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Sample records for wangiella exophiala dermatitidis

  1. Exophiala (Wangiella dermatitidis Prosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis and Prosthetic Graft Infection in an Immune Competent Patient

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    Jay S. Berger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exophiala (Wangiella dermatitidis is an emerging dematiaceous fungus associated with high mortality rates and is a rare cause of endocarditis. We describe the first case of E. dermatitidis endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve and aortic graft in an immune competent patient with no clear risk factors of hematological acquisition.

  2. WdStuAp, an APSES transcription factor, is a regulator of yeast-hyphal transitions in Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis.

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    Wang, Qin; Szaniszlo, Paul J

    2007-09-01

    APSES transcription factors are well-known regulators of fungal cellular development and differentiation. To study the function of an APSES protein in the fungus Wangiella dermatitidis, a conidiogenous and polymorphic agent of human phaeohyphomycosis with yeast predominance, the APSES transcription factor gene WdSTUA was cloned, sequenced, disrupted, and overexpressed. Analysis showed that its derived protein was most similar to the APSES proteins of other conidiogenous molds and had its APSES DNA-binding domain located in the amino-terminal half. Deletion of WdSTUA in W. dermatitidis induced convoluted instead of normal smooth colony surface growth on the rich yeast maintenance agar medium yeast extract-peptone-dextrose agar (YPDA) at 37 degrees C. Additionally, deletion of WdSTUA repressed aerial hyphal growth, conidiation, and invasive hyphal growth on the nitrogen-poor, hypha-inducing agar medium potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 25 degrees C. Ectopic overexpression of WdSTUA repressed the convoluted colony surface growth on YPDA at 37 degrees C, and also strongly repressed hyphal growth on PDA at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C. These new results provide additional insights into the diverse roles played by APSES factors in fungi. They also suggest that the transcription factor encoded by WdSTUA is both a positive and negative morphotype regulator in W. dermatitidis and possibly other of the numerous human pathogenic, conidiogenous fungi capable of yeast growth.

  3. Effects of disrupting the polyketide synthase gene WdPKS1 in Wangiella [Exophiala] dermatitidis on melanin production and resistance to killing by antifungal compounds, enzymatic degradation, and extremes in temperature

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    Mandal Piyali

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wangiella dermatitidis is a human pathogenic fungus that is an etiologic agent of phaeohyphomycosis. W. dermatitidis produces a black pigment that has been identified as a dihydroxynaphthalene melanin and the production of this pigment is associated with its virulence. Cell wall pigmentation in W. dermatitidis depends on the WdPKS1 gene, which encodes a polyketide synthase required for generating the key precursor for dihydroxynaphthalene melanin biosynthesis. Results We analyzed the effects of disrupting WdPKS1 on dihydroxynaphthalene melanin production and resistance to antifungal compounds. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wdpks1Δ-1 yeast had thinner cell walls that lacked an electron-opaque layer compared to wild-type cells. However, digestion of the wdpks1Δ-1 yeast revealed small black particles that were consistent with a melanin-like compound, because they were acid-resistant, reacted with melanin-binding antibody, and demonstrated a free radical signature by electron spin resonance analysis. Despite lacking the WdPKS1 gene, the mutant yeast were capable of catalyzing the formation of melanin from L-3,4-dihyroxyphenylalanine. The wdpks1Δ-1 cells were significantly more susceptible to killing by voriconazole, amphotericin B, NP-1 [a microbicidal peptide], heat and cold, and lysing enzymes than the heavily melanized parental or complemented strains. Conclusion In summary, W. dermatitidis makes WdPKS-dependent and -independent melanins, and the WdPKS1-dependent deposition of melanin in the cell wall confers protection against antifungal agents and environmental stresses. The biological role of the WdPKS-independent melanin remains unclear.

  4. Adaptation of the black yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to ionizing radiation: molecular and cellular mechanisms.

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    Kelly L Robertson

    Full Text Available Observations of enhanced growth of melanized fungi under low-dose ionizing radiation in the laboratory and in the damaged Chernobyl nuclear reactor suggest they have adapted the ability to survive or even benefit from exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism of fungal responses to such radiation remains poorly understood. Using the black yeast Wangiella dermatitidis as a model, we confirmed that ionizing radiation enhanced cell growth by increasing cell division and cell size. Using RNA-seq technology, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of the wild type and the melanin-deficient wdpks1 mutant under irradiation and non-irradiation conditions. It was found that more than 3000 genes were differentially expressed when these two strains were constantly exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation and that half were regulated at least two fold in either direction. Functional analysis indicated that many genes for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism and cell cycle progression were down-regulated and that a number of antioxidant genes and genes affecting membrane fluidity were up-regulated in both irradiated strains. However, the expression of ribosomal biogenesis genes was significantly up-regulated in the irradiated wild-type strain but not in the irradiated wdpks1 mutant, implying that melanin might help to contribute radiation energy for protein translation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that long-term exposure to low doses of radiation significantly increased survivability of both the wild-type and the wdpks1 mutant, which was correlated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increased production of carotenoid and induced expression of genes encoding translesion DNA synthesis. Our results represent the first functional genomic study of how melanized fungal cells respond to low dose ionizing radiation and provide clues for the identification of biological processes, molecular pathways and

  5. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens.

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    Jerneja Zupančič

    Full Text Available We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium. Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within

  6. Protein functional analysis data in support of comparative proteomics of the pathogenic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis under different temperature conditions

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    Donatella Tesei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study a comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the response of the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis toward temperature treatment. Protein functional analysis – based on cellular process GO terms – was performed on the 32 temperature-responsive identified proteins. The bioinformatics analyses and data presented here provided novel insights into the cellular pathways at the base of the fungus temperature tolerance. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the data can be found in “Proteome of tolerance fine-tuning in the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis” by Tesei et al. (2015 [1].

  7. Massive contamination of Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis in railway stations in subtropical Turkey.

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    Döğen, Aylin; Kaplan, Engin; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2013-06-01

    In order to reveal the source of contamination of opportunistic fungi, their natural habitat has to be understood. Black yeast-like fungi are abundant in man-made environments, particularly in those that are rich in toxic hydrocarbons such as railway ties. In this study, we investigated the presence of black fungi on creosote-treated oak railway ties and concrete sleepers stained with petroleum oil. Samples were collected at two central stations in Turkish cities, Mersin and Adana, and from Tarsus town station located between these two. The sample locations had subtropical climates. A total of 570 railway samples, including 320 from oak and 250 from concrete, were collected. Cotton swabs moistened with sterile physiological saline were applied to the ties and inoculated onto malt extract agar followed by incubation at 37 °C. Overall, we recovered 97 black yeast-like fungi (17.0 % positive). Sixty-three fungi (19.7 %) were collected from creosote-treated oak, whereas 34 isolates (13.6 %) were derived from concrete; the difference was significant (P = 0.05). Identification using rDNA internal transcribed spacer revealed Exophiala dermatitidis (57.7 %) and Exophiala phaeomuriformis (42.3 %). This study suggested that hydrocarbons enrich these opportunistic black yeasts. An eventual health risk is discussed.

  8. Bioproduction and anticancer activity of biosurfactant produced by the dematiaceous fungus Exophiala dermatitidis SK80.

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    Chiewpattanakul, Paramaporn; Phonnok, Sirinet; Durand, Alain; Marie, Emmanuelle; Thanomsub, Benjamas Wongsatayanon

    2010-12-01

    A new biosurfactant producer was isolated from palm-oilcontaminated soil and later identified through morphology and DNA sequencing as the yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. Biosurfactant production was catalyzed by vegetable oil, supplemented with a basal medium. The culture conditions that provided the biosurfactant with the highest surface activity were found to be 5% palm oil with 0.08% NH4NO3, at a pH of 5.3, with shaking at 200 rpm, and a temperature of 30 degrees C for a 14-day period of incubation. The biosurfactant was purified, in accordance with surfactant properties, by solvent fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. The chemical structure of the strongest surface-active compound was elucidated through the use of NMR and mass spectroscopy, and noted to be monoolein, which then went on to demonstrate antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer (HeLa) and leukemia (U937) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, no cytotoxicity was observed with normal cells even when high concentrations were used. Cell and DNA morphological changes, in both cancer cell lines, were observed to be cell shrinkage, membrane blebbling, and DNA fragmentation.

  9. Comparative ecology of capsular Exophiala species causing disseminated infection in humans

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    Song, Y. (Yinggai); Laureijssen-van de Sande, W.W.J. (Wendy W.J.); Moreno, L.F. (Leandro F.); van den Ende, B.G. (Bert Gerrits); Li, R. (Ruoyu); S. de Hoog (Sybren)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractExophiala spinifera and Exophiala dermatitidis (Fungi: Chaetothyriales) are black yeast agents potentially causing disseminated infection in apparently healthy humans. They are the only Exophiala species producing extracellular polysaccharides around yeast cells. In order to gain

  10. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Highlights the Problem of Distinguishing Between Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis Using MALDI-TOF MS

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    Ergin, C.; Gok, Y.; Baygu, Y.; Gumral, R.; Ozhak-Baysan, B.; Dogen, A.; Ogunc, D.; Ilkit, M.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared two chemical-based methods, namely, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, to understand the misidentification of Exophiala

  11. In vitro activities of antifungal drugs against environmental Exophiala isolates and review of the literature.

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    Gülmez, Dolunay; Doğan, Özlem; Boral, Barış; Döğen, Aylin; İlkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap

    2018-04-03

    Exophiala is a genus of black fungi isolated worldwide from environmental and clinical specimens. Data on antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala isolates are limited and the methodology on susceptibility testing is not yet standardized. In this study, we investigated in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of environmental Exophiala isolates. A total of 87 Exophiala isolated from dishwashers or railway ties were included. CLSI M38-A2 microdilution method with modifications was used to determine antifungal susceptibility for fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and terbinafine. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined visually at 48h, 72h, and 96h. MIC-0 endpoint (complete inhibition of growth) was used for amphotericin B and azoles, except fluconazole, for which MIC-2 endpoint (~50% inhibition compared to growth control) was used. Both MIC-0 and MIC-1 (~80% inhibition compared to growth control) results were analysed for terbinafine, to enable comparison with previous studies. Fungal growth was sufficient for determination of MICs at 48h for all isolates except two Exophiala dermatitidis strains. At 72h, most active antifungal agents according to GM MIC were voriconazole and terbinafine, followed by posaconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B in rank order of decreasing activity. While amphotericin B displayed adequate in vitro activity despite relatively high MICs, fluconazole showed no meaningful antifungal activity against Exophiala. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptation of the Black Yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to Ionizing Radiation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

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    2012-11-01

    regulated by radiation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19 19a... iota subunit 0.56 0.61 3.6E-06 1.4E-04 ORF01786 G1/S-specific cyclin PLC2 0.51 0.36 3.7E-08 8.9E-21 ORF02802 DNA repair and recombination protein RAD52

  13. Massive contamination of Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis in railway stations in subtropical Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogen, A.; Kaplan, E.; Ilkit, M.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to reveal the source of contamination of opportunistic fungi, their natural habitat has to be understood. Black yeast-like fungi are abundant in man-made environments, particularly in those that are rich in toxic hydrocarbons such as railway ties. In this study, we investigated the presence

  14. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada.

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    Nemeth, Nicole M; Campbell, G Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox's widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus.

  15. Mycotic mastitis in three dogs due to Blastomyces dermatitidis.

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    Ditmyer, Heidi; Craig, Linden

    2011-01-01

    Canine blastomycosis is a common systemic fungal infection within the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys and typically presents as pneumonia, lymphadenitis, or endophthalmitis. This report describes three cases in which mammary tissue samples were submitted to the Department of Pathobiology, University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine with clinical suspicion of neoplasia or postpartum bacterial mastitis. Pyogranulomatous to granulomatous mastitis and dermatitis with intralesional yeast consistent with Blastomyces dermatitidis were diagnosed. Two of the three dogs also had lymph node and pulmonary involvement. Mycotic mastitis due to Blastomyces dermatitidis is rarely reported and blastomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with mammary lesions from endemic areas.

