeanselmei.We report three cases of subcutaneous phaeohy-phomycosis due to Exophiala jeanselmei (Langeron McGinnis et Padhye 1977, in kidney transplant patients. Exophiala jeanselmei is a dematious fungus having also ability to rarely procedure eumycetoma (black grains. According to KWON-CHUNG & BENNETT (199227 such fungus is antigenically very heterogeneous, since so far three serotypes have been identified; each serotype including subgroups. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is becoming more and more frequent in kidney transplant patients submitted to an immunosupressive treatment. As Exophiala jeanselmei has already been isolated from the environment it becomes difficult to explain the pathogenicity of these cases by a reactivation of quiescent processes. The authors suggest an occasional fungistatic action of cyclosporine A upon Exophiala jeanselmei. A review of the literature was carried out with the report mainly of cases published in Brazil.

  15. Phaeohyphomycosis Due to Exophiala jeanselmei: An Emerging Pathogen in India--Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Capoor, Malini R; Kolte, Sachin; Purohit, Geeta; Dawson, Leelavathi; Gupta, Kusum; Ramesh, V; Mandal, Ashish Kumar

    2016-04-01

    We present a rare case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with a swelling on the lateral aspect of her left forearm, present since 6 months, adjacent to a 16-year-old burn scar. X-ray of elbow joint and forearm revealed the subcutaneous nature of the swelling. Giemsa and periodic acid-Schiff-stained smears and potassium hydroxide mount of fine-needle aspirate of the swelling revealed dematiaceous, branching, and septate fungal hyphae. Fungal culture of the aspirated pus showed growth of Exophiala jeanselmei. Histopathological examination revealed brown-coloured hyphae with foreign body giant cell reaction and palisading granulomas in the surrounding tissue. The patient was successfully treated with surgical excision of the swelling. All the cases of phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala spp. in India are also reviewed.

  16. Exophiala angulospora Causes Systemic Mycosis in Atlantic Halibut: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P; Groman, David; Giles, Jan; Duffy, Stephanie; Rommens, Mellisa; Johnson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous black yeasts from the genus Exophiala are ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogens causing both superficial and systemic mycoses in warm- and cold-blooded animals. Infections by black yeasts have been reported relatively frequently in a variety of captive and farmed freshwater and marine fishes. In November 2012, moribund and recently dead, farm-raised Atlantic Halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus were necropsied to determine the cause of death. Histopathology revealed that three of seven fish were affected by a combination of an ascending trans-ductual granulomatous mycotic nephritis, necrotizing histiocytic encephalitis, and in one fish the addition of a fibrogranulomatous submucosal branchitis. Microbial cultures of kidney using selective mycotic media revealed pure growth of a black-pigmenting septated agent. Application of molecular and phenotypic taxonomy methodologies determined that all three isolates were genetically consistent with Exophiala angulospora. This is the first report of E. angulospora as the causal agent of systemic mycosis in Atlantic Halibut.

  17. Exophiala asiatica, a new species from a fatal case in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong Ming; Li, Ruo Yu; De Hoog, G S; Wang, Yu Xin; Wang, Duan Li

    2009-02-01

    We describe a new species, Exophiala asiatica, isolated from an infection of the pharynx in a 20-year-old, immunocompetent woman in Nanjing, China. The infection was initiated by a fishbone prick in the pharynx, soon developed with facial nodules but subsequently seemed to have disappeared. Tonsil ulceration with progressive soreness of the pharynx was observed 3 years later. Dysphagia, headache and paralysis occurred four years after first signs of infection. Hyphae and yeast-like cells were detected in tissue and a black fungus was recovered repeatedly from pharynx tissue. Despite antifungal therapy for more than one year, the patient died of apparent cerebral dissemination of the etiologic agent. On the basis of morphology, nutritional physiology, ribosomal small subunit DNA and ITS sequence data the strain could not be matched with any existing species. A new species, Exophiala asiatica, is therefore proposed.

  18. Exophiala sideris, a novel black yeast isolated from environments polluted with toxic alkyl benzenes and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Badali, Hamid; Chlebicki, Andrzej; Zhao, Jingjun; Prenafeta-Boldú, Francesc Xavier; De Hoog, G Sybren

    2011-10-01

    A novel species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (order Chaetothyriales) is described. Strains were repeatedly obtained by enriching samples of wild berries from different plants, guano-rich soil and from oak railway ties treated with arsenic creosote under a toluene-rich atmosphere. An identical strain was encountered in a closed arsenic mine polluted by alkyl benzenes. Its potential use for purposes of bioremediation is discussed.

  19. Exophilin A, a new antibiotic from a marine microorganism Exophiala pisciphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshida, J; Hasegawa, H; Onuki, H; Shimidzu, N

    1996-11-01

    Exophilin A, a new antibacterial compound, was discovered in the culture of the marine microorganism Exophiala pisciphila NI10102, which was isolated from a marine sponge Mycale adhaerens. The absolute chemical structure of exophilin A was elucidated as a trimer of (3R,5R)-3,5-dihydroxydecanoic acid by spectroscopic methods and analyses of a degradative product. Exophilin A showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Fungal Morphology, Iron Homeostasis, and Lipid Metabolism Regulated by a GATA Transcription Factor in Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber J Marty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0-48 hours, gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C and during the phase transition to mold (22°C. This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition.

  1. Exophiala xenobiotica infection in cultured striped jack, Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider), in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchan, C; Kurata, O; Wada, S; Hatai, K; Sano, A; Kamei, K; Nakaoka, N

    2009-10-01

    This report describes Exophiala infection in cultured striped jack, Pseudocaranx dentex, in Japan in 2005. One hundred out of 35,000 fish died per day and mortalities continued for 1 month. Diseased fish showed swelling of the abdomen and kidney distension. Numerous septate hyphae, pale brown in colour, were seen in kidney in squash preparations. Histology revealed abundant fungal hyphae and conidia in gill, heart and kidney. Fungal hyphae were accompanied by cell necrosis and influx of inflammatory, mainly mononuclear cells. The fungus isolated from the diseased fish had septate hyphae, pale brown in colour and 1.8-3.0 microm in diameter. Conidiogenous cells were conspicuous annellides, short or cylindrical or fusiform in shape. Conidia were one-celled, ellipsoidal with smooth walls, accumulated in balls at the apices of annellides that tended to slide down, 1.5-2.0 microm in width and 3.0-5.0 microm in length. The fungus was classified into the genus Exophiala based on its morphology and as Exophiala xenobiotica based on the sequences of the ITS 1-5.8S-ITS 2 regions of rDNA. This is the first record of this fungus in a marine fish.

  2. The C-Type Lectin Receptor MCL Mediates Vaccine-Induced Immunity against Infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Klein, Bruce; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2015-12-14

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are essential in shaping the immune response to fungal pathogens. Vaccine-induced resistance requires Dectin-2 to promote differentiation of antifungal Th1 and Th17 cells. Since Dectin-2 and MCL heterodimerize and both CLRs use FcRγ as the signaling adaptor, we investigated the role of MCL in vaccine immunity to the fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis. MCL(-/-) mice showed impaired vaccine resistance against B. dermatitidis infection compared to that of wild-type animals. The lack of resistance correlated with the reduced recruitment of Th17 cells to the lung upon recall following experimental challenge and impaired interleukin-17 (IL-17) production by vaccine antigen-stimulated splenocytes in vitro. Soluble MCL fusion protein recognized and bound a water-soluble ligand from the cell wall of vaccine yeast, but the addition of soluble Dectin-2 fusion protein did not augment ligand recognition by MCL. Taken together, our data indicate that MCL regulates the development of vaccine-induced Th17 cells and protective immunity against lethal experimental infection with B. dermatitidis.

  3. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala xenobiotica as a cause of fungal arthritis in an HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Florent; Berre, Jean-Yves Le; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; de Hoog, Sybren; Benard, Laurent; Michau, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Black yeasts including Exophiala species are increasingly recognized as agents of human disease. In recent years, progress in molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Exophiala has led to the description of numerous novel species. The 'classical' but highly variable species Exophiala jeanselmei was split into a number of morphological siblings, which, however, were phylogenetically and clinically remote from each other. E. jeanselmei was restricted to an uncommon species causing subcutaneous infections. Hence only limited information is available on the segregants, among which is E. xenobiotica. We describe a case of an HIV-patient presenting with fungal arthritis and subcutaneous nodules caused by the latter species, which was identified by means of phenotypic and molecular methods.

  4. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Exophiala spp.: a head-to-head comparison of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Annette W; Rinaldi, Michael G; Sutton, Deanna A

    2009-02-01

    Frequently, diseases caused by black yeasts are chronic in nature with a high morbidity. In addition, these infections are often fatal and relapse is common, even after prolonged treatment. Although the CLSI Document M38-A outlines methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of moulds, Exophiala spp. are not directly discussed. In an effort to determine the antifungal susceptibility patterns of Exophiala spp. we tested 160 clinical isolates against amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole in a head-to-head comparison. Posaconazole and itraconazole were the most active in vitro with MICs falling well below the achievable serum levels typically observed with standard dosing regimens.

  5. [Phaeomycotic cyst caused by Exophiala xenobiotica in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Shoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Kuroishi, Shigeki; Itoh, Naomi; Okada, Takathika; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In black fungal infections, Exophiala species are frequently encountered as causative agents of human mycosis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Among them, Exophiala jenselmei was previously reported as the most common etiological agent. Advances in molecular taxonomy proved this taxon to be heterogeneous, and led to newly introduced or redefined species. Exophiala xenobiotica is one of the novel species differentiated from E. jenselmei on the basis of molecular phylogeny.Here, we report a case of pheomycotic cyst caused by E. xenobiotica, which was well controlled via drainage and local thermotherapy. A 70-year-old man developed a cystic nodular lesion on the dorsum of his right thumb over the previous 3 months. He had been treated with prednisolone and methotrexate for 4 years for rheumatoid arthritis. The patient also had lung cancer with vertebral bone metastasis. Direct microscopic examination of the greenish pus aspirated from the cyst revealed mycelial elements. Culture of the pus on blood and Sabouraud dextrose agar yielded numerous black colonies multiple times. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen showed subcutaneous abscess formation surrounded by granulomatous tissues. Faintly pigmented pseudohyphae were seen within the abscess. The presence of melanin in the fungal cells was determined by Fontana-Masson staining. Initial microscopic examination of the isolate revealed annellidic conidiogenous cells, suggestive of E. jenselmei. This strain was further identified as E. xenobiotica by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal RNA, showing a 100% sequence homology with the strain type.Pheomycotic cysts should be considered on identifying a slowly developing chronic subcutaneous abscess in immunocompromised patients. Sequencing is recommended for accurate species identification of causative pathogens.

  6. Blastomyces dermatitidis prostatic and testicular infection in eight dogs (1992-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Amy Kaye; Ridgway, Marcella D; Sauberli, Debra S

    2011-01-01

    This was a retrospective case study of eight dogs diagnosed with prostatic or testicular B. dermatitidis infection. Signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, and treatment options were evaluated. Review of medical records of dogs diagnosed with blastomycosis at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1992 to 2005 yielded four dogs with prostatic blastomycosis (PB) and four dogs with testicular blastomycosis (TB). Three of the four dogs with PB and all four dogs with TB had evidence of urogenital disease. Three dogs with PB had an elevated body temperature and all had systemic disease. All dogs with TB had a normal body temperature, and three had systemic disease and one had clinical signs limited to testicular disease. Cytology or histopathology was used to diagnose PB or TB. Treatment included itraconazole or fluconazole with or without nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PB and TB are infrequently recognized and may be under diagnosed due to failure to specifically evaluate these tissues. PB or TB should be considered in the evaluation and staging of male dogs with blastomycosis. Male dogs with urogenital signs should be evaluated via prostatic or testicular cytology or histopathology since proper identification and management of PB or TB may improve overall treatment success.

  7. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala xenobiotica in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Yumi; Nomura, Masayo; Yamanaka, Shinya; Ogawa, Yoko; Kitajima, Yasuo

    2009-02-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare fungal infection that is more commonly associated with immunocompromised patients. We present a case in which a 77-year-old woman with non-Hodgkin lymphoma developed subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala xenobiotica. E. xenobiotica is a dematiaceous hyphomycete that was recently identified as a segregant of the E. jeanselmei complex. The patient was successfully treated with local excision of the lesions and post-surgical oral itraconazole. The latter was administered with the aim of preventing systemic dissemination in this immunocompromised patient.

  8. In vitro activities of eight antifungal drugs against 106 waterborne and cutaneous exophiala species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh, M J; Saradeghi Keisari, M; Vicente, V A; Feng, P; Shamsian, S A A; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A; de Hoog, G S; Curfs-Breuker, I; Meis, J F

    2013-12-01

    The in vitro activities of eight antifungal drugs against 106 clinical and environmental isolates of waterborne and cutaneous Exophiala species were tested. The MICs and minimum effective concentrations for 90% of the strains tested (n = 106) were, in increasing order, as follows: posaconazole, 0.063 μg/ml; itraconazole, 0.25 μg/ml; micafungin, 1 μg/ml; voriconazole, 2 μg/ml; isavuconazole, 4 μg/ml; caspofungin, 8 μg/ml; amphotericin B, 16 μg/ml; fluconazole, 64 μg/ml.

  9. The clinical spectrum of Exophiala jeanselmei, with a case report and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; van Esbroeck, M.; van den Enden, E.; Tarazooie, B.; Meis, J.F.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei is clinically redefined as a rare agent of subcutaneous lesions of traumatic origin, eventually causing eumycetoma. Mycetoma is a localized, chronic, suppurative subcutaneous infection of tissue and contiguous bone after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. In adva

  10. The clinical spectrum of Exophiala jeanselmei, with a case report and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Esbroeck, M. van; Enden, E. van den; Tarazooie, B.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hoog, G.S. de

    2010-01-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei is clinically redefined as a rare agent of subcutaneous lesions of traumatic origin, eventually causing eumycetoma. Mycetoma is a localized, chronic, suppurative subcutaneous infection of tissue and contiguous bone after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. In adva

  11. Chemical constituents of marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma EN-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2011-01-01

    Seven compounds (1-7) were identified from the cultivation of the endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma (EN-21) that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Laurencia similis. Their structures were identified with spectroscopic and chemical methods as 2-phenoxynaphthalene ( 1), (2 S, 3 R, 4 E, 8 E)-1- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-2-[( R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadeca-diene ( 2), (22 E,24 R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol ( 3), (22 E, 24 R)-3β, 5α, 9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one ( 4), (22 E, 24 R)-5α, 6α-epoxy-ergosta-8, 22-dien-3β, 7α-diol ( 5), (22 E, 24 R)-ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one ( 6), and euphorbol ( 7). This paper reports for the first time the chemical constituents of fungus Exophiala oligosperma and the discovery of compound 1 as a natural product from the fungus.

  12. Chemical constituents of marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma EN-21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang; LI Ke; LI Xiaoming; WANG Bingui

    2011-01-01

    Seven compounds (1-7) were identified from the cultivation of the endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma (EN-21) that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Laurencia similis. Their structures were identified with spectroscopic and chemical methods as 2-phenoxynaphthalene (1), (2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)-l-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadeca-diene (2), (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol (3), (22E, 24R)-3β, 5α, 9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (4), (22E, 24R)-5α, 6α-epoxy-ergosta-8, 22-dien-3β 7伪-diol (5), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one (6), and euphorbol (7). This paper reports for the first time the chemical constituents of fungus Exophiala oligosperma and the discovery of compound 1 as a natural product from the fungus.

  13. Shared Physiological Traits of Exophiala Species in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, as Opportunistic Black Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Furuie, Jason Lee; Gelinski, Jane Mary Lafayette; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Boeger, Walter Antonio Pereira; Vicente, Vania Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    Several species of the genus Exophiala are found as opportunistic pathogens on humans, while others cause infections in cold-blooded waterborne vertebrates. Opportunism of these fungi thus is likely to be multifactorial. Ecological traits [thermotolerance and pH tolerance, laccase activity, assimilation of mineral oil, and decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)] were studied in a set of 40 strains of mesophilic Exophiala species focused on the salmonis-clade mainly containing waterborne species. Thermophilic species and waterborne species outside the salmonis-clade were included for comparison. Strains were able to tolerate a wide range of pHs, although optimal growth was observed between pH 4.0 and 5.5. All strains tested were laccase positive. Strains were able to grow in the presence of the compounds (mineral oil and RBBR) with some differences in assimilation patterns between strains tested and also were capable of degrading the main chromophore of RBBR. The study revealed that distantly related mesophilic species behave similarly, and no particular trend in evolutionary adaptation was observed.

  14. Establishment of a real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR method for the detection of clinical Exophiala dermatitidis%临床皮炎外瓶霉荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 穆超; 赵静雅; 高莉; 胡小华; 韩黎; 田曙光

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立基于TaqMan探针技术的皮炎外瓶霉荧光定量PCR检测方法.方法 通过对皮炎外瓶霉ITS区域基因组序列(GenBank:JN675373.1)进行分析,设计合成特异性引物和荧光标记探针,优化荧光定量PCR反应条件.以临床标本中分离的皮炎外瓶霉为阳性菌株,及其他种类真菌和细菌作为阴性对照菌株,从特异性、敏感性及重复性方面对该方法检测效果进行评价.结果 该研究设计的引物和探针能扩增皮炎外瓶霉特异性序列.临床分离得到的皮炎外瓶霉在反应中有明显扩增曲线,而甄氏外瓶霉、棘状外瓶霉、烟曲霉、白色念珠菌、新生隐球菌、马内菲青霉等20株菌在CT值≤38范围内均未有扩增;利用基因重组构建的标准品完成了标准曲线的绘制,在1.0×103~1.0×107拷贝数(Cp)内具有良好的线性关系(R2=1.000),最低可检出量为10 Cp/μL.结论 成功建立了荧光定量PCR检测皮炎外瓶霉方法,该法特异度强、敏感度高、重复性好,将有助于临床皮炎外瓶霉感染的早期诊断和针对性治疗.

  15. Population studies of Exophiala dermatitidis by PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis in the ribosomal DNA%皮炎外瓶霉的核糖体基因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东明; 李若瑜; 王端礼; 孔繁荣; 卜定方; 冀朝辉; 马圣清

    2002-01-01

    目的:探讨不同来源、不同致病性的皮炎外瓶霉在基因学上是否具有差异性.方法:试验菌株包括皮炎外瓶霉16株(模式株、标准株、临床及自然分离株),甄氏外瓶霉1株(标准株),丛梗孢外瓶霉1株(临床株).煮沸冷冻法提取DNA,常规PCR扩增核糖体基因及其转录间隔区,应用限制性片段长度多态性、DNA多序列分析方法等进行研究.结果:皮炎外瓶霉核糖体基因及其转录间隔区较为保守,PCR-RFLP对于该菌种的鉴定具有较大意义;DNA序列分析显示,不同来源、不同致病性的皮炎外瓶霉分属于不同的生物群落,提示不同群落致病性的差异存在一定的遗传学基础.结论:皮炎外瓶霉核糖体基因及其转录间隔区序列保守,对于该菌种的分类鉴别具有重要的意义.

  16. Subcutaneoous phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala jeanselmei in a cardiac transplant recipient Feohifomicose subcutânea por Exophiala jeanselmei em um transplantado cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário R. Silva

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a cardiac transplant recipient maintained on immunosuppressive therapy with mycophenolate mofetil tacrolimus and prednisone. The lesion began after trauma on the right leg that evolved to multiple lesions with nodules and ulcers. Diagnosis was performed by histological examination and culture of pus from skin lesions. Treatment consisted of itraconazole (200 mg/day for three months with no improvement and subsequently with amphotericin B (0.5 mg/Kg per day to a total of 3.8 g intravenously. After four months of treatment, the lesions showed marked improvement with reduction in the swelling and healing of sinuses and residual scaring.Este trabalho relata um caso de feohifomicose subcutânea causado por Exophiala jeanselmei em um paciente que havia recebido transplante de coração e mantinha terapia com micofenolato mofetil, tracolimus e prednisone. As lesões tiveram início após trauma na perna inferior direita que evoluíram produzindo múltiplos nódulos e úlceras. Diagnóstico foi realizado através de avaliação histológica e de características macroscópicas e microscópicas da cultura das lesões da pele. O paciente fez uso de itraconazol em concentração de 200 mg/dia durante três meses, não se observando no entanto, melhora das lesões. Após este período, o paciente foi tratado com anfotericina B a uma concentração de 0,5 mg/Kg/dia totalizando 3,8 g. Após quatro meses de tratamento as lesões mostraram melhora evidente, verificando-se fechamento das fístulas e cicatrização das lesões.

  17. Tolerance and antioxidant response of a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Li, Tao; Yang, Yun-ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The growth, oxidative damage and antioxidant response of Exophiala pisciphila ACCC32496, a dark septate endophyte isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc mining area, were measured at cadmium (Cd) concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L(-1). The EC50 values of E. pisciphila ACCC32496 to Cd were 332.2 mg L(-1) after 30 days on solid medium and 111.2 mg L(-1) after 7 days in liquid medium. Cd stress markedly stimulated the production of superoxide anion, H2O2 and malondialdehyde in the fungal mycelia. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase reached their maxima at 100 mg L(-1) Cd. The glutathione and non-protein thiol contents, along with the total antioxidant capability, reached their maxima at 50 mg L(-1) Cd. Low Cd concentrations induced a noticeable increase in antioxidant defense, while high Cd concentrations decreased the antioxidant defense.

  18. Influence of the water content and water activity on styrene degeneration by Exophiala jeanselmei in biofilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, H.H.J. [TNO Inst. of Environmenal Sciences, Energy Research and Process Inovation, Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology, Delf (Netherlands); Magielsen, F.J. [TNO Inst. of Environmenal Sciences, Energy Research and Process Inovation, Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology, Delf (Netherlands); Doddema, H.J. [TNO Inst. of Environmenal Sciences, Energy Research and Process Inovation, Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology, Delf (Netherlands); Harder, W. [TNO Inst. of Environmenal Sciences, Energy Research and Process Inovation, Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology, Delf (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The performance at low water availability of styrene-degrading biofilters with the fungus Exophiala jeanselmei growing on perlite, the inert support, was investigated. E. jeanselmei degrades styrene at a water activity of 0.91-1. In biofilters, the styrene elimination capacity at a water activity of 0.91 is 5% of the maximal elimination capacity of 79 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} (water activity 1). Application of dry air results in a rapid loss of styrene degradation activity, even at 40%-60% (w/w) water in the filter bed and at a water activity of 1. Humidification of the gas and an additional supply of water to the filter bed are necessary to maintain a high and stable styrene elimination capacity. (orig.)

  19. Eumycetoma of the foot caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a Guinean woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, G; Millon, A; Freychet, B; de Muret, A; Garcia-Hermoso, D; Bailly, E; Rosset, P; Chandenier, J; Bernard, L

    2013-09-01

    Eumycetomas are chronic infectious entities characterized by presence of mycotic grains in (sub-)cutaneous tissues, after accidental inoculation of an exogenous filamentous fungus in the skin. The lesions evolve towards painless pseudotumor of the soft parts. We report the original case of a Guinean woman exhibiting eumycetoma of the right foot. Both laboratory tests identified a dematiaceous fungus, Exophiala jeanselmei, as the responsible infectious agent. A medical treatment with voriconazole alone was sufficient to notice a substantial clinical improvement. This finding is unusual as E. jeanselmei is uncommon in Guinea-Conakry, and as optimal treatment rather associate antifungal azoles and surgical excision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-P; Li, W; Yang, Y-P; Huang, W-M; Fan, Y-M

    2012-04-01

    Exophiala spinifera can induce both phaeohyphomycosis and chromomycosis. To date there have been 18 human infections caused by E. spinifera in the English literature. A case of E. spinifera-induced phaeohyphomycosis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is described. Direct microscopic examination of the pus showed branched, septate and chained hyphae and spores. A dark green velvety colony grew on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Slide culture showed branched, septate hyphae and spine-like annellated conidiophores. Histopathological biopsy revealed yellowish brown hyphae and spores. The isolate was identified as E. spinifera by DNA sequence analysis. The strain was unable to liquefy gelatin, grew at 25°C to 39°C, and was sensitive to itraconazole, amphotericin B, and terbinafine. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. spinifera in SLE patients.

  1. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala equina, with susceptibility to eight antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Suh, Moo Kyu; Lee, Myung Hoon; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Jung Ran; Kim, Tae Heung; Lee, Hyo Jin; Choi, Jong Soo; Meis, Jacques F; De Hoog, G Sybren

    2013-05-01

    A case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala equina is reported in a 75-year-old female, who showed subcutaneous abscesses on both forearms for 8 months. A lesion was initiated by inoculation with a spine from a tree. Histopathologically, suppurative granulomatous inflammation was present and short hyphal elements were observed. Upon culture greyish-black, velvety colonies of a black yeast were obtained after 3 weeks. The strain grew well at 25 °C, but poorly at 37 °C. After sequencing the internal transcribed spacer domain and the partial β-tubulin gene, the fungus was identified as E. equina. The patient was successfully treated with fluconazole for 3 months.

  2. Effects of the surfactant Tween 80 on the growth and dibenzothiophene utilization by Exophiala spinifera isolated from oil- contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Elmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil is one of the most important energy sources that contain variety of organosulfur compounds that are combustible and can produce sulfur dioxide which will cause pollution over the atmosphere and the soil. Dibenzothiophene (DBT is often used as a model for biodesulfurization studies and surfactant Tween80 increases the solubility of DBT in water that leads to higher consumption by microorganisms. Materials and methods: DBT specific UV spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 323 nm was used to evaluate the ability of isolated Exophiala spinifera fungus in removal of DBT. The effect of various concentrations of surfactant Tween80 on the growth of the fungus and DBT utilization was studied. Results: Exophiala spinifera was able to remove 100% DBT after 7 days of incubation at 30 ° C and 180 rpm shaking. The effect of different concentrations of surfactant Tween80 on growth and DBT utilization by this fungus was examined and it was observed that the presence of surfactant in the culture medium increased the growth and removal of DBT, therefore the amount of DBT utilized with 0.4% concentration of the surfactant was about 30% more than that utilized without surfactant. However, higher concentrations of surfactant Tween80 decreased the growth and consumption of DBT by fungi. Discussion and conclusion: Exophiala spinifera was isolated from oil contaminated soil and able to utilize toxic compound DBT as a sulfur source in the presence of other carbon sources such as glucose. So this isolated strain could be a good candidate for the petroleum desulfurization and it is the first report about desulfurization of DBT by fungus Exophiala spinifera. Growth and removal of DBT by fungus increased in the presence of surfactant Tween80. It can be concluded that the surfactant increases the total DBT transfer between the organic and aqueous phases and has a potential application in DBT bioremediation system by the studied fungus biocatalyst.

  3. A rare case report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic cyst caused by Exophiala oligosperma in an immunocompetent host with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshwar, Sithara; Ambroise, M Moses; Asir, G Johny; Mudhigeti, Nagaraja; Ramdas, Anita; Authy, K; Shivaprakash, M R; Kanungo, Reba

    2014-08-01

    We report a rare case of phaeohyphomycotic cyst in an immunocompetent patient caused by Exophiala oligosperma. This fungus is earlier known to cause infections in the immunocompromised. Identification of black fungi at species level is more challenging by conventional methods, and hence final identification of the fungi was based on sequencing of rDNA. The patient was managed with surgical excision. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of E. oligosperma human infection from India.