  16. Ecologic Niche Modeling of Blastomyces dermatitidis in Wisconsin

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    Reed, Kurt D.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Archer, John R.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2008-01-01

    Background Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal mycosis that is acquired by inhaling infectious spores of Blastomyces dermatitidis present in the environment. The ecology of this pathogen is poorly understood, in part because it has been extremely difficult to identify the niche(s) it occupies based on culture isolation of the organism from environmental samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ecology of blastomycosis by performing maximum entropy modeling of exposure sites from 156 cases of human and canine blastomycosis to provide a regional-scale perspective of the geographic and ecologic distribution of B. dermatitidis in Wisconsin. Based on analysis with climatic, topographic, surface reflectance and other environmental variables, we predicted that ecologic conditions favorable for maintaining the fungus in nature occur predominantly within northern counties and counties along the western shoreline of Lake Michigan. Areas of highest predicted occurrence were often in proximity to waterways, especially in northcentral Wisconsin, where incidence of infection is highest. Ecologic conditions suitable for B. dermatitidis are present in urban and rural environments, and may differ at the extremes of distribution of the species in the state. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a framework for a more informed search for specific environmental factors modulating B. dermatitidis occurrence and transmission and will be useful for improving public health awareness of relative exposure risks. PMID:18446224

  17. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

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    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  18. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  19. Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Soil-Derived Fungus Exophiala Pisciphila

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    Xiu-Kun Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new polyketide compound 1 and a new naturally occurring chromone derivative 2, along with two known indole alkaloids 3–4 were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of a soil-derived fungal strain, Exophiala pisciphila PHF-9. The structures of compounds 1–4 were established by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by a modified Mosher’s method. Compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against A-549, Hela, PANC-28 and BEL-7402 cell lines.

  20. Exophiala angulospora causes systemic inflammation in atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

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    Gjessing, Mona Cecilie; Davey, Marie; Kvellestad, Agnar; Vrålstad, Trude

    2011-10-06

    Species of Exophiala are opportunistic fungal pathogens that may infect a broad range of warm- and cold-blooded animals, including salmonids and Atlantic cod. In the present study, we observed abnormal swimming behaviour and skin pigmentation and increased mortality in cod kept in an indoor tank. Necropsy revealed foci of different sizes with a greyish to brownish colour in internal organs of diseased fish. The foci consisted of ramifying darkly pigmented fungal hyphae surrounded by distinct layers of inflammatory cells, including macrophage-like cells. In the inner layer with many hyphae, the macrophage-like cells were dead. We observed no apparent restriction of fungal growth by the inflammatory response. A darkly pigmented fungus was repeatedly isolated in pure culture from foci of diseased fish and identified as Exophiala angulospora using morphological and molecular characters. This species has not been previously reported to cause disease in cod, but has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen of both marine and freshwater fish. Based on the morphology and sequence analysis presented here, we conclude that E. angulospora caused the observed chronic multifocal inflammation in internal organs of cod, leading to severe disease and mortality.

  1. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

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    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  2. Variation in clinical phenotype of human infection among genetic groups of Blastomyces dermatitidis

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    Meece, Jennifer K.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Gruszka, Sarah; Sloss, Brian L.; Sullivan, Bradley; Reed, Kurt D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Blastomyces dermatitidis, the etiologic agent of blastomycosis, has 2 genetic groups and shows varied clinical presentation, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination. The objective of this study was to determine whether clinical phenotype and outcomes vary based on the infecting organism's genetic group.Methods. We used microsatellites to genotype 227 clinical isolates of B. dermatitidis from Wisconsin patients. For each isolate, corresponding clinical disease characteristics and patient demographic information were abstracted from electronic health records and Wisconsin Division of Health reportable disease forms and questionnaires.Results. In univariate analysis, group 1 isolates were more likely to be associated with pulmonary-only infections (P 1 month (P smoking status (P = .0001) remained predictors for group 2 infections.Conclusions. This study identified previously unknown associations between clinical phenotype of human infection and genetic groups of B. dermatitidis and provides a framework for further investigations of the genetic basis for virulence in B. dermatitidis.

  3. Isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast from lung tissue during murine infection for in vivo transcriptional profiling

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    Marty, Amber J.; Wüthrich, Marcel; Carmen, John C.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Klein, Bruce S.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Gauthier, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    B. dermatitidis belongs to a group of thermally dimorphic fungi that grow as sporulating mold in the soil and convert to pathogenic yeast in the lung following inhalation of spores. Knowledge about the molecular events important for fungal adaptation and survival in the host remains limited. The development of high-throughput analytic tools such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has potential to provide novel insight on fungal pathogenesis especially if applied in vivo during infection. However, in...

  4. Isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast from lung tissue during murine infection for in vivo transcriptional profiling.

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    Marty, Amber J; Wüthrich, Marcel; Carmen, John C; Sullivan, Thomas D; Klein, Bruce S; Cuomo, Christina A; Gauthier, Gregory M

    2013-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis belongs to a group of thermally dimorphic fungi that grow as sporulating mold in the soil and convert to pathogenic yeast in the lung following inhalation of spores. Knowledge about the molecular events important for fungal adaptation and survival in the host remains limited. The development of high-throughput analytic tools such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has potential to provide novel insight on fungal pathogenesis especially if applied in vivo during infection. However, in vivo transcriptional profiling is hindered by the low abundance of fungal cells relative to mammalian tissue and difficulty in isolating fungal cells from the tissues they infect. For the purpose of obtaining B. dermatitidis RNA for in vivo transcriptional analysis by RNA-Seq, we developed a simple technique for isolating yeast from murine lung tissue. Using a two-step approach of filtration and centrifugation following lysis of murine lung cells, 91% of yeast cells causing infection were isolated from lung tissue. B. dermatitidis recovered from the lung yielded high-quality RNA with minimal murine contamination and was suitable for RNA-Seq. Approximately 87% of the sequencing reads obtained from the recovered yeast aligned with the B. dermatitidis genome. This was similar to 93% alignment for yeast grown in vitro. The use of near-freezing temperature along with short ex vivo time minimized transcriptional changes that would have otherwise occurred with higher temperature or longer processing time. In conclusion, we have developed a technique that recovers the majority of yeast causing pulmonary infection and yields high-quality fungal RNA with minimal contamination by mammalian RNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exophiala asiatica, a new species from a fatal case in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.M.; Li, R.Y.; de Hoog, G.S.; Wang, Y.X.; Wang, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new species, Exophiala asiatica, isolated from an infection of the pharynx in a 20-year-old, immunocompetent woman in Nanjing, China. The infection was initiated by a fishbone prick in the pharynx, soon developed with facial nodules but subsequently seemed to have disappeared. Tonsil

  6. Feo-hifomicose subcutânea por Exophiala jeanselmei: registro de três casos em transplantados renais Subcutaneous phaeohyhomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei: report of three cases in kidney transplant patients

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    Emil Sabbaga

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available São registrados três casos de feo-hifornicose subcutânea em transplantados renais provocados pela Exophiala jeanselmei (Langeron McGinnis et Padhye 1977, fungo demácio capaz, também, de produzir raramente eumicetoma de grãos pretos. Este fungo, segundo KWON-CHUNG & BENNETT, 1992(27 é antigenicamente muito heterogêneo, sendo identificados até o presente momento três sorotipos com subgrupos dentro de cada um deles. A feo-hifomicose subcutânea vem se tornando cada vez mais freqüente em transplantados renais, submetidos a terapêutica imunodepressora. Como a Exophiala jeanselmei já foi isolada do meio ambiente, torna-se dificil explicar a patogenia desses casos por um despertar ou reativação de processos quiescentes. Os Autores fizeram ampla revisão da literatura, registrando principalmente os casos de feo-hifomicose publicados no Brasil. Sugerem também, eventual ação fungistática da ciclosporina A sobre a Exophiala jeanselmei.We report three cases of subcutaneous phaeohy-phomycosis due to Exophiala jeanselmei (Langeron McGinnis et Padhye 1977, in kidney transplant patients. Exophiala jeanselmei is a dematious fungus having also ability to rarely procedure eumycetoma (black grains. According to KWON-CHUNG & BENNETT (199227 such fungus is antigenically very heterogeneous, since so far three serotypes have been identified; each serotype including subgroups. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is becoming more and more frequent in kidney transplant patients submitted to an immunosupressive treatment. As Exophiala jeanselmei has already been isolated from the environment it becomes difficult to explain the pathogenicity of these cases by a reactivation of quiescent processes. The authors suggest an occasional fungistatic action of cyclosporine A upon Exophiala jeanselmei. A review of the literature was carried out with the report mainly of cases published in Brazil.

  7. Exophiala angulospora Causes Systemic Mycosis in Atlantic Halibut: a Case Report.

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    Overy, David P; Groman, David; Giles, Jan; Duffy, Stephanie; Rommens, Mellisa; Johnson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous black yeasts from the genus Exophiala are ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogens causing both superficial and systemic mycoses in warm- and cold-blooded animals. Infections by black yeasts have been reported relatively frequently in a variety of captive and farmed freshwater and marine fishes. In November 2012, moribund and recently dead, farm-raised Atlantic Halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus were necropsied to determine the cause of death. Histopathology revealed that three of seven fish were affected by a combination of an ascending trans-ductual granulomatous mycotic nephritis, necrotizing histiocytic encephalitis, and in one fish the addition of a fibrogranulomatous submucosal branchitis. Microbial cultures of kidney using selective mycotic media revealed pure growth of a black-pigmenting septated agent. Application of molecular and phenotypic taxonomy methodologies determined that all three isolates were genetically consistent with Exophiala angulospora. This is the first report of E. angulospora as the causal agent of systemic mycosis in Atlantic Halibut.

  8. Rapid Identification of Seven Waterborne Exophiala Species by RCA DNA Padlock Probes.

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    Najafzadeh, M J; Vicente, V A; Feng, Peiying; Naseri, A; Sun, Jiufeng; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A; de Hoog, G S

    2018-03-05

    The black yeast genus Exophiala includes numerous potential opportunistic species that potentially cause systematic and disseminated infections in immunocompetent individuals. Species causing systemic disease have ability to grow at 37-40 °C, while others consistently lack thermotolerance and are involved in diseases of cold-blooded, waterborne vertebrates and occasionally invertebrates. We explain a fast and sensitive assay for recognition and identification of waterborne Exophiala species without sequencing. The ITS rDNA region of seven Exophiala species (E. equina, E. salmonis, E. opportunistica, E. pisciphila, E. aquamarina, E. angulospora and E. castellanii) along with the close relative Veronaea botryosa was sequenced and aligned for the design of specific padlock probes for the detection of characteristic single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The assay demonstrated to successfully amplify DNA of target fungi, allowing detection at the species level. Amplification products were visualized on 1% agarose gels to confirm specificity of probe-template binding. Amounts of reagents were reduced to prevent the generation of false positive results. The simplicity, tenderness, robustness and low expenses provide padlock probe assay (RCA) a definite place as a very practical method among isothermal approaches for DNA diagnostics.

  9. Fungal Morphology, Iron Homeostasis, and Lipid Metabolism Regulated by a GATA Transcription Factor in Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber J Marty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0-48 hours, gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C and during the phase transition to mold (22°C. This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition.

  10. Effects of the surfactant Tween 80 on the growth and dibenzothiophene utilization by Exophiala spinifera isolated from oil- contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Elmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil is one of the most important energy sources that contain variety of organosulfur compounds that are combustible and can produce sulfur dioxide which will cause pollution over the atmosphere and the soil. Dibenzothiophene (DBT is often used as a model for biodesulfurization studies and surfactant Tween80 increases the solubility of DBT in water that leads to higher consumption by microorganisms. Materials and methods: DBT specific UV spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 323 nm was used to evaluate the ability of isolated Exophiala spinifera fungus in removal of DBT. The effect of various concentrations of surfactant Tween80 on the growth of the fungus and DBT utilization was studied. Results: Exophiala spinifera was able to remove 100% DBT after 7 days of incubation at 30 ° C and 180 rpm shaking. The effect of different concentrations of surfactant Tween80 on growth and DBT utilization by this fungus was examined and it was observed that the presence of surfactant in the culture medium increased the growth and removal of DBT, therefore the amount of DBT utilized with 0.4% concentration of the surfactant was about 30% more than that utilized without surfactant. However, higher concentrations of surfactant Tween80 decreased the growth and consumption of DBT by fungi. Discussion and conclusion: Exophiala spinifera was isolated from oil contaminated soil and able to utilize toxic compound DBT as a sulfur source in the presence of other carbon sources such as glucose. So this isolated strain could be a good candidate for the petroleum desulfurization and it is the first report about desulfurization of DBT by fungus Exophiala spinifera. Growth and removal of DBT by fungus increased in the presence of surfactant Tween80. It can be concluded that the surfactant increases the total DBT transfer between the organic and aqueous phases and has a potential application in DBT bioremediation system by the studied fungus biocatalyst.

  11. Chromoblastomycosis associated with bone and central nervous involvement system in an immunocompetent child caused by exophiala spinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana M Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera. Child showed good improvement with voriconazole and itraconazole after 1 year of treatment. Skin lesions healed with minimal scarring and his power improved.

  12. Biofiltration of waste gases with the fungi Exophiala oligosperma and Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Elena; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2005-06-01

    Two biofilters fed toluene-polluted air were inoculated with new fungal isolates of either Exophiala oligosperma or Paecilomyces variotii, while a third bioreactor was inoculated with a defined consortium composed of both fungi and a co-culture of a Pseudomonas strain and a Bacillus strain. Elimination capacities of 77 g m(-3) h(-1) and 55 g m(-3) h(-1) were reached in the fungal biofilters (with removal efficiencies exceeding 99%) in the case of, respectively, E. oligosperma and Paecilomyces variotii when feeding air with a relative humidity (RH) of 85%. The inoculated fungal strains remained the single dominant populations throughout the experiment. Conversely, in the biofilter inoculated with the bacterial-fungal consortium, the bacteria were gradually overgrown by the fungi, reaching a maximum elimination capacity around 77 g m(-3) h(-1). Determination of carbon dioxide concentrations both in batch assays and in biofiltration studies suggested the near complete mineralization of toluene. The non-linear toluene removal along the height of the biofilters resulted in local elimination capacities of up to 170 g m(-3) h(-1) and 94 g m(-3) h(-1) in the reactors inoculated, respectively, with E. oligosperma and P. variotii. Further studies with the most efficient strain, E. oligosperma, showed that the performance was highly dependent on the RH of the air and the pH of the nutrient solution. At a constant 85% RH, the maximum elimination capacity either dropped to 48.7 g m(-3) h(-1) or increased to 95.6 g m(-3) h(-1), respectively, when modifying the pH of the nutrient solution from 5.9 to either 4.5 or 7.5. The optimal conditions were 100% RH and pH 7.5, which allowed a maximum elimination capacity of 164.4 g m(-3) h(-1) under steady-state conditions, with near-complete toluene degradation.

  13. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) caused by species of Exophiala, including a novel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaoke, Akinyi; Weber, E Scott; Innis, Charles; Stremme, Donald; Dowd, Cynthia; Hinckley, Lynn; Gorton, Timothy; Wickes, Brian; Sutton, Deanna; de Hoog, Sybren; Frasca, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    During the period from January 2002 to March 2007, infections by melanized fungi were identified with greater frequency in aquarium-maintained leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) and weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus), pivotal species to the educational and environmental concerns of the aquarium industry and conservation groups. The objective of this study was to characterize the pathology and identify fungi associated with phaeohyphomycotic lesions in these species. Samples from 14 weedy and 6 leafy seadragons were received from 2 institutions and included fresh, frozen, and formalin-fixed tissues from necropsy and biopsy specimens. Fresh and frozen tissues were cultured for fungi on Sabouraud dextrose agar only or both Sabouraud dextrose agar and inhibitory mold agar with gentamicin and chloramphenicol at 30 degrees C. Isolates were processed for morphologic identification and molecular sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Lesions were extensive and consisted of parenchymal and vascular necrosis with fungal invasion of gill (11/20), kidney (14/20), and other coelomic viscera with or without cutaneous ulceration (13/20). Exophiala sp. isolates were obtained from 4 weedy and 3 leafy seadragons and were identified to species level in 6 of 7 instances, namely Exophiala angulospora (1) and a novel species of Exophiala (5), based on nucleotide sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis represents an important pathologic condition of both weedy and leafy seadragons for which 2 species of Exophiala, 1 a novel species, have been isolated.

  14. Biofiltration of waste gases with the fungi Exophiala oligosperma and Paecilomyces variotti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, E.; Veiga, M.C.; Kennes, C. [University of La Coruna (Spain). Chemical Engineering Lab.

    2005-06-01

    Two biofilters fed toluene-polluted air were inoculated with new fungal isolates of either Exophiala oligosperma or Paecilomyces variotii, while a third bioreactor was inoculated with a defined consortium composed of both fungi and a co-culture of a Pseudomonas strain and a Bacillus strain. Elimination capacities of 77 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} and 55 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} were reached in the fungal biofilters (with removal efficiencies exceeding 99%) in the case of, respectively, E. oligosperma and Paecilomyces variotii when feeding air with a relative humidity (RH) of 85%. The inoculated fungal strains remained the single dominant populations throughout the experiment. Conversely, in the biofilter inoculated with the bacterial-fungal consortium, the bacteria were gradually overgrown by the fungi, reaching a maximum elimination capacity around 77 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}. Determination of carbon dioxide concentrations both in batch assays and in biofiltration studies suggested the near complete mineralization of toluene. The non-linear toluene removal along the height of the biofilters resulted in local elimination capacities of up to 170 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} and 94 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} in the reactors inoculated, respectively, with E. oligosperma and P. variotii. Further studies with the most efficient strain, E. oligosperma, showed that the performance was highly dependent on the RH of the air and the pH of the nutrient solution. At a constant 85% RH, the maximum elimination capacity either dropped to 48.7 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} or increased to 95.6 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively, when modifying the pH of the nutrient solution from 5.9 to either 4.5 or 7.5. The optimal conditions were 100% RH and pH 7.5, which allowed a maximum elimination capacity of 164.4 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} under steady-state conditions, with near-complete toluene degradation. (orig.)

  15. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a cryptic species Blastomyces gilchristii, sp. nov. within the human pathogenic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Brown

    Full Text Available Analysis of the population genetic structure of microbial species is of fundamental importance to many scientific disciplines because it can identify cryptic species, reveal reproductive mode, and elucidate processes that contribute to pathogen evolution. Here, we examined the population genetic structure and geographic differentiation of the sexual, dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent of blastomycosis.Criteria for Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR applied to seven nuclear loci (arf6, chs2, drk1, fads, pyrF, tub1, and its-2 from 78 clinical and environmental isolates identified two previously unrecognized phylogenetic species. Four of seven single gene phylogenies examined (chs2, drk1, pyrF, and its-2 supported the separation of Phylogenetic Species 1 (PS1 and Phylogenetic Species 2 (PS2 which were also well differentiated in the concatenated chs2-drk1-fads-pyrF-tub1-arf6-its2 genealogy with all isolates falling into one of two evolutionarily independent lineages. Phylogenetic species were genetically distinct with interspecific divergence 4-fold greater than intraspecific divergence and a high Fst value (0.772, P<0.001 indicative of restricted gene flow between PS1 and PS2. Whereas panmixia expected of a single freely recombining population was not observed, recombination was detected when PS1 and PS2 were assessed separately, suggesting reproductive isolation. Random mating among PS1 isolates, which were distributed across North America, was only detected after partitioning isolates into six geographic regions. The PS2 population, found predominantly in the hyper-endemic regions of northwestern Ontario, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, contained a substantial clonal component with random mating detected only among unique genotypes in the population.These analyses provide evidence for a genetically divergent clade within Blastomyces dermatitidis, which we use to describe a novel species

  16. Isolation, purification, and radiolabeling of a novel 120-kD surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts to detect antibody in infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, B.S.; Jones, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    No well-defined Blastomyces-specific antigens are currently available. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify immunologically active molecules in the cell wall of B. dermatitidis. A major immunoreactive 120-kD protein (WI-1) was present in all five strains studied and comprised 5% of the protein in the cell wall extract obtained after freezing and thawing yeast cells. WI-1 was recognized by serum from all 10 patients with blastomycosis but by none of those from 5 patients with histoplasmosis. It was purified by electroelution, radiolabeled with 125I, and incorporated into a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Antibody to WI-1 was detected in 58 (85%) of 68 patients with blastomycosis (geometric mean titer, 1:2,981), in two (3%) of 73 patients with histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, or candidiasis (titers, 1:86 and 1:91) and in none of 44 healthy persons. WI-1 was shown to be a surface molecule abundant on B. dermatitidis yeasts that were indirectly stained with serum from a rabbit immunized with WI-1. Approximately 0.93 pg of WI-1 or 4.7 x 10(6) WI-1 molecules were found on the surface of an individual yeast using an antigen-inhibition RIA; none was found on Histoplasma capsulatum or Candida albicans yeasts. We conclude that WI-1 is a novel, immunologically active surface molecule on the invasive form of B. dermatitidis and that WI-1 can be used to reliably detect antibody and study the immunopathogenesis of blastomycosis

  17. Isolation, purification, and radiolabeling of a novel 120-kD surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts to detect antibody in infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.S.; Jones, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    No well-defined Blastomyces-specific antigens are currently available. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify immunologically active molecules in the cell wall of B. dermatitidis. A major immunoreactive 120-kD protein (WI-1) was present in all five strains studied and comprised 5% of the protein in the cell wall extract obtained after freezing and thawing yeast cells. WI-1 was recognized by serum from all 10 patients with blastomycosis but by none of those from 5 patients with histoplasmosis. It was purified by electroelution, radiolabeled with 125I, and incorporated into a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Antibody to WI-1 was detected in 58 (85%) of 68 patients with blastomycosis (geometric mean titer, 1:2,981), in two (3%) of 73 patients with histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, or candidiasis (titers, 1:86 and 1:91) and in none of 44 healthy persons. WI-1 was shown to be a surface molecule abundant on B. dermatitidis yeasts that were indirectly stained with serum from a rabbit immunized with WI-1. Approximately 0.93 pg of WI-1 or 4.7 x 10(6) WI-1 molecules were found on the surface of an individual yeast using an antigen-inhibition RIA; none was found on Histoplasma capsulatum or Candida albicans yeasts. We conclude that WI-1 is a novel, immunologically active surface molecule on the invasive form of B. dermatitidis and that WI-1 can be used to reliably detect antibody and study the immunopathogenesis of blastomycosis.

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm(2)), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in

  19. Blastomyces dermatitidis septins CDC3, CDC10, and CDC12 impact the morphology of yeast and hyphae, but are not required for the phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Amber J; Gauthier, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, the etiologic agent of blastomycosis, belongs to a group of thermally dimorphic fungi that change between mold (22°C) and yeast (37°C) in response to temperature. The contribution of structural proteins such as septins to this phase transition in these fungi remains poorly understood. Septins are GTPases that serve as a scaffold for proteins involved with cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphology. In this study, we use a GFP sentinel RNA interference system to investigate the impact of CDC3, CDC10, CDC12, and ASPE on the morphology and phase transition of B. dermatitidis. Targeting CDC3, CDC10, and CDC12 by RNA interference resulted in yeast with aberrant morphology at 37°C with defects in cytokinesis. Downshifting the temperature to 22°C promoted the conversion to the mold phase, but did not abrogate the morphologic defects. CDC3, CDC10, and CDC12 knockdown strains grew as mold with curved, thickened hyphae. Knocking down ASPE transcript did not alter morphology of yeast at 37°C or mold at 22°C. Following an increase in temperature from 22°C to 37°C, all septin knockdown strains were able to revert to yeast. In conclusion, CDC3, CDC10, and CDC12 septin- encoding genes are required for proper morphology of yeast and hyphae, but are dispensable for the phase transition.

  20. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.; Liu, M.J.; Zhang, X.T.; Zhang, H.B.; Sha, T.; Zhao, Z.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments. - Research Highlights: →Effect of DSE (E. pisciphila) on heavy metal tolerance of maize host was studied. →DSE alleviated the deleterious effect of excessive heavy metals on maize. →DSE restricted the transfer of heavy metals from the roots to shoots in maize. →DSE colonization improved the tolerance of their host plants to heavy metals.

  1. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.; Liu, M.J.; Zhang, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Zhang, H.B. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Department of Biology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Sha, T. [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China); Zhao, Z.W., E-mail: zhaozhw@ynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization for Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments. - Research Highlights: {yields}Effect of DSE (E. pisciphila) on heavy metal tolerance of maize host was studied. {yields}DSE alleviated the deleterious effect of excessive heavy metals on maize. {yields}DSE restricted the transfer of heavy metals from the roots to shoots in maize. {yields}DSE colonization improved the tolerance of their host plants to heavy metals.