  4. Cutaneous and mucosal phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera in a pregnant patient: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; She, Xiaodong; Lv, Guixia; Shen, Yongnian; Cai, Qing; Zeng, Rong; Li, Caixia; Ge, Yiping; Deng, Shuwen; de Hoog, G S; Li, Min; Liu, Weida

    2013-04-01

    We report a case of mucocutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera. Crusty plaques and nodules were major clinical features. Histological examination revealed brown yeast-like cells and hyphae. Mycological and molecular data identified E. spinifera as etiologic agent. Oral itraconazole was effective, which was in accordance with the results of in vitro susceptibility testing. We speculated that her pregnancy may play a role of risk factor in the infection by E. spinifera.

  5. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Li, Yuan; Li, Tao; Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    Our objective was to understand the cadmium (Cd) tolerance mechanisms by investigating the subcellular distribution, chemical forms of Cd and adsorptive groups in the mycelia of Exophiala pisciphila. We grew E. pisciphila in the liquid media with increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg L(-1)). Increased Cd in the media caused a proportional increase in the Cd uptake by E. pisciphila. Subcellular distribution indicated that 81 to 97% of Cd was associated with the cell walls. The largest amount and proportion (45-86%) of Cd was extracted with 2% acetic acid, and a concentration-dependent extraction was observed, both of which suggest that Cd-phosphate complexes were the major chemical form in E. pisciphila. A large distribution of phosphate and Cd on the mycelia surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The precipitates associated with the mycelia were observed to contain Cd by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) identified that hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, and phosphate groups were responsible for binding Cd. We conclude that Cd associated with cell walls and integrated with phosphate might be responsible for the tolerance of E. pisciphila to Cd.

  6. Multiple subcutaneous cysts due to Exophiala spinifera in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, Hamid; Chander, Jagdish; Bayat, Mansour; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Sidhu, Shailpreet; Rani, Hena; Attri, Ashok; Handa, Uma; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2012-02-01

    Here we report a case of a 55-year-old Indian male presenting with multiple subcutaneous cysts, which developed from painful nodules at the dorsal right wrist joint. Subsequently a painful nodule appeared on the left knee joint. Cytological examination of the knee swelling revealed a suppurative inflammatory lesion consisting of neutrophils, lymphocytes, multinucleated giant cells and few fungal elements, without involvement of the overlying skin. Exophiala spinifera was cultured (CBS 125607) and its identity was confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA). The cysts were excised surgically, without need of additional antifungal therapy. There was no relapse during one-year follow-up and the patient was cured successfully. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing showed that posaconazole (0.063 μg/ml) and itraconazole (0.125 μg/ml) had the highest and caspofungin (4 μg/ml) and anidulafungin (2 μg/ml) the lowest activity against this isolate. However, their clinical effectiveness in the treatment of E. spinifera infections remains to be evaluated. In this case report, we have also compiled cases of human E. spinifera mycoses which have been reported so far.

  7. Exophiala spinifera as a cause of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis: case study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John E; Sutton, Deanna A; Rubin, Adam; Wickes, Brian; De Hoog, G S; Kovarik, Carrie

    2009-02-01

    Exophiala spinifera has been reported as an agent of cutaneous disease 18 times in the literature. Clinical presentations of cutaneous lesions vary widely, including erythematous papules, verrucous plaques, and deep subcutaneous abscesses. The clinical distribution and course of disease are also variable, depending on the age and immune competency of the patient. Histologic appearance occurs in one of two patterns--phaeohyphomycosis or chromoblastomycosis. While E. spinifera appears to be susceptible to multiple antimicrobial agents in vitro, clinical experience with treatment modalities has been variable. Prior to the availability of sequencing methods, species identification was based on the histopathologic presentation in tissue and morphologic features of the fungus in culture. It is likely that E. spinifera cutaneous infections have been underreported due to its incorrect identification based on earlier methods. We report an additional case of E. spinifera phaeohyphomycosis, the first to be definitively identified by sequencing. In addition, we summarize the variable clinical, histopathologic, and morphologic features, as well as treatment responses described in previously reported cutaneous infections caused by E. spinifera.

  8. Chromoblastomycosis associated with bone and central nervous involvement system in an immunocompetent child caused by exophiala spinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana M Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera. Child showed good improvement with voriconazole and itraconazole after 1 year of treatment. Skin lesions healed with minimal scarring and his power improved.

  9. Chromoblastomycosis Associated with Bone and Central Nervous Involvement System in an Immunocompetent Child Caused by Exophiala Spinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Mahantesh, S; Mannapur, Rajeshwari; Shivappa, Sanjay K

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera. Child showed good improvement with voriconazole and itraconazole after 1 year of treatment. Skin lesions healed with minimal scarring and his power improved. PMID:27293256

  10. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) caused by species of Exophiala, including a novel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaoke, Akinyi; Weber, E Scott; Innis, Charles; Stremme, Donald; Dowd, Cynthia; Hinckley, Lynn; Gorton, Timothy; Wickes, Brian; Sutton, Deanna; de Hoog, Sybren; Frasca, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    During the period from January 2002 to March 2007, infections by melanized fungi were identified with greater frequency in aquarium-maintained leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) and weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus), pivotal species to the educational and environmental concerns of the aquarium industry and conservation groups. The objective of this study was to characterize the pathology and identify fungi associated with phaeohyphomycotic lesions in these species. Samples from 14 weedy and 6 leafy seadragons were received from 2 institutions and included fresh, frozen, and formalin-fixed tissues from necropsy and biopsy specimens. Fresh and frozen tissues were cultured for fungi on Sabouraud dextrose agar only or both Sabouraud dextrose agar and inhibitory mold agar with gentamicin and chloramphenicol at 30 degrees C. Isolates were processed for morphologic identification and molecular sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Lesions were extensive and consisted of parenchymal and vascular necrosis with fungal invasion of gill (11/20), kidney (14/20), and other coelomic viscera with or without cutaneous ulceration (13/20). Exophiala sp. isolates were obtained from 4 weedy and 3 leafy seadragons and were identified to species level in 6 of 7 instances, namely Exophiala angulospora (1) and a novel species of Exophiala (5), based on nucleotide sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis represents an important pathologic condition of both weedy and leafy seadragons for which 2 species of Exophiala, 1 a novel species, have been isolated.

  11. Interleukin 1 enhances vaccine-induced antifungal T-helper 17 cells and resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Marcel; LeBert, Vanessa; Galles, Kevin; Hu-Li, Jane; Ben-Sasson, Shlomo Z; Paul, William E; Klein, Bruce S

    2013-10-01

    Vaccine-induced T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are necessary and sufficient to protect against fungal infection. Although live fungal vaccines are efficient in driving protective Th17 responses and immunity, attenuated fungi may not be safe for human use. Heat-inactivated formulations and subunit vaccines are safer but less potent and require adjuvant to increase their efficacy. Here, we show that interleukin 1 (IL-1) enhances the capacity of weak vaccines to induce protection against lethal Blastomyces dermatitidis infection in mice and is far more effective than lipopolysaccharide. While IL-1 enhanced expansion and differentiation of fungus-specific T cells by direct action on those cells, cooperation with non-T cells expressing IL-1R1 was necessary to maximize protection. Mechanistically, IL-17 receptor signaling was required for the enhanced protection induced by IL-1. Thus, IL-1 enhances the efficacy of safe but inefficient vaccines against systemic fungal infection in part by increasing the expansion of CD4(+) T cells, allowing their entry into the lungs, and inducing their differentiation to protective Th17 cells.

  12. Isolation, purification, and radiolabeling of a novel 120-kD surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts to detect antibody in infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.S.; Jones, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    No well-defined Blastomyces-specific antigens are currently available. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify immunologically active molecules in the cell wall of B. dermatitidis. A major immunoreactive 120-kD protein (WI-1) was present in all five strains studied and comprised 5% of the protein in the cell wall extract obtained after freezing and thawing yeast cells. WI-1 was recognized by serum from all 10 patients with blastomycosis but by none of those from 5 patients with histoplasmosis. It was purified by electroelution, radiolabeled with 125I, and incorporated into a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Antibody to WI-1 was detected in 58 (85%) of 68 patients with blastomycosis (geometric mean titer, 1:2,981), in two (3%) of 73 patients with histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, or candidiasis (titers, 1:86 and 1:91) and in none of 44 healthy persons. WI-1 was shown to be a surface molecule abundant on B. dermatitidis yeasts that were indirectly stained with serum from a rabbit immunized with WI-1. Approximately 0.93 pg of WI-1 or 4.7 x 10(6) WI-1 molecules were found on the surface of an individual yeast using an antigen-inhibition RIA; none was found on Histoplasma capsulatum or Candida albicans yeasts. We conclude that WI-1 is a novel, immunologically active surface molecule on the invasive form of B. dermatitidis and that WI-1 can be used to reliably detect antibody and study the immunopathogenesis of blastomycosis.

  13. Biofiltration of waste gases with the fungi Exophiala oligosperma and Paecilomyces variotti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, E.; Veiga, M.C.; Kennes, C. [University of La Coruna (Spain). Chemical Engineering Lab.

    2005-06-01

    Two biofilters fed toluene-polluted air were inoculated with new fungal isolates of either Exophiala oligosperma or Paecilomyces variotii, while a third bioreactor was inoculated with a defined consortium composed of both fungi and a co-culture of a Pseudomonas strain and a Bacillus strain. Elimination capacities of 77 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} and 55 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} were reached in the fungal biofilters (with removal efficiencies exceeding 99%) in the case of, respectively, E. oligosperma and Paecilomyces variotii when feeding air with a relative humidity (RH) of 85%. The inoculated fungal strains remained the single dominant populations throughout the experiment. Conversely, in the biofilter inoculated with the bacterial-fungal consortium, the bacteria were gradually overgrown by the fungi, reaching a maximum elimination capacity around 77 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}. Determination of carbon dioxide concentrations both in batch assays and in biofiltration studies suggested the near complete mineralization of toluene. The non-linear toluene removal along the height of the biofilters resulted in local elimination capacities of up to 170 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} and 94 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} in the reactors inoculated, respectively, with E. oligosperma and P. variotii. Further studies with the most efficient strain, E. oligosperma, showed that the performance was highly dependent on the RH of the air and the pH of the nutrient solution. At a constant 85% RH, the maximum elimination capacity either dropped to 48.7 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} or increased to 95.6 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively, when modifying the pH of the nutrient solution from 5.9 to either 4.5 or 7.5. The optimal conditions were 100% RH and pH 7.5, which allowed a maximum elimination capacity of 164.4 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} under steady-state conditions, with near-complete toluene degradation. (orig.)

  14. Chronic disfiguring facial lesions in an immunocompetent patient due to Exophiala spinifera: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Shivaprakash, M R; De, Dipankar; Gupta, Prerna; Gupta, Sunita; Kanwar, A J; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2012-10-01

    Exophiala spinifera is a rare fungus causing chromoblastomycosis or different types of phaeohyphomycosis (cutaneous, subcutaneous, disseminated and cyst phaeohyphomycosis). We report a case of a young male with phaeohyphomycosis due to E. spinifera, who had multiple itchy painful papular lesions disfiguring his face for 4 years. His diagnosis was delayed and had received antibacterial and antileishmanial therapy elsewhere without any improvement. While he reported to our hospital, the histopathology of the biopsy collected from the lesion demonstrated acute on chronic inflammation with granuloma formation and darkly pigmented fungal elements. The isolate grown on culture was identified as E. spinifera on the basis of morphological characters. The identification of the isolate was further confirmed by sequencing of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA. After treatment with oral itraconazole, he had marked clinical improvement.

  15. The clinical spectrum of Exophiala jeanselmei, with a case report and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H; Najafzadeh, M J; van Esbroeck, M; van den Enden, E; Tarazooie, B; Meis, J F G M; de Hoog, G S

    2010-03-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei is clinically redefined as a rare agent of subcutaneous lesions of traumatic origin, eventually causing eumycetoma. Mycetoma is a localized, chronic, suppurative subcutaneous infection of tissue and contiguous bone after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. In advanced stages of the infection, one finds tumefaction, abscess formation and draining sinuses. The species has been described as being common in the environment, but molecular methods have only confirmed its occurrence in clinical samples. Current diagnostics of E. jeanselmei is based on sequence data of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which sufficiently reflects the taxonomy of this group. The first purpose of this study was the re-identification of all clinical (n=11) and environmental strains (n=6) maintained under the name E. jeanselmei, and to establish clinical preference of the species in its restricted sense. Given the high incidence of eumycetoma in endemic areas, the second goal of this investigation was the evaluation of in vitro susceptibility of E.jeanselmei to eight conventional and new generations of antifungal drugs to improve antifungal therapy in patients. As an example, we describe a case of black grain mycetoma in a 43-year-old Thai male with several draining sinuses involving the left foot. The disease required extensive surgical excision coupled with intense antifungal chemotherapy to achieve cure. In vitro studies demonstrated that posaconazole and itraconazole had the highest antifungal activity against E. jeanselmei and E. oligosperma for which high MICs were found for caspofungin. However, their clinical effectiveness in the treatment of Exophiala infections remains to be determined.

  16. "A fine needle aspiration cytology in time saves nine" - cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a renal transplant patient: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from India of E. jeanselmei causing phaeohyphomycosis in a transplant recipient and highlights the role a cytopathologist can play in the timely management of such cases.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of photodynamic therapy alone and combined with standard antifungal therapy on planktonic cells and biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujuan eGao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8,16 and 32 μg/ml as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635nm ± 10nm, 12 and 24 J/cm2, and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five stains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp, as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all stains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium stains with high MIC values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8 and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after PDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high SMIC50 and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to AMB, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to PDT exhibited a distinct reduction in SMIC50 and SMIC80 compared to untreated groups for both species

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm(2)), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in

  19. Posaconazole Therapy of Disseminated Phaeohyphomycosis in a Murine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Graybill, John R.; Najvar, Laura K.; Johnson, Elizabeth; Bocanegra, Rosie; Loebenberg, David

    2004-01-01

    Immunocompetent (nu/+) and athymic (nu/nu) BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with Wangiella dermatitidis and treated with posaconazole. Posaconazole reduced the counts in tissues and prolonged survival. Of particular interest, posaconazole reduced the counts of this neurotropic pathogen in the brain.

  20. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.; Liu, M.J.; Zhang, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Zhang, H.B. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Department of Biology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Sha, T. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Zhao, Z.W., E-mail: zhaozhw@ynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments. - Research Highlights: {yields}Effect of DSE (E. pisciphila) on heavy metal tolerance of maize host was studied. {yields}DSE alleviated the deleterious effect of excessive heavy metals on maize. {yields}DSE restricted the transfer of heavy metals from the roots to shoots in maize. {yields}DSE colonization improved the tolerance of their host plants to heavy metals.

  1. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Liu, M J; Zhang, X T; Zhang, H B; Sha, T; Zhao, Z W

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments.

  2. Functional and transcript analysis of a novel metal transporter gene EpNramp from a dark septate endophyte (Exophiala pisciphila).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun-Fang; Li, Tao; Li, Ling-Fei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Various metal transporters mediate sub-cellular sequestration of diverse metal ions, contribute to cellular metal tolerance, and control metal partitioning, particularly under conditions of high rates of metal influx into organisms. In the current study, a ubiquitous and evolutionary conserved metal transporter gene, homology to natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp), was cloned from a metal-tolerant isolate of dark septate endophyte (DSE, Exophiala pisciphila), and its functional and transcript characterization were analyzed. The full-length Nramp gene from E. pisciphila (named EpNramp) was 1716 bp and expected to encode a polypeptide of 571 amino acid residues. EpNramp fused to green fluorescent protein suggested that EpNramp was a plasma membrane metal transporter, which was consistent with the results of bioinformatics analysis with 11 transmembrane domains. Yeast functional complementation revealed that EpNramp could complement the growth defect of Fe-uptake yeast mutant (fet3fet4 double mutant) by mediating the transport of Fe(2+). Expression of EpNramp increased Cd(2+) sensitivity and Cd(2+) accumulation in yeast. In addition, qPCR data revealed that E. pisciphila significantly down-regulated EpNramp expression with elevated Cd(2+) exposure. Altogether, EpNramp is a bivalent cation transporter localized in cell membrane, which is necessary for efficient translocation of both Fe and Cd, and its activities partly attributed to the tolerance of DSE to toxic and excessive Cd(2+) supplements.

  3. Effects of Tricyclazole on Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation Characteristics of a Dark Septate Endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Yang, Yiyan; Li, Yuan; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2016-02-01

    Exophiala pisciphila is a cadmium-tolerant fungus, and produces 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin which can be inhibited by tricyclazole. Tricyclazole at higher levels (20 and 40 µg mL−1) reduced the growth and sporulation of E. pisciphila, but toxicity was not observed at a low concentration (2.5 µg mL−1). Under cadmium (Cd) stress (50, 100 and 200 mg L−1), 2.5 µg mL−1 of tricyclazole reduced fungal growth and sporulation. These reduces indicated a decrease on Cd tolerance of E. pisciphila. For both the 0 and 2.5 µg mL−1 tricyclazole treatments, Cd was associated mostly with cell walls and was extracted by 2 % acetic acid and 1 M NaCl. The FTIR spectra of the E. pisciphila mycelia were similar for both 0 and 2.5 µg mL−1 tricyclazole treatments, which showed hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl and phosphate groups. Thus inhibition of melanin synthesis by tricyclazole did not change Cd accumulation characteristics in E. pisciphila. Results suggested that melanin played a protective role for E. pisciphila against Cd stress, but inhibition of melanin synthesis did not have a remarkable impact on Cd accumulation in E. pisciphila.

  4. [A Case of Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala lecanii-corni Showing a Seasonal Fluctuation of Skin Lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujioka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Risa; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ogura, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old Japanese female presented to our hospital in March complaining of asymptomatic skin lesions on both cheeks for the past few years. She had been receiving treatment for phlebosclerotic colitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. We identified subcutaneous nodules with scale, erosion, and necrotic crusts on the surface, with one on the right cheek and two on the left. The patient said that the eruptions almost disappeared every summer but always recurred in winter, a phenomenon that we confirmed. Histopathology revealed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and marked infiltration from various inflammatory cells with a granulomatous reaction in the dermis. Brown fungal elements were scattered around the epidermis and dermis in the form of single spore or toruloid hyphae. We identified the fungus as Exophiala lecanii-corni based on morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as rRNA gene analysis. The strain grew well at 27 ℃, but growth was remarkably suppressed at 33 ℃ and not observed at all at 37 ℃. Treatment with itraconazole 200 mg / day for 6 months resulted in complete remission of the lesions.

  5. A novel metabolite (1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl) production by Exophiala spinifera strain FM through dibenzothiophene desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti

    2015-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide which is released from petroleum oil combustion causes pollution over the atmosphere and the soil. Biodesulfurization can be used as a complementary method of hydrodesulfurization, the common method of petroleum desulfurization in refineries. Many studies have been carried out to develop biological desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with bacterial biocatalysts. However, fungi are capable to metabolize a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbons through cytochrome P450 and their extracellular enzymes. The aim of the present work was isolation and identification of fungi biocatalysts capable for DBT utilization as sulfur source and production of novel metabolites. DBT consumption and the related produced metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS respectively. One of the isolated fungi that could utilize DBT as sole sulfur source was identified by both traditional and molecular experiments and registered in NCBI as Exophiala spinifera FM strain (accession no. KC952672). This strain could desulfurize 99 % of DBT (0.3 mM) as sulfur source by co-metabolism reaction with other carbon sources through the same pathway as 4S and produced 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) during 7 days of incubation at 30 °C and 180 rpm shaking. However, the isolate was able to transform 2-HBP to 1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl. While biphenyl compounds are toxic to leaving cells, biotransformation of them can reduce their toxicity and the fungi will be more tolerant to the final product. These data are the first report about the desulfurization of DBT comparable to 4S-pathway and production of innovative metabolite by E. spinifera FM strain.

  6. 甄氏外瓶霉所致皮肤暗色丝孢霉病1例%Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala jeanselmei: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董碧麟; 李东升; 陈柳青; 黄萌; 周利平

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old female had presented with red plaques and ulcers on her right forearm for more than 5 months. The histophathological examination showed hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, diffuse infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells in the superficial and middle layers of the dermis, and exudation of erythrocytes. Furthermore, fungal spores and hyphae were found in the dermis of the skin lesion. The etiological agent was confirmed as Exophiala jeanselmei. The diagnosis of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei was established. The skin lesion improved obviously after combined therapy with itraconazole and terbinafine for 4 months.%患者女,57岁.右前臂伸侧出现红色斑块、溃疡5月余.皮损组织病理示:角化过度,表皮增生,真皮浅层及中层可见弥漫性以嗜中性粒细胞为主的混合炎性细胞浸润,伴红细胞渗出,真皮组织中存在真菌孢子及菌丝样结构.真菌种属鉴定示:甄氏外瓶霉.诊断:甄氏外瓶霉所致暗色丝孢霉病.伊曲康唑与特比萘芬口服联合治疗效果显著.

  7. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera: an increasing disease in young females in mainland China? Two case reports and review of five cases reported from mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Wang, Chong; Shen, Yongnian; Lv, Guixia; She, Xiaodong; Zeng, Rong; Ping, Zhan; Liu, Weida

    2015-03-01

    No more than 30 cases of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera have been reported up to now in English and Chinese literature over the past half century. Here, we reported two cases of phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. spinifera and reviewed all the five cases reported from mainland China. These two involved were both young female, one patient experiencing recurrence during pregnancy and the other developing multiple-site infections without apparent immunodeficiency. The aetiological agents were both identified as E. spinifera by molecular analysis. Oral itraconazole was proved effective enough for the first patient, while the combination of itraconazole and terbinafine was needed for the second patient. It seems that infections due to E. spiniferais increasing in China mainland nowadays, usually involving young female.

  8. Use of styrene as sole carbon source by the fungus Exophiala oligosperma: optimization and modeling of biodegradation, pathway elucidation, and cell membrane composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Eldon R; Bernat, Przemysław; Długoński, Jerzy; Veiga, Maria C; Kennes, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Biodegradation of styrene by Exophiala sp. was tested at different initial concentrations (19.3-170.6 mgl(-1)), pH (2.8-8.7), and temperatures (19.8-45.1 °C), for 120 h according to a 2(3) full-factorial central composite design. The specific growth rate (SGR, per hour) and specific styrene utilization rate (SUR, milligrams of styrene per milligram of biomass per hour) values were used as the response variables for optimization purposes. The interactions between concentration and temperature (P=0.022), and pH and temperature (P=0.010) for SGR, and interactions between concentration and temperature (P=0.012) for SUR were found to be statistically significant. The optimal values for achieving high SGR (0.15 h(-1)) and SUR (0.3622 mg styrene mg(-1) biomass h(-1)) were calculated from the regression model equation. Those values are C(o)=89.1 mgl(-1), pH=5.4, and T=31.5 °C for SGR and C(o)=69.2 mgl(-1), pH=5.5, and T=32.4 °C for SUR. It was also observed that the Exophiala strain degrades styrene via phenylacetic acid, involving initial oxidation of the vinyl side chain. Besides, in the presence of styrene, changes in the fatty acids profile were also observed. It is hypothesized that an increasing amount of linoleic acid (18:2) may be involved in the protection of the fungus against toxic substrate.

  9. “A fine needle aspiration cytology in time saves nine” — cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a renal transplant patient: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prashant; Agarwal, Shipra; Singh, Geetika; Xess, Immaculata; Bhowmik, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei) has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from India of E. jeanselmei causing phaeohyphomycosis in a transplant recipient and highlights the role a cytopathologist can play in the timely management of such cases. PMID:27011447

  10. Heterotrophic Bioleaching of Sulfur, Iron, and Silicon Impurities from Coal by Fusarium oxysporum FE and Exophiala spinifera FM with Growing and Resting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadzadeh, Shekoofeh Sadat; Emtiazi, Giti; Etemadifar, Zahra

    2016-06-01

    Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel containing sulfur and other elements which promote environmental pollution after burning. Also the silicon impurities make the transportation of coal expensive. In this research, two isolated fungi from oil contaminated soil with accessory number KF554100 (Fusarium oxysporum FE) and KC925672 (Exophiala spinifera FM) were used for heterotrophic biological leaching of coal. The leaching were detected by FTIR, CHNS, XRF analyzer and compared with iron and sulfate released in the supernatant. The results showed that E. spinifera FM produced more acidic metabolites in growing cells, promoting the iron and sulfate ions removal while resting cells of F. oxysporum FE enhanced the removal of aromatic sulfur. XRF analysis showed that the resting cells of E. spinifera FM proceeded maximum leaching for iron and silicon (48.8, 43.2 %, respectively). CHNS analysis demonstrated that 34.21 % of sulfur leaching was due to the activities of resting cells of F. oxysporum FE. Also F. oxysporum FE removed organic sulfur more than E. spinifera FM in both growing and resting cells. FTIR data showed that both fungi had the ability to remove pyrite and quartz from coal. These data indicated that inoculations of these fungi to the coal are cheap and impurity removals were faster than autotrophic bacteria. Also due to the removal of dibenzothiophene, pyrite, and quartz, we speculated that they are excellent candidates for bioleaching of coal, oil, and gas.

  11. Diverse strategies conferring extreme cadmium (Cd) tolerance in the dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila: evidence from RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dake; Li, Tao; Shen, Mi; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) ubiquitously colonize the roots of plants growing in extreme heavy metals (HMs)-contaminated soils. Little is known about the overall molecular response of DSE to excessive HMs. Therefore, RNA-seq was performed through Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing based on two cDNA libraries of the DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila, cultured under cadmium (Cd)-free and Cd-stressed conditions, and 21,376 unigenes were generated. In total, 575 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained. Approximately 40% of the DEGs (228 unigenes) were involved in 10 well-known HMs-tolerant pathways, conferring the extreme cadmium (Cd) tolerance of E. pisciphila, including metal ion binding and transportation, organic acid metabolism and transportation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, redox homeostasis, transcription factors production, sulfate assimilation, DNA repair and cell wall integrity maintenance, etc. Our results indicate that integral tactics associated with the collaboration of extracellular and intracellular mechanisms contribute to the enhanced HMs tolerance of this fungus. This study represents the first investigation of the transcriptome of DSE under Cd stress, and our results provide valuable information for future molecular studies of HMs tolerance in fungi.

  12. Some biomolecules and a partially O-acetylated exo-galactomannan containing β-Galf units from pathogenic Exophiala jeanselmei, having a pronounced immunogenic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaki, G L; Czelusniak, P A; Vicente, V A; Zanata, S M; Souza, L M; Gorin, P A J; Iacomini, M

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Exophiala jeanselmei (Ej4) was grown in submerged MM medium, glucose being consumed after six days with maximum biomass and EPS production. Cells were extracted with CHCl3-MeOH (2:1, v/v) yielding a product containing 10% lipid, with high levels of unsaturated C(18:1) (43.6%) and C(18:2) (21.0%), 2D-TLC showed the presence of PE (17.7%), PS (11.6%), PC (35.8%), PI (1.2%) and lyso-phospholipids, LPE (10.7%), LPC (2.0%), PA (10.4%), cardiolipin (10.5%) and glucosyl-ceramide. Analysis of EPS-1 (120 kDa) showed a galactomanan, containing a main chain of Manp-(1→2) (24.2%), substituted by side chains containing terminal Galf (16.8%) and Manp (3.5%) and acetyl groups attached at O-6 of terminal Galf. An immune response against antigens was obtained using Balb/C mice. Anti-EPS-1 antibodies recognized purified fraction containing cellular walls very titer and higher than 1:20,000 for EPS. The studied biomolecules showed biotechnological potential and point to important perspectives in diagnosis of fungi and immunomodulatory products.

  13. Identification of glutathione S-transferase (GST genes from a dark septate endophytic fungus (Exophiala pisciphila and their expression patterns under varied metals stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Shen

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE, Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50. Lead (Pb exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001. Furthermore, although heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila.

  14. Identification of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes from a dark septate endophytic fungus (Exophiala pisciphila) and their expression patterns under varied metals stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mi; Zhao, Da-Ke; Qiao, Qin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs) were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50). Lead (Pb) exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Furthermore, although heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila.