  2. Heterotrophic Bioleaching of Sulfur, Iron, and Silicon Impurities from Coal by Fusarium oxysporum FE and Exophiala spinifera FM with Growing and Resting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadzadeh, Shekoofeh Sadat; Emtiazi, Giti; Etemadifar, Zahra

    2016-06-01

    Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel containing sulfur and other elements which promote environmental pollution after burning. Also the silicon impurities make the transportation of coal expensive. In this research, two isolated fungi from oil contaminated soil with accessory number KF554100 (Fusarium oxysporum FE) and KC925672 (Exophiala spinifera FM) were used for heterotrophic biological leaching of coal. The leaching were detected by FTIR, CHNS, XRF analyzer and compared with iron and sulfate released in the supernatant. The results showed that E. spinifera FM produced more acidic metabolites in growing cells, promoting the iron and sulfate ions removal while resting cells of F. oxysporum FE enhanced the removal of aromatic sulfur. XRF analysis showed that the resting cells of E. spinifera FM proceeded maximum leaching for iron and silicon (48.8, 43.2 %, respectively). CHNS analysis demonstrated that 34.21 % of sulfur leaching was due to the activities of resting cells of F. oxysporum FE. Also F. oxysporum FE removed organic sulfur more than E. spinifera FM in both growing and resting cells. FTIR data showed that both fungi had the ability to remove pyrite and quartz from coal. These data indicated that inoculations of these fungi to the coal are cheap and impurity removals were faster than autotrophic bacteria. Also due to the removal of dibenzothiophene, pyrite, and quartz, we speculated that they are excellent candidates for bioleaching of coal, oil, and gas.

  3. Blastomyces dermatitidis infections in the RSA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compatibility in cross-mating experiments. The diagnosis of this disease can be ... The kidney and prostate are other organs commonly involved. In the lung, the disease process may be acute or chronic, the latter presenting in a similar fashion to ...

  4. Curvularia, Exophiala, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, and other melanized fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of the melanized fungi and the most relevant epidemiological and clinical aspects, and the laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of infections caused by these agents, are discussed in this chapter. This chapter covers most of the agents of phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and

  5. Exophiala oligosperma involved in a refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Hedayati, M.T.; Bahoosh, M.; Kasir, A.; Ghasemi, M.; Motahari, J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hoog, G.S. de

    2011-01-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis refers to a wide variety of conditions caused by fungal infections of the paranasal sinuses. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and sinus fungus balls are mostly noted in healthy individuals. Aspergillus species are supposed to be the most common etiologic agents of the disorder,

  6. Disseminated infection due to Exophiala pisciphila in Cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehulka, J.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Hubka, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 8 (2017), s. 1015-1024 ISSN 0140-7775 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : black yeasts * Cyprinus carpio * experimental infection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2016

  7. Multilocus analysis of the Exophiala jeanselmei clade containing black yeasts involved in opportunistic disease in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, J.; Feng, P.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; Xi, L.; Harrak, M.J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    To confirm species delimitations in the ‘jeanselmei-clade’ in the Chaetothyriales, four independent markers were analysed, and phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using different algorithms. Reproductive isolation within the complex and reproductive modes in the species involved were determined,

  8. Styrene removal from wate gas by the fungus Exophiala Jeanselmei in a biofilter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Hubertus Henricus Jacobus

    1995-01-01

    Styrene is an environmental pollutant, emitted in large quantities to the atmosphere by various industrial sectors. Legislation requires industry to reduce the emission of styrene. One option to purify industrial waste gases is biological treatment in biofilters. ... Zie: Summary

  9. Ionizing radiation changes the electronic properties of melanin and enhances the growth of melanized fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Bryan, Ruth A; Huang, Xianchun; Moadel, Tiffany; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Aisen, Philip; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo

    2007-05-23

    Melanin pigments are ubiquitous in nature. Melanized microorganisms are often the dominating species in certain extreme environments, such as soils contaminated with radionuclides, suggesting that the presence of melanin is beneficial in their life cycle. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation could change the electronic properties of melanin and might enhance the growth of melanized microorganisms. Ionizing irradiation changed the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal of melanin, consistent with changes in electronic structure. Irradiated melanin manifested a 4-fold increase in its capacity to reduce NADH relative to non-irradiated melanin. HPLC analysis of melanin from fungi grown on different substrates revealed chemical complexity, dependence of melanin composition on the growth substrate and possible influence of melanin composition on its interaction with ionizing radiation. XTT/MTT assays showed increased metabolic activity of melanized C. neoformans cells relative to non-melanized cells, and exposure to ionizing radiation enhanced the electron-transfer properties of melanin in melanized cells. Melanized Wangiella dermatitidis and Cryptococcus neoformans cells exposed to ionizing radiation approximately 500 times higher than background grew significantly faster as indicated by higher CFUs, more dry weight biomass and 3-fold greater incorporation of (14)C-acetate than non-irradiated melanized cells or irradiated albino mutants. In addition, radiation enhanced the growth of melanized Cladosporium sphaerospermum cells under limited nutrients conditions. Exposure of melanin to ionizing radiation, and possibly other forms of electromagnetic radiation, changes its electronic properties. Melanized fungal cells manifested increased growth relative to non-melanized cells after exposure to ionizing radiation, raising intriguing questions about a potential role for melanin in energy capture and utilization.

  10. Genetic, Biochemical, Nutritional and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Grown in Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Miklavčič Višnjevec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterises the genetic variability of local pomegranate (Punica granatum L. germplasm from the Slovenian and Croatian areas of Istria. The bioactive components and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts of different parts of pomegranate fruit were also determined, along with their preliminary nutritional characterisation. Twenty-six different genotypes identified with microsatellite analysis indicate the great diversity of pomegranate in Istria. The pomegranate fruit ethanol extracts represent rich sources of phenolic compounds (mean value of the mass fraction in exocarp and mesocarp expressed as gallic acid is 23 and 16 mg/g, respectively. The ethanol extracts of pomegranate exocarp and mesocarp showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Exophiala dermatitidis and Staphylococcus aureus, and the same water extracts against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of the characterisation of pomegranate genetic resources from Istria at different levels, including the molecular, chemical, antimicrobial and nutritional properties.

  11. Combination of Amphotericin B and Flucytosine against Neurotropic Species of Melanized Fungi Causing Primary Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S.; Pan, W.; Liao, W.; de Hoog, G. S.; Gerrits van den Ende, A. H. G.; Vitale, R. G.; Rafati, H.; Ilkit, M.; Van der Lee, A. H.; Rijs, A. J. M. M.; Verweij, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis is a fatal fungal infection due mainly to the neurotropic melanized fungi Cladophialophora bantiana, Rhinocladiella mackenziei, and Exophiala dermatitidis. Despite the combination of surgery with antifungal treatment, the prognosis continues to be poor, with mortality rates ranging from 50 to 70%. Therefore, a search for a more-appropriate therapeutic approach is urgently needed. Our in vitro studies showed that with the combination of amphotericin B and flucytosine against these species, the median fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices for strains ranged from 0.25 to 0.38, indicating synergy. By use of Bliss independence analysis, a significant degree of synergy was confirmed for all strains, with the sum ΔE ranging from 90.2 to 698.61%. No antagonism was observed. These results indicate that amphotericin B, in combination with flucytosine, may have a role in the treatment of primary cerebral infections caused by melanized fungi belonging to the order Chaetothyriales. Further in vivo studies and clinical investigations to elucidate and confirm these observations are warranted. PMID:26833164

  12. Phaeohyphomycosis breast masquerading as fibroadenoma in a young teenage girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amita Jain; Singh, Meeta; Yadav, Surekha; Khurana, Nita; Jain, Shyam Lata; Chawla, Rohit; Laka, Sunil; Mishra, Anurag

    2017-10-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is an unusual granulomatous fungal infection, observed in immunocompromised or diabetic patients; however, it is even rarer in immunocompetent patients. Cytological findings of the same have been infrequently reported. The histopathological diagnosis or fungal culture helps in definitive diagnosis to identify the exact fungal species. Hereby, we report a rare case of invasive fungal infection in a breast lump in a young female, presenting as fibroadenoma breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the breast lesion showed the presence of septate acute-angled branching fungal hyphae with focal pigmentation, morphologically suggestive of phaeohyphomycosis which was positive with fungal stains. This was later confirmed on biopsy as histopathology slides showed the presence of prominent pigmented fungal hyphae. The pus culture from needle aspirate also showed phaeohyphomycotic fungal organism delineating the species Exophiala dermatitidis. Aspiration cytology is crucial for the diagnosis of fungal infection in such cases. An appropriate diagnosis will help in early detection and treatment of such infections as these are usually associated with high morbidity and mortality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Use of Selective Fungal Culture Media Increases Rates of Detection of Fungi in the Respiratory Tract of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gina; Miller, Heather B; Allgood, Sarah; Lee, Richard; Lechtzin, Noah; Zhang, Sean X

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of fungi in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has risen. However, fungal surveillance is not routinely performed in most clinical centers in the United States, which may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of the problem. We conducted a prospective study comparing the rates of detection for clinically important fungi (CIF), defined as Aspergillus , Scedosporium , and Trichosporon species and Exophiala dermatitidis , in CF sputa using standard bacterial and selective fungal culture media, including Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and brain heart infusion (BHI) agar with chloramphenicol and gentamicin. We described the prevalence of these fungi in an adult CF population. A total of 487 CF respiratory samples were collected from 211 unique participants. CIF were detected in 184 (37.8%) samples. Only 26.1% of CIF-positive samples were detected in bacterial culture medium, whereas greater rates of detection for fungi were found in IMA (65.8%; P culture media and longer incubation periods yielded higher rates of detection for CIF in CF sputum samples compared with that detected in bacterial culture medium, resulting in an underdetection of fungi by bacterial culture alone. The prevalence of fungi in CF may be better estimated by using selective fungal culture media, and this may translate to important clinical decisions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Rapid identification of moulds and arthroconidial yeasts from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, João N; Sztajnbok, Jaques; da Silva, Afonso Rafael; Vieira, Vinicius Adriano; Galastri, Anne Layze; Bissoli, Leandro; Litvinov, Nadia; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Motta, Adriana Lopes; Rossi, Flávia; Benard, Gil

    2016-11-01

    Moulds and arthroconidial yeasts are potential life-threatening agents of fungemia in immunocompromised patients. Fast and accurate identification (ID) of these pathogens hastens initiation of targeted antifungal therapy, thereby improving the patients' prognosis. We describe a new strategy that enabled the identification of moulds and arthroconidial yeasts directly from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Positive blood cultures (BCs) with Gram staining showing hyphae and/or arthroconidia were prospectively selected and submitted to an in-house protein extraction protocol. Mass spectra were obtained by Vitek MS™ system, and identifications were carried out with in the research use only (RUO) mode with an extended database (SARAMIS™ [v.4.12] plus in-house database). Fusarium solani, Fusarium verticillioides, Exophiala dermatitidis, Saprochaete clavata, and Trichosporon asahii had correct species ID by MALDI-TOF MS analysis of positive BCs. All cases were related to critically ill patients with high mortality fungemia and direct ID from positive BCs was helpful for rapid administration of targeted antifungal therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Genetic, Biochemical, Nutritional and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
Grown in Istria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višnjevec, Ana Miklavčič; Ota, Ajda; Skrt, Mihaela; Butinar, Bojan; Možina, Sonja Smole; Cimerman, Nina Gunde; Nečemer, Marijan; Arbeiter, Alenka Baruca; Hladnik, Matjaž; Krapac, Marin; Ban, Dean; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Bandelj, Dunja

    2017-06-01

    This study characterises the genetic variability of local pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) germplasm from the Slovenian and Croatian areas of Istria. The bioactive components and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts of different parts of pomegranate fruit were also determined, along with their preliminary nutritional characterisation. Twenty-six different genotypes identified with microsatellite analysis indicate the great diversity of pomegranate in Istria. The pomegranate fruit ethanol extracts represent rich sources of phenolic compounds (mean value of the mass fraction in exocarp and mesocarp expressed as gallic acid is 23 and 16 mg/g, respectively). The ethanol extracts of pomegranate exocarp and mesocarp showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans , Candida parapsilosis , Rhodotorula mucilaginosa , Exophiala dermatitidis and Staphylococcus aureus , and the same water extracts against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of the characterisation of pomegranate genetic resources from Istria at different levels, including the molecular, chemical, antimicrobial and nutritional properties.

  16. Swim bladder mycosis in pretty tetra (Hemigrammus pulcher) caused by Exophiala pisciphila and Phaeophleospora hymenocallidicola, and experimental verification of pathogenicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehulka, J.; Kubátová, A.; Hubka, Vít

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2018), s. 487-500 ISSN 0140-7775 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : black yeasts * blood plasma amino acids * experimental infection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2016

  17. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) caused by species of Exophiala, including a novel species

    OpenAIRE

    Nyaoke, A.; Weber, E.S.; Innis, C.; Stremme, D.; Dowd, C.; Hinckley, L.; Gorton, T.; Wickes, B.; Sutton, D.; de Hoog, S.; Frasca (jr.), S.

    2009-01-01

    During the period from January 2002 to March 2007, infections by melanized fungi were identified with greater frequency in aquarium-maintained leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) and weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus), pivotal species to the educational and environmental concerns of the aquarium industry and conservation groups. The objective of this study was to characterize the pathology and identify fungi associated with phaeohyphomycotic lesions in these species. Samples from 14 ...

  18. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) caused by species of Exophiala, including a novel species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyaoke, A.; Weber, E.S.; Innis, C.; Stremme, D.; Dowd, C.; Hinckley, L.; Gorton, T.; Wickes, B.; Sutton, D.; de Hoog, S.; Frasca (jr.), S.

    2009-01-01

    During the period from January 2002 to March 2007, infections by melanized fungi were identified with greater frequency in aquarium-maintained leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) and weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus), pivotal species to the educational and environmental concerns of the

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0989 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0989 ref|XP_002627763.1| glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase [Ajel...lomyces dermatitidis SLH14081] gb|EEQ75403.1| glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase [Ajellomyces dermatiti...dis SLH14081] gb|EEQ88001.1| glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase [Ajellomyces dermatitidis ER-3] XP_002627763.1 9.8 28% ...

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi from the deep-sea sediments of the central Indian Basin and their growth characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Raghukumar, C.; Verma, P.; Shouche, Y.

    of sporulating cultures mostly matched either with 18S or ITS sequences but seldom with both the sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of ascomycetes using 18S sequence data grouped them into 7 clusters belonging to Aspergillus sp., Sagenomella sp., Exophiala sp...

  1. Pilzinfektionen des Zentralnervensystems bei immunkompetentem Wirt [Fungal infections of the central nervous system in the immunocompetent host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintelnot, K.; de Hoog, G.S.; Haase, G.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mycoses which lead to mycotic tumors in patients without any predisposing underlying disease are either caused by Cryptococcus gattii and C. neoformans or by dematiaceous fungi which include Cladophialophora bantiana, Ramichloridium mackenziei, Exophiala and Fonsecaea species. The

  2. Central nervous system blastomycosis diagnosed using the MVista® Blastomyces quantitative antigen enzyme immunoassay test on cerebrospinal fluid: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkty, Andrew; Keynan, Yoav; Karlowsky, James; Dhaliwal, Perry; Embil, John

    2018-02-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is a thermally dimorphic fungus that is capable of causing pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease, including infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Diagnosis of CNS blastomycosis with non-invasive testing can be difficult, and a surgical biopsy may ultimately be required for microbiological and/or histopathological confirmation. A case of B. dermatitidis meningitis is presented where the diagnosis was made by testing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using the MVista® Blastomyces Quantitative Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay test. The utility of performing this test on CSF for diagnosis of CNS mass lesions/abscesses caused by B. dermatitidis in the absence of associated meningitis remains unclear. Cross reaction of the Blastomyces antigen test with other dimorphic fungi is a concern, necessitating that positive test results are interpreted in the context of the patient's exposure and travel history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blastomycosis in nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Timothy N; Clyde, Victoria L; Munson, Linda; Ramsay, Edward C

    2003-09-01

    Blastomycosis was diagnosed in six nondomestic felids from eastern Tennessee, including two Asian lions (Panthera leo persicus), one African lion (Panthera leo), one Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris), one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), and one snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, dyspnea, sneezing. ataxia, and paresis. Variable nonspecific changes included leukocytosis, monocytosis, moderate left shift of neutrophils, moderate hypercalcemia, hyperproteinemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Thoracic radiographs revealed interstitial and alveolar changes, consolidation or collapse of a lung lobe, bullae formation, and a pulmonary mass. Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) serology for Blastomyces dermatitidis was performed in five felids and was positive in three. The tiger had cerebral blastomycosis and was positive for AGID serologic tests of both cerebrospinal fluid and serum. One percutaneous lung aspirate in the snow leopard and one bronchial aspirate in an Asian lion demonstrated B. dermatitidis organisms. whereas tracheal wash samples and a nasal discharge were nondiagnostic in others. Treatment with itraconazole was attempted in four cats. The tiger improved before euthanasia, whereas the others did not survive beyond initial treatments. In four felids, B. dermatitidis was found in the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes associated with a florid pyogranulomatous reaction; the tiger had a pyogranulomatous encephalomyelitis, and the cheetah had a single pulmonary granuloma. Thoracic radiography, cytologic examination of lung lesion aspirates, and B. dermatitidis AGID serology should be performed on clinically ill zoo felids in endemic areas to rule out blastomycosis.

  4. Carpal intra-articular blastomycosis in a Labrador retriever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Katharine S; Barry, Maureen; Richardson, Danielle

    2013-02-01

    A 6-month-old male castrated Labrador retriever was presented for coughing and forelimb lameness. Blastomyces dermatitidis was identified in cytology of sputum and synovial fluid. Repeat arthrocentesis 7 months later revealed resolution of septic arthritis. Fungal septic arthritis should be considered for cases of monoarthritis and may respond to oral itraconazole treatment.

  5. Carpal intra-articular blastomycosis in a Labrador retriever

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Katharine S.; Barry, Maureen; Richardson, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    A 6-month-old male castrated Labrador retriever was presented for coughing and forelimb lameness. Blastomyces dermatitidis was identified in cytology of sputum and synovial fluid. Repeat arthrocentesis 7 months later revealed resolution of septic arthritis. Fungal septic arthritis should be considered for cases of monoarthritis and may respond to oral itraconazole treatment.

  6. Pilzinfektionen des Zentralnervensystems bei immunkompetentem Wirt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintelnot, K.; de Hoog, G.S.; Haase, G.

    2014-01-01

    Die Mehrzahl von Pilzinfektionen, die zu mykotischen Tumoren führen und bei Patienten ohne jegliche prädisponierende Vorerkrankung auftreten, wird durch Cryptococcus gattii bzw. C. neoformans oder durch Schwärzepilze, insbesondere durch Cladophialophora bantiana, Ramichloridium mackenziei, Exophiala

  7. Phialemonium Fungemia: Two Documented Nosocomial Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Guarro, Josep; Nucci, Marcio; Akiti, Tiyomi; Gené, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Barreiro, M. Da Gloria C.; Aguilar, Carme

    1999-01-01

    Two fungal isolates recovered from the blood of two immunosuppressed patients are described as Phialemonium curvatum. One patient died, while the other, who was infected with Exophiala jeanselmei at the same time, survived after successful treatment with itraconazole. Analysis of internal transcribed spacer sequences demonstrated that the isolates belonged to the same strain and that the source of infection was probably a catheter. The taxonomic position of P. curvatum is discussed, and Phial...

  8. Characterization of microorganisms isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls and componential analysis of the black dirt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miho; Nagata, Yusuke; Niizeki, Kazuma; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    We have previously conducted a microflora analysis and examined the biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms. In the present investigation, to reveal the strain involved in the formation of black dirt in toilet bowls, we performed a microflora analysis of the bacteria and fungi isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls at ten homes. Among samples from different isolation sites and sampling seasons, although a similar tendency was not seen in bacterial microflora, Exophiala sp. was detected in the fungal microflora from all samples of black dirt except for one, and constituted the major presence. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the formed black dirt, SEM image at × 1,000 and × 5,000 magnification showed objects like hyphae and many bacteria adhering to them, respectively. Micro fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro FT-IR) and SEM with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XMA) were used to investigate the components of black dirt. IR spectra of micro-FT-IR showed typical absorptions associated with amide compounds and protein, and the elements such as C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, and Ba were detected with SEM-XMA. These results showed that black dirt had living body ingredients. Furthermore, Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains, which were observed at a high frequency, accumulated 2-hydroxyjuglone (2-HJ) and flaviolin as one of the intermediates in the melanin biosynthetic pathway by the addition of a melanin synthesis inhibitor (tricyclazole) at the time of cultivation. These results suggested strongly that the pigment of black dirt in toilet bowls was melanin produced by Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains.

  9. Endophytic Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 Augments Glycine max L. Adaptation to Ni-Contamination through Affecting Endogenous Phytohormones and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal, Saqib; Khan, Abdul L.; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and ...

  10. Fungal dimorphism: the switch from hyphae to yeast is a specialized morphogenetic adaptation allowing colonization of a host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Kylie J; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The ability of pathogenic fungi to switch between a multicellular hyphal and unicellular yeast growth form is a tightly regulated process known as dimorphic switching. Dimorphic switching requires the fungus to sense and respond to the host environment and is essential for pathogenicity. This review will focus on the role of dimorphism in fungi commonly called thermally dimorphic fungi, which switch to a yeast growth form during infection. This group of phylogenetically diverse ascomycetes includes Talaromyces marneffei (recently renamed from Penicillium marneffei), Blastomyces dermatitidis (teleomorph Ajellomyces dermatitidis), Coccidioides species (C. immitis and C. posadasii), Histoplasma capsulatum (teleomorph Ajellomyces capsulatum), Paracoccidioides species (P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii) and Sporothrix schenckii (teleomorph Ophiostoma schenckii). This review will explore both the signalling pathways regulating the morphological transition and the transcriptional responses necessary for intracellular growth. The physiological requirements of yeast cells during infection will also be discussed, highlighting recent advances in the understanding of the role of iron and calcium acquisition during infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Associação da rifampicina à anfotericina B no tratamento da paracoccidioidomicose: resultados em três pacientes tratados Association of Amphotericin B and Rifampicin in the treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis. Report of efficacy in three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Wanke

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos experimentais demonstraram que a anfotericina B, desorganizando funcionalmente a membrana celular fúngica, permite a penetração da rifampicina no citoplasma e sua conseqüente ação contra Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis e Candida albicans. Com metade das doses habituais' de anfotericina B associada à rifampicina conseguem-se melhores resultados do que com a anfotericina B isoladamente em doses plenas. Os Autores discutem as possíveis aplicações desta associação no tratamento da paracoccidioidomi-cose e apresentam 3 casos desta micose em que a inatividade clínica e micológica só foi obtida após o emprego combinado destas drogas.Experimental data have shown that low concentration of amphotericin B disrupts of the fungal cellular membranes, enhancing entrance of rifampicin into citoplasm, where it acts specifically as an antifungal agent against Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Candida albicans. Amphotericin B in half dosage combined with rifampicin is more effective than when used alone in full dosage. The Authors discuss the possible indications of this association in the therapy of paracoccidioidomycosis, and report its efficacy in three cases of this disease only controlled after its use.

  12. Virulence Factors IN Fungi OF Systemic Mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUROKAWA Cilmery Suemi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi that cause systemic mycoses retain several factors which allow their growth in adverse conditions provided by the host, leading to the establishment of the parasitic relationship and contributing to disease development. These factors are known as virulence factors which favor the infection process and the pathogenesis of the mycoses. The present study evaluates the virulence factors of pathogenic fungi such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in terms of thermotolerance, dimorphism, capsule or cell wall components as well as enzyme production. Virulence factors favor fungal adhesion, colonization, dissemination and the ability to survive in hostile environments and elude the immune response mechanisms of the host. Both the virulence factors presented by different fungi and the defense mechanisms provided by the host require action and interaction of complex processes whose knowledge allows a better understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic mycoses.

  13. Pulmonary blastomycosis in a professional diver: An occupational risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Kroll

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain parts of the United States and Canada, and northern Ontario in particular, the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis is endemic and can cause infection in exposed individuals. The site of infection is usually pulmonary, causing respiratory and constitutional symptoms, but can also affect other sites in the body. Symptom severity can vary substantially from no symptoms to fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present report describes a 27-year-old professional diver who had recently worked in northern Ontario, who developed symptoms of pneumonia and exhibited atypical findings on chest imaging. He was diagnosed with blastomycosis based on histopathological findings and fungal culture, and was treated with amphotericin B and itraconazole in accordance with treatment guidelines. While outdoor occupations in endemic areas increase the risk of infection, there is no literature specifically identifying professional diving as an occupational risk for blastomycosis.

  14. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Muñoz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics

  15. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José F; Gauthier, Gregory M; Desjardins, Christopher A; Gallo, Juan E; Holder, Jason; Sullivan, Thomas D; Marty, Amber J; Carmen, John C; Chen, Zehua; Ding, Li; Gujja, Sharvari; Magrini, Vincent; Misas, Elizabeth; Mitreva, Makedonka; Priest, Margaret; Saif, Sakina; Whiston, Emily A; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Goldman, William E; Mardis, Elaine R; Taylor, John W; McEwen, Juan G; Clay, Oliver K; Klein, Bruce S; Cuomo, Christina A

    2015-10-01

    Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics of genome evolution

  16. Antimicrobial Assay of Soil Mold Isolates from Wonorejo Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septia Arisanti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to an examine antimicrobial activity of 34 soil molds isolates from the Wonorejo Surabaya on the growth of Gram negatif bacteria (Escherichia coli and Coliform Bacteria Group, Gram positif bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antimicrobial ability detected with modification of dual culture antagonism assay in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. The result showed that genus Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were able to inhibit E. coli; while genus Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Exophiala, Stachybotrys, and Acremonium inhibit B. subtilis; further on only genus Aspergillus could inhibit group of Coliform bacteria; and genus Scopulariopsis, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Absidia inhibited the growth of yeast S. cerevisiae.