  15. A molecular approach for the rapid, selective and sensitive detection of Exophiala jeanselmei in environmental samples: development and performance assessment of a real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S J C

    2016-02-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei is an opportunistic pathogenic black yeast growing in humid environments such as water reservoirs of air-conditioning systems. Because this fungal contaminant could be vaporized into the air and subsequently cause health problems, its monitoring is recommended. Currently, this monitoring is based on culture and microscopic identification which are complex, sometimes ambiguous and time-demanding, i.e., up to 21 days. Therefore, molecular, culture-independent methods could be more advantageous for the monitoring of E. jeanselmei. In this study, we developed a SYBR®green real-time PCR assay based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex for the specific detection of E. jeanselmei. The selectivity (100 %), PCR efficiency (95.5 %), dynamic range and repeatability of this qPCR assay were subsequently evaluated. The limit of detection for this qPCR assay was determined to be 1 copy of genomic DNA of E. jeanselmei. Finally, water samples collected from cooling reservoirs were analyzed using this qPCR assay to deliver a proof of concept for the molecular detection of E. jeanselmei in environmental samples. The results obtained by molecular analysis were compared with those of classical methods (i.e., culture and microscopic identification) used in routine analysis and were 100 % matching. This comparison demonstrated that this SYBR®green qPCR assay can be used as a molecular alternative for monitoring and routine investigation of samples contaminated by E. jeanselmei, while eliminating the need for culturing and thereby considerably decreasing the required analysis time to 2 days.

  16. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus%系统性红斑狼疮伴棘状外瓶霉所致暗色丝孢霉病一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林映萍; 黄文明; 李文; 杨艳平; 郭红卫; 樊翌明

    2011-01-01

    患者女,27岁,右下肢结节、溃疡6个月,有系统性红斑狼疮病史2年.皮损脓液直接镜检可见分支、分隔链状菌丝和孢子,组织病理检查显示棕黄色菌丝、孢子.沙氏葡萄糖琼脂培养基(SDA)培养出深绿色绒状菌落,微量培养可见分支、分隔菌丝和棘状环痕孢梗,DNA序列分析属于棘状外瓶霉.菌株不能液化明胶,可在25~39℃环境下生长,对伊曲康唑、两性霉素B、特比萘芬敏感.动物实验发现免疫抑制小鼠感染比正常对照组严重.依据临床特征、组织病理学检查、真菌培养及基因鉴定结果,该例患者确诊为系统性红斑狼疮伴棘状外瓶霉所致的暗色丝孢霉病.%A 27-year-old woman who suffered from a 2-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with a 6-month history of nodules and ulcer on the right lower extremity. Direct microscopic examination of the pus showed branched and septate hyphae and spores in a chain-like arrangement.Histopathological examination revealed yellowish brown hyphae and spores. Dark green velvety colony grew on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Slide culture showed branched, septate hyphae and spine-like annellated conidiophores. The isolate was identified as Exophiala spinifera by DNA sequence analysis. The strain was unable to liquefy gelatin, could grow at 25 ℃ to 39 ℃, and was sensitive to itraconazole, amphotericin B and terbinafine. Animal test revealed that the infection induced by Exophiala spinifera in immunocompromised mice was more severe than that in normal controls. Based on the clinical features, histopathological, fungal culture and DNA sequencing results, the patient was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus accompanied by subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera.

  17. Pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala jeanselmei:a case report and review of literature%肺部暗色丝孢霉病1例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶枫; 吴璐璐; 苏丹虹; 曾庆思; 陈荣昌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To better understanding the clinical presentations of phaeohyphomycosis,and improve the diagnosis and management of the disease.Methods We reported a case of pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University in 2008,and reviewed the relevant literature.The clinical,radio-logical and etiological features were summarized based on this case and the other 23 phaeohyphomycosis patients reported in China from January 1995 to August 2013.Results 24 Chinese cases of phaeohyphomycosis have been reported to date,including 15 males and 9 females.The age of these patients ranged from 4 to 76 (mean 40.0±21 .8)years old.Seventeen patients were otherwise healthy.The other 7 patients had complications.Clinical presentations of phaeohyphomycosis vary widely,including cutaneous and subcutaneous infection in 18 cases,pulmonary and central nervous system involvement in two cases each,para-nasal sinus and palpebral conjunctiva infection one case each.The diagnosis of 18 cases were confirmed both microbiologically and histologically.One case was confirmed histologically alone.Five cases were identified microbiologically alone.The samples for culture were collected from skin abscess (1/5 ),pulmonary tissue (2/5 ),and cervical spinal fluid (2/5 ),respectively. Twenty-two strains of causative organisms were identified,7 of which were Exophiala jeanselmei .Twenty-three patients received treatment.They were cured by antifungal agents alone (18)or in conjunction with surgical resection (4 ),or assisted with XD-635AB-based photodynamic laser therapy (1).Specifically,10 pa-tients were cured by itraconazole alone.Conclusions In China, most patients of phaeohyphomycosis have concurrent conditions or have previously received immunosuppressive agents and cor-ticosteroids.Cutaneous and subcutaneous infection were most common,located mainly on limbs,face,chest and abdominal skin.The most frequently isolated pathogen

  18. Blastomyces dermatitidis infections in the RSA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the lung, the disease process may be acute or chronic, the .... considered to be a risk factor, it could be expected that blacks would have a much greater .... Hasan FM, Jarrah T, Nassar V. The association of adenocarcinoma of the lung and ...

  19. A case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera superimposed on basal cell carcinoma%基底细胞上皮瘤伴棘状外瓶霉所致的暗色丝孢霉病一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林能兴; 郑岳臣; 曾敬思; 黄长征; 连昕; 毛叶红; 黄春艳

    2010-01-01

    A 67-year-old female farmer presented with a painless dark-erythematous, green bean-sized nodule on the left side of her head for 5 years.The nodule gradually grew and extended to the left temple.Three months prior to the presentation, the lesion began to enlarge rapidly and ulcerate.Histopathology of the lesion revealed a diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma.Brown hypha, spores, and blastospores were observed between cancer cell nests and in necrotic tissues.Culture of biopsy materials grew moist, glistening, olivaceous-black or dark yeast-like colonies, with gray fluffy hyphae at the margin.Slide culture showed brown branched and septate hypha, with spinate conidiophores arising terminally or laterally at right angles.There were rhino-protuberances at the tip of conidiophores together with clumps of smooth, oval microconidia at the top of or around the conidiophores, and many clear annellations were observed at the distant end of conidiophores.The strain was identified as Exophiala spinifera and confirmed genetically.The patient was diagnosed as phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera superimposed on basal cell carcinoma based on the clinical manifestations,histopathological and mycological examinations, as well as DNA sequencing results.Clinical cure was achieved after management with oral itraconazole and 10-session photodynamic therapy.No recurrence was noted during 1-year follow-up.%患者女,67岁,农民.5年前左头顶部长出一无痛性绿豆大小暗红色结节,逐年扩大、隆起,并延及左颞部.近3个月结节、肿块迅速增大,并出现溃疡.肿块经组织病理检查,诊断为基底细胞上皮瘤,肿瘤细胞巢之间和坏死组织内有褐色菌丝、孢子、芽生孢子.真菌培养为深橄榄黑色酵母样菌落,潮湿有光泽,边缘一圈灰色短绒毛状菌丝.方块小培养镜下见褐色分支分隔菌丝,其顶端与侧缘有成直角长出的棘状分生孢子梗,梗尖端有鼻状突起,顶尖及其周围有成

  20. Infecções causadas por fungos demácios e suas correlações anátomo-clinicas Infections caused by dematiaceous fungi and their anatomoclinical correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Camargo Hoffmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Exophiala é composto por fungos melanizados dimórficos, responsáveis por um espectro de doenças, incluindo feohifomicoses, micetomas, cromoblastomicoses e fungemia. A espécie E. jeanselmei é a predominante nestas infecções, seguida de E. dermatitidis. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar quatro casos e discutir aspectos clínicos, histológicos, micológicos e epidemiológicos para o seu diagnóstico.The Exophiala genus comprises dimorphic melanized fungi responsible for a spectrum of diseases including phaeohyphomycosis, mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and fungemia. The E. jeanselmei species is predominant in such infections, followed by E. dermatitidis. This paper aims at reporting four cases and at discussing clinical, histologycal, mycologycal and epidemiologycal aspects for its diagnosis.

  1. 广东首例肾移植术后甄氏外瓶霉致皮肤及皮下组织暗色丝孢霉病%Cutaneous and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei after renal transplantation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冼苡; 毛祖豪; 吴中; 胡永轩; 胡燕卿; 刘康兴; 王露霞; 魏清柱; 韩雪; 朱德江; 卢艳

    2012-01-01

    报道广东首例肾移植术后甄氏外瓶霉致皮肤及皮下组织暗色丝孢霉病临床、实验研究和治疗结果.患者男,66岁,右中指、腕部、前臂皮肤结节、脓疱5月余,无痒痛.脓液涂片显微镜下见分隔、分支,淡棕色菌丝;组织病理见炎性肉芽肿囊性变,其内散在真菌菌丝,PAS、六胺银染色亦见真菌菌丝;沙堡培养基26℃培养菌落呈榄黑色绒毛样,玻片小培养符合甄氏外瓶霉;对所分离菌株进行ITS序列分析,与甄氏外瓶霉同源性为100%;采用Etest法检测了6种抗真菌药物的MIC值,其中二性霉素B、伏立康唑、伊曲康唑、氟康唑敏感,5-氟胞嘧啶、卡泊芬净耐药.局部注射二性霉素B与口服伏立康唑联合抗真菌治疗,及时切除好转较慢及新发皮疹,治疗效果满意.本病例为广东省内首次报道甄氏外瓶霉所致暗色丝孢霉病,亦为肾移植术后所致该病的国内首次报道.%We report a case of cutaneous and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei after renal transplantation in Guangdong. A 66-year-old man who had a renal transplantation 6 years ago was admitted in October 2011 for the presence of 16 nodules (0.5-1.5 cm) found on his right middle finger, wrist and forearm for 5 months. Microscopic examination of the purulent exudate showed segmented and branched brown mycelium, and tissue biopsy and PAS staining showed fungal hyphae. The isolate was processed for morphological identification and molecular sequence analysis. A black colony was found after culture of the isolate on SDA at 26℃, and small culture identified the isolate as Exophiala jeanselmei, ITS sequence analysis of the isolate showed a 100% homology with Exophiala jeanselmei. E-test strip was used in drug sensitivity test, and the isolate was sensitive to amphotericin B, voriconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole, but resistant to 5-flucytosine and caspofungin. Good response was obtained with surgical

  2. Tolerance and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Exophiala pisciphila Strain Isolated From Plant Roots Growing in Metal Polluted Soils%矿区植物根内嗜鱼外瓶霉对重金属的耐性和超积累作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉洁; 李洪超; 赵之伟

    2012-01-01

    A DSE stain was isolated from plant roots of Arundinella bengalensis (Spring.) Druce, naturally growing on the plot of lead-zinc mine areas in Huize, Yunnan Province. The isolate was identified as an Exophiala pisciphila strain by morphological characteristics and ITSI-5.8S rDNA-ITS 2 sequence analysis. The tolerance to heavy metals and accumulation abilities or the E pisciphila strain were investigated. MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration) to Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cd1+ of the fungus were 2.3,0.51, and 3.1 mg/ml, respectively. The E. pisciphila strain was able to accumulate lead, zinc and cadmium over 20%, 15% and 5% of its biomass (by dry weight), respectively. It was demonstrated that the fungi was supper accumulative and multi-tolerant to these metals. Fungi colonization in the roots may play important roles in reducing toxiciry to THe plant root cells of heavy metals in soils.%从云南会泽铅-锌矿区自然生长植物密序野古草(Arundinella bengalensis (Spreng.) Druce)的健康根内分离得到一株深色有隔内生真菌(dark septate endophytes,DSE).据其形态学特征和ITS(I)-5.8S-rDNA-ITS2序列分析,鉴定为一株嗜鱼外瓶霉(Exophlala pisciphila).纯培养条件下研究了其对P2+、Zn2+、Cd2+的耐性和超积累作用.结果表明,此菌株在液体合成培养基上可以分别耐受2、3和0.5 g/L的Pb2+、Zn2+和Cd2+;在含pb2+、Cd2+培养基中生长其菌丝可以富集超过其干重25%以上的pb2+和5%以上的Cd2+;显示此菌株属于极端耐性并具有超积景作用的真菌.此真菌在植物根系的定殖或许可以通过菌丝体对金属离子的国持作用缓解植物根围土壤微环境中超量金属离子对植物的毒害作用.

  3. Curvularia, Exophiala, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, and other melanized fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of the melanized fungi and the most relevant epidemiological and clinical aspects, and the laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of infections caused by these agents, are discussed in this chapter. This chapter covers most of the agents of phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and s

  4. Exophiala oligosperma involved in a refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Hedayati, M.T.; Bahoosh, M.; Kasir, A.; Ghasemi, M.; Motahari, J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hoog, G.S. de

    2011-01-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis refers to a wide variety of conditions caused by fungal infections of the paranasal sinuses. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and sinus fungus balls are mostly noted in healthy individuals. Aspergillus species are supposed to be the most common etiologic agents of the disorder, b

  5. Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps. I: compositional analysis using Tag-Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Guido; Hübner, Iris; Schmidt, Carsten K; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    Mass growth of dark fungal biofilms on water taps and associated habitats was observed in various German drinking water distribution systems recently. Customers of affected drinking water systems are anxious about potential and unknown health risks. These environments are known to harbour a fungal flora also comprising a variety of fungal opportunists that are well known to cause superficial mycoses in humans (Exophiala equina, Exophiala lecanii-corni) but are not known to establish dark biofilms so far. To gain profound insight on composition of respective biofilms, a metagenomic approach using Tag-Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing (TEFAP) of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region in comparison with a classical cultivation approach using Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and erythritol-chloramphenicol-agar was performed. E. lecanii-corni was found to be the major component in 10 of 13 biofilms analysed independently of the method used. Alternaria sp., E. equina, Fusarium spp. and Ochroconis spp. were also relatively abundant. As expected, TEFAP usually revealed a higher diversity than the cultivation approaches. For example, opportunistic species like Candida albicans or Exophiala dermatitidis were detected in very low amounts. In conclusion, TEFAP turned out to be a promising and powerful tool for the semi-quantitative analysis of fungal biofilms. Referring to relevant literature, potential biological hazards caused by fungi of the dark biofilms can be regarded as low.

  6. Feohifomicosis subcutánea Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Russo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de Feohifomicosis subcutánea en un paciente joven inmunocompetente, localizada en cara flexora de antebrazo derecho, sin antecedente previo de traumatismo evidenciado por él mismo. Al examen físico presentaba lesiones nodulares y supurativas que al biopsiarlas evidenciaron intensa inflamación granulomatosa, con sectores de fibrosis y extensas áreas de necrosis. Luego se realizaron cultivos y estudios micológicos específicos, dando como diagnóstico una Feohifomicosis subcutánea por Exophiala dermatitidis. El tratamiento consistió en administración de itraconazol más resección quirúrgica completa, sin evidenciar recidivas a los seis meses del control posterior al tratamiento.In this case we have examined a young male immunocompetent patient suffering from subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis on his right forearm. Upon questioning, the patient did not express having noticed any previous traumatism. Physical examination revealed suppurative nodular lesions which, in the histologic study, showed severe granulomatous inflammation along with fibrotic tissue and necrosis. We carried out the corresponding cultures, the results of which was Exophila dermatitidis, and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis was diagnosed. The treatment of choice consisted in itraconazole and a surgical procedure to remove the lesion. Six months after the procedure, we have found no sings of the disease.

  7. Inherited CARD9 deficiency in otherwise healthy children and adults with Candida species-induced meningoencephalitis, colitis, or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanternier, Fanny; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Barbati, Elisa; Chaussade, Hélène; Koumar, Yatrika; Levy, Romain; Denis, Blandine; Brunel, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Sophie; Loop, Michèle; Peeters, Julie; de Selys, Ariel; Vanclaire, Jean; Vermylen, Christiane; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Chatzis, Olga; Liu, Luyan; Migaud, Mélanie; Pedergnana, Vincent; Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Jouvion, Gregory; Chretien, Fabrice; Darazam, Ilad Alavi; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Netea, Mihai G; De Bruycker, Jean J; Bernard, Louis; Reynes, Jacques; Amazrine, Noureddine; Abel, Laurent; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Harrison, Tom; Picard, Capucine; Lortholary, Olivier; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Invasive infections of the central nervous system (CNS) or digestive tract caused by commensal fungi of the genus Candida are rare and life-threatening. The known risk factors include acquired and inherited immunodeficiencies, with patients often displaying a history of multiple infections. Cases of meningoencephalitis, colitis, or both caused by Candida species remain unexplained. We studied 5 previously healthy children and adults with unexplained invasive disease of the CNS, digestive tract, or both caused by Candida species. The patients were aged 39, 7, 17, 37, and 26 years at the time of infection and were unrelated, but each was born to consanguineous parents of Turkish (2 patients), Iranian, Moroccan, or Pakistani origin. Meningoencephalitis was reported in 3 patients, meningoencephalitis associated with colitis was reported in a fourth patient, and the fifth patient had colitis only. Inherited caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) deficiency was recently reported in otherwise healthy patients with other forms of severe disease caused by Candida, Trichophyton, Phialophora, and Exophiala species, including meningoencephalitis but not colitis caused by Candida and Exophiala species. Therefore we sequenced CARD9 in the 5 patients. All patients were found to be homozygous for rare and deleterious mutant CARD9 alleles: R70W and Q289* for the 3 patients with Candida albicans-induced meningoencephalitis, R35Q for the patient with meningoencephalitis and colitis caused by Candida glabrata, and Q295* for the patient with Candida albicans-induced colitis. Regardless of their levels of mutant CARD9 protein, the patients' monocyte-derived dendritic cells responded poorly to CARD9-dependent fungal agonists (curdlan, heat-killed C albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Exophiala dermatitidis). Invasive infections of the CNS or digestive tract caused by Candida species in previously healthy children and even adults might be caused by inherited CARD9

  8. Feo-hifomicose subcutânea por Exophiala jeanselmei localizada na bolsa escrotal: relato de caso Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis on the scrotum caused by Exophiala jeanselmei: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Rossetto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A feo-hifomicose subcutânea é uma doença causada por fungos demáceos que acomete principalmente indivíduos imunocomprometidos e geralmente cursa com lesões localizadas nos membros inferiores. Os autores relatam um caso de feo-hifomicose subcutânea em um paciente imunocompetente, com localização atípica - na hemibolsa escrotal esquerda -, tratado com sucesso com fluconazol sistêmico associado à excisão cirúrgica.Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is a disease caused by dematiaceous fungi that develops mainly in immunocompromised patients. Lesions are generally located on the lower limbs. The present report describes a case of phaeohyphomycosis in an immunocompetent patient in whom a subcutaneous abscess was located in an unusual site, on the left hemiscrotum. The abscess was treated successfully with oral fluconazole associated with surgical excision.

  9. Styrene removal from wate gas by the fungus Exophiala Jeanselmei in a biofilter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Hubertus Henricus Jacobus

    1995-01-01

    Styrene is an environmental pollutant, emitted in large quantities to the atmosphere by various industrial sectors. Legislation requires industry to reduce the emission of styrene. One option to purify industrial waste gases is biological treatment in biofilters. ... Zie: Summary

  10. Styrene removal from wate gas by the fungus Exophiala Jeanselmei in a biofilter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Hubertus Henricus Jacobus

    1995-01-01

    Styrene is an environmental pollutant, emitted in large quantities to the atmosphere by various industrial sectors. Legislation requires industry to reduce the emission of styrene. One option to purify industrial waste gases is biological treatment in biofilters. ... Zie: Summary

  11. Styrene removal from waste gas by the fungus Exophiala jeanselmei in a biofilter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, H.H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Styrene is an environmental pollutant, emitted in large quantities to the atmosphere by various industrial sectors. Legislation requires industry to reduce the emission of styrene. One option to purify industrial waste gases is biological treatment in biofilters.

  12. Use of Selective Fungal Culture Media Increases Rates of Detection of Fungi in the Respiratory Tract of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gina; Miller, Heather B; Allgood, Sarah; Lee, Richard; Lechtzin, Noah; Zhang, Sean X

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of fungi in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has risen. However, fungal surveillance is not routinely performed in most clinical centers in the United States, which may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of the problem. We conducted a prospective study comparing the rates of detection for clinically important fungi (CIF), defined as Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Trichosporon species and Exophiala dermatitidis, in CF sputa using standard bacterial and selective fungal culture media, including Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and brain heart infusion (BHI) agar with chloramphenicol and gentamicin. We described the prevalence of these fungi in an adult CF population. A total of 487 CF respiratory samples were collected from 211 unique participants. CIF were detected in 184 (37.8%) samples. Only 26.1% of CIF-positive samples were detected in bacterial culture medium, whereas greater rates of detection for fungi were found in IMA (65.8%; P fungi by bacterial culture alone. The prevalence of fungi in CF may be better estimated by using selective fungal culture media, and this may translate to important clinical decisions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Combination of Amphotericin B and Flucytosine against Neurotropic Species of Melanized Fungi Causing Primary Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S.; Pan, W.; Liao, W.; de Hoog, G. S.; Gerrits van den Ende, A. H. G.; Vitale, R. G.; Rafati, H.; Ilkit, M.; Van der Lee, A. H.; Rijs, A. J. M. M.; Verweij, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis is a fatal fungal infection due mainly to the neurotropic melanized fungi Cladophialophora bantiana, Rhinocladiella mackenziei, and Exophiala dermatitidis. Despite the combination of surgery with antifungal treatment, the prognosis continues to be poor, with mortality rates ranging from 50 to 70%. Therefore, a search for a more-appropriate therapeutic approach is urgently needed. Our in vitro studies showed that with the combination of amphotericin B and flucytosine against these species, the median fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices for strains ranged from 0.25 to 0.38, indicating synergy. By use of Bliss independence analysis, a significant degree of synergy was confirmed for all strains, with the sum ΔE ranging from 90.2 to 698.61%. No antagonism was observed. These results indicate that amphotericin B, in combination with flucytosine, may have a role in the treatment of primary cerebral infections caused by melanized fungi belonging to the order Chaetothyriales. Further in vivo studies and clinical investigations to elucidate and confirm these observations are warranted. PMID:26833164

  14. Incidence of filamentosus fungi in sputum of patients affected by cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cutrini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a mutation of the gene encoding the CF protein CFTR. Patients with CF are frequently affected by respiratory infections due to specific pathogens.The role of filamentous fungi is well established in the case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and invasive pulmonary infections in lung transplant patients, but their involvement in lung diseases outside of these cases remain to be clarified.The aim of our study was to monitor the impact of filamentous fungi in patients with CF. Methods. In the years 2007 and 2008 and during the first half of 2009 a total of 1046 samples of sputum collected from CF patients were analyzed. Of these 236 cases were positive for fungi. Results. Filamentous fungi were isolated from 44 patients, including 29 females and 15 males.The fungi were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus (70.04% of the cases, A. terreus (2.4%,A.flavus (11.4% , Scedosporium apiospermum (3.8%, Penicillium spp (0.84%, Aspergillus spp. (1.26% and Exophiala dermatitidis (0.24%. Conclusions. Based on the isolates, out of 44 cases the duration in time of colonization by filamentous fungi was constant with the same species in 11 patients, intermittent with the same or occasionally another species in 14 patients and present for no more than one semester in the remaining 19 cases.

  15. Epidemiology of central nervous system mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Arunaloke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS were considered rare until the 1970s. This is no longer true in recent years due to widespread use of corticosteroids, cytotoxic drugs and antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients with underlying malignancy, organ transplantations and acquired immune deficiency syndrome are all candidates for acquiring fungal infections either in meninges or brain. A considerable number of cases of CNS fungal infections even in immunocompetent hosts have been reported. A vast array of fungi may cause infection in the CNS, but barring a few, most of them are anecdotal case reports. Cryptococcus neoformans , Candida albicans, Coccidioides immitis. Histoplasma capsulatum are common causes of fungal meningitis; Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Zygomycetes and some of the melanized fungi are known to cause mass lesions in brain. Few fungi like C. neoformans, Cladophialophora bantiana, Exophiala dermatitidis, Ramichloridium mackenzie, Ochroconis gallopava are considered as true neurotropic fungi. Most of the fungi causing CNS infection are saprobes with worldwide distribution; a few are geographically restricted like Coccidioides immitis . The infections reach the CNS either by the hematogenous route or by direct extension from colonized sinuses or ear canal or by direct inoculation during neurosurgical procedures.

  16. Rapid identification of moulds and arthroconidial yeasts from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, João N; Sztajnbok, Jaques; da Silva, Afonso Rafael; Vieira, Vinicius Adriano; Galastri, Anne Layze; Bissoli, Leandro; Litvinov, Nadia; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Motta, Adriana Lopes; Rossi, Flávia; Benard, Gil

    2016-11-01

    Moulds and arthroconidial yeasts are potential life-threatening agents of fungemia in immunocompromised patients. Fast and accurate identification (ID) of these pathogens hastens initiation of targeted antifungal therapy, thereby improving the patients' prognosis. We describe a new strategy that enabled the identification of moulds and arthroconidial yeasts directly from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Positive blood cultures (BCs) with Gram staining showing hyphae and/or arthroconidia were prospectively selected and submitted to an in-house protein extraction protocol. Mass spectra were obtained by Vitek MS™ system, and identifications were carried out with in the research use only (RUO) mode with an extended database (SARAMIS™ [v.4.12] plus in-house database). Fusarium solani, Fusarium verticillioides, Exophiala dermatitidis, Saprochaete clavata, and Trichosporon asahii had correct species ID by MALDI-TOF MS analysis of positive BCs. All cases were related to critically ill patients with high mortality fungemia and direct ID from positive BCs was helpful for rapid administration of targeted antifungal therapy.

  17. Black yeast-like fungi Exophiala alcalophila Goto et Sugly from hermetic damaged in conditions of indoor high humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kondratyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available From morphological study it was shown that culture of black yeast-like fungi of microorganism complex isolated from hermetic damaged in conditions of indoor high humidity belongs to Exophialasp. It was identified asE. alcalophila Goto et Sugly after results of phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1, the 5.8 S gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 rDNA. E. alcalophila is for the first time recorded for Ukraine.

  18. PCR-RFLP typing of pathogenic Exophiala Spp.%致病性外瓶霉的PCR-RFLP分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东明; 李若瑜; 王端礼; 王晓红; 万哲; 马圣清

    2000-01-01

    应用PCR方法对致病性外瓶霉进行分类鉴定.以ITS3和ITS4为引物,对常见的7种致病性外瓶霉的模式株核糖体DNA转录间隔区(ITSⅡ)进行扩增,4种内切酶(HinFI、MspI、BsuRI和RsaI)酶切.各种间多态性显著,常规方法难以鉴别的皮炎外瓶霉和甄氏外瓶霉较易区分.PCR-RFLP准确可靠,可用于形态及其他方法难以确定的致病菌种的鉴别.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0978 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0978 ref|XP_002628717.1| F-box and WD domain-containing protein [Ajellomyces dermat...itidis SLH14081] gb|EEQ73395.1| F-box and WD domain-containing protein [Ajellomyces dermatitidi...s SLH14081] gb|EEQ89521.1| F-box and WD domain-containing protein [Ajellomyces dermatitidis ER-3] XP_002628717.1 0.82 40% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1432 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1432 ref|XP_002621609.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Ajellomyces dermat...itidis SLH14081] gb|EEQ75637.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Ajellomyces dermatitidis SLH14081] gb|E...EQ92343.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Ajellomyces dermatitidis ER-3] XP_002621609.1 2.0 35% ...

  1. 甄氏外瓶霉的核糖体基因分型研究%Population studies of Exophiala jeanselmeis by sequence analysis in the ribosomal DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东明; 李若瑜; 王晓红; 万喆; 马圣清; 王端礼

    2005-01-01

    目的:应用核糖体基因(rDNA)序列对甄氏外瓶霉进行分型研究.方法:试验菌株包括甄氏外瓶霉及其变种20株(模式株、标准株、临床及自然分离株),丛梗孢外瓶霉8株,威尼克外瓶霉1株(标准株及临床和环境分离株),疣状瓶霉1株.煮沸冷冻法提取DNA,常规PCR扩增核糖体基因及其转录间隔区,应用DNA多序列分析等方法进行研究.结果:甄氏外瓶霉核糖体基因及其转录间隔区变异较大,DNA序列分析显示,不同来源、不同致病性的甄氏外瓶霉可分为7型,个别菌种与其他甄氏外瓶霉的遗传距离较大.结论:甄氏外瓶霉核糖体基因及其转录间隔区序列变异较大,个别菌株的归属有待于进一步研究.

  2. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei: a case report%甄氏外瓶霉致暗色丝孢霉病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周村建; 邓军; 王莉; 钟白玉; 李芹阶; 郝飞

    2009-01-01

    报告1例甄氏外瓶霉感染所致的暗色丝孢霉病.患者男,59岁.右小腿外踝上方肿块伴瘙痒5个月,皮损为一直径约3 cm的暗红色斑块.皮损组织病理PAS染色见分隔菌丝,组织块马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂(PDA)培养基上25℃培养长出黑色酵母样菌落,分离菌株最高生长温度37℃,小培养下见分枝分隔菌丝,环痕产孢,分生孢子聚集在环痕梗顶端,分离菌株ITS1区测序结果与甄氏外瓶霉98.54%同源.根据分离菌株生物学特点,菌株被确定为甄氏外瓶霉.

  3. Analysis of Phialophora and Exophiala by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA%瓶霉属和外瓶霉属真菌的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩利刚; 王罡; 袁毅

    2000-01-01

    选取瓶霉属、外瓶霉属8个种的11个菌株,对其进行RAPD扩增,并用最短距离法和最长距离法两种类间距离的计算方法对它们的相互关系进行分析.根据分析结果,可将11个菌株划分为8个群,分别代表了8个种,其中甄氏外瓶霉(E.jeanselmei)的2个菌株间遗传差异较大.根据最长距离法还可将11个菌株分成两大类,分别代表了瓶霉属和外瓶霉属,这与传统的形态分类法的结果基本一致,证明RAPD技术是研究瓶霉属、外瓶霉属两属间及属内各菌种间的分类和相互关系的有效手段.

  4. Preliminary Studies on Genes of Ribosomal DNA of Exophiala spinifera%棘状外瓶霉核糖体基因的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东明; 李若瑜; 王晓红; 万哲; 马圣清; 王端礼

    2004-01-01

    外瓶霉可致人类感染,不同生物群落的菌种,其致病性、药敏性等特征具有差异性.通过对10株棘状外瓶霉核糖体基因及其转录间隔区进行序列测定,并与GeneBank中9株同种真菌对比分析,揭示了不同生物群落的棘状外瓶霉虽然形态学差异性小,但在基因学上具有差异性;原属于甄氏外瓶霉变种的BMU 000457(ATCC 24152 E.jeanselmei var.hetoromorpha)与2株棘状外瓶霉具有100%的同源性.研究提示了形态学特征相似的棘状外瓶霉在基因水平上具有差异性,核糖体基因及其转录间隔区对于研究菌群特性具有一定意义.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0989 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0989 ref|XP_002627763.1| glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase [Ajel...lomyces dermatitidis SLH14081] gb|EEQ75403.1| glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase [Ajellomyces dermatiti...dis SLH14081] gb|EEQ88001.1| glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase [Ajellomyces dermatitidis ER-3] XP_002627763.1 9.8 28% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0245 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0245 ref|XP_002629024.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Ajellomyces dermat...itidis SLH14081] gb|EEQ69452.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Ajellomyces dermatitidis SLH14081] XP_002629024.1 0.61 25% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1432 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1432 ref|XP_002622987.1| transcription factor RfeF [Ajellomyces dermat...itidis SLH14081] gb|EEQ71765.1| transcription factor RfeF [Ajellomyces dermatitidis SLH14081] XP_002622987.1 2.6 41% ...

  8. Optimization of an Innovative Biofiltration System as a VOC Control Technology for Aircraft Painting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-20

    Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and...degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. Cladosporium resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones...2002). Cladosporium Cladosporium Exophiala Mucor Phanerochaete resinae sphaerospermum lecanii-corni rouxii chrysosporium No carbon source Glucose

  9. Evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala spp. against terbinafine by broth microdilution method%微量法检测致病性外瓶霉对特比萘芬的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志坚; 李东明; 李若瑜; 万哲; 王晓红; 王端礼

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨应用美国国家实验室标准委员会(NCCLS)推荐的微量法检测致病性外瓶霉对特比萘芬的敏感性,为临床治疗由外瓶霉引起的暗色丝孢霉病提供依据.方法:参照M-27A方案(1997)检测7种66株外瓶霉最小抑菌浓度(MIC),其中皮炎外瓶霉(E.d)19株、甄氏外瓶霉(E.j)18株、棘状外瓶霉(E.sp)12株、丛梗孢外瓶霉(E.m)13株、威尼克外瓶霉(E.w)2株、鲑鱼外瓶霉(E.sa)1株、嗜鱼外瓶霉(E.p)l株,菌悬液终浓度(0.5~2.5)×103CFU/ml,孵育温度27℃,培养时间5~7天.分别应用RPMI-1640和SDB培养基比较其MIC值的差异.结果:特比萘芬对66株外瓶霉的MIC范围为0.004~0.5 μg/ml,小于O.125 μg/ml的菌株有58株,占87.9%,MIC50分别为E.d 0.03μg/ml,E.sp 0.093μg/ml,E.j 0.03μg/ml.E.m 0.03μg/ml,E.w 0.012μg/ml.应用RPMI-1640和SDB培养基时MIC值具有一致性.结论:经过改良的M-27A方案可以用于特比萘芬对外瓶霉的药敏实验.致病性外瓶霉对特比萘芬的敏感性较高,由该类菌引起的暗色丝孢霉病可用特比萘芬治疗.

  10. Cutaneous blastomycosis and dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in a Persian cat from Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangkaew, Lerpen; Larsuprom, Lawan; Kasondorkbua, Chaiyan; Chen, Charles; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2017-03-01

    This is a case report of concurrent of blastomycosis and pseudomycetoma in a 3 year-old Persian cat from Bangkok, Thailand. Histopathology from antemortem and postmortem samples revealed blastomycosis and dermatophyte pseudomycetoma. The PCR analysis of the formalin-embedded tissue of antemortem sample confirmed that blastomycosis was caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. Dermatophyte infection was caused by Microsporum canis. According to the author's knowledge, this is the first case of Blastomyces dermatitidis and dermatophyte pseudomycetoma in South-East Asia.

  11. Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion for blastomycosis causing destruction of C6 vertebra: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kushal R; Szczodry, Michal; Neckrysh, Sergey; Siemionow, Krzysztof

    2015-11-25

    We describe a patient who had cervical spine osteomyelitis caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis that resulted in cord compression and cervical spine instability. A 25-year-old Hispanic woman presented with fever, sweats, neck pain, and an enlarging neck mass with purulent discharge after sustaining a C6 vertebral body fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed C6 vertebral osteomyelitis, demonstrated by vertebral body destruction, cervical spine instability, prevertebral abscess, and spinal cord compression. She underwent C6 anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, with fungal cultures confirming Blastomyces dermatitidis. Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion successful debrided, decompressed, and restored cervical spine stability in a patient with vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. The patient was subsequently treated with a 1-year course of itraconazole and had no recurrence of infection 4 years postoperatively.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI GENOMES USING PULSED FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍熙; 郭宁如; 殷正男; 柴建华

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed field gel eleetrophoresis (PFGE) has been firstly introdueed in characterization of the pathogenic fungi Pericillium marneffei and Exophiata dermatitidis genomes. The numbers and sizes of their chromosomes have been detected. Polymorphism was identified on the smallest chromosome of E.derntatitidis. The result shows that PFGE for characterization of large molecular DNA pathogenic fungi is very suitable, it is more simple and more efficacy. The result also shows the diversity of pathogenic fungi is relative common even in rare occurred pathogeafie fungi such as E. dermatitidis.

  13. Subconjunctival mycetoma after sub-Tenon's corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Karp, Carol L; Forster, Richard K; Dubovy, Sander R; Gaunt, Morgan L; Miller, Darlene

    2009-09-01

    To describe a case of a subconjunctival mycetoma that developed after a patient received a sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Case report. A 76-year-old white male presented with a subconjunctival mass in the area of a previous posterior sub-Tenon's corticosteroid injection for wet age-related macular degeneration. Microbiologic and pathologic analysis of the mass revealed the causative organism to be the pigmented fungus Exophiala jeanselmei. This is the first published case of an Exophiala-associated subconjunctival mycetoma.

  14. Carpal intra-articular blastomycosis in a Labrador retriever

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Katharine S.; Barry, Maureen; Richardson, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    A 6-month-old male castrated Labrador retriever was presented for coughing and forelimb lameness. Blastomyces dermatitidis was identified in cytology of sputum and synovial fluid. Repeat arthrocentesis 7 months later revealed resolution of septic arthritis. Fungal septic arthritis should be considered for cases of monoarthritis and may respond to oral itraconazole treatment.

  15. Successful Treatment of Osseous Blastomycosis without Pulmonary or Disseminated Disease and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Shandra R.; Weiss, David B.; Hazen, Kevin C.; Moore, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Blastomycosis commonly occurs following inhalation of Blastomyces dermatitidis conidia causing a pulmonary infection and can disseminate to extrapulmonary sites. Osseous involvement primarily results from hematogenous spread but in rare cases direct inoculation can occur. We describe a case of osseous blastomycosis without pulmonary or disseminated disease successfully treated with posaconazole. PMID:24703876

  16. Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps (II): Potential routes of entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, G.; Hübner, I.; Schmidt, C.K.; de Hoog, G.S.; Haase, G.

    2013-01-01

    Formation of tenacious and massive black biofilms was occasionally observed at the water-air interphase of water taps and in associated habitats at several locations in Germany. Exophiala lecanii-corni was proven to be the dominant component of these biofilms. Water utility companies were interested

  17. Pilzinfektionen des Zentralnervensystems bei immunkompetentem Wirt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Tintelnot; G.S. de Hoog; G. Haase

    2014-01-01

    Die Mehrzahl von Pilzinfektionen, die zu mykotischen Tumoren führen und bei Patienten ohne jegliche prädisponierende Vorerkrankung auftreten, wird durch Cryptococcus gattii bzw. C. neoformans oder durch Schwärzepilze, insbesondere durch Cladophialophora bantiana, Ramichloridium mackenziei, Exophiala

  18. Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps (II): Potential routes of entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Heinrichs; I. Hübner; C.K. Schmidt; G.S. de Hoog; G. Haase

    2013-01-01

    Formation of tenacious and massive black biofilms was occasionally observed at the water-air interphase of water taps and in associated habitats at several locations in Germany. Exophiala lecanii-corni was proven to be the dominant component of these biofilms. Water utility companies were interested

  19. Phaeohyphomycosis in renal transplantation: report of two cases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walmar Roncalli Pereira; Borsato, Maria Fernanda Longo; Dabronzo, Maria Luiza Ducati; Festa Neto, Cyro; Rocha, Larissa Aragão; Nunes, Ricardo Spina

    2016-01-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is an infection caused by a filamentous fungus that contains pigment melanin in its cell wall. We report two cases caused by Exophiala sp. emphasizing the clinical variability of the disease, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties of this opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed patients (kidney transplant). PMID:26982786

  20. [The effect of soil inoculation with microbial pesticide destructors on plant growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisina, T O; Garan'kina, N G; Kruglov, Iu V

    2001-01-01

    Soil inoculation with liquid cultures of Bacillus megaterium 501 and Exophiala nigrum A-29 capable of degrading several organophosphorus pesticides accelerated growth and development of experimental plants, formation of their generative organs, and improved their productivity. This was particularly observed under stress plant growth conditions on phytotoxic peach substrates. The microorganisms inoculated can probably degrade phytotoxins present in soils, thereby favoring the plant development.

  1. [Tinea nigra. 1st clinical case in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Díaz, I A; Burgoa, F; Civila, E; Bonasse, J; Miller, A

    1984-08-30

    The first case in Uruguay of 'tinea nigra' is described in a 44-year-old male patient with a maculous pigmented lesion on the right foot. It represents the most meridional case of the disease yet recorded in South America. Exophiala werneckii was isolated in cultures (strain 1905 IHM).

  2. Pilzinfektionen des Zentralnervensystems bei immunkompetentem Wirt [Fungal infections of the central nervous system in the immunocompetent host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintelnot, K.; de Hoog, G.S.; Haase, G.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mycoses which lead to mycotic tumors in patients without any predisposing underlying disease are either caused by Cryptococcus gattii and C. neoformans or by dematiaceous fungi which include Cladophialophora bantiana, Ramichloridium mackenziei, Exophiala and Fonsecaea species. The de

  3. SHORT TIME DYNAMICS OF CILIATE ABUNDANCE IN THE BOHAI SEA (CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武昌; 王荣

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate community in the Bohai Sea (China) was studied from23 September to 7 October 1998. A hurricane struck the study area between the two grid station investigations, which were six days apart. Six tintinnid species(Favella panamensis, Leptotintinnus nordqvisti, Tintinnopsis butschlii, T. karajacensis, T. Radix and Wangiella dicollaria) were identified. Total cililate abundance in the surface layer ranged from 20 to 770 ind/l. In the first grid investigation, Tintinnopsis karajacensis dominated in the warm, low salinity waters at the Huanghe River mouth. Aloricate ciliate sp.1 dominated in the cold, high salinity waters in the northwest of the study area and the Bohai Strait. In the second grid investigation, T. Karajacensis almost disappeared. The abundance of aloricate ciliate sp.1 decreased drastically. The aloricate ciliate sp.2 dominatedat the Bohai Strait. The change of ciliate abundance may be due to the disturbance of hurricane.``

  4. A multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panel for detecting neurologic pathogens in dogs with meningoencephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jae-Ik; Chang, Dong-Woo; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Meningoencephalitis (ME) is a common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system in dogs. Clinically, ME has both infectious and non-infectious causes. In the present study, a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqPCR) panel was optimized for the detection of eight canine neurologic pathogens (Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus spp., Neospora caninum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Ehrlichia canis, and canine distemper virus [CDV]...

  5. Feoifomicose subcutânea Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Orofino Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas imagens ilustrativas de um caso de feoifomicose subcutânea causada pela Exophiala jeanselmei num paciente transplantado renal. Breves comentários sobre a doença encontram-se no texto. Ressalta-se a necessidade de essa micose entrar no diagnóstico diferencial de outras dermatoses, inclusive as não infecciosas.This report shows images of a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a patient who has undergone renal transplantation. The paper comments briefly on the disease and emphasizes the need to take this mycosis into account in the differential diagnosis of other dermatoses, including non-infectious dermatoses.

  6. Development of a slide agglutination assay for detection of blastomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Wayne O; Scalarone, Gene M

    2013-11-01

    Blastomycosis, caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitides, which is endemic to eastern regions of the USA, is commonly misdiagnosed as a viral or bacterial infection and therefore treated improperly. Over the years, many immunodiagnostic assays to aid in the diagnosis of blastomycosis have been developed; however, a reliable assay for use in local clinics still remains elusive. Procedures for a slide agglutination assay for detection of antibody in serum from rabbits immunized with B. dermatitidis were evaluated with antigenic preparations from B. dermatitidis adsorbed to polystyrene microparticles. Yeast-phase lysates from five isolates of B. dermatitides: namely ER-593 (Eagle River, WI, USA), ER-598 (Eagle River, WI, USA), 48938 (India), B5896 (Mt. Iron, MN, USA), and T-58 (TN, USA) were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivities of the lysates ranged from 29% to 83% whereas specificities ranged from 13% to 100%. Lysate ER-593 provided the most promising results with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 100%. This study provides suggests that a simple rapid slide agglutination assay for detecting blastomycosis may be used for screening patients with suspected B. dermatitidis infection.

  7. A multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panel for detecting neurologic pathogens in dogs with meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Ik; Chang, Dong-Woo; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Meningoencephalitis (ME) is a common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system in dogs. Clinically, ME has both infectious and non-infectious causes. In the present study, a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqPCR) panel was optimized for the detection of eight canine neurologic pathogens (Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus spp., Neospora caninum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Ehrlichia canis, and canine distemper virus [CDV]). The mqPCR panel was subsequently applied to 53 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from dogs with ME. The analytic sensitivity (i.e., limit of detection, expressed as molecules per 1 mL of recombinant vector) was 3.8 for CDV, 3.7 for Ehrlichia canis, 3.7 for Bartonella spp., 3.8 for Borrelia burgdorferi, 3.7 for Blastomyces dermatitidis, 3.7 for Cryptococcus spp., 38 for Neospora caninum, and 3.7 for Toxoplasma gondii. Among the tested CSF samples, seven (15%) were positive for the following pathogens in decreasing order of frequency: Cryptococcus spp. (3/7), Blastomyces dermatitidis (2/7), and Borrelia burgdorferi (2/7). In summary, use of an mqPCR panel with high analytic sensitivity as an initial screen for infectious agents in dogs with ME could facilitate the selection of early treatment strategies and improve outcomes.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and differential expression of DRK1 in Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Binbin; Zhang, Zhenying; Zheng, Fangliang; Liu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    The dimorphism of Sporothrix schenckii (S. schenckii) reflects a developmental switch in morphology and lifestyle that is necessary for virulence. DRK1, a hybrid histidine kinase, functions as a global regulator of dimorphism and virulence in Blastomyces dermatitidis (B. dermatitidis) and Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum). The partial cDNA sequence of DRK1 of S. schenckii, designated SsDRK1, was obtained using degenerate primers based on the conserved domain of the DRK1 of other fungi. The complete cDNA sequence of SsDRK1 was obtained by 5' and 3' RACE. The full-length cDNA is 4743 bp in size and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 4071 bp, encoding 1356 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular mass of SsDRK1 is 147.3 kDa with an estimated theoretical isoelectric point of 5.46. The deduced amino acid sequence of SsDRK1 shows 65% identity to that of B. dermatitidis. The SsDRK1 was predicted to be a soluble histidine kinase and to contain three parts: sensor domain, linker domain and functional domain. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that SsDRK1 was more highly expressed in the yeast stage compared with that in the mycelial stage, which indicated that the SsDRK1 may be involved in the dimorphic switch in S. schenckii.

  9. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-ling Wang; Tao Li; Gao-yuan Liu; Joshua M. Smith; Zhi-wei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under...

  10. Blastomycosis presenting as solitary nodule: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Dhamija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous and suppurative mycosis, caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis, which in the great majority of cases presents as a primary pulmonary disease. Primary cutaneous blastomycosis is very rare. We present a 57-year-old female patient with a solitary, slowly progressive nodule over upper lip of 2½ months duration. Initially, differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis, pyoderma and deep mycoses were entertained. Slit smear preparation was suspicious of deep mycotic infection which was subsequently confirmed by biopsy and culture.

  11. [Cutaneopulmonary blastomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouira, R; Denguezli, M; Skhiri, S; Belajouzac, C; Ben Said, M; Jarray, M; Jomaa, B

    1994-01-01

    We observed a new case of blastomycosis in a patient with haemoptysis. The chest X-ray revealed a lesion confined to the upper right lobe of the lung and there was an ulcerating vegetation at the medial angle of the right eye. Skin biopsy and bronchial aspiration led to the identification of typical Blastomyces dermatitidis. Outcome was favourable after oral therapy with ketoconazole. Cutaneo-pulmonary blastomycosis is weakly endemic in Tunisia. Pulmonary lesions are more frequent because of airborne transmission. Cutaneous lesions may be clinically misleading. This disease is sensitive to antifungal imidazole derivatives.

  12. Multifocal but Non-Disseminated Phaeohyphomycosis in a Healthy Man via a Unique Mechanism: Ejection from MVA into a Vegetable Field in Afghanistan Resulting in Multiple Contaminated Skin Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakzai, M Omer; Sahak, Janat Gul; Campbell, Ryan; Abobakar, Mirwais; Hoogestraat, Daniel R; SenGupta, Dhruba J; Bryan, Andrew; Gardner, Jerad M

    2017-03-28

    A 20 year-old male presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules on the head, neck, chest and oral cavity. FNA and biopsy showed pigmented fungal hyphae diagnostic of multifocal phaeohyphomycosis, found to be Exophiala spinifera by molecular diagnostics. The presentation initially raised concern for disseminated disease and occult immunosuppression. However, the patient appeared to be immunocompetent and otherwise healthy. Upon further inquiry, the patient was in a motor vehicle accident four years before presentation; he was ejected into a vegetable field resulting in multiple open wounds. Multifocal phaeohyphomycosis usually indicates disseminated systemic disease from immunosuppression and carries a grave prognosis.

  13. Isolation and characterization of bacterial endophytes of Chelidonium majus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryluk, Agata; Rekosz-Burlaga, Hanna; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria from stems of Chelidonium majus L. (greater celandine) and to evaluate their antifungal properties. In total, 34 bacterial endophyte strains were isolated. The fungistatic effects of these bacteria on the growth of five moulds (Alternaria alternata, Chaetonium sp., Paecilomyces variotti, Byssochlamys fulva, Aureobasidium pullulans) and one species of black yeast (Exophiala mesophila) were tested. The majority of the bacterial isolates were found to inhibit the growth of fungi and those with the strongest antifungal properties were further characterized. Of the twelve isolates examined, 11 were species of Bacillus thuringiensis and one was Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

  14. Antifungal potential of marine sponge extract against plant and fish pathogenic fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Ravichandran, S.; Ribeiro, M.; Ciavatta, M.L.

    from the Vellar estuary (lat. 11°29’N and Long. 79°46’E) south east coast of India. Exophiala salmonis and Branchiomyces demigrans were collected from the infected gills of the fish while Saprolegnia sp. was isolated from the infected skin tissue... growth on the skin, fins or gills causing superficial lesions. These especially affect fish which are debilitated (injured, diseased or stressed) and do not penetrate deep into muscles [17]. However, infection caused by Saprolegnia sp. can cause...

  15. Aislamiento y purificación de microorganismos degradadores de cianuro

    OpenAIRE

    Coley Benjumea, Tatiana; Zapata Zuluaga, Diana Paulina

    2006-01-01

    Se lograron aislar 6 especies diferentes, las cuales se adaptaron a una concentración máxima de cianuro de 150 mg/L y se realizó un ensayo preliminar para seleccionar aquellas con mayores velocidades de degradación; estás fueron la B, H, A y G, identificadas como Pichia ohmeri, Exophiala spp, Candida spp, Staphilococcus spp, respectivamente. Los icroorganismos con menores velocidades de degradación fueron C y F, identificados como Pseudomonas spp y Rodhotorula mucilaginosa, después de habers...

  16. Isolation and Fatty-acid Identification of Endophytes in Longan Fruits%龙眼内生菌的分离与脂肪酸鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱育菁; 王秋红; 陈璐; 蓝江林; 林抗美; 刘波

    2008-01-01

    对'福眼'龙眼果实的内生菌进行分离纯化和脂肪酸鉴定,结果表明,在龙眼果实中检测到分属于肠杆菌属(Enterobacter)、果胶杆菌属(Pectobacterium)、克吕沃尔菌属(Kluyvera)和沙门氏杆菌属(Salmonella)的内生细菌,以及分属于枝孢霉属(Cladosporium)、柱顶孢霉属(Scytalidium)、外瓶霉属(Exophiala)的内生真菌.

  17. ITS基因序列分析在鉴定暗色真菌中的应用%Use ITS gene sequence analysis to identify dematiaceous fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟铮; 肖倩; 屈平华; 邓光远; 李松; 陈茶

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Use ITS gene sequence analysis to identify 15 strains of dematiaceous fungi , to learn the types of pathogenic strains and clinical treatment. Methods By observing the colony morphology and microscope morphological of the dematiaceous fungi isolated from superficial mycoses , and identified by ITS gene sequence analysis. Results 15 strains were identified by morphological observation as dematiaceous fungi.The amplified bands were identified by Tanon-3500 gel imaging system between 500 ~ 700 bp. Blast sequencing results show that 2 strains Alternaria alternate , 2 strains Cladosporium sphaerospermum. 2 strains Exophiala dermatitis, 1 strains Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia lunata, Talaromyces rugulosus, Phaeobotryon cupressi, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Fonseceea pedrosoi, Exophiala werneckii, Exophiala oligosperma and Fonsecaea monophora. Conclusion ITS gene sequence analysis can identify dematiaceous fungi effectively , avoided undetected and misdiagnose cause by the lack of clinical experience.%目的:探讨使用ITS基因序列分析对浅部真菌病中分离的15株暗色真菌进行分子生物学鉴定,以了解致病菌株种类及指导临床治疗。方法:对浅部真菌病中分离的暗色真菌采用形态学方法观察菌落形态及显微镜下特征,并基于ITS 序列对其进行PCR鉴定。结果:经形态学鉴定为15株暗色真菌的PCR产物经1%琼脂糖凝胶电泳分析,Tanon-3500凝胶成像系统鉴定扩增所得条带在500~700 bp 之间,测序结果经Blast比对,其中鉴定为链格孢2株,球孢枝孢酶2株,皮炎外瓶霉2株,枝状枝孢霉、新月弯孢霉、微皱篮状菌、Phaeobotryon cupressi、极细枝孢霉、裴氏着色真菌、威尼克外瓶霉、Exophiala oligosperma、Fonsecaea monophora 各一株。结论:ITS 基因序列分析可有效地鉴定暗色真菌,避免了由于临床经验不足而导致的漏检和误诊。

  18. Three rare cases of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhonkar, Aditi; Kataria, Deepti; Tambe, Swagata; Nayak, Chitra S.

    2016-01-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is a chronic infectious condition caused by dematiaceous fungi which usually involve the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is characterised by papulonodules, verrucous, hyperkeratotic or ulcerated plaques, cysts, abscesses, pyogranuloma, non-healing ulcers or sinuses. In India, commonly associated genera are Exophiala, Phialophora, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fonsecaea and Alternaria. This condition involves the presence of brown-walled hyphal structures in the dermis and epidermis. Here, we are reporting a rare case series of three patients of phaeohyphomycosis with lesions on finger and dorsum of the hand. PMID:27833296

  19. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in an immunocompetent Individual: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintagunta, Sudharani; Arakkal, Geetakiran; Damarla, Sudha V.; Vodapalli, Akshay K.

    2017-01-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare mycotic infection caused by various heterogenous groups of phaeoid (dematiaceous) fungi involving the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Common clinical manifestations are subcutaneous abscesses or cystic swellings. Here, we report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis presenting as multiple asymptomatic cystic swellings over the hands and feet without any predisposing factors. Histopathology showed granulomatous inflammation and special stain with Grocott's methanamine silver stain revealed broad pigmented hyphae. Culture showed black-colored colonies identified as Exophiala jeanselmi. The patient was treated with surgical excision of the lesions. PMID:28217468

  20. Three rare cases of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Chhonkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is a chronic infectious condition caused by dematiaceous fungi which usually involve the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is characterised by papulonodules, verrucous, hyperkeratotic or ulcerated plaques, cysts, abscesses, pyogranuloma, non-healing ulcers or sinuses. In India, commonly associated genera are Exophiala, Phialophora, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fonsecaea and Alternaria. This condition involves the presence of brown-walled hyphal structures in the dermis and epidermis. Here, we are reporting a rare case series of three patients of phaeohyphomycosis with lesions on finger and dorsum of the hand.