  17. Antifungal activity of allylamines against agents of eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Pankajalakshmi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of the two allylamines naftifine and terbinafine was investigated against 22 strains of eumycetes isolated from cases of eumycetoma by agar dilution. The isolates included Madurella mycetomatis (4, M. Grisea (8, Pyrenochaeta romeroi (2, Exophiala jeanselmei (2 and Leptosphaeria tompkinsii (1 from black grain eumycetomas and Pseudalescheria boydii (3 Acremonium kiliense (1 and A. recifei (1 form pale grain eumycetomas. Terbinafine was more active than naftifine inhibiting 50% (MIC50 and 90% (MIC90 of the black grain eumycetoma agents at 0.5 and 2.5 ?g/ml respectively. The MIC50s and MIC90s of naftifine were 1 and 5 ?g/ml. For pale grain eumycetoma agents, the MIC range for terbinafine and naftifine were ??0.01 - 100 and 0.1 - 100 ?g/ml.

  18. Protein patterns of black fungi under simulated Mars-like conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Kristina; Marzban, Gorji; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Lorek, Andreas; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-05-29

    Two species of microcolonial fungi - Cryomyces antarcticus and Knufia perforans - and a species of black yeasts-Exophiala jeanselmei - were exposed to thermo-physical Mars-like conditions in the simulation chamber of the German Aerospace Center. In this study the alterations at the protein expression level from various fungi species under Mars-like conditions were analyzed for the first time using 2D gel electrophoresis. Despite of the expectations, the fungi did not express any additional proteins under Mars simulation that could be interpreted as stress induced HSPs. However, up-regulation of some proteins and significant decreasing of protein number were detected within the first 24 hours of the treatment. After 4 and 7 days of the experiment protein spot number was increased again and the protein patterns resemble the protein patterns of biomass from normal conditions. It indicates the recovery of the metabolic activity under Martian environmental conditions after one week of exposure.

  19. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Fungi from Thorns and Thistles in Isfahan and Adjacent Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emami

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most important subcutaneous fungal infections in man are caused by injury due to contaminated thistles and thorns. From an epidemiological point of view , it is important to recognize the fungi as well as their frequency of them in various thistles and thorns Methods: The present research has been conducted on thorns and thistles of 16 regions including cities and villages of Isfahan province. 800 samples have been collected. Specimens were inoculated and incubated at 25◦C in S & SCC medium. In order to isolate and identify the fungi, cultures in specific media, intraperitoneal injections of mice and disc diffusion test have been applied. Results: Over one year of study, 1676 colonies of actinomycetes and fungi were recognized. The most common fungi were as follows: Alternaria (22/4%,Aspergillus(11/8% , Cladosporium (10/8%,Esteril mycellium(10/6% and Penicillium (9/7%. The prevalence was most in Shahreza city(10/2% , while the least was in Ardestan(3%. The most prevalent yeasts were Candida tropicalis (50% , Rodotrula rubra (12/5% , Candida kerusei(11/4%,Trichosporon candida (7/9% , Unknown yeasts (6/8%, Candida gillermondi (5/7%, Saccharomyces cervisia (3/4%, Geotricum candidum and Trichosporon glabrata (Candida glabrata each one (1/1%. The prevalence was most in Khansar city(19/2%. In this study, 4 species similar to Coccidioides immitis, Phialophora verrucosa (4 species and Exophiala jeanselmei (3 species were identified. Conclusion: In this study done for the first time in this area, pathogenic and opportunistic fungi were isolated. Furthermore, Exophiala jeanselmei and Nocardiopsis dassonvillei were isolated for the first time from thorns in the country.

  20. Glutathione-dependent extracellular ferric reductase activities in dimorphic zoopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Robert; Woods, Jon P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, extracellular glutathione-dependent ferric reductase (GSH-FeR) activities in different dimorphic zoopathogenic fungal species were characterized. Supernatants from Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in their yeast form were able to reduce iron enzymically with glutathione as a cofactor. Some variations in the level of reduction were noted amongst the strains. This activity was stable in acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline environments and was inhibited when trivalent aluminium and gallium ions were present. Using zymography, single bands of GSH-FeRs with apparent molecular masses varying from 430 to 460 kDa were identified in all strains. The same molecular mass range was determined by size exclusion chromatography. These data demonstrate that dimorphic zoopathogenic fungi produce and secrete a family of similar GSH-FeRs that may be involved in the acquisition and utilization of iron. Siderophore production by these and other fungi has sometimes been considered to provide a full explanation of iron acquisition in these organisms. Our work reveals an additional common mechanism that may be biologically and pathogenically important. Furthermore, while some characteristics of these enzymes such as extracellular location, cofactor utilization and large size are not individually unique, when considered together and shared across a range of fungi, they represent an important novel physiological feature. PMID:16000713

  1. Laboratory and clinical assessment of ketoconazole in deep-seated mycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouhet, E; Dupont, B

    1983-01-24

    Forty-eight cases of deep mycoses were studied and treated with ketoconazole, each with in vitro evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the causative fungi, in vivo pharmacokinetic, clinical, and mycologic evaluations, several months to two years after the treatment was stopped. Excellent results were obtained in six cases of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, with restoration of immunologic disturbances; 23 cases of systemic candidiasis, including new aspects of heroin addicts with cutaneous, ocular, or osteoarticular manifestations; eight cases of histoplasmosis, five due to Histoplasma capsulatum and three to Histoplasma duboisii, with cure in seven and remission in one; one case of African blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis); three cases of mycetoma, two due to Monosporium apiospermum, one due to a dematiacious fungus; three cases of entomophthoromycosis with cure; one case of fungal arthritis, due to new hyphomycete similar to M. apiospermum, pathogenic for laboratory animals; one case of Drechslera longirostrata causing vertebral arthritis, following a fungal endocarditis and cured by combination of ketoconazole with amphotericin B, each agent alone being ineffective; and other deep mycoses.

  2. Isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis, a Brucella canis-like bacterium, from an edematous canine testicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Wennerdahl, Laura A; Williams, Fred; Evans, Tim J; Ganjam, Irene K; Bowman, Jesse W; Fales, William H

    2014-11-01

    Microbiological and histological analysis of a sample from a swollen testicle of a 2-year-old Border Collie dog revealed a mixed infection of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis and the Gram-negative bacterium Aureimonas altamirensis. When subjected to an automated microbial identification system, the latter isolate was provisionally identified as Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, but the organism shared several biochemical features with Brucella canis and exhibited agglutination, albeit weakly, with anti-B. canis antiserum. Unequivocal identification of the organism was only achieved by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, ultimately establishing the identity as A. altamirensis. Since its first description in 2006, this organism has been isolated infrequently from human clinical samples, but, to the authors' knowledge, has not been reported from a veterinary clinical sample. While of unknown clinical significance with respect to the pathology observed for the polymicrobial infection described herein, it highlights the critical importance to unambiguously identify the microbe for diagnostic, epidemiological, infection control, and public health purposes. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Could Histoplasma capsulatum Be Related to Healthcare-Associated Infections?

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    Laura Elena Carreto-Binaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections (HAI are described in diverse settings. The main etiologic agents of HAI are bacteria (85% and fungi (13%. Some factors increase the risk for HAI, particularly the use of medical devices; patients with severe cuts, wounds, and burns; stays in the intensive care unit, surgery, and hospital reconstruction works. Several fungal HAI are caused by Candida spp., usually from an endogenous source; however, cross-transmission via the hands of healthcare workers or contaminated devices can occur. Although other medically important fungi, such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, have never been considered nosocomial pathogens, there are some factors that point out the pros and cons for this possibility. Among these fungi, H. capsulatum infection has been linked to different medical devices and surgery implants. The filamentous form of H. capsulatum may be present in hospital settings, as this fungus adapts to different types of climates and has great dispersion ability. Although conventional pathogen identification techniques have never identified H. capsulatum in the hospital environment, molecular biology procedures could be useful in this setting. More research on H. capsulatum as a HAI etiologic agent is needed, since it causes a severe and often fatal disease in immunocompromised patients.

  4. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-02-25

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  5. Long-term no-till: A major driver of fungal communities in dryland wheat cropping systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Sharma-Poudyal

    Full Text Available In the dryland Pacific Northwest wheat cropping systems, no-till is becoming more prevalent as a way to reduce soil erosion and fuel inputs. Tillage can have a profound effect on microbial communities and soilborne fungal pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia. We compared the fungal communities in long-term no-till (NT plots adjacent to conventionally tilled (CT plots, over three years at two locations in Washington state and one location in Idaho, US. We used pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS gene and identified 422 OTUs after rarefication. Fungal richness was higher in NT compared to CT, in two of the locations. Humicola nigrescens, Cryptococcus terreus, Cadophora spp. Hydnodontaceae spp., and Exophiala spp. were more abundant in NT, while species of Glarea, Coniochaetales, Mycosphaerella tassiana, Cryptococcus bhutanensis, Chaetomium perlucidum, and Ulocladium chartarum were more abundant in CT in most locations. Other abundant groups that did not show any trends were Fusarium, Mortierella, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Macroventuria. Plant pathogens such as Rhizoctonia (Ceratobasidiaceae were not abundant enough to see tillage differences, but Microdochium bolleyi, a weak root pathogen, was more abundant in NT. Our results suggest that NT fungi are better adapted at utilizing intact, decaying roots as a food source and may exist as root endophytes. CT fungi can utilize mature plant residues that are turned into the soil with tillage as pioneer colonizers, and then produce large numbers of conidia. But a larger proportion of the fungal community is not affected by tillage and may be niche generalists.

  6. Fungal biocatalysts in the biofiltration of VOC-polluted air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, Christian; Veiga, María C

    2004-09-30

    Gas-phase biofilters used for the treatment of waste gases were originally packed with compost or other natural filter beds containing indigenous microorganisms. Over the past decade much effort has been made to develop new carrier materials, more performant biocatalysts and new types of bioreactors. Elimination capacities reached nowadays are 5 to 10 times higher than those originally reported with conventional compost biofilters. With the recently developed inert filter beds, inoculation is a prerequisite for successful start-up and operation. Either non-defined mixed cultures or pure bacterial cultures have originally been used. The search for efficient fungal biocatalysts started only a few years ago, mainly for the biofiltration of waste gases containing hydrophobic compounds, such as styrene, alpha-pinene, benzene, or alkylbenzenes. In this review, recently isolated new fungal strains able to degrade alkylbenzenes and other related volatile organic pollutants are described, as well as their major characteristics and their use as biocatalysts in gas-phase biofilters for air pollution control. In biofiltration, the most extensively studied organism belongs to the genus Exophiala, although strains of Scedosporium, Paecilomyces, Cladosporium, Cladophialophora, and white-rot fungi are all potential candidates for use in biofilters. Encouraging results were obtained in most of the cases in which some of those organisms were present in gas-phase biofilters. They allow reaching high elimination capacities and are resistant to low pH values and to reduce moisture content.