  1. Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.; Souza-Dias, Maria Aparecida G.

    2007-01-01

    The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize...... the fermentation. Exophiala dermatidis, often associated with blastomycosis, was found in the mass before inoculation and during the initial stages of the fermentation. Examination of these indigenous fermented foods may provide clues as to how food production and preservation can be expanded and thereby...

  2. Características morfológicas y fisiológicas de bongos patógenos en Costa Rica (Dematiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valiente, Carmen; Quesada, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Cuarenta y una cepas de hongos dematiáceos de la Micoteca de la Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, fueron estudiados morfológica y fisiológicamente. Treinta y tres fueron cepas de hongos patógenos (Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Cladosporium carrionii, Xylohypha bantiana, Exophiala jeanse/ mei, . Rhinocladiella aquaspersa, Phialophora verrucosa) y ocho fueron contaminantes de laboratorio (Hormodendrum sp.). Las pruebas realizadas fueron producción de ureasa, licuefacción de la gelatin...

  3. Fungal melanins differ in planar stacking distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Nakouzi, Antonio; Crippa, Pier R; Eisner, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    Melanins are notoriously difficult to study because they are amorphous, insoluble and often associated with other biological materials. Consequently, there is a dearth of structural techniques to study this enigmatic pigment. Current models of melanin structure envision the stacking of planar structures. X ray diffraction has historically been used to deduce stacking parameters. In this study we used X ray diffraction to analyze melanins derived from Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Wangiella dermatitides and Coprinus comatus. Analysis of melanin in melanized C. neoformans encapsulated cells was precluded by the fortuitous finding that the capsular polysaccharide had a diffraction spectrum that was similar to that of isolated melanin. The capsular polysaccharide spectrum was dominated by a broad non-Bragg feature consistent with origin from a repeating structural motif that may arise from inter-molecular interactions and/or possibly gel organization. Hence, we isolated melanin from each fungal species and compared diffraction parameters. The results show that the inferred stacking distances of fungal melanins differ from that reported for synthetic melanin and neuromelanin, occupying intermediate position between these other melanins. These results suggest that all melanins have a fundamental diffracting unit composed of planar graphitic assemblies that can differ in stacking distance. The stacking peak appears to be a distinguishing universal feature of melanins that may be of use in characterizing these enigmatic pigments.

  4. Cutaneous blastomycosis. An imported case with good response to itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Morales, Diana; Morales, Neredi; Mercadillo, Patricia; González, Gloria M; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Araiza, Javier; Vázquez-González, Denisse

    2016-01-01

    Blastomycosis is a subacute or chronic deep mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus called Blastomyces dermatitidis, which generally produces a pulmonary form of the disease and, to a lesser extent, extra-pulmonary forms such as cutaneous, osteoarticular and genitourinary, among others. Cutaneous blastomycosis is the second clinical presentation in frequency. It is considered as primary when it begins by inoculation of the fungus due to traumas, and secondary when the lung fails to contain the infection. We present the case of a 57 year-old male who had a 5 year-history of an irregularly shaped verrucous infiltrative plaque related to and insect bite and posterior trauma due to the manipulation of the lesion. B. dermatitidis was identified using direct examination, stains, isolation in culture media, histopathology, and molecular studies. An antifungal susceptibility test was performed using method M38-A2 (CLSI). Clinical and mycological cure was achieved with itraconazole. This cutaneous blastomycosis case acquired in the United States (Indianapolis) is rather interesting and looks quite similar to other mycoses such as coccidioidomycosis or sporotrichosis. The presented case shows one of the multiple issues concerning migration between neighboring countries. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant, genetically engineered, live-attenuated vaccine against canine blastomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Krajaejun, Theerapong; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Bass, Chris; Filutowicz, Hanna I; Legendre, Alfred M; Klein, Bruce S

    2011-05-01

    Blastomycosis is a severe, commonly fatal infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis in dogs that live in the United States, Canada, and parts of Africa. The cost of treating an infection can be expensive, and no vaccine against this infection is commercially available. A genetically engineered live-attenuated strain of B. dermatitidis lacking the major virulence factor BAD-1 successfully vaccinates against lethal experimental infection in mice. Here we studied the safety, toxicity, and immunogenicity of this strain as a vaccine in dogs, using 25 beagles at a teaching laboratory and 78 foxhounds in a field trial. In the beagles, escalating doses of live vaccine ranging from 2 × 10⁴ to 2 × 10⁷ yeast cells given subcutaneously were safe and did not disseminate to the lung or induce systemic illness, but a dose of vaccine dose of 10⁵ yeast cells was also well tolerated in vaccinated foxhounds who had never had blastomycosis; however, vaccinated dogs with prior infection had more local reactions at the vaccine site. The draining lymph node cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes from vaccinated dogs demonstrated gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) specifically in response to stimulation with Blastomyces antigens. Thus, the live-attenuated vaccine against blastomycosis studied here proved safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic in dogs and merits further studies of vaccine efficacy.

  6. Associação da rifampicina à anfotericina B no tratamento da paracoccidioidomicose: resultados em três pacientes tratados Association of Amphotericin B and Rifampicin in the treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis. Report of efficacy in three cases

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    Bodo Wanke

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos experimentais demonstraram que a anfotericina B, desorganizando funcionalmente a membrana celular fúngica, permite a penetração da rifampicina no citoplasma e sua conseqüente ação contra Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis e Candida albicans. Com metade das doses habituais' de anfotericina B associada à rifampicina conseguem-se melhores resultados do que com a anfotericina B isoladamente em doses plenas. Os Autores discutem as possíveis aplicações desta associação no tratamento da paracoccidioidomi-cose e apresentam 3 casos desta micose em que a inatividade clínica e micológica só foi obtida após o emprego combinado destas drogas.Experimental data have shown that low concentration of amphotericin B disrupts of the fungal cellular membranes, enhancing entrance of rifampicin into citoplasm, where it acts specifically as an antifungal agent against Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Candida albicans. Amphotericin B in half dosage combined with rifampicin is more effective than when used alone in full dosage. The Authors discuss the possible indications of this association in the therapy of paracoccidioidomycosis, and report its efficacy in three cases of this disease only controlled after its use.

  7. Secretion of five extracellular enzymes by strains of chromoblastomycosis agents Secreção de cinco enzimas extracelulares por amostras de agentes da cromoblastomicose

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    Thais Furtado de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The gelatinase, urease, lipase, phospholipase and DNase activities of 11 chromoblastomycosis agents constituted by strains of Fonsecaea pedrosoi, F. compacta, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladosporium carrionii, Cladophialophora bantiana and Exophiala jeanselmei were analyzed and compared. All strains presented urease, gelatinase and lipase activity. Phospholipase activity was detected only on five of six strains of F. pedrosoi. DNase activity was not detected on the strains studied. Our results indicate that only phospholipase production, induced by egg yolk substrate, was useful for the differentiation of the taxonomically related species studied, based on their enzymatic profile.As atividades gelatinase, urease, lipase, fosfolipase e DNase de 11 agentes da cromoblastomicose constituídos por amostras de Fonsecaea pedrosoi, F. compacta, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladosporium carrionii, Cladophialophora bantiana e Exophiala jeanselmei foram analisadas e comparadas. Todas as amostras apresentaram atividade urease, gelatinase e lipase. A atividade fosfolipase foi detectada apenas em cinco das seis amostras de F. pedrosoi. A atividade DNase não foi detectada nas amostras estudadas. Os resultados indicam que para a diferenciação entre espécies taxonomicamente relacionadas estudadas, baseado no seu perfil enzimático, apenas a produção de fosfolipase, induzida pelo substrato com gema de ovo, foi útil.

  8. Virulence Factors IN Fungi OF Systemic Mycoses

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    KUROKAWA Cilmery Suemi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi that cause systemic mycoses retain several factors which allow their growth in adverse conditions provided by the host, leading to the establishment of the parasitic relationship and contributing to disease development. These factors are known as virulence factors which favor the infection process and the pathogenesis of the mycoses. The present study evaluates the virulence factors of pathogenic fungi such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in terms of thermotolerance, dimorphism, capsule or cell wall components as well as enzyme production. Virulence factors favor fungal adhesion, colonization, dissemination and the ability to survive in hostile environments and elude the immune response mechanisms of the host. Both the virulence factors presented by different fungi and the defense mechanisms provided by the host require action and interaction of complex processes whose knowledge allows a better understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic mycoses.

  9. Cerebral Blastomycosis: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Solitary CNS Blastomycosis Mass-Like Infection

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    Costas Stavrakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastomycosis is a fungal infection rarely seen in clinical practice. Endemic to the Midwestern United States as well as the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontario, Blastomyces dermatitidis characteristically involves the skin and lungs. Central nervous system (CNS involvement, although a rare complication of this disease, can be fatal. The current literature on CNS blastomycosis primarily centers on the spectrum of traditional imaging features of T1- and T2-weighted imaging with which this entity can present. However, here we present the direct histopathologic correlation of the imaging findings of solitary mass like CNS blastomycosis, with an emphasis on the association of diffusion restriction within the lesion with a granulomatous immune response.

  10. Isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis, a Brucella canis-like bacterium, from an edematous canine testicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Wennerdahl, Laura A; Williams, Fred; Evans, Tim J; Ganjam, Irene K; Bowman, Jesse W; Fales, William H

    2014-11-01

    Microbiological and histological analysis of a sample from a swollen testicle of a 2-year-old Border Collie dog revealed a mixed infection of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis and the Gram-negative bacterium Aureimonas altamirensis. When subjected to an automated microbial identification system, the latter isolate was provisionally identified as Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, but the organism shared several biochemical features with Brucella canis and exhibited agglutination, albeit weakly, with anti-B. canis antiserum. Unequivocal identification of the organism was only achieved by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, ultimately establishing the identity as A. altamirensis. Since its first description in 2006, this organism has been isolated infrequently from human clinical samples, but, to the authors' knowledge, has not been reported from a veterinary clinical sample. While of unknown clinical significance with respect to the pathology observed for the polymicrobial infection described herein, it highlights the critical importance to unambiguously identify the microbe for diagnostic, epidemiological, infection control, and public health purposes.

  11. Probable Pulmonary Blastomycosis in a Wild Coyote (Canis latrans

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    Luis E. Rodríguez-Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A female coyote (Canis latrans was fatally injured by a vehicle on a road in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Because of deteriorating clinical signs, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination of the lungs showed numerous small multifocal white nodules (0.5–1 cm diameter disseminated throughout. Histopathologic examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas with abundant macrophages, numerous neutrophils, fibroblasts, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Abundant intracellular and extracellular thick-walled, refractile, spherical yeasts (10–15 μm were observed within the granulomas. The yeasts were intensely PAS-positive, with granular protoplasm. Broad-based single budding yeasts were occasionally present. Based on the microscopic findings of the pulmonary lesions and the morphological features of the organism, a diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous pneumonia caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was made. To our knowledge, the case described herein is the first report of pulmonary blastomycosis in a wild coyote.

  12. Pulmonary blastomycosis in a professional diver: An occupational risk

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    Ryan R Kroll

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain parts of the United States and Canada, and northern Ontario in particular, the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis is endemic and can cause infection in exposed individuals. The site of infection is usually pulmonary, causing respiratory and constitutional symptoms, but can also affect other sites in the body. Symptom severity can vary substantially from no symptoms to fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present report describes a 27-year-old professional diver who had recently worked in northern Ontario, who developed symptoms of pneumonia and exhibited atypical findings on chest imaging. He was diagnosed with blastomycosis based on histopathological findings and fungal culture, and was treated with amphotericin B and itraconazole in accordance with treatment guidelines. While outdoor occupations in endemic areas increase the risk of infection, there is no literature specifically identifying professional diving as an occupational risk for blastomycosis.

  13. In vitro and in vivo studies of ambruticin (W7783): new class of antifungal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, S M

    1978-05-01

    Ambruticin is a cyclopropyl-pyran acid, representing a new class of antibiotics. It has a relatively broad antifungal spectrum in vitro and is highly active against dimorphic as well as filamentous organisms. Of 24 strains of dermatophytic fungi tested, the majority were susceptible to ambruticin at 0.049 mug/ml or less. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the systemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis was 0.049 to 0.39 mug/ml. Ambruticin is fungicidal for metabolizing cells of Microsporum fulvum and does not cause cell leakage of 260-nm absorbing material. The antibiotic is effective orally as well as topically in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In mice, a single oral dose of 75 mg/kg produced peak serum levels of 45 mug/ml in 1 h with a serum half-life of 3.1 h. Excretion of the antibiotic is principally by the biliary route.

  14. Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis

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    Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

  15. Specific primers for the detection of the black-yeast fungus associated with lethargic crab disease (LCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pie, Marcio R; Boeger, Walter A; Patella, Luciana; Vicente, Vânia A; Ribeiro, Raphael O; Ostrensky, Antonio

    2011-03-16

    Lethargic crab disease (LCD) is an emerging infirmity that has been causing extensive mortalities in populations of the mangrove land crab Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae) along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Previous studies have indicated that LCD is associated with a dematiaceous fungus, Exophiala cancerae de Hoog et al. In the present study, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rDNA region of this black yeast species and developed species-specific PCR primers. Sensitivity tests indicated that the developed protocol is capable of detecting very small amounts of target DNA. Also, the application of the protocol to a variety of other dematiaceous fungi did not generate any false positives. The specific primers provided in the present study represent an important tool for rapidly surveying a large number of crab individuals, as well as environmental samples. Such knowledge will be instrumental in understanding the epidemiological dynamics of LCD.

  16. Molecular identification of unusual Mycetoma agents isolated from patients in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Olga C; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Moreno-Treviño, Maria; González, Gloria M

    2017-02-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous, subcutaneous disease endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. It is currently a health problem in rural areas of Africa, Asia and South America. Nine cases of mycetoma were analysed in a retrospective study. All isolates were identified by morphological features. The level of species identification was reached by molecular tools. Definitive identification of fungi was performed using sequence analysis of the ITS of the ribosomal DNA region and the ribosomal large-subunit D1/D2. Identification of actinomycetes was accomplished by the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Six unusual clinical isolates were identified: Aspergillus ustus, Cyphellophora oxyspora, Exophiala oligosperma, Madurella pseudomycetomatis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia wallacei. The prevalence of mycetoma in Venezuela remains unknown. This study represents the first report in the literature of mycetoma caused by unusual pathogens identified by molecular techniques.

  17. Yeasts and fungi occurring in ensiled whole-crop maize and other ensiled vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; de Jong, I M; de Winter, M

    1990-04-01

    The yeast flora of whole-crop maize ensiled for two weeks was predominated by Candida holmii, C. lambica, C. milleri, Hansenula anomala and Saccharomyces dairensis. Inoculation with other yeast species reported in the literature to prevail in maize or wheat silages did not alter the yeast flora. At 25 or 30 degrees C the ascomycetous fermentative species found at 20 degrees C were accompanied with ascomycetous non-fermentative fungi, i.c. Exophiala jeanselmei and Verticillium psalliotae, by the non-fermentative imperfect basidiomycetous yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and by the weakly fermentative imperfect ascomycetous yeast Trichosporon adeninovorans. The yeast flora of other vegetable crops, ensiled at 20 degrees C for two weeks, was predominated by the same species that prevailed in ensiled maize, provided the crop did not contain mustard oils or menthol. If these compounds occurred in the crops, the yeast flora was predominated by nonfermentative species like Candida famata, Stephanoascus ciferrii, Rhodotorula minuta, Rh. rubra and Trichosporon cutaneum.

  18. Antifungal activity of allylamines against agents of eumycetoma

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    Venugopal Pankajalakshmi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of the two allylamines naftifine and terbinafine was investigated against 22 strains of eumycetes isolated from cases of eumycetoma by agar dilution. The isolates included Madurella mycetomatis (4, M. Grisea (8, Pyrenochaeta romeroi (2, Exophiala jeanselmei (2 and Leptosphaeria tompkinsii (1 from black grain eumycetomas and Pseudalescheria boydii (3 Acremonium kiliense (1 and A. recifei (1 form pale grain eumycetomas. Terbinafine was more active than naftifine inhibiting 50% (MIC50 and 90% (MIC90 of the black grain eumycetoma agents at 0.5 and 2.5 ?g/ml respectively. The MIC50s and MIC90s of naftifine were 1 and 5 ?g/ml. For pale grain eumycetoma agents, the MIC range for terbinafine and naftifine were ??0.01 - 100 and 0.1 - 100 ?g/ml.

  19. Protein patterns of black fungi under simulated Mars-like conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Kristina; Marzban, Gorji; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Lorek, Andreas; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Two species of microcolonial fungi - Cryomyces antarcticus and Knufia perforans - and a species of black yeasts-Exophiala jeanselmei - were exposed to thermo-physical Mars-like conditions in the simulation chamber of the German Aerospace Center. In this study the alterations at the protein expression level from various fungi species under Mars-like conditions were analyzed for the first time using 2D gel electrophoresis. Despite of the expectations, the fungi did not express any additional proteins under Mars simulation that could be interpreted as stress induced HSPs. However, up-regulation of some proteins and significant decreasing of protein number were detected within the first 24 hours of the treatment. After 4 and 7 days of the experiment protein spot number was increased again and the protein patterns resemble the protein patterns of biomass from normal conditions. It indicates the recovery of the metabolic activity under Martian environmental conditions after one week of exposure.

  20. Selective factors involved in oil flotation isolation of black yeasts from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satow, M M; Attili-Angelis, D; de Hoog, G S; Angelis, D F; Vicente, V A

    2008-01-01

    The oil flotation isolation technique has been successfully applied to recover chaetothyrialean black yeasts and relatives from the environment. The selective mechanisms playing a role in isolation are unknown. The fungi concerned are supposed to occupy specialized microniches in nature, taking advantage of (1) oligotrophism. Mineral oil as a main selective agent may be based on (2) hydrophobicity or on (3) assimilation. All three hypotheses are tested in this paper. Results show that cell wall hydrophobicity is unlikely to be a selective factor. Incubation under poor nutrient conditions provides competitive advantage for black yeasts, especially for Exophiala strains, which are subsequently enriched by mineral oil which enhances growth in this group of fungi. Incubation under mineral media and mineral oil can be used as selective factor.

  1. Antimicrobial Assay of Soil Mold Isolates from Wonorejo Surabaya

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    Septia Arisanti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to an examine antimicrobial activity of 34 soil molds isolates from the Wonorejo Surabaya on the growth of Gram negatif bacteria (Escherichia coli and Coliform Bacteria Group, Gram positif bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antimicrobial ability detected with modification of dual culture antagonism assay in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. The result showed that genus Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were able to inhibit E. coli; while genus Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Exophiala, Stachybotrys, and Acremonium inhibit B. subtilis; further on only genus Aspergillus could inhibit group of Coliform bacteria; and genus Scopulariopsis, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Absidia inhibited the growth of yeast S. cerevisiae.

  2. Black yeast biota in the mangrove, in search of the origin of the lethargic crab disease (LCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Raquel Schier; do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; Miesch, Stephanie; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Ribeiro, Raphael Orélis; Ostrensky, Antonio; de Hoog, Gerrit Sybren; Vicente, Vania Aparecida; Boeger, Walter A

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of natural ecology is essential for a better understanding of pathogenicity and opportunism in black yeast-like fungi. Although etiological agents of diseases caused by these fungi are supposed to originate from the environment, their isolation from nature is difficult. This is probably due to their oligotrophic nature, low competitive ability, and, overall, insufficient data on their natural habitat. We obtained environmental samples from mangrove areas where mortalities by lethargic crab disease (LCD) are reported and areas without disease recorded. Isolation of chaetothyrialean black yeasts and relatives was performed using a highly selective protocol. Species-specific primers were used to determine if these isolates represented Exophiala cancerae or Fonsecaea brasiliensis, two proven agents of LCD, in order to test hypotheses about the origin of the disease. Isolates, identified by morphology as Fonsecaea- or Exophiala-like, were tested specific diagnostic markers for the fungi associated with LCD. Although several black fungi were isolated, the main causative agent of the LCD, E. cancerae, was not found. Molecular markers for F. brasiliensis revealed 10 positive bands for isolates from biofilms on mangrove leaves, branches, and aerial roots, of which four were confirmed by ITS sequencing. The absence of E. cancerae in environmental samples suggests that the species is dependent on the crab, as a genuine pathogen, different from F. brasiliensis, which is probably not dependent on the host species, U. cordatus. However, we did not attempt isolation from the marine water, which may represent the pathway of dispersion of the black yeast species between neighbor mangroves.

  3. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Fungi from Thorns and Thistles in Isfahan and Adjacent Cities

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    M Emami

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most important subcutaneous fungal infections in man are caused by injury due to contaminated thistles and thorns. From an epidemiological point of view , it is important to recognize the fungi as well as their frequency of them in various thistles and thorns Methods: The present research has been conducted on thorns and thistles of 16 regions including cities and villages of Isfahan province. 800 samples have been collected. Specimens were inoculated and incubated at 25◦C in S & SCC medium. In order to isolate and identify the fungi, cultures in specific media, intraperitoneal injections of mice and disc diffusion test have been applied. Results: Over one year of study, 1676 colonies of actinomycetes and fungi were recognized. The most common fungi were as follows: Alternaria (22/4%,Aspergillus(11/8% , Cladosporium (10/8%,Esteril mycellium(10/6% and Penicillium (9/7%. The prevalence was most in Shahreza city(10/2% , while the least was in Ardestan(3%. The most prevalent yeasts were Candida tropicalis (50% , Rodotrula rubra (12/5% , Candida kerusei(11/4%,Trichosporon candida (7/9% , Unknown yeasts (6/8%, Candida gillermondi (5/7%, Saccharomyces cervisia (3/4%, Geotricum candidum and Trichosporon glabrata (Candida glabrata each one (1/1%. The prevalence was most in Khansar city(19/2%. In this study, 4 species similar to Coccidioides immitis, Phialophora verrucosa (4 species and Exophiala jeanselmei (3 species were identified. Conclusion: In this study done for the first time in this area, pathogenic and opportunistic fungi were isolated. Furthermore, Exophiala jeanselmei and Nocardiopsis dassonvillei were isolated for the first time from thorns in the country.

  4. Posaconazole: An Update of Its Clinical Use

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    Simon Leung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Posaconazole (PCZ is a relatively new addition to the azole antifungals. It has fungicidal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, selected Candida species, Crytopcoccus neoformans, and Trichosporon. PCZ also has fungistatic activities against Candida, Coccidioides, selected Fusarium spp., Histoplasma, Scedosporium and Zygomycetes. In addition, combining the drug with caspofungin or amphotericin B results in a synergistic interaction against A. fumigatus, C. glabrata and C. neoformans. The absorption of PCZ suspension is enhanced when given with food, nutritional supplements, and carbonated beverages. Oral administration of PCZ in divided doses also increases its bioavailability. PCZ has a large volume of distribution and is highly protein bound (>95%. The main elimination route of PCZ is fecal. PCZ is an inhibitor of the CYP3A4 enzyme; therefore, monitoring for drug-drug interactions is warranted with other CYP3A4 substrates/inhibitors/inducers. The most common adverse effects include headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and elevated hepatic enzymes. PCZ, with its unique antifungal activities, expands the azole class of antifungal agents. Because of its limit in formulation, PCZ oral suspension is recommended in immunocompromised patients with functional gastrointestinaltracts who fail conventional antifungal therapies or who are suspected to have a breakthrough fungal infection. However, a delayed-release tablet formulation and intravenous (IV injection became available in 2014, expanding the use of PCZ in other patient populations, including individuals who are unable to take oral formulations.

  5. Dimorphic fungal osteoarticular infections.

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    Rammaert, B; Gamaletsou, M N; Zeller, V; Elie, C; Prinapori, R; Taj-Aldeen, S J; Roilides, E; Kontoyiannis, D P; Brause, B; Sipsas, N V; Walsh, T J; Lortholary, O

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this investigation was to review the clinical manifestations, management, and outcome of osteoarticular infections caused by dimorphic fungi. We exhaustively reviewed reports of bone and joint infections caused by dimorphic fungi published between 1970 and 2012. Underlying conditions, microbiological features, histological characteristics, clinical manifestations, antifungal therapy, and outcome were analyzed in 222 evaluable cases. Among 222 proven cases (median age 41 years [interquartile range (IQR) 26-57]), 73 % had no predisposing condition. Histopathology performed in 128 (57 %) cases and culture in 170 confirmed diagnosis in 63 % and 98 % of the cases, respectively. Diagnosis was obtained from an extra-osteoarticular site in 16 cases. The median diagnostic time was 175 days (IQR 60-365). Sporothrix schenckii was the most frequent pathogen (n = 84), followed by Coccidioides immitis (n = 47), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 44), Histoplasma capsulatum (n = 18), Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (n = 16), and Penicillium marneffei (n = 13). Arthritis occurred in 87 (58 %) cases and osteomyelitis in 64 (42 %), including 19 vertebral osteomyelitis. Dissemination was reported in 123 (55 %) cases. Systemic antifungal agents were used in 216 (97 %) patients and in combination with surgery in 129 (60 %). Following the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines, a successful initial medical strategy was observed in 97/116 (84 %) evaluable cases. The overall mortality was 6 %, and was highest for P. marneffei (38.5 %). This study demonstrates that dimorphic osteoarticular infections have distinctive clinical presentations, occur predominantly in apparently immunocompetent patients, develop often during disseminated disease, and may require surgical intervention.

  6. Could Histoplasma capsulatum Be Related to Healthcare-Associated Infections?

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    Laura Elena Carreto-Binaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections (HAI are described in diverse settings. The main etiologic agents of HAI are bacteria (85% and fungi (13%. Some factors increase the risk for HAI, particularly the use of medical devices; patients with severe cuts, wounds, and burns; stays in the intensive care unit, surgery, and hospital reconstruction works. Several fungal HAI are caused by Candida spp., usually from an endogenous source; however, cross-transmission via the hands of healthcare workers or contaminated devices can occur. Although other medically important fungi, such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, have never been considered nosocomial pathogens, there are some factors that point out the pros and cons for this possibility. Among these fungi, H. capsulatum infection has been linked to different medical devices and surgery implants. The filamentous form of H. capsulatum may be present in hospital settings, as this fungus adapts to different types of climates and has great dispersion ability. Although conventional pathogen identification techniques have never identified H. capsulatum in the hospital environment, molecular biology procedures could be useful in this setting. More research on H. capsulatum as a HAI etiologic agent is needed, since it causes a severe and often fatal disease in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Glutathione-dependent extracellular ferric reductase activities in dimorphic zoopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Robert; Woods, Jon P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, extracellular glutathione-dependent ferric reductase (GSH-FeR) activities in different dimorphic zoopathogenic fungal species were characterized. Supernatants from Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in their yeast form were able to reduce iron enzymically with glutathione as a cofactor. Some variations in the level of reduction were noted amongst the strains. This activity was stable in acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline environments and was inhibited when trivalent aluminium and gallium ions were present. Using zymography, single bands of GSH-FeRs with apparent molecular masses varying from 430 to 460 kDa were identified in all strains. The same molecular mass range was determined by size exclusion chromatography. These data demonstrate that dimorphic zoopathogenic fungi produce and secrete a family of similar GSH-FeRs that may be involved in the acquisition and utilization of iron. Siderophore production by these and other fungi has sometimes been considered to provide a full explanation of iron acquisition in these organisms. Our work reveals an additional common mechanism that may be biologically and pathogenically important. Furthermore, while some characteristics of these enzymes such as extracellular location, cofactor utilization and large size are not individually unique, when considered together and shared across a range of fungi, they represent an important novel physiological feature. PMID:16000713

  8. Unusual osseous presentation of blastomycosis in an immigrant child: a challenge for European pediatricians

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    Codifava Margherita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastomycosis, caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis is a systemic pyogranulomatous infection, endemic in United States and Canada, with few reported cases in Africa and Asia. It is uncommon among children and adolescents, ranging from 3% to 10%. Clinical features vary from asymptomatic spontaneously healing pneumonia, through acute or chronic pneumonia, to a malignant appearing lung mass. Blastomycosis can originate a "metastatic disease" in the skin, bones, genitourinary tract and central nervous system. Bone is the third most common site of blastomycotic lesions, after lung and skin. Bones may be involved in 14-60% of cases of blastomycosis. Direct visualization of single broadbased budding yeast with specific stains in sputum or tissue samples at microscopy is the primary method for diagnosis, while culture is timeconsuming and other methods are unreliable. Case presentation We report a case of severe osteoarticular Blastomycosis occurring in a 3-years-old presented to our Emergency Department with pain and swelling of the left knee, successfully treated with surgical curettage and antifungal therapy. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in Europe. Conclusions Blastomycosis represents a challenge for European physicians, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained infections in patients coming from endemic areas.

  9. Coccidioides, cryptococcus, or blastomyces? A diagnostic dilemma encountered during frozen section evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Colt M; Van Horn, Gerald T; Chappell, James D; Stratton, Charles W

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative consultation via frozen section is an important part of modern day surgical pathology. Recognizing fungi in tissues on frozen and permanent sections is not always a simple task, and correctly identifying the agent can be a significant challenge, even for experienced microscopists. We present a case of a 17-year-old boy with chronic osteomyelitis involving the right proximal ulna. During an irrigation and debridement operation, a frozen section was sent to surgical pathology for evaluation. A limited patient history coupled with sparse organisms present in the frozen section led to the diagnosis of fungal osteomyelitis, favor Coccidioides . Follow-up permanent sections with special staining and successful fungal culture clarified the causal agent to be Blastomyces dermatitidis . The role of frozen sections is not to perfectly speciate the fungal pathogen but to describe the morphology and infectious process and provide a differential diagnosis of the candidate fungi. The importance of intraoperative culture in infectious cases cannot be understated, and it is the responsibility of pathologists to inform surgeons that tissue is needed for culture. A brief overview of Blastomyces , including histopathologic features and key microscopic differences from Coccidioides and Cryptococcus , is discussed.

  10. Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Cassia alata for skin diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Olaribigbe Majekodunmi; Akanimo Akpan Essien

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the antifungal and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Cassiaalata(C. alata) and its formulations for skin diseases. Methods: Sundried leaves of C. alata Linn. were extracted using different solvents as follows:water, methanol, ethanol, n-hexane and lastly with acetone. The crude extract was investigated for antifungal and antibacterial activities using disc diffusion method against Coccidioidesimmitis, Exophilia dermatitidis, Aspergillus fumigatus and human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and a group of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the methanolic extract were determined using the agar dilution method. Herbal ointments were prepared by incorporating the methanol extract of C. alata into emulsifying ointment to obtain different concentrations of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL. Results:The methanol extraction gave the maximum extraction. The formulated C. alata ointment when compared with standard drugs nystatin and streptomycin in vitro was more effective against the microorganisms. Conclusions:This study showed that C. alata had antifungal and antibacterial activities when formulated as ointment for topical use and could, therefore, explained its folkloric use for the treatment of dermatitis.

  11. Black yeast diversity on creosoted railway sleepers changes with ambient climatic conditions.

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    Gümral, Ramazan; Tümgör, Ayşegül; Saraçlı, Mehmet Ali; Yıldıran, Şinasi Taner; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2014-11-01

    The environmental isolation of opportunistic pathogenic black yeasts, which are responsible for a wide spectrum of human infections, is essential to understanding the ecology of clinical fungi. Extreme outdoor environments polluted with aromatic hydrocarbons support the growth of black yeasts in unlikely places, such as railway sleepers. However, there are limited data concerning the diversity of these fungi growing on polluted railway sleepers. In this investigation, we examined 845 railway sleeper samples, obtained from 11 Turkish cities representing altitudes from 25 to 1,893 m, and inoculated the samples onto mycological media for the isolation of black yeasts. Ninety-four samples (11.1 %) yielded positive results for black yeast, with creosoted oak sleepers having a significantly higher number of isolates than concrete sleepers (p railway sleepers harboring black yeasts were predominantly (>75 %) populated with thermophilic species. We observed that altitude might have a significant effect on species diversity. Briefly, E. phaeomuriformis exhibited growth over a wide altitude range, from 30 to 1,893 m. In contrast, E. dermatitidis had a remarkable aversion to low altitudes and exhibited maximum growth at 1,285 m. In conclusion, we speculate that one can predict what species will be found on railway sleepers and their probability and that species diversity primarily depends on sleeper type and altitude height. We believe that this study can contribute new insights into the ecology of black yeasts on railway sleepers and the railway factors that influence their diversity.

  12. Could Histoplasma capsulatum Be Related to Healthcare-Associated Infections?

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    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Damasceno, Lisandra Serra; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are described in diverse settings. The main etiologic agents of HAI are bacteria (85%) and fungi (13%). Some factors increase the risk for HAI, particularly the use of medical devices; patients with severe cuts, wounds, and burns; stays in the intensive care unit, surgery, and hospital reconstruction works. Several fungal HAI are caused by Candida spp., usually from an endogenous source; however, cross-transmission via the hands of healthcare workers or contaminated devices can occur. Although other medically important fungi, such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, have never been considered nosocomial pathogens, there are some factors that point out the pros and cons for this possibility. Among these fungi, H. capsulatum infection has been linked to different medical devices and surgery implants. The filamentous form of H. capsulatum may be present in hospital settings, as this fungus adapts to different types of climates and has great dispersion ability. Although conventional pathogen identification techniques have never identified H. capsulatum in the hospital environment, molecular biology procedures could be useful in this setting. More research on H. capsulatum as a HAI etiologic agent is needed, since it causes a severe and often fatal disease in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26106622

  13. Fungal Mimicry of a Mammalian Aminopeptidase Disables Innate Immunity and Promotes Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkel, Alana K; Lorenzini, Jenna L; Fites, J Scott; Subramanian Vignesh, Kavitha; Sullivan, Thomas D; Wuthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan; Hernandez-Santos, Nydiaris; Deepe, George S; Klein, Bruce S

    2016-03-09

    Systemic fungal infections trigger marked immune-regulatory disturbances, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We report that the pathogenic yeast of Blastomyces dermatitidis elaborates dipeptidyl-peptidase IVA (DppIVA), a close mimic of the mammalian ectopeptidase CD26, which modulates critical aspects of hematopoiesis. We show that, like the mammalian enzyme, fungal DppIVA cleaved C-C chemokines and GM-CSF. Yeast producing DppIVA crippled the recruitment and differentiation of monocytes and prevented phagocyte activation and ROS production. Silencing fungal DppIVA gene expression curtailed virulence and restored recruitment of CCR2(+) monocytes, generation of TipDC, and phagocyte killing of yeast. Pharmacological blockade of DppIVA restored leukocyte effector functions and stemmed infection, while addition of recombinant DppIVA to gene-silenced yeast enabled them to evade leukocyte defense. Thus, fungal DppIVA mediates immune-regulatory disturbances that underlie invasive fungal disease. These findings reveal a form of molecular piracy by a broadly conserved aminopeptidase during disease pathogenesis.

  14. Structure and function of a fungal adhesin that binds heparin and mimics thrombospondin-1 by blocking T cell activation and effector function.

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    T Tristan Brandhorst

    Full Text Available Blastomyces adhesin-1 (BAD-1 is a 120-kD surface protein on B. dermatitidis yeast. We show here that BAD-1 contains 41 tandem repeats and that deleting even half of them impairs fungal pathogenicity. According to NMR, the repeats form tightly folded 17-amino acid loops constrained by a disulfide bond linking conserved cysteines. Each loop contains a highly conserved WxxWxxW motif found in thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 type 1 heparin-binding repeats. BAD-1 binds heparin specifically and saturably, and is competitively inhibited by soluble heparin, but not related glycosaminoglycans. According to SPR analysis, the affinity of BAD-1 for heparin is 33 nM±14 nM. Putative heparin-binding motifs are found both at the N-terminus and within each tandem repeat loop. Like TSP-1, BAD-1 blocks activation of T cells in a manner requiring the heparan sulfate-modified surface molecule CD47, and impairs effector functions. The tandem repeats of BAD-1 thus confer pathogenicity, harbor motifs that bind heparin, and suppress T-cell activation via a CD47-dependent mechanism, mimicking mammalian TSP-1.

  15. Feather damage due to mycotic infections in wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Shotts, E B; Teska, J; Moreland, D W

    1989-10-01

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Pearl River Wildlife Management Area, St. Tammany Parish and from adjacent St. Helena Parish, Louisiana (USA) were observed to have broken and frayed rectrices. The condition was noted in 21% of 90 wild turkeys harvested by hunters during the springs of 1985 through 1988 from the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area. Damage to feathers ranged from mild to severe. Histologic and microbiologic study of five birds disclosed colonization and invasion of the rachis sheath and pulp by fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Curvularia, Cladosporium, Dactylella, Exophiala, Helminthosporium and Trichophyton and by Streptomyces. Sterilized normal rectrices from wild turkeys were inoculated with these organisms and subsequently developed damage that was histologically compatible with field cases. The condition was diagnosed as a multiple etiology mycosis. Successful colonization and invasion of experimentally inoculated feathers required addition of moisture and elevation of relative humidity within the cultures. The apparent high moisture requirements of the fungi suggest that late winter and early spring flooding may be a probable predisposing factor for this condition.

  16. Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuan; Lian, Bin

    2012-06-01

    The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis.

  17. Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps. II: potential routes of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Guido; Hübner, Iris; Schmidt, Carsten K; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    Formation of tenacious and massive black biofilms was occasionally observed at the water-air interphase of water taps and in associated habitats at several locations in Germany. Exophiala lecanii-corni was proven to be the dominant component of these biofilms. Water utility companies were interested to understand by which route fungi building these black biofilms enter their habitat at affected sites in domestic sanitary. A wide variety of fungi is known to be common in wet indoor environments, as well as in the drinking water resources. Two possible routes of entry are therefore considered as follows: (a) distribution by the drinking water system or (b) a retrograde route of colonisation. Previous compositional analysis revealed that the black constituents of biofilms primarily belong to the herpotrichiellaceous black yeast and relatives. Therefore, a systematic search for black fungi in the drinking water system was performed using Sabouraud's glucose agar medium with chloramphenicol and erythritol-chloramphenicol agar as isolation media. Cadophora malorum was the dominant fungus in the investigated drinking water systems, and samples taken from the house connections (n = 50; 74 %, route of contamination in case of E. lecanii-corni can be assumed.

  18. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-02-25

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  19. Black yeast-like fungi associated with Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) in the mangrove-land crab, Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Vania A; Orélis-Ribeiro, R; Najafzadeh, M J; Sun, Jiufeng; Guerra, Raquel Schier; Miesch, Stephanie; Ostrensky, Antonio; Meis, Jacques F; Klaassen, Corné H; de Hoog, G S; Boeger, Walter A

    2012-07-06

    Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) caused extensive epizootic mortality of the mangrove land crab Ucides cordatus (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) along the Brazilian coast, mainly in the Northeastern region. The disease was named after the symptoms of slow movement of infected crabs. Causative agents were suspected to be two black yeast-like fungi of the family Herpotrichiellaceae (ascomycete order Chaetothyriales), judged by infected tissue biopsies from moribund U. cordatus. The aim of the present study is to prove that two species are involved in the disease: the recently described black yeast Exophiala cancerae, but also a less virulent, hitherto undescribed fonsecaea-like species, introduced here as the novel species Fonsecaea brasiliensis. Strains were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing, and species borderlines were established by multilocus sequencing and AFLP analysis. Fonsecaea brasiliensis proved to be closely related to the pathogenic species Cladophialophora devriesii which originally was isolated from a systemic infection in a human patient. The virulence of F. brasiliensis is lower than that of E. cancerae, as established by artificial inoculation of mangrove crabs.

  20. Dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungi isolated from metal polluted soils: their taxonomic position, tolerance, and accumulation of heavy metals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Maojun; Shi, Xiaodong; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2008-12-01

    To understand the possible role of the plant root associated fungi on metal tolerance, their role in the uptake of heavy metals and the potential transfer of these metal ions to the plant, three strains of dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi were isolated from a waste smelter site in southwest China, and one strain was isolated from a non-contaminated site. According to molecular phylogenetic analysis of the ITS 1-5.8S rDNA-ITS 2 gene regions and morphological characteristics, one is identified as Exophiala pisciphila, and the other three are non-sporulating fungi under the experiment condition with the nearest phylogenetic affinities to the Thysanorea papuana strain EU041814. Tolerance and accumulation abilities of the three DSE strains for metals were investigated in liquid culture. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of Pb, Zn, and Cd were determined. It was demonstrated that the tolerance of the DSE strains varied between metal species and strains. The E. pisciphila strain is able to accumulate lead and cadmium over 20% and 5% of dry weight of biomass, respectively. Partial of the sequestrated metals can be washed with CaCh. Morphological and enzyme activity changes taking place in the presence of excessive Pb, Cd, and/or Zn also indicate that the mechanism of heavy metal tolerance and accumulation of the DSE strains would be a complex process. The findings indicated promising tolerance and accumulation of the DSE strains with potential values in metal cycling and restoration of soil and water system.

  1. Development of a DNA Array for the Simple Identification of Major Filamentous Fungi in the Beverage Manufacturing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Fuyuki; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi were isolated from the indoor environment of a soft drink manufacturing plant and ordinary residences. The isolated strains were identified based on morphological observation and the nucleotide sequences of the region near the D2 region of the 26S rDNA. Three genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium) accounted for 48.1% of the fungal strains detected in the manufacturing plant and 75.3% in residences. A DNA array for identification of 15 genera and 26 species of filamentous fungi that were most frequently isolated from the manufacturing plant was developed. Genus- and species-specific probes with 13- to 20-mer were designed on the basis of the nucleotide sequences in the D2 region. The probes were affixed to a microscope slide after modifying an amino group at the 5'or 3'end. To prevent erroneous identification, 2 or 3 probes were designed for each of the target genera and species. The developed DNA array method correctly identified 9 genera (Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Exophiala, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, and Trichoderma) and 26 species belonging to 6 genera (Aspergillus, Neosartorya, Byssochlamys, Talaromyces, Paecilomyces, and Purpureocillium) in the strains isolated from the indoor environment. Identification results obtained by this DNA array method of fungi isolated from the manufacturing plant were consistent with those by the conventional method.

  2. Last generation triazoles for imported eumycetoma in eleven consecutive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabol, Yoann; Poiree, Sylvain; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Maunoury, Christophe; Barete, Stéphane; Zeller, Valérie; Arvieux, Cédric; Pineau, Samuel; Amazzough, Karima; Lecuit, Marc; Lanternier, Fanny; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Optimal management of eumycetoma, a severely debilitating chronic progressive fungal infection of skin, disseminating to bone and viscera, remains challenging. Especially, optimal antifungal treatment and duration are ill defined. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 11 imported cases of eumycetoma treated by voriconazole or posaconazole for at least 6 months. Response to treatment was assessed through evolution of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (1→3) ß-D-glucan (BG) and positron emission tomography using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (PET/CT) results were also assessed. Identified species were Fusarium solani complex (n = 3); Madurella mycetomatis, (n = 3), and Exophiala jeanselmei, (n = 1). Moreover, two coelomycetes and one phaeohyphomycetes strains without species identification were retrieved. Serum BG and PET/CT were abnormal in 7/8 and 6/6 patients tested, respectively. Patients received last generation azoles for a mean duration of 25.9±18 months. Complete response (major clinical and MRI improvement) was observed in 5/11 patients, partial response (minor MRI improvement or stable MRI findings) in 5 and failure (MRI evidence of disease progression) in one, with a 73±39 [6-132] months mean follow-up. Relapse occurred in 2 patients after treatment discontinuation. Optimal outcome was associated with fungal species, initiation of last generation triazole therapy (eumycetoma.

  3. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg−1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels. PMID:26911444

  4. Phaeohyphomycosis: a clinical-epidemiological and diagnostic study of eighteen cases in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Cecília Bittencourt Severo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to review 18 cases of phaeohyphomycosis in Rio Grande do Sul. The records of all of the patients with a diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis between 1995-2010 were reviewed. Twelve of the 18 patients (66.6% were male. The average age of the patients was 50 years old (range: 16-74 years. Eleven patients (61% presented with subcutaneous lesions. Seven patients (38.8% had received a solid organ transplant. In all of the cases, the presence of melanin in the fungal cells was determined by Fontana-Masson staining of tissue sections and documented. Among the 18 patients, a total of 11 different fungal species were isolated. The causative organisms included Exophiala jeanselmei, Alternaria, Curvularia, Cladophialophora and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To our knowledge, this review reports the first case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. gloeosporioides in a lung transplant patient. The number of reported cases of phaeohyphomycosis has increased in the last decade. In a number of cases, this increased incidence may be primarily attributed to iatrogenic immunodeficiency.

  5. UV-resistant yeasts isolated from a high-altitude volcanic area on the Atacama Desert as eukaryotic models for astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulschen, A. A.; Rodrigues, F.; Duarte, R. T.; Araujo, G. G.; Santiago, I. F.; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Rosa, Carlos A.; Kato, Massuo J.; Pellizari, Vivian H.; Galante, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    The Sairecabur volcano (5971 m), in the Atacama Desert, is a high-altitude extreme environment with high daily temperature variations, acidic soils, intense UV radiation, and low availability of water. Four different species of yeasts were isolated from this region using oligotrophic media, identified and characterized for their tolerance to extreme conditions. rRNA sequencing revealed high identity (>98%) to Cryptococcus friedmannii, Exophiala sp., Holtermanniella watticus, and Rhodosporidium toruloides. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these yeasts in the Atacama Desert. All isolates showed high resistance to UV-C, UV-B and environmental-UV radiation, capacity to grow at moderate saline media (0.75-2.25 mol/L NaCl) and at moderate to cold temperatures, being C. friedmannii and H. watticus able to grow in temperatures down to -6.5°C. The presence of pigments, analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, correlated with UV resistance in some cases, but there is evidence that, on the natural environment, other molecular mechanisms may be as important as pigmentation, which has implications for the search of spectroscopic biosignatures on planetary surfaces. Due to the extreme tolerances of the isolated yeasts, these organisms represent interesting eukaryotic models for astrobiological purposes.

  6. Monthly variations of Oomycetes (zoosporic fungi and aquatic Hypomycetes at Sohag (Upper Egypt

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    A. M. Khallil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-eight fungal species related to twenty-six genera of Perenosporales and Saprolegniales (32 species, 7 genera, 671 colonies and aquatic Hyphomycetes (26 species; 19 genera; 1038 colonies were recovered from the surface water (zoosporic fungi and submerged decaying leaves (aquatic Hyphomycetes samples collected monthly (10 samples each month during the period of experiment (18 months. The richest samples in either zoosporic fungi or aquatic Hyphomycetes were those of comparatively low or moderate temperature, high contents of organic matter and dissolved oxygen. The pH volue and the total soluble salts did not show any regular monthly variations and did not exhibit any considerable influence on fungal population. Achlya racemosa, Dictyuchus sterile (Saprolegniales and Alatospora acuminata, Trisclophorus monosporus (aquatic Hyphomycetes were the most prevalent species. Some fungal species showed their highest population in winter months whereas others in summer months. Moreover, some species were recovered throughout the year. One species of Saprolegniales (Isoachlya toruloides and three species of aquatic Hyphomycetes (Exophiala jeanselmei, Flabellospora Sp. and Varicosporium delicatum are new records to Egypt.

  7. Fungal/bacterial interactions during the biodegradation of TEX hydrocarbons (toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene) in gas biofilters operated under xerophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenafeta-Boldú, Francesc X; Guivernau, Miriam; Gallastegui, Gorka; Viñas, Marc; de Hoog, G Sybren; Elías, Ana

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of air contaminated with toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene was assayed in three laboratory-scale biofilters, each consisting of two modules connected in series, packed with a pelletized organic fertilizer and inoculated with a toluene-degrading liquid enrichment culture. Biofilters were operated in parallel for 185 days in which the volumetric organic loading rate was progressively increased. The operation regime was subjected to drying out, so that packing humidity generally remained below 40%. Significant process failure occurred with ethylbenzene and p-xylene, but the toluene biofilter comparatively sustained a significant elimination capacity. Microbial community characterization by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed substantial fungal enrichment in the toluene biofilter. Ribotypes identical to the well-known toluene-degrading black yeast Exophiala oligosperma (Chaetotyriales) were found among the dominant species. The microbial community structure was similar in the biofilters loaded with toluene and ethylbenzene but with p-xylene was quite specific and encompassed other chaetothyrialean fungi. Several species of Actinomycetales were found in the packing while the inoculum was dominated by representatives of the Burkholderiales and Xanthomonadales. One single fungal ribotype homologous to Acremonium kiliense was detected in the inoculum. The implications of xerophilic biofilter operation on process biosafety and efficiency are discussed.

  8. Impact of Domestication on the Endophytic Fungal Diversity Associated With Wild Zingiberaceae at Mount Halimun Salak National Park

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    Ivan Permana Putra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mount Halimun Salak National Park is one of the tropical forest remnants in Java island. The national park has been recognized with high diversity of wild Zingiberaceae. Of that Zingiberaceae, two species namely Alpinia malaccensis (AM and Horstendia conica (HC, were domesticated as garden plants in the surrounding area of the forest for medicinal use. The impact of domestication on the fungal endophytes associated with these two species of Zingiberaceae is reported here. Fungal endophyte diversity in the wild and domesticated AM and HC was analyzed based on the culturable fungi. Identification of species level used morphological and molecular approaches of ITS rDNA sequence. This study determined 19 species of fungal endophytes, namely Arthrinium malaysianum, Aspergillus flavipes, As. sydowii, Chaetomium globosum, Cladosporium oxysporum, Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum boninense-complex, Co. cliviae-complex, Co. gloeosporioides-complex, Diaporthe sp., D. anacardii, D. gardenia, Exophiala sp., E. lecanii-corni, Guignardia mangiferae, Ochroconis gallopava, Penicillium citrinum, Pyricularia costina, and unsporulated Sydowiellaceae. Among them, A. malaysianum, C. globosum, Co. cliviae-complex, D. gardenia, and unsporulated Sydowiellaceae were only found in domesticated plants, while some others were absent. Colletotrichum boninense-complex was commonly found in both wild and domesticated plants. Domestication activity affected the diversity of endophytic fungi of AM and HC.

  9. UV-resistant yeasts isolated from a high-altitude volcanic area on the Atacama Desert as eukaryotic models for astrobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulschen, André A; Rodrigues, Fabio; Duarte, Rubens T D; Araujo, Gabriel G; Santiago, Iara F; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G; Rosa, Carlos A; Kato, Massuo J; Pellizari, Vivian H; Galante, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    The Sairecabur volcano (5971 m), in the Atacama Desert, is a high-altitude extreme environment with high daily temperature variations, acidic soils, intense UV radiation, and low availability of water. Four different species of yeasts were isolated from this region using oligotrophic media, identified and characterized for their tolerance to extreme conditions. rRNA sequencing revealed high identity (>98%) to Cryptococcus friedmannii, Exophiala sp., Holtermanniella watticus, and Rhodosporidium toruloides. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these yeasts in the Atacama Desert. All isolates showed high resistance to UV-C, UV-B and environmental-UV radiation, capacity to grow at moderate saline media (0.75-2.25 mol/L NaCl) and at moderate to cold temperatures, being C. friedmannii and H. watticus able to grow in temperatures down to -6.5°C. The presence of pigments, analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, correlated with UV resistance in some cases, but there is evidence that, on the natural environment, other molecular mechanisms may be as important as pigmentation, which has implications for the search of spectroscopic biosignatures on planetary surfaces. Due to the extreme tolerances of the isolated yeasts, these organisms represent interesting eukaryotic models for astrobiological purposes.

  10. Potential for biocontrol of melanized fungi by actinobacteria isolated from intertidal region of Ilha Do Mel, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalitz, Camila de Araújo; Porsani, Mariana Vieira; Figel, Izabel Cristina; Pimentel, Ida C; Dalzoto, Patrícia R

    Actinobacteria occur in many environments and have the capacity to produce secondary metabolites with antibiotic potential. Identification and taxonomy of actinobacteria that produce antimicrobial substances is essential for the screening of new compounds, and sequencing of the 16S region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which is conserved and present in all bacteria, is an important method of identification. Melanized fungi are free-living organisms, which can also be pathogens of clinical importance. This work aimed to evaluate growth inhibition of melanized fungi by actinobacteria and to identify the latter to the species level. In this study, antimicrobial activity of 13 actinobacterial isolates from the genus Streptomyces was evaluated against seven melanized fungi of the genera Exophiala, Cladosporium, and Rhinocladiella. In all tests, all actinobacterial isolates showed inhibitory activity against all isolates of melanized fungi, and only one actinobacterial isolate had less efficient inhibitory activity. The 16S rDNA region of five previously unidentified actinobacterial isolates from Ilha do Mel, Paraná, Brazil, was sequenced; four of the isolates were identified as Streptomyces globisporus subsp. globisporus, and one isolate was identified as Streptomyces aureus. This work highlights the potential of actinobacteria with antifungal activity and their role in the pursuit of novel antimicrobial substances. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-Yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg-1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  12. Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species

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    Emily Whiston

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dermatophytes Microsporum spp. and Trichopyton spp., the spherule-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens in the genus Coccidioides, and many nonpathogens. Although genomes for all of the aforementioned pathogenic species are available, only one nonpathogen had been sequenced. Here, we enhance comparative phylogenomics in Onygenales by adding genomes for Amauroascus mutatus, Amauroascus niger, Byssoonygena ceratinophila, and Chrysosporium queenslandicum—four nonpathogenic Onygenales species, all of which are more closely related to Coccidioides spp. than any other known Onygenales species. Phylogenomic detection of gene family expansion and contraction can provide clues to fungal function but is sensitive to taxon sampling. By adding additional nonpathogens, we show that LysM domain-containing proteins, previously thought to be expanding in some Onygenales, are contracting in the Coccidioides-Uncinocarpus clade, as are the self-nonself recognition Het loci. The denser genome sampling presented here highlights nearly 800 genes unique to Coccidiodes, which have significantly fewer known protein domains and show increased expression in the endosporulating spherule, the parasitic phase unique to Coccidioides spp. These genomes provide insight to gene family expansion/contraction and patterns of individual gene gain/loss in this diverse order—both major drivers of evolutionary change. Our results suggest that gene family expansion/contraction can lead to adaptive radiations that create taxonomic orders, while individual gene gain/loss likely plays a more significant role in branch-specific phenotypic changes that lead to adaptation for species or genera.