  7. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-Yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg-1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  8. Alteration of protein patterns in black rock inhabiting fungi as a response to different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesei, Donatella; Marzban, Gorji; Zakharova, Kristina; Isola, Daniela; Selbmann, Laura; Sterflinger, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Rock inhabiting fungi are among the most stress tolerant organisms on Earth. They are able to cope with different stressors determined by the typical conditions of bare rocks in hot and cold extreme environments. In this study first results of a system biological approach based on two-dimensional protein profiles are presented. Protein patterns of extremotolerant black fungi – Coniosporium perforans, Exophiala jeanselmei – and of the extremophilic fungus – Friedmanniomyces endolithicus – were compared with the cosmopolitan and mesophilic hyphomycete Penicillium chrysogenum in order to follow and determine changes in the expression pattern under different temperatures. The 2D protein gels indicated a temperature dependent qualitative change in all the tested strains. Whereas the reference strain P. chrysogenum expressed the highest number of proteins at 40 °C, thus exhibiting real signs of temperature induced reaction, black fungi, when exposed to temperatures far above their growth optimum, decreased the number of proteins indicating a down-regulation of their metabolism. Temperature of 1 °C led to an increased number of proteins in all of the analysed strains, with the exception of P. chrysogenum. These first results on temperature dependent reactions in rock inhabiting black fungi indicate a rather different strategy to cope with non-optimal temperature than in the mesophilic hyphomycete P. chrysogenum. PMID:22862921

  9. Fungal Planet description sheets: 69-91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Groenewald, J Z; Shivas, R G; Edwards, J; Seifert, K A; Alfenas, A C; Alfenas, R F; Burgess, T I; Carnegie, A J; Hardy, G E St J; Hiscock, N; Hüberli, D; Jung, T; Louis-Seize, G; Okada, G; Pereira, O L; Stukely, M J C; Wang, W; White, G P; Young, A J; McTaggart, A R; Pascoe, I G; Porter, I J; Quaedvlieg, W

    2011-06-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Bagadiella victoriae and Bagadiella koalae on Eucalyptus spp., Catenulostroma eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus laevopinea, Cercospora eremochloae on Eremochloa bimaculata, Devriesia queenslandica on Scaevola taccada, Diaporthe musigena on Musa sp., Diaporthe acaciigena on Acacia retinodes, Leptoxyphium kurandae on Eucalyptus sp., Neofusicoccum grevilleae on Grevillea aurea, Phytophthora fluvialis from water in native bushland, Pseudocercospora cyathicola on Cyathea australis, and Teratosphaeria mareebensis on Eucalyptus sp. Other species include Passalora leptophlebiae on Eucalyptus leptophlebia (Brazil), Exophiala tremulae on Populus tremuloides and Dictyosporium stellatum from submerged wood (Canada), Mycosphaerella valgourgensis on Yucca sp. (France), Sclerostagonospora cycadis on Cycas revoluta (Japan), Rachicladosporium pini on Pinus monophylla (Netherlands), Mycosphaerella wachendorfiae on Wachendorfia thyrsifolia and Diaporthe rhusicola on Rhus pendulina (South Africa). Novel genera of hyphomycetes include Noosia banksiae on Banksia aemula (Australia), Utrechtiana cibiessia on Phragmites australis (Netherlands), and Funbolia dimorpha on blackened stem bark of an unidentified tree (USA). Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.

  10. Candida and Fusarium species known as opportunistic human pathogens from customer-accessible parts of residential washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babič, Monika Novak; Zalar, Polona; Ženko, Bernard; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2015-03-01

    Energy constraints have altered consumer practice regarding the use of household washing machines. Washing machines were developed that use lower washing temperatures, smaller amounts of water and biodegradable detergents. These conditions may favour the enrichment of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi. We focused on the isolation of fungi from two user-accessible parts of washing machines that often contain microbial biofilms: drawers for detergents and rubber door seals. Out of 70 residential washing machines sampled in Slovenia, 79% were positive for fungi. In total, 72 strains belonging to 12 genera and 26 species were isolated. Among these, members of the Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani species complexes, Candida parapsilosis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis represented 44% of fungi detected. These species are known as opportunistic human pathogens and can cause skin, nail or eye infections also in healthy humans. A machine learning analysis revealed that presence of detergents and softeners followed by washing temperature, represent most critical factors for fungal colonization. Three washing machines with persisting malodour that resulted in bad smelling laundry were analysed for the presence of fungi and bacteria. In these cases, fungi were isolated in low numbers (7.5 %), while bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sphingomonas species prevailed. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential for biocontrol of melanized fungi by actinobacteria isolated from intertidal region of Ilha Do Mel, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalitz, Camila de Araújo; Porsani, Mariana Vieira; Figel, Izabel Cristina; Pimentel, Ida C; Dalzoto, Patrícia R

    Actinobacteria occur in many environments and have the capacity to produce secondary metabolites with antibiotic potential. Identification and taxonomy of actinobacteria that produce antimicrobial substances is essential for the screening of new compounds, and sequencing of the 16S region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which is conserved and present in all bacteria, is an important method of identification. Melanized fungi are free-living organisms, which can also be pathogens of clinical importance. This work aimed to evaluate growth inhibition of melanized fungi by actinobacteria and to identify the latter to the species level. In this study, antimicrobial activity of 13 actinobacterial isolates from the genus Streptomyces was evaluated against seven melanized fungi of the genera Exophiala, Cladosporium, and Rhinocladiella. In all tests, all actinobacterial isolates showed inhibitory activity against all isolates of melanized fungi, and only one actinobacterial isolate had less efficient inhibitory activity. The 16S rDNA region of five previously unidentified actinobacterial isolates from Ilha do Mel, Paraná, Brazil, was sequenced; four of the isolates were identified as Streptomyces globisporus subsp. globisporus, and one isolate was identified as Streptomyces aureus. This work highlights the potential of actinobacteria with antifungal activity and their role in the pursuit of novel antimicrobial substances. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular characterization of reptile pathogens currently known as members of the chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii complex and relationship with some human-associated isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Lynne; Hambleton, Sarah; Paré, Jean A

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), Chrysosporium guarroi, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, and Chrysosporium species have been reported as the causes of dermal or deep lesions in reptiles. These infections are contagious and often fatal and affect both captive and wild animals. Forty-nine CANV isolates from reptiles and six isolates from human sources were compared with N. vriesii based on their cultural characteristics and DNA sequence data. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales. One lineage represents the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. vriesii, N. guarroi, and six additional species encompassing isolates from chameleons and geckos, crocodiles, agamid and iguanid lizards, and humans. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. nov., with three new species infecting squamates and tuataras. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea. Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. N. guarroi causes yellow fungus disease, a common infection in bearded dragons and green iguanas, and O. ophiodiicola is an emerging pathogen of captive and wild snakes. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis.

  13. Blastomycosis in Quebec (1981–90: Report of 23 Cases and Review of Published Cases from Quebec

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    G St-Germain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three cases of blastomycosis were reported in a survey conducted in the province of Quebec from 1981–90. Thirteen patients resided south of the St Lawrence River and the other 10, north. Two small geographical clusters were apparent in and around the cities of Sherbrooke and Quebec. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1 and the median age was 47 years (range 26 to 77. Lung involvement was observed in 19 cases and was the only site involved in 11. Cutaneous manifestations were reported in 11 cases while bone infection (three cases and central nervous system (CNS infections were also noted. Diagnosis was confirmed by culture in 21 cases and by histopathology in two cases. Of the 21 culture-positive cases, 12 strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis were isolated from lungs, nine from skin, and one each from bone and brain. Serodiagnostic tests by immunodiffusion or complement fixation were positive for only one of the 10 patients known to have been tested. Ten patients were treated with amphotericin B, 11 with ketoconazole, one with fluconazole and eight underwent surgery. While amphotericin B was used in eight of the 10 earliest treated cases, ketoconazole was administered in 10 of the 13 more recent cases. Of the patients for whom follow-up data have been obtained, 21 are reported cured (one of whom was not treated and one patient died of another cause. This survey confirms that blastomycosis is a rare disease in this endemic area and that patterns of therapy are changing.

  14. In vitro and comparative study on the extracellular enzyme activity of molds isolated from keratomycosis and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Mythili

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To isolate and identify the molds involved in mycotic keratitis; to isolate corresponding species from soil samples; to compare the extracellular enzyme activity indices of the molds isolated from keratitis cases and the corresponding soil isolates.METHODS:The specimens were collected from the target patients attending the microbiology laboratory of tertiary eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state, India. The isolates were subjected for identification based on the growth on solid media, direct microscopy and lacto phenol cotton blue wet mount preparation. Extracellular enzymes such as lipase, deoxyribonuclease (DNase, α-amylase, protease, cellulase and pectinase produced by the fungalisolates were screened on solid media supplemented with the corresponding substrates. Based on growth and zone diameter, the enzyme activity indices were calculated and were compared with that of the soil fungalisolates.RESULTS:A total of 108 clinical samples were collected from a tertiary eye care hospital and out of which 60 fungal isolates were obtained. Among these, Fusarium spp. (n=30, non sporulating molds (n=9, Aspergillus flavus (n=6, Bipolaris spp. (n=6, Exserohilum spp. (n=4, Curvularia spp. (n=3, Alternaria spp. (n=1 and Exophiala spp. (n=1were identified and designated as FS1-30, NSM1-9, AF1-6, BS1-6, ES1-4, CS1-3, AS1 and EX1, respectively. For comparative analysis, soil samples were also collected from which, one isolate of each Fusarium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris spp., Exserohilum spp., and Curvularia spp., respectively were selected. Highest lipase activity was seen in corneal isolate NSM2 (EAI= 2.14. The DNase activity was higher in NSM9 (EAI=1.88. In case of protease, Fusarium spp. (FS9 had prominent enzyme activity index of 1.38; α-amylase activity was also superior in corneal isolate FS13 with EAI of 1.63 when compared to other isolates. The enzyme activity index for cellulase was also noted to be higher in corneal isolates i

  15. Endophytic Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 Augments Glycine max L. Adaptation to Ni-Contamination through Affecting Endogenous Phytohormones and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Saqib; Khan, Abdul L; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum , Paecilomyces formosus , Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P. formosus LHL10 significantly increased plant biomass and growth attributes as compared to non-inoculated control plants with or without Ni contamination. LHL10 enhanced the translocation of Ni from the root to the shoot as compared to the control. In addition, P. formosus LHL10 modulated the physio-chemical apparatus of soybean plants during Ni-contamination by reducing lipid peroxidation and the accumulation of linolenic acid, glutathione, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Stress-responsive phytohormones such as abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were significantly down-regulated in fungal-inoculated soybean plants under Ni stress. LHL10 Ni-remediation potential can be attributed to its phytohormonal synthesis related genetic makeup. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of indole-3-acetamide hydrolase , aldehyde dehydrogenase for indole-acetic acid and geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase , ent-kaurene oxidase ( P450-4 ), C13-oxidase ( P450-3 ) for gibberellins synthesis. In conclusion, the inoculation of P. formosus can significantly improve plant growth in Ni-polluted soils, and assist in improving the phytoremediation abilities of economically important crops.

  16. Endophytic Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 Augments Glycine max L. Adaptation to Ni-Contamination through Affecting Endogenous Phytohormones and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Bilal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM. Inoculation with P. formosus LHL10 significantly increased plant biomass and growth attributes as compared to non-inoculated control plants with or without Ni contamination. LHL10 enhanced the translocation of Ni from the root to the shoot as compared to the control. In addition, P. formosus LHL10 modulated the physio-chemical apparatus of soybean plants during Ni-contamination by reducing lipid peroxidation and the accumulation of linolenic acid, glutathione, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Stress-responsive phytohormones such as abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were significantly down-regulated in fungal-inoculated soybean plants under Ni stress. LHL10 Ni-remediation potential can be attributed to its phytohormonal synthesis related genetic makeup. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of indole-3-acetamide hydrolase, aldehyde dehydrogenase for indole-acetic acid and geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase, ent-kaurene oxidase (P450-4, C13-oxidase (P450-3 for gibberellins synthesis. In conclusion, the inoculation of P. formosus can significantly improve plant growth in Ni-polluted soils, and assist in improving the phytoremediation abilities of economically important crops.

  17. Identity, diversity, and molecular phylogeny of the endophytic mycobiota in the roots of rare wild rice (Oryza granulate) from a nature reserve in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Lin; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Kubicek, Christian P

    2010-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is, on a global scale, one of the most important food crops. Although endophytic fungi and bacteria associated with rice have been investigated, little is known about the endophytic fungi of wild rice (Oryza granulate) in China. Here we studied the root endophytic mycobiota residing in roots of O. granulate by the use of an integrated approach consisting of microscopy, cultivation, ecological indices, and direct PCR. Microscopy confirmed the ubiquitousness of dark septate endophytes (DSEs) and sclerotium-like structures in root tissues. Isolations from 204 root segments from 15 wild rice plants yielded 58 isolates, for which 31 internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based genotypes were recorded. The best BLAST match indicated that 34.5% of all taxa encountered may represent hitherto undescribed species. Most of the fungi were isolated with a very low frequency. Calculation of ecological indices and estimation of taxon accumulation curves indicated a high diversity of fungal species. A culture-independent approach was also performed to analyze the endophytic fungal community. Three individual clone libraries were constructed. Using a threshold of 90% similarity, 35 potentially different sequences (phylotypes) were found among 186 positive clones. Phylogenetic analysis showed that frequently detected clones were classified as Basidiomycota, and 60.2% of total analyzed clones were affiliated with unknown taxa. Exophiala, Cladophialophora, Harpophora, Periconia macrospinosa, and the Ceratobasidium/Rhizoctonia complex may act as potential DSE groups. A comparison of the fungal communities characterized by the two approaches demonstrated distinctive fungal groups, and only a few taxa overlapped. Our findings indicate a complex and rich endophytic fungal consortium in wild rice roots, thus offering a potential bioresource for establishing a novel model of plant-fungal mutualistic interactions.