  13. Comparison of In Vitro Activities of the New Triazole SCH56592 and the Echinocandins MK-0991 (L-743,872) and LY303366 against Opportunistic Filamentous and Dimorphic Fungi and Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, Ana

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activities of SCH56592, MK-0991, and LY303366 against 83 isolates of Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Bipolaris spp., Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cladophialophora bantiana, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Histoplasma capsulatum, Phialophora spp., Pseudallescheria boydii, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scedosporium prolificans, and Sporothrix schenckii were compared. The in vitro activities of these agents against 104 isolates of yeast pathogens of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichosporon beigelii were also compared. MICs were determined by following a procedure under evaluation by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for broth microdilution testing of the filamentous fungi (visual MICs) and the NCCLS M27-A broth microdilution method for yeasts (both visual and turbidimetric MICs). The in vitro fungicidal activity of SCH56592 was superior (minimum fungicidal concentrations [MFCs], 0.25 to 4 μg/ml for 7 of 18 species tested) to those of MK-0991 and LY303366 (MFCs, 8 to >16 μg/ml for all species tested) for the molds tested, but the echinocandins had a broader spectrum of fungicidal activity (MFCs at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MFC90s], 0.5 to 4 μg/ml for 6 of 9 species tested) than SCH56592 (MFC90s, 0.25 to 8 μg/ml for 4 of 9 species tested) against most of the yeasts tested. Neither echinocandin had in vitro activity (MICs, >16 μg/ml) against C. neoformans and T. beigelii, while the SCH56592 MICs ranged from 0.12 to 1.0 μg/ml for these two species. The MICs of the three agents for the other species ranged from <0.03 to 4 μg/ml. These results suggest that these new agents have broad-spectrum activities in vitro; their effectiveness in the treatment of human mycoses is to be determined. PMID:9738049

  14. Evaluation of the detection of melanin by the Fontana-Masson silver stain in tissue with a wide range of organisms including Cryptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Nelson, Ann Marie; Merz, William G; Askin, Frederic B; Riedel, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    It is not uncommon for surgical pathologists to encounter yeast and yeast-like organisms in tissue sections, and correct identification is imperative for guiding therapy. The Fontana-Masson silver stain for detecting melanin has been accepted as a relatively specific stain for diagnosing cryptococcosis in tissue based on few studies with limited numbers of organisms. This study was designed to test the value of the Fontana-Masson silver by investigating a large collection of tissues with infections that may mimic cryptococcosis. Cases of cryptococcosis and other infections that can morphologically mimic it were identified in the pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital and The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Overall, Fontana-Masson silver was positive in 25 (56%) of 45 cases, including infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans (9/9), Coccidioides immitis (7/7), Blastomyces dermatitidis (4/10), Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (2/2), Lacazia loboi (1/1), and Rhinosporidium seeberi (1/1). The percentage of organisms staining varied widely, from less than 1% to 100%. Fontana-Masson silver was negative in all infections caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (n = 10), Histoplasma duboisii (n = 1), Sporothrix schenckii (n = 1), and the alga genus Prototheca (n = 2). Fontana-Masson silver was 100% sensitive for cryptococcosis. The specificity was low, however, with 5 of 9 noncryptococcal species being positive in some cases. These results need to be confirmed and extended to other isolates and species but it is clear that many organisms in the morphological differential diagnosis of cryptococcosis can be Fontana-Masson silver stain positive. Accordingly, results of the Fontana-Masson silver stain, especially a positive, should be interpreted cautiously and only in the context of the organism's morphological features and host factors.

  15. Tc17 cells mediate vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in immune deficient hosts lacking CD4+ T cells.

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    Som Gowda Nanjappa

    Full Text Available Vaccines may help reduce the growing incidence of fungal infections in immune-suppressed patients. We have found that, even in the absence of CD4(+ T-cell help, vaccine-induced CD8(+ T cells persist and confer resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum. Type 1 cytokines contribute to that resistance, but they also are dispensable. Although the role of T helper 17 cells in immunity to fungi is debated, IL-17 producing CD8(+ T cells (Tc17 cells have not been investigated. Here, we show that Tc17 cells are indispensable in antifungal vaccine immunity in hosts lacking CD4(+ T cells. Tc17 cells are induced upon vaccination, recruited to the lung on pulmonary infection, and act non-redundantly in mediating protection in a manner that requires neutrophils. Tc17 cells did not influence type I immunity, nor did the lack of IL-12 signaling augment Tc17 cells, indicating a distinct lineage and function. IL-6 was required for Tc17 differentiation and immunity, but IL-1R1 and Dectin-1 signaling was unexpectedly dispensable. Tc17 cells expressed surface CXCR3 and CCR6, but only the latter was essential in recruitment to the lung. Although IL-17 producing T cells are believed to be short-lived, effector Tc17 cells expressed low levels of KLRG1 and high levels of the transcription factor TCF-1, predicting their long-term survival and stem-cell like behavior. Our work has implications for designing vaccines against fungal infections in immune suppressed patients.

  16. Tc17 cells mediate vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in immune deficient hosts lacking CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjappa, Som Gowda; Heninger, Erika; Wüthrich, Marcel; Gasper, David Joseph; Klein, Bruce S

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines may help reduce the growing incidence of fungal infections in immune-suppressed patients. We have found that, even in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help, vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells persist and confer resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum. Type 1 cytokines contribute to that resistance, but they also are dispensable. Although the role of T helper 17 cells in immunity to fungi is debated, IL-17 producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc17 cells) have not been investigated. Here, we show that Tc17 cells are indispensable in antifungal vaccine immunity in hosts lacking CD4(+) T cells. Tc17 cells are induced upon vaccination, recruited to the lung on pulmonary infection, and act non-redundantly in mediating protection in a manner that requires neutrophils. Tc17 cells did not influence type I immunity, nor did the lack of IL-12 signaling augment Tc17 cells, indicating a distinct lineage and function. IL-6 was required for Tc17 differentiation and immunity, but IL-1R1 and Dectin-1 signaling was unexpectedly dispensable. Tc17 cells expressed surface CXCR3 and CCR6, but only the latter was essential in recruitment to the lung. Although IL-17 producing T cells are believed to be short-lived, effector Tc17 cells expressed low levels of KLRG1 and high levels of the transcription factor TCF-1, predicting their long-term survival and stem-cell like behavior. Our work has implications for designing vaccines against fungal infections in immune suppressed patients.

  17. Blastomycosis in Quebec (1981–90: Report of 23 Cases and Review of Published Cases from Quebec

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    G St-Germain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three cases of blastomycosis were reported in a survey conducted in the province of Quebec from 1981–90. Thirteen patients resided south of the St Lawrence River and the other 10, north. Two small geographical clusters were apparent in and around the cities of Sherbrooke and Quebec. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1 and the median age was 47 years (range 26 to 77. Lung involvement was observed in 19 cases and was the only site involved in 11. Cutaneous manifestations were reported in 11 cases while bone infection (three cases and central nervous system (CNS infections were also noted. Diagnosis was confirmed by culture in 21 cases and by histopathology in two cases. Of the 21 culture-positive cases, 12 strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis were isolated from lungs, nine from skin, and one each from bone and brain. Serodiagnostic tests by immunodiffusion or complement fixation were positive for only one of the 10 patients known to have been tested. Ten patients were treated with amphotericin B, 11 with ketoconazole, one with fluconazole and eight underwent surgery. While amphotericin B was used in eight of the 10 earliest treated cases, ketoconazole was administered in 10 of the 13 more recent cases. Of the patients for whom follow-up data have been obtained, 21 are reported cured (one of whom was not treated and one patient died of another cause. This survey confirms that blastomycosis is a rare disease in this endemic area and that patterns of therapy are changing.

  18. In vitro and comparative study on the extracellular enzyme activity of molds isolated from keratomycosis and soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arumugam; Mythili; Yendranbam; Randhir; Babu; Singh; Ravindran; Priya; Anamangadan; Shafeeq; Hassan; Palanisamy; Manikandan; Kanesan; Panneerselvam; Venkatapathy; Narendran; Coimbatore; Subramanian; Shobana

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To isolate and identify the molds involved in mycotic keratitis; to isolate corresponding species from soil samples; to compare the extracellular enzyme activity indices of the molds isolated from keratitis cases and the corresponding soil isolates.METHODS:The specimens were collected from the target patients attending the microbiology laboratory of tertiary eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state,India. The isolates were subjected for identification based on the growth on solid media, direct microscopy and lacto phenol cotton blue wet mount preparation.Extracellular enzymes such as lipase, deoxyribonuclease(DNase), α-amylase, protease, cellulase and pectinase produced by the fungal isolates were screened on solid media supplemented with the corresponding substrates.Based on growth and zone diameter, the enzyme activity indices were calculated and were compared with that of the soil fungal isolates.RESULTS:A total of 108 clinical samples were collected from a tertiary eye care hospital and out of which 60 fungal isolates were obtained. Among these,Fusarium spp.(n =30), non sporulating molds(n =9),Aspergillus flavus(n =6), Bipolaris spp.(n =6),Exserohilum spp.(n =4), Curvularia spp.(n =3),Alternaria spp.(n =1) and Exophiala spp.(n =1) were identified and designated as FS1-30, NSM1-9, AF1-6,BS1-6, ES1-4, CS1-3, AS1 and EX1, respectively. For comparative analysis, soil samples were also collected from which, one isolate of each Fusarium spp.,Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris spp., Exserohilum spp., and Curvularia spp., respectively were selected. Highest lipase activity was seen in corneal isolate NSM2(EAI= 2.14).The DNase activity was higher in NSM9(EAI =1.88). In case of protease, Fusarium spp.(FS9) had prominent enzyme activity index of 1.38; α-amylase activity was also superior in corneal isolate FS13 with EAI of 1.63 when compared to other isolates. The enzyme activity index for cellulase was also noted to be higher in corneal isolates i.e. NSM7 with EAI of

  19. The response of dark septate endophytes (DSE) to heavy metals in pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yihui; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Xu, Zhouying; Zhang, Haihan; Yang, Yurong

    2012-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) occur widely in association with plants exposed to heavy metal stress. However, little is known about the response of DSE exposed to heavy metals. In this study, five DSE were isolated from the roots of Astragalus adsurgens Pall. seedlings growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in China. Based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analyses, the isolates were identified as Gaeumannomyces cylindrosporus, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora mustea, Exophiala salmonis, and Cladosporium cladosporioides. G. cylindrosporus was selected to explore responses to Pb stress. Scanning electron microscopic observations of G. cylindrosporus grown on solid medium revealed curling of hyphae and formation of hyphal coils in response to Pb. In contrast, in liquid medium, hyphae became thick and swollen with an increase in Pb (II) concentration. We interpret that these changes are related to the variation in cell wall components. We also demonstrated that fungal melanin content increased with the addition of Pb(II). Melanin, as an important component in the cell wall, is known to be an essential antioxidant responsible for decreasing heavy metal toxicity. We also measured the total soluble protein content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in G. cylindrosporus and found that they initially increased and then decreased with the increase of Pb(II) concentrations. The antioxidant enzyme activities were also examined, and the results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly positively correlated with Pb(II) concentrations (r = 0.957, P<0.001). Collectively, our observations indicate that the intracellular antioxidant systems, especially fungal melanin, play an important role in abating the hazards of heavy metals.

  20. The response of dark septate endophytes (DSE to heavy metals in pure culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Ban

    Full Text Available Dark septate endophytes (DSE occur widely in association with plants exposed to heavy metal stress. However, little is known about the response of DSE exposed to heavy metals. In this study, five DSE were isolated from the roots of Astragalus adsurgens Pall. seedlings growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in China. Based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analyses, the isolates were identified as Gaeumannomyces cylindrosporus, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora mustea, Exophiala salmonis, and Cladosporium cladosporioides. G. cylindrosporus was selected to explore responses to Pb stress. Scanning electron microscopic observations of G. cylindrosporus grown on solid medium revealed curling of hyphae and formation of hyphal coils in response to Pb. In contrast, in liquid medium, hyphae became thick and swollen with an increase in Pb (II concentration. We interpret that these changes are related to the variation in cell wall components. We also demonstrated that fungal melanin content increased with the addition of Pb(II. Melanin, as an important component in the cell wall, is known to be an essential antioxidant responsible for decreasing heavy metal toxicity. We also measured the total soluble protein content and glutathione (GSH concentrations in G. cylindrosporus and found that they initially increased and then decreased with the increase of Pb(II concentrations. The antioxidant enzyme activities were also examined, and the results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significantly positively correlated with Pb(II concentrations (r = 0.957, P<0.001. Collectively, our observations indicate that the intracellular antioxidant systems, especially fungal melanin, play an important role in abating the hazards of heavy metals.

  1. Last generation triazoles for imported eumycetoma in eleven consecutive adults.

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    Yoann Crabol

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal management of eumycetoma, a severely debilitating chronic progressive fungal infection of skin, disseminating to bone and viscera, remains challenging. Especially, optimal antifungal treatment and duration are ill defined.We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 11 imported cases of eumycetoma treated by voriconazole or posaconazole for at least 6 months. Response to treatment was assessed through evolution of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. (1→3 ß-D-glucan (BG and positron emission tomography using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (PET/CT results were also assessed. Identified species were Fusarium solani complex (n = 3; Madurella mycetomatis, (n = 3, and Exophiala jeanselmei, (n = 1. Moreover, two coelomycetes and one phaeohyphomycetes strains without species identification were retrieved. Serum BG and PET/CT were abnormal in 7/8 and 6/6 patients tested, respectively. Patients received last generation azoles for a mean duration of 25.9±18 months. Complete response (major clinical and MRI improvement was observed in 5/11 patients, partial response (minor MRI improvement or stable MRI findings in 5 and failure (MRI evidence of disease progression in one, with a 73±39 [6-132] months mean follow-up. Relapse occurred in 2 patients after treatment discontinuation. Optimal outcome was associated with fungal species, initiation of last generation triazole therapy (<65 months since first symptoms, negative serum BG and PET/CT normalization.MRI, PET/CT and serum BG appear as promising tools to assess optimal time of antifungal treatment for eumycetoma.

  2. Simultaneous detection and identification of Aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10(-3) ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

  3. Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales Species in Tissues Collected from Patients with Fungal Rhinosinusitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10−3 ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. PMID:21325541

  4. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B.; Moe, W.M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kinney, K.A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids (n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxii produced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. (orig.)

  5. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea. Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins

  6. In vitro susceptibility of filamentous fungi from mycotic keratitis to azole drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, C S; Mythili, A; Homa, M; Galgóczy, L; Priya, R; Babu Singh, Y R; Panneerselvam, K; Vágvölgyi, C; Kredics, L; Narendran, V; Manikandan, P

    2015-03-01

    The in vitro antifungal activities of azole drugs viz., itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, econazole and clotrimazole were investigated in order to evaluate their efficacy against filamentous fungi isolated from mycotic keratitis. The specimen collection was carried out from fungal keratitis patients attending Aravind eye hospital and Post-graduate institute of ophthalmology, Coimbatore, India and was subsequently processed for the isolation of fungi. The dilutions of antifungal drugs were prepared in RPMI 1640 medium. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and MIC50 and MIC90 were calculated for each drug tested. A total of 60 fungal isolates were identified as Fusarium spp. (n=30), non-sporulating moulds (n=9), Aspergillus flavus (n=6), Bipolaris spp. (n=6), Exserohilum spp. (n=4), Curvularia spp. (n=3), Alternaria spp. (n=1) and Exophiala spp. (n=1). The MICs of ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole, econazole and itraconazole for all the fungal isolates ranged between 16 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL, 4 μg/mL and 0.015 μg/mL, 8 μg/mL and 0.015 μg/mL, 8 μg/mL and 0.015 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL respectively. From the MIC50 and MIC90 values, it could be deciphered that in the present study, clotrimazole was more active against the test isolates at lower concentrations (0.12-5 μg/mL) when compared to other drugs tested. The results suggest that amongst the tested azole drugs, clotrimazole followed by voriconazole and econazole had lower MICs against moulds isolated from mycotic keratitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The diversity, extracellular enzymatic activities and photoprotective compounds of yeasts isolated in Antarctica

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    Aline B. M Vaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts collected from different sites in Antarctica (Admiralty Bay, King George Island and Port Foster Bay and Deception Island and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes and mycosporines were studied. Samples were collected during the austral summer season, between November 2006 and January 2007, from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica, ornithogenic (penguin guano soil, soil, marine and lake sediments, marine water and freshwater from lakes. A total of 89 isolates belonging to the following genera were recovered: Bensingtonia, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Dioszegia, Exophiala, Filobasidium, Issatchenkia (Pichia, Kodamaea, Leucosporidium, Leucosporidiella, Metschnikowia, Nadsonia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus, and the yeast-like fungi Aureobasidium, Leuconeurospora and Microglossum. Cryptococcus victoriae was the most frequently identified species. Several species isolated in our study have been previously reported to be Antarctic psychophilic yeasts, including Cr. antarcticus, Cr. victoriae, Dioszegia hungarica and Leucosporidium scottii. The cosmopolitan yeast species A. pullulans, C. zeylanoides, D. hansenii, I. orientalis, K. ohmeri, P. guilliermondii, Rh. mucilaginosa, and S. salmonicolor were also isolated. Five possible new species were identified. Sixty percent of the yeasts had at least one detectable extracellular enzymatic activity. Cryptococcus antarcticus, D. aurantiaca, D. crocea, D. hungarica, Dioszegia sp., E. xenobiotica, Rh. glaciales, Rh. laryngis, Microglossum sp. 1 and Microglossum sp. 2 produced mycosporines. Of the yeast isolates, 41.7% produced pigments and/or mycosporines and could be considered adapted to survive in Antarctica. Most of the yeasts had extracellular enzymatic activities at 4ºC and 20ºC, indicating that they could be metabolically active in the sampled substrates.

  8. [Microbiological analysis of terrestrial biotopes of the Antarctic region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashirev, A B; Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Shilin, S O; Chernaia, N A; Tashireva, A A

    2010-01-01

    Microbiological analysis has been made of 120 samples from biotopes of the western coast of the Antarctic peninsula (Rasmussen cope, Tuxen cope, Waugh mountain), Argentine archipelago islands (Galindez, Skua, Corner, Barchans, Irizar, Uruguay, Cluls, Three Little Pigs, King-George), as well as neighbouring islands (Petermann--on the north, a group of Jalour islands--on the east, Berthelot--on the south-east); and more remote islands (Darboux, Lippmann, Booth). It was found out that the total number of chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms was 10(6) - 10(8) cells/g of soil, that was by 2-3 orders lower than in the regions with temperate climate. One can observe a tendency of decreasing the quantity of chemoorganotrophic microorganisms in the Antartic biotopes (cells/g of a sample) in the following order: soil (1 x 10(7) - 8 x 10(8)), underground part of moss (1 x 10(6) - 5 x 10(7)), grass Deschampsia antarctica (10(6) - 10(8), slit of fresh-water reservoir (10(5) - 10(7)), ground part of moss (10(3) - 10(6)), lichens (10(3) - 10(6)). Representatives of several phylogenetic lines: Proteobacteria (genera Pseudomonas, Methylobacterium, Enterobacter), Firmicutes (genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus), Actinobacteria (genera Brevibacterium, Actinomyces, Streptomyces) have been found in the Antarctic samples. As a rule, genera of bacteria found in the Antarctic Region are widely distributed in different regions of the Earth with temperate climate. Microorganisms similar to the species Exophiala nigra (Issatsch.) Haats et de Hoog 1999, which was first detected 100 years ago by Academician B.L. Isachenko in the Arctic region water, were also isolated from biofilms on vertical rocks of the Galindez Island as well as from the soil of the Irizar Island.

  9. Endophytic Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 Augments Glycine max L. Adaptation to Ni-Contamination through Affecting Endogenous Phytohormones and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Saqib; Khan, Abdul L; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P. formosus LHL10 significantly increased plant biomass and growth attributes as compared to non-inoculated control plants with or without Ni contamination. LHL10 enhanced the translocation of Ni from the root to the shoot as compared to the control. In addition, P. formosus LHL10 modulated the physio-chemical apparatus of soybean plants during Ni-contamination by reducing lipid peroxidation and the accumulation of linolenic acid, glutathione, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Stress-responsive phytohormones such as abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were significantly down-regulated in fungal-inoculated soybean plants under Ni stress. LHL10 Ni-remediation potential can be attributed to its phytohormonal synthesis related genetic makeup. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of indole-3-acetamide hydrolase, aldehyde dehydrogenase for indole-acetic acid and geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase, ent-kaurene oxidase (P450-4), C13-oxidase (P450-3) for gibberellins synthesis. In conclusion, the inoculation of P. formosus can significantly improve plant growth in Ni-polluted soils, and assist in improving the phytoremediation abilities of economically important crops.

  10. Changes within a single land-use category alter microbial diversity and community structure: molecular evidence from wood-inhabiting fungi in forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Hoppe, Björn; Kahl, Tiemo; Schloter, Michael; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Bauhus, Jürgen; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-06-15

    The impact of changes within a single land-use category or land-use intensity on microbial communities is poorly understood, especially with respect to fungi. Here we assessed how forest management regimes and a change in forest type affect the richness and community structure of wood-inhabiting fungi across Germany. We used molecular methods based on the length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8S rRNA gene to assess fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A cloning/sequencing approach was used to identify taxonomic affinities of the fungal OTUs. Overall, 20-24% and 25-27% of native fungal OTUs from forest reserves and semi-natural forests became undetectable or were lost in managed and converted forests, respectively. Fungal richness was significantly reduced during a regeneration phase in age-class beech forests with a high level of wood extraction (P = 0.017), whereas fungal community structures were not significantly affected. Conversion of forests from native, deciduous to coniferous species caused significant changes in the fungal community structure (R = 0.64-0.66, P = 0.0001) and could reduce fungal richness (P < 0.05) which may depend on which coniferous species was introduced. Our results showed that Ascocoryne cylichnium, Armillaria sp., Exophiala moniliae, Hyphodontia subalutacea and Fomes fomentarius, all known for wood-decaying abilities were strongly reduced in their abundances when forests were converted from beech to coniferous. We conclude that changes within a single land-use category can be regarded as a major threat to fungal diversity in temperate forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  12. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial spectrum of deep-sea fungi against Staphylococcus aureus%抗金葡菌深海真菌的分离鉴定及抑菌谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王硕; 孟庆丽; 武天娇; 赵胜楠; 权春善; 金黎明

    2015-01-01

    [目的]从深海淤泥样品中分离筛选具有抗金葡菌特性的真菌菌株,对其进行鉴定,并研究其抑菌谱.[方法]采用稀释涂布平板法分离真菌菌株,对峙培养法初筛,琼脂扩散法复筛,将抑菌效果最好的菌株进行形态鉴定、镜检、26S rDNA鉴定,并研究其对产黄青霉、尖孢镰刀菌、黄瓜菌核、木霉、盘单毛孢、平头刺盘孢霉6种真菌和大肠埃希氏菌、单增李斯特菌、副溶血性弧菌、鼠伤寒沙门氏菌4种细菌的抑制作用.[结果]得到1株抑制金葡菌效果最佳的菌株,编号1B12,其抑菌圈直径为35.31mm,鉴定结果为外瓶霉属(Exophiala),其对上述6种真菌和4种细菌都有一定的抑制作用.[结论]1B12是一株具有广谱抗菌性的海洋真菌.

  13. Aeromycological study at the intensive care unit of the "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez" General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Ríos-Yuil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An aeromycological study verifies the presence and quantifies the concentration of fungal propagules in the air. It is very important in the hospital setting because of the increasing numbers of immunosuppressed and severely ill patients. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of fungi in the air of the intensive care unit (ICU of "Dr. Manuel Gea González" General Hospital. METHODS: This is a descriptive, observational cross-sectional study. Air samples were obtained with a single stage Thermo-Andersen Viable Particle Sampler (Thermo Electron Corporation -Massachusetts, U.S.A. in a Petri dish with potato dextrose agar for 15 minutes at two different times (morning and afternoon and heights (1 and 1.5 meters. The Petri dishes were incubated for five to seven days at 27ºC, the number of colonies was counted, and the total CFU/m³ was determined. The isolated fungal genera were identified by morphological features. Epi Info v. 3.4.3 © was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean concentration of fungi in the air of the ICU was 85.08 ± 29.19 CFU/m³; while in the outside air it was 84.3 ± 17.23 CFU/m³ (p = 0.96. The fungi isolated were: Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. (non-fumigatus, Fusarium spp., Exophiala spp., Syncephalastrum spp., and Acremonium spp. DISCUSSION: Fungal spores were found in the air of the ICU and Cladosporium spp. was the most frequently isolated fungi. There was no difference according to sampling time or height.

  14. Pathogenic Yet Environmentally Friendly? Black Fungal Candidates for Bioremediation of Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Barbara; Poyntner, Caroline; Rudavsky, Tamara; Prenafeta-Boldú, Francesc X.; Hoog, Sybren De; Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A collection of 163 strains of black yeast-like fungi from the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Center (Utrecht, The Netherlands), has been screened for the ability to grow on hexadecane, toluene and polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) as the sole carbon and energy source. These compounds were chosen as representatives of relevant environmental pollutants. A microtiter plate-based culture assay was set up in order to screen the fungal strains for growth on the selected xenobiotics versus glucose, as a positive control. Growth was observed in 25 strains on at least two of the tested substrates. Confirmation of substrate assimilation was performed by cultivation on closed vials and analysis of the headspace composition with regard to the added volatile substrates and the generated carbon dioxide. Exophiala mesophila (CBS 120910) and Cladophialophora immunda (CBS 110551), both of the order Chaetothyriales and isolated from a patient with chronic sinusitis and a polluted soil sample, respectively, showed the ability to grow on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source. Toluene assimilation has previously been described for C. immunda but this is the first account for E. mesophila. Also, this is the first time that the capacity to grow on alkylbenzenes has been demonstrated for a clinical isolate. Assimilation of toluene could not be demonstrated for the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudoallescheria boydii (CBS 115.59, Microascales), but the results from microtiter plate assays suggest that strains of this species are promising candidates for further studies. The outstanding abilities of black yeast-like fungi to thrive in extreme environments makes them ideal agents for the bioremediation of polluted soils, and for the treatment of contaminated gas streams in biofilters. However, interrelations between hydrocarbonoclastic and potentially pathogenic strains need to be elucidated in order to avoid the possibility of biohazards occurring. PMID:27019541

  15. Contaminação fúngica de plantas medicinais utilizadas em chás

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    Ravely Lucena Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade microbiológica quanto à presença de fungos filamentosos em ervas do tipo Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo, Pimpinella anisum L. (erva-doce e Matricaria chamomilla L. (Camomila comercializadas na cidade de Campina Grande (Paraíba. Nove amostras de cada planta foram analisadas, totalizando 27 amostras, obtidas aleatoriamente nas feiras livres e barracas informais da cidade. Cada 10 g de amostra foram suspensas em 90 mL de solução salina 0,89% estéril, obtendo-se o concentrado, a partir do qual foram realizadas diluições sucessivas. A seguir, uma alíquota de 0,1mL de cada diluição foi semeada em placas de Petri contendo Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose, as quais foram incubadas à temperatura ambiente por cinco a dez dias. Após este período foram contadas as colônias fúngicas presentes e realizados seus respectivos microcultivos para identificação através de microscópio óptico. Foram encontrados fungos toxigênicos como Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. e Fusarium sp., estando o primeiro presente em todas as amostras avaliadas. Também foram identificados os fungos Exophiala sp. e Fonsecaea sp., que possuem importância clínica, podendo causar micose. A forma como estas plantas são armazenadas para comercialização e a falta de fiscalização torna questionável a qualidade das plantas comercializadas para obtenção de chás, o que pode comprometer a saúde do consumidor ao utilizar esses produtos na forma de Chá.

  16. Yeasts in malting, with special emphasis on Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitila, Arja; Sarlin, Tuija; Raulio, Mari; Wilhelmson, Annika; Kotaviita, Erja; Huttunen, Timo; Juvonen, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Malted barley is a major raw material of beer, as well as distilled spirits and several food products. The production of malt (malting) exploits the biochemical reactions of a natural process, grain germination. In addition to germinating grain, the malting process includes another metabolically active component: a diverse microbial community that includes various types of bacteria and fungi. Therefore, malting can be considered as a complex ecosystem involving two metabolically active groups. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but previously the significance of yeasts in malting has been largely underestimated. Characterization and identification of yeasts in industrial processes revealed 25 ascomycetous yeasts belonging to 10 genera, and 18 basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to 7 genera. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Several ascomycetous yeast strains showed strong antagonistic activity against field and storage moulds, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala) being the most effective species. Malting studies revealed that W. anomalus VTT C-04565 effectively restricted Fusarium growth and hydrophobin production during malting and prevented beer gushing. In order to broaden the antimicrobial spectrum and to improve malt brewhouse performance, W. anomalus could be combined with other starter cultures such as Lactobacillus plantarum. Well-characterized microbial mixtures consisting of barley and malt-derived microbes open up several possibilities to improve malt properties and to ensure the safety of the malting process.

  17. Ecophysiological properties of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and yeasts dominating in phytocenoses of Galindez Island, maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Romanovskaya, Victoria; Gladka, Galina; Gouliamova, Dilnora; Tomova, Iva; Stoilova-Disheva, Margarita; Tashyrev, Oleksandr

    2014-04-01

    Antarctic plants are stable specific microenvironments for microbial colonization that are still less explored. In this study, we investigated cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and yeasts dominating in plant samples collected from different terrestrial biotopes near Ukrainian Antarctic Base on Galindez Island, maritime Antarctica. Phylogenetic analysis revealed affiliation of the bacterial isolates to genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Brevundimonas, Sporosarcina, Dermacoccus, Microbacterium, Rothia and Frondihabitans, and the yeast isolates to genera Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus, Leucosporidiella, Candida and Exophiala. Some ecophysiological properties of isolated strains were determined that are important in response to different stresses such as psychro- and halotolerance, UV-resistance and production of hydrolytic enzymes. The majority of isolates (88 %) was found to be psychrotolerant; all are halotolerant. Significant differences in survival subsequent to UV-C radiation were observed among the isolates, as measured by culturable counts. For the bacterial isolates, lethal doses in the range 80-600 J m⁻² were determined, and for the yeast isolates--in the range 300-1,000 J m⁻². Dermacoccus profundi U9 and Candida davisiana U6 were found as most UV resistant among the bacterial and yeast isolates, respectively. Producers of caseinase, gelatinase, β-glucosidase, and cellulase were detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of UV resistant strain D. profundi, and Frondihabitans strain from Antarctica, and on detection of cellulase activity in Antarctic yeast strain C. davisiana. The results obtained contribute to clarifying adaptation strategies of Antarctic microbiota and its possible role in functional stability of Antarctic biocenoses. Stress tolerant strains were detected that are valuable for ecological and applied studies.

  18. Isolation and characterization of yeasts associated with plants growing in heavy-metal- and arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Garza, Juan; Bustamante-Brito, Rafael; Ángeles de Paz, Gabriela; Medina-Canales, Ma Gabriela; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Wang, En Tao; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica

    2016-04-01

    Yeasts were quantified and isolated from the rhizospheres of 5 plant species grown at 2 sites of a Mexican region contaminated with arsenic, lead, and other heavy metals. Yeast abundance was about 10(2) CFU/g of soil and 31 isolates were obtained. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis of 26S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer fragment, 6 species were identified within the following 5 genera: Cryptococcus (80.64%), Rhodotorula (6.45%), Exophiala (6.45%), Trichosporon (3.22%), and Cystobasidium (3.22%). Cryptococcus spp. was the predominant group. Pectinases (51.6%), proteases (51.6%), and xylanases (41.9%) were the enzymes most common, while poor production of siderophores (16.1%) and indole acetic acid (9.67%) was detected. Isolates of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Cystobasidium sloffiae could promote plant growth and seed germination in a bioassay using Brassica juncea. Resistance of isolates by arsenic and heavy metals was as follows: As(3+) ≥ 100 mmol/L, As(5+) ≥ 30 mmol/L, Zn(2+) ≥ 2 mmol/L, Pb(2+) ≥ 1.2 mmol/L, and Cu(2+) ≥ 0.5 mmol/L. Strains of Cryptococcus albidus were able to reduce arsenate (As(5+)) into arsenite (As(3+)), but no isolate was capable of oxidizing As(3+). This is the first study on the abundance and identification of rhizosphere yeasts in a heavy-metal- and arsenic-contaminated soil, and of the reduction of arsenate by the species C. albidus.

  19. Studies on the physiological bases of morphogenesis in fungi; the respiratory metabolism of dimorphic pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NICKERSON, W J; EDWARDS, G A

    1949-09-01

    The interconversions of mycelial and yeast-like forms (M right harpoon over left harpoon Y) in Blastomyces dermatitidis and in Blastomyces brasiliensis are characterized as examples of thermal dimorphism since the phenomena are apparently dependent only on the temperature of incubation of these two species. The change in morphology consequent upon Y --> M conversion is considered to result from the selective inhibition of cell division, without the simultaneous inhibition of growth. Such selective inhibition is viewed in a wider context as an example of the differential operation of the physicochemical apparatus of the cell in the control of form development by an organism. To analyze this differential operation, which is here dependent only on temperature, we have studied the effect of temperature on oxygen consumption by each of the dimorphic forms. In the absence of external substrate the yeast forms consume 5 to 6 times more oxygen per unit dry weight than do the M forms.The Y forms exhibit an exogenous oxidation of acetate and of glucose, as well as an oxidative assimilation of these substrates, whereas the M forms exhibit no exogenous metabolism in either a resting or starved condition. A study of the effect of a wide range of temperatures on oxygen consumption by the M forms indicates the operation of two rate-limiting processes: (a) one with an activation energy of 13,250 calories/gm. molecule over the range 5-30 degrees , and (b) reversible enzyme inactivation; the latter process assuming importance in the higher temperature range. On abrupt, large changes in temperature the balance between these two rate-limiting reactions (which it is suggested characterizes the steady state) is apparently disrupted as a result of a lag in the assumption of a rate of reversible enzyme inactivation characteristic of the new temperature. This disruption of balance is evidenced in overshoot phenomena. The effect of an analogous disruption of balance, and of increasing

  20. Comparative genomics allowed the identification of drug targets against human fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Natalia F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs has increased steadily worldwide in the last few decades. Particularly, there has been a global rise in the number of infections among immunosuppressed people. These patients present severe clinical forms of the infections, which are commonly fatal, and they are more susceptible to opportunistic fungal infections than non-immunocompromised people. IFIs have historically been associated with high morbidity and mortality, partly because of the limitations of available antifungal therapies, including side effects, toxicities, drug interactions and antifungal resistance. Thus, the search for alternative therapies and/or the development of more specific drugs is a challenge that needs to be met. Genomics has created new ways of examining genes, which open new strategies for drug development and control of human diseases. Results In silico analyses and manual mining selected initially 57 potential drug targets, based on 55 genes experimentally confirmed as essential for Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus and other 2 genes (kre2 and erg6 relevant for fungal survival within the host. Orthologs for those 57 potential targets were also identified in eight human fungal pathogens (C. albicans, A. fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Paracoccidioides lutzii, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Of those, 10 genes were present in all pathogenic fungi analyzed and absent in the human genome. We focused on four candidates: trr1 that encodes for thioredoxin reductase, rim8 that encodes for a protein involved in the proteolytic activation of a transcriptional factor in response to alkaline pH, kre2 that encodes for α-1,2-mannosyltransferase and erg6 that encodes for Δ(24-sterol C-methyltransferase. Conclusions Our data show that the comparative genomics analysis of eight fungal pathogens enabled the identification of

  1. 侵袭性真菌病的非培养实验室诊断方法%Non-cultural methods for the laboratory diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨启文; 徐英春

    2014-01-01

    侵袭性真菌病的非培养实验室检测方法主要包括真菌抗原检测、真菌抗体血清学检测以及分子生物学检测。真菌抗原检测包括(1,3)-β-D-葡聚糖检测、半乳甘露聚糖检测、隐球菌荚膜多糖抗原检测以及念珠菌甘露聚糖抗原检测等。不同的抗原用于诊断不同的真菌感染。抗真菌抗体的血清学检测主要包括荚膜组织胞浆菌、粗球孢子菌/副球孢子菌以及皮炎芽生菌的相应血清抗体的检测。分子生物学检测则包括非扩增的核酸检测技术、核酸扩增检测技术、直接测序以及基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱( MALDI-TOF MS)技术。尽管分子生物学检测的方法尚未标准化,但其是未来侵袭性真菌病非培养检测的重要发展方向。(中华检验医学杂志,2014,37:721-724)%Non-cultural laboratory diagnostic methods include fungal antigen detection, anti-fungal antibody detection and molecular methods. Fungal antigen detection aim at ( 1, 3 )-β-D-glucan, galactomannan, cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen and candida mannan antigen.Different antigen is used to diagnose different fungal infection.Antifungal antibody include antibody against Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis/Paracoccidiodes and Blastomyces dermatitidis.Molecular methods include non-amplification nucleic acid detection, nucleic acid amplification test, direct sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF MS ) technology.Even though molecular methods are limited because of no standardization, the future of its usage is promising.

  2. 不同碳源和氮源对4种深色有隔内生真菌生长的影响%Effects of different carbon and nitrogen sources on growth of 4 dark septate endophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑛瑛; 黄丽; 唐明

    2016-01-01

    [目的]明确不同碳源及氮源对4种深色有隔内生真菌(Dark septate endophytes,DSE)生长的影响,确定4种DSE生长的最适碳源和氮源,为深色有隔内生真菌的研究和应用奠定基础.[方法]以沙门外瓶柄霉(Exophiala salmonis)、甘瓶霉(Phialophora mustea)、菊异茎点霉(Para phoma chrysanthemicola)和枝状枝孢菌(Clados porium cladosporioides)4种深色有隔内生真菌为材料,在固体和液体条件下培养,研究不同碳源(葡萄糖、蔗糖、麦芽糖、甘露醇、果糖、乳糖、可溶性淀粉和山梨醇)和氮源(磷酸氢二铵、草酸铵、硫酸铵、氯化铵、尿素、硝酸铵、硝酸钠、酸水解酪蛋白、胰蛋白胨和蛋白胨)对其菌丝平均生长速度和菌丝干质量的影响.[结果]固体培养条件下,沙门外瓶柄霉、甘瓶霉和菊异茎点霉的最佳碳源均是葡萄糖,枝状枝孢菌的最佳碳源是乳糖;沙门外瓶柄霉、甘瓶霉和枝状枝孢菌的最佳氮源均是硝酸钠,菊异茎点霉的最佳氮源是胰蛋白胨.液体培养条件下,甘瓶霉、菊异茎点霉和枝状枝孢菌的最佳碳源均是可溶性淀粉,沙门外瓶柄霉的最佳碳源是葡萄糖;沙门外瓶柄霉、甘瓶霉、菊异茎点霉和枝状枝孢菌的最佳氮源分别是磷酸氢二铵、草酸铵、蛋白胨和硝酸铵.[结论]初步确定了4种深色有隔内生真菌生长的最佳碳源和氮源.

  3. Screening of extremotolerant fungi for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Prenafeta, Francesc; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated sites, by taking advantage of microorganisms which have the potential to degrade a wide range of contaminants. While research has been focused mainly on bacteria, the knowledge on other microorganisms, especially fungal communities, is still limited. However, the use of fungi may have advantages compared to bacteria. Extremophile fungi like the black yeasts can withstand high levels of environmental stress (e.g. range of pH, water availability and temperature, presence of toxic chemicals). Therefore they might be applicable in situations, where bacterial communities show limited performance. In order to identify fungi which are good candidates for bioremediation application, a selection of 163 fungal strains, mostly from the group of the black yeasts, was tested for their capability to degrade three different pollutants: hexadecane, toluene, and polychlorinated biphenyl 126, which were used as model compounds for aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. These chemicals are frequently found in sites contaminated by oil, gas and coal. The screening was based on a two-step selection approach. As a first step, a high throughput method was developed to screen the relatively large amount of fungal strains regarding their tolerance to the contaminants. A microtiter plate based method was developed for monitoring fungal growth in the presence of the selected contaminants photometrically with a Tecan reader. Twenty five strains out of 163, being species of the genera Cladophilaophora, Scedosporium and Exophiala, showed the ability to grow on at least 2 hydrocarbons, and are therefore the most promising candidates for further tests. In a second step, degradation of the contaminants was investigated in more detail for a subset of the screened fungi. This was done by closing the carbon balance in sealed liquid cultures in which the selected pollutant was introduce as the sole source of carbon

  4. [Prevention of fungal infections related to the water supply in French hospitals: proposal for standardization of methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Bousseau, Anne; Dalle, Frédéric; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Delhaes, Laurence; Machouart, Marie; Gari-Toussaint, Martine; Datry, Annick; Lacroix, Claire; Hennequin, Christophe; Toubas, Dominique; Morin, Odile

    2008-05-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the risk of fungal infections related to the water supply in several hospitals and to clarify the appropriate methodology in order to standardize the technical conditions of the controls and develop guidelines. It was conducted in 10 university hospital centers across the country from February 2004 through March 2005. A preliminary study allowed us to optimize the mycological analysis. The study was conducted under the same conditions as for bacteriological controls: water filtration through a cellulose acetate membrane cultured on agar. Departments with the highest patient risk were selected, including hematology, organ transplantation, and burn units. We selected 98 sites and sampled both water and water-related surfaces at each: three one-liter water samples (the first flow, cold and hot water) and two or three surface samples (inside the tap, pommel of the shower and siphon). At each site, a form was filled to specify its location in the unit, any water treatment (chlorine or other), filtering, and temperature. Water from taps equipped with sterilized filtration was sampled without the filter. There was a significant difference (p=0.039) in the number of positive cultures between the three types of water sampled: hot water (>50 degrees C) was colonized less often than first flow or cold water. Only 4% of the hot-water samples had positive cultures, compared to the 52% of the cold-water samples. Except in two hospitals with generalized contamination of the water pipes (one with Exophiala spp and the other with Fusarium spp), colonization was usually slight. Cold water was more colonized than hot water, but 79% of the samples yielded fewer than 5CFU/L. Dematiaceous hyphomycetes were isolated; Aspergillus spp were rare. The number of CFU in surface samples (that is, biofilms) was higher (mean=15 CFU per sample) but surfaces were positive less often than water (13% compared with 43% of all water samples). Sampling from siphons

  5. 三大洋深海沉积物样品可培养真菌多样性研究%Fungal diversity study in the deep sea sediments of three oceans by culture-dependent approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐炜; 李广伟; 黄翔玲; 骆祝华

    2015-01-01

    深海真菌是深海微生物的重要组成之一,在深海环境生态系统中起着非常重要的作用,但目前人们对于深海沉积物中的真菌群落多样性关注较少.本研究对来自东太平洋、南大西洋和西南印度洋(三大洋)的15个沉积物样品进行真菌的分离培养,共获得175株真菌,包括93株酵母菌和82株丝状真菌.基于形态学观察和ITS序列的系统发育分析显示,93株酵母分别属于红冬孢酵母属(Rhodosporidium)和胶红酵母属(Rhodotorula)的两个种[海洋红酵母(Rhodosporidium paludigehum)和胶红酵母(Rhodotorula mucilaginosa)].82株丝状真菌分别属于曲霉属(Aspergillus)、枝孢属(Cladosporium)、青霉属(Penicillium)、链格孢属(Alternaria)、镰刀菌(Fusarium)、支顶孢属(Acremonium)、茎点霉属(Phoma)、麦轴梗霉属(Tritirachium)、毛壳菌属(Chaetomium)、外瓶霉属(Exophiala)、侧齿霉属(Engyodontium)、肉片齿菌属(Sistotrema)、裂褶菌属(Schizophyllum)、腥掷抱菌属(Tilletiopsis)和Hormonema.其中曲霉属为丝状真菌中的优势属,占总菌株的47.6%.上述研究结果表明大洋深海沉积物中存在着较为丰富的真菌资源,有助于加深我们对于不同大洋区域深海环境中真菌群落结构的认识.

  6. 普里兹湾沉积物样品产油真菌筛选及胞内脂肪酸成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄昌旭; 黄翔玲; 骆祝华

    2016-01-01

    对中国第29次南极科学考察获得的南极普里兹湾海域23个站位的深海沉积物样品进行了真菌分离培养,共获得了11个属的21株真菌,分别是:青霉属(Penicillium,9株)、枝孢属(Cladosporium,3株)、支顶孢属(Acremonium,1株)、短梗霉属(Aureobasidium,1株)、孢盘菌属(Botryotinia,1株)、散囊菌属(Eurotiales,1株)、外瓶霉属(Exophiala,1株)、镰孢菌属(Fusarium,1株)、丛赤壳属(Nectria,1株)、茎点霉属(Phoma,1株)、帚枝霉属(Sarocladium,1株).南极普里兹湾海域的真菌多样性较高,其中青霉属菌株最多,占总菌株比例为42.85%,是普里兹湾真菌中的优势属,其次为枝孢属菌株,占总菌株比例为14.29%.分别用尼罗红和氯化三苯基四氮唑(TTC)对这21株菌进行产油筛选,得到8株产油菌,分属于Penicillium(2株)、Aureobasidium(1株)、Cladosporium(1株)、Eurotiales(1株)、Exophiala(1株)、Fusarium(1株)、Sarocladium(1株)等7个属,这些产油菌产油量大致在20.1%到52.0%之间.对这8株菌的产油量和胞内脂肪酸成分进行分析,结果表明:这些产油菌所含的基本为短链脂肪酸,且不饱和脂肪酸含量较高,适合作为生物柴油的生产菌株.

  7. Isolation of oleaginous fungi from Pryzd Bay sediments and fatty acid analysis of intracellular lipids%普里兹湾沉积物样品产油真菌筛选及胞内脂肪酸成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄昌旭; 黄翔玲; 骆祝华

    2016-01-01

    In the 29 th Chinese Antarctic scientific expedition,23 sediment samples were collected from Prydz Bay. A total of 2 1 fungal strains were isolated from the sediment samples and these fungi belong to 1 1 genera based on fungal ITS sequence analysis.They includes Penicillium (9 strains),Cladosporium (3 strains),Acremonium (1 strain),Aureobasidium (1 strain),Botryotinia (1 strain),Eurotiales (1 strain),Exophiala (1 strain),Fusarium (1 strain),Nectria (1 strain),Phoma (1 strain)and Sarocladium (1 strain).With high diversities,the strains of Penicillium,as the most dominant genus,is accounting for 42.85%of the total stains,and the strains of Cladospo-rium is 14.29%.Eight oleaginous fungi were isolated based on both Nile red staining method and TTC staining method and they belong to 7 genera,including Penicillium(2 strains),Aureobasidium (1 strains),Cladosporium(1 strains),Eurotiales (1 strains),Exophiala (1 strains),Fusarium (1 strains),Sarocladium (1 strain).Lipid contents of these oleaginous fungi range from 20.1%to 52.0%.Fatty acid composition of intracellular lipids shows that fatty acids occurred in the range C16 -C18 for most oleaginous fungi.A relative high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids observed in the lipid contents suggest that these oleaginous fungi have potential of biodiesel production.%对中国第29次南极科学考察获得的南极普里兹湾海域23个站位的深海沉积物样品进行了真菌分离培养,共获得了11个属的21株真菌,分别是:青霉属(Penicillium,9株)、枝孢属(Clados-porium,3株)、支顶孢属(Acremonium,1株)、短梗霉属(Aureobasidium,1株)、孢盘菌属(Botryotinia,1株)、散囊菌属(Eurotiales,1株)、外瓶霉属(Exophiala,1株)、镰孢菌属(Fusarium,1株)、丛赤壳属(Nectria,1株)、茎点霉属(Phoma,1株)、帚枝霉属(Sarocladium,1株).南极普里兹湾海域的真菌多样性较高,其中青霉属菌株最

  8. 连作花生田根际土壤优势微生物的分离和鉴定%Isolation and identification of dominant microorganisms in rhizosphere of continuous cropping with peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜艳伟; 张红; 刘露; 咸洪泉; 崔德杰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]We isolated and identified dominant microorganisms from the rhizosphere of continuous cropping with peanut, to study the relationship between dominant microorganisms and peanut continuous cropping.[Methods]By using dilution-plate method we isolated dominant bacteria, dominant fungi and actinomycetes from the rhizosphere of continuous cropping with peanut.Morphological specificity, culture shape, physiological-biochemical characteristic and partial 16S rDNA sequences were used to identify bacteria and actinomycetes.Morpholog, growth on various media, and Internal Transcribed Spacer ( ITS) rDNA sequences homology analysis were performed to identify dominant fungi.[Results]We isolated seven dominant bacteria strains, seven dominant fungi and seven dominant actinomycetes.Dominant bacteria were identified as Leifsonia xyli, Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus, Microbacterium flavescens, Sphingomonas sp., Pasteurella sp., Bacillus simplex and Bacillus megaterium.Dominant fungi were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium purpurogenum, Hypocrea lixii, Exophiala pisciphila, Penicillium janthinellum, Aspergillus sp.and Verticillium dahliae.Dominant actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces violaceoruber, Streptomyces flaveus, Streptomyces panaciterrae, Streptomyces achromogenes, Streptomyces pseudogriseolus, Streptomyces cellulosae and Streptomyces aureus.[Conclusion]This study was the first time to isolate and identify dominant microorganisms from the rhizosphere of continuous cropping with peanut.The type of dominant microorganisms changed obviously after planting peanut, although the change was without regularity.%[目的]从不同连作年限的花生田根际土壤中分离优势微生物并进行鉴定,为研究花生连作后优势微生物的变化奠定基础.[方法]采用土壤稀释分离法从不同连作年限花生根际土壤中分离优势细菌、真菌和放线菌,结合菌株形态特征、培养性状、生理生化特征及16s

  9. 铅吸附深色有隔内生真菌的筛选及其吸附特性%The screening and biosorption characteristics of dark septate endophytes to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑛瑛; 王春燕; 杨玉荣; 唐明

    2016-01-01

    本文通过测定沙门外瓶柄霉(Exophiala salmonis BC5)、甘瓶霉(Phialophora mustea BC42)、菊异茎点霉(Paraphoma chrysanthemicola B100)和枝状枝孢菌(Cladosporium cladosporioides B142)4种具有耐铅特性的深色有隔内生真菌(Dark Septate Endophytes,DSE)非活性菌丝的铅吸附能力,从中筛选出铅吸附能力强的菌种并研究其吸附特性.扫描电镜观察结果显示,4种DSE吸附剂均有管道状结构,以枝状枝孢菌的直径最大((4.04±0.68)μm),且较为完整,枝状枝孢菌吸附剂的表面比较粗糙,其余3种DSE吸附剂的表面均比较光滑;傅立叶红外光谱分析表明,4种DSE吸附剂均含有氨基(—NH2)、羟基(—OH)、酯羰基(—COO)和羧基(—COOH)等官能团;当吸附时间分别为15 min和60 min时,枝状枝孢菌对铅的去除率、吸附量分别达83.30% 、14.73 mg·g-1和94.86%、19.54 mg·g-1,均显著高于其他3种真菌,其次是菊异茎点霉,沙门外瓶柄霉和甘瓶霉的吸附能力较差.进一步研究枝状枝孢菌的铅吸附特性,结果表明:pH(2.0~6.0)、初始金属浓度(10~300 μ,g·mL-1)、吸附时间(5~180 min)、吸附剂剂量(0.5~10 g·L-1)、温度(20~40℃)及转速(80~180 r·min-1)对枝状枝孢菌的铅吸附过程均有显著影响,最佳的吸附条件分别为pH 5.0、初始金属浓度150 μg· mL-1、吸附时间120 min、吸附剂剂量3 g·L-1、温度25℃、转速180 r·min-1,此时吸附量为40.8 mg·g-1.

  10. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    Tacinga inamoena), Geastrum ishikawae on sandy soil, Geastrum pusillipilosum on soil, Gymnopus pygmaeus on dead leaves and sticks, Inonotus hymenonitens on decayed angiosperm trunk, Pyricularia urashimae on Urochloa brizantha, and Synnemellisia aurantia on Passiflora edulis. Chile: Tubulicrinis australis on Lophosoria quadripinnata.France: Cercophora squamulosa from submerged wood, and Scedosporium cereisporum from fluids of a wastewater treatment plant. Hawaii: Beltraniella acaciae, Dactylaria acaciae, Rhexodenticula acaciae, Rubikia evansii and Torula acaciae (all on Acacia koa).India: Lepidoderma echinosporum on dead semi-woody stems, and Rhodocybe rubrobrunnea from soil. Iran: Talaromyces kabodanensis from hypersaline soil. La Réunion: Neocordana musarum from leaves of Musa sp. Malaysia: Anungitea eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus grandis × pellita, Camptomeriphila leucaenae (incl. Camptomeriphila gen. nov.) on Leucaena leucocephala, Castanediella communis on Eucalyptus pellita, Eucalyptostroma eucalypti (incl. Eucalyptostroma gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita, Melanconiella syzygii on Syzygium sp., Mycophilomyces periconiae (incl. Mycophilomyces gen. nov.) as hyperparasite on Periconia on leaves of Albizia falcataria, Synnemadiella eucalypti (incl. Synnemadiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita, and Teichospora nephelii on Nephelium lappaceum.Mexico: Aspergillus bicephalus from soil. New Zealand: Aplosporella sophorae on Sophora microphylla, Libertasomyces platani on Platanus sp., Neothyronectria sophorae (incl. Neothyronectria gen. nov.) on Sophora microphylla, Parastagonospora phoenicicola on Phoenix canariensis, Phaeoacremonium pseudopanacis on Pseudopanax crassifolius, Phlyctema phoenicis on Phoenix canariensis, and Pseudoascochyta novae-zelandiae on Cordyline australis.Panama: Chalara panamensis from needle litter of Pinus cf. caribaea. South Africa: Exophiala eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., Fantasmomyces hyalinus (incl. Fantasmomyces gen. nov.) on Acacia

  11. 真菌PHF-9化学成分及其抗肿瘤活性研究%Chemical metabolites from fungus PHF-9 and their anti-tumor activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠翠; 刘明; 魏鉴腾; 王惠; 林秀坤

    2012-01-01

    apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion; Soil-derived fungus strain Exophiala pisciphila can produce indole alkaloid , which inhibits the growth of cancer cells through induction of apoptosis.

  12. Simultaneous identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales species by reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay%应用反向线点杂交技术鉴定临床常见曲霉属和毛霉目真菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵作涛; 李丽丽; 王晓阳; 万喆; 陈伟; 李若瑜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To Rapidly differentiate Aspergillus and Mucorales species by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB). Methods Totally 98 isolates including five Aspergillus strains ( Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus,Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus nidulans ) and seven Mucorales species ( Mucor heimalis ,Mucor racemosus ,Mucor cercinelloidea,Rhizopus arrhizus,Rhizopus microsporus,Rhizomucor pusillus and Absidia corymbifera ) were obtained from Research Center for Medical Mycology and Mycoses, Peking University. ITS1 and ITS4 fungal universal primers were chosen for PCR amplification, and the amplified products were used for reverse line blot hybridization with 12 fungal specie-specific probes. RLB data were compared with those by traditional fungal morphology and ITS sequencing methods. Results RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity , with 100% correct identification percentage of all the isolates and no cross hybridization between the species-specific probes. Eight negative control stains ( Candida albicans ,Fusarium solani ,Scedosporium apiospermum ,Penicillium marneffei ,Exophiala verrucosa,Aspergillus clavatus,Aspergillus japonicus and Cunninghamella elegans ) also showed negative by RLB. The analytical sensitivity of RLB was 1. 8 x 10-3 ng/μL by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA. Conclusions The RLB assay provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis and identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales species.%目的 应用反向线点杂交技术(reverse line blot hybridization,RLB)快速鉴定临床常见的曲霉属和毛霉目真菌.方法 收集我院真菌和真菌病研究中心保存的5种曲霉菌(烟曲霉、黄曲霉、黑曲霉、土曲霉、构巢曲霉)和7种毛霉目真菌(冻土毛霉菌、总状毛霉菌、卷枝毛霉菌、少根根霉、小孢根霉、微小根毛霉、伞状犁头霉),共计98株菌株.利用真菌通用引物ITS1和ITS4对菌株进行PCR扩增,用12个