  18. Microbial Diversity of Browning Peninsula, Eastern Antarctica Revealed Using Molecular and Cultivation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Sarita; Wilson, John; Ji, Mukan; van Dorst, Josie; Snape, Ian; Palmer, Anne S; Burns, Brendan P; Ferrari, Belinda C

    2017-01-01

    Browning Peninsula is an ice-free polar desert situated in the Windmill Islands, Eastern Antarctica. The entire site is described as a barren landscape, comprised of frost boils with soils dominated by microbial life. In this study, we explored the microbial diversity and edaphic drivers of community structure across this site using traditional cultivation methods, a novel approach the soil substrate membrane system (SSMS), and culture-independent 454-tag pyrosequencing. The measured soil environmental and microphysical factors of chlorine, phosphate, aspect and elevation were found to be significant drivers of the bacterial community, while none of the soil parameters analyzed were significantly correlated to the fungal community. Overall, Browning Peninsula soil harbored a distinctive microbial community in comparison to other Antarctic soils comprised of a unique bacterial diversity and extremely limited fungal diversity. Tag pyrosequencing data revealed the bacterial community to be dominated by Actinobacteria (36%), followed by Chloroflexi (18%), Cyanobacteria (14%), and Proteobacteria (10%). For fungi, Ascomycota (97%) dominated the soil microbiome, followed by Basidiomycota. As expected the diversity recovered from culture-based techniques was lower than that detected using tag sequencing. However, in the SSMS enrichments, that mimic the natural conditions for cultivating oligophilic "k-selected" bacteria, a larger proportion of rare bacterial taxa (15%), such as Blastococcus, Devosia, Herbaspirillum, Propionibacterium and Methylocella and fungal (11%) taxa, such as Nigrospora, Exophiala, Hortaea , and Penidiella were recovered at the genus level. At phylum level, a comparison of OTU's showed that the SSMS shared 21% of Acidobacteria, 11% of Actinobacteria and 10% of Proteobacteria OTU's with soil. For fungi, the shared OTUs was 4% (Basidiomycota) and <0.5% (Ascomycota). This was the first known attempt to culture microfungi using the SSMS which resulted in

  19. The diversity, extracellular enzymatic activities and photoprotective compounds of yeasts isolated in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline B. M Vaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts collected from different sites in Antarctica (Admiralty Bay, King George Island and Port Foster Bay and Deception Island and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes and mycosporines were studied. Samples were collected during the austral summer season, between November 2006 and January 2007, from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica, ornithogenic (penguin guano soil, soil, marine and lake sediments, marine water and freshwater from lakes. A total of 89 isolates belonging to the following genera were recovered: Bensingtonia, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Dioszegia, Exophiala, Filobasidium, Issatchenkia (Pichia, Kodamaea, Leucosporidium, Leucosporidiella, Metschnikowia, Nadsonia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus, and the yeast-like fungi Aureobasidium, Leuconeurospora and Microglossum. Cryptococcus victoriae was the most frequently identified species. Several species isolated in our study have been previously reported to be Antarctic psychophilic yeasts, including Cr. antarcticus, Cr. victoriae, Dioszegia hungarica and Leucosporidium scottii. The cosmopolitan yeast species A. pullulans, C. zeylanoides, D. hansenii, I. orientalis, K. ohmeri, P. guilliermondii, Rh. mucilaginosa, and S. salmonicolor were also isolated. Five possible new species were identified. Sixty percent of the yeasts had at least one detectable extracellular enzymatic activity. Cryptococcus antarcticus, D. aurantiaca, D. crocea, D. hungarica, Dioszegia sp., E. xenobiotica, Rh. glaciales, Rh. laryngis, Microglossum sp. 1 and Microglossum sp. 2 produced mycosporines. Of the yeast isolates, 41.7% produced pigments and/or mycosporines and could be considered adapted to survive in Antarctica. Most of the yeasts had extracellular enzymatic activities at 4ºC and 20ºC, indicating that they could be metabolically active in the sampled substrates.

  20. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B.; Moe, W.M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kinney, K.A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids (n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxii produced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. (orig.)

  1. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  2. Simultaneous detection and identification of Aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10(-3) ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

  3. Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales Species in Tissues Collected from Patients with Fungal Rhinosinusitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10−3 ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. PMID:21325541

  4. Contaminação fúngica de plantas medicinais utilizadas em chás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravely Lucena Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade microbiológica quanto à presença de fungos filamentosos em ervas do tipo Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo, Pimpinella anisum L. (erva-doce e Matricaria chamomilla L. (Camomila comercializadas na cidade de Campina Grande (Paraíba. Nove amostras de cada planta foram analisadas, totalizando 27 amostras, obtidas aleatoriamente nas feiras livres e barracas informais da cidade. Cada 10 g de amostra foram suspensas em 90 mL de solução salina 0,89% estéril, obtendo-se o concentrado, a partir do qual foram realizadas diluições sucessivas. A seguir, uma alíquota de 0,1mL de cada diluição foi semeada em placas de Petri contendo Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose, as quais foram incubadas à temperatura ambiente por cinco a dez dias. Após este período foram contadas as colônias fúngicas presentes e realizados seus respectivos microcultivos para identificação através de microscópio óptico. Foram encontrados fungos toxigênicos como Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. e Fusarium sp., estando o primeiro presente em todas as amostras avaliadas. Também foram identificados os fungos Exophiala sp. e Fonsecaea sp., que possuem importância clínica, podendo causar micose. A forma como estas plantas são armazenadas para comercialização e a falta de fiscalização torna questionável a qualidade das plantas comercializadas para obtenção de chás, o que pode comprometer a saúde do consumidor ao utilizar esses produtos na forma de Chá.

  5. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea. Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins

  6. [Microbiological analysis of terrestrial biotopes of the Antarctic region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashirev, A B; Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Shilin, S O; Chernaia, N A; Tashireva, A A

    2010-01-01

    Microbiological analysis has been made of 120 samples from biotopes of the western coast of the Antarctic peninsula (Rasmussen cope, Tuxen cope, Waugh mountain), Argentine archipelago islands (Galindez, Skua, Corner, Barchans, Irizar, Uruguay, Cluls, Three Little Pigs, King-George), as well as neighbouring islands (Petermann--on the north, a group of Jalour islands--on the east, Berthelot--on the south-east); and more remote islands (Darboux, Lippmann, Booth). It was found out that the total number of chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms was 10(6) - 10(8) cells/g of soil, that was by 2-3 orders lower than in the regions with temperate climate. One can observe a tendency of decreasing the quantity of chemoorganotrophic microorganisms in the Antartic biotopes (cells/g of a sample) in the following order: soil (1 x 10(7) - 8 x 10(8)), underground part of moss (1 x 10(6) - 5 x 10(7)), grass Deschampsia antarctica (10(6) - 10(8), slit of fresh-water reservoir (10(5) - 10(7)), ground part of moss (10(3) - 10(6)), lichens (10(3) - 10(6)). Representatives of several phylogenetic lines: Proteobacteria (genera Pseudomonas, Methylobacterium, Enterobacter), Firmicutes (genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus), Actinobacteria (genera Brevibacterium, Actinomyces, Streptomyces) have been found in the Antarctic samples. As a rule, genera of bacteria found in the Antarctic Region are widely distributed in different regions of the Earth with temperate climate. Microorganisms similar to the species Exophiala nigra (Issatsch.) Haats et de Hoog 1999, which was first detected 100 years ago by Academician B.L. Isachenko in the Arctic region water, were also isolated from biofilms on vertical rocks of the Galindez Island as well as from the soil of the Irizar Island.

  7. Comparative genomics allowed the identification of drug targets against human fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Natalia F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs has increased steadily worldwide in the last few decades. Particularly, there has been a global rise in the number of infections among immunosuppressed people. These patients present severe clinical forms of the infections, which are commonly fatal, and they are more susceptible to opportunistic fungal infections than non-immunocompromised people. IFIs have historically been associated with high morbidity and mortality, partly because of the limitations of available antifungal therapies, including side effects, toxicities, drug interactions and antifungal resistance. Thus, the search for alternative therapies and/or the development of more specific drugs is a challenge that needs to be met. Genomics has created new ways of examining genes, which open new strategies for drug development and control of human diseases. Results In silico analyses and manual mining selected initially 57 potential drug targets, based on 55 genes experimentally confirmed as essential for Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus and other 2 genes (kre2 and erg6 relevant for fungal survival within the host. Orthologs for those 57 potential targets were also identified in eight human fungal pathogens (C. albicans, A. fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Paracoccidioides lutzii, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Of those, 10 genes were present in all pathogenic fungi analyzed and absent in the human genome. We focused on four candidates: trr1 that encodes for thioredoxin reductase, rim8 that encodes for a protein involved in the proteolytic activation of a transcriptional factor in response to alkaline pH, kre2 that encodes for α-1,2-mannosyltransferase and erg6 that encodes for Δ(24-sterol C-methyltransferase. Conclusions Our data show that the comparative genomics analysis of eight fungal pathogens enabled the identification of

  8. Screening of extremotolerant fungi for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Prenafeta, Francesc; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated sites, by taking advantage of microorganisms which have the potential to degrade a wide range of contaminants. While research has been focused mainly on bacteria, the knowledge on other microorganisms, especially fungal communities, is still limited. However, the use of fungi may have advantages compared to bacteria. Extremophile fungi like the black yeasts can withstand high levels of environmental stress (e.g. range of pH, water availability and temperature, presence of toxic chemicals). Therefore they might be applicable in situations, where bacterial communities show limited performance. In order to identify fungi which are good candidates for bioremediation application, a selection of 163 fungal strains, mostly from the group of the black yeasts, was tested for their capability to degrade three different pollutants: hexadecane, toluene, and polychlorinated biphenyl 126, which were used as model compounds for aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. These chemicals are frequently found in sites contaminated by oil, gas and coal. The screening was based on a two-step selection approach. As a first step, a high throughput method was developed to screen the relatively large amount of fungal strains regarding their tolerance to the contaminants. A microtiter plate based method was developed for monitoring fungal growth in the presence of the selected contaminants photometrically with a Tecan reader. Twenty five strains out of 163, being species of the genera Cladophilaophora, Scedosporium and Exophiala, showed the ability to grow on at least 2 hydrocarbons, and are therefore the most promising candidates for further tests. In a second step, degradation of the contaminants was investigated in more detail for a subset of the screened fungi. This was done by closing the carbon balance in sealed liquid cultures in which the selected pollutant was introduce as the sole source of carbon

  9. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    caatingaensis (endophyte from Tacinga inamoena ), Geastrum ishikawae on sandy soil, Geastrum pusillipilosum on soil, Gymnopus pygmaeus on dead leaves and sticks, Inonotus hymenonitens on decayed angiosperm trunk, Pyricularia urashimae on Urochloa brizantha , and Synnemellisia aurantia on Passiflora edulis . Chile : Tubulicrinis australis on Lophosoria quadripinnata. France : Cercophora squamulosa from submerged wood, and Scedosporium cereisporum from fluids of a wastewater treatment plant. Hawaii : Beltraniella acaciae , Dactylaria acaciae , Rhexodenticula acaciae , Rubikia evansii and Torula acaciae (all on Acacia koa ) . India : Lepidoderma echinosporum on dead semi-woody stems, and Rhodocybe rubrobrunnea from soil. Iran : Talaromyces kabodanensis from hypersaline soil. La Réunion : Neocordana musarum from leaves of Musa sp. Malaysia : Anungitea eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus grandis × pellita , Camptomeriphila leucaenae (incl. Camptomeriphila gen. nov.) on Leucaena leucocephala , Castanediella communis on Eucalyptus pellita , Eucalyptostroma eucalypti (incl. Eucalyptostroma gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , Melanconiella syzygii on Syzygium sp., Mycophilomyces periconiae (incl. Mycophilomyces gen. nov.) as hyperparasite on Periconia on leaves of Albizia falcataria , Synnemadiella eucalypti (incl. Synnemadiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , and Teichospora nephelii on Nephelium lappaceum. Mexico : Aspergillus bicephalus from soil. New Zealand : Aplosporella sophorae on Sophora microphylla , Libertasomyces platani on Platanus sp., Neothyronectria sophorae (incl. Neothyronectria gen. nov.) on Sophora microphylla , Parastagonospora phoenicicola on Phoenix canariensis , Phaeoacremonium pseudopanacis on Pseudopanax crassifolius , Phlyctema phoenicis on Phoenix canariensis , and Pseudoascochyta novae-zelandiae on Cordyline australis. Panama : Chalara panamensis from needle litter of Pinus cf. caribaea . South Africa : Exophiala eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp