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Sample records for wallstent shortening resulting

  1. Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenting in Surgically High-Risk Patients Using the Carotid Wallstent Endoprosthesis:Midterm Clinical and Ultrasound Follow-Up Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleux, Geert; Bernaerts, Pauwel; Thijs, Vincent; Daenens, Kim; Vaninbroukx, Johan; Fourneau, Inge; Nevelsteen, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and midterm outcome of elective implantation of the Carotid Wallstent (registered) in patients considered to be at high surgical risk. In a prospective study, 54 carotid artery stenoses in 51 patients were stented over a 24-month period. Three patients underwent bilateral carotid artery stenting. Institutional inclusion criteria for invasive treatment of carotid occlusive disease (carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting) are patients presenting with a 70% or more symptomatic stenosis and those with an 80% or more asymptomatic stenosis having a life-expectancy of more than 1 year. All patients treated by carotid artery stenting were considered at high risk for carotid endarterectomy because of a hostile neck (17 patients-31.5%) or because of severe comorbidities (37 patients-68.5%). No cerebral protection device was used. Of the 54 lesions, 33 (61.1%) were symptomatic and 21 (38.8%) were asymptomatic. Follow-up was performed by physical examination and by duplex ultrasonography at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after the procedure. All 54 lesions could be stented successfully without periprocedural stroke. Advert events during follow-up (mean 13.9 ± 5.7 months) were non-stroke-related death in 6 patients (11.1%), minor stroke in 4 stented hemispheres(7.4%), transient ipsilateral facial pain in 1 patient (1.8%),infection of the stented surgical patch in 1 patient (1.8%) and asymptomatic in stent restenosis in 4 patients (7.4%). The percutaneous implantation of the Carotid Wallstent (registered) , even without cerebral protection device, appears to be a safe procedure with acceptable clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up results in patients at high surgical risk. But some late adverse events such as ipsilateral recurrence of non-disabling (minor) stroke or in stent restenosis still remain real challenging problems

  2. Wallstents for metastatic biliary obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, A. M.; Bergman, J. J.; Waxman, I.; Andres, P.; Huibregtse, K.

    1996-01-01

    In patients with obstruction of the common bile duct caused by primary pancreaticoblliary tumors, Wallstents have been shown to remain patent for a median duration of 273 days (range: 14-363). However, in one study that included both patients with primary pancreaticobillary malignancies and patients

  3. Malignant Gastroduodenal Obstruction: Treatment with Self-Expanding Uncovered Wallstent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Binkert, Christoph A.; Schoch, Eric; Sautter, Thomas; Jost, Res; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a self-expanding uncovered Wallstent in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. Materials and Methods: Under combined endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, 29 patients with a malignant gastroduodenal stenosis were treated with a self-expanding uncovered metallic Wallstent. A dysphagia score was assessed before and after the intervention to measure the success of this palliative therapy. The dysphagia score ranged between grade 0 to grade 4: grade 0 = able to tolerate solid food, grade 1 = able to tolerate soft food, grade 2 = able to tolerate thick liquids, grade 3 = able to tolerate water or clear fluids, and grade 4 = unable to tolerate anything perorally. Stent patency and patients survival rates were calculated. Results: The insertion of the gastroduodenal stent was technically successful in 28 patients (96.5%). After stenting, 25 patients (86.2%) showed clinical improvement by at least one score point. During follow-up, 22 (78.5%) of 28 patients showed no stent occlusion until death and did not have to undergo any further intervention. In six patients (20.6%), all of whom were treated with secondary stent insertions, occlusion with tumor ingrowth and/or overgrowth was observed after the intervention. The median period of primary stent patency in our study was 240 days. Conclusion: Placement of an uncovered Wallstent is clinically effective in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. Stent placement is associated with high technical success, good palliation effect, and high durability of stent function.

  4. Efficacy of transoral intraluminal Wallstents for tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, R R; Numa, W A; Nurko, Y J

    2000-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of intraluminal Wallstent Endoprosthesis (Boston Scientific/ Medi-Tech, Quincy, MA) placement to restore airway patency in patients with tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia are unknown. Retrospective review in setting of tertiary, referral, and academic center. A retrospective review of 13 consecutive patients over a 2-year period who underwent transoral resection of tracheal stenosis and immediate transoral Wallstent placement. One patient had tracheomalacia. All of the patients were considered at high risk for transcervical surgery or had failed prior traditional open procedures. The average patient age was 54.2 years, with nine male and four female patients. All had Cotton/Myer stenoses (grades II to IV) with moderate to severe degrees of inspiratory stridor. Four patients were tracheotomy dependent. The length of stenosis varied from 1 to 4 cm. One patient had a 10-cm segment of tracheomalacia. At the time of writing, none of the patients has had a problem with significant migration or extrusion and most of the patients have incorporated the stent well without any short-term obstructive granulation tissue. After a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 4-24 mo). 10 of the 12 patients with stenosis (83%) have remained free of any inspiratory noise during breathing. The one patient with tracheomalacia also has remained free of symptoms. Transoral Wallstents appear to be safe and may be a reasonable alternative in the restoration of airway patency in select patients with tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia.

  5. Intraluminal wallstent +/- HDR brachytherapy in palliation of obstructive pancreatic and bile duct cancers: first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetta, A.; Ricci, E.; Mortilla, M.G.; Conigliaro, R.; Zingoni, A.; Armaroli, L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To report the first data of the Reggio Emilia Trial on tolerance and effectiveness of the High Dose Rate brachytherapy in the palliative treatment of extrahepatic bile ducts obstructions. The endpoints of this study are to assess if the endoluminal irradiation can delay the biliary tract re-occlusion and prolong the survival. Material and methods: All patients were treated positioning the Wallstent prosthesis by endoscopic route in the stenotic biliary tract; then they were randomised between observation and endoluminal brachytherapy. From 6/1994, 11 patients with bilio-pancreatic locally advanced cancer (8 pancreas, 3 biliary tract) were admitted to this study: 6 in the control arm and 5 in the brachytherapy group. The radiotherapy was performed by naso-biliary route, in the same day of the stenting, using a High Dose Rate Unit (Iridium 192 source) and prescribing the dose (14 Gy) at 1 cm from the catheter axis. The treatment was always performed in only one day, in 2 fractions with 8 hours split. Clinical data and haematological tests were recorded at 1 st , 7 th , 30 th days and every 3 months. Results: All patients had a complete regression of the jaundice; haematological tests (on 7 th and 30 th day) showed bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases (SGOT, SGPT), and leukocytosis normalisation. Pancreatic or hepatic acute side effects, cholangitis (due to the endoscopy), actinic erosive gastroduodenitis, radiotherapy local necrosis, peritoneal reactions or naso-biliary tube intolerance were not observed. The average follow up is 144 days (30-476). So far, 8 patients are alive without symptoms and 3 patients died at 476,104, 87 days; 1 for cancer and 2 for other causes. Re-obstructions of the biliary tract did not occur. Conclusions: Wallstent prosthesis is highly efficient in jaundice palliation. The brachytherapy does not increase the toxicity of the disobstrucive treatments. So far, the overall and symptoms free survivals are not significantly

  6. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  7. The "Wallstent"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier-Holgersen, R; Brasso, K; Nordling, J

    1993-01-01

    Ten patients have been reviewed in whom urethral stents were implanted for treatment of urethral stricture. Their urethral strictures had been treated with a median of 4.2 endoscopic urethrotomies under direct vision without success. The patients were first treated with optical urethrotomy...

  8. Primary Patency of Wallstents in Malignant Bile Duct Obstruction: Single vs. Two or More Noncoaxial Stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybody, Majid; Brown, Karen T.; Brody, Lynn A.; Covey, Anne M.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Thornton, Raymond H.; Getrajdman, George I.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the primary patency of two or more noncoaxial self-expanding metallic Wallstents (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) and to compare this with the primary patency of a single stent in malignant bile duct obstruction. From August 2002 to August 2004, 127 patients had stents placed for malignant bile duct obstruction. Forty-five patients were treated with more than one noncoaxial self-expanding metallic stents and 82 patients had a single stent placed. Two patients in the multiple-stent group were lost to follow-up. The primary patency period was calculated from the date of stenting until the first poststenting intervention for stent occlusion, death, or the time of last documented follow-up. The patency of a single stent was significantly different from that of multiple stents (P = 0.0004). In the subset of patients with high bile duct obstruction, the patency of a single stent remained significantly different from that of multiple stents (P = 0.02). In the single-stent group, there was no difference in patency between patients with high vs. those with low bile duct obstruction (P = 0.43). The overall median patency for the multistent group and the single-stent group was 201 and 261 days, respectively. In conclusion, the patency of a single stent placed for malignant low or high bile duct obstruction is similar, and significantly longer than, that of multiple stents placed for malignant high bile duct obstruction. Given the median patency of 201 days, when indicated, percutaneous stenting of multiple bile ducts is an effective palliative measure for patients with malignant high bile duct obstruction.

  9. Quantitative angiographic follow-up of the coronary wallstent in native vessels and bypass grafts (European experience - March 1986 to March 1990)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.H. Strauss (Bradley); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.E. Bertrand (Michel); J. Puel (Jacques); B. Meier (Bernard); J-J. Goy (Jean-Jacques); L. Kappenberger (Lukas); A.F. Rickards (Anthony); U. Sigwart (Ulrich); M-A.M. Morel (Marie-Angèle); E.W.J. Montauban van Swijndregt (Eline)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe coronary stent has been investigated as an adjunct to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty to obviate the problems of early occlusion and late restenosis. From March 1986 to March 1990, 265 patients (308 lesions) were implanted with the coronary Wallstent in 6 European

  10. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Haan, A. de

    2001-01-01

    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a

  11. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, D J; Creugers, N H; Kreulen, C M; de Haan, A F

    2001-02-01

    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a function over time. Occlusal stability indicators were: 'interdental spacing', 'occlusal contacts of anterior teeth in Intercuspal Position', 'overbite', 'occlusal tooth wear', and 'alveolar bone support'. Subjects with shortened dental arches (n = 74) were compared with subjects with complete dental arches (controls, n = 72). Repeated-measurement regression analyses were applied to assess age-dependent variables in the controls and to relate the occlusal changes to the period of time since the treatment that led to the shortened dental arches. Compared with complete dental arches, shortened dental arches had similar overbite and occlusal tooth wear. They showed more interdental spacing in the premolar regions, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact, and lower alveolar bone scores. Since the differences remained constant over time, we conclude that shortened dental arches can provide long-term occlusal stability. Occlusal changes were self-limiting, indicating a new occlusal equilibrium.

  12. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  13. Shortening Scarf osteotomy for correction of severe hallux valgus. Does shortening affect the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Prasad; Killen, Marie C; Pollock, Raymond D; Limaye, Rajiv

    2016-12-01

    Translation and shortening of Scarf osteotomy allows correction of severe hallux valgus deformity. Shortening may result in transfer metatarsalgia. To evaluate outcome of patients undergoing shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Fifteen patients (20feet, mean age 58 years) underwent shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Outcomes were pre and postoperative AOFAS scores, IM and HV angles, patient satisfaction. Mean follow-up was 25 months (range 22-30). The IM angle improved from a median of 18.60 (range 13.4-26.20) preoperatively to 9.70 (range 8.0-13.70) postoperatively (8.9; 95% CI=7.6-10.3; phallux valgus deformities with no transfer metatarsalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Shortening the Xerostomia Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, William Murray; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Enoki, Kaori; Hopcraft, Matthew; Ling, Guo Y

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand. Study design Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version. Results Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it. Conclusion The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:21684773

  15. Bone shortening of clavicular fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsmark, A H; Muhareb Udby, P; Ban, I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim of this ......BACKGROUND: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim......-fracture bone lengthening that indicated methodological problems. The Hill et al. and Silva et al. methods had high minimal detectable change, making their use unreliable. CONCLUSION: As all three measurement methods had either reliability or methodological issues, we found it likely that differences...

  16. T2 shortening in childhood moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, J.; Sugita, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ito, C.; Date, H.; Niimi, H.

    1996-01-01

    We examined T2 shortening in six children with infarcts due to moyamoya disease to clarify whether there are characteristic patterns of T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter. Profound T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter was observed in the acute stage of infarct in two cases, which changed to high intensity in the chronic stage; in this stage no T2 shortening was demonstrated in any case. Neither haemorrhagic infarction nor calcification was seen on CT or MRI. There could be longitudinally different T2 shortening patterns between infarcts due to moyamoya disease and other disorders. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P pulp...... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  18. Radiation-induced life shortening. Annex K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this Annex is to review the cumulative evidence in the field of non-neoplastic long-term effects of whole-body irradiation. In particular, the existence and extent of life-span shortening in irradiated animals and man, and the relationships of life shortening to the physical and biological variables which may influence this effect of radiation are examined.

  19. Shortened stapedius tendon: a rare cause of conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, F; Varshney, R; Schloss, M D

    2014-01-01

    Anomalies of the stapedius tendon have been reported to cause conductive hearing loss; in theory, such anomalies limit the movement of the stapes. To demonstrate a rare cause of conductive hearing loss resulting from anomaly of the stapedius tendon and to compare the clinical findings of this patient to other stapedius tendon anomalies reported in the literature. Case report of a single case of shortened stapedius tendon and a review of the English literature on stapedius tendon anomalies. This is a case report of a 15-year-old boy with shortened stapedius tendon causing unilateral hearing loss, accompanied by a review of the literature. Contrary to other reported cases, this patient did not have an ossified tendon, but rather an extremely short tendon. The boy regained normal hearing following excision of the stapedius tendon. A shortened stapedius tendon is a very rare diagnosis, yet it should be considered as a possible cause of conductive hearing loss.

  20. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. Methods We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Results Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R 2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Conclusion Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I. PMID:26448623

  1. Augmentation of Deglutitive Thyrohyoid Muscle Shortening by the Shaker Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepani, Rachel; Antonik, Stephen; Massey, Benson; Kern, Mark; Logemann, Jerilyn; Pauloski, Barbara; Rademaker, Alfred; Easterling, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies of the effect of 6 weeks of the Shaker Exercise have shown significant increase in UES opening and anterior excursion of larynx and hyoid during swallowing in patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, resulting in elimination of aspiration and resumption of oral intake. This effect is attributed to strengthening of the suprahyoid muscles, as evidenced by comparison of electromyographic changes in muscle fatigue before and after completion of the exercise regime. The effect of this exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening is unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening. We studied 11 dysphagic patients with UES dysfunction. Six were randomized to traditional swallowing therapy and five to the Shaker Exercise. Videofluoroscopy was used to measure deglutitive thyrohyoid shortening before and after completion of assigned therapy regimen. Maximum thyrohyoid muscle shortening occurred at close temporal proximity to the time of maximal thyroid cartilage excursion. The percent change in thyrohyoid distance from initiation of deglutition to maximal anterior/superior hyoid excursion showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups prior to either therapy (p = 0.54). In contrast, after completion of therapy, the percent change in thyrohyoid distance in the Shaker Exercise group was significantly greater compared to the traditional therapy (p = 0.034). The Shaker Exercise augments the thyrohyoid muscle shortening in addition to strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. The combination of increased thyrohyoid shortening and suprahyoid strengthening contributes to the Shaker Exercise outcome of deglutitive UES opening augmentation. PMID:18685891

  2. Binge-type behavior in rats consuming trans-fat-free shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W

    2008-07-05

    Studies from this and another laboratory involving an animal model of binge-type behavior have used vegetable shortening containing trans-fats. Due to reformulations by vegetable shortening manufacturers to remove trans-fats from their products, only trans-fat-free shortenings are now available. The goal of the present study was to assess binge-type behavior in rats with trans-fat and trans-free vegetable shortening. Trans-fat-free shortening was provided to three different groups of non-food-deprived male Sprague Dawley rats on different schedules of access: continuous access (24 h/day-7 days/week), daily access (1 h every day), and intermittent access (1 h on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays). Trans-fat shortening was provided to a fourth group on the intermittent access schedule. A fifth group had no shortening access (chow only). Both intermittent groups (trans-fat-free and trans-fat) consumed significantly more shortening during the 1-h period of availability than did the daily group, and there was no difference in shortening intakes between the intermittent groups. These results are identical to previous reports of binge-type behavior in rats using this model. Thus, binge-type behavior in the present behavioral model depends upon the schedule of access, not the presence of trans-fats in the shortening.

  3. Do right-ventricular trabeculae gain energetic advantage from having a greater velocity of shortening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Toan; Han, June-Chiew; Taberner, Andrew; Loiselle, Denis

    2017-10-15

    We designed a study to test whether velocity of shortening in right-ventricular tissue preparations is greater than that of the left side under conditions mimicking those encountered by the heart in vivo. Our experiments allowed us to explore whether greater velocity of shortening results in any energetic advantage. We found that velocity of shortening was higher in the rat right-ventricular trabeculae. These results at the tissue level seem paradoxical to the velocity of ventricular ejection at the organ level, and are not always in accord with shortening of unloaded cells. Despite greater velocity of shortening in right-ventricular trabeculae, they neither gained nor lost advantage with respect to both mechanical efficiency and the heat generated during shortening. Our study aimed to ascertain whether the interventricular difference of shortening velocity, reported for isolated cardiac tissues in vitro, affects interventricular mechano-energetic performance when tested under physiological conditions using a shortening protocol designed to mimic those in vivo. We isolated trabeculae from both ventricles of the rat, mounted them in a calorimeter, and performed experiments at 37°C and 5 Hz stimulus frequency to emulate conditions of the rat heart in vivo. Each trabecula was subjected to two experimental protocols: (i) isotonic work-loop contractions at a variety of afterloads, and (ii) isometric contractions at a variety of preloads. Velocity of shortening was calculated from the former protocol during the isotonic shortening phase of the contraction. Simultaneous measurements of force-length work and heat output allowed calculation of mechanical efficiency. The shortening-dependent thermal component was quantified from the difference in heat output between the two protocols. Our results show that both extent of shortening and velocity of shortening were higher in trabeculae from the right ventricle. Despite these differences, trabeculae from both ventricles

  4. Device and method for shortening reactor process tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Charles E.; Alexander, William K.; Lander, Walter E. B.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a device and method for in situ shortening of nuclear reactor zirconium alloy process tubes which have grown as a result of radiation exposure. An upsetting technique is utilized which involves inductively heating a short band of a process tube with simultaneous application of an axial load sufficient to cause upsetting with an attendant decrease in length of the process tube.

  5. Shortening a loop can increase protein native state entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Yulian; Dagan, Shlomi; Levy, Yaakov

    2015-12-01

    Protein loops are essential structural elements that influence not only function but also protein stability and folding rates. It was recently reported that shortening a loop in the AcP protein may increase its native state conformational entropy. This effect on the entropy of the folded state can be much larger than the lower entropic penalty of ordering a shorter loop upon folding, and can therefore result in a more pronounced stabilization than predicted by polymer model for loop closure entropy. In this study, which aims at generalizing the effect of loop length shortening on native state dynamics, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study how gradual shortening a very long or solvent-exposed loop region in four different proteins can affect their stability. For two proteins, AcP and Ubc7, we show an increase in native state entropy in addition to the known effect of the loop length on the unfolded state entropy. However, for two permutants of SH3 domain, shortening a loop results only with the expected change in the entropy of the unfolded state, which nicely reproduces the observed experimental stabilization. Here, we show that an increase in the native state entropy following loop shortening is not unique to the AcP protein, yet nor is it a general rule that applies to all proteins following the truncation of any loop. This modification of the loop length on the folded state and on the unfolded state may result with a greater effect on protein stability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optimal shortening of uniform covering arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Torres-Jimenez

    Full Text Available Software test suites based on the concept of interaction testing are very useful for testing software components in an economical way. Test suites of this kind may be created using mathematical objects called covering arrays. A covering array, denoted by CA(N; t, k, v, is an N × k array over [Formula: see text] with the property that every N × t sub-array covers all t-tuples of [Formula: see text] at least once. Covering arrays can be used to test systems in which failures occur as a result of interactions among components or subsystems. They are often used in areas such as hardware Trojan detection, software testing, and network design. Because system testing is expensive, it is critical to reduce the amount of testing required. This paper addresses the Optimal Shortening of Covering ARrays (OSCAR problem, an optimization problem whose objective is to construct, from an existing covering array matrix of uniform level, an array with dimensions of (N - δ × (k - Δ such that the number of missing t-tuples is minimized. Two applications of the OSCAR problem are (a to produce smaller covering arrays from larger ones and (b to obtain quasi-covering arrays (covering arrays in which the number of missing t-tuples is small to be used as input to a meta-heuristic algorithm that produces covering arrays. In addition, it is proven that the OSCAR problem is NP-complete, and twelve different algorithms are proposed to solve it. An experiment was performed on 62 problem instances, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of solving the OSCAR problem to facilitate the construction of new covering arrays.

  7. A Shortened versus Standard Matched Postpartum Magnesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium sulphate is currently the most ideal drug for the treatment of eclampsia but its use in Nigeria is still limited due its cost and clinicians inexperience with the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a shortened postpartum course of magnesium sulphate is as effective as the standard Pritchard ...

  8. Molecular-dynamics simulation of crystalline 18-crown-6: thermal shortening of covalent bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerden, J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of crystalline 18-crown-6 have been performed in a study of the apparent thermal shortening of covalent bonds observed in crystal structures. At 100 K, a shortening of 0.006 _+ 0.001 A for C----C and C----O bonds was obtained. This result was found to be independent of

  9. Olanzapine induced Q-Tc shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja Shafti, Saeed; Fallah Jahromi, Parisa

    2014-12-01

    Prolongation of Q-Tc interval is commonly accepted as a surrogate marker for the ability of a drug to cause torsade de pointes. In the present study, safety of olanzapine versus risperidone was compared among a group of patients with schizophrenia to see the frequency of the electrocardiographic alterations induced by those atypical antipsychotics. Two hundred and sixty-eight female inpatients with schizophrenia entered in one of the two parallel groups to participate in an open study for random assignment to olanzapine (n = 148) or risperidone (n = 120). Standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was taken from each patient at baseline, before initiation of treatment, and then at the end of management, just before discharge. The parameters that were assessed included heart rate (HR), P-R interval, QRS interval, Q-T interval (corrected = Q-Tc), ventricular activation time (VAT), ST segment, T wave, axis of QRS, and finally, interventricular conduction process. A total of 37.83% of cases in the olanzapine group and 30% in the risperidone group showed some Q-Tc changes; 13.51% and 24.32% of the patients in the olanzapine group showed prolongation and shortening of the Q-Tc, respectively, while changes in the risperidone group were restricted to only prolongation of Q-Tc. Comparison of means showed a significant increment in Q-Tc by risperidone (p = 0.02). Also, comparison of proportions in the olanzapine group showed significantly more cases with shortening of Q-Tc versus its prolongation (p = 0.01). No significant alterations with respect to other variables were evident. Olanzapine and risperidone had comparable potentiality for induction of Q-Tc changes, while production of further miscellaneous alterations in ECG was more observable in the olanzapine group compared with the risperidone group. Also shortening of Q-Tc was specific to olanzapine.

  10. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may... descending order of predominance. ...

  11. The psychometric properties of a shortened corporate entrepreneurship assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2017-08-01

    Aim: The aim of this research was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a measure of entrepreneurial climate. Entrepreneurial climate was measured using a shortened version of the Hornsby, Kuratko and Zahra (2002 instrument, called the Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI. Making information on the psychometric properties of the instrument available directly relates to its utility. Setting: The setting was medium to large South African companies. A random sample of employees was drawn from 53 selected companies across South Africa, with 60 respondents per company (N = 3 180. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Several instruments were administered, including the shortened version of the CEAI. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test for reliability and several methods were used to test for validity. Correlation analysis was used to test for concurrent validity, convergent validity and divergent validity. Principle component factor analysis was used to test for factorial validity and a t-test to test for known-group validity. Results: The results showed that the reliability for the total score of the shortened version of the CEAI was acceptable at 0.758. The results also showed some evidence of concurrent validity, as well as homogeneity among the items. With regard to factorial validity, all items loaded in accordance with the subscales of the instrument. The measure was able to distinguish, as expected, between government organisations and private business entities, suggesting known-group validity. Convergent validity and divergent validity were also assessed. Interesting to note was that entrepreneurship climate correlates more with general employee attitude (e.g. employee engagement; R= 0.420, p < 0.001 and organisational commitment, R = 0.331, p < 0.001 than with self-reported innovation (R = 0.277, p < 0.001 and R = 0.267, p < 0.001. Contribution: This paper not only provided information on the reliability

  12. Lengthening of the shortened first metatarsal after Wilson's osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Dudkiewicz, I

    2009-12-01

    Metatarsalgia is a recognised complication following iatrogenic shortening of the first metatarsal in the management of hallux valgus. The traditional surgical treatment is by shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals. We describe the results of lengthening of iatrogenic first brachymetatarsia in 16 females. A Scarf-type osteotomy was used in the first four cases and a step-cut of equal thicknesses along the axis of the first metatarsal was performed in the others. The mean follow-up was 21 months (19 to 26). Relief of metatarsalgia was obtained in the six patients in whom 10 mm of lengthening had been achieved, compared to only 50% relief in those where less than 8 mm of lengthening had been gained. One-stage step-cut lengthening osteotomy of the first metatarsal may be preferable to shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals in the treatment of metatarsalgia following surgical shortening of the first metatarsal.

  13. Shortening of construction period of nuclear power plant. Activities of construction industry on construction period shortening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Total construction period could be shorten by prefabricating structures efficiently in another yard and reducing working hours on site, which would reduce work at height or congestion work and also upgrade safety at work. Construction period shortening would surely reduce expenses during work and advance operation start of electric utilities. Construction of reactor building, turbine building, water intake and drainage canal was performed on a relatively large scale and a big share of whole schedule. This article summarized basic technologies to shorten construction period for reactor building/turbine building and water intake and drainage canal. Advanced methods of reactor building/turbine building; (1) modularization of equipment and skeleton, (2) utilization of concrete mold, reinforcing bar and steel frame, (3) precedent steel frame method and (4) steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) method, were outlined and their application examples were shown to reduce work on site and improve work efficiency. As for water intake and drainage canal construction, (1) precast concrete method, (2) SC method and (3) steel plate shell method were described with application examples. Construction procedures and problems using mega block method for water intake and drainage canal were also introduced. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I.

  15. Lateral mobility of minibasins during shortening: Insights from the SE Precaspian Basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Oliver B.; Fernandez, Naiara; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George; Dooley, Tim P.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Minibasin provinces are widespread and can be found in all types of salt tectonic settings, many of which are prone to shortening. Previous studies of how minibasin provinces shorten assume that the salt between the minibasins is homogeneous and that the base of salt is flat or of low relief, such that minibasins are free to move laterally. Here we investigate how minibasin provinces respond to shortening when the lateral mobility of the minibasins is restricted by intra-salt sediment bodies, in order to gain a greater understanding of the controls on the structural styles and modes of tectono-stratigraphic evolution exhibited in minibasin provinces. We examine a borehole-constrained, 3D seismic reflection dataset from the SE Precaspian Basin (onshore western Kazakhstan). The study area is characterised by large, supra-salt minibasins and an array of smaller intra-salt sediment packages distributed between these larger minibasins. We first outline the evidence of episodic shortening between the Late Triassic and present, after the onset of supra-salt minibasin subsidence. Next, we document spatial variations in shortening style, showing how these relate to the concentration of intra-salt sediment packages. Finally, we develop synoptic models showing how intra-salt sediment packages influence both the lateral mobility of minibasins during shortening and the resultant structural style, and we compare and contrast our findings with existing models and other natural examples of shortened minibasin provinces. We conclude that minibasin provinces may have different degrees of lateral mobility depending on the presence, or absence, of intrasalt barriers, and that these variations provide a first-order control on basin-shortening style and tectono-stratigraphic evolution.

  16. A shortened protocol for assessing cognitive bias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Nichola M; Hall, Lynsey

    2017-07-15

    Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals. In particular, the 'cognitive bias' assay has gained popularity in recent years. Major disadvantages of this technique include length of time taken for animals to acquire the task (typically several weeks), negative experiences associated with task training, and issues of motivation. Here we present a shortened cognitive bias protocol using only positive reinforcers which must actively be responded to. The protocol took an average of 4days to complete, and produced similar results to previous, longer methods (minimum 30days). Specifically, rats housed in standard laboratory conditions demonstrated negative cognitive biases when presented with ambiguous stimuli, and took longer to make a decision when faced with an ambiguous stimulus. Compared to previous methods, this protocol is significantly shorter (average 4days vs. minimum 30days), utilises only positive reinforcers to avoid inducing negative affective states, and requires active responses to all cues, avoiding potential confounds of motivational state. We have successfully developed a shortened cognitive bias protocol, suitable for use with laboratory rats. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synergistic nonuniform shortening of atrial refractory period induced by autonomic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, M; Furukawa, Y; Narita, M; Ren, L M; Karasawa, Y; Murakami, M; Chiba, S

    1991-12-01

    We investigated the nonuniform effects of autonomic nerve stimulation of the effective refractory period (ERP) of the right atrium in the anesthetized dog. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac sympathetic nerves to the sinoatrial (SA) nodal region uniformly shortened ERPs at three sites in the right atrium after administration of atropine. Right ansa subclavia (RS) stimulation similarly shortened ERPs in the absence of atropine. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac parasympathetic nerves to the SA nodal region (SAP stimulation) shortened ERPs of the right atrium in a nonuniform manner. Simultaneous RS and SAP stimulation additively shortened ERPs at each site and decreased sinus rate much more than SAP stimulation alone. Shortening of ERP induced by SAP stimulation was greater than that induced by RS stimulation at similar absolute changes in heart rate. These results suggest that simultaneous activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves nonuniformly shortens the ERP in the right atrium as the algebraic sum of the individual responses to each stimulation. However, parasympathetics exert the principal neural control over atrial ERP.

  18. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusaku Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases.We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts.Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047. In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003. In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence.Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I.

  19. Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takanaka

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.

  20. [Extension of (extremely) shortened dental arches by fixed or removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Hoefnagel, R.A.; Snoek, P.A.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Whether a shortened dental arch needs to be extended depends on the degree of the shortening. Four categories of shortened dental arches can be distinguished: 1. slightly shortened dental arches; 2. moderately shortened dental arches; 3. extremely shortened dental arches; and 4. asymmetrical

  1. The application of shortened upper leaf mutant in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua

    2004-01-01

    The shortened upper leaf mutant was induced from Fuji Nigo by γ-ray irradiation. Fuji Nigo, the mutant, cross-cut F 1 , F 2 and back-cross F 1 , F 2 were used to analyze mutant heredity by comparative study. The yield, chlorophyll content, light intensity, dry matter of mutant were investigated. The results showed that (1) the mutant character was controlled by a couple of nuclear genes which were partial dominance; (2) the transmittance of the mutant colony was better than that of Fuji Nigo and bottom dry matter was much more than that of Fuji Nigo; (3) under the condition of high fertilizer and high plant population , the yield of mutant was higher than that of Fuji Nigo; (4) the content of chlorophyll a in the mutant was higher than that in Fuji Nigo

  2. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    with similar investigations in 1992 and 1995. A gradual decline of TFA in Danish margarines was observed. From 1992 to 1995, a reduction of TFA from 10.4 to 3.6% took place in margarines with 20-40% linoleic acid. In 1999, TFA was practically absent in all the margarines, but it remained unchanged...... in shortenings, averaging about 6-7%. Long-chain TFA from hydrogenated,fish oil, although present in 13 brands in 1995, were not found at all in the 1999 samples. Trans-linoleic acids or CLA were not found. The reduction in TFA content in margarines has not resulted in a systematic change over the years...

  3. Psychometric evaluation of the shortened resilience scale among Alzheimer's caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the shortened Resilience Scale (15-item version RS15) among a sample of Alzheimer's caregivers. Self-reported data were collected from 229 participants at 2 Alzheimer's caregiver conferences. RS15 principal axis factoring indicated a single-dimensional solution with all items loaded. Reliability was strong. Convergent validity for the RS15 was suggested through its correlations with stress, family support, and friend support. Odds ratios showed significant likelihoods of high resilience given low stress and high social support. The results confirmed the RS15 to be a psychometrically sound measure that can be used to appraise the efficacy of adaptability among Alzheimer's caregivers.

  4. Multiple congenital brachymetatarsia. A one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure without iliac bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Baek, G H; Chung, M S; Yoon, P W

    2004-09-01

    We performed nine metatarsal and three proximal phalangeal lengthenings in five patients with congenital brachymetatarsia of the first and one or two other metatarsal bones, by a one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure using intercalcary autogenous bone grafts from adjacent shortened metatarsal bones. Instead of the isolated lengthening of the first and the other metatarsal bones, we shortened the adjacent normal metatarsal and used the excised bone to lengthen the short toes, except for the great toe, to restore the normal parabola. One skin incision was used. All the operations were performed bilaterally and the patients were followed up for a mean period of 69.5 months (29 to 107). They all regained a nearly normal parabola and were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Our technique is straightforward and produces good cosmetic results. Satisfactory, bony union is achieved, morbidity is low, and no additional surgery is required for the removal of metal implants.

  5. Femtosecond pulse self-shortening in Kerr media: role of modulational instability in the spectrum formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudtsyn, Ya. V.; Koribut, A. V.; Mikheev, L. D.; Trofimov, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of femtosecond pulse self-shortening in thin optical materials with Kerr nonlinearity is investigated. The experimentally observed spectral-angular distribution of the radiation intensity on the exit surface of a 1-mm-thick fused silica sample is compared with the results of numerical simulation based on solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for an electromagnetic wave with a transverse perturbation on the axis. Qualitative agreement between the calculated and experimental results confirms the hypothesis about the transient regime of multiple filamentation as a mechanism of femtosecond pulse self-shortening.

  6. [Effects of removable partial dentures on the quality of life in people with shortened dental arches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, D B; Heydecke, G; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2009-12-01

    In order to assess the enhanced value of removable partial dentures on the quality of life, patients at 2 university clinics were screened for the presence of complete or shortened dental arches. Those selected were assigned to 1 of 5 subgroups: 1) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, 2) a shortened dental arch with one or more frontal diastemas, 3) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, restored by a removable partial denture, 4) a shortened dental arch and several diastemas, restored by a removable partial denture, 5) a complete dental arch. The participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical data recorded were: whether any teeth were missing and if so which, whether or not these had been replaced by a removable partial denture, and the number of occluding pairs of (pre)molars. The results revealed that a shortenend dental arch has a certain impact on the quality of life. However, the participants only experienced benefits from a removable partial denture if the denture also replaced frontal teeth.

  7. A Shortened Stress Measure in Military Nursing Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From- To) 10/17/2017 Abstract 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER A Shortened Stress Measure in Military...Psychology 14. ABSTRACT A Shortened Stress Measure with Military Nursing Personnel Abstract Stress is a psychological construct with important...consequences for human health. A substantial number of stress measures are available that vary in length and dimensionality. The purpose of this study was to

  8. Telomere Shortening in Neurological Disorders: An Abundance of Unanswered Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Eitan, Erez; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres, ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes, typically shorten in leukocytes with aging. Aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), and a common assumption has arisen that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) can serve as a predictor of neurological disease. However, the evidence for shorter LTL in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients is inconsistent. The diverse causes of telomere shortening may explain variability in LTL between studies and indi...

  9. A study on occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarita, Paulo T N; Kreulen, Cees M; Witter, Dick J; van't Hof, Martin; Creugers, Nico H J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that shortened dental arches constitute a risk to occlusal stability. Using cluster samples, 725 subjects with shortened dental arches comprising intact anterior regions and zero to eight occluding pairs of posterior teeth and 125 subjects with complete dental arches were selected. Subjects with shortened dental arches were classified into eight categories according to arch length and symmetry. Parameters for occlusal stability were interdental spacing, occlusal tooth wear, occlusal contact of incisors in intercuspal position, and vertical and horizontal overlap. Additionally, tooth mobility and overeruption of unopposed teeth were assessed. Influence of independent variables (dental arch category, age, gender, and residence) on the parameters for occlusal stability was assessed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range tests. Extreme shortened dental arches (zero to two pairs of occluding premolars) had significantly more interdental spacing, occlusal contact of incisors, and vertical overlap compared to complete dental arches. Occlusal wear and prevalence of mobile teeth were highest in these categories. The category with three to four occluding premolars had significantly more interdental spacing and, for the older age group, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact compared to complete dental arches. Age was consistently associated with increased changes in occlusal integrity. Signs of increased risk to occlusal stability seemed to occur in extreme shortened dental arches, whereas no such evidence was found for intermediate categories of shortened dental arches.

  10. Thickening the outer margins of the Tibetan Plateau: The role of crustal shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, R. O.; Burbank, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most direct consequences of the collision of two buoyant continents is large-scale crustal thickening that results in the upward and outward growth of high terrain. As the stronger Indian continent has collided with weaker Asia over at least the past 50 Myr, widespread crustal thickening has occurred over an area that is approximately 2.5 million km^2 at present. The resultant Tibetan crust is the thickest observed on Earth today with an average thickness of 65 km and a maximum that may reach 90 km in places. The mechanisms by which Tibetan crust has thickened, however, as well as the timing and distribution of these mechanisms across the plateau, remain debatable. Two of the most popular mechanisms for thickening the crust beneath the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are: 1) pure shear with faulting and folding in the upper crust and horizontal shortening below; and 2) flow and inflation of lower or middle crust without significant shortening of the upper crust. To help discriminate between the relative contributions of these two mechanisms, well-constrained estimates of upper crustal shortening are needed. Here we document the Cenozoic shortening budget across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau margin near 36°N 102.5°E with several 100- to 145-km-long balanced cross sections. Thermochronological and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that modest NNE-SSW shortening began in middle Eocene time, shortly after initial India-Asia collision. Accelerated east-west shortening, however, did not commence until ~35 Myr later. A five-fold acceleration in shortening rates in middle Miocene-to-Recent time accounts for more than half of the total Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening in this region. Overall, the balanced cross sections indicate 11 ± 2 % east-west shortening since middle Miocene time, and ~9 ± 2 % NNE-SSW shortening between middle Eocene and middle Miocene times. Given the present-day crustal thickness of 56 ± 4 km in northeastern Tibet, crustal

  11. [The concentration of growth factors in patients with inherent and acquired shortenings of limbs bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Novikov, K I

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the results of study of level of growth factors in blood serum of patients with inherent and post-traumatic shortenings of limbs' bones. The detection in blood serum the level of epidermal growth factor insulin-like growth factor I and angiopoetins is proposed to monitor in given patients the reparative bone formation.

  12. Shortening a Patient Experiences Survey for Medical Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy H. Ng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems—Patient-Centered Medical Home (CAHPS PCMH Survey assesses patient experiences reflecting domains of care related to general patient experience (access to care, communication with providers, office staff interaction, provider rating and PCMH-specific aspects of patient care (comprehensiveness of care, self-management support, shared decision making. The current work compares psychometric properties of the current survey and a proposed shortened version of the survey (from 52 to 26 adult survey items, from 66 to 31 child survey items. The revisions were based on initial psychometric analysis and stakeholder input regarding survey length concerns. A total of 268 practices voluntarily submitted adult surveys and 58 submitted child survey data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance in 2013. Mean unadjusted scores, practice-level item and composite reliability, and item-to-scale correlations were calculated. Results show that the shorter adult survey has lower reliability, but still it still meets general definitions of a sound survey for the adult version, and resulted in few changes to mean scores. The impact was more problematic for the pediatric version. Further testing is needed to investigate approaches to improving survey response and the relevance of survey items in informing quality improvement.

  13. Shortened protocol in practical [11C]SA4503-PET studies for sigma1 receptor quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Muneyuki; Kimura, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Masatomo; Oda, Keiichi; Ishii, Kenji; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Naganawa, Mika; Hashimoto, Kenji; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2008-01-01

    In practical positron emission tomography (PET) diagnosis, a shortened protocol is preferred for patients with brain disorders. In this study, the applicability of a shortened protocol as an alternative to the 90-min PET scan with [ 11 C]SA4503 for quantitative sigma 1 receptor measurement was investigated. Tissue time-activity curves of 288 regions of interest in the brain from 32 [ 11 C]SA4503-PET scans of 16 healthy subjects prior to and following administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluvoxamine or paroxetine) were applied to two algorithms of quantitative analysis; binding potential (BP) was derived from compartmental analysis based on nonlinear estimation, and total distribution volume (tDV) was derived from Logan plot analysis. As a result, although both BP and tDV tended to be underestimated by the shortened method, the estimates from the shortened protocol had good linear relationships with those of the full-length protocol. In conclusion, if approximately 10% differences in the estimated results are acceptable for a specific purpose, then a 60-min measurement protocol is capable of providing reliable results. (author)

  14. Options for shortening nuclear power plant refueling outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastl, H.

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation of the European electricity market on 01.01.1999 forced a large number of electric utilities- especially nuclear power plant operators - to find ways of drastically cutting down their costs in order to be able to compete successfully within the new market environment. Nuclear power plants currently in operation mainly have three potential ways of reducing their power generating costs: by increasing plant availability, reducing fuel costs and cutting down operating costs. The optimization of plant refueling outages offers considerable potential for enhancing plant availability, but also helps bring down operating costs by reducing expenditure on maintenance. In order to optimize an outage in terms of its duration and costs, a variety of approaches are possible - all of which, however, involve certain key factors such as good organization, planning, logistics and control, improvement of equipment and tools, as well as motivation of personnel. Another aspect is the introduction of innovative technologies. In the last few years, such technologies have frequently enabled maintenance effort to be reduced, thus saving considerable time, and have also resulted in a need for fewer personnel to carry out the work, thus reducing radiation exposure. In many instances they have also improved the quality of work and outage performance as a whole. The paper uses recent examples to show how innovative technologies can contribute to-wards reducing nuclear plant maintenance costs and shorten the duration of refueling out-ages. (author)

  15. Is the shortened dental arch still a satisfactory option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, M; Hussain, F; Millar, B J

    2017-07-21

    Aims Dental practitioners may hold the view that missing posterior teeth should be replaced to ensure a healthy masticatory system and satisfactory oral function. However, the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept is still in use, but after 35 years is it acceptable? This review searches the literature for the evidence and opinions regarding the suitability of the SDA as a current treatment modality.Methods Medline and PubMed databases were searched for relevant terms, all the abstracts were assessed and articles selected according to the pre-set exclusion and inclusion criteria.Results The search yielded 1,895 articles and after the assessment of the abstracts and application of the exclusion and inclusion criteria, 44 articles were selected for this review. These included 11 cohort studies, two longitudinal studies, two animal studies, three cross sectional studies, eight clinical studies and 18 case control studies. There appears to be a trend over the past three decades for more papers to be opposed to the SDA concept.Conclusion Evidence that the SDA causes pathology is lacking. Clinicians, healthcare authorities and patients have shown favourable attitudes towards the SDA and this continues, although there is an increase in studies opposing the concept and some are dissatisfied with this option. The concept remains viable particularly for the medically compromised patient or where restorations are considered unsuitable but further more specific studies are warranted.

  16. Chemical Sharpening, Shortening, and Unzipping of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfang; Connell, John W.; Fay, Catharine C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), the one-dimensional member of the boron nitride nanostructure family, are generally accepted to be highly inert to oxidative treatments and can only be covalently modifi ed by highly reactive species. Conversely, it is discovered that the BNNTs can be chemically dispersed and their morphology modifi ed by a relatively mild method: simply sonicating the nanotubes in aqueous ammonia solution. The dispersed nanotubes are significantly corroded, with end-caps removed, tips sharpened, and walls thinned. The sonication treatment in aqueous ammonia solution also removes amorphous BN impurities and shortened BNNTs, resembling various oxidative treatments of carbon nanotubes. Importantly, the majority of BNNTs are at least partially longitudinally cut, or "unzipped". Entangled and freestanding BN nanoribbons (BNNRs), resulting from the unzipping, are found to be approximately 5-20 nm in width and up to a few hundred nanometers in length. This is the fi rst chemical method to obtain BNNRs from BNNT unzipping. This method is not derived from known carbon nanotube unzipping strategies, but is unique to BNNTs because the use of aqueous ammonia solutions specifi cally targets the B-N bond network. This study may pave the way for convenient processing of BNNTs, previously thought to be highly inert, toward controlling their dispersion, purity, lengths, and electronic properties.

  17. Gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer: upper gastrointestinal series and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyu Sun; Yun, Ku Sub; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hun; Kang, Gu; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the causes of gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer, upper gastrointestinal study was correlated with pathologic findings. We evaluated 41 cases (M:F = 1.7:1, average age = 49) of early gastric cancer, retrospectively. The gastric wall shortening were classified as Grade I; none, Grade II; intermediate, and Grade III; prominent. Pathologic findings such as size of lesions, depth of tumor invasion, degree of the submucosal fibrosis, degree of thickness of the submucosa and muscularis propria, and morphologic patterns of lesions including conversing mucosal folds were correlated with the degree of gastric wall shortening on upper gastrointestinal series. Submucosal fibrosis was present in 4 cases in Grade I (n = 21), 4 cases in Grade II (n = 6) and 8 cases in Grade III (n = 10). Positive conversing mucosal folds were seen in 5 cases in Grade I (n = 17), 0 case in Grade II (n = 2) and 9 cases in Grade III (n = 9). Gastric wall shortening was significantly associated with submucosal fibrosis and conversing mucosal folds of early gastric cancer. (ρ = 0.0001, and ρ = 0.02, respectively) Upper gastrointestinal finding of gastric wall protrusion in patients with early gastric cancer should not misinterprete as advanced gastric cancer since the finding could be a result of submucosal fibrosis

  18. Measurement of clavicular length and shortening after a midshaft clavicular fracture: Spatial digitization versus planar roentgen photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Sylvia A; de Witte, Pieter Bas; Boonstra, Sjoerd; de Groot, Jurriaan H; Nagels, Jochem; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B

    2016-08-01

    Clavicular shortening after fracture is deemed prognostic for clinical outcome and is therefore generally assessed on radiographs. It is used for clinical decision making regarding operative or non-operative treatment in the first 2weeks after trauma, although the reliability and accuracy of the measurements are unclear. This study aimed to assess the reliability of roentgen photogrammetry (2D) of clavicular length and shortening, and to compare these with 3D-spatial digitization measurements, obtained with an electromagnetic recording system (Flock of Birds). Thirty-two participants with a consolidated non-operatively treated two or multi-fragmented dislocated midshaft clavicular fracture were analysed. Two observers measured clavicular lengths and absolute and proportional clavicular shortening on radiographs taken before and after fracture consolidation. The clavicular lengths were also measured with spatial digitization. Inter-observer agreement on the radiographic measurements was assessed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Agreement between the radiographic and spatial digitization measurements was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot. The inter-observer agreement on clavicular length, and absolute and proportional shortening on trauma radiographs was almost perfect (ICC>0.90), but moderate for absolute shortening after consolidation (ICC=0.45). The Bland-Altman plot compared measurements of length on AP panorama radiographs with spatial digitization and showed that planar roentgen photogrammetry resulted in up to 37mm longer and 34mm shorter measurements than spatial digitization. Measurements of clavicular length on radiographs are highly reliable between observers, but may not reflect the actual length and shortening of the clavicle when compared to length measurements with spatial digitization. We recommend to use proportional shortening when measuring clavicular length or shortening on radiographs for clinical decision making. Copyright

  19. How does ulnar shortening osteotomy influence morphologic changes in the triangular fibrocartilage complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2014-11-01

    % CI, -0.11 to 0.01; p=0.01) and between the magnitude of change in the TFC angle and the extent of ulnar shortening (R2=0.18; β=-0.29; 95% CI, -5.8 to 0.29; p=0.03). The Mayo wrist score was not correlated with the percent change in TFC thickness or the magnitude of change in the TFC angle. These results suggest that, in patients with TFCC injury with a smaller preoperative ulnar variance, a high residual potential for regeneration in the disc proper was seen after ulnar shortening osteotomy, and correlated with the extent of ulnar shortening and the suspension effect on TFC. However, there was no correlation between disc regeneration or the suspension effect on TFC and the Mayo wrist score. Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Telomere shortening reduces Alzheimer's disease amyloid pathology in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Scheffold, Annika; Heinrich, Annette; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; Langkopf, Britta Heike; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela M.; Liss, Birgit; Wurst, Wolfgang; Lie, Dieter Chichung; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Biber, Knut; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly and advancing age is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease development. Telomere shortening represents one of the molecular causes of ageing that limits the proliferative capacity of cells, including neural stem cells.

  1. Challenges in Shortening New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Drug developing companies are forced to utilize the effective protection of the patent by focusing on shortening the new product introduction [NPI] process measured as Time-to-Market [TTM]. Here the NPI process is considered and the trade-offs, which have to be address in the future are identifie...

  2. Masticatory efficiency of shortened dental arch subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the masticatory efficiency in subjects with shortened dental arch (SDA) before and after restoration with removable partial denture (RPD). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on 36 consecutive patients. The subjects were asked to chew 5 g of ...

  3. Effects of post mortem temperature on rigor tension, shortening and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fully developed rigor mortis in muscle is characterised by maximum loss of extensibility. The course of post mortem changes in ostrich muscle was studied by following isometric tension, shortening and change in pH during the first 24 h post mortem within muscle strips from the muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna at ...

  4. Knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch (SDA) therapy in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, self‑designed‑structured questionnaires were distributed among specialists (SP), residents (RES), and ...

  5. Masticatory Efficiency of Shortened Dental Arch Subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... of shortened dental arch subjects with removable partial denture: A comparative ... at the post- and pre-treatment phases was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The .... after the delivery of metal-based RPD with the denture in.

  6. Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; McGlashan, T H; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether duration of untreated psychosis can be shortened in patients with first episodes of DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders and whether shorted duration alters patient appearance at treatment. METHOD: Two study groups were ascertained in the same Norwegian h...

  7. Telomere shortening and survival in free-living corvids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, H.M.; Mulder, G.A.; Zande, L. van de; Haussmann, M.F.; Linskens, M.H.K.; Verhulst, S.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence accumulates that telomere shortening reflects lifestyle and predicts remaining lifespan, but little is known of telomere dynamics and their relation to survival under natural conditions. We present longitudinal telomere data in free-living jackdaws (Corvus monedula) and test hypotheses on

  8. Development and assessment of a shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Shane W; Lambrinos, Anastasia I; Ferro, Mark A; Sabaz, Mark; Speechley, Kathy N

    2015-06-01

    To develop and validate a shortened version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). A secondary aim was to compare baseline risk factors predicting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children newly diagnosed with epilepsy, as identified using the original and shortened version. Data came from the Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES, N = 373), a multicenter prospective cohort study. Principal component analysis reduced the number of items from the original QOLCE, and factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the shortened version. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by correlating the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) with the shortened QOLCE. Multiple regression identified risk factors at diagnosis for HRQoL at 24 months. A four-factor, higher-order, 55-item solution was obtained. A total of 21 items were removed. The final model represents functioning in four dimensions of HRQoL: Cognitive, Emotional, Social, and Physical. The shortened QOLCE demonstrated acceptable fit: Bentler's Comparative Fit Index = 0.944; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.942; root mean square approximation = 0.058 (90% CI: 0.056-0.061); weighted root mean square residuals (WRMR) = 1.582, and excellent internal consistency (α = 0.96, subscales α > 0.80). Factor loadings were good (first-order: λ = 0.66-0.93; higher-order λ = 0.66-0.85; p QOLCE scores correlated strongly with similar subscales of the Child Health Questionnaire (ρ = 0.38-0.70) while correlating weakly with dissimilar subscales (ρ = 0.30-0.31). While controlling for HRQoL at diagnosis, predictors for better HRQoL at 24 months were the following: no cognitive problems reported (p = 0.001), better family functioning (p = 0.014), fewer family demands (p = 0.008), with an interaction between baseline HRQoL and cognitive problems (p = 0.011). Results offer initial evidence regarding reliability and validity of the proposed 55-item shortened

  9. Mini-open spinal column shortening for the treatment of adult tethered cord syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Winkler, Ethan A; Chou, Dean

    2017-10-01

    Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a challenging entity characterized by adhesions at the caudal spinal cord that prevent upward movement during growth and result in stretching of the cord with a concomitant constellation of neurologic symptoms. Although growth in height stops in adulthood, some patients still develop progressive symptoms; many underwent detethering as a child or adolescent, resulting in significant scar tissue and re-tethering. Recent strategies have focused on spinal column shortening to reduce tension on the spinal cord without exposing the previous de-tethering site. Mini-open and minimally invasive approaches avoid the large dissection and exposure associated with traditional approaches and are associated with reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and similar outcomes when compared to conventional open approaches. We describe a technique for mini-open spinal column shortening. Using intraoperative navigation pedicle screws were placed at T10, T11, L1, and L2. A mini-open 3-column "egg shell" decancellation osteotomy of T12 was performed through a transpedicular approach with preservation of the superior and inferior endplates. This procedure was performed on a 28year old male with recurrent TCS and neurogenic bladder. Postoperative imaging showed a reduction in spinal column length of 1.5cm and evidence of decreased tension on the spinal cord. At last follow-up he was recovering well with improved urinary function. Spinal column shortening for adult TCS can be safely achieved through a mini-open approach. Future studies should compare the efficacy of this technique to both traditional de-tethering and open spinal column shortening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Operative shortening of the sling as a second-line treatment after TVT failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Marcin; Michajłowski, Jerzy; Krajka, Kazimierz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is defined as an involuntary loss of urine during physical exertion, sneezing, coughing, laughing, or other activities that put pressure on the bladder. In some cases, recurrent or persistent SUI after sling operations may be caused by too loose placement of the sling. In the current study, we describe our method of shortening of the sling as a second-line treatment of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) failure. Materials and methods Four women, aged 46-61, after initial TVT operation were treated for persistent SUI. The severity of SUI was estimated by: physical examinations, cough tests, 24-h pad tests, and King's Health Questionnaire. The shortening procedure, based on excising the fragment of tape and suturing it back, was performed in all patients. Results All cases achieved a good result, which was defined as restoration of full continence. No complications occurred. The 12-month follow-up showed no side-effects. The postoperative control tests: the cough and 24-h pad tests were negative in all women. The general health perceptions increased after the shortening procedure by a mean value 44.25%. The incontinence impact decreased by a mean value 44.6%. In all patients, role and physical limitations significantly decreased (by 88.5% and 80.5%, respectively). The negative emotions connected with SUI significantly decreased after the second procedure. Conclusions The operative shortening of the implanted sling is a simple, cheap, and effective method of second-line treatment in cases of TVT failure and may be offered to the majority of patients with insufficient urethral support after the first procedure. PMID:24578885

  11. The shortened cochlea: its classification and histopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiqing; Schachern, Patricia A; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Mutlu, Cemil; Dijalilian, Hamid; Paparella, Michael M

    2002-03-15

    The term 'Mondini dysplasia' has been used to describe virtually any congenital abnormality of the osseous labyrinth resulting in confusion and seemingly contradictory observations and conclusions about this type of deformity. The purpose of this study is to histopathologically classify and describe temporal bones whose cochleas have less than 2.5 turns. Of the 1800 temporal bones in our collection, 21 from 12 cases were found to have cochleas with less than 2.5 cochlear turns. Ages ranged from stillborn to 50 years. Temporal bones were harvested at autopsy, processed and embedded in celloidin. Sections were cut at a thickness of 20 microm and every 10th section stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined using light microscopy. The number of turns, length of cochlea, integrity of cochlear base, length of modiolus, abnormalities of the semicircular canals and vestibule, enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct and middle ears were documented. Twenty-one temporal bones from age-matched patients without cochlear deformities were used as controls for modiolar length measurements. Malformation of the shortened cochlea was histopathologically classified into three groups as follows: (1) Common cavity, cochlear dysplasia (one ear)--severe dysplasia of the cochlea without a complete basal turn; (2) Mondini dysplasia (11 ears)--1.5 cochlear turns, a complete basal turn, an incomplete or absent interscalar septum and a complete bone at the base of the modiolus; and (3) Mondini-like dysplasia type A (five ears)--2 turns to the cochlea including a complete basal turn and complete bone at the base of the modiolus; and type B (four ears)--1.5-2 turns to the cochlea, hypoplasia of or a missing bone at the base of the modiolus (either with or without a communication between the internal auditory canal and the cochlea) and a complete basal turn. The range of congenital malformations in short cochlea is highly variable. Fundamental to the accurate evaluation of a labyrinthine anomaly

  12. A Comparative Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in Tall Buildings Using Wireless and Wired Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative field measurement for column shortening of tall buildings is presented in this study, with a focus on the reliability and stability of a wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network was used for monitoring the column shortenings of a 58-story building under construction. The wireless sensor network, which was composed of sensor and master nodes, employed the ultra-high-frequency band and CDMA communication methods. To evaluate the reliability and stability of the wireless sensor network system, the column shortenings were also measured using a conventional wired monitoring system. Two vibration wire gauges were installed in each of the selected 7 columns and 3 walls. Measurements for selected columns and walls were collected for 270 days after casting of the concrete. The results measured by the wireless sensor network were compared with the results of the conventional method. The strains and column shortenings measured using both methods showed good agreement for all members. It was verified that the column shortenings of tall buildings could be monitored using the wireless sensor network system with its reliability and stability.

  13. Life-shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated neonatally with x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kasuga, T.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of life-shortening and carcinogenesis were investigated in x-irradiated neonatal B6WFr mice. Animals were irradiated with 24 hr after birth and allowed to complete their normal life span. Mean life span was shortened linearly with doses at a rate of 9.1% per 100 R for females and 9.8% for males. The spectrum of neoplastic diseases was apparently modulated by x irradiation, showing neonatal B6WFr mice to be highly susceptible to the induction of thymic lymphoma, liver tumor, and pituitary tumor. The dose-response relationship for thymice lymphoma could be described by a linear-quadratic model, and linearity could be rejected. Thymic lymphoma developed after a short latent period, resulting in death between 100 and 450 days of age. Liver and pituitary tumors increased with increasing dose up to 400 R and decreased thereafter. The latent period for liver tumor development was apparently shortened with increasing doses. Pituitary tumor developed in excess only in females after a long latent period

  14. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-10-24

    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  15. Reversibility of Defective Hematopoiesis Caused by Telomere Shortening in Telomerase Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Raval

    Full Text Available Telomere shortening is common in bone marrow failure syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenita (DC, aplastic anemia (AA and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. However, improved knowledge of the lineage-specific consequences of telomere erosion and restoration of telomere length in hematopoietic progenitors is required to advance therapeutic approaches. We have employed a reversible murine model of telomerase deficiency to compare the dependence of erythroid and myeloid lineage differentiation on telomerase activity. Fifth generation Tert-/- (G5 Tert-/- mice with shortened telomeres have significant anemia, decreased erythroblasts and reduced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC populations associated with neutrophilia and increased myelopoiesis. Intracellular multiparameter analysis by mass cytometry showed significantly reduced cell proliferation and increased sensitivity to activation of DNA damage checkpoints in erythroid progenitors and in erythroid-biased CD150hi HSC, but not in myeloid progenitors. Strikingly, Cre-inducible reactivation of telomerase activity restored hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC proliferation, normalized the DNA damage response, and improved red cell production and hemoglobin levels. These data establish a direct link between the loss of TERT activity, telomere shortening and defective erythropoiesis and suggest that novel strategies to restore telomerase function may have an important role in the treatment of the resulting anemia.

  16. Accelerated telomere shortening: Tracking the lasting impact of early institutional care at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-12-30

    Studies examining the association between early adversity and longitudinal changes in telomere length within the same individual are rare, yet are likely to provide novel insight into the subsequent lasting effects of negative early experiences. We sought to examine the association between institutional care history and telomere shortening longitudinally across middle childhood and into adolescence. Buccal DNA was collected 2-4 times, between the ages of 6 and 15 years, in 79 children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal study exploring the impact of early institutional rearing on child health and development. Children with a history of early institutional care (n=50) demonstrated significantly greater telomere shortening across middle childhood and adolescence compared to never institutionalized children (n=29). Among children with a history of institutional care, randomization to high quality foster care was not associated with differential telomere attrition across development. Cross-sectional analysis of children randomized to the care as usual group indicated shorter telomere length was associated with greater percent of the child's life spent in institutional care up to age 8. These results suggest that early adverse care from severe psychosocial deprivation may be embedded at the molecular genetic level through accelerated telomere shortening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Arantzazu; Axpe, Inge; Goñi, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The four-dimensional model of physical self-concept which differentiates the physical self-perceptions of ability, condition, attractiveness and strength is widely accepted. In the last two decades much research has been done on the physical self-concept and its relations with the psychological well-being/distress, anxiety disorders or Eating Behavior Disorders (EBD). To validate a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S) and verify its ability to discriminate between people with different levels of EBD. Responses of 1478 subjects between 13 and 21 years old to the shortened version of the PSQ were analyzed in order to check indexes of reliability and validity. Furthermore, the scores of 96 women aged 14 to 23 years old diagnosed of EBD were compared to 96 others without clinical diagnosis. The results indicate a reliability of 0.93 and confirm the tetrafactorial structure of the physical selfconcept. The highest physical self-concept is that of those without a clinical diagnosis of EBD. The Shortened-PSQ is a simple, reliable and suitable screening tool both for educational and clinical settings. It also provides a sufficient measure of physical self-concept for research purposes.

  18. Strategies for shortening the output pulse of silicon photomultipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Antoranz Canales, Pedro; Miranda Pantoja, José Miguel; Yebras Rivera, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In this work, three strategies for shortening the output pulse of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) are reported. The first strategy is passive filtering, where band-pass filtering removes the lowest frequency components in the signal, getting a noticeable reduction in pulse width (a compression ratio of 10: 1 was obtained). In the second place, a reflectometric scheme is proposed where the amplified signal coming from the SiPM is injected into a signal splitter with one of its stubs connected...

  19. Muscle damage induced by stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyröläinen, H; Takala, T E; Komi, P V

    1998-03-01

    Strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise was used as a model to study the leakage of proteins from skeletal muscle. The analysis included serum levels of creatine kinase (S-CK), myoglobin (S-Mb), and carbonic anhydrase (S-CA III). Blood samples from power- (N=11) and endurance-trained (N=10) athletes were collected before, 0, and 2 h after the exercise, which consisted of a total of 400 jumps. The levels of all determined myocellular proteins increased immediately after the exercise (P exercise, and the ratio of S-CA III and S-Mb decreased (P recruitment order of motor units, and/or differences in training background.

  20. Matrix effects on the crystallization behaviour of butter and roll-in shortening in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-06-01

    Two hydrogenated roll-in shortenings (A & B), one non-hydrogenated roll-in shortening and butter were used to prepare croissants. The impact of the laminated dough matrix on fat crystallization was then investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fat contained within a croissant matrix has never before been analyzed using these techniques. In each case, XRD revealed that the polymorphism of a roll-in fat will be different when baked within the dough matrix than when simply heated and cooled on its own. Both hydrogenated roll-in shortenings and butter experienced only minor changes, largely retaining their β' polymorphs, but the non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant conversion from β' to the β form. However, this conversion did not take place immediately upon cooling, but after approximately 24h of storage time. The fat contained within the croissants exhibited a significantly lower SFC than the same fats in bulk. Further, DSC results demonstrated that a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat in a croissant than the same fat in bulk, observed visually as broader peaks in the melting endotherms. Analysis of croissant firmness over storage time, measured as the maximum force required to cut a croissant was used as an indication of potential sensory consequences. Results suggested that only croissants prepared with non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant changes in firmness over one week of storage. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the shortenings and the ingredients of the croissant matrix, and given the differences observed between roll-in fats used, the extent of interaction is potentially influenced by the composition of the roll-in fat itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of nonlinear viscoelasticity on the functionality of laminating shortenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias-Rodriguez, Braulio A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of fats is essential for the development of homogeneous and continuous layered structures of doughs. Here, we define laminating shortenings in terms of rheological behavior displayed during linear-to-nonlinear shear deformations, investigated by large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. Likewise, we associate the rheological behavior of the shortenings with structural length scales elucidated by ultra-small angle x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy. Shortenings exhibited solid-like viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic behaviors in the linear and nonlinear regimes respectively. In the nonlinear region, laminating shortenings dissipated more viscous energy (larger normalized dynamic viscosities) than a cake bakery shortening. The fat solid-like network of laminating shortening displayed a three-hierarchy structure and layered crystal aggregates, in comparison to two-hierarchy structure and spherical-like crystal aggregates of a cake shortening. We argue that the observed rheology, correlated to the structural network, is crucial for optimal laminating performance of shortenings.

  2. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed....... The procedure has been employed as the key step in a short five-step synthesis of the unnatural sugar L-threose in 74% overall yield from D-glucose. A zinc-mediated one-pot fragmentation-allylation reaction has been used to elongate D-glucose and D-ribose by three carbon atoms thereby producing carbohydrate......-derived α,ω-dienes, which have been converted into the natural products calystegine A3 and gabosine A. The glycosidase inhibitor calystegine A3 was produced by two similar routes from commercially available methyl α-D-glucopyranoside in 13 and 14 steps with 8.3 and 5.3% overall yield, respectively...

  3. Clinical efficacy comparison of flabby skin excision combined orbicularis oculi muscle shortening surgery in patients with senile entropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Liang Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening and orbicularis muscle shortening in the treatment of elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion, and provide the reference for the clinical treatment.METHODS: Eighty-two(126 eyesclinical diagnosis's elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion were collected from our department, then randomly divided into excised relaxing skin and orbicularis oculi muscle shortening treatment group and the orbicularis muscle shortening treatment group.The general data of the two groups, long term curative effect and short-term curative effect were compared. RESULTS: The age, sex, proportion of patients with the first time operation, course of disease were no statistical significance between the observation group and the control group(P>0.05. The short-term effective rate of the observation group was 95.2%, while the short-term effective rate of the control group was 77.8%, the short-term efficiency differences between the two groups was statistical significance(χ2=4.100, P=0.043. The long-term cure rate of the observation group was 82.5%(34 cases, 52 eyes, recurrence rate was 17.5%(7 cases, 11 eyes, while the cure rate of the control group was 60.3%(25 cases, 38 eyes, recurrence rate was 39.7%(16 cases, 25 eyes, the difference of long term cure rate was statistical significance between the two groups(PCONCLUSION: The clinical curative effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening in the treatment of senile inferior entropion is better than orbicularis muscle shortening operation, recommending application in the clinical.

  4. Lactose tolerance test shortened to 30 minutes: an exploratory study of its feasibility and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Domínguez-Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactose malabsorption (LM is a very common condition with a high prevalence in our setting. Lactose tolerance test (LTT is a basic, affordable test for diagnosis that requires no complex technology. It has been recently shown that this test can be shortened to 3 measurements (baseline, 30 min, 60 min with no impact on final results. The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility and benefits of LTT simplification and shortening to 30 min, as well as the financial impact entailed. Material and methods: A multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing LTT for LM suspicion. Patients received 50 g of lactose following a fasting period of 12 h, and had blood collected from a vein at all 3 time points for the measurement of blood glucose (mg/dl. Differences between the shortened and complete test forms were analyzed using McNemar's test. A comparison of blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal results was performed using Student's T-test for independent mean values. Consistency was assessed using the kappa index. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 270 patients (69.6% females were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 16 years. LTT was abnormal for 151 patients (55.9%. We observed no statistically significant differences in baseline blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal LTT results (p = 0.13; however, as was to be expected, such differences were obvious for the remaining time points (p < 0.01. Deleting blood glucose measurements at 60 minutes only led to overdiagnose LM (false positive results in 6 patients (2.22 %, with a kappa index of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.99 (p < 0.001 versus the complete test. Suppressing measurements at 60 min would have saved at least € 7,726. Conclusion: The shortening of LTT to only 2 measurements (baseline and 30-min hardly leads to any differences in final results, and would entail savings in

  5. Physico-chemical properties and performance of high oleic and palm-based shortenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Muhamad Roddy; Lin, Siew Wai; Yoo, Cheah Kien; Idris, Nor Aini; Sahri, Miskandar Mat

    2008-01-01

    Solid fat from fractionation of palm-based products was converted into cake shortening at different processing conditions. High oleic palm stearin with an oleic content of 48.2 % was obtained from fractionation of high oleic palm oil which was produced locally. Palm product was blended with different soft oils at pre-determined ratio and further fractionated to obtain the solid fractions. These fractions were then converted into cake shortenings named as high oleic, N1 and N2 blends. The physico-chemical properties of the experimental shortenings were compared with those of control shortenings in terms of fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV), slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) and polymorphic forms. Unlike the imported commercial shortenings as reported by other studies and the control, experimental shortenings were trans-free. The SMP and SFC of experimental samples, except for the N2 sample, fell within the ranges of commercial and control shortenings. The IV was higher than those of domestic shortenings but lower when compared to imported and control shortenings. They were also observed to be beta tending even though a mixture of beta and beta' was observed in the samples after 3 months of storage. The shortenings were also used in the making of pound cake and sensory evaluation showed the good performance of high oleic sample as compared to the other shortenings.

  6. Development of advanced concept for shortening construction period of ABWR plant (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the first building fully applying SC structure, which is indispensable for shortening construction period of ABWR plants (21.5 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading), has been started since August 2002 in Japan. Before the construction start, a pre-construction test with some actual size SC panels was carried out to confirm the SC modular construction method. The outline of the design and the construction of the first full-SC building and the results of the pre-construction test are reported. (author)

  7. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Department of Neurology, Erlangen (Germany); Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Institute of Radiology, Linz (Austria); Schmid, A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  8. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B.; Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A.; Schmid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  9. Magellanic penguin telomeres do not shorten with age with increased reproductive effort, investment, and basal corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiara, Jack A; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R; Kane, Olivia J; Boersma, P Dee

    2017-08-01

    All species should invest in systems that enhance longevity; however, a fundamental adult life-history trade-off exists between the metabolic resources allocated to maintenance and those allocated to reproduction. Long-lived species will invest more in reproduction than in somatic maintenance as they age. We investigated this trade-off by analyzing correlations among telomere length, reproductive effort and output, and basal corticosterone in Magellanic penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ). Telomeres shorten with age in most species studied to date, and may affect adult survival. High basal corticosterone is indicative of stressful conditions. Corticosterone, and stress, has been linked to telomere shortening in other species. Magellanic penguins are a particularly good model organism for this question as they are an unusually long-lived species, exceeding their mass-adjusted predicted lifespan by 26%. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found adults aged 5 years to over 24 years of age had similar telomere lengths. Telomeres of adults did not shorten over a 3-year period, regardless of the age of the individual. Neither telomere length, nor the rate at which the telomeres changed over these 3 years, correlated with breeding frequency or investment. Older females also produced larger volume clutches until approximately 15 years old and larger eggs produced heavier fledglings. Furthermore, reproductive success ( chicks fledged/eggs laid ) is maintained as females aged. Basal corticosterone, however, was not correlated with telomere length in adults and suggests that low basal corticosterone may play a role in the telomere maintenance we observed. Basal corticosterone also declined during the breeding season and was positively correlated with the age of adult penguins. This higher basal corticosterone in older individuals, and consistent reproductive success, supports the prediction that Magellanic penguins invest more in reproduction as they age. Our results

  10. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  11. Mid-term clinical outcome of radial shortening for kienbock disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the intermediate-term outcomes of radius shortening as a treatment for Kienbock′s disease. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort, 16 skeletally mature patients (9 men and 7 women with Kienbock disease, who were treated with radial shortening osteotomy between 2002 and 2012, were reviewed in our study. The mean age of our patients was 30 (range 18-43 years old. According to Litchman staging, there were 7 wrists at stage II and 9 wrists at stage III (6 at stage IIIA and 3 at stage IIIB. The data of grip strength, pain (visual analog scale (VAS score, wrist range of motion (ROM, ulnar variance (according to Palmer method, and the Lichtman stage were gathered before and after surgery. We evaluated overall wrist function using the Mayo Wrist score and disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH score before surgery and at the last follow-up. Results: The average of follow-up was 7 years (range from 5 to 9 years. Preoperative ulnar variance was -1.3 mm (range from 2.5 to 1 preoperatively. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was 1 mm positive (range from 0.5 to 1.5. The VAS pain score, the mean arc of wrist flexion and extension, and grip strength improved significantly preoperatively compared to after recovery from surgery. The Lichtman stage was unchanged in nine patients, one grade worse in six patients, and one grade better in one patient. The mean DASH and Mayo scores improved significantly postoperatively compare with preoperation. Comparing preoperative positive, neuter, and negative ulnar variance, there was no significant difference in terms of VAS, DASH, and Mayo scores as well as ROM and grip strength. Conclusion: Our study shows that radius shortening surgery improves pain and disability regardless of ulnar variance.

  12. Action Potential Shortening and Impairment of Cardiac Function by Ablation of Slc26a6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirish, Padmini; Ledford, Hannah A; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Thai, Phung N; Ren, Lu; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong Han; Dai, Gu; Moshref, Maryam; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Chen, Wei Chun; Timofeyeva, Maria Valeryevna; Jian, Zhong; Shimkunas, Rafael; Izu, Leighton T; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chen-Izu, Ye; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-10-01

    Intracellular pH (pH i ) is critical to cardiac excitation and contraction; uncompensated changes in pH i impair cardiac function and trigger arrhythmia. Several ion transporters participate in cardiac pH i regulation. Our previous studies identified several isoforms of a solute carrier Slc26a6 to be highly expressed in cardiomyocytes. We show that Slc26a6 mediates electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities in cardiomyocytes, suggesting the potential role of Slc26a6 in regulation of not only pH i , but also cardiac excitability. To test the mechanistic role of Slc26a6 in the heart, we took advantage of Slc26a6 knockout ( Slc26a6 -/ - ) mice using both in vivo and in vitro analyses. Consistent with our prediction of its electrogenic activities, ablation of Slc26a6 results in action potential shortening. There are reduced Ca 2+ transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ load, together with decreased sarcomere shortening in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes. These abnormalities translate into reduced fractional shortening and cardiac contractility at the in vivo level. Additionally, pH i is elevated in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes with slower recovery kinetics from intracellular alkalization, consistent with the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities of Slc26a6. Moreover, Slc26a6 -/ - mice show evidence of sinus bradycardia and fragmented QRS complex, supporting the critical role of Slc26a6 in cardiac conduction system. Our study provides mechanistic insights into Slc26a6, a unique cardiac electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - transporter in ventricular myocytes, linking the critical roles of Slc26a6 in regulation of pH i , excitability, and contractility. pH i is a critical regulator of other membrane and contractile proteins. Future studies are needed to investigate possible changes in these proteins in Slc26a6 -/ - mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Effect of Shortened Heat Treatment on the Hardness and Microstructure of 320.0 Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezda J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of Al-Si alloys properties in scope of classic method is connected with change of Si precipitations morphology through: using modification of the alloy, maintaining suitable temperature of overheating and pouring process, as well as perfection of heat treatment methods. Growing requirements of the market make it necessary to search after such procedures, which would quickly deliver positive results with simultaneous consideration of economic aspects. Presented in the paper shortened heat treatment with soaking of the alloy at temperature near temperature of solidus could be assumed as the method in the above mentioned understanding of the problem. Such treatment consists in soaking of the alloy to temperature of solutioning, keeping in such temperature, and next, quick quenching in water (20 °C followed by artificial ageing. Temperature ranges of solutioning and ageing treatments implemented in the adopted testing plan were based on analysis of recorded curves from the ATD method. Obtained results relate to dependencies and spatial diagrams describing effect of parameters of the solutioning and ageing treatments on HB hardness of the investigated alloy and change of its microstructure. Performed shortened heat treatment results in precipitation hardening of the investigated 320.0 alloy, what according to expectations produces increased hardness of the material.

  14. 3’UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Yonit; Bublik, Debora Rosa; P. Ugalde, Alejandro; Elkon, Ran; Biniashvili, Tammy; Agami, Reuven; Oren, Moshe; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2016-01-01

    Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites and hence diverse 3’UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3’UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs) whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3’UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3’UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3’UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes. PMID:26908102

  15. 3'UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonit Hoffman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA sites and hence diverse 3'UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3'UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3'UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3'UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3'UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes.

  16. Investigation on shortening fabrication process of instrumented irradiation capsule of JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Inoue, Shuichi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2013-06-01

    Refurbishment of The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) was completed in FY2010. For damage caused by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, the repair of facilities was completed in October 2012. Currently, the JMTR is in preparation for restart. Irradiation tests for LWRs safety research, science and technologies and production of RI for medical diagnosis medicine, etc. are expected after the JMTR restart. On the other hand, aiming at the attractive irradiation testing reactor, the usability improvement has been discussed. As a part of the usability improvement, shortening of turnaround time to get irradiation results from an application for irradiation use was discussed focusing on the fabrication process of irradiation capsules, where the fabrication process was analyzed and reviewed by referring a trial fabrication of the mockup capsule. As a result, it was found that the turnaround time can be shortened 2 months from fabrication period of 6 months with communize of irradiation capsule parts, application of ready-made instrumentation including the sheath heater, reconsideration of inspection process, etc. (author)

  17. Placental telomere shortening in stillbirth: a sign of premature senescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Francesca; Facchinetti, Fabio; Saade, George; Menon, Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate placental telomere shortening in unexplained stillbirths (SBs) as an indication of premature senescence. Placentas were collected from 42 unexplained SB (>22 weeks), 43 term and 15 preterm live births, at the Policlinico Hospital of Modena (Italy). DNA extracted from placentae was studied for telomere length by real time PCR. Standard curves were generated for telomere lengths from single copy gene amplifications using a reference DNA. The telomere length for each sample was derived based on the ratio of telomere length between the sample and single copy gene standard (T/S ratio). The mean ratio of placental telomere in term live births was 5.181 ± 3.841. A twofold decrease in telomere length was seen in SBs (over all 2.455 ± 1.239; p PTBs) (6.382 ± 5.525; p < 0.01), whereas SBs telomere length were similar to those of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) (3.296 ± 3.599; p = ns). Substantial reduction in telomere length in SBs is indicative of placental senescence. These data provide mechanistic insights that premature aging may lead to placental dysfunction as an initiator of fetal demise in unexplained SBs.

  18. On the shortening of Indian summer monsoon season in a warming scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeerali, C. T.; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Assessing the future projections of the length of rainy season (LRS) has paramount societal impact considering its potential to alter the seasonal mean rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. Here, we explored the projections of LRS using both historical and Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase5 (CMIP5). RCP8.5 simulations project shortening of the LRS of Indian summer monsoon by altering the timing of onset and withdrawal dates. Most CMIP5 RCP8.5 model simulations indicate a faster warming rate over the western tropical Indian Ocean compared to other regions of the Indian Ocean. It is found that the pronounced western Indian Ocean warming and associated increase in convection results in warmer upper troposphere over the Indian Ocean compared to the Indian subcontinent, reducing the meridional gradient in upper tropospheric temperature (UTT) over the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) domain. The weakening of the meridional gradient in UTT induces weakening of easterly vertical wind shear over the ASM domain during first and last phase of monsoon, facilitate delayed (advanced) monsoon onset (withdrawal) dates, ensues the shortening of LRS of the Indian summer monsoon in a warming scenario.

  19. Study of imaging time shortening in Whole Heart MRCA. Evaluation of slice thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Mitsuhiro; Tateishi, Toshiki; Takeda, Soji; Hayashi, Ryuji

    2005-01-01

    A series of examinations in cardiac MR imaging, such as cine, perfusion, MR coronary angiography (MRCA) and viability, is generally known as One Stop Cardiac Examination. It takes about 40 to 60 minutes to perform One Stop Cardiac Examination, and Whole Heart MRCA accounts for most of the examination time. Therefore, we aimed to shorten imaging time of Whole Heart MRCA, especially in a large imaging area such as that in the case of the postoperative evaluation of a bypass graft, by investigating the depiction of a diameter of mimic blood vessels as changing the slice thickness of Whole Heart MRCA. The results showed that the maximum slice thickness of about 1 mm was excellent considering the diameters of actual coronary arteries are about 3 mm. In this study, we could grasp the relationships among slice thickness of Whole Heart MRCA, the diameter of a blood vessel, and shortened examination time. We suggested that it was useful for selecting the suitable sequence depending on a patient's conditions. (author)

  20. Semi-automated detection of fractional shortening in zebrafish embryo heart videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrat Sara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying cardiac functions in model organisms like embryonic zebrafish is of high importance in small molecule screens for new therapeutic compounds. One relevant cardiac parameter is the fractional shortening (FS. A method for semi-automatic quantification of FS in video recordings of zebrafish embryo hearts is presented. The software provides automated visual information about the end-systolic and end-diastolic stages of the heart by displaying corresponding colored lines into a Motion-mode display. After manually marking the ventricle diameters in frames of end-systolic and end-diastolic stages, the FS is calculated. The software was evaluated by comparing the results of the determination of FS with results obtained from another established method. Correlations of 0.96 < r < 0.99 between the two methods were found indicating that the new software provides comparable results for the determination of the FS.

  1. Gelatinized wheat starch influences crystallization behaviour and structure of roll-in shortenings in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-03-15

    One hydrogenated and one non-hydrogenated shortening were baked with isolated components of a croissant matrix, including crystalline wheat starch, gelatinized wheat starch, gluten, and formed gluten network. The impact of the matrix components on fat crystallization was analyzed for polymorphism using powder X-ray diffraction, solid fat content by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry. When compared to results obtained from croissants prepared with the respective shortenings, samples containing gelatinized wheat starch displayed notably similar results: polymorphic conversion, from the β' to β form over storage, and visually broader peaks in the melting endotherms indicating a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat. All other component mixtures behaved similar to the respective fats in bulk. The measured rate of crystallization was greater in samples containing gelatinized wheat starch, indicating that the gelatinized starch could act as a nucleation site to speed crystallization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Comparison of Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy Alone Versus Combined Arthroscopic Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Debridement and Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Background This study compared the results of patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome using an ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) alone with those treated with combined arthroscopic debridement and USO. Methods The results of 27 wrists were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into three groups: group A (USO alone, 10 cases), group B (combined arthroscopic debridement and USO, 9 cases), and group C (arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex [TFCC] debridement alone, 8 cases). The wrist function was evaluated using the modified Mayo wrist score, disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score and Chun and Palmer grading system. Results The modified Mayo wrist score in groups A, B, and C was 74.5 ± 8.9, 73.9 ± 11.6, and 61.3 ± 10.2, respectively (p 0.05). Conclusions Both USO alone and combined arthroscopic TFCC debridement with USO improved the wrist function and reduced the level of pain in the patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome. USO alone may be the preferred method of treatment in patients if the torn flap of TFCC is not unstable. PMID:21909465

  3. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.M. Yanty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF with palm stearin (PS in a 99:1 (w/w ratio; avocado fat (Avo with PS and cocoa butter (CB in a 84:7:9 (w/w ratio; palm oil (PO with PS, soybean oil (SBO and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure.

  4. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanty, N.A.M.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Miskandar, M.S.; Bockstaele, F. Van; Dewettinck, K.; Nusantoro, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD) in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF) with palm stearin (PS) in a 99:1 (w/w) ratio; avocado fat (Avo) with PS and cocoa butter (CB) in a 84:7:9 (w/w) ratio; palm oil (PO) with PS, soybean oil (SBO) and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w) ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure. [es

  5. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  6. Influence of muscle geometry on shortening speed of fibre, aponeurosis and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, C. J.; Huijing, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of muscle geometry on muscle shortening of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat was studied. Using cinematography, GM geometry was studied during isokinetic concentric activity at muscle lengths ranging from 85 to 105% of the optimum muscle length. The shortening speed of

  7. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  8. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol...... elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher...... with cortisol–vegetable shortening than with cortisol–cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol–vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol–cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa...

  9. Radiation-induced life shortening in neonatally thymectomized germ-free mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Howarth, J.L.; Troup, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation in sufficient amounts is carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, and results in a reduced life span. Similar consequences follow neonatal thymectomy (nTx) in some strains of rodents. The tumorigenic effects of irradiation appear to be partly mediated via suppression of the thymus-dependent portion of the immune response. Our purpose was to determine whether a similar relationship exists for radiation-induced accelerated aging. Female germ-free Charles River mice had neonatal or sham thymectomies within 24 hours of birth. Half of each group was exposed to 700 rads at 6 weeks of age. When mice with histologically malignant tumors were excluded, the combined life-shortening effects of nTx and irradiation were less pronounced than the sum of the individual effects. This suggests that some of the decreased longevity associated with irradiation may be mediated by T-cell injury

  10. Spontaneous delayed migration/shortening of the pipeline embolization device: report of 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, N; Tjoumakaris, S I; Gonzalez, L F; Hasan, D; Pema, P J; Gould, G; Rosenwasser, R H; Jabbour, P M

    2013-12-01

    Five patients were found to have spontaneous delayed migration/shortening of their Pipeline Embolization Devices on follow-up angiography. The device migrated proximally in 4 patients and distally in 1 patient. One patient had a subarachnoid hemorrhage and died as a result of migration of the Pipeline Embolization Device, and another patient presented with complete MCA occlusion and was left severely disabled. Mismatch in arterial diameter between inflow and outflow vessels was a constant finding. Migration of the Pipeline Embolization Device was managed conservatively, with additional placement of the device, or with parent vessel occlusion. Obtaining complete expansion of the embolization device by using a longer device, increasing vessel coverage, using adjunctive aneurysm coiling, and avoiding dragging and stretching of the device are important preventive measures. Neurointerventionalists should be aware of this potentially fatal complication and take all necessary preventive measures.

  11. Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Vestling, Monika; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of using a mitt during shortened constraint-induced movement therapy for patients in the subacute phase after stroke. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four patients with stroke (mean age 57.6 (standard deviation (SD) 8.5) years; average 7 weeks post-stroke) with mild to moderate......, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time. CONCLUSION: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance...... Scale, the Sollerman hand function test, the 2-Point Discrimination test and Motor Activity Log test. RESULTS: Patients in both groups showed significant improvements in arm and hand motor performance and on self-reported motor ability after 2 weeks of therapy and at 3 months follow-up. However...

  12. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold–thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  13. Apoptosis and telomeres shortening related to HIV-1 induced oxidative stress in an astrocytoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollace Vincenzo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the neuropathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 infection causing apoptosis of astroglia cells and neurons. Recent data have shown that oxidative stress is also responsible for the acceleration of human fibroblast telomere shortening in vitro. In the present study we analyzed the potential relations occurring between free radicals formation and telomere length during HIV-1 mediated astroglial death. Results To this end, U373 human astrocytoma cells have been directly exposed to X4-using HIV-1IIIB strain, for 1, 3 or 5 days and treated (where requested with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a cysteine donor involved in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, a cellular antioxidant and apoptosis has been evaluated by FACS analysis. Quantitative-FISH (Q-FISH has been employed for studying the telomere length while intracellular reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio has been determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Incubation of U373 with HIV-1IIIB led to significant induction of cellular apoptosis that was reduced in the presence of 1 mM NAC. Moreover, NAC improved the GSH/GSSG, a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress, that significantly decreased after HIV-1IIIB exposure in U373. Analysis of telomere length in HIV-1 exposed U373 showed a statistically significant telomere shortening, that was completely reverted in NAC-treated U373. Conclusion Our results support the role of HIV-1-mediated oxidative stress in astrocytic death and the importance of antioxidant compounds in preventing these cellular damages. Moreover, these data indicate that the telomere structure, target for oxidative damage, could be the key sensor of cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after HIV infection.

  14. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  15. Intravenous glutamine does not modify leucocyte count but shortens duration of mucositis after bone marrow transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Andrade Hernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Intravenous administration of Glutamine dipeptides (Gln has been proposed as treatment of oral mucositis following a bone marrow transplant (BMT. Objective: To establish the effects of intravenous Gln supplementation upon the severity of oral mucositis after BMT. Study design: Retrospective, analytical. Study serie: Records from 25 patients (Males: 56.0%; BMT cause: Leukemia: 64.0% who developed oral mucositis (Grades III – IV: 48.0% after BMT (Autologous: 44.0% at the "Juan Tanca Marengo" Hospital (Guayaquil, Ecuador between 2009 – 2017. Glutamine source: Dipeptiven©®: 13 grams of Gln suspended in 100 milliliters of a 20% solution of the alanine-glutamine dipeptide (Fresenius-Kabi©®, Germany. Materials and Methods: Gln-treated patients received 3(4.0% of the treatment leg, 5 (20.0%; 6 (12.0%; 7 (48.0%; or 10 (16.0% doses of the dipeptide until resolution of the symptoms. Impact of Gln was estimated from changes observed in the severity and duration of mucositis, white blood cell counts, and body weight regarding 25 non-Gln treated patients (Males: 68.0%; Leukemias: 32.0%; Autologous graft: 68.0%; Grade III – IV mucositis: 48.0%. Results: Intravenously-administered Gln shortened duration of oral mucositis: Gln-Treated: 12.5 ± 5.1 days vs. Non-Gln Treated: 21.3 ± 17.8 days (p < 0.05. Also, intravenous Gln marginally ameliorated loss of body weight: Gln-Treated -4.5 ± 5.5% vs. Non-Gln Treated: -7.5 ± 5.7% (p = 0.07. Conclusions: Intravenous Gln administration shortens duration of oral mucositis following BMT. Gln effect might be translated to a lesser weight loss in patients with oral mucositis.

  16. Analysis of combination drug therapy to develop regimens with shortened duration of treatment for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Drusano

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a worldwide problem, particularly with the advent of multi-drug resistance. Shortening therapy duration for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major goal, requiring generation of optimal kill rate and resistance-suppression. Combination therapy is required to attain the goal of shorter therapy.Our objective was to identify a method for identifying optimal combination chemotherapy. We developed a mathematical model for attaining this end. This is accomplished by identifying drug effect interaction (synergy, additivity, antagonism for susceptible organisms and subpopulations resistant to each drug in the combination.We studied the combination of linezolid plus rifampin in our hollow fiber infection model. We generated a fully parametric drug effect interaction mathematical model. The results were subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to extend the findings to a population of patients by accounting for between-patient variability in drug pharmacokinetics.All monotherapy allowed emergence of resistance over the first two weeks of the experiment. In combination, the interaction was additive for each population (susceptible and resistant. For a 600 mg/600 mg daily regimen of linezolid plus rifampin, we demonstrated that >50% of simulated subjects had eradicated the susceptible population by day 27 with the remaining organisms resistant to one or the other drug. Only 4% of patients had complete organism eradication by experiment end.These data strongly suggest that in order to achieve the goal of shortening therapy, the original regimen may need to be changed at one month to a regimen of two completely new agents with resistance mechanisms independent of the initial regimen. This hypothesis which arose from the analysis is immediately testable in a clinical trial.

  17. A structural and kinetic study on myofibrils prevented from shortening by chemical cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, C; Sleep, J; Chaussepied, P; Travers, F; Barman, T

    1993-07-20

    In previous work, we studied the early steps of the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils [Houadjeto, M., Travers, F., & Barman, T. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1564-1569]. The myofibrils were free to contract, and the results obtained refer to the ATPase cycle of myofibrils contracting with no external load. Here we studied the ATPase of myofibrils contracting isometrically. To prevent shortening, we cross-linked them with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the myosin rods were extensively cross-linked and that 8% of the myosin heads were cross-linked to the thin filament. The transient kinetics of the cross-linked myofibrils were studied in 0.1 M potassium acetate, pH 7.4 and 4 degrees C, by the rapid-flow quench method. The ATP binding steps were studied by the cold ATP chase and the cleavage and release of products steps by the Pi burst method. In Pi burst experiments, the sizes of the bursts were equal within experimental error to the ATPase site concentrations (as determined by the cold ATP chase methods) for both cross-linked (isometric) and un-cross-linked (isotonic) myofibrils. This shows that in both cases the rate-limiting step is after the cleavage of ATP. When cross-linked, the kcat of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils was reduced from 1.7 to 0.8 s-1. This is consistent with the observation that fibers shortening at moderate velocity have a higher ATPase activity than isometric fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.

  19. Improvement of visual debugging tool. Shortening the elapsed time for getting data and adding new functions to compare/combine a set of visualized data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Katsuyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    The visual debugging tool 'vdebug' has been improved, which was designed for the debugging of programs for scientific computing. Improved were the following two points; (1) shortening the elapsed time required for getting appropriate data to visualize; (2) adding new functions which enable to compare and/or combine a set of visualized data originated from two or more different programs. As for shortening elapsed time for getting data, with the improved version of 'vdebug', we could achieve the following results; over hundred times shortening the elapsed time with dbx, pdbx of SX-4 and over ten times with ndb of SR2201. As for the new functions to compare/combine visualized data, it was confirmed that we could easily checked the consistency between the computational results obtained in each calculational steps on two different computers: SP and ONYX. In this report, we illustrate how the tool 'vdebug' has been improved with an example. (author)

  20. Vastus lateralis surface and single motor unit EMG following submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, T.M.; de Ruiter, C.J.; Verdijk, P.W.L.; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2008-01-01

    A single shortening contraction reduces the force capacity of muscle fibers, whereas force capacity is enhanced following lengthening. However, how motor unit recruitment and discharge rate (muscle activation) are adapted to such changes in force capacity during submaximal contractions remains

  1. Graphene oxide-loaded shortening as an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsetskul Thammasit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide-loaded shortening (GOS, an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity, was successfully prepared by mixing graphene oxide (GO with a shortening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that GO particles, prepared by the modified Hummer’s method, dispersed well in the shortening. In addition, the latent heat of GOS decreased while their viscosity and thermal conductivity increased with increasing the amount of loaded GO. The thermal conductivity of the GOS with 4% GO was higher than that of pure shortening of ca. three times, from 0.1751 to 0.6022 W/mK, and increased with increasing temperature. The GOS started to be degraded at ca. 360°C. After being heated and cooled at 100°C for 100 cycles, its viscosity slightly decreased and no chemical degradation was observed. Therefore, the prepared GOS is potentially used as environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid at high temperature.

  2. Quantum gravity removes classical singularities and shortens the life of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Vilkovisky, G.A.

    1979-07-01

    The problem of the gravitational collapse is considered in the framework of the quantum gravity effective action. It is shown that quantum gravity removes classical singularity and possibly shortens the lifetime of the black hole. (author)

  3. Bit Error Rate Minimizing Channel Shortening Equalizers for Single Carrier Cyclic Prefixed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Richard K; Vanbleu, Koen; Ysebaert, Geert

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous work on channel shortening has largely been in the context of digital subscriber lines, a wireline system that allows bit allocation, thus it has focused on maximizing the bit rate for a given bit error rate (BER...

  4. Shortening and Thickening of Metropolitan Los Angeles Measured and Inferred Using Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Heflin, M.; Donnellan, A.; Webb, F.; Dong, D.; Hurst, K.; Jefferson, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Watkins, M.; Zumberge, J.

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System and other techniques show north-south shortening near Los Angeles to be fastest across the northern part of the metropolitan area, where an ESE-striking, 5- to 40-km-wide belt lying to the south of San Gabriel Mountains and to the north of downtown and West Los Angeles is shortening at 5 mm/yr.

  5. Damage sensing ability of polymer nanocomposites filled with long, shortened and damaged carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Inam, Fawad; Okolo, Chichi; Vo, Thuc

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were aggressively tip-ultrasonicated to produce shortened and damaged carbon nanotubes. High-resolution scanning electron microscopic analysis was performed to measure the dimensions of CNTs. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to evaluate the damage in the sonicated CNTs. Shortened CNTs, in their pristine form (undamaged), were used for comparison with damaged CNTs. Nanocomposite bars, containing CNTs, were indented using Vickers hardness testing machine to pro...

  6. Spinal column shortening for tethered cord syndrome associated with myelomeningocele, lumbosacral lipoma, and lipomyelomeningocele in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldave, Guillermo; Hansen, Daniel; Hwang, Steven W; Moreno, Amee; Briceño, Valentina; Jea, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Tethered cord syndrome is the clinical manifestation of an abnormal stretch on the spinal cord, presumably causing mechanical injury, a compromised blood supply, and altered spinal cord metabolism. Tethered cord release is the standard treatment for tethered cord syndrome. However, direct untethering of the spinal cord carries potential risks, such as new neurological deficits from spinal cord injury, a CSF leak from opening the dura, and retethering of the spinal cord from normal scar formation after surgery. To avoid these risks, the authors applied spinal column shortening to children and transitional adults with primary and secondary tethered cord syndrome and report treatment outcomes. The authors' aim with this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of spinal column shortening for tethered cord syndrome by analyzing their experience with this surgical technique. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the demographic and procedural data of children and young adults who had undergone spinal column shortening for primary or secondary tethered cord syndrome. RESULTS Seven patients with tethered cord syndrome caused by myelomeningocele, lipomyelomeningocele, and transitional spinal lipoma were treated with spinal column shortening. One patient with less than 24 months of follow-up was excluded from further analysis. There were 3 males and 4 females; the average age at the time was surgery was 16 years (range 8-30 years). Clinical presentations for our patients included pain (in 5 patients), weakness (in 4 patients), and bowel/bladder dysfunction (in 4 patients). Spinal column osteotomy was most commonly performed at the L-1 level, with fusion between T-12 and L-2 using a pedicle screw-rod construct. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy was performed in 6 patients, and vertebral column resection was performed in 1 patient. The average follow-up period was 31 months (range 26-37 months). Computed tomography-based radiographic outcomes showed solid

  7. Effect of shortening replacement with oleogels on the rheological and tomographic characteristics of aerated baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeongtaek; Jeong, Sungmin; Lee, JaeHwan; Park, Sungkwon; Lee, Jonggil; Lee, Suyong

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of effort has been made to reduce the use of shortening owing to the high level of saturated fats as well as the presence of trans fats. Grape seed oil high in unsaturated fats was structured with candelilla wax to form solid-like oleogels that were utilized as a shortening replacer in aerated baked goods, specifically muffins. Muffin batters with greater amounts of oleogels exhibited lower viscosity, greater shear-thinning behavior and less elastic nature. The shortening replacement with oleogels significantly increased the specific gravity of the batters, consequently affecting the muffin volume after baking. X-ray tomography indicated a lower fragmentation index (i.e. a more connected solid structure) in the oleogel-incorporated muffins, which was correlated with more enclosed and isolated air cells. A stress relaxation test showed that the shortening replacement with oleogels produced muffins with a firmer and springier texture. Based on fatty acid compositions, the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly reduced from 2.81 to 0.41. Use of the oleogels as a shortening replacer at a ratio of 1:3 by weight was effective in producing muffins with comparable quality attributes to the control with shortening. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2013-12-18

    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. Approach to shortening duration of nuclear plant refueling outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshiharu; Nakanishi, Tooru [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan). Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Yoshihara, Seiichi; Kanbara, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Misao; Shimizu, Takeshi

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes the mission role of the MHI in-house project team for a shorter outage duration for PWR plants operating in Japan and its results. The major tasks of project team are benchmarking to develop outage performance goals, and develop recommendation packages for outage enhancement covering field procedures and tooling betterment. An optimization study for maintenance tasks was also carried out. This paper highlights the results of efforts the activities of the project team. (author)

  10. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, Laura-Anne M; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  11. Fatigue and muscle-tendon stiffness after stretch-shortening cycle and isometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Hechmi; Poumarat, Georges; Best, Thomas M; Martin, Alain; Fairclough, John; Benjamin, Mike

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare vertical jump performance after 2 different fatigue protocols. In the first protocol, subjects performed consecutive sets of 10 repetitions of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) contractions. In the second protocol, successive sets of 10 repetitions of isometric contractions were performed for 10 s with the knee at 90 degrees of flexion. The exercises were stopped when the subjects failed to reach 50% of their maximum voluntary isometric contractions. Maximal isometric force and maximal concentric power were assessed by performing supine leg presses, squat jumps, and drop jumps. Surface EMG was used to determine changes in muscle activation before and after fatigue. In both groups, the fatigue exercises reduced voluntary isometric force, maximal concentric power, and drop jump performance. Kinematic data showed a decrease in knee muscle-tendon stiffness accompanied by a lengthened ground contact time. EMG analysis showed that the squat and drop jumps were performed similarly before and after the fatigue exercise for both groups. Although it was expected that the stiffness would decrease more after SSC than after isometric fatigue (as a result of a greater alteration of the reflex sensitivity SSC), our results showed that both protocols had a similar effect on knee muscle stiffness during jumping exercises. Both fatigue protocols induced muscle fatigue, and the decrease in jump performance was linked to a decrease in the strength and stiffness of the knee extensor muscles.

  12. Palliative sedation in advanced cancer patients: Does it shorten survival time? - A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Barathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. Objectives: This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Results: Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. Conclusion: This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  13. Stochastic variation in telomere shortening rate causes heterogeneity of human fibroblast replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Saretzki, Gabriele; Petrie, Joanne; Ladhoff, Juliane; Jeyapalan, Jessie; Wei, Wenyi; Sedivy, John; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2004-04-23

    The replicative life span of human fibroblasts is heterogeneous, with a fraction of cells senescing at every population doubling. To find out whether this heterogeneity is due to premature senescence, i.e. driven by a nontelomeric mechanism, fibroblasts with a senescent phenotype were isolated from growing cultures and clones by flow cytometry. These senescent cells had shorter telomeres than their cycling counterparts at all population doubling levels and both in mass cultures and in individual subclones, indicating heterogeneity in the rate of telomere shortening. Ectopic expression of telomerase stabilized telomere length in the majority of cells and rescued them from early senescence, suggesting a causal role of telomere shortening. Under standard cell culture conditions, there was a minor fraction of cells that showed a senescent phenotype and short telomeres despite active telomerase. This fraction increased under chronic mild oxidative stress, which is known to accelerate telomere shortening. It is possible that even high telomerase activity cannot fully compensate for telomere shortening in all cells. The data show that heterogeneity of the human fibroblast replicative life span can be caused by significant stochastic cell-to-cell variation in telomere shortening.

  14. Crustal balance and crustal flux from shortening estimates in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas; Oncken, Onno; Sobolev, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The Central Andes of South America form the second largest high elevation plateau on earth. Extreme elevations have formed on a noncollisional margin with abundant associated arc magmatism. It has long been thought that the crustal thickness necessary to support Andean topography was not accounted for by known crustal shortening alone. We show that this may in part be due to a two-dimensional treatment of the problem. A three-dimensional analysis of crustal shortening and crustal thickness shows that displacement of material towards the axis of the bend in the Central Andes has added a significant volume of crust not accounted for in previous comparisons. We find that present-day crustal thickness between 12°S and 25°S is accounted for (∼-10% to ∼+3%)with the same shortening estimates, and the same assumed initial crustal thickness as had previously led to the conclusion of a ∼25-35% deficit in shortening relative to volume of crustal material. We suggest that the present-day measured crustal thickness distribution may not match that predicted due to shortening, and substantial redistribution of crust may have occurred by both erosion and deposition at the surface and lower crustal flow in regions of the thermally weakened middle and lower crust.

  15. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain.

  16. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie-Gauvin, K; Peiman, K S; Larsen, M H; Aarestrup, K; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher with cortisol-vegetable shortening than with cortisol-cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol-vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol-cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are both viable techniques for cortisol manipulation in fishes in temperate climates, providing researchers with different options depending on study objectives. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Examining a scaled dynamical system of telomere shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrenne, Benoit M.; Gooding, Robert J.

    2015-02-01

    A model of telomere dynamics is proposed and examined. Our model, which extends a previously introduced model that incorporates stem cells as progenitors of new cells, imposes the Hayflick limit, the maximum number of cell divisions that are possible. This new model leads to cell populations for which the average telomere length is not necessarily a monotonically decreasing function of time, in contrast to previously published models. We provide a phase diagram indicating where such results would be expected via the introduction of scaled populations, rate constants and time. The application of this model to available leukocyte baboon data is discussed.

  18. A signal combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Hasna, Mazen Omar

    2010-01-01

    The cooperative relaying process needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems, e.g. wireless sensor networks where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. In this paper, we consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination can capture the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. ©2010 IEEE.

  19. Palliative Sedation in Advanced Cancer Patients: Does it Shorten Survival Time? - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathi, B; Chandra, Prabha S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST) was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  20. A diversity compression and combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-02-01

    The cooperative relaying process with multiple relays needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. We consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination captures the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening principles. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. A Phenomenological Model and Validation of Shortening Induced Force Depression during Muscle Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C.P.; Neptune, R.R.; Herzog, W.

    2009-01-01

    History dependent effects on muscle force development following active changes in length have been measured in a number of experimental studies. However, few muscle models have included these properties or examined their impact on force and power output in dynamic cyclic movements. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a modified Hill-type muscle model that includes shortening induced force depression and assess its influence on locomotor performance. The magnitude of force depression was defined by empirical relationships based on muscle mechanical work. To validate the model, simulations incorporating force depression were developed to emulate single muscle in situ and whole muscle group leg extension experiments. There was excellent agreement between simulation and experimental values, with in situ force patterns closely matching the experimental data (average RMS error pedaling with and without force depression were generated. Force depression decreased maximum crank power by 20% – 40%, depending on the relationship between force depression and muscle work used. These results indicate that force depression has the potential to substantially influence muscle power output in dynamic cyclic movements. However, to fully understand the impact of this phenomenon on human movement, more research is needed to characterize the relationship between force depression and mechanical work in large muscles with different morphologies. PMID:19879585

  2. A signal combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2010-06-01

    The cooperative relaying process needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems, e.g. wireless sensor networks where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. In this paper, we consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination can capture the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. ©2010 IEEE.

  3. Psychometric analysis in support of shortening the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Despite recent emphasis on the measurement and treatment of negative symptoms, studies of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) identify different symptom clusters, offer mixed support for its psychometric properties and suggest that it is shortened. The current study objective is to examine the psychometric properties of the SANS and the feasibility of a short research version of the SANS. Data were re-analyzed from three clinical trials that compared placebo and amisulpride to 60 days. Participants had chronic schizophrenia and predominantly negative symptoms (n=487). Baseline data were examined with exploratory factor analysis and Item Response Theory (IRT) to identify a short SANS. The short and original SANS were compared: with confirmatory factor analysis at endpoint; and on symptom response with mixed modeling to compare. Results showed that at baseline the SANS consisted of three factors labeled Affective-flattening, Asociality and Alogia-inattentiveness. IRT suggested a short SANS with 11 items and 3 response options. Comparisons of the original and short SANS showed: the short version was a better fit to the data based on confirmatory factor analysis at endpoint; similar significant (pnegative symptoms in chronic schizophrenia in research settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Shortened cortical silent period in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: evidence for widespread cortical excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samargia, Sharyl; Schmidt, Rebekah; Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to compare cortical inhibition in the hand region of the primary motor cortex between subjects with focal hand dystonia (FHD), adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD), and healthy controls. Data from 28 subjects were analyzed (FHD n=11, 53.25 ± 8.74 y; AdSD: n=8, 56.38 ± 7.5 y; and healthy controls: n=941.67 ± 10.85 y). All subjects received single pulse TMS to the left motor cortex to measure cortical silent period (CSP) in the right first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle. Duration of the CSP was measured and compared across groups. A one-way ANCOVA with age as a covariate revealed a significant group effect (p<0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed significantly longer CSP duration in the healthy group vs. AdSD group (p<0.001) and FHD group (p<0.001). These results suggest impaired intracortical inhibition is a neurophysiologic characteristic of FHD and AdSD. In addition, the shortened CSP in AdSD provides evidence to support a widespread decrease in cortical inhibition in areas of the motor cortex that represent an asymptomatic region of the body. These findings may inform future investigations of differential diagnosis as well as alternative treatments for focal dystonias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A systematic review of prosthetic restoration in patients with shortened dental arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Fueki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature regarding the effect of prosthetic restoration in patients having distal extension edentulous space in posterior area (shortened dental arch: SDA is reviewed in the following article. Information retrieval followed a systematic approach using PubMed. Articles in English published between 1966 and March 2011 describing the outcome of treatment with various prostheses were evaluated. From the search results of 98 articles, 21 articles met the inclusion criteria. Treatment with removable partial dentures (RPDs improved masticatory function, patient satisfaction and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. However, no significant difference was found in the outcomes between patients with RPDs and with cantilever fixed partial dentures (CFPDs. Caries developed more frequently after treatment with RPDs than CFPDs. The time to survival for CFPDs was not longer than that for RPDs, while more visits to maintain RPDs were required than for CFPDs. No significant difference was found in masticatory function, OHRQoL, and occlusal stability between patients with RPDs and those without restoration of missing molars. Consequently, treatment with RPDs for SDA seems to be less advantageous than CFPDs or no restoration for missing molars. Further research is required to validate treatment with implant-supported fixed partial dentures for SDA.

  6. A new adaptive testing algorithm for shortening health literacy assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Leanne M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low health literacy has a detrimental effect on health outcomes, as well as ability to use online health resources. Good health literacy assessment tools must be brief to be adopted in practice; test development from the perspective of item-response theory requires pretesting on large participant populations. Our objective was to develop a novel classification method for developing brief assessment instruments that does not require pretesting on large numbers of research participants, and that would be suitable for computerized adaptive testing. Methods We present a new algorithm that uses principles of measurement decision theory (MDT and Shannon's information theory. As a demonstration, we applied it to a secondary analysis of data sets from two assessment tests: a study that measured patients' familiarity with health terms (52 participants, 60 items and a study that assessed health numeracy (165 participants, 8 items. Results In the familiarity data set, the method correctly classified 88.5% of the subjects, and the average length of test was reduced by about 50%. In the numeracy data set, for a two-class classification scheme, 96.9% of the subjects were correctly classified with a more modest reduction in test length of 35.7%; a three-class scheme correctly classified 93.8% with a 17.7% reduction in test length. Conclusions MDT-based approaches are a promising alternative to approaches based on item-response theory, and are well-suited for computerized adaptive testing in the health domain.

  7. Shortening of culture time in conventional cytogenetic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamadrid, Ana I.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Romero, Ivonne; Garcia, Omar; Roy, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cytogenetic dosimetry based on chromosome aberration in metaphases is a 'gold standard' of bio-dosimetry techniques for radiation dose assessment. This method is laborious and time consuming, the culturing process requires about 48 hours to obtain a satisfactory number of lymphocytes in mitosis. The current approach to reduce the dose estimation time by cytogenetic dosimetry is the preliminary estimation of dose counting only 50 metaphases. Another possibility is to reduce the culture time. The possibility of reduce the culture time under 48 hours adding Calyculin A has been suggested recently. In the present study we tested shorter times using Calyculin A and considering the G2/M-PCC index as culture quality indicator. Peripheral blood from healthy individuals was irradiated and then maintained at 37 C degrees for 2 hours allowing to act the cellular reparation mechanisms, lymphocytes were culture in RPMI 1640 supplemented with foetal calf serum and phytohemagglutinin. Colcemid was added 24 hours after cultures started and Calyculin A was added for the last hour. The cells were collected by centrifugation between 30 to 48 hours. The cells were treated with a hypotonic solution and the fixed cells dropped onto slides. The slides were stained with Giemsa. The incidence of metaphases with chromosomes well defined was scored. Two operators participated to the scoring according the same criteria. The results were analyzed to comparing the G2/M-PCC index relatives to achieve the shortest culture duration. The culture time reduction to 40 hours gives enough G2/M-PCC cells for dose estimation analysis. Lower culture times produced very low G2/M-PCC index. (author)

  8. Limb shortening osteotomy in a patient with achondroplasia and leg length difference after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Galata

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most common reason for disproportionate short stature. Normally, orthopedic limb lengthening procedures must be discussed in the course of this genetic disorder and have been successful in numerous achondroplastic patients in the past. In some cases, the disease may lead to leg length differences with need for surgical correction. Case Report: We report a case of achondroplastic dysplastic coxarthrosis with symptomatic leg length difference after bilateral total hip arthroplasty in a 52-year-old female patient, in which a distal femoral shortening osteotomy was successfully performed. Conclusion: Femoral shortening osteotomy is very uncommon in patients with achondroplasia. We conclude, however, that in rare cases it can be indicated and provide the advantage of shorter operation time, less perioperative complications and faster recovery compared to leg lengthening procedures. Keywords: Achondroplasia, dysplastic coxarthrosis, limb shortening, distal femur osteotomy.

  9. L-Carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lan; Li Qinghuan; Tan Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Telomere is the repetitive DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes, which shortens progressively with cell division and limits the replicative potential of normal human somatic cells. L-Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been reported to delay the replicative senescence, and extend the lifespan of cultured human diploid fibroblasts. In this work, we studied the effect of carnosine on the telomeric DNA of cultured human fetal lung fibroblast cells. Cells continuously grown in 20 mM carnosine exhibited a slower telomere shortening rate and extended lifespan in population doublings. When kept in a long-term nonproliferating state, they accumulated much less damages in the telomeric DNA when cultured in the presence of carnosine. We suggest that the reduction in telomere shortening rate and damages in telomeric DNA made an important contribution to the life-extension effect of carnosine

  10. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staber, Janice M; Pollpeter, Molly J

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated. To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice. We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83) and homozygous affected females (n = 55) for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death. Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated.

  11. Shortening of primary operators in N-extended $SCFT_{4}$ and harmonic-superspace analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L.; Sokatchev, E.; Zupnik, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present the analysis of all possible shortenings which occur for composite gauge invariant conformal primary superfields in SU(2,2/N) invariant gauge theories. These primaries have top-spin range N/2 \\leq J_{max} < N with J_{max} = J_1 + J_2, (J_1,J_2) being the SL(2,C) quantum numbers of the highest spin component of the superfield. In Harmonic superspace, analytic and chiral superfields give J_{max}= N/2 series while intermediate shortenings correspond to fusion of chiral with analytic in N=2, or analytic with different analytic structures in N=3,4. In the AdS/CFT language shortenings of UIR's correspond to all possible BPS conditions on bulk states. An application of this analysis to multitrace operators, corresponding to multiparticle supergravity states, is spelled out.

  12. Dose-effect relationships for fife shortening, tumorigenesis, and systemic injuries in mice irradiated with fission neutron or 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.; Fry, R.J.M.; Williamson, F.S.; Brennan, P.C.; Stearner, S.P.; Yang, V.V.; Crouse, D.A.; Rust, J.H.; Borak, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this research is to provide additional data on life shortening, neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases, and other systematic injuries necessary for the determination of dose-response relationships. The data are used to test existing predictive models and formulate new models which may assist with radiation risk assessment. Late somatic effects of fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor or from cobalt-60 gamma radiation are evaluated in young adult B6CF 1 mice that receive either a range of single doses or protracted doses at low dose rates; the protracted irradiation is administered over a 6-month period. After single doses of gamma radiation the relationship between radiation dose and percent life shortening appears linear whereas after single doses of fission spectrum neutrons a non-linear dose response is observed. These results suggest that estimates of radiation risk for fission spectrum neutrons should take into account the following: the curvilinearity of the neutron dose-response curve for life shortening, and the increased life shortening produced by neutron dose fractionation

  13. Measurement of nucleotide exchange rate constants in single rabbit soleus myofibrils during shortening and lengthening using a fluorescent ATP analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, I; Chaen, S; Bagshaw, C R; Sugi, H

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of displacement of a fluorescent nucleotide, 2'(3')-O-[N[2-[[Cy3]amido]ethyl]carbamoyl]-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Cy3-EDA-ATP), bound to rabbit soleus muscle myofibrils were studied using flash photolysis of caged ATP. Use of myofibrils from this slow twitch muscle allowed better resolution of the kinetics of nucleotide exchange than previous studies with psoas muscle myofibrils (, Biophys. J. 73:2033-2042). Soleus myofibrils in the presence of Cy3-EDA-nucleotides (Cy3-EDA-ATP or Cy3-EDA-ADP) showed selective fluorescence staining of the A-band. The K(m) for Cy3-EDA-ATP and the K(d) for Cy3-EDA-ADP binding to the myofibril A-band were 1.9 microM and 3.8 microM, respectively, indicating stronger binding of nucleotide to soleus cross-bridges compared to psoas cross-bridges (2.6 microM and 50 microM, respectively). After flash photolysis of caged ATP, the A-band fluorescence of the myofibril in the Cy3-EDA-ATP solution under isometric conditions decayed exponentially with a rate constant of 0.045 +/- 0.007 s(-1) (n = 32) at 10 degrees C, which was about seven times slower than that for psoas myofibrils. When a myofibril was allowed to shorten with a constant velocity, the nucleotide displacement rate constant increased from 0.066 s(-1) (isometric) to 0.14 s(-1) at 20 degrees C with increasing shortening velocity up to 0.1 myofibril length/s (V(max), the shortening velocity under no load was approximately 0. 2 myofibril lengths/s). The rate constant was not significantly affected by an isovelocity stretch of up to 0.1 myofibril lengths/s. These results suggest that the cross-bridge kinetics are not significantly affected at higher strain during lengthening but depend on the lower strain during shortening. These data also indicate that the interaction distance between a cross-bridge and the actin filament is at least 16 nm for a single cycle of the ATPase.

  14. Shortened first-line TB treatment in Brazil: potential cost savings for patients and health services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajman, Anete; Bastos, Mayara Lisboa; Belo, Marcia; Calaça, Janaína; Gaspar, Júlia; Dos Santos, Alexandre Martins; Dos Santos, Camila Martins; Brito, Raquel Trindade; Wells, William A.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Vassall, Anna; Gomez, Gabriela B.

    2016-01-01

    Shortened treatment regimens for tuberculosis are under development to improve treatment outcomes and reduce costs. We estimated potential savings from a societal perspective in Brazil following the introduction of a hypothetical four-month regimen for tuberculosis treatment. Data were gathered in

  15. Does Shortened Application Time Affect Long-Term Bond Strength of Universal Adhesives to Dentin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaew, P; Matsumoto, M; Chowdhury, Afma; Carvalho, R M; Sano, H

    2018-04-09

    This study evaluated the effect of shortened application time on long-term bond strength with universal adhesives. Three universal adhesives were used: Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc, Tokyo, Japan), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) or G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Sixty molars were cut to expose midcoronal dentin and prepared with a regular diamond bur. Each adhesive was applied either according to the manufacturer's instruction or with shortened time. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and then cut into resin-dentin sticks. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was tested after either 24 hours or 1 year of water storage. Data were analyzed by the three-way ANOVA and Duncan tests ( α=0.05). Fracture modes were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). One dentin stick per group was selected after fracture mode analysis and further observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Six additional dentin discs were prepared and conditioned with each adhesive under the different application time to observe the adhesive-smear layer interaction by SEM. Shortened application time affected the μTBS ( puniversal adhesives to bur-cut dentin. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised when applied using a shortened application time.

  16. Decayed/missing/filled teeth and shortened dental arches in Tanzanian adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarita, P.T.N.; Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT), presence of occlusal units, and prevalence of shortened dental arches in a Tanzanian adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dental state of samples of the Tanzanian population was studied. Oral examinations were conducted on

  17. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale : Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Polackova Solcova, Iva; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Tavel, Peter

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the

  18. Matters which shorten the ozone layer; Substances qui appauvrissent la couche d'ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    This document, proposed by the ministry of the national development and the environment, gives the list of the main texts relative to the matters which shorten the ozone layer and the evolution of the community regulations in this domain. The concerned matters are the Cfc and the HCFC production and use. (A.L.B.)

  19. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor...

  20. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: A Shortened Form and Considerations for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward H.; Farina, Amerigo

    1995-01-01

    Tested a new, shortened scale for measuring willingness to seek help from mental health professionals. Scores correlated with the 29-item scale developed by Fischer and Turner (1970); the new scale's brevity (10 items) should make it easier and less obtrusive for use in research. Discusses the need for further studies on attitudes toward…

  1. Shortened carbon nanotubes and their influence on the electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inam, F.; Reece, M.J.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes of medium length (mCNTs) were aggressively tip-ultrasonicated to produce shortened and damaged carbon nanotubes (xCNTs). High-resolution electron microscopic analysis was performed to measure the dimensions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman

  2. Common Patterns of Congenital Lower Extremity Shortening: Diagnosis, Classification, and Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Maria A; Chauvin, Nancy A; Jaramillo, Diego; Davidson, Richard; Horn, B David; Ho-Fung, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Congenital lower limb shortening is a group of relatively rare, heterogeneous disorders. Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) and fibular hemimelia (FH) are the most common pathologic entities in this disease spectrum. PFFD is characterized by variable degrees of shortening or absence of the femoral head, with associated dysplasia of the acetabulum and femoral shaft. FH ranges from mild hypoplasia to complete absence of the fibula with variable shortening of the tibia. The development of the lower limb requires complex and precise gene interactions. Although the etiologies of PFFD and FH remain unknown, there is a strong association between the two disorders. Associated congenital defects in the lower extremity are found in more than 50% of patients with PFFD, ipsilateral FH being the most common. FH also has a strong association with shortening and bowing of the tibia and with foot deformities such as absence of the lateral rays of the foot. Early diagnosis and radiologic classification of these abnormalities are imperative for appropriate management and surgical planning. Plain radiography remains the main diagnostic imaging modality for both PFFD and FH, and appropriate description of the osseous abnormalities seen on radiographs allows accurate classification, prognostic evaluation, and surgical planning. Minor malformations may commonly be misdiagnosed. ©RSNA, 2015.

  3. Interlayer material transport during layer-normal shortening. Part I. The model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, I. van der

    1985-01-01

    To analyse mass-transfer during deformation, the case is considered of a multilayer experiencing a layer-normal shortening that is volume constant on the scale of many layers. Strain rate is homogeneously distributed on the layer-scale if diffusion is absent; when transport of matter between the

  4. Telomere shortening in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a potential mechanism for late graft failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaya, Norihiro; Baerlocher, Gabriela M; Manley, Thomas J; Sanders, Jean E; Mielcarek, Marco; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2002-01-01

    Telomeres serve to maintain the structural integrity of chromosomes, yet each somatic cell division is associated with a decrease in telomere length. The cumulative decrease in telomere length can impose an upper limit for the number of cell divisions that can occur before a cell senesces. When studied in vitro with fibroblasts, this limit is referred to as the Hayflick limit and usually occurs after 40 to 80 cell doublings. In theory, a similar replicative potential in a hematopoietic stem cell could support hematopoiesis in a person for more than 100 years. However, stem cells differentiate, and the telomere length differs among chromosomes within a single cell, among cell types, and among age-matched individuals. This variation in telomere length raises the possibility that long-term hematopoiesis by transplanted stem cells could, depending on the telomere length of the engrafted stem cell and the proliferative demand to which it is subjected, reach a Hayflick limit during the life span of the patient. Although significant shortening of telomeres is reported to occur within the first year posttransplantation, as yet no evidence has indicated that this shortening is associated with marrow function. In this review, we summarize reports on telomere shortening in stem cell transplantation recipients and report 2 cases in which graft failure is associated with significant telomere shortening.

  5. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maliňáková, K.; Kopčáková, J.; Kolarčik, P.; Madarasová Gecková, A.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Hušek, V.; Klůzová Kračmárová, L.; Dubovská, E.; Kalman, M.; Půžová, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 697-705 ISSN 0022-4197 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Shortened SWBS * Adolescents * Spirituality * Religiosity * Psychometric evaluation Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2016

  6. Differential Telomere Shortening in Blood versus Arteries in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Tajbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suppressing oxidative stress, and attenuating telomere shortening. Accelerated leukocyte telomere attrition appears to be a feature of clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D and therefore the telomere system may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing vascular complications of T2D. However the effect of T2D on vascular telomere length is currently unknown. We hypothesized that T2D gives rise to shortened leukocyte and vascular telomeres alongside reduced vascular SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress. Accelerated telomere attrition was observed in circulating leukocytes, but not arteries, in T2D compared to control rats. T2D rats had blunted arterial SIRT1 and eNOS protein expression levels which were associated with reduced antioxidant defense capacity. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia and a deficit in vascular SIRT1 per se are not sufficient to prematurely shorten vascular telomeres.

  7. Intestinal Insulin Signaling Encodes Two Different Molecular Mechanisms for the Shortened Longevity Induced by Graphene Oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to cause multiple toxicities in various organisms. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GO-induced shortened longevity are still unclear. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible involvement of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mutation of daf-2, age-1, akt-1, or akt-2 gene induced a resistant property of nematodes to GO toxicity, while mutation of daf-16 gene led to a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity, suggesting that GO may dysregulate the functions of DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor, AGE-1, AKT-1 and AKT-2-mediated kinase cascade, and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Genetic interaction analysis suggested the involvement of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the control of GO toxicity on longevity. Moreover, intestinal RNA interference (RNAi) analysis demonstrated that GO reduced longevity by affecting the functions of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the intestine. DAF-16 could also regulate GO toxicity on longevity by functioning upstream of SOD-3, which encodes an antioxidation system that prevents the accumulation of oxidative stress. Therefore, intestinal insulin signaling may encode two different molecular mechanisms responsible for the GO toxicity in inducing the shortened longevity. Our results highlight the key role of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity in organisms.

  8. The Mini-OAKHQOL for knee and hip osteoarthritis quality of life was obtained following recent shortening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Francis; Rat, Anne-Christine; Goetz, Christophe; Spitz, Elisabeth; Pouchot, Jacques; Coste, Joël

    2016-01-01

    To develop a short form of the knee and hip osteoarthritis quality of life questionnaire, the Mini-OAKHQOL, preserving the conceptual model and, as far as possible, the content and the psychometric properties of the original instrument. A two-step shortening procedure was used: (1) a consensus Delphi method, with a panel of patients and another of professionals independently asked to select items and (2) a nominal group, where patients, professionals, and methodologists reached consensus on the final selection of items, using information from the panels and from modern measurement and classical test theory analyses. The psychometric properties of the Mini-OAKHQOL were assessed in an independent population-based sample of 581 subjects with knee or hip osteoarthritis. The two-step shortening procedure resulted in a 20-item questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis showed preservation of the original five-dimensional structure. Rasch analyses showed the unidimensionality and invariance by sex, age, and joint of the main dimensions. Convergent validity, reproducibility, and internal consistency were similar to or better than those of the original OAKHQOL. The 20-item Mini-OAKHQOL has good psychometric properties and can be used for the measurement of quality of life in subjects with osteoarthritis of the lower limbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of the seismically imaged Tuscarora fold system and implications for layer parallel shortening in the Pennsylvania salient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Van S.; Wilkins, Scott; Comiskey, Cody S.

    2017-12-01

    The Tuscarora fold system (TFS) is located in the Pennsylvania salient in the foreland of the Valley and Ridge province. The TFS is imaged in high quality 3D seismic data and comprises a system of small-scale folds within relatively flat-lying Lower Silurian Tuscarora Formation strata. We characterize the TFS structures and infer layer parallel shortening (LPS) directions and magnitudes associated with deformation during the Alleghany Orogeny. Previously reported LPS data in our study area are from shallow Devonian and Carboniferous strata (based on outcrop and core analyses) above the shallowest of three major detachments recognized in the region. Seismic data allows us to characterize LPS at depth in strata beneath the shallow detachment. Our LPS data (orientations and inferred magnitudes) are consistent with the shallow data leading us to surmise that LPS during Alleghanian deformation fanned around the salient and was distributed throughout the stratigraphic section - and not isolated to strata above the shallow detachment. We propose that a NW-SE oriented Alleghanian maximum principal stress was perturbed by deep structure associated with the non-linear margin of Laurentia resulting in fanning of shortening directions within the salient.

  10. Intramedullary stabilization and over-nail lengthening as two-stage treatment of femoral nonunion with shortening. Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kącki, Wojciech; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Radło, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Nonunion is one of the most serious complications of long bone fractures. It may be accompanied by a shortening of the segment. The authors describe the case of a 21-year-old woman with a post-traumatic nonunion with shortening of the femur. Treatment was divided into two stages: first, a previously placed nail was removed and new intramedullary stabilization was carried out while bone defects were filled with a bone graft substitute and platelet rich plasma was administered. After the nonunion had healed, the femur was lengthened over an external fixator and an intramedullary nail, resulting in equality of limb length. After eight years of follow-up, the lower limbs remain equal with a properly aligned long axis of the lower limb operated on and a full range of motion in the joints. The treatment strategy described in our article may be an alternative to one-stage surgery if the patient does not consent to it or in the presence of contraindications, but it is associated with a longer treatment time and necessity of additional surgeries.

  11. Increased Risk Proneness or Social Withdrawal? The Effects of Shortened Life Expectancy on the Expression of Rescue Behavior in Workers of the ant Formica cinerea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Krzysztof; Symonowicz, Beata; Godzińska, Ewa J

    2017-01-01

    In social insects behavioral consequences of shortened life expectancy include, among others, increased risk proneness and social withdrawal. We investigated the impact of experimental shortening of life expectancy of foragers of the ant Formica cinerea achieved by their exposure to carbon dioxide on the expression of rescue behavior, risky pro-social behavior, tested by means of two bioassays during which a single worker (rescuer) was confronted with a nestmate (victim) attacked by a predator (antlion larva capture bioassay) or immobilized by an artificial snare (entrapment bioassay). Efficacy of carbon dioxide poisoning in shortening life expectancy was confirmed by the analysis of ant mortality. Rescue behavior observed during behavioral tests involved digging around the victim, transport of the sand covering the victim, pulling the limbs/antennae/mandibles of the victim, direct attack on the antlion (in antlion larva capture tests), and snare biting (in entrapment tests). The rate of occurrence of rescue behavior was lower in ants with shortened life expectancy, but that effect was significant only in the case of the entrapment bioassay. Similarly, only in the case of the entrapment bioassay ants with shortened life expectancy displayed rescue behavior after a longer latency and devoted less time to that behavior than ants from the control groups. Our results demonstrated that in ant workers shortened life expectancy may lead to reduced propensity for rescue behavior, most probably as an element of the social withdrawal syndrome that had already been described in several studies on behavior of moribund ants and honeybees.

  12. Is it Possible to Shorten the Duration of Schirmer Test I?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Recep

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Schirmer test I is commonly used in the diagnosis of dry eye, but its longer duration is a major problem in crowded clinics. In this study, Schirmer tests shorter than 5 minutes were compared with the results of 5-min Schirmer test. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this study, 540 eyes of 270 patients having dry eye symptoms were evaluated. Those patients having lid abnormalities were not included in the study. The measurements were performed in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th minutes using 5x37 mm Whatman No. 41 test papers. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Then probable wetting values were calculated for every minute and the results were compared with 5-min results. Re sults: Of the cases, 214 were female and 56 were male. The mean age was 57.62 years (range: 12-90 years, standard deviation: 14.35. We could not find any statistical significance among the measurements performed every minute (p>0.05. We found statistically significant difference between the measurements performed in the 1st and 3rd minutes, 1st and 4th minutes, and 1st and 5th minutes ( p<0,05. The same tests were applied to the cases having 9 mm or below Schirmer test results at the end of 5 minutes and the only statistical significance was found between the measurement taken in the 1st and 4th minutes (p<0.05. The probable dry eye values in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th minutes were compared with the result of 5th minute and the nearest values were obtained in the 2nd-minute measurements. Out of 114 dry eye cases according to 5-min results, 87 (76.32% were detected at the end of 2-min test. Dis cus si on: The values obtained in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th minutes did not correspond to the Schirmer test result obtained in the 5th minute. If the results obtained in the early minutes were regarded as correct, a lot of dry eye patients could not be diagnosed. So, we found inappropriate to shorten the duration of Schirmer test I. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012

  13. Multicenter Evaluation of a New Shortened Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Procedure for Species Identification of Select Gram-Negative Bacilli from Blood Cultures▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Margie; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Salimnia, Hossein; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Wu, Fann; Crystal, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-01

    A shortened protocol for two peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assays for the detection of Gram-negative bacilli from positive blood cultures was evaluated in a multicenter trial. There was 100% concordance between the two protocols for each assay (368 of 368 and 370 of 370 results) and 99.7% (367 of 368 and 369 of 370 results) agreement with routine laboratory techniques. PMID:20357212

  14. A study of dentists’ preferences for the restoration of shortened dental arches with partial dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Ibraheem, Shukran; Al-Hallak, Khaled Rateb; Ali El Khalifa, Mohammed Othman; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to use a utility method in order to assess dentists’ preferences for the restoration of shortened dental arches (SDAs) with partial dentures. Also, the impact of patient age and length of the SDA on dentists’ preferences for the partial dentures was investigated. Materials and Methods: Totally, 104 subjects holding a basic degree in dentistry and working as staff members in a private dental college in Saudi Arabia were interviewed and presented with 12 scenarios for patients of different ages and mandibular SDAs of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analog scale how they would value the health of the patient's mouth if the mandibular SDAs were restored with cobalt-chromium removable partial dentures (RPDs). Results: With a utility value of 0.0 representing the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 representing the best, dentists’ average utility value of the RPD for the SDAs was 0.49 (sd= 0.15). Mean utility scores of the RPDs across the 12 SDA scenarios ranged between 0.35 and 0.61. RPDs that restored the extremely SDAs attracted the highest utility values and dentists’ utility of the RPD significantly increased with the increase in the number of missing posterior teeth. No significant differences in dentists’ mean utility values for the RPD were identified among SDA scenarios for patients of different ages. Conclusion: Restoration of the mandibular SDAs by RPDs is not a highly preferred treatment option among the surveyed group of dentists. Length of the SDA affects dentists’ preferences for the RPD, but patient age does not. PMID:26038647

  15. The randomized shortened dental arch study: tooth loss over five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M H; Hannak, W; Kern, M; Mundt, T; Gernet, W; Weber, A; Wöstmann, B; Stark, H; Werner, D; Hartmann, S; Range, U; Jahn, F; Passia, N; Pospiech, P; Mitov, G; Brückner, J; Wolfart, S; Busche, E; Luthardt, R G; Heydecke, G; Marré, B

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to provide clinical outcome data for two treatments of the shortened dental arch (SDA). In a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial, patients with complete molar loss in one jaw were provided with either a partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) retained with precision attachments or treated according to the SDA concept preserving or restoring a premolar occlusion. No implants were placed. The primary outcome was tooth loss. Of 152 treated patients, 132 patients reached the 5-year examination. Over 5 years, 38 patients experienced tooth loss. For the primary outcome tooth loss, the Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 5 years were 0.74 (95% CI 0.64, 0.84) in the PRDP group and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.85) in the SDA group. For tooth loss in the study jaw, the survival rates at 5 years were 0.88 (95% CI 0.80, 0.95) in the PRDP group and 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.93) in the SDA group. The differences were not significant. No Cox regression models of appropriate fit explaining tooth loss on the patient level could be found. The overall treatment goals of a sustainable oral rehabilitation and the avoidance of further tooth loss over longer periods were not reliably achievable. The influence of the type of prosthetic treatment on tooth loss might have been overestimated. Regarding our results, the patient's view will gain even more importance in the clinical decision between removable and fixed restorations in SDAs.

  16. Correction of rabbit model with mandibular ramus shortening by distraction osteogenesis at condylar neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinggong; Yang, Xuewen; Long, Xing; Li, Jian; Cai, Hengxing

    2012-04-01

    The rabbit model has been established to mimic the effect of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroplasty of ankylosis, and distraction at the level of the condylar neck is used to elongate the ascending ramus. The histomorphologic changes of TMJ and distraction gap were investigated. The unilateral condyles and articular discs were extirpated, and the experimental mandibular rami were shortened by 5 mm. An embedded distracter was used to restore the height of the mandibular ramus by unilateral condylar neck distraction (0.8 mm daily for 7 days). A total of 12 adult white rabbits were used, 8 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group. Of the 8 rabbits in the experimental group, 4 each were killed at 4 and 8 weeks after completion of distraction. The TMJ and distracted calluses were harvested and processed for radiographic and histologic examination. An open bite was seen in all rabbits postoperatively that had diminished at the end of distraction. The newly formed condyles radiologically showed remodeling, flattening, and sclerosis. The bony transport disc had gradually remodeled to a new condyle that was similar to the original condyle in appearance and structure. The surface of the transport disc was covered with a fibrous tissue. Moreover, the bony regeneration was perfect in the distraction gap. These results suggest that distraction osteogenesis at the condylar neck using the traditional preauricular approach of TMJ surgery, without the additional incision, can be performed concurrently with arthroplasty of TMJ ankylosis at the same region. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Advanced Concept for Shortening Construction Period of ABWR Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Ijichi; Toshio Yamashita; Masahiro Tsutagawa; Hiroya Mori; Nobuaki Ooshima; Jun Miura; Minoru Kanechika; Nobuaki Miura

    2002-01-01

    Construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires a very long period because of large amount of construction materials and many issues for negotiation among multiple sections. Shortening the construction period advances the date of return on an investment, and can also result in reduced construction cost. Therefore, the study of this subject has a very high priority for utilities. We achieved a construction period of 37 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading (F/L) (51.5 months from the inspection of the foundation (I/F) to the start of commercial operation (C/O)) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs No. 6 and 7 (KK-6/7), which are the first ABWR plants in the world. At TEPCO's next plant, we think that a construction period of less than 36 months (45 months from I/F to C/O) can be realized based on conventional methods such as early start of equipment installation and blocking of equipment to be brought in advance. Furthermore, we are studying the feasibility of a 21.5-month construction period (30 months from I/F to C/O) with advanced ideas and methods. The important concepts for a 21.5-month construction period are adoption of a new building structure that is the steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure and promotion of extensive modularization of equipment and building structure. With introducing these new concepts, we are planning the master schedule (M/S) and finding solutions to conflicts in the schedule of area release from building construction work to equipment installation work (schedule-conflicts.) In this report, we present the shortest construction period and an effective method to put it into practice for the conventional general arrangement (GA) of ABWR. In the future, we will continue the study on the improvement of building configuration and arrangements, and make clear of the concept for large composite modules of building structures and equipment. (authors)

  18. Protein degradation and post-deboning tenderization in broiler breast meat with different degrees of muscle shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboning broiler breast fillets prior to rigor mortis negatively influences tenderness due to sarcomere shortening. The effects of sarcomere shortening on muscle protein degradation and breast meat tenderization during post-deboning aging are not well understood. The objective of this study was to m...

  19. End-systolic stress-velocity relation and circumferential fiber velocity shortening for analysing left ventricular function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayssoil, A. [Cardiologie, Hopital europeen Georges Pompidou, 20, rue le blanc, Paris (France)], E-mail: fayssoil2000@yahoo.fr; Renault, G. [CNRS UMR 8104, Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Fougerousse, F. [Genethon, RD, Evry (France)

    2009-08-15

    Traditionally, analysing left ventricular (LV) performance relies on echocardiography by evaluating shortening fraction (SF) in mice. SF is influenced by load conditions. End-systolic stress-velocity (ESSV) relation and circumferential fiber velocity (VcF) shortening are more relevant parameters for evaluating systolic function regardless load conditions particularly in mice's models of heart failure.

  20. Kinetic therapy reduces complications and shortens hospital stay in patients with cardiogenic shock - a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Gregor; Flemming, Kerstin; Ziegs, Enrico; Haacke, Katrin; Rauwolf, Thomas; Strasser, Ruth H

    2007-03-01

    Kinetic therapy (KT) has been shown to reduce complications and to shorten hospital stay in trauma patients. Data in non-surgical patients are inconclusive, and kinetic therapy has not been tested in patients with cardiogenic shock. The present analysis compares KT with standard care in patients with cardiogenic shock. A retrospective analysis of 133 patients with cardiogenic shock admitted to 1 academic heart center was performed. Patients with standard care (SC, turning every 2 h by the staff) were compared with kinetic therapy (KT, using oscillating air-flotation beds). 68 patients with KT were compared with 65 patients with SC. Length of ventilator therapy was 11 days in KT and 18 days in SC (p=0.048). The mortality was comparable in both groups. Pneumonia occurred in 14 patients in KT and 39 patients in SC (ppatients treated with kinetic therapy. The use of KT shortens hospital stay and reduces rates of pneumonia and pressure ulcers as compared to SC.

  1. Diabetes mellitus as a cause of life span shortening in locally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinina, S.F.; Markochev, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the development of remote radiation pathology of pancreas in male rats after local irradiation of abdomen with doses of 5, 10 (two fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval) and 15 Gy (three fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval). The clinical and morphological estimates show the dose-dependent development of diabetes mellitus and 1.8-fold shortening of the life span, as compared to biological control

  2. Mastication in subjects with extremely shortened dental arches rehabilitated with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Tumbay, Jackelyn; Sanchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; Senna, Plinio Mendes; Campanha, Nara Hellen

    2011-01-01

    Mastication was evaluated in subjects presenting extremely shortened dental arches (ESDAs) rehabilitated with mandibular free-end removable partial dentures (RPDs). Subjects were divided into four groups (n = 10): those with a complete dentition, those with ESDAs, and those with ESDAs who were rehabilitated with an RPD, who were evaluated both with and without their prostheses. Mastication was measured through masticatory performance, time, and ability. RPD wearers showed higher masticatory performance (P mastication in ESDA subjects but without achieving normal mastication levels.

  3. Influence of sex on performance fatigability of the plantar flexors following repeated maximal dynamic shortening contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Amelia C; Power, Geoffrey A; Christie, Anita D; Dalton, Brian H

    2017-10-01

    The purpose was to determine sex differences in fatigability during maximal, unconstrained velocity, shortening plantar flexions. The role of time-dependent measures (i.e., rate of torque development, rate of velocity development, and rate of neuromuscular activation) in such sex-related differences was also examined. By task termination, females exhibited smaller reductions in power and similar changes in rate of neuromuscular activation than males, indicating females were less fatigable than males.

  4. Construction of Rate-Compatible LDPC Codes Utilizing Information Shortening and Parity Puncturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for constructing rate-compatible low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. The construction considers the problem of optimizing a family of rate-compatible degree distributions as well as the placement of bipartite graph edges. A hybrid approach that combines information shortening and parity puncturing is proposed. Local graph conditioning techniques for the suppression of error floors are also included in the construction methodology.

  5. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and moto...... blocks. In this prospective, randomized double-blind study we investigated these findings in patients undergoing unilateral knee arthroscopy....

  6. Chordee and Penile Shortening Rather Than Voiding Function Are Associated With Patient Dissatisfaction After Urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Conrad C; Haines, Trevor; Rourke, Keith F

    2017-05-01

    To identify factors that predict patient satisfaction after urethroplasty by prospectively examining patient-reported quality of life scores using 3 validated instruments. A 3-part prospective survey consisting of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score, and a urethroplasty quality of life survey was completed by patients who underwent urethroplasty preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. The quality of life score included questions on genitourinary pain, urinary tract infection (UTI), postvoid dribbling, chordee, shortening, overall satisfaction, and overall health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis. Patients were enrolled in the study from February 2011 to December 2014, and a total of 94 patients who underwent a total of 102 urethroplasties completed the study. Patients reported statistically significant improvements in IPSS (P Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis revealed significant improvements in pain scores (P = .02), UTI (P 4 cm and the absence of UTI, pain, shortening, and chordee as predictors of patient satisfaction. Multivariate analysis of quality of life domain scores identified absence of shortening and absence of chordee as independent predictors of patient satisfaction following urethroplasty (P < .01). Patient voiding function and quality of life improve significantly following urethroplasty, but improvement in voiding function is not associated with patient satisfaction. Chordee status and perceived penile shortening impact patient satisfaction, and should be included in patient-reported outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The slack test does not assess maximal shortening velocity of muscle fascicle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Robin; Dorel, Sylvain; Nordez, Antoine; Rabita, Giuseppe; Couturier, Antoine; Hauraix, Hugo; Duchateau, Jacques; Guilhem, Gaël

    2018-06-14

    The application of a series of extremely high accelerative motor-driven quick releases while muscles contract isometrically (i.e. slack test) has been proposed to assess unloaded velocity in human muscle. This study aimed to measure gastrocnemius medialis fascicle (V F ) and tendinous tissues shortening velocity during motor-driven quick releases performed at various activation levels to assess the applicability of the slack test method in human. Maximal fascicle shortening velocity and joint velocity recorded during quick releases and during fast contraction without external load (ballistic condition) were compared. Gastrocnemius medialis fascicle behaviour was investigated from 25 participants using high-frame rate ultrasound during quick releases performed at various activation levels (from 0% to 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque) and ballistic contractions. Unloaded joint velocity calculated using the slack test method increased whereas V F decreased with muscle activation level (P≤0.03). Passive and low-level quick releases elicited higher V F values (≥ 41.4±9.7 cm.s -1 ) compared to ballistic condition (36.3±8.7 cm.s -1 ), while quick releases applied at 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque produced the lowest V F These findings suggest that initial fascicle length, complex fascicle-tendon interactions, unloading reflex and motor-driven movement pattern strongly influence and limit the shortening velocity achieved during the slack test. Furthermore, V F elicited by quick releases is likely to reflect substantial contributions of passive processes. Therefore, the slack test is not appropriate to assess maximal muscle shortening velocity in vivo. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Telomere shortening in the colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Y; Hiwatashi, N; Chida, M; Nagashima, F; Takagi, S; Maekawa, H; Toyota, T

    1998-06-01

    Telomere length in human somatic cells gradually decreases with the number of cell divisions and is regarded as a marker of somatic cell turnover. Mucosal cells of the affected colon show rapid turnover in individuals with active ulcerative colitis (UC). Telomere length was determined by Southern blot analysis of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) from the colonic mucosa of 17 patients with UC in remission, two of whom showed dysplasia, and 17 control subjects without colitis. For each individual, mean TRF length was compared between rectal mucosa and unaffected cecal mucosa. The mean TRF length of the rectal mucosa was significantly less than that of cecal mucosa in UC patients (7.87 +/- 0.36kb versus 8.77 +/- 0.21 kb; P = 0.0015, Wilcoxon signed rank test), whereas no significant difference was detected in the control subjects. The extent of telomere shortening was 10.6 +/- 3.35% in UC patients, compared with 0.8 +/- 0.64% in noncolitis controls (P = 0.0024, Mann-Whitney U-test). Four UC patients, two of whom had dysplasia, showed telomere shortening of more than 20% in the rectal mucosa. These observations suggest that telomere shortening in the colonic mucosa of individuals with UC may represent the history of mucosal inflammation during disease of long duration, and that it may contribute to aneuploidy in UC.

  9. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  10. Phenytoin shortens the half-life of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer misonidazole in man: implications for possible reduced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, P.; Bleehen, N.M.; Wiltshire, C.R.; Cambridge Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Results are described of a preliminary study of the effects of phenytoin, (commonly used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of patients with brain tumours), on the plasma pharmacokinetics of misonidazole (MISO) in man. Previous studies have shown that pretreatment with phenytoin shortens the half-life of MISO in dogs and mice by induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, and also reduces the acute lethal effects of MISO in mice. In this study patients with various types of malignancy and with cerebral metastases were given MISO before and after a course of phenytoin. Others were assessed as controls without phenytoin administration. Plasma concentrations of MISO were determined in blood samples taken before and at various times after administration. A summary of the pharmacokinetic data obtained is given. (author)

  11. Postsystolic Shortening by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brainin, Philip; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie Reumert; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postsystolic shortening (PSS) has been proposed as a novel marker of contractile dysfunction in the myocardium. Our objective was to assess the prognostic potential of PSS on cardiovascular events and death in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study design consisted...... of a prospective cohort study of 1296 low-risk participants from the general population, who were examined by speckle tracking echocardiography. The primary end point was the composite of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death, defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs...... as having MACEs and 236 participants (18%) died. Increasing number of walls with PSS predicted both end points, an association that persisted after adjustment for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, global longitudinal strain, hypertension, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, LV mass...

  12. The randomized shortened dental arch study (RaSDA: design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kern Matthias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various treatment options for the prosthetic treatment of jaws where all molars are lost are under discussion. Besides the placement of implants, two main treatment types can be distinguished: replacement of the missing molars with removable dental prostheses and non-replacement of the molars, i.e. preservation of the shortened dental arch. Evidence is lacking regarding the long-term outcome and the clinical performance of these approaches. High treatment costs and the long time required for the treatment impede respective clinical trials. Methods/design This 14-center randomized controlled investigator-initiated trial is ongoing. Last patient out will be in 2010. Patients over 35 years of age with all molars missing in one jaw and with at least both canines and one premolar left on each side were eligible. One group received a treatment with removable dental prostheses for molar replacement (treatment A. The other group received a treatment limited to the replacement of all missing anterior and premolar teeth using fixed bridges (treatment B. A pilot trial with 32 patients was carried out. Two hundred and fifteen patients were enrolled in the main trial where 109 patients were randomized for treatment A and 106 for treatment B. The primary outcome measure is further tooth loss during the 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measures encompassed clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG WA 831/2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5. Discussion The particular value of this trial is the adaptation of common design components to the very specific features of complex dental prosthetic treatments. The pilot trial proved to be indispensable because it led to a number of adjustments in the study protocol that considerably improved the practicability. The expected results are of high clinical relevance and will show the efficacy of two common

  13. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  14. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  15. Superimposed extension and shortening in the southern Salinas Basin and La Panza Range, California: A guide to Neogene deformation in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; McPhee, Darcy K.; McDougall, Kristin; Hourigan, Jeremy K.

    2013-01-01

    We synthesized data from geologic maps, wells, seismic-reflection profiles, potential-field interpretations, and low-temperature thermochronology to refine our understanding of late Cenozoic extension and shortening in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges. Data from the La Panza Range and southern Salinas Basin document early to middle Miocene extension, followed by Pliocene and younger shortening after a period of little deformation in the late Miocene. Extension took place on high-angle normal faults that accommodated ∼2% strain at the scale of the ∼50-km-wide Salinian block (oriented perpendicular to the San Andreas fault). Shortening was accommodated by new reverse faults, reactivation of older normal faults, and strike-slip faulting that resulted in a map-view change in the width of the Salinian block. The overall magnitude of shortening was ∼10% strain, roughly 4–5 times greater than the amount of extension. The timing and magnitude of deformation in our study area are comparable to that documented in other Salinian block basins, and we suggest that the entire block deformed in a similar manner over a similar time span. The timing and relative magnitude of extension and shortening may be understood in the context of central Coast Range tectonic boundary conditions linked to rotation of the western Transverse Ranges at the south end of the Salinian block. Older models for Coast Range shortening based on balanced fault-bend fold-style cross sections are a poor approximation of Salinian block deformation, and may lead to mechanically improbable fault geometries that overestimate the amount of shortening.

  16. Effectivity of Betel Leaf (Piper betle L. Gel Extract in Shortening Bleeding Time After Deciduous Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tedjasulaksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an Indonesian traditional medicine, betel leafis often used to stop nosebleed. Effective substances in betel leaves which serves to stop the bleeding is tannin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the betel leaf ethanol extract gel shortened bleeding time after the revocation of deciduous teeth. Method: This research was conducted at the Department of Dental Nursing Clinic, Health Polytechnic Denpasar.This study is pure experimental research design with Completely Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design. The total sample of 27 respondents were divided into a treatment group and two control groups. Anterior deciduous teeth on the physiological loose grade 3 or 4 is extracted, then the tooth socket is put pure gel for group 1 to group 2, epinephrine gel and gel ethanol extract of betel leaf for group 3. The bleeding time is calculated from the first moment the blood out until there is blood on filter paper that is placed on the tooth socket. Data were statistically analyzed with descriptive test and comparability test with One Way Anova. Result: The results showed bleeding time pure gel groups differ significantly with epinephrine group and the group of ethanol extract of betel leaf gel (p< 0.05. Bleeding time of epinephrine group did not differ significantly with betel leaf ethanol extract group (p>0.05. Conclusion: This means ethanol gel betel leaf extract can shorten bleeding after deciduous tooth extraction and it is suggested that the use of gel ethanol extract of betel leaves to cope with bleeding after tooth extraction.

  17. Eocene to Miocene Out-of-Sequence Deformation in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights From Shortening Structures in the Sichuan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuntao; Kohn, Barry P.; Qiu, Nansheng; Yuan, Yusong; Hu, Shengbiao; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.; Zhang, Peizhen

    2018-02-01

    A distinctive NNE trending belt of shortening structures dominates the topography and deformation of the eastern Sichuan Basin, 300 km east of the Tibetan Plateau. Debate continues as to whether the structures resulted from Cenozoic eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau. A low-temperature thermochronology (AFT and AHe) data set from four deep boreholes and adjacent outcrops intersecting a branch of the shortening structures indicates distinctive differential cooling at 35-28 Ma across the structure, where stratigraphy has been offset vertically by 0.8-1.3 km. This result forms the first quantitative evidence for the existence of a late Eocene-Oligocene phase of shortening in the eastern Sichuan Basin, synchronous with the early phase of eastward growth and extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau. Further, a compilation of regional Cenozoic structures reveals a Miocene retreat of deformation from the foreland basin to the hinterland areas. Such a tectonic reorganization indicates that Eocene to Miocene deformation in the eastern Tibetan Plateau is out-of-sequence and was probably triggered by enhanced erosion in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Dyslipidemia and chronic inflammation markers are correlated with telomere length shortening in Cushing's syndrome.

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    Anna Aulinas

    Full Text Available Cushing's syndrome (CS increases cardiovascular risk (CVR and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging.To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS.In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32. Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL.Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05. After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05. Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05, as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05. No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001. Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL.TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS

  19. Enhancement of Skeletal Muscle in Aged Rats Following High-Intensity Stretch-Shortening Contraction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Chetlin, Robert D; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2017-04-01

    Exercise is the most accessible, efficacious, and multifactorial intervention to improve health and treat chronic disease. High-intensity resistance exercise, in particular, also maximizes skeletal muscle size and strength-outcomes crucial at advanced age. However, such training is capable of inducing muscle maladaptation when misapplied at old age. Therefore, characterization of parameters (e.g., mode and frequency) that foster adaptation is an active research area. To address this issue, we utilized a rodent model that allowed training at maximal intensity in terms of muscle activation and tested the hypothesis that muscles of old rats adapt to stretch-shortening contraction (SSC) training, provided the training frequency is sufficiently low. At termination of training, normalized muscle mass (i.e., muscle mass divided by tibia length) and muscle quality (isometric force divided by normalized muscle mass) were determined. For young rats, normalized muscle mass increased by ∼20% regardless of training frequency. No difference was observed for muscle quality values after 2 days versus 3 days per week training (0.65 ± 0.09 N/mg/mm vs. 0.59 ± 0.05 N/mg/mm, respectively). For old rats following 3 days per week training, normalized muscle mass was unaltered and muscle quality was 30% lower than young levels. Following 2 days per week training at old age, normalized muscle mass increased by 17% and muscle quality was restored to young levels. To investigate this enhanced response, oxidative stress was assessed by lipid peroxidation quantification. For young rats, lipid peroxidation levels were unaltered by training. With aging, baseline levels of lipid peroxidation increased by 1.5-fold. For old rats, only 2 days per week training decreased lipid peroxidation to levels indistinguishable from young values. These results imply that, appropriately scheduled high-intensity SSC training at old age is capable of restoring muscle to a younger phenotype in terms

  20. Ancestral telomere shortening: a countdown that will increase mean life span?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Radu G

    2006-01-01

    Like cells, all mammals have a limited life span. Among cells there are a few exceptions (e.g., immortal cells), among mammals not, even if some of them live longer. Many in vitro and in vivo studies support the consensus that telomere length is strongly correlated with life span. At the somatic cellular level, long telomeres have been associated with longer life span. A different situation can be seen in immortal cells, such as cancer, germ and stem cells, where telomeres are maintained by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase that is involved in synthesis of telomeres. Irrespective of telomere length, if telomerase is active, telomeres can be maintained at a sufficient length to ensure cell survival. To the contrary, telomeres shorten progressively with each cell division and when a critical telomere length (Hayflick limit) is reached, the cells undergo senescence and subsequently apoptosis. In mammals, those with the longest telomeres (e.g., mice) have the shortest life span. Furthermore, the shorter the mean telomere length, the longer the mean life span, as observed in humans (10-14 kpb) and bowhead-whales (undetermined telomere length), which have the longest mean life span among mammals. Over the past centuries, human average life span has increased. The hypothesis presented here suggests that this continual increase in the mean life span could be due to a decrease of mean telomere length over the last hundreds years. Actually, the life span is not directly influenced by length of telomeres, but rather by telomere length - dependent gene expression pattern. According to Greider, "rather than average telomere length, it is the shortest telomere length that makes the biggest difference to a cell". In the context of fast-growing global elderly population due to increase in life expectancy, it also seem to be an age related increase in cancer incidence. Nevertheless, extending healthy life span could depend on how good cells achieve, during the

  1. Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the reliability and validity of a shortened (10-item depression scale used among HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Drug Treatment Program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: The 10-item CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was examined among 563 participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART between August 1, 1996 and June 30, 2002. Internal consistency of the scale was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Using the original CES-D 20 as primary criteria, comparisons were made using the Kappa statistic. Predictive accuracy of CES-D 10 was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values. Factor analysis was also performed to determine if the CES-D 10 contained the same factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D. RESULTS: The correlation between the original and the shortened scale is very high (Spearman correlation coefficient  =0.97 (P<0.001. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the CES-D 10 were satisfactory (Cronbach α=0.88. The CES-D 10 showed comparable accuracy to the original CES-D 20 in classifying participants with depressive symptoms (Kappa=0.82, P<0.001. Sensitivity of CES-D 10 was 91%; specificity was 92%; and positive predictive value was 92%. Factor analysis demonstrates that CES-D 10 contains the same underlying factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D 20. CONCLUSION: The 10-item CES-D is a comparable tool to measure depressive symptoms among HIV-positive research participants.

  2. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads® Using Vibration and a Sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Takefumi; Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads ® ) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  3. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads{sup ®} Using Vibration and a Sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp; Nitta, Norihisa [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamamoto, Takefumi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Central Research Laboratory (Japan); Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads{sup ®}) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  4. Calcite Twinning in the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation, Delaware Water Gap, New Jersey, USA: Implications for Cleavage Formation and Tectonic Shortening in the Appalachian Piedmont Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Craddock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A traverse across the Stone Church syncline in the Ordovician Martinsburg turbidites reveals an axial planar cleavage (N40°E, SE dips in regional thrust-related folds (N40°E, shallow plunges and five phases of sparry calcite. Calcite fillings are bedding-parallel, cleavage-parallel, and one vein set cross-cuts both earlier phases; the youngest calcite filling is a bedding-parallel fault gouge that crosscuts the cleavage and preserves top-down-to-the-southeast normal fault kinematics. Calcite veins unique to disharmonically-folded calcareous siltstones (Maxwell, 1962 were also analyzed. Stable isotopic analysis (O, C of all of the calcite phases indicates a uniform fluid source (δ13C −2.0, δ18O −13.3 VPDB and, potentially, a similar precipitation and mechanical twinning age. The twinning strains (n = 1341; average Δσ = −32 MPa; average ε1 = −2.9% in the calcite suite are consistent with SE-NW thrust shortening, and sub-horizontal shortening perpendicular to evolving axial planar cleavage planes in the Stone Church syncline. Calcareous siltstone layers within the Martinsburg Fm. turbidites share concordant bedding planes and are unique, chemically (XRF, but folded and cleaved differently than the surrounding clay-rich Martinsburg turbidites. Neither sediment type yielded detrital zircons. Electron backscatter X-ray diffraction (EBSD and calcite twinning results in a folded calcareous siltstone layer preserving a layer-normal SE-NW shortening strain and Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO. Shortening axes for the five-phase calcite suite trends ~N40°W, consistent with tectonic transport associated with crystalline nappe emplacement of the Reading Prong within the Piedmont province.

  5. Evaluating the superiority of honey over silver sulphadiazine dressing in shortening healing duration of burn injury: an evidence-based case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy S. Sopandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn injury is a global health problem associated with major morbidity and mortality. Honey has long been used in wound management due to its ability to accelerate healing rates and prevent infection. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of honey dressing in shortening healing duration of burn injury compared to silver sulphadiazine (SSD.Methods: A PubMed and Proquest database search was conducted to identify relevant studies. The studies were then appraised and ranked based on their validity, importance, and level of evidence.Results: The two studies appraised in this paper supported the supremacy of honey against SSD in shortening healing duration. However, the individual quality of studies involved was low.Conclusion: Honey is an alternative treatment in shortening burn wound healing duration. Further studies are needed to support clinical application of this conclusion. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:243-7. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.608 Keywords: Burn injury, healing duration, honey, silver sulfadiazine

  6. Onset of decreased heart work is correlated with increased heart rate and shortened QT interval in high-carbohydrate fed overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Aysegul; Olgar, Yusuf; Tuncay, Erkan; Karaomerlioglu, Irem; Kayki Mutlu, Gizem; Arioglu Inan, Ebru; Altan, Vecdi Melih; Turan, Belma

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical activity of the heart is adversely affected in metabolic syndrome (MetS) characterized by increased body mass and marked insulin resistance. Herein, we examined the effects of high carbohydrate intake on cardiac function abnormalities by evaluating in situ heart work, heart rate, and electrocardiograms (ECGs) in rats. MetS was induced in male Wistar rats by adding 32% sucrose to drinking water for 22-24 weeks and was confirmed by insulin resistance, increased body weight, increased blood glucose and serum insulin, and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures in addition to significant loss of left ventricular integrity and increased connective tissue around myofibrils. Analysis of in situ ECG recordings showed a markedly shortened QT interval and decreased QRS amplitude with increased heart rate. We also observed increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defense characterized by decreases in serum total thiol level and attenuated paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. Our data indicate that increased heart rate and a shortened QT interval concomitant with higher left ventricular developed pressure in response to β-adrenoreceptor stimulation as a result of less cyclic AMP release could be regarded as a natural compensation mechanism in overweight rats with MetS. In addition to the persistent insulin resistance and obesity associated with MetS, one should consider the decreased heart work, increased heart rate, and shortened QT interval associated with high carbohydrate intake, which may have more deleterious effects on the mammalian heart.

  7. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  8. Long-axis fractional shortening and mitral annulus motion in dogs

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    Marlos Gonçalves Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular systolic dynamics involves the contraction of transverse and longitudinal myocardial fibers. Unfortunately, only the activity of the transverse myocardial fibers is foreseen by the standard systolic echocardiographic parameters. Although strain and strain rate have been used to assess the radial, circumferential and longitudinal planes of cardiac contraction, such analysis requires advanced equipment which is not always available in veterinary medicine. On the contrary, some unusual parameters may be recorded via standard methodology, allowing for the specific evaluation of left ventricular longitudinal contractility. In this study, the longitudinal contractile activity was evaluated using the long-axis fractional shortening and the mitral annulus motion, which were compared with several standard echocardiographic parameters in 14 beagles, including seven with asymptomatic mitral valve disease. The long-axis fractional shortening was positively correlated with both the mitral annulus motion and the end-diastolic left-ventricular diameter. Also, a significant correlation was found to exist between the mitral annulus motion and the left-ventricular end-diastolic diameter, which is likely supportive of its preload dependency. Even though no difference was documented in either mitral annulus motion or long-axis fractional shortening between healthy dogs and dogs with mitral valve disease, the latter only included animals with minimal cardiac remodeling, with no overt compromise of systolic function. Since it is possible to obtain these two parameters with any echocardiographic equipment, their inclusion in the routine exam would probably add information regarding the activity of the longitudinal myocardial fibers, whose functional deterioration supposedly occurs prior to the impairment of transverse fibers.

  9. Cost and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment shortening: a model-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G B; Dowdy, D W; Bastos, M L; Zwerling, A; Sweeney, S; Foster, N; Trajman, A; Islam, M A; Kapiga, S; Sinanovic, E; Knight, G M; White, R G; Wells, W A; Cobelens, F G; Vassall, A

    2016-12-01

    Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration. The model was populated using extensive, empirically-collected data to estimate the economic impact on both health systems and patients of regimen shortening for first-line TB treatment in South Africa, Brazil, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. We explicitly considered 'real world' constraints such as sub-optimal guideline adherence. From a societal perspective, a shortened regimen, priced at USD1 per day, could be a cost-saving option in South Africa, Brazil, and Tanzania, but would not be cost-effective in Bangladesh when compared to one gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Incorporating 'real world' constraints reduces cost-effectiveness. Patient-incurred costs could be reduced in all settings. From a health service perspective, increased drug costs need to be balanced against decreased delivery costs. The new regimen would remain a cost-effective option, when compared to each countries' GDP per capita, even if new drugs cost up to USD7.5 and USD53.8 per day in South Africa and Brazil; this threshold was above USD1 in Tanzania and under USD1 in Bangladesh. Reducing the duration of first-line TB treatment has the potential for substantial economic gains from a patient perspective. The potential economic gains for health services may also be important, but will be context-specific and dependent on the appropriate pricing of any new regimen.

  10. Life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Duggal, K.; Lombard, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The primary focus of this program is to obtain information on the late effects of whole body exposure to low doses of a high linear-energy-transfer (LET) and a low-LET ionizing radiation in experimental animals to provide guidance for the prediction of radiation hazards to man. The information obtained takes the form of dose-response curves for life shortening and for the induction of numerous specific types of tumors. The animals are irradiated with fission neutrons from the Janus reactor and with 60 Co gamma rays, delivered as single, weekly, or duration-of-life exposures covering the range of doses and dose rates. 6 refs

  11. Two-stage revision of infected hip arthroplasty using a shortened post-operative course of antibiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Paul B

    2009-04-01

    We present a series of 30 consecutive patients with 31 infected total hip arthroplasties treated by a single surgeon over a 4-year period in whom a shortened post-operative course of antimicrobial chemotherapy was used.

  12. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  13. A comparison of effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable shortening on the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubant, R; Poon, A N; Sánchez-Hernández, D; Domenichiello, A F; Huot, P S P; Pannia, E; Cho, C E; Hunschede, S; Bazinet, R P; Anderson, G H

    2015-12-14

    Obesity is associated with increased consumption and preference for dietary fat. Experimental models of fat-induced obesity use either lard or vegetable shortening. Yet, there are no direct comparisons of these commonly used fat sources, or the influence of their fatty acid composition, on the development of diet-induced obesity. To compare the effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets, which differ in their fatty acid composition, on weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 14 weeks high-fat diets containing either (1) high vegetable fat (HVF, 60 kcal% from vegetable shortening) or (2) high lard fat (HLF, 60 kcal% from lard). Rats fed normal-fat (NF, 16 kcal% from vegetable shortening) diet served as control. Body weight, food intake, adipose tissue mass, serum 25[OH]D3, glucose, insulin and fatty acid composition of diets were measured. Rats fed either of the two high-fat diets had higher energy intake, weight gain and fat accretion than rats fed normal-fat diet. However, rats fed the HLF diet consumed more calories and gained more weight and body fat with greater increases of 32% in total (158.5±8.2 vs 120.2±6.6 g, P<0.05), 30% in visceral (104.4±5.2 vs 80.3±4.2 g, P<0.05) and 36% in subcutaneous fat mass (54.1±3.6 vs 39.9±3.1 g, P<0.05), compared with rats fed the HVF diet. Higher visceral adiposity was positively correlated with serum insulin (r=0.376, P<0.05) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (r=0.391, P<0.05). We conclude that lard-based high-fat diets accentuate the increase in weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance more than hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets. These results further point to the importance of standardizing fatty acid composition and type of fat used in determining outcomes of consuming high-fat diets.

  14. Mechanical versus kinematical shortening reconstructions of the Zagros High Folded Zone (Kurdistan region of Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehner, Marcel; Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2012-06-01

    This paper compares kinematical and mechanical techniques for the palinspastic reconstruction of folded cross sections in collision orogens. The studied area and the reconstructed NE-SW trending, 55.5 km long cross section is located in the High Folded Zone of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The present-day geometry of the cross section has been constructed from field as well as remote sensing data. In a first step, the structures and the stratigraphy are simplified and summarized in eight units trying to identify the main geometric and mechanical parameters. In a second step, the shortening is kinematically estimated using the dip domain method to 11%-15%. Then the same cross section is used in a numerical finite element model to perform dynamical unfolding simulations taking various rheological parameters into account. The main factor allowing for an efficient dynamic unfolding is the presence of interfacial slip conditions between the mechanically strong units. Other factors, such as Newtonian versus power law viscous rheology or the presence of a basement, affect the numerical simulations much less strongly. If interfacial slip is accounted for, fold amplitudes are reduced efficiently during the dynamical unfolding simulations, while welded layer interfaces lead to unrealistic shortening estimates. It is suggested that interfacial slip and decoupling of the deformation along detachment horizons is an important mechanical parameter that controlled the folding processes in the Zagros High Folded Zone.

  15. Shortening of an existing generic online health-related quality of life instrument for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Wiseman-Orr, L; Scott, M

    2017-10-11

    Development, initial validation and reliability testing of a shortened version of a web-based questionnaire instrument to measure generic health-related quality of life in companion dogs, to facilitate smartphone and online use. The original 46 items were reduced using expert judgment and factor analysis. Items were removed on the basis of item loadings and communalities on factors identified through factor analysis of responses from owners of healthy and unwell dogs, intrafactor item correlations, readability of items in the UK, USA and Australia and ability of individual items to discriminate between healthy and unwell dogs. Validity was assessed through factor analysis and a field trial using a "known groups" approach. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. The new instrument comprises 22 items, each of which was rated by dog owners using a 7-point Likert scale. Factor analysis revealed a structure with four health-related quality of life domains (energetic/enthusiastic, happy/content, active/comfortable, and calm/relaxed) accounting for 72% of the variability in the data compared with 64% for the original instrument. The field test involving 153 healthy and unwell dogs demonstrated good discriminative properties and high intraclass correlation coefficients. The 22-item shortened form is superior to the original instrument and can be accessed via a mobile phone app. This is likely to increase the acceptability to dog owners as a routine wellness measure in health care packages and as a therapeutic monitoring tool. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. CO2 laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.; Mazoyer, M.; Lynch, A.; O'Sullivan, G.; O'Reilly, F.; Dunne, P.; Cummins, T.

    2012-01-01

    A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO 2 laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to ∼2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO 2 pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is ∼10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

  17. Leucocyte Telomere Shortening in relation to Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and telomere length shortening in the comorbid depression and diabetes. Therefore, 71 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D and 52 subjects with normal glycemic level (control, Ctrl were enrolled. Depressive status was identified with the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D. Leukocyte telomere length ratio (T/S ratio was determined with quantitative PCR. Oxidative stress status was evaluated with 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG assay kit. Some other biochemical blood testing was also performed. The data showed that T2D patients had higher proportion of depression evaluated by the HADS-D (x2=4.196, P=0.041. T/S ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 8-OHdG, HADS-D, age, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA-IR. In addition, HADS-D was significantly positively correlated with HbA1c, FPG, HOMA-IR, and 8-OHdG. Both HADS-D and 8-OHdG were the major independent predictors for T/S ratio. This study indicates that oxidative stress contributes to both telomere length shortening and depression development in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, while in depression status, some other mechanisms besides oxidative stress may also affect the telomere length.

  18. Increasing flux rate to shorten leaching period and ramp-up production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantung, Billy; Agustin, Riska; Ravi'i

    2017-01-01

    J Resources Bolaang Mongondow (JBRM) has operated a dynamic heap leach in its Bakan Gold Mine since late 2013. After successfully surpassing its name plate capacity of 2.6 MT/annum in 2014, the clayey and transition ore become the next operational challenge. The presence of transition and clayey ore requires longer leaching period, hence reducing the leach pad capacity which then caused reduced production. Maintaining or even increasing production with such longer leaching ore types can be done by expanding the leach pad area which means an additional capital investment, and/or shortening the leaching cycle which compromise a portion of gold extraction. JBRM has been successfully increasing the leach pad production from 2.6 MT/annum to 3.8 MT/annum, whilst improving the gold extraction from around 70% to around 80%. This was achieved by managing the operation of the leach pad which is shortening the leach cycle by identifying and combining the optimal flux rate application versus the tonne processed in each cell, at no capital investment for expanding the cell capacity.

  19. Telomere shortening is associated to TRF1 and PARP1 overexpression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguennouz, M'Hammed; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Cama, Annamaria; Lanzano, Natalia; Ciranni, Annamaria; Rodolico, Carmelo; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Vita, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Telomere shortening is thought to contribute to premature senescence of satellite cells in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) muscle. Telomeric repeat binding factor-1 (TRF1) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) are proteins known to modulate telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) activity, which controls telomere elongation. Here we show that an age-dependent telomere shortening occurs in DMD muscles and is associated to overexpression of mRNA and protein levels of TRF1 and PARP1. TERT expression and activity are detectable in normal control muscles and they slightly increase in DMD. This is the first demonstration of TRF1 and PARP1 overexpression in DMD muscles. They can be directly involved in replicative senescence of satellite cells and/or in the pathogenetic cascade through a cross-talk with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Modulation of these events by TRF1 or PARP1 inhibition might represent a novel strategy for treatment of DMD and other muscular dystrophies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge, perceptions and clinical application of the shortened dental arch concept among Malaysian government dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Siti Kamilah Mohd; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Yusof, Zamros Yuzadi Mohd

    2018-02-01

    To assess the knowledge and perceptions of Malaysian government dentists regarding the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept and its application in clinical practice. The SDA concept refers to a specific type of dentition with intact anterior teeth and a reduction in posterior occlusal pairs. Dentists' knowledge and perceptions of the SDA concept can influence its application in clinical practice. A self-administered questionnaire on the SDA concept was distributed to 326 government dentists in the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were analysed using SPSS version 22 software. The response rate was 84.0%. The majority of respondents had good knowledge on five of six knowledge items and good attitudes towards 10 of 17 perception items. However, only one-fifth (20.4%) reported having applied the SDA concept in the clinic. A larger number of participants who graduated locally than who graduated abroad perceived that patients 5 years of work experience perceived that the SDA concept enables simpler treatment planning (P concept, it is not widely applied in the clinic. Concerted efforts in SDA training of dentists are needed to help to shorten denture waiting lists and reduce costs. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  1. Early telomere shortening and genomic instability in tubo-ovarian preneoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, Gautier; Tchirkov, Andrei; Pierre-Eymard, Eleonore; Dauplat, Jacques; Raoelfils, Ines; Cayre, Anne; Watkin, Emmanuel; Vago, Philippe; Penault-Llorca, Frederique

    2013-06-01

    Genetic instability plays an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis. We investigated the level of telomere shortening and genomic instability in early and preinvasive stages of ovarian cancer, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), and tubo-ovarian dysplasia (TOD). Fifty-one TOD from prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies with BRCA1 or 2 mutation, 12 STICs, 53 tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma, and 36 noncancerous controls were laser capture microdissected from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections, analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and for telomere length (using quantitative real-time PCR based on the Cawthon's method). TOD and STICs were defined by morphologic scores and immunohistochemical expressions of p53, Ki67, and γH2AX. TOD showed marked telomere shortening compared with noncancerous controls (P STICs had even shorter telomeres than TOD (P = 0.0008). Ovarian carcinoma had shorter telomeres than controls but longer than STICs and dysplasia. In TOD, telomeres were significantly shorter in those with BRCA1 mutation than in those with BRCA2 mutation (P = 0.005). In addition, γH2AX expression in TOD and STIC groups with short telomeres was significantly increased (P STICs. The total number of genetic alterations was the highest in ovarian cancers. These findings suggest that genetic instability occurs in early stages of ovarian tumorigenesis. STICs and noninvasive dysplasia are likely an important step in early serous ovarian neoplasia. ©2013 AACR

  2. Limiting values for the RBE of fission neutrons at low doses for life shortening in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, J.B.; Mitchell, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have analyzed recently published data on the effects of low doses of fission neutrons on the mean survival times of mice. The analysis for single-dose exposures was confined to doses of 20 rad or less, while for fractionated exposures only total doses of 80 rad or less were considered. They fitted the data to the frequently used power function model: life shortening = βD/sup γ/, where D is the radiation dose. They show that, at low doses per fraction, either the effects are not additive or the dose-effect curve for single exposures cannot show a greater negative curvature than about the 0.9 power of dose. Analysis of the data for γ rays showed that an exponent of 1.0 gave an acceptable fit. They conclude that at neutron doses of 20 rad or less the RBE for life shortening is constant and ranges from 13 to 22 depending on mouse strain and sex

  3. Transitory endolymph leakage induced hearing loss and tinnitus: depolarization, biphasic shortening and loss of electromotility of outer hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, H. P.; Reuter, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Gitter, A. H.; Fermin, C.; LePage, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    There are types of deafness and tinnitus in which ruptures or massive changes in the ionic permeability of the membranes lining the endolymphatic space [e.g., of the reticular lamina (RL)] are believed to allow potassium-rich endolymph to deluge the low [K+] perilymphatic fluid (e.g., in the small spaces of Nuel). This would result in a K+ intoxication of sensory and neural structures. Acute attacks of Meniere's disease have been suggested to be an important example for this event. The present study investigated the effects of transiently elevated [K+] due to the addition of artificial endolymph to the basolateral cell surface of outer hair cells (OHC) in replicating endolymph-induced K+ intoxication of the perilymph in the small spaces of Nuel. The influence of K+ intoxication of the basolateral OHC cell surface on the transduction was then examined. Intoxication resulted in an inhibition of the physiological repolarizing K+ efflux from hair cells. This induced unwanted depolarizations of the hair cells, interfering with mechanoelectrical transduction. A pathological longitudinal OHC shortening was also found, with subsequent compression of the organ of Corti possibly influencing the micromechanics of the mechanically active OHC. Both micromechanical and electrophysiological alterations are proposed to contribute to endolymph leakage induced attacks of deafness and possibly also to tinnitus. Moreover, repeated or long-lasting K+ intoxications of OHC resulted in a chronic and complete loss of OHC motility. This is suggested to be a pathophysiological basis in some patients with chronic hearing loss resulting from Meniere's syndrome.

  4. Effect of penile-extender device in increasing penile size in men with shortened penis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoobakht, Mohammadreza; Shahnazari, Alireza; Rezaeidanesh, Maedeh; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Pourmand, Gholamreza

    2011-11-01

    It has been suggested that the application of penile-extender devices increases penile length and circumference. However, there are a few scientific studies in this field. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a penile-extender (Golden Erect(®) , Ronas Tajhiz Teb, Tehran, Iran) in increasing penile size. This prospective study was performed on subjects complaining about "short penis" who were presented to our clinic between September 15, 2008 and December 15, 2008. After measuring the penile length in flaccid and stretched forms and penile circumference, patients were instructed to wear Golden Erect(®) , 4-6 hours per day during the first 2 weeks and then 9 hours per day until the end of the third month. The subjects were also trained how to increase the force of the device during determined intervals. The patients were visited at the end of the first and third months, and penile length and circumference were measured and compared with baseline. The primary end point of the study was changes in flaccid and stretched penile lengths compared with the baseline size during the 3 months follow-up. Twenty-three cases with a mean age of 26.5 ± 8.1 years entered the study. The mean flaccid penile length increased from 8.8 ± 1.2 cm to 10.1 ± 1.2 cm and 10.5 ± 1.2 cm, respectively, in the first and third months of follow-up, which was statistically significant (P penis (9.3 ± 0.86 cm vs. 8.8 ± 0.66 cm, P penis girth enhancement using penile extender. Performing more studies is recommended. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Polyurethane-Covered Self-expandable Nitinol Stent for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Min; Hwang, Seung-Bae; Lee, Soo-Teik; Lee, Jeong-Min; Chung, Gyung-Ho

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the immediate and long-term results in ten patients with malignant biliary obstruction using a polyurethane-covered, self-expandable nitinol stent.Methods: A nitinol stent, fully covered with high-elasticity polyurethane, with an unconstrained diameter of 10 mm and a total length of 60-80 mm, was placed transhepatically under fluoroscopic guidance in ten patients. The length of the biliary obstruction varied between 30-50 mm. The follow-up examination included a clinical assessment, serum bilirubin measurement, and ultrasound examinations at one-month intervals in all patients. Results: Initial stent deployment was successful in eight patients. Two patients experienced proximal migration,which was solved by insertion of two, uncovered Wallstents. One patient had the stent removed after two weeks because of severe nausea and vomiting. One patient had delayed migration of the covered stent after 40 weeks. The follow-up duration was 3-40 weeks (Mean: 16.9 weeks). Seven patients died(3-26 weeks) and three patients survived (24-40 weeks). The bilirubin measurements in all patients had significantly decreased one week after stent insertion. The levels of amylase and lipase had did not increase after stent insertion. Conclusions: Apolyurethane-covered, self-expandable nitinol stent can be used effectively and safely in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. The preliminary results are favorable, but there is a need for further large studies to determine both long-term survival and patency

  6. Summary update of the Brookhaven tritium toxicity program with emphasis on recent cytogenetic and lifetime-shortening studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carsten, A.L.; Benz, R.D.; Hughes, W.P.; Ichimasa, Yusuke; Ikushima, Takaji; Tezuka, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    A number of years ago a multiparameter program to evaluate the toxicity of tritiated water (HTO) was undertaken in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results of most of these studies have been published and will receive brief attention. Emphasis will be placed on the unpublished studies involving the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow of mice, new biochemical information, and preliminary results on lifetime-shortening and carcinogenesis. In brief, male Hale-Stoner Brookhaven (HSB) mice maintained on HTO concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 30.0 ..mu..Ci/ml exhibited essentially the same number of SCE's per cell throughout their lifetime. Control mice showed a decrease in number of SCE's with age. The lack of a dose-response effect and the constant level of SCE's in HTO mice as compared to controls will be discussed. In the carcinogenesis study C57BL/6J male mice received various x-ray or HTO regimens. Mortality data from these and other studies in which CBA/Ca/BNL mice received single x-ray exposures or equivalent integrated dose exposures by single HTO injections will be discussed. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Summary update of the Brookhaven tritium toxicity program with emphasis on recent cytogenetic and lifetime-shortening studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Benz, R.D.; Hughes, W.P.; Ichimasa, Yusuke; Ikushima, Takaji; Tezuka, Hideo.

    1988-01-01

    A number of years ago a multiparameter program to evaluate the toxicity of tritiated water (HTO) was undertaken in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results of most of these studies have been published and will receive brief attention. Emphasis will be placed on the unpublished studies involving the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow of mice, new biochemical information, and preliminary results on lifetime-shortening and carcinogenesis. In brief, male Hale-Stoner Brookhaven (HSB) mice maintained on HTO concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 30.0 μCi/ml exhibited essentially the same number of SCE's per cell throughout their lifetime. Control mice showed a decrease in number of SCE's with age. The lack of a dose-response effect and the constant level of SCE's in HTO mice as compared to controls will be discussed. In the carcinogenesis study C57BL/6J male mice received various x-ray or HTO regimens. Mortality data from these and other studies in which CBA/Ca/BNL mice received single x-ray exposures or equivalent integrated dose exposures by single HTO injections will be discussed. 25 refs., 4 figs

  8. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Solcova, Iva Polackova; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P; Tavel, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the SWBS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α) and Mean Inter-Item Correlation (MIIC) values. The factor structure was evaluated using principal component analyses. After adjustment, our new seven-item version of the scale supports a two-factorial model of the SWBS with satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.814, MIIC = 0.379). This version of the SWBS is suitable for measuring spiritual well-being in a secularising environment.

  9. Effect of hindlimb unweighting on single soleus fiber maximal shortening velocity and ATPase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 1 to 3 wks on the shortening velocity of a soleus fiber, its ATPase content, and the relative contents of the slow and fast myosin was investigated by measuring fiber force, V(0), ATPase activity, and myosin content in SDS protein profiles of a single rat soleus fiber suspended between a motor arm and a transducer. It was found that HU induces a progressive increase in fiber V(0) that is likely caused, at least in part, by an increase in the fiber's myofibrillar ATPase activity. The HU-induced increases in V(0) and ATPase were associated with the presence of a greater percentage of fast type IIa fibers. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 wks of HU showed increases in V(0) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers.

  10. Power electron beam front shortening in magnetically insulated transmission line with inner coaxial dielectric insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galstjan, E.A.; Kazanskiy, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    By now the technology of high-power high-current relativistic electron beams with microsecond duration has been developed. The same technology is used in high-power electric pulse generation. However at present the high-power beams of subnanosecond duration are necessary for some investigations and applications. The maximum power parameter achieved by means of the usual technology is limited by a value in the range of 100-300 MW. For this reason a search for new ways to generate high-power REB (relativistic electron beam) is a topical problem. It is obvious that this problem may be reduced to the generation of pulses with a subnanosecond front duration. There are many methods to shorten a pulse duration to its front duration for instance, by using parts of short-circuited transmission lines

  11. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kooy, Hanne M. [F. H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  12. Anesthetic Sevoflurane Causes Rho-Dependent Filopodial Shortening in Mouse Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Zimering

    Full Text Available Early postnatal anesthesia causes long-lasting learning and memory impairment in rodents, however, evidence for a specific neurotoxic effect on early synaptogenesis has not been demonstrated. Drebrin A is an actin binding protein whose localization in dendritic protrusions serves an important role in dendritic spine morphogenesis, and is a marker for early synaptogenesis. We therefore set out to investigate whether clinically-relevant concentrations of anesthetic sevoflurane, widely- used in infants and children, alters dendritic morphology in cultured fetal day 16 mouse hippocampal neurons. After 7 days in vitro, mouse hippocampal neurons were exposed to four hours of 3% sevoflurane in 95% air/5% CO2 or control condition (95% air/5% CO2. Neurons were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and stained with Alexa Fluor555-Phalloidin, and/or rabbit anti-mouse drebrin A/E antibodies which permitted subcellular localization of filamentous (F-actin and/or drebrin immunoreactivity, respectively. Sevoflurane caused acute significant length-shortening in filopodia and thin dendritic spines in days-in-vitro 7 neurons, an effect which was completely rescued by co-incubating neurons with ten micromolar concentrations of the selective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Filopodia and thin spine recovered in length two days after sevoflurane exposure. Yet cluster-type filopodia (a precursor to synaptic filopodia were persistently significantly decreased in number on day-in-vitro 9, in part owing to preferential localization of drebrin immunoreactivity to dendritic shafts versus filopodial stalks. These data suggest that sevoflurane induces F-actin depolymerization leading to acute, reversible length-shortening in dendritic protrusions through a mechanism involving (in part activation of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and impairs localization of drebrin A to filopodia required for early excitatory synapse formation.

  13. Assessment of range of motion and muscular shortening in female flamenco dancers. Valoración de las amplitudes articulares y acortamientos musculares en bailaoras de flamenco.

    OpenAIRE

    José L. Costa Sepúlveda; Jorge del R. Fernández Santos; Roque Gómez Espinosa de los Monteros; Ana González Galo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess flexibility and range of motion in flamenco dancers of Cádiz, Sevilla and Jaén (Spain) through a tests battery. The study population comprised 37 healthy flamenco dancers (25 ± 7,2 years, 1,6 ± 0,5 m y 56 ± 7,6 Kg). They performed a range of flexibility and motion tests (i.e. Kendall test, Nachlas test). Results has shown that there is muscle shortening in most of the tests that flamenco dancers has passed. We conclude that there are not many articles on...

  14. Neogene shortening and exhumation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas I.; Horton, Brian K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Barber, Douglas E.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Kendall, Jerome J.

    2017-01-01

    The Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq encroached southward toward a rapidly subsiding Neogene foreland basin and was later partitioned by out-of-sequence shortening focused along the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), as defined by new low-temperature thermochronologic, stratigraphic, and provenance results. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages document rapid deformation advance from the Main Zagros Fault to southern frontal structures (Kirkuk, Shakal, and Qamar thrusts) at 10-8 Ma, followed by potential basement-involved out-of-sequence development of the MFF (Qaradagh anticline) by 5 Ma. Distinct shifts in detrital zircon U-Pb provenance signatures for Neogene foreland basin fill provide evidence for drainage reorganization during fold-thrust belt advance. U-Pb age spectra and petrologic data from the Injana (Upper Fars) Formation indicate derivation from a variety of Eurasian, Pan-African, ophiolitic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic terranes, whereas the Mukdadiya (Lower Bakhtiari) and Bai-Hasan (Upper Bakhtiari) Formations show nearly exclusive derivation from the Paleogene Walash-Naopurdan volcanic complex near the Iraq-Iran border. Such a sharp cutoff in Eurasian, Pan-African, and ophiolitic sources is likely associated with drainage reorganization and tectonic development of the geomorphic barrier formed by the MFF. As a result of Zagros crustal shortening, thickening and loading, the Neogene foreland basin developed and accommodated an abrupt influx of fluvial clastic sediment that contains growth stratal evidence of synkinematic accumulation. The apparent out-of-sequence pattern of upper crustal shortening in the hinterland to foreland zone of Iraqi Kurdistan suggests that structural inheritance and the effects of synorogenic erosion and accumulation are important factors influencing the irregular and episodic nature of orogenic growth in the Zagros.

  15. T1 Shortening in the Globus Pallidus after Multiple Administrations of Gadobutrol: Assessment with a Multidynamic Multiecho Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Hwang, Moonjung; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To determine the association between the administration of the macrocyclic contrast medium gadobutrol and T1 relaxation time in the brains of patients with normal renal function by using multidynamic multiecho (MDME) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the need to obtain written informed consent was waived. This study included 46 patients (revealed by an electronic medical record search) who had received one or more gadobutrol injections and a maximum of one MR imaging contrast medium injection other than gadobutrol before MDME sequence acquisition. One radiologist performed quantitative analyses of regions of interest on quantitative T1 maps twice to cover the normal-appearing globus pallidus (GP), frontal white matter, frontal cortex, and thalamus. The number of administrations and the cumulative dose of gadobutrol, age, intervals between administrations, sex, and treatment were investigated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses of the T1 values in four brain regions and the GP-to-thalamus signal intensity (SI) ratio were performed. P values of less than the Bonferroni-corrected value of .01 were considered to indicate significant differences. Results Intraobserver reproducibility was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.62-0.81). Because of high multicollinearity between the number of gadobutrol administrations and accumulated dose (r = 0.96, P .01). Conclusion Multiple exposures to gadobutrol are associated with T1 shortening in the GP. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  16. MET18 Deficiency Increases the Sensitivity of Yeast to Oxidative Stress and Shortens Replicative Lifespan by Inhibiting Catalase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Qin; Liu, Xin-Guang; Zhao, Wei; Cui, Hongjing; Ruan, Jie; Yuan, Yuan; Tu, Zhiguang

    2017-01-01

    Yeast MET18 , a subunit of the cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein assembly (CIA) machinery which is responsible for the maturation of Fe/S proteins, has been reported to participate in the oxidative stress response. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we constructed a MET18/met18Δ heterozygous mutant yeast strain and found that MET18 deficiency in yeast cells impaired oxidative stress resistance as evidenced by increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). Mechanistically, the mRNA levels of catalase A (CTA1) and catalase T (CTT1) as well as the total catalase activity were significantly reduced in MET18 -deficient cells. In contrast, overexpression of CTT1 or CTA1 in MET18 -deficient cells significantly increased the intracellular catalase activity and enhanced the resistance ability against H 2 O 2 and CHP. In addition, MET18 deficiency diminished the replicative capacity of yeast cells as evidenced by the shortened replicative lifespan, which can be restored by CTT1 overexpression, but not by CTA1 , in the MET18 -deficient cells. These results suggest that MET18 , in a catalase-dependent manner, plays an essential role in enhancing the resistance of yeast cells to oxidative stress and increasing the replicative capacity of yeast cells.

  17. Effects of Minimum and Maximum Doses of Furosemide on Fractional Shortening Parameter in Echocardiography of the New Zealand White Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roham Vali, Mohammad Nasrollahzadeh Masouleh* and Siamak Mashhady Rafie1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no data on the effect of maximum and minimum doses of furosemide on heart's work performance and amount of fractional shortening (FS in echocardiography of rabbit. This study was designed to validate probability of the mentionable effect. Twenty-four healthy female New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four equal groups. Maximum and minimum doses of furosemide were used for the first and second groups and the injection solution for the third and fourth groups was sodium chloride 0.9% which had the same calculated volumes of furosemide for the first two groups, respectively. The left ventricle FS in statutory times (0, 2, 5, 15, 30 minutes was determined by echocardiography. Measurements of Mean±SD, maximum and minimum amounts for FS values in all groups before injection and in statutory times were calculated. Statistical analysis revealed non-significant correlation between the means of FS. The results of this study showed that furosemide can be used as a diuretic agent for preparing a window approach in abdominal ultrasonography examination with no harmful effect on cardiac function.

  18. Dose-response relationship for life-shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated at day 7 postnatal age with dose range below 1 Gy of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shunsaku; Fukuda, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the dose-response relationships for life-shortening and tumorigenic effect in the dose range below 1 Gy of gamma rays delivered during the infant period. Female B6C3F 1 mice were irradiated with 0.10, 0.48 or 0.95 Gy at 7 days of age. All irradiated mice were allowed to live out their entire life span together with a simultaneously ongoing control group under a specific pathogen-free condition. Shortening of the mean life span was 1.58% in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy, which was statistically significant. The coefficient of the linear dose-response relationship for life-shortening was 11.21% Gy -1 . The attributable death fraction for all causes of death in 0.10 Gy group reached 0.092. The excess relative risk for death rate from all causes was 0.102 in the group irradiated with 0.10 Gy. The coefficient of the linear dose-response relationship of the excess relative risk for death rate from all causes was 1.30 Gy -1 . The mean number of types of solid tumors at the time of death in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy was distinctly larger than that in the control group. The excess relative risk for death rate from solid tumors was 0.45 in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy. The coefficient of the linear dose-response relationship of excess relative risk for death rate from solid tumors was 4.52 Gy -1 . Increase in incidences of the pituitary, ovarian and adrenal tumors was observed in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy. The results of the present study showed that infant mice are susceptible to solid tumor induction, especially of the endocrine organs. (author)

  19. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction from frog skeletal muscle during shortening against an inertial load and a quick release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Hashizume, Hiroo; Tameyasu, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Hidehiro; Sugi, Haruo.

    1980-01-01

    A group of Japanese researchers conducted, for the first time in this field, experiments on time-resolved x-ray diffraction of frog (bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana) skeletal muscle in conditions where both the force and the muscle length change with time. During an isotonic twitch under a load of about 0.3 P 0 , the intensity ratio started falling on stimulation and reached a minimum value of 0.5 - 0.6 at the early shortening phase, which was maintained until the beginning of relaxation. Except that the minimum value was not retained until the start of relaxation, the same was observed during a twitch against an inertial load whereby the peak force exerted by the muscle was about 0.4 P 0 . The results may be taken to indicate that the change in the intensity ratio reflects not the time course of shortening but that of force generation. When a quick release (3 - 4% of muscle length) was applied during the rising phase of an isometric twitch, the intensity ratio showed no distinct change. Judging from tentative calculation results, however, the foregoing result is subject to further experiments with a much improved time resolution of the measurements. (Kitajima, A.)

  20. Clinical results of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Auh Whan; Sim, Jae In; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    To evaluate the clinical results of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) for the control of variceal bleeding. TIPS creation was attempted in 23 patients with endoscopically confirmed variceal bleeding. Most patients had multiple episodes of bleeding in the past and have been treated with multiple endoscopic sclerotherapies. Pre-and post-procedural hepatic and portal vein pressures were measured. After creation of TIPS patients were followed up at regular intervals. TIPS has been successfully accomplished in 22 of 23 patients using Wallstent(n = 21) and Strecker stent(n = 1). Immediate bleeding control was achieved in all patients with shunt creation. No procedure-related complication was noted. Portal vein pressure was reduced from 30.7 {+-} 5.8 mmHg to 20.8 {+-} 4.7 mmHg. The mean pressure gradient of portosystemic shunt dropped from 22.8 {+-} 6.0 prior to TIPS to 12.2 {+-} 4.1 immediately after. During the follow-up period (6-556 days, mean; 10 months), seven patients died; progressive hepatic failure (n 4), variceal rebleeding (n = 2), and respiratory failure(n = 1). Hepatic encephalopathy after TIPS was noted in 7 patients(31.8%). Variceal rebleeding occurred in 3 patients(13.6%). The remaining 15 patients have survived an average of 11 months. This results suggest that TIPS is a safe and effective method for lowering portal pressure and controlling variceal bleeding. Furthermore if these initial results are encouraged by further long-term observation, TIPS could replace endoscopic and risky surgical intervention.

  1. Effects of rapid shortening on rate of force regeneration and myoplasmic [Ca2+] in intact frog skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, R; Claflin, D R; Julian, F J

    1998-01-01

    The effect of rapid shortening on rate of force regeneration (dF/dtR) was examined in single, intact frog (Rana temporaria) skeletal muscle fibres (3·0 °C). Step releases leading to unloaded shortening were applied after 500 ms of stimulation, during the plateau of an isometric tetanus. Initial mean sarcomere length ranged from 2·05 to 2·35 μm; force regeneration after shortening was at 2·00 μm.Values for dF/dtR following a 25 nm half-sarcomere−1 release were 3·17 ± 0·17 (mean ± s.e.m., n= 8) times greater than the initial rate of rise of force before release (dF/dtI). As release size was increased from 25 to 175 nm half-sarcomere−1, the relationship between release size and dF/dtR decreased sharply before attaining a plateau value that was 1·34 ± 0·09 times greater than dF/dtI. Despite wide variations in dF/dtR, the velocity of unloaded shortening remained constant (2·92 ± 0·08 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1; n= 8) for the different release amplitudes used in this study.To investigate its role in the attenuation of dF/dtR with increased shortening, the effects of rapid ramp (constant velocity) shortening on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were monitored using the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye furaptra. Compared with an isometric contraction, rapid fibre shortening was associated with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i while force regeneration after shortening was associated with a transient reduction in [Ca2+]i. The greatest reductions in [Ca2+]i were associated with the largest amplitude ramps.Cross-bridge-mediated modifications of the Ca2+ affinity of troponin C (TnC) may explain the fluctuations in [Ca2+]i observed during and after ramps. Associated fluctuations in TnC Ca2+ occupancy could play a role in the reduction of dF/dtR with increasing release size. PMID:9679172

  2. 3D T2-weighted imaging to shorten multiparametric prostate MRI protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanec, Stephan H; Lazar, Mathias; Wengert, Georg J; Bickel, Hubert; Spick, Claudio; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh; Clauser, Paola; Baltzer, Pascal A T

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether 3D acquisitions provide equivalent image quality, lesion delineation quality and PI-RADS v2 performance compared to 2D acquisitions in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate at 3 T. This IRB-approved, prospective study included 150 consecutive patients (mean age 63.7 years, 35-84 years; mean PSA 7.2 ng/ml, 0.4-31.1 ng/ml). Two uroradiologists (R1, R2) independently rated image quality and lesion delineation quality using a five-point ordinal scale and assigned a PI-RADS score for 2D and 3D T2-weighted image data sets. Data were compared using visual grading characteristics (VGC) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC)/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Image quality was similarly good to excellent for 2D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.81; R2, 4.7 ± 0.83) and 3D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.82; R2, 4.7 ± 0.69), p = 0.269. Lesion delineation was rated good to excellent for 2D (mean score R1, 4.16 ± 0.81; R2, 4.19 ± 0.92) and 3D T2w (R1, 4.19 ± 0.94; R2, 4.27 ± 0.94) without significant differences (p = 0.785). ROC analysis showed an equivalent performance for 2D (AUC 0.580-0.623) and 3D (AUC 0.576-0.629) T2w (p > 0.05, respectively). Three-dimensional acquisitions demonstrated equivalent image and lesion delineation quality, and PI-RADS v2 performance, compared to 2D in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate. Three-dimensional T2-weighted imaging could be used to considerably shorten prostate MRI protocols in clinical practice. • 3D shows equivalent image quality and lesion delineation compared to 2D T2w. • 3D T2w and 2D T2w image acquisition demonstrated comparable diagnostic performance. • Using a single 3D T2w acquisition may shorten the protocol by 40%. • Combined with short DCE, multiparametric protocols of 10 min are feasible.

  3. Effect of splitting a mixed-model line on shortening the line length under open- and closed-boundary working area settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donghao; Matsuura, Haruki; Asada, Akiko

    2017-04-01

    Some automobile factories have segmented mixed-model production lines into shorter sub-lines according to part group, such as engine, trim, and powertrain. The effects of splitting a line into sub-lines have been reported from the standpoints of worker motivation, productivity improvement, and autonomy based on risk spreading. There has been no mention of the possibility of shortening the line length by altering the product sequence using sub-lines. The purpose of the present paper is to determine the conditions under which sub-lines reduce the line length and the degree to which the line length may be shortened. The line lengths for a non-split line and a line that has been split into sub-lines are compared using three methods for determining the working area, the standard closed boundary, the optimized open boundary, and real-life constant-length stations. The results are discussed by analyzing the upper and lower bounds of the line length. Based on these results, a procedure for deciding whether or not to split a production line is proposed.

  4. Increased Rate of NAD Metabolism Shortens Plant Longevity by Accelerating Developmental Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Itami, Taketo; Takahara, Kentaro; Hirabayashi, Takayuki; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2016-11-01

    NAD is a well-known co-enzyme that mediates hundreds of redox reactions and is the basis of various processes regulating cell responses to different environmental and developmental cues. The regulatory mechanism that determines the amount of cellular NAD and the rate of NAD metabolism remains unclear. We created Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the NAD synthase (NADS) gene that participates in the final step of NAD biosynthesis. NADS overexpression enhanced the activity of NAD biosynthesis but not the amounts of NAD + , NADH, NADP + or NADPH. However, the amounts of some intermediates were elevated, suggesting that NAD metabolism increased. The NAD redox state was greatly facilitated by an imbalance between NAD generation and degradation in response to bolting. Metabolite profiling and transcriptional analysis revealed that the drastic modulation of NAD redox homeostasis increased tricarboxylic acid flux, causing the ectopic generation of reactive oxygen species. Vascular bundles suffered from oxidative stress, leading to a malfunction in amino acid and organic acid transportation that caused early wilting of the flower stalk and shortened plant longevity, probably due to malnutrition. We concluded that the mechanism regulating the balance between NAD synthesis and degradation is important in the systemic plant response to developmental cues during the growth-phase transition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  6. Respiratory acidosis prolongs, while alkalosis shortens, the duration and recovery time of vecuronium in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2002-03-01

    To determine the effects of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis by mechanical ventilation on the onset, duration, and recovery times of vecuronium. Randomized, prospective study. Operating rooms in the Sapporo Medical University Hospital and Kitami Red Cross Hospital. 90 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups by arterial carbon dioxide tension level (PaCO2; mmHg) after induction: hyperventilation group (PaCO2 = 25-35), normoventilation group (PaCO2 = 35-45), and hypoventilation group (PaCO2 = 45-55). Anesthesia was maintained by spinal block with inhalation of 50% to 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen and intermittent intravenous administration of fentanyl and midazolam with tracheal intubation. After vecuronium 0.08 mg/kg was given, onset, duration, and recovery time were measured by mechanomyography (Biometer Myograph 2,000, Odense, Denmark). There were significant differences in the duration and recovery time of vecuronium among the normoventilation group (12.7 +/- 3.3 min and 11.8 +/- 2.8 min, respectively), the hyperventilation group (10.6 +/- 3.5 min and 9.2 +/- 2.7 min, respectively; p respiratory acidosis and shortened in respiratory alkalosis.

  7. Measurement characteristics of the childhood Asthma-Control Test and a shortened, child-only version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bime, Christian; Gerald, Joe K; Wei, Christine Y; Holbrook, Janet T; Teague, William G; Wise, Robert A; Gerald, Lynn B

    2016-10-20

    The childhood Asthma-Control Test (C-ACT) is validated for assessing asthma control in paediatric asthma. Among children aged 4-11 years, the C-ACT requires the simultaneous presence of both parent and child. There is an unmet need for a tool that can be used to assess asthma control in children when parents or caregivers are not present such as in the school setting. We assessed the psychometric properties and estimated the minimally important difference (MID) of the C-ACT and a modified version, comprising only the child responses (C-ACTc). Asthma patients aged 6-11 years (n=161) from a previously completed multicenter randomised trial were included. Demographic information, spirometry and questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Participants or their guardians kept a daily asthma diary. Internal consistency reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.76 and 0.67 (Cronbach's α), respectively. Test-retest reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.72 and 0.66 (intra-class correlation), respectively. Significant correlations were noted between C-ACT scores and ACQ scores (Spearman's correlation r=-0.56, 95% CI (-0.66, -0.44), Pasthma patients aged 6-11 years, the C-ACT had good psychometric properties. The psychometric properties of a shortened child-only version (C-ACTc), although acceptable, are not as strong.

  8. Exome sequencing links mutations in PARN and RTEL1 with familial pulmonary fibrosis and telomere shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bridget D; Choi, Jungmin; Zaidi, Samir; Xing, Chao; Holohan, Brody; Chen, Rui; Choi, Mihwa; Dharwadkar, Pooja; Torres, Fernando; Girod, Carlos E; Weissler, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, John; Kershaw, Corey; Klesney-Tait, Julia; Mageto, Yolanda; Shay, Jerry W; Ji, Weizhen; Bilguvar, Kaya; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P; Garcia, Christine Kim

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related disease featuring progressive lung scarring. To elucidate the molecular basis of IPF, we performed exome sequencing of familial kindreds with pulmonary fibrosis. Gene burden analysis comparing 78 European cases and 2,816 controls implicated PARN, an exoribonuclease with no previous connection to telomere biology or disease, with five new heterozygous damaging mutations in unrelated cases and none in controls (P = 1.3 × 10(-8)); mutations were shared by all affected relatives (odds in favor of linkage = 4,096:1). RTEL1, an established locus for dyskeratosis congenita, harbored significantly more new damaging and missense variants at conserved residues in cases than in controls (P = 1.6 × 10(-6)). PARN and RTEL1 mutation carriers had shortened leukocyte telomere lengths, and we observed epigenetic inheritance of short telomeres in family members. Together, these genes explain ~7% of familial pulmonary fibrosis and strengthen the link between lung fibrosis and telomere dysfunction.

  9. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  10. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment: a multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuser, M.; Willekens, F.J.C.; Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic

  11. Shortened version of the work ability index to identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Lianne S.; Bultmann, Ute; Heymans, Martijn W.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Work Ability Index (WAI) identifies non-sicklisted workers at risk of future long-term sickness absence (LTSA). The WAI is a complicated instrument and inconvenient for use in large-scale surveys. We investigated whether shortened versions of the WAI identify non-sicklisted workers

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study

  13. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S.; Eiselt, N.; Griesser, H.; Olmos, J. J.V.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Okonkwo, C.

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual

  14. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Heide, Sjoerd; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual chr...

  15. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study

  17. One-stage lengthening using a locked nailing technique for distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan; Lee, Zhon-Liau

    2004-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a one-stage lengthening using a locked nail technique for the treatment of distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening. Retrospective. University hospital. During a 6-year period, 36 distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening (>1.5 cm) were treated by the one-stage lengthening technique. Indications for this technique were distal femoral shaft aseptic or quiescent infected nonunions, 1.5-5 cm shortening, and a fracture level suitable for the insertion of two distal locked screws. The surgical technique involved skeletal traction using the femoral condyle, local débridement, lengthening by lengthening was 2.5 cm (range 1.5-3.5 cm). One-stage lengthening using the locked nailing technique to treat distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening can achieve a high success rate and low complication rate. The key to successful treatment is the patient's complete cooperation with strictly protected weight bearing until the fracture has healed.

  18. The development of the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL: a shortened questionnaire for cancer patients in palliative care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K.; Arraras, Juan I.; Blazeby, Jane M.; Bottomley, Andrew; Fayers, Peter M.; de Graeff, Alexander; Hammerlid, Eva; Kaasa, Stein; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Bjorner, Jakob B.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a shortened version of the EORTC QLQ-C30, one of the most widely used health-related quality of life questionnaires in oncology, for palliative care research. The study included interviews with 41 patients and 66 health care professionals in palliative care to

  19. Magnitude of crustal shortening and structural framework of the easternmost Himalayan orogen, northern Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Along-strike variation in crustal shortening throughout the Himalayan orogen has been attributed to (1) diachronous, eastward-increasing convergence, or (2) localized controls including pre-collisional stratigraphic configuration and climate. In this study, we present new geologic maps and balanced cross-sections across the easternmost segment of the Himalayan orogen, the N-S-trending N. Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India. First order structures are NE-dipping, km-wide ductile thrust shear zones with mylonitic fabrics indicating top-to-the SW motion. Major structures include the Mayodia klippe and Hunli window, generated during folding of the SW-directed Tidding thrust and duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (LHS) at depth. Reconstruction of two balanced cross-sections yields minimum shortening estimates of 70% (48 km) and 71% (133 km), respectively. The widths of the orogen for each transect are 21 km and 54 km, respectively. Our percent strain values are comparable to that of western Arunachal Himalaya, reflecting eastward-increasing strain due to counterclockwise rotation of India during convergence or along-strike variation in India's subduction angle. However, shortening magnitudes much less than that of the Sikkim (641 km), Bhutan (414-615 km), and western Arunachal Himalaya (515-775 km) could signal eastward increasing shortening of a unique Himalayan stratigraphic framework, evidenced by few GHC rocks, absence of Tethyan strata, and an extensive subduction mélange and forearc complex.

  20. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment : A multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuser, Mieke; Willekens, Frans J.; Bonneux, Luc

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic

  1. Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability and Volitional Drive in Response to Shortening and Lengthening Strength Training and Changes Following Detraining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tallent, Jamie; Goodall, Stuart; Gibbon, Karl C.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited understanding of the neurological adaptations responsible for changes in strength following shortening and lengthening resistance training and subsequent detraining. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in corticospinal and spinal responses to resistance training of

  2. Shortened preoperative fasting time to allow oral rehydration solution clear liquid up to two hours before elective major surgery in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.N.; Maharjan, S.; Curung, R.

    2018-01-01

    To generate evidence of feasibility to allow clear liquid 2 hours before elective surgery. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Surgery, Patan Hospital, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Nepal, from October to December 2016. Methodology: One hundred consecutive adult elective major surgery patients of American Society of Anesthesiologist criteria 1 or 2 were enrolled. The protocol was discussed with patients, nurses, anesthetists and surgeons to allow 500 ml clear liquid (ORS) up to 0600 hours on the day of surgery to maintain minimum of 2 hours (h) nil per os (NPO) before surgery. Compliance, discomfort, nausea and vomiting were observed. Institutional review committee approved the study. Microsoft excel was used for descriptive analysis. Results: All 100 patients completed the protocol of shortened fasting time. Two patients had incomplete records and were excluded from analysis. Among the 98 patients analysed, age was 48 +-12.38 years with 74 females (75.51% of 98). There were 68 gastrointestinal, 20 urosurgery and 10 others surgeries. There was no discomfort, nausea or vomiting reported due to ORS 2-h before elective surgery. Conclusion: Preoperative clear liquid up to 2-h before elective surgery in adults is feasible and safe in our set-up to shorten the fasting time. (author)

  3. Quantifying the role of mantle forcing, crustal shortening and exogenic forcing on exhumation of the North Alpine Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagke, C.; Luijendijk, E.; Hindle, D.

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to the internal zones of orogens, where the stacking of thrust sheets can overwhelm more subtle signals, foreland basins can record long-wavelength subsidence or uplift signals caused by mantle processes. We use a new and extensive compilation of geological and thermochronology data from the North Alpine Foreland Basin to understand the dynamics of foreland basins and their interaction with surface and geodynamic processes. We quantify cooling and exhumation rates in the basin by combining published and new vitrinite reflectance, apatite fission track and U-Th/He data with a new inverse burial and thermal history model, pybasin. No correlation is obvious between inferred cooling and exhumation rates and elevation, relief or tectonics. Uncertainty analysis shows that thermochronometers can be explained by cooling starting as early as the Miocene or as late as the Pleistocene. We compare derived temperature histories to exhumation estimates based on the retro-deformation of Molasse basin and the Jura mountains, and to exhumation caused by drainage reorganization and incision. Drainage reorganization can explain at most 25% of the observed cooling rates in the basin. Tectonic transport of the basin's sediments over the inclined basement of the alpine foreland as the Jura mountains shortened can explain part of the cooling signal in the western part of the basin. However, overall a substantial amount of cooling and exhumation remains unexplained by known tectonic and surface processes. Our results document basin wide exhumation that may be related to slab roll-back or other lithospheric processes. We suggest that new (U-Th)/He data from key areas close to the Alpine front may provide better constraints on the timing of exhumation.

  4. Tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado para tuberculosis pulmonar Shortened directly observed treatment applied to the tuberculosis control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe del Carmen Alvarez-Gordillo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la posibilidad de aplicar el tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado (TAES en el Programa de Control de la Tuberculosis en Chiapas, México. Material y métodos. Se evaluó la eficacia y la eficiencia del tratamiento en una cohorte de pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar confirmada por baciloscopía, que ingresaron a tratamiento con esquemas de autoadministración semisupervisión y estricta supervisión, de enero a junio de 1996. Resultados. La eficacia fue de 90.9. 97.7 y 100% para los esquemas de tratamiento autoadministrado, semisupervisado y TAES, respectivamente, mientras que la eficiencia fue de 68.1. 77.6 y 88.5% en el mismo orden. Conclusiones. Para la salud pública el TAES demostró ser la actividad más importante en el control de la tuberculosis, al elevar las tasas de curación y disminuir, por lo tanto, las fuentes de transmisión de la enfermedad.Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of the Shortened Directly Observed Treatment (DOT, S applied to the Tuberculosis Control Program in Chiapas, Mexico. Material and methods. The efficacy and efficiency of treatment was evaluated in a cohort of pulmonary tuberculosis patients confirmed by baciloscopy, who were subjected to treatment under one of three different regimes, self-administered. supervised and DOT,S from January to June 1996. Results. Efficacy was 90.9%, 97.7% and 100% for self-administered, supervised and DOT,S treatment, respectively. Efficiency was 68.1%, 77.6% and 88.5% in the same order Conclusions. For public health ends, the DOT,S proved to be the most efficient in the control of tuberculosis. since healing rates were increased and this reduces sources of disease transmission.

  5. Shortening Anesthesia Duration does not Affect Severity of Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Ultra Rapid Opioid Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultra rapid opioid detoxification (UROD is one of the new methods of detoxification. This method of detoxification involves putting patients under general anesthesia and actively giving them opioid antagonists. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of anesthesia duration in UROD on severity of withdrawal syndrome. Sixty addicted patients seeking UROD procedure assigned randomly to one of the 2hr, 4hr or 6hr anesthesia duration groups. Premedication and anesthesia procedure (induction and maintenance were the same for three groups. Detoxification was done for all patients with 50 mg oral naltroxane (prior to induction and 20 mg intravenous naloxane (8 mg/bolus and 12 mg/infusion. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were automatically measured and recorded every 5 minutes. The severity of withdrawal syndrome was measured and recorded every one hour during anesthesia, 2hours post-anesthesia, and 12 and 24 hours following the induction of anesthesia according to the Wang Scale modified by Lomier (WSMBL. Patients aged 20-58 in three groups. Three cases experienced delirium after detoxification that lasted 24 hours in one. Severity of withdrawal syndrome in patients of groups 2, 4 and 6 hour were 8.7, 7.4 and 5.1 respectively during anesthesia and 12.3, 11.1 and 13.9 after 18 hours of anesthesia. Results of this study showed that, in standard settings, UROD is a safe method for detoxification and has low complications. The withdrawal symptoms during and after anesthesia are low. Shortening the duration of anesthesia has no affect on severity of withdrawal syndrome during and after anesthesia.

  6. Comparison of three shortened questionnaires for assessment of quality of life in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Leonard; Chiu, Nicholas; Chow, Edward; Cella, David; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Lam, Henry; Popovic, Marko; Bedard, Gillian; Poon, Michael; Wong, Erin; Zeng, Liang; Bottomley, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life (QoL) assessment questionnaires can be burdensome to advanced cancer patients, thus necessitating the need for shorter assessment instruments than traditionally available. We compare three shortened QoL questionnaires in regards to their characteristics, validity, and reliability. A literature search was conducted to identify studies that employed or discussed three abridged QoL questionnaires: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core 15-Palliative Care (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General-7 (FACT-G7), and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative Care-14 (FACIT-PAL-14). Articles that discussed questionnaire length, intended use, scoring procedure, and validation were included. The 7-item FACT-G7 is the shortest instrument, whereas the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and the FACIT-PAL-14 contain 14 and 15 items, respectively. All three questionnaires have similar recall period, item organization, and subscale components. Designed as core questionnaires, all three maintain content and concurrent validity of their unabridged original questionnaires. Both the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and the FACT-G7 demonstrate good internal consistency and reliability, with Cronbach's α ≥0.7 deemed acceptable. The developmental study for the FACIT-PAL-14 was published in 2013 and subsequent validation studies are not yet available. The EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and the FACT-G7 were found to be reliable and appropriate for assessing health-related QoL issues-the former for palliative cancer patients and the latter for advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Conceptually, the FACIT-PAL-14 holds promise to cover social and emotional support issues that are not completely addressed by the other two questionnaires; however, further validation is needed.

  7. Specialized learning in antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae, pit-digging predators, shortens vulnerable larval stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Hollis

    Full Text Available Unique in the insect world for their extremely sedentary predatory behavior, pit-dwelling larval antlions dig pits, and then sit at the bottom and wait, sometimes for months, for prey to fall inside. This sedentary predation strategy, combined with their seemingly innate ability to detect approaching prey, make antlions unlikely candidates for learning. That is, although scientists have demonstrated that many species of insects possess the capacity to learn, each of these species, which together represent multiple families from every major insect order, utilizes this ability as a means of navigating the environment, using learned cues to guide an active search for food and hosts, or to avoid noxious events. Nonetheless, we demonstrate not only that sedentary antlions can learn, but also, more importantly, that learning provides an important fitness benefit, namely decreasing the time to pupate, a benefit not yet demonstrated in any other species. Compared to a control group in which an environmental cue was presented randomly vis-à-vis daily prey arrival, antlions given the opportunity to associate the cue with prey were able to make more efficient use of prey and pupate significantly sooner, thus shortening their long, highly vulnerable larval stage. Whereas "median survival time," the point at which half of the animals in each group had pupated, was 46 days for antlions receiving the Learning treatment, that point never was reached in antlions receiving the Random treatment, even by the end of the experiment on Day 70. In addition, we demonstrate a novel manifestation of antlions' learned response to cues predicting prey arrival, behavior that does not match the typical "learning curve" but which is well-adapted to their sedentary predation strategy. Finally, we suggest that what has long appeared to be instinctive predatory behavior is likely to be highly modified and shaped by learning.

  8. Admission of people with dementia to psychiatric hospitals in Japan: factors that can shorten their hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takako; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Osaki, Tohmi; Kajita, Hiroyuki; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Kawamata, Toshio

    2017-11-01

    People exhibiting serious behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are usually voluntarily or involuntarily committed to psychiatric hospitals for treatment. In Japan, the average hospital stay for individuals with dementia is about 2 years. Ideally, individuals should be discharged once their symptoms have subsided. However, we see cases in Japan where individuals remain institutionalized long after behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are no longer apparent. This study will attempt to identify factors contributing to shorter stays in psychiatric hospitals for dementia patients. Questionnaires consisting of 17 items were mailed to 121 psychiatric hospitals with dementia treatment wards in western Japan. Out of 121 hospitals that received the questionnaires, 45 hospitals returned them. The total number of new patient admissions at all 45 hospitals during the month of August 2014 was 1428, including 384 dementia patients (26.9%). The average length of stay in the dementia wards in August 2014 was 482.7 days. Our findings revealed that the rate of discharge after 2 months was 35.4% for the dementia wards. In addition, we found that the average stay in hospitals charging or planning to charge the rehabilitation fee to dementia patients was significantly shorter than in hospitals not charging the rehabilitation fee. In Japan, dementia patients account for over 25% of new admissions to psychiatric hospitals with dementia wards. The average length of stay in a psychiatric hospital dementia ward is more than 1 year. A discharge after fewer than 2 months is exceedingly rare for those in a dementia ward compared with dementia patients in other wards. If institutions focus on rehabilitation, it may be possible to shorten the stay of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Role of arterial telomere dysfunction in hypertension: relative contributions of telomere shortening and telomere uncapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Walker, Ashley E; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    Telomere shortening in arteries could lead to telomere uncapping and cellular senescence, which in turn could promote the development of hypertension. To assess the novel role of arterial telomere dysfunction in hypertension, we compared mean telomere length (qPCR), telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X (γ-H2) localized to telomeres: ChIP), and tumor suppressor protein p53 (P53)/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21)-induced senescence (P53 bound to P21 gene promoter: ChIP) in arteries from 55 age-matched hypertensive and nonhypertensive individuals. Arterial mean telomere length was not different in hypertensive patients compared with nonhypertensive individuals (P = 0.29). Arterial telomere uncapping and P53/P21-induced senescence were two-fold greater in hypertensive patients compared with nonhypertensive individuals (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). Arterial mean telomere length was not associated with telomere uncapping or P53/P21-induced senescence (r = -0.02, P = 0.44 and r = 0.01, P = 0.50, respectively), but telomere uncapping was a highly influential covariate for the hypertension group difference in P53/P21-induced senescence (r = 0.62, P hypertension status (P = 0.03), whereas mean telomere length was not (P = 0.68). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that arterial telomere uncapping and P53/P21-induced senescence are linked to hypertension independently of mean telomere length, and telomere uncapping influences hypertension status more than mean telomere length.

  10. Life shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated at the perinatal period with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kasuga, T.

    1986-01-01

    This study elucidates the life-span radiation effects in mice irradiated at the perinatal period in comparison to mice irradiated at the young adult period. B6C3F 1 female mice were irradiated at 17 days of prenatal age, at 0 days of postnatal age, or as young adults at 15 weeks of age with 190, 380, or 570 rads of 137 Cs gamma rays. Mice irradiated at the late fetal period showed dose-dependent life shortening of somewhat lesser magnitude than that seen after neonatal or young adult irradiation. Mice exposed at the late fetal period were highly susceptible to induction of pituitary tumors for which the latent period was the longest of all induced neoplasms. Incidence of lung tumors in mice irradiated at the late fetal period with 190 and 380 rads was higher than in controls. Malignant lymphomas of the lymphocytic type developed in excess, after a short latent period, in mice irradiated fetally with the highest dose; susceptibility of prenatally exposed mice was lower than that of early postnatally exposed mice. Liver tumors developed more frequently in mice irradiated in utero than in controls; susceptibility to induction of this type of neoplasm was highest at the neonatal period. In general, carcinogenic response of mice exposed at the late fetal period resembled that of neonatally exposed mice but was quite different from that of young adult mice. Mice exposed as young adults have no, or low, susceptibility to induction of pituitary, lung, and liver tumors; and a higher susceptibility to induction of myeloid leukemias and Harderian gland tumors. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Hypotensive Anesthesia Is Associated With Shortened Length of Hospital Stay Following Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Kyle S; Yildirim, Yavuz; Weingarten, Toby N; Van Ess, James M; Viozzi, Christopher F; Arce, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of induced hypotensive anesthesia on length of hospital stay (LOS) for patients undergoing maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy in isolation or in combination with mandibular orthognathic surgery. A retrospective cohort study design was implemented and patients undergoing a Le Fort I osteotomy as a component of orthognathic surgery at the Mayo Clinic from 2010 through 2014 were identified. The primary predictor variable was the presence of induced hypotensive anesthesia during orthognathic surgery. Hypotensive anesthesia was defined as at least 10 consecutive minutes of a mean arterial pressure no higher than 60 mmHg documented within the anesthetic record. The primary outcome variable was LOS in hours after completion of orthognathic surgery. The secondary outcome variable was the duration of surgery in hours. Multiple covariates also abstracted included patient age, patient gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, complexity of surgical procedure, and volume of intraoperative fluids administered during surgery. Univariable and multivariable models were developed to evaluate associations between the primary predictor variable and covariates relative to the primary and secondary outcome variables. A total of 117 patients were identified undergoing Le Fort I orthognathic surgery in isolation or in combination with mandibular surgery. Induced hypotensive anesthesia was significantly associated with shortened LOS (odds ratio [OR] = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.88; P = .026) relative to patients with normotensive regimens. This association between hypotensive anesthesia and LOS remained statistically significant in a subgroup analysis of 47 patients in whom isolated Le Fort I surgery was performed (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.62; P = .010). Induced hypotensive anesthesia was not statistically associated with shorter duration of surgery. Induced hypotensive anesthesia represents a potential factor that minimizes

  12. Error detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toru; Kasami, Tadao; Lin, Shu

    1989-09-01

    The error-detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3 are investigated. These codes are also used for error detection in the data link layer of the Ethernet, a local area network. The weight distributions for various code lengths are calculated to obtain the probability of undetectable error and that of detectable error for a binary symmetric channel with bit-error rate between 0.00001 and 1/2.

  13. Use of TCSR with Split Windings for Shortening the Spar Cycle Time in 500 kV Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matinyan, A. M., E-mail: al-drm@mail.ru; Peshkov, M. V.; Karpov, V. N.; Alekseev, N. A. [JSC “R& D Center at Federal Grid Company of Unified Power System,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The arc-fault recharge phenomenon in single-phase automatic reclosure (SPAR) of a line is examined. Abrief description is given of the design of a 500 kV thyristor controlled shunt reactor (TCSR) with split valve-side windings. This type of TCSR is shown to effectively quench a single-phase arc fault in a power transmission line and shortens the SPAR cycle time.

  14. [Effect of removable partial dentures restoration on oral health-related quality of life of patients with shortened dental arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhen-nan; Lin, Xue-feng

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effect of removable partial dentures (PRD) restoration on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of subjects with shortened dental arches (SDA) using the Chinese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Consecutive patients with shortened dental arches were recruited from the Department of Prosthodontics, Foshan Chancheng Hospital of Stomatology. The Chinese version of OHIP-14 was administered to each subject before treatment and after treatment. The subjective outcomes of removable partial dentures therapy on SDA were collected and the pre- and post-treatment scores of the Chinese version of OHIP-14 were compared. After treatment, significant decrease in patients' total score of OHRQOL [before: 9 (6, 12) ; after: 4 (2.25, 6)] was detected, as well as physical pain subscale, physical disability subscale and handicap subscale; and the score of OHRQOL in function limitation subscale increased [before: 0(0,0); after: 2(1, 2)]. The main impacts of shortened dental arch with intact anterior region affecting patients' OHRQOL are physical disability.From a quality-of-life perspective, patients with SDA can perceive benefits from RPD.

  15. Charcot arthropathy of the lumbar spine treated using one-staged posterior three-column shortening and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Kenny Samuel; Agarwala, Amit Omprakash; Rampersaud, Yoga Raja

    2010-06-15

    Case report. We present a case of lumbar Charcot arthropathy successfully treated surgically using posterior 3-column resection, spinal shortening, and fusion. The operative treatment of Charcot arthropathy of the spine has conventionally been a combination of anterior and posterior surgery. The morbidity associated with these surgical procedures can be considerable. A posterior-only approach to the problem would avoid the additional morbidity associated with an anterior approach. We present a case of lumbar Charcot arthropathy with deformity treated successfully using such a procedure. Discussion of the patient's clinical and radiologic history, the technical merits of the operative intervention and a review of the relevant background literature are presented. A multilevel, single-stage, posterior 3-column resection with primary shortening and instrumented fusion augmented with rhBMP2 in a multiply operated patient with deformity provided a optimal biologic and mechanical environment for healing of the Charcot arthropathy and improved the sagittal and coronal profile of the spine. A single-stage, multilevel, posterior 3-column resection and primary shortening can be a useful surgical strategy in symptomatic patients with Charcot arthropathy of the spine.

  16. Synergistic shortening of the bleeding time by desmopressin and ethamsylate in patients with various constitutional bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrinsky, N L; Israels, E D; Bickis, M G

    1991-01-01

    Desmopressin and ethamsylate were evaluated for possible synergistic effects on the bleeding time. The drugs were administered individually and together to 12 patients with markedly prolonged bleeding times known to be relatively or absolutely unresponsive to desmopressin alone. The bleeding disorders studied included Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (one), other disorders of platelet function (four), pseudo-von Willebrand disease (one), and von Willebrand disease type I (three), type II (two), and type III (one). Desmopressin alone shortened the bleeding time from 23.9 +/- 1.5 to 19.5 +/- 2.3 min (p = 0.03). Ethamsylate alone was without effect. Desmopressin and ethamsylate together shortened the bleeding time to 11.2 +/- 1.4 min (p less than 0.01 compared to baseline, p = 0.02 compared to desmopressin alone). The combination was ineffective in three patients, with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (one), and von Willebrand disease type I (one) and type III (one). Toxic effects of the drugs were not observed. Five patients received desmopressin and ethamsylate prior to dental work with mandibular block (one), heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (two), and adenotonsillectomy surgery (two). Normal hemostasis was achieved in each case. A synergistic shortening of the bleeding time was observed with the combination of desmopressin and ethamsylate in a wide range of bleeding disorders.

  17. The effect of hyoscine butylbromide in shortening the first stage of labor: A double blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Qahtani NH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nourah H Al Qahtani1 Fatma Al Hajeri21MRCOG, College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in King Fahad University Hospital, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in King Fahad University Hospital, Saudi ArabiaBackground and objectives: Hyoscine butylbromide (HBB is widely used in labor rooms. There have been many studies on the use of HBB during labor with conflicting results, involving both primiparous and multiparous women. The aim of this trial was to study the efficacy of HBB for shortening the first stage of labor in primiparous women.Methods: The study was a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Ninety-seven primigravid term pregnant women in spontaneous labor received either hyoscine butylbromide or a placebo intramuscularly once the women entered the active phase of labor. The primary outcome measured was the duration of the first stage of labor. Secondary outcomes were the duration of the second and third stages of labor, blood loss at delivery, rate of cesarean section, and Apgar scores for the neonates.Results: A total of 97 women yielded data for analysis. Of these, 45 women received the placebo and 52 received HBB. The mean duration of the first stage in the control group was 215 minutes, compared with 165 minutes in the study group, representing a decrease of 23.3% (P = 0.001. There were no significant changes in the duration of the second (P = 0.063 or third (P = 0.0418 stages of labor, and no significant differences in blood loss or Apgar scores. There was a slightly higher (but statistically insignificant rate of instrumental delivery in the control group, but no difference in the Cesarean section rate. There was a 60% reduction in opioid analgesic use in the HBB group.Conclusion: HBB is effective in significantly reducing the duration of the first stage of labor, and is not associated with any apparent adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes.Keywords: hyoscine

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    , the niche for taste progenitor cells. PCR array experiments showed that the expression of cyclin B2 and E2F1, two key cell cycle regulators, was markedly downregulated by LPS in the circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Conclusions Our results show that LPS-induced inflammation inhibits taste progenitor cell proliferation and interferes with taste cell renewal. LPS accelerates cell turnover and modestly shortens the average life span of taste cells. These effects of inflammation may contribute to the development of taste disorders associated with infections.

  19. Deposition, clearance, and shortening of Kevlar para-aramid fibrils in acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D P; Merriman, E A; Kennedy, G L; Lee, K P

    1993-10-01

    The deposition and clearance of lung-deposited Kevlar para-aramid fibrils (subfibers) have been investigated as part of a subchronic and chronic inhalation toxicity testing program. Fibrils recovered from lung tissue in para-aramid-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats were microscopically counted and measured after exposures to airborne fibrils which were about 12 microns median length (ML) and < 0.3 micron median diameter. In each of three studies lung-recovered fibrils were progressively shorter with increasing residence time in the lungs. Twenty-eight days after a single 6-hr exposure at 400 respirable fibrils per cubic centimeter (f/cm3) the ML of recovered fibrils decreased to about 5 microns. Twenty-four months after a 3-week exposure to 25 or 400 f/cm3, fibrils reached about 2 microns ML. After 2 years of continuous exposure at 2.5, 25, or 100 f/cm3 or 1 year exposure plus 1 year recovery at 400 f/cm3, fibril ML approached 4 microns. In the 2-year study, the lung-fiber accumulation rate/exposure concentration was similar for the three highest concentrations and was about 3 x greater than that seen at 2.5 f/cm3, indicating that concentrations of about 25 f/cm3 or more may overwhelm clearance mechanisms. Time required for fibrils to be reduced to < 5 microns in the lung was markedly less at lower exposure concentration and shorter exposure time. The primary shortening mechanism is proposed to be long fibril cutting by enzymatic attack at fibril defects. However, length-selective fibril deposition and clearance may contribute to shortening in the first few days after exposure. The enzymatic cutting hypothesis is supported by measured increases in numbers of short fibers following cessation of exposures, continued shortening of the fibril length distribution up to 2 years following exposure, and in vitro fibril shortening after 3 months in a proteolytic enzyme preparation. The conclusion is that para-aramid fibrils are less durable in the lungs of rats than expected from

  20. Overexpression of the Large-Conductance, Ca2+-Activated K+ (BK) Channel Shortens Action Potential Duration in HL-1 Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimers, Joseph R; Song, Li; Rusch, Nancy J; Rhee, Sung W

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome is characterized by a prolongation of the interval between the Q wave and the T wave on the electrocardiogram. This abnormality reflects a prolongation of the ventricular action potential caused by a number of genetic mutations or a variety of drugs. Since effective treatments are unavailable, we explored the possibility of using cardiac expression of the large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel to shorten action potential duration (APD). We hypothesized that expression of the pore-forming α subunit of human BK channels (hBKα) in HL-1 cells would shorten action potential duration in this mouse atrial cell line. Expression of hBKα had minimal effects on expression levels of other ion channels with the exception of a small but significant reduction in Kv11.1. Patch-clamped hBKα expressing HL-1 cells exhibited an outward voltage- and Ca2+-sensitive K+ current, which was inhibited by the BK channel blocker iberiotoxin (100 nM). This BK current phenotype was not detected in untransfected HL-1 cells or in HL-1 null cells sham-transfected with an empty vector. Importantly, APD in hBKα-expressing HL-1 cells averaged 14.3 ± 2.8 ms (n = 10), which represented a 53% reduction in APD compared to HL-1 null cells lacking BKα expression. APD in the latter cells averaged 31.0 ± 5.1 ms (n = 13). The shortened APD in hBKα-expressing cells was restored to normal duration by 100 nM iberiotoxin, suggesting that a repolarizing K+ current attributed to BK channels accounted for action potential shortening. These findings provide initial proof-of-concept that the introduction of hBKα channels into a cardiac cell line can shorten APD, and raise the possibility that gene-based interventions to increase hBKα channels in cardiac cells may hold promise as a therapeutic strategy for long QT syndrome.

  1. The psychometric properties of a shortened Dutch version of the consequences scale used in the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Bruyn

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug misuse among college students has been studied extensively and has been clearly identified as a public health problem. Within more general populations alcohol misuse remains one of the leading causes of disease, disability and death worldwide. Conducting research on alcohol misuse requires valid and reliable instruments to measure its consequences. One scale that is often used is the consequences scale in the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS. However, psychometric studies on the CADS are rare and the ones that do exist report varying results. This article aims to address this imbalance by examining the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the CADS in a large sample of Flemish university and college students.The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds', measuring alcohol use among students. In total, 19,253 students participated (22.1% response rate. The CADS scale was measured using 19 consequences, and participants were asked how often they had experienced these on a 6-point scale. Firstly, the factor structure of the CADS was examined. Two models from literature were compared by performing confirmatory factor analyses (CFA and were adapted if necessary. Secondly, we assessed the composite reliability as well as the convergent, discriminant and concurrent validity.The two-factor model, identifying personal consequences (had a hangover; got nauseated or vomited; missed a class and social consequences (got into an argument or fight; been criticized by someone I know; done something I later regretted; been hurt or injured was indicated to be the best model, having both a good model fit and an acceptable composite reliability. In addition, construct validity was evaluated to be acceptable, with good discriminant validity, although the convergent validity of the factor measuring 'social consequences' could be improved. Concurrent validity was evaluated as good.In deciding

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    cells. PCR array experiments showed that the expression of cyclin B2 and E2F1, two key cell cycle regulators, was markedly downregulated by LPS in the circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Our results show that LPS-induced inflammation inhibits taste progenitor cell proliferation and interferes with taste cell renewal. LPS accelerates cell turnover and modestly shortens the average life span of taste cells. These effects of inflammation may contribute to the development of taste disorders associated with infections.

  3. A new Triassic shortening-extrusion tectonic model for Central-EasternAsia: Structural, geochronological and paleomagnetic investigations in the Xilamulun Fault (North China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei

    2017-04-01

    tectonic model for Central-Eastern Asia is firstly proposed. The NNW-SSE shortening results in the eastward extrusion of the continental wedge bounded by the BCF and EGF, which is accommodated by the different kinematic patterns of the southern (XMF and BCF) and northwestern (EGF) bounding faults. This shortening-extrusion tectonic framework is tentatively interpreted as the result of the far field forces associated with three Late Triassic lithosphere-scale convergences in East Asia: i)northward intracontinental subduction between the NCB and South China Block, ii)collision of the Qiangtang Block with the Qaidam Block, and iii)southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean beneath the Mongolia Block.

  4. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR angiography: Do two-dimensional parallel imaging and short tau inversion recovery methods shorten acquisition time without image quality deterioration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Kotaro, E-mail: kotaro@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Isoda, Hiroyoshi, E-mail: sayuki@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: tomokada@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kamae, Toshikazu, E-mail: toshi13@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Arizono, Shigeki, E-mail: arizono@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hirokawa, Yuusuke, E-mail: yuusuke@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Shibata, Toshiya, E-mail: ksj@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori, E-mail: ktogashi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Objective: To study whether shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization is feasible without image quality deterioration by adopting two-dimensional (2D) parallel imaging (PI) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) methods. Materials and methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled. 3D true steady-state free-precession imaging with a time spatial labeling inversion pulse was conducted using 1D or 2D-PI and fat suppression by chemical shift selective (CHESS) or STIR methods. Three groups of different scan conditions were assigned and compared: group A (1D-PI factor 2 and CHESS), group B (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and CHESS), and group C (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and STIR). The artery-to-liver contrast was quantified, and the quality of artery visualization and overall image quality were scored. Results: The mean scan time was 9.5 {+-} 1.0 min (mean {+-} standard deviation), 5.9 {+-} 0.8 min, and 5.8 {+-} 0.5 min in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and was significantly shorter in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). The artery-to-liver contrast was significantly better in group C than in groups A and B (P < 0.01). The scores for artery visualization and overall image quality were worse in group B than in groups A and C. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) regarding the arterial branches of segments 4 and 8. Between group A and group C, which had similar scores, there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization was feasible without deterioration of the image quality by the combination of 2D-PI and STIR methods. It will facilitate using non-contrast-enhanced MRA in clinical practice.

  5. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR angiography: Do two-dimensional parallel imaging and short tau inversion recovery methods shorten acquisition time without image quality deterioration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kotaro; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Tomohisa; Kamae, Toshikazu; Arizono, Shigeki; Hirokawa, Yuusuke; Shibata, Toshiya; Togashi, Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study whether shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization is feasible without image quality deterioration by adopting two-dimensional (2D) parallel imaging (PI) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) methods. Materials and methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled. 3D true steady-state free-precession imaging with a time spatial labeling inversion pulse was conducted using 1D or 2D-PI and fat suppression by chemical shift selective (CHESS) or STIR methods. Three groups of different scan conditions were assigned and compared: group A (1D-PI factor 2 and CHESS), group B (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and CHESS), and group C (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and STIR). The artery-to-liver contrast was quantified, and the quality of artery visualization and overall image quality were scored. Results: The mean scan time was 9.5 ± 1.0 min (mean ± standard deviation), 5.9 ± 0.8 min, and 5.8 ± 0.5 min in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and was significantly shorter in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). The artery-to-liver contrast was significantly better in group C than in groups A and B (P < 0.01). The scores for artery visualization and overall image quality were worse in group B than in groups A and C. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) regarding the arterial branches of segments 4 and 8. Between group A and group C, which had similar scores, there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization was feasible without deterioration of the image quality by the combination of 2D-PI and STIR methods. It will facilitate using non-contrast-enhanced MRA in clinical practice.

  6. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. IX. 10 New Observations of Reverberation Mapping and Shortened Hβ Lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pu; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Kai; Huang, Ying-Ke; Zhang, Yue; Lu, Kai-Xing; Hu, Chen; Li, Yan-Rong; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Ho, Luis C.; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH collaboration

    2018-03-01

    As one paper in a series reporting on a large reverberation mapping campaign of super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we present the results of 10 SEAMBHs monitored spectroscopically during 2015–2017. Six of them are observed for the first time, and have generally higher 5100 Å luminosities than the SEAMBHs monitored in our campaign from 2012 to 2015; the remaining four are repeat observations to check if their previous lags change. Similar to the previous SEAMBHs, the Hβ time lags of the newly observed objects are shorter than the values predicted by the canonical R Hβ –L 5100 relation of sub-Eddington AGNs, by factors of ∼2–6, depending on the accretion rate. The four previously observed objects have lags consistent with previous measurements. We provide linear regressions for the R Hβ –L 5100 relation, solely for the SEAMBH sample and for low-accretion AGNs. We find that the relative strength of Fe II and the profile of the Hβ emission line can be used as proxies of accretion rate, showing that the shortening of Hβ lags depends on accretion rates. The recent SDSS-RM discovery of shortened Hβ lags in AGNs with low accretion rates provides compelling evidence for retrograde accretion onto the black hole. These evidences show that the canonical R Hβ –L 5100 relation holds only in AGNs with moderate accretion rates. At low accretion rates, it should be revised to include the effects of black hole spin, whereas the accretion rate itself becomes a key factor in the regime of high accretion rates.

  7. Is the time between onset of pain and restoration of patency of infarct-related artery shortened in patients with myocardial infarction? The effects of the Kielce Region System for Optimal Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sadowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The importance of delay in the restoration of infarct-related artery patency in patients with myocardial infarction was discussed, and actions were undertaken in the Kielce Region aimed at shortening this time within the System for Optimal Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Aim of the research: To evaluate the effectiveness of shortening time delays during transport of patients and diagnostics of myocardial infarction in the Kielce Region. Material and methods: Time delays were analysed in 5,934 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, hospitalised in cardiology wards with interventional cardiology on 24-hour duty, during the period 2008–2012. Time delays were analysed between the onset of myocardial infarction pain and undertaking treatment – T1 and T2 time – within which a patient with myocardial infarction, after admission to hospital, has intervention performed on infarct-related coronary artery. Results : During the period 2008–2012, the median T1 time was successfully shortened from 355 to 203 min, and the T2 time from 101 to 48 min. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the system was confirmed, and the necessity for further improvement of the system indicated.

  8. The use of self expandable metallic stent in the management of malignant biliary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Gi Seok; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-15

    Self expandable metallic stent is a good alternative of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage because it can eliminate numerous problems caused by external drainage catheter, such as tube dislodgement, bile leakage and psychotic problems. Authors analyzed initial results of self expandable metallic stents used in the patient with malignant biliary obstruction to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure and to find the technical problems in the procedure. Self expandable metallic stents were inserted in 14 patients: three with recurrent stomach cancer: three with gallbladder cancer: seven with Klaskin tumor: one with common duct cancer. Gianturco type stent was used in 9 cases ans Wallstent was used in 2 cases. In remaining three case, both Z-stent and Wallstent were used in the same patient. The average period of follow up was 104 days (4-409 days). In 13 cases, the patency of the bile duct was restored by the stent (technical success: 92.9%). Occlusions of the stent were found in two cases, after two and 13 months, respectively. Causes of failure and stent occlusion were associated duodenal obstruction, tumor overgrowth and shortening of Wallstent. In remaining 11 patients, one patient was lost to follow up an 10 patients did not show recurrent jaundice until death or last follow up. There was no major complication related to the procedure. The insertion of self expandable metallic stent is a safe procedure and can eliminate major disadvantages of PTBD. Overstenting, overlapping and evaluation of associated GI tract obstruction is crucial for obtaining technical success and long-term patency.

  9. The use of self expandable metallic stent in the management of malignant biliary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Gi Seok; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    Self expandable metallic stent is a good alternative of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage because it can eliminate numerous problems caused by external drainage catheter, such as tube dislodgement, bile leakage and psychotic problems. Authors analyzed initial results of self expandable metallic stents used in the patient with malignant biliary obstruction to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure and to find the technical problems in the procedure. Self expandable metallic stents were inserted in 14 patients: three with recurrent stomach cancer: three with gallbladder cancer: seven with Klaskin tumor: one with common duct cancer. Gianturco type stent was used in 9 cases ans Wallstent was used in 2 cases. In remaining three case, both Z-stent and Wallstent were used in the same patient. The average period of follow up was 104 days (4-409 days). In 13 cases, the patency of the bile duct was restored by the stent (technical success: 92.9%). Occlusions of the stent were found in two cases, after two and 13 months, respectively. Causes of failure and stent occlusion were associated duodenal obstruction, tumor overgrowth and shortening of Wallstent. In remaining 11 patients, one patient was lost to follow up an 10 patients did not show recurrent jaundice until death or last follow up. There was no major complication related to the procedure. The insertion of self expandable metallic stent is a safe procedure and can eliminate major disadvantages of PTBD. Overstenting, overlapping and evaluation of associated GI tract obstruction is crucial for obtaining technical success and long-term patency

  10. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  11. Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gorman, Sheeona

    2012-02-01

    The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy, 5Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0Gy) at 24h. There was no significant difference between 2Gy and 5Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p=0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p=0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p=0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring mitochondrial

  12. Mechanisms of breast cancer risk in shift workers: association of telomere shortening with the duration and intensity of night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samulin Erdem, Johanna; Notø, Heidi Ødegaard; Skare, Øivind; Lie, Jenny-Anne S; Petersen-Øverleir, Marte; Reszka, Edyta; Pepłońska, Beata; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh

    2017-08-01

    Occupational factors such as shiftwork and especially night work that involves disruption of the circadian rhythm may contribute to increased breast cancer risk. Circadian disruption may also affect telomere length (TL). While short TL generally is associated with increased cancer risk, its association with breast cancer risk is inconclusive. We suggest that working schedules might be an important factor in assessment of effects of TL on breast cancer risk. Moreover, telomere shortening might be a potential mechanism for night work-related breast cancer. In this study, effects of shift work on TL and its association with breast cancer risk were investigated in a nested breast cancer case-control study of Norwegian nurses. TL was assessed by qPCR in DNA from 563 breast cancer patients and 619 controls. Here, we demonstrate that TL is affected by intensive night work schedules, as work with six consecutive night for a period of more than 5 years was associated with decreased telomere lengths (-3.18, 95% CI: -6.46 to -0.58, P = 0.016). Furthermore, telomere shortening is associated with increased breast cancer risk in workers with long periods of consecutive night shifts. Thus, nurses with longer telomere lengths had a lower risk for breast cancer if they had worked more than four (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.79, P = 0.014) or five (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.10-0.83, P = 0.029) consecutive night shifts for a period of 5 years or more. These data suggest that telomere shortening is associated with the duration and intensity of night work and may be a contributing factor for breast cancer risk among female shift workers. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Shortened version of the work ability index to identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Lianne S; Bültmann, Ute; Heymans, Martijn W; Joling, Catelijne I; Twisk, Jos W R; Roelen, Corné A M

    2016-04-01

    The Work Ability Index (WAI) identifies non-sicklisted workers at risk of future long-term sickness absence (LTSA). The WAI is a complicated instrument and inconvenient for use in large-scale surveys. We investigated whether shortened versions of the WAI identify non-sicklisted workers at risk of LTSA. Prospective study including two samples of non-sicklisted workers participating in occupational health checks between 2010 and 2012. A heterogeneous development sample (N= 2899) was used to estimate logistic regression coefficients for the complete WAI, a shortened WAI version without the list of diseases, and single-item Work Ability Score (WAS). These three instruments were calibrated for predictions of different (≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks) LTSA durations in a validation sample of non-sicklisted workers (N= 3049) employed at a steel mill, differentiating between manual (N= 1710) and non-manual (N= 1339) workers. The discriminative ability was investigated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. All three instruments under-predicted the LTSA risks in both manual and non-manual workers. The complete WAI discriminated between individuals at high and low risk of LTSA ≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks in manual and non-manual workers. Risk predictions and discrimination by the shortened WAI without the list of diseases were as good as the complete WAI. The WAS showed poorer discrimination in manual and non-manual workers. The WAI without the list of diseases is a good alternative to the complete WAI to identify non-sicklisted workers at risk of future LTSA durations ≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Telomere shortening impairs regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in response to injury but not under homeostatic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Watabe-Rudolph

    Full Text Available Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium (OE associated with impaired olfaction and dry nose represents one of the most common phenotypes of human aging. Impairment in regeneration of a functional olfactory epithelium can also occur in response to injury due to infection or nasal surgery. These complications occur more frequently in aged patients. Although age is the most unifying risk factor for atrophic changes and functional decline of the olfactory epithelium, little is known about molecular mechanisms that could influence maintenance and repair of the olfactory epithelium. Here, we analyzed the influence of telomere shortening (a basic mechanism of cellular aging on homeostasis and regenerative reserve in response to chemical induced injury of the OE in late generation telomere knockout mice (G3 mTerc(-/- with short telomeres compared to wild type mice (mTerc(+/+ with long telomeres. The study revealed no significant influence of telomere shortening on homeostatic maintenance of the OE during mouse aging. In contrast, the regenerative response to chemical induced injury of the OE was significantly impaired in G3 mTerc(-/- mice compared to mTerc(+/+ mice. Seven days after chemical induced damage, G3 mTerc(-/- mice exhibited significantly enlarged areas of persisting atrophy compared to mTerc(+/+ mice (p = 0.031. Telomere dysfunction was associated with impairments in cell proliferation in the regenerating epithelium. Deletion of the cell cycle inhibitor, Cdkn1a (p21 rescued defects in OE regeneration in telomere dysfunctional mice. Together, these data indicate that telomere shortening impairs the regenerative capacity of the OE by impairing cell cycle progression in a p21-dependent manner. These findings could be relevant for the impairment in OE function in elderly people.

  15. Agonist muscle adaptation accompanied by antagonist muscle atrophy in the hindlimb of mice following stretch-shortening contraction training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2017-02-02

    The vast majority of dynamometer-based animal models for investigation of the response to chronic muscle contraction exposure has been limited to analysis of isometric, lengthening, or shortening contractions in isolation. An exception to this has been the utilization of a rat model to study stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), a sequence of consecutive isometric, lengthening, and shortening contractions common during daily activity and resistance-type exercise. However, the availability of diverse genetic strains of rats is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a dynamometer-based SSC training protocol to induce increased muscle mass and performance in plantarflexor muscles of mice. Young (3 months old) C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 1 month of plantarflexion SSC training. Hindlimb muscles were analyzed for muscle mass, quantitative morphology, myogenesis/myopathy relevant gene expression, and fiber type distribution. The main aim of the research was achieved when training induced a 2-fold increase in plantarflexion peak torque output and a 19% increase in muscle mass for the agonist plantaris (PLT) muscle. In establishing this model, several outcomes emerged which raised the value of the model past that of being a mere recapitulation of the rat model. An increase in the number of muscle fibers per transverse muscle section accounted for the PLT muscle mass gain while the antagonist tibialis anterior (TA) muscle atrophied by 30% with preferential atrophy of type IIb and IIx fibers. These alterations were accompanied by distinct gene expression profiles. The findings confirm the development of a stretch-shortening contraction training model for the PLT muscle of mice and demonstrate that increased cross-sectional fiber number can occur following high-intensity SSC training. Furthermore, the TA muscle atrophy provides direct evidence for the concept of muscle imbalance in phasic non-weight bearing muscles, a concept largely

  16. Effects of Estrogen Fluctuation during the Menstrual Cycle on the Response to Stretch-Shortening Exercise in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulė Sipavičienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n=18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7 yr participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72 h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue between the two menstrual cycle phases were small.

  17. Effect of shortened Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training on classification and treatment of under-five children seeking care in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harerimana JM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Modeste Harerimana,1 Laetitia Nyirazinyoye,1 Jean-Bosco Ahoranayezu,2 Ferdinand Bikorimana,3 Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier,1,4 Katherine A Muldoon,5 Edward J Mills,6,7 Joseph Ntaganira1 1University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda; 2Community Vision Initiative, Kigali, Rwanda; 3Maternal and Child Health, Child Unit, Rwandan Ministry of Health, Kigali, Rwanda; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 7Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Background: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI is an effective 11-day standard training; however, due to budgetary expenses and human resource constraints, many health professionals cannot take 11 days off work. As a result, shortened training curriculums (6-day have been proposed. We used a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effect of this shortened training on appropriate IMCI classification and treatment of under-five childhood illness management in Rwanda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 22 health centers in Rwanda, comparing data from 121 nurses, where 55 nurses completed the 11-day and 66 nurses completed the 6-day training. Among 768 children, we evaluated clinical outcomes from May 2011 to April 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to display the sociodemographic characteristics of health providers; including level of education, sex, age, and professional experiences. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for differences between nurses in the 6-day versus 11-day training on the appropriate classification and treatment of childhood illness. Results: Our findings show that at the bivariable level and after controlling for confounders in the multivariable analysis, the only significant differences detected between nurses in the long and short training was the classification of fever (adjusted odds

  18. Active shortening, intermontane basin formation, and geomorphic evolution in an orogenic plateau: Central Puna Plateau, NW Argentina (24°37'S, 67°03'W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Manfred R.; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Freymark, Jessica; Pingel, Heiko

    2017-04-01

    central sectors of the plateau are deformed by active shortening, suggesting that the kinematic changeover from shortening to neotectonic extension on the plateau must be highly disparate in space and time; (2) sustained deformation within the plateau results in a high degree of basin compartmentalization, which impacts the fluvial network and re-distribution of sediments, leading to similar geomorphic and sedimentary processes, although highly disparate in space and time.

  19. Muscle shortening maneuver and not topical anti-inflammatory therapy is effective in reducing the width of subacromial-subdeltoid bursa in shoulder impingement syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Daniela; Lippi, Paolo; Marchi, Alberto; Maresca, Marco; Bravi, Riccardo; Eros, Quarta; Lazzerini, Patrizia; Bagni, Maria Angela

    2018-04-01

    Aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of a muscle shortening maneuver (MSM) with the efficacy of a topical NSAID (flurbiprofen) in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). The effects of these therapies were evaluated by sonographic exam (US). SIS was diagnosed by US in 78 patients with painful shoulder. Thirty patients (first group) were treated with topical flurbiprofen for 15 days. Forty-eight patients (second group) were treated with MSM, which was performed once. The shoulder was analyzed in all patients by US before and after treatment. Before treatment and 15 days after treatment, pain by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), range of motion (ROM) and Neer's Test were evaluated. Pain was decreased by both treatments. In only 8 patients of the first group, the encroachment of acromion into the rotator cuff was no more detectable by US after the treatment; ROM increased (> 45°) only in 11 patients (36%) and the width of subacromial-subdeltoid bursa (SSB) was not significantly reduced. At variance with the results obtained in the first group, in all patients of the second group the encroachment of acromion was no more detectable by US, ROM increased (> 45°) and the width of SSB was significantly reduced after the maneuver. Both topical flurbiprofen and MSM were helpful in pain control, but better results, with decrease of width of SSB assessed by US, were obtained by MSM.

  20. Chromosomal instability and telomere shortening in long-term culture of hematopoietic stem cells: insights from a cell culture model of RPS14 haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomay, K; Schienke, A; Vajen, B; Modlich, U; Schambach, A; Hofmann, W; Schlegelberger, B; Göhring, G

    2014-01-01

    The fate of cultivated primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with respect to genetic instability and telomere attrition has not yet been described in great detail. Thus, knowledge of the genetic constitution of HSCs is important when interpreting results of HSCs in culture. While establishing a cell culture model for myelodysplastic syndrome with a deletion in 5q by performing RPS14 knockdown, we found surprising data that may be of importance for any CD34+ cell culture experiments. We performed cytogenetic analyses and telomere length measurement on transduced CD34+ cells and untransduced control cells to observe the effects of long-term culturing. Initially, CD34+ cells had a normal median telomere length of about 12 kb and showed no signs of chromosomal instability. During follow-up, the median telomere length seemed to decrease and, simultaneously, increased chromosomal instability could be observed - in modified and control cells. One culture showed a clonal monosomy 7 - independent of prior RPS14 knockdown. During further culturing, it seemed that the telomeres re-elongated, and chromosomes stabilized, while TERT expression was not elevated. In summary, irrespective of our results of RPS14 knockdown in the long-term culture of CD34+ cells, it becomes clear that cell culture artefacts inducing telomere shortening and chromosomal instability have to be taken into account and regular cytogenetic analyses should always be performed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Presence of a nail in the medullary canal; is it enough to prevent femoral neck shortening in trochanteric fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Yoon, Han Kuk; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Presence of a cephalomedullary nail (CMN) in the medullary canal has been thought as advantageous in the control of femoral neck shortening (FNS) and lag screw sliding in trochanteric fracture compared to extramedullary fixation system. However, researches on the factors that influence the degree of FNS after cephalomedullary nailing are lacking. We observed 95 patients (mean age, 75±2.8 years) with trochanteric fractures who were treated with a CMN, and evaluated the relationship between FNS and patient factors including age, gender, fracture type (AO/OTA), bone mineral density, medullary canal diameter, canal occupancy ratio (COR=nail size/canal diameter), and tip-apex distance using initial, immediate postoperative, and follow-up radiography. Univariate regression analyses revealed that the degree of FNS was significantly correlated with fracture type (A1 versus A3, pfracture type (pfracture.

  2. Shortened screening method for phosphorus fractionation in sediments A complementary approach to the standards, measurements and testing harmonised protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Patricia; Rauret, Gemma; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose Fermin

    2004-01-01

    The SMT protocol, a sediment phosphorus fractionation method harmonised and validated in the frame of the standards, measurements and testing (SMT) programme (European Commission), establishes five fractions of phosphorus according to their extractability. The determination of phosphate extracted is carried out spectrophotometrically. This protocol has been applied to 11 sediments of different origin and characteristics and the phosphorus extracted in each fraction was determined not only by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, but also by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The use of these two determination techniques allowed the differentiation between phosphorus that was present in the extracts as soluble reactive phosphorus and as total phosphorus. From the comparison of data obtained with both determination techniques a shortened screening method, for a quick evaluation of the magnitude and importance of the fractions given by the SMT protocol, is proposed and validated using two certified reference materials

  3. Laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication for reflux esophagitis complicated by a penetrating ulcer and shortened esophagus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Fumiaki; Omura, Nobuo; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Nakada, Koji; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2007-08-01

    The patient was a 72-year-old man, who was referred to us at the beginning of July 2005 with a chief complaint of difficulty with swallowing. After a thorough medical examination, the patient was diagnosed with a penetrating ulcer due to reflux esophagitis, lower esophageal stricture, Barrett esophagus, and shortened esophagus. After administration of a proton pump inhibitor and 2 sessions of endoscopic dilatation, esophagitis was cured and the stricture was eliminated. Subsequently, Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication, which seemed appropriate to certainly avoid injuring communication with the mediastinum created by the penetrating ulcer and provide radical cure, were performed laparoscopically. The patient made a good postoperative progress, was discharged on the 11th hospital day, and is now being followed up on an outpatient basis. There have been no signs of recurrence of esophagitis, and the penetrating ulcer was cured. To our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication in the English literature.

  4. Diagnostic Utility of the Shortened Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Patients With Sporadic Late Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Luis; Martín, Javier; López, Carolina

    2017-12-01

    The classic version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) consists of correctly sorting 128 cards according to changing sorting criteria. Its application is costly in terms of the time employed, with all the negative consequences this entails (decrease in motivation, frustration, and fatigue). The main objective of this study was to test the usefulness of the shortened version of the WCST as compared to the full test by analyzing the equivalence between the two decks comprising the full 128-card version on a sample of patients diagnosed with sporadic late onset Alzheimer disease (SLOAD) and to check its clinical usefulness. The variables showed equivalence between the two decks and their ability to differentiate between the control group (CG) and the Alzheimer disease (AD) group. The scores obtained suggest equivalence between decks and that the application of only the first deck is sufficient.

  5. Crown releasing of red maple poles to shorten high-quality sawlog rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M., Jr. Peterson; Robert R. Orberg

    1985-01-01

    The effects of six crown-release treatments on growth and bole quality development of 54-year-old dominant, codominant, and intermediate red maples (Acer rubrum L.) were evaluated on a good red maple site (site index = 19.3 mat 50 years) in upper Michigan. Results showed that crown release stimulated the growth of dominants, codominants, and strong...

  6. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment: a multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuser, Mieke; Willekens, Frans J; Bonneux, Luc

    2011-05-01

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic groups. We define multistate life tables by the transition rates to cognitive impairment, recovery and death and estimate Cox proportional hazard ratios for the studied determinants. 95% confidence intervals are obtained by bootstrapping. 55 year old white men and women expect to live 25.4 and 30.0 years, of which 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.5; 1.9] years and 2.7 [2.4; 2.9] years with cognitive impairment. Both black men and women live 3.7 [2.9; 4.5] years longer with cognitive impairment than whites, Hispanic men and women 3.2 [1.9; 4.6] and 5.8 [4.2; 7.5] years. BMI makes no difference. Smoking decreases the duration of cognitive impairment with 0.8 [0.4; 1.3] years by high mortality. Highly educated men and women live longer, but 1.6 years [1.1; 2.2] and 1.9 years [1.6; 2.6] shorter with cognitive impairment than lowly educated men and women. The effect of education is more pronounced among ethnic minorities. Higher life expectancy goes together with a longer period of cognitive impairment, but not for higher levels of education: that extends life in good cognitive health but shortens the period of cognitive impairment. The increased duration of cognitive impairment in minority ethnic groups needs further study, also in Europe.

  8. Shortening Isolation of Patients With Suspected Tuberculosis by Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Background. Isolation of patients suspected for pulmonary tuberculosis is guided by serial sputum smears. This can result in isolation for days for patients with noncontagious tuberculosis. To determine whether a single sample negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex at polymerase chain...... reaction (PCR) can guide isolation. Methods. We retrospectively evaluated sputum samples analyzed for M. tuberculosis complex at the International Reference Laboratory of Mycobacteriology, Copenhagen, Denmark in 2002–2011. We selected culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases with ≥3 samples within 14 days...... before or after the initial culture-positive sample. We repeated the process for those with ≥2 samples within 28 days. The primary outcome was PCR-negative, smear-positive patients. Results. We included 53 533 sputum samples from 20 928 individuals; 1636 had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Of these, 856...

  9. Validation of the shortened Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale in patients with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Marcus G; Ostini, Remo; Harrington, Magdalena; Cavanaugh, Kerri L; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2018-05-21

    Self-efficacy, or perceived competence, has been identified as an important factor in self-management behaviors and health outcomes in patients with chronic disease. Measures of self-management self-efficacy are currently available for multiple forms of chronic disease. One established measure is the 8-item Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale (PMCSMS). This study investigated the use of the PMCSMS in samples of patients with a chronic disease to develop an abbreviated version of the scale that could be more readily used in clinical contexts or in large population health cohort studies. The PMCSMS was administered as either a generic scale or as a disease-specific scale. The results of analyses using item response theory and classical test theory methods indicated that using 4 items of the scale resulted in similar internal consistency (α = .70-0.90) and temporal stability (test-retest r = .75 after 2 to 4 weeks) to the 8-item PMCSMS (r = .81 after 2 to 4 weeks). The 4 items selected had the greatest discriminability among participants (α parameters = 2.49-3.47). Scores from both versions also demonstrated similar correlations with related constructs such as health literacy (r = .13-0.29 vs. 0.14-0.27), self-rated health (r = .17-0.48 vs. 0.26-0.50), social support (r = .21-0.32 vs. 0.25-0.34), and medication adherence (r = .20-0.24 vs. 0.20-0.25). The results of this study indicate that 4-item PMCSMS scores are equally valid but more efficient, and have the potential to be beneficial for both research and clinical applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. NREL's Cyanobacteria Engineering Shortens Biofuel Production Process, Captures CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's work to systematically analyze the flow of energy in a photosynthetic microbe and show how the organism adjusts its metabolism to meet the increased energy demand for making ethylene. This work successfully demonstrates that the organism could cooperate by stimulating photosynthesis. The results encourage further genetic engineering for the conversion of CO2 to biofuels and chemicals. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting. biofuels and chemicals. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting.

  11. Quantum gravity removes classical singularities and shortens the life of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Vilkovisky, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in classical General Relativity is what is to be done with singularities which inevitably arise in the theoretical description of the massive body (or total Universe) collapse. Although the singularities arising as a result of the gravitational collapse are believed to be hidden under event horizons and thus are not visible to an external observer, their very existence means the crisis of the classical gravitational physics. It is generally believed that the proper account of quantum effects may cure this disease. The aim of the present work is to show that it really happens, and quantum gravity does remove classical singularities. (Auth.)

  12. Neuron-specific knockdown of the Drosophila fat induces reduction of life span, deficient locomotive ability, shortening of motoneuron terminal branches and defects in axonal targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aya; Tanaka, Ryo; Morishita, Kazushige; Yoshida, Hideki; Higuchi, Yujiro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in FAT4 gene, one of the human FAT family genes, have been identified in Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) and Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HS). The FAT4 gene encodes a large protein with extracellular cadherin repeats, EGF-like domains and Laminin G-like domains. FAT4 plays a role in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity. Drosophila contains a human FAT4 homologue, fat. Drosophila fat has been mainly studied with Drosophila eye and wing systems. Here, we specially knocked down Drosophila fat in nerve system. Neuron-specific knockdown of fat shortened the life span and induced the defect in locomotive abilities of adult flies. In consistent with these phenotypes, defects in synapse structure at neuromuscular junction were observed in neuron-specific fat-knockdown flies. In addition, aberrations in axonal targeting of photoreceptor neuron in third-instar larvae were also observed, suggesting that fat involves in axonal targeting. Taken together, the results indicate that Drosophila fat plays an essential role in formation and/or maintenance of neuron. Both VMS and HS show mental retardation and neuronal defects. We therefore consider that these two rare human diseases could possibly be caused by the defect in FAT4 function in neuronal cells. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. A chopper system for shortening the duration of pulsed supersonic beams seeded with NO or Br2 down to 13 μs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jessica; Rennick, Christopher J; Softley, Timothy P

    2015-05-01

    A chopper wheel construct is used to shorten the duration of a molecular beam to 13 μs. Molecular beams seeded with NO or with Br2 and an initial pulse width of ≥200 μs were passed through a spinning chopper wheel, which was driven by a brushless DC in vacuo motor at a range of speeds, from 3000 rpm to 80,000 rpm. The resulting duration of the molecular-beam pulses measured at the laser detection volume ranged from 80 μs to 13 μs and was the same for both NO and Br2. The duration is consistent with a simple analytical model, and the minimum pulse width measured is limited by the spreading of the beam between the chopper and the detection point as a consequence of the longitudinal velocity distribution of the beam. The setup adopted here effectively eliminates buildup of background gas without the use of a differential pumping stage, and a clean narrow pulse is obtained with low rotational temperature.

  14. Feasibility of shortening isolation of TB-suspects by first-sample PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Wejse, Christian; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard

    Rationale: Isolation of patients suspected for tuberculosis (TB) is usually guided by serial sputum smears. Many of patients initially isolated will turn out not to have TB, or will not be regarded as contagious. Current standards imply isolation for hours or days until contagiousness has been...... excluded. Objective: To evaluate the utility of single-specimen polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) as a parameter to cease isolation when negative. Methods: We evaluated all patients in Denmark who had sputa investigated for MTBC at the National Reference......-positive on the sample that produced the PCR-negative result. Conclusion: Though adequate sensitivity in diagnosing TB still requires serial samples for microbiological examination, the question of isolation can be determined by first-sample PCR in the majority of cases, when the test is negative. In our study, less...

  15. Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    We investigate and compare several generic depreciation methods to assess the effectiveness of possible policy measures with respect to the depreciation schedules for investments in combined heat and power plants in the United States. We assess the different depreciation methods for CHP projects of various sizes (ranging from 1 MW to 100 MW). We evaluate the impact of different depreciation schedules on the tax shield, and the resulting tax savings to potential investors. We show that a shorter depreciation cycle could have a substantial impact on the cost of producing power, making cogeneration more attractive. The savings amount to approximately 6-7 percent of capital and fixed operation and maintenance costs, when changing from the current system to a 7 year depreciation scheme with switchover from declining balance to straight line depreciation. Suggestions for further research to improve the analysis are given

  16. [Carotid endarterectomy. Experiences with shortening of interval between symptom and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathenborg, L.K.; Baekgaard, N.; Jensen, Leif Pandora

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) prevents transient ischemic attack and stroke in patients with symptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis. In 2004 Rothwell et al showed that maximal benefit is gained if CEA is performed less than three weeks after the onset of the symptom. With the aim...... of observing this recommendation, in 2005 the Department of Vascular Surgery, Gentofte Hospital, introduced an accelerated course of examinations, a fast track, prior to CEA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of the course of all patients operated with CEA during the period from June 2003 through...... September 2006. RESULTS: A total of 147 CEAs were performed on 145 patients, 51 before and 96 after the introduction of fast track. The period between the first symptom and CEA was reduced after the introduction of fast track to 31 days. It was easiest to reduce the time up to CEA in our own department...

  17. Use of machine learning to shorten observation-based screening and diagnosis of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, D P; Kosmicki, J; Deluca, T F; Harstad, E; Fusaro, V A

    2012-04-10

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS) is one of the most widely used instruments for behavioral evaluation of autism spectrum disorders. It is composed of four modules, each tailored for a specific group of individuals based on their language and developmental level. On average, a module takes between 30 and 60 min to deliver. We used a series of machine-learning algorithms to study the complete set of scores from Module 1 of the ADOS available at the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) for 612 individuals with a classification of autism and 15 non-spectrum individuals from both AGRE and the Boston Autism Consortium (AC). Our analysis indicated that 8 of the 29 items contained in Module 1 of the ADOS were sufficient to classify autism with 100% accuracy. We further validated the accuracy of this eight-item classifier against complete sets of scores from two independent sources, a collection of 110 individuals with autism from AC and a collection of 336 individuals with autism from the Simons Foundation. In both cases, our classifier performed with nearly 100% sensitivity, correctly classifying all but two of the individuals from these two resources with a diagnosis of autism, and with 94% specificity on a collection of observed and simulated non-spectrum controls. The classifier contained several elements found in the ADOS algorithm, demonstrating high test validity, and also resulted in a quantitative score that measures classification confidence and extremeness of the phenotype. With incidence rates rising, the ability to classify autism effectively and quickly requires careful design of assessment and diagnostic tools. Given the brevity, accuracy and quantitative nature of the classifier, results from this study may prove valuable in the development of mobile tools for preliminary evaluation and clinical prioritization-in particular those focused on assessment of short home videos of children--that speed the pace of initial evaluation

  18. Mercury evasion from a boreal peatland shortens the timeline for recovery from legacy pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterwalder, Stefan; Bishop, Kevin; Alewell, Christine; Fritsche, Johannes; Laudon, Hjalmar; Åkerblom, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats B

    2017-11-22

    Peatlands are a major source of methylmercury that contaminates downstream aquatic food webs. The large store of mercury (Hg) in peatlands could be a source of Hg for over a century even if deposition is dramatically reduced. However, the reliability of Hg mass balances can be questioned due to missing long-term land-atmosphere flux measurements. We used a novel micrometeorological system for continuous measurement of Hg peatland-atmosphere exchange to derive the first annual Hg budget for a peatland. The evasion of Hg (9.4 µg m -2 yr -1 ) over the course of a year was seven times greater than stream Hg export, and over two times greater than wet bulk deposition to the boreal peatland. Measurements of dissolved gaseous Hg in the peat pore water also indicate Hg evasion. The net efflux may result from recent declines in atmospheric Hg concentrations that have turned the peatland from a net sink into a source of atmospheric Hg. This net Hg loss suggests that open boreal peatlands and downstream ecosystems can recover more rapidly from past atmospheric Hg deposition than previously assumed. This has important implications for future levels of methylmercury in boreal freshwater fish and the estimation of historical Hg accumulation rates from peat profiles.

  19. Shortening start-up and an extension of the power unit load range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A power plant with additional water pressure tanks was proposed. The maximum rise in the block electric power resulting from the shut-off of low-pressure regenerative heaters was determined. At that time, the boiler is fed with hot water from water pressure tanks acting as heat accumulators. Accumulation of hot water in water tanks is also proposed in the periods of the power unit small load. In order to lower the plant electric power in the off-peak night hours, water heated to the nominal temperature in low-pressure regenerative heaters is directed from the feed water tank to pressure tanks. The water accumulated during the night is used to feed the boiler during the period of peak demand for electricity. Pressure accumulators are proposed to be used for the rapid start-up of the boiler from a cold state. The evaporator of the boiler is filled at the beginning of start-up with hot water from the accumulators. Drops in the power block electric power were determined for different capacities of the tanks and periods when they are charged. The tanks may also be used to ensure a sudden increase in the electric power of the unit that is operating in the automatic system of frequency and power control (in Polish: ARCM.

  20. Statistical inference for extended or shortened phase II studies based on Simon's two-stage designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjun; Yu, Menggang; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-06-07

    Simon's two-stage designs are popular choices for conducting phase II clinical trials, especially in the oncology trials to reduce the number of patients placed on ineffective experimental therapies. Recently Koyama and Chen (2008) discussed how to conduct proper inference for such studies because they found that inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan used. In particular, they proposed an inference method for studies when the actual second stage sample sizes differ from planned ones. We consider an alternative inference method based on likelihood ratio. In particular, we order permissible sample paths under Simon's two-stage designs using their corresponding conditional likelihood. In this way, we can calculate p-values using the common definition: the probability of obtaining a test statistic value at least as extreme as that observed under the null hypothesis. In addition to providing inference for a couple of scenarios where Koyama and Chen's method can be difficult to apply, the resulting estimate based on our method appears to have certain advantage in terms of inference properties in many numerical simulations. It generally led to smaller biases and narrower confidence intervals while maintaining similar coverages. We also illustrated the two methods in a real data setting. Inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan. Reported P-values, point estimates and confidence intervals for the response rate are not usually adjusted for the design's adaptiveness. Proper statistical inference procedures should be used.

  1. The epidemiology and clinical manifestations of hamstring muscle and plantar foot flexor shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joźwiak, M; Pietrzak, S; Tobjasz, F

    1997-07-01

    A population of 920 healthy children was studied with the aim of assessing the incidence of hamstring muscle and plantar foot flexor tightness, and to correlate such symptoms with gait, posture, and low back discomfort or pain. Special attention was paid to the popliteal angle and dorsal foot flexion. The borderline values for the popliteal angle in the following age groups were, boys: 3 to 5 years, 40 degrees; 6 to 15 years, 50 degrees; and 16 to 19 years, 40 degrees; girls: 3 to 5 years, 30 degrees; 6 to 14 years, 45 degrees; 15 to 19 years, 30 degrees. The borderline values for dorsal foot flexion in the following age groups were 3 to 4 years, 7 degrees; 5 to 13 years, 10 degrees; and 14 to 19 years, 5 degrees. The results obtained indicate a natural increase in hamstring tightness, particularly shortly before the pubertal growth spurt. This seems to be linked with the natural evolution of lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt. When hamstring tightness surpassed borderline values, dorsiflexion and lumbar lordosis decreased leading to postural deformities, bending-forward deficit, discomfort when sitting, and a shambling gait.

  2. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Chihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  3. New GES DISC Services Shortening the Path in Science Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Shie, Chung-Lin; Petrenko, Maksym; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Teng, William; Liu, Zhong; Bryant, Keith; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Wei, Jennifer; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Current GES DISC available services only allow user to select variables from a single dataset at a time and too many variables from a dataset are displayed, choice is hard. At American Geophysical Union (AGU) 2016 Fall Meeting, Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) unveiled a new service: Datalist. A Datalist is a collection of predefined or user-defined data variables from one or more archived datasets. Our science support team curated predefined datalist and provided value to the user community. Imagine some novice user wants to study hurricane and typed in hurricane in the search box. The first item in the search result is GES DISC provided Hurricane Datalist. It contains scientists recommended variables from multiple datasets like TRMM, GPM, MERRA, etc. Datalist uses the same architecture as that of our new website, which also provides one-stop shopping for data, metadata, citation, documentation, visualization and other available services.We implemented Datalist with new GES DISC web architecture, one single web page that unified all user interfaces. From that webpage, users can find data by either type in keyword, or browse by category. It also provides user with a sophisticated integrated data and services package, including metadata, citation, documentation, visualization, and data-specific services, all available from one-stop shopping.

  4. Direct look from a predator shortens the risk-assessment time by prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-im Lee

    Full Text Available Decision making process is an important component of information use by animals and has already been studied in natural situations. Decision making takes time, which is expressed as a cost in evolutionary explanations of decision making abilities of animals. However, the duration of information assessment and decision making process has not been measured in a natural situation. Here, we use responses of wild magpies (Pica pica to predictably approaching humans to demonstrate that, regardless of whether the bird perceived high (decided to fly away or low (resumed foraging threat level, the bird assessed the situation faster when approaching humans looked directly at it than when the humans were not directly looking at it. This indicates that prey is able to extract more information about the predator's intentions and to respond sooner when the predator is continuously ("intently" looking at the prey. The results generally illustrate how an increase of information available to an individual leads to a shorter assessment and decision making process, confirming one of central tenets of psychology of information use in a wild bird species in its natural habitat.

  5. Influence of stretch-shortening cycle on mechanical behaviour of triceps surae during hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, A; Bosco, C

    1992-04-01

    Six subjects performed a first series of vertical plantar flexions and a second series of vertical rebounds, both involving muscle triceps surae exclusively. Vertical displacements, vertical forces and ankle angles were recorded during the entire work period of 60 seconds per series. In addition, expired gases were collected during the test and recovery for determination of the energy expenditure. Triceps surae was mechanically modelled with a contractile component and with an elastic component. Mechanical behaviour and work of the different muscle components were determined in both series. The net muscular efficiency calculated from the work performed by the centre of gravity was 17.5 +/- 3.0% (mean +/- SD) in plantar flexions and 29.9 +/- 4.8% in vertical rebounds. The net muscle efficiency calculated from the work performed by the contractile component was 17.4 +/- 2.9% in plantar flexions and 16.1 +/- 1.4% in vertical rebounds. These results suggest that the muscular efficiency differences do not reflect muscle contractile component efficiency but essentially the storage and recoil of elastic energy. This is supported by the relationship (P less than 0.01) found in vertical rebounds between the extra work and the elastic component work. A detailed observation of the mechanical behaviour of muscle mechanical components showed that the strategy to maximize the elastic work depends also on the force-velocity characteristics of the movement and that the eccentric-concentric work of the contractile component does not always correspond respectively to the ankle extension-flexion.

  6. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 shortens acute infectious diarrhea in a pediatric outpatient setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ener Cagri Dinleyici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Two randomized controlled clinical trials have shown thatLactobacillus (L reuteri DSM 17938 reduces the duration of diarrhea in children hospitalized due to acute infectious diarrhea. This was the first trial evaluating the efficacy of L. reuteri DSM 17938 in outpatient children with acute infectious diarrhea.METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized, single-blinded, case control clinical trial in children with acute watery diarrhea. A total of 64 children who presented at outpatient clinics were enrolled. The probiotic group received 1 × 108 CFU L. reuteri DSM 17938 for five days in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS and the second group was treated with ORS only. The primary endpoint was the duration of diarrhea (in hours. The secondary endpoint was the number of children with diarrhea at each day of the five days of intervention. Adverse events were also recorded.RESULTS: The mean duration of diarrhea was significantly reduced in the L. reuteri group compared to the control group (approximately 15 h, 60.4 ± 24.5 h [95% CI: 51.0-69.7 h] vs. 74.3 ± 15.3 h [95% CI: 68.7-79.9 h], p < 0.05. The percentage of children with diarrhea was lower in the L. reuteri group (13/29; 44.8% after 48 h than the control group (27/31; 87%; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34-0.79,p < 0.01. From the 72nd hour of intervention onwards, there was no difference between the two groups in the percentage of children with diarrhea. No adverse effects related to L. reuteri were noted.CONCLUSION:L. reuteri DSM 17938 is effective, safe, and well-tolerated in outpatient children with acute infectious diarrhea.

  7. Motion perception and driving: predicting performance through testing and shortening braking reaction times through training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Luke; Gray, Rob; Gaska, James; Winterbottom, Marc

    2013-12-30

    A driving simulator was used to examine the relationship between motion perception and driving performance. Although motion perception test scores have been shown to be related to driving safety, it is not clear which combination of tests are the best predictors and whether motion perception training can improve driving performance. In experiment 1, 60 younger drivers (22.4 ± 2.5 years) completed three motion perception tests (2-dimensional [2D] motion-defined letter [MDL] identification, 3D motion in depth sensitivity [MID], and dynamic visual acuity [DVA]) followed by two driving tests (emergency braking [EB] and hazard perception [HP]). In experiment 2, 20 drivers (21.6 ± 2.1 years) completed 6 weeks of motion perception training (using the MDL, MID, and DVA tests), while 20 control drivers (22.0 ± 2.7 years) completed an online driving safety course. The EB performance was measured before and after training. In experiment 1, MDL (r = 0.34) and MID (r = 0.46) significantly correlated with EB score. The change in DVA score as a function of target speed (i.e., "velocity susceptibility") was correlated most strongly with HP score (r = -0.61). In experiment 2, the motion perception training group had a significant decrease in brake reaction time on the EB test from pre- to posttreatment, while there was no significant change for the control group: t(38) = 2.24, P = 0.03. Tests of 3D motion perception are the best predictor of EB, while DVA velocity susceptibility is the best predictor of hazard perception. Motion perception training appears to result in faster braking responses.

  8. Perforation of the Esophagus Secondary to Insertion of Covered Wallstent Endoprostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, Mark; Morgan, Robert A.; Latham, Jennifer A.; Glynos, Michael; Mason, Robert C.; Adam, Andreas

    1997-01-01

    Perforation of the esophagus is a very rare complication of metallic esophageal stent insertion. Two cases are presented in which esophageal perforations were caused by the sharp ends of metallic stents impinging on the esophageal wall. In retrospect, both perforations might have been prevented by additional stent insertion

  9. Comparison between maximal lengthening and shortening contractions for biceps brachii muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Lee, Hoseong; Millet, Guillaume Y; Ferrari, Marco; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-09-01

    Eccentric contractions (ECC) require lower systemic oxygen (O2) and induce greater symptoms of muscle damage than concentric contractions (CON); however, it is not known if local muscle oxygenation is lower in ECC than CON during and following exercise. This study compared between ECC and CON for changes in biceps brachii muscle oxygenation [tissue oxygenation index (TOI)] and hemodynamics [total hemoglobin volume (tHb)=oxygenated-Hb+deoxygenated-Hb], determined by near-infrared spectroscopy over 10 sets of 6 maximal contractions of the elbow flexors of 10 healthy subjects. This study also compared between ECC and CON for changes in TOI and tHb during a 10-s sustained and 30-repeated maximal isometric contraction (MVC) task measured immediately before and after and 1-3 days following exercise. The torque integral during ECC was greater (P<0.05) than that during CON by approximately 30%, and the decrease in TOI was smaller (P<0.05) by approximately 50% during ECC than CON. Increases in tHb during the relaxation phases were smaller (P<0.05) by approximately 100% for ECC than CON; however, the decreases in tHb during the contraction phases were not significantly different between sessions. These results suggest that ECC utilizes a lower muscle O2 relative to O2 supply compared with CON. Following exercise, greater (P<0.05) decreases in MVC strength and increases in plasma creatine kinase activity and muscle soreness were evident 1-3 days after ECC than CON. Torque integral, TOI, and tHb during the sustained and repeated MVC tasks decreased (P<0.01) only after ECC, suggesting that muscle O2 demand relative to O2 supply during the isometric tasks was decreased after ECC. This could mainly be due to a lower maximal muscle mass activated as a consequence of muscle damage; however, an increase in O2 supply due to microcirculation dysfunction and/or inflammatory vasodilatory responses after ECC is recognized.

  10. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 shortens acute infectious diarrhea in a pediatric outpatient setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ener Cagri Dinleyici

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Two randomized controlled clinical trials have shown that Lactobacillus (L reuteri DSM 17938 reduces the duration of diarrhea in children hospitalized due to acute infectious diarrhea. This was the first trial evaluating the efficacy of L. reuteri DSM 17938 in outpatient children with acute infectious diarrhea. Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, single-blinded, case control clinical trial in children with acute watery diarrhea. A total of 64 children who presented at outpatient clinics were enrolled. The probiotic group received 1 × 108 CFU L. reuteri DSM 17938 for five days in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS and the second group was treated with ORS only. The primary endpoint was the duration of diarrhea (in hours. The secondary endpoint was the number of children with diarrhea at each day of the five days of intervention. Adverse events were also recorded. Results: The mean duration of diarrhea was significantly reduced in the L. reuteri group compared to the control group (approximately 15 h, 60.4 ± 24.5 h [95% CI: 51.0–69.7 h] vs. 74.3 ± 15.3 h [95% CI: 68.7–79.9 h], p < 0.05. The percentage of children with diarrhea was lower in the L. reuteri group (13/29; 44.8% after 48 h than the control group (27/31; 87%; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79, p < 0.01. From the 72nd hour of intervention onwards, there was no difference between the two groups in the percentage of children with diarrhea. No adverse effects related to L. reuteri were noted. Conclusion: L. reuteri DSM 17938 is effective, safe, and well-tolerated in outpatient children with acute infectious diarrhea. Resumo: Objetivo: Dois ensaios clínicos randomizados controlados demonstraram que o Lactobacillus (L reuteri DSM 17938 reduz a duração de diarreia em crianças hospitalizadas devido a diarreia infecciosa aguda. Este é o primeiro ensaio que avalia a eficácia do L. reuteri DSM 17938 em crianças com diarreia infecciosa aguda no

  11. Shortening the xerostomia inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, W.M.; Putten, G.J. van der; Baat, C. de; Ikebe, K.; Matsuda, K.; Enoki, K.; Hopcraft, M.S.; Ling, G.Y.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan, and New Zealand. STUDY DESIGN: Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (n = 50), Australia (n

  12. Relative shortening and functional tethering of spinal cord in adolescent scoliosis - Result of asynchronous neuro-osseous growth, summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Winnie Cw; Lam, Wynnie Mw; Ng, Bobby Kw; Tze-Ping, Lam; Lee, Kwong-Man; Guo, Xia; Cheng, Jack Cy; Burwell, R Geoffrey; Dangerfield, Peter H; Jaspan, Tim

    2008-06-27

    There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has been designated as an on-line Delphi discussion. The Statement for this debate was written by Dr WCW Chu and colleagues who examine the spinal cord to vertebral growth interaction during adolescence in scoliosis. Using the multi-planar reconstruction technique of magnetic resonance imaging they investigated the relative length of spinal cord to vertebral column including ratios in 28 girls with AIS (mainly thoracic or double major curves) and 14 age-matched normal girls. Also evaluated were cerebellar tonsillar position, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), and clinical neurological examination. In severe AIS compared with normal controls, the vertebral column is significantly longer without detectable spinal cord lengthening. They speculate that anterior spinal column overgrowth relative to a normal length spinal cord exerts a stretching tethering force between the two ends, cranially and caudally leading to the initiation and progression of thoracic AIS. They support and develop the Roth-Porter concept of uncoupled neuro-osseous growth in the pathogenesis of AIS which now they prefer to term 'asynchronous neuro-osseous growth'. Morphological evidence about the curve apex suggests that the spinal cord is also affected, and a 'double pathology' is suggested. AIS is viewed as a disorder with a wide spectrum and a common neuroanatomical abnormality namely, a spinal cord of normal length but short relative to an abnormally lengthened anterior vertebral column. Neuroanatomical changes and/or abnormal neural function may be expressed only in severe cases. This asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept is regarded as one component of a larger concept. The other component relates to the brain and cranium of AIS subjects because abnormalities have been found in brain (infratentorial and supratentorial) and skull (vault and base). The possible relevance of systemic melatonin-signaling pathway dysfunction, platelet calmodulin levels and putative vertebral vascular biology to the asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept is discussed. A biomechanical model to test the spinal component of the concept is in hand. There is no published research on the biomechanical properties of the spinal cord for scoliosis specimens. Such research on normal spinal cords includes movements (kinematics), stress-strain responses to uniaxial loading, and anterior forces created by the stretched cord in forward flexion that may alter sagittal spinal shape during adolescent growth. The asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept for the spine evokes controversy. Dr Chu and colleagues respond to five other concepts of pathogenesis for AIS and suggest that relative anterior spinal overgrowth and biomechanical growth modulation may also contribute to AIS pathogenesis.

  13. Potential improvement of CANDU NPP safety margins by shortening the response time of shutdown systems using FPGA based implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingke She, E-mail: jshe2@uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Jin Jiang, E-mail: jjiang@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of the safety margin improvement through thermalhydraulic simulation and analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of realizing the improvement by an FPGA-based SDS1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Verification of potential operating power upgrade without endangering the plant safety. - Abstract: The relationship between the peak values of critical reactor variables, such as neutronic power, inside a CANDU reactor and the speed of the response of its shutdown system has been analyzed in the event of a large loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The advantage of shortening the response time of the shutdown action has been demonstrated in term of the improved safety margin. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform has been chosen to implement such a shutdown system. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. Furthermore, connections between the speed of response of the shutdown system and the nominal operating power level of the reactor have been drawn to support for potential power upgrade for existing power plants.

  14. PEP3 overexpression shortens lag phase but does not alter growth rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to acetic acid stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Bradford, C. Samuel; Cooley, Ben; Yoshinaga, Allen S.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Abeliovich, Hagai; Penner, Michael H.; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2017-01-01

    In fungi, two recognized mechanisms contribute to pH homeostasis: the plasma membrane proton-pumping ATPase that exports excess protons and the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) that mediates vacuolar proton uptake. Here, we report that overexpression of PEP3 which encodes a component of the HOPS and CORVET complexes involved in vacuolar biogenesis, shortened lag phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to acetic acid stress. By confocal microscopy, PEP3-overexpressing cells stained with the vacuolar membrane-specific dye, FM4-64 had more fragmented vacuoles than the wild-type control. The stained overexpression mutant was also found to exhibit about 3.6-fold more FM4-64 fluorescence than the wild-type control as determined by flow cytometry. While the vacuolar pH of the wild-type strain grown in the presence of 80 mM acetic acid was significantly higher than in the absence of added acid, no significant difference was observed in vacuolar pH of the overexpression strain grown either in the presence or absence of 80 mM acetic acid. Based on an indirect growth assay, the PEP3-overexpression strain exhibited higher V-ATPase activity. We hypothesize that PEP3 overexpression provides protection from acid stress by increasing vacuolar surface area and V-ATPase activity and, hence, proton-sequestering capacity. PMID:26051671

  15. The effect of varying plyometric volume on stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Mark; De Ste Croix, Mark; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Jonathan

    2017-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of low and high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. A between- group repeated measures design was used. Thirty six subjects (age 20.3 ±1.6 yrs, mass 91.63 ±10.36kg, stature 182.03 ±5.24cm) were randomly assigned to one of three groups, a control group (CG), a low volume plyometric group (LPG) or a high volume plyometric group (HPG). Data were collected from a force plate, and measures of reactive strength index (RSI) and leg stiffness were calculated from jump height, contact time and flight time. A significant between group × time (F = 4.01, P plyometric program. The low volume program elicited the same performance improvement in RSI as a high volume program whilst undertaking a lower dose. This suggests that strength and conditioning coaches may be able to benefit from the ability to develop more time efficient and effective plyometric programs.

  16. Double Filtration Plasma Apheresis Shortens Hospital Admission Duration of Patients With Severe Hypertriglyceridemia-Associated Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Liao, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Chia-Ming; Jheng, Jyun-Shan; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Chou, Che-Yi; Chen, Chao-Jung

    2016-04-01

    The treatment effectiveness of double filtration plasma apheresis (DFPP) on severe hypertriglyceridemia-associated acute pancreatitis (STAP) has been questioned because the currently defined serum triglyceride level--1000 mg/dL--is too low for STAP. Given this, we aimed to investigate DFPP effectiveness when we elevated STAP definition to 5000 mg/dL serum triglyceride. We performed nested case-control studies for STAP patients and divided them into groups "with" or "without" DFPP. We further recruited outpatient asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia patients with STAP history, then divided them into groups "with" or "without" prophylactic DFPP once every 3 to 6 months for 2 years. We observed hospitalization duration and STAP recurrence between patients with and patients without DFPP. Twelve STAP patients receiving DFPP had a median hospitalization of 5 days, whereas 24 patients without DFPP had 10 days (P = 0.009). Six outpatient referrals with STAP history receiving prophylactic DFPP showed no STAP recurrences whereas 6 without DFPP showed 3 recurrences (P = 0.046). For the 25 patients whose serum triglyceride exceeded 5000 mg/dL, 11 receiving DFPP had median hospitalization of 5 days while 14 without DFPP had 11 days (P = 0.012). When applied to serum triglyceride in excess of 5000 mg/dL, DFPP removes oxidized and inflammatory lipoproteins, shortens hospitalization duration, and minimizes STAP recurrence.

  17. A Shortened Version of the Reasons for Living-Older Adults Scale for Clinical and Research Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Edelstein, Barry; Katz, Emma; Gallegos, Jarred V

    2018-02-26

    Older adults have elevated suicide rates, and identification of protective factors, such as reasons for living, is important in preventing suicide. The Reasons for Living-Older Adults scale (RFL-OA) is a 69-item measure of these protective factors in late life, which yields good psychometric properties. However, its length limits its utility in some clinical and research contexts where a shorter measure is ideal. The objective of this study was to create a shortened version of the RFL-OA. First, data collected previously during validation of the original RFL-OA (n = 199, age 65 and older, 65% female) were used to select 30 items, spanning all content areas, that were highly endorsed. Second, new data were collected (n = 219, age 60 and older, 52% female) with the 30-item RFL-OA and measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, religiosity, health, and social desirability to examine the measure's internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. Scores on the 30-item RFL-OA exhibited strong internal consistency. The short RFL-OA demonstrated good convergent validity via significant, moderate correlations with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, and religiosity. It demonstrated adequate discriminant validity via only small correlations with disability, subjective health, and social desirability. The shorter RFL-OA has good psychometric properties among community-dwelling older adults. It may have greater utility, compared to the original 69-item measure, for clinicians and researchers with limited time but who want to assess protective factors against suicidal behavior in late life.

  18. Improved ethanol electrooxidation performance by shortening Pd-Ni active site distance in Pd-Ni-P nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Lilin; Zhu, Hengli; Chen, Yueguang; Huang, Yu; Li, Yadong; Wang, Leyu

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating oxophilic metals into noble metal-based catalysts represents an emerging strategy to improve the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts in fuel cells. However, effects of the distance between the noble metal and oxophilic metal active sites on the catalytic performance have rarely been investigated. Herein, we report on ultrasmall (~5 nm) Pd-Ni-P ternary nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation. The activity is improved up to 4.95 A per mgPd, which is 6.88 times higher than commercial Pd/C (0.72 A per mgPd), by shortening the distance between Pd and Ni active sites, achieved through shape transformation from Pd/Ni-P heterodimers into Pd-Ni-P nanoparticles and tuning the Ni/Pd atomic ratio to 1:1. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the improved activity and stability stems from the promoted production of free OH radicals (on Ni active sites) which facilitate the oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison and combination with CH3CO radicals on adjacent Pd active sites.

  19. Improved ethanol electrooxidation performance by shortening Pd–Ni active site distance in Pd–Ni–P nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Lilin; Zhu, Hengli; Chen, Yueguang; Huang, Yu; Li, Yadong; Wang, Leyu

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating oxophilic metals into noble metal-based catalysts represents an emerging strategy to improve the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts in fuel cells. However, effects of the distance between the noble metal and oxophilic metal active sites on the catalytic performance have rarely been investigated. Herein, we report on ultrasmall (∼5 nm) Pd–Ni–P ternary nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation. The activity is improved up to 4.95 A per mgPd, which is 6.88 times higher than commercial Pd/C (0.72 A per mgPd), by shortening the distance between Pd and Ni active sites, achieved through shape transformation from Pd/Ni–P heterodimers into Pd–Ni–P nanoparticles and tuning the Ni/Pd atomic ratio to 1:1. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the improved activity and stability stems from the promoted production of free OH radicals (on Ni active sites) which facilitate the oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison and combination with CH3CO radicals on adjacent Pd active sites. PMID:28071650

  20. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  1. Complex myograph allows the examination of complex muscle contractions for the assessment of muscle force, shortening, velocity, and work in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhschulte Hainer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The devices used for in vivo examination of muscle contractions assess only pure force contractions and the so-called isokinetic contractions. In isokinetic experiments, the extremity and its muscle are artificially moved with constant velocity by the measuring device, while a tetanic contraction is induced in the muscle, either by electrical stimulation or by maximal voluntary activation. With these systems, experiments cannot be performed at pre-defined, constant muscle length, single contractions cannot be evaluated individually and the separate examination of the isometric and the isotonic components of single contractions is not possible. Methods The myograph presented in our study has two newly developed technical units, i.e. a. a counterforce unit which can load the muscle with an adjustable, but constant force and b. a length-adjusting unit which allows for both the stretching and the contraction length to be infinitely adjustable independently of one another. The two units support the examination of complex types of contraction and store the counterforce and length-adjusting settings, so that these conditions may be accurately reapplied in later sessions. Results The measurement examples presented show that the muscle can be brought to every possible pre-stretching length and that single isotonic or complex isometric-isotonic contractions may be performed at every length. The applied forces act during different phases of contraction, resulting into different pre- and after-loads that can be kept constant – uninfluenced by the contraction. Maximal values for force, shortening, velocity and work may be obtained for individual muscles. This offers the possibility to obtain information on the muscle status and to monitor its changes under non-invasive measurement conditions. Conclusion With the Complex Myograph, the whole spectrum of a muscle's mechanical characteristics may be assessed.

  2. Dynamic Contractility and Efficiency Impairments in Stretch-Shortening Cycle Are Stretch-Load-Dependent After Training-Induced Muscle Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Racz, Levente; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    Vaczi, M, Racz, L, Hortobagyi, T, and Tihanyi, J. Dynamic contractility and efficiency impairments in stretch-shortening cycle are stretch-load-dependent after training-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2171-2179, 2013To determine the acute task and stretch-load dependency of

  3. Long-term follow-up indicates unimpaired oral health-related quality of life for people having shortened dental arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.E.; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and analyse OHRQoL of people with shortened dental arches (SDA) in a long-term cohort study. METHODS: All participants of a long-term cohort study on SDA who were still attending the university dental clinic and still had an SDA (SDA group) with 3-5 posterior occluding pairs

  4. Computed Tomography Based Three-dimensional Measurements of Spine Shortening Distance After Posterior Three-column Osteotomies for the Treatment of Severe and Stiff Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Shi; Huang, Zi-Fang; Deng, Yao-Long; Fan, Heng-Wei; Sui, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yang, Jun-Lin

    2017-07-15

    Retrospective study. This study is to measure and analyze the changes of three-dimensional (3D) distances of spinal column and spinal canal at the three-column osteotomy sites and address their clinical and neurologic significance. Three-column osteotomies were developed to treat severe and stiff spine deformities with insufficient understanding on the safe limit of spine shortening and the relationship between the shortening distance of the spinal column and that of the spinal canal. Records of 52 continuous patients with severe and stiff scoliosis treated with three-column spine osteotomies at our institution from July 2013 to June 2015 were reviewed. The preoperative spinal cord function classification were type A in 31 cases, type B in 10 cases, and type C in 11 cases. The types of osteotomies carried out were extended pedicle subtraction osteotomy in nine patients and posterior vertebral column resection in 43 patients. Multimodality neuromonitoring strategies were adopted intraoperatively. 3D pre- and postoperative spine models were reconstructed from the computed tomography (CT) scans. The distances of convex and concave spinal column and the spinal canal shortening were measured and analyzed. The spinal column shortening distance (SCSD) measured on the 3D models (27.8 mm) were statistically shorter than those measured intraoperatively (32.8 mm) (P column strut graft than in those with bone-on-bone fusion (P column cannot represent that of the central spinal canal in patients with severe scoliosis. The spinal column shortening procedure in appropriately selected patient groups with bone-on-bone fusion is a viable option with the CCSD being significantly shorter than the convex SCSD. 4.

  5. A multicentre randomized/controlled trial of a conventional versus modestly accelerated radiotherapy in the laryngeal cancer: influence of a 1 week shortening overall time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hliniak, A.; Gwiazdowska, B.; Szutkowski, Z.; Kraszewska, E.; Kukolowicz, P.; Jarzabski, A.; Sochacka, B.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Paprota, K.; Oliskiewicz, W.; Zadrozna, O.; Milecki, P.; Kubiak, M.; Czopkiewicz, L.; Jagas, M.; Gozdz, S.; Wieczorek, A.; Woytowicz, A.; Cisowska, B.; Magdziarz, H.; Nowakowski, S.; Kosniewski, W.; Laskosz, I.; Serafin, A.; Gradon, E.

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare in a phase III study the loco-regional control, disease-free survival and overall survival induced by an accelerated regimen (AF) as compared with conventional regimen (CF) and to analyze the early and late post-radiation morbidity in both arms. Materials and methods: Patients with age≤75, WHO 0-1, suitable for a radical course of radiotherapy T1-T3, N0, M0, stage of glottic and supraglottic laryngeal cancer were randomized to either CF: 66Gy given in 33 fractions over 45 days or AF: 66Gy given in 33 fractions over 38 days (2 fractions every Thursday). A total of 395 patients were included from 05.1995 to 12.1998. Results. Early toxicity: At the end of radiotherapy patients treated with AF complained for more severe reactions than patients treated with CF. In 8 weeks after treatment completion patients treated with AF complained only for more severe pain on swallowing (P=0.027). In 4 months after treatment completion all types of toxicity except for skin teleangiectasia (P=0.001) were similar in the two groups. Loco-regional control: comparison between CF and AF showed no difference in terms of loco-regional control (P=0.37). Conclusions: The improvement in AF in terms of loco-regional control is estimated to be 3-5% in comparison with conventional regimen and is not significant. The intensity of reactions after 4 months was similar in both arms, what suggests the possibility of further shortening of the overall time by few days or enhancing the total dose within the limits of acceptable morbidity

  6. Economic evaluation of a shortened standardised treatment regimen of antituberculosis drugs for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (STREAM): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Madan, Jason; Langley, Ivor; Girma, Mamo; Evans, Denise; Rosen, Sydney; Squire, S Bertel

    2016-10-17

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a serious financial challenge to health systems and patients. The current treatment for patients with MDR-TB takes up to 24 months to complete. Evidence for a shorter regimen which differs from the standard WHO recommended MDR-TB regimen and typically lasts between 9 and 12 months has been reported from Bangladesh. This evaluation aims to assess the economic impact of a shortened regimen on patients and health systems. This evaluation is innovative as it combines patient and health system costs, as well as operational modelling in assessing the impact. An economic evaluation nested in a clinical trial with 2 arms will be performed at 4 facilities. The primary outcome measure is incremental cost to the health system of the study regimen compared with the control regimen. Secondary outcome measures are mean incremental costs incurred by patients by treatment outcome; patient costs by category (direct medical costs, transport, food and accommodation costs, and cost of guardians/accompanying persons and lost time); health systems cost by category and drugs; and costs related to serious adverse events. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Ethics Advisory Group of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease; South African Medical Research Ethics Committee; Wits Health Consortium Protocol Review Committee; University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee; University of Kwazulu-Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee; St Peter TB Specialized Hospital Ethical Review Committee; AHRI-ALERT Ethical Review Committee, and all participants will provide written informed consent. The results of the economic evaluation will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. ISRCTN78372190. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Influence of dose, dose rate, and radiation quality on radiation carcinogenesis and life shortening in RFM and BALB/C mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, R.L.; Storer, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The effects produced by 137 Cs gamma rays delivered at a high (45 rads/min) or intermediate (8.2 rads/day) dose rate and the effect of fission neutrons at a high (25 rads/min) and low (1 rad/day) rate in a population of nearly 30,000 RFM and 11,000 BALB/c mice have been studied. Gamma ray doses ranged from 10 to 400 rads with the RFM's and from 50-400 rads with the BALB/c's, while neutron doses ranged from 5 to 200 rads with both strains. The present paper will present an overview of these data and the general findings while subsequent publications will present detailed analyses of each aspect. A variety of neoplasms were sensitive to induction after radiation exposure, including tumors of both reticular tissue origin (leukemia, lymphoma, etc.) and solid tumors. For the RFM, thymic lymphomas were the dominant reticular tissue neoplasm while the majority of solid tumors were either lung adenomas or fit into the broad category of endocrine related tumors, including ovarian, pituitary, harderian, and uterine tumors. The BALB/c was much less sensitive to induction of reticular tissue neoplasms. The tumors that were most sensitive to induction included malignant lung carcinomas, mammary adenocarcinomas and ovarian tumors. In general for both life shortening and tumor induction after gamma ray exposures, when the low to intermediate dose range was sufficiently defined, linearity could be rejected and a dose squared or linear-dose squared relationship adequately fit the data. For neutron exposures, on the other hand, linear relationships were the general finding. The RBE for neutrons varied with tumor type and total dose level. For gamma ray irradiation, the intermediate dose rate resulted in a decreased effectiveness in all cases, while for neutron exposures the dose rate relationships were more complex

  8. Huang's three-step maneuver shortens the learning curve of laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Ming; Huang, Ze-Ning; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Jun, Lu; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the difference between the learning curves of different maneuvers in laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy for advanced upper gastric cancer. From January 2010 to April 2014, 53 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy via the traditional-step maneuver (group A) and 53 consecutive patients via Huang's three-step maneuver (group B) were retrospectively analyzed. No significant difference in patient characteristics were found between the two groups. The learning curves of groups A and B were divided into phase 1 (1-43 cases and 1-30 cases, respectively) and phase 2 (44-53 cases and 31-53 cases, respectively). Compared with group A, the dissection time, bleeding loss and vascular injury were significantly decreased in group B. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were found between the two maneuvers. The multivariate analysis indicated that the body mass index, short gastric vessels, splenic artery type and maneuver were significantly associated with the dissection time in group B. No significant difference in the survival curve was found between the maneuvers. The learning curve of Huang's three-step maneuver was shorter than that of the traditional-step maneuver, and the former represents an ideal maneuver for laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy.To shorten the learning curve at the beginning of laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy, beginners should beneficially use Huang's three-step maneuver and select patients with advanced upper gastric cancer with a body mass index of less than 25 kg/m 2 and the concentrated type of splenic artery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. eLearning course may shorten the duration of mechanical restraint among psychiatric inpatients: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Raija; Pitkänen, Anneli; Joffe, Grigori; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta

    2014-10-01

    The management of psychiatric inpatients exhibiting severely disturbed and aggressive behaviour is an important educational topic. Well structured, IT-based educational programmes (eLearning) often ensure quality and may make training more affordable and accessible. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of an eLearning course for personnel on the rates and duration of seclusion and mechanical restraint among psychiatric inpatients. In a cluster-randomized intervention trial, the nursing personnel on 10 wards were randomly assigned to eLearning (intervention) or training-as-usual (control) groups. The eLearning course comprised six modules with specific topics (legal and ethical issues, behaviour-related factors, therapeutic relationship and self-awareness, teamwork and integrating knowledge with practice) and specific learning methods. The rates (incidents per 1000 occupied bed days) and durations of the coercion incidents were examined before and after the course. A total of 1283 coercion incidents (1143 seclusions [89%] and 140 incidents involving the use of mechanical restraints [11%]) were recorded on the study wards during the data collection period. On the intervention wards, there were no statistically significant changes in the rates of seclusion and mechanical restraint. However, the duration of incidents involving mechanical restraints shortened from 36.0 to 4.0 h (median) (P eLearning course, the duration of incidents involving the use of mechanical restraints decreased. However, more studies are needed to ensure that the content of the course focuses on the most important factors associated with the seclusion-related elements. The eLearning course deserves further development and further studies. The duration of coercion incidents merits attention in future research.

  10. Warming increases hotspot areas of enzyme activity and shortens the duration of hot moments in the detritusphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaomin; Razavi, Bahar S.; Holz, Maire; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Temperature effects on enzyme kinetics and on the spatial distribution of microbial hotspots are important because of their potential feedback to climate change. We used direct zymography to study the spatial distributions of enzymes responsible for P (phosphatase), C (cellobiohydrolase) and N (leucine-aminopeptidase) cycles in the rhizosphere (living roots of maize) and detritusphere (7 and 14 days after cutting shoots). Soil zymography was coupled with enzyme kinetics to test temperature effects (10, 20, 30 and 40 °C) on the dynamics and localization of these three enzymes in the detritusphere. Total hotspot areas of enzyme activity were 1.9-7.9 times larger and their extension was broader in the detritusphere compared to rhizosphere. From 10 to 30 °C, the hotspot areas enlarged by a factor of 2-24 and Vmax increased by 1.5-6.6 times; both, however, decreased at 40 °C. For the first time, we found a close positive correlation between Vmax and the areas of enzyme activity hotspots, indicating that maximum reaction rate is coupled with hotspot formation. The substrate turnover time at 30 °C were 1.7-6.7-fold faster than at 10 °C. The Km of cellobiohydrolase and phosphatase significantly increased at 30 and 40 °C, indicating high enzyme conformational flexibility, or isoenzyme production at warm temperatures. We conclude that soil warming (at least up to 30°C) increases hotspot areas of enzyme activity and the maximum reaction rate (Vmax) in the detritusphere. This, in turn, leads to faster substrate exhaustion and shortens the duration of hot moments.

  11. Lower extremity joint loads in habitual rearfoot and mid/forefoot strike runners with normal and shortened stride lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2018-03-01

    Our purpose was to compare joint loads between habitual rearfoot (hRF) and habitual mid/forefoot strikers (hFF), rearfoot (RFS) and mid/forefoot strike (FFS) patterns, and shorter stride lengths (SLs). Thirty-eight hRF and hFF ran at their normal SL, 5% and 10% shorter, as well as with the opposite foot strike. Three-dimensional ankle, knee, patellofemoral (PF) and hip contact forces were calculated. Nearly all contact forces decreased with a shorter SL (1.2-14.9% relative to preferred SL). In general, hRF had higher PF (hRF-RFS: 10.8 ± 1.4, hFF-FFS: 9.9 ± 2.0 BWs) and hip loads (axial hRF-RFS: -9.9 ± 0.9, hFF-FFS: -9.6 ± 1.0 BWs) than hFF. Many loads were similar between foot strike styles for the two groups, including axial and lateral hip, PF, posterior knee and shear ankle contact forces. Lateral knee and posterior hip contact forces were greater for RFS, and axial ankle and knee contact forces were greater for FFS. The tibia may be under greater loading with a FFS because of these greater axial forces. Summarising, a particular foot strike style does not universally decrease joint contact forces. However, shortening one's SL 10% decreased nearly all lower extremity contact forces, so it may hold potential to decrease overuse injuries associated with excessive joint loads.

  12. Initial laparoscopic basic skills training shortens the learning curve of laparoscopic suturing and is cost-effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Hope, William W; Korndorffer, James R; Markley, Sarah; Scott, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    Laparoscopic suturing is an advanced skill that is difficult to acquire. Simulator-based skills curricula have been developed that have been shown to transfer to the operating room. Currently available skills curricula need to be optimized. We hypothesized that mastering basic laparoscopic skills first would shorten the learning curve of a more complex laparoscopic task and reduce resource requirements for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery suturing curriculum. Medical students (n = 20) with no previous simulator experience were enrolled in an IRB-approved protocol, pretested on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery suturing model, and randomized into 2 groups. Group I (n = 10) trained (unsupervised) until proficiency levels were achieved on 5 basic tasks; Group II (n = 10) received no basic training. Both groups then trained (supervised) on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery suturing model until previously reported proficiency levels were achieved. Two weeks later, they were retested to evaluate their retention scores, training parameters, instruction requirements, and cost between groups using t-test. Baseline characteristics and performance were similar for both groups, and 9 of 10 subjects in each group achieved the proficiency levels. The initial performance on the simulator was better for Group I after basic skills training, and their suturing learning curve was shorter compared with Group II. In addition, Group I required less active instruction. Overall time required to finish the curriculum was similar for both groups; but the Group I training strategy cost less, with a savings of $148 per trainee. Teaching novices basic laparoscopic skills before a more complex laparoscopic task produces substantial cost savings. Additional studies are needed to assess the impact of such integrated curricula on ultimate educational benefit. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. From Extension to Shortening: Tectonic Inversion Distributed in Time and Space in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro; Comas, Menchu; Lonergan, Lidia; Watts, Anthony B.

    2017-12-01

    2D seismic reflection data tied to biostratigraphical and log information from wells in the central and southeastern Alboran Sea have allowed us to constrain the spatial and temporal distribution of rifting and inversion. Normal faults, tilted basement blocks, and growth wedges reveal a thinned continental crust that formed in response to NW-SE extension. To the east, a secondary SW-NE trend of extension affects the transitional crust adjacent to the oceanic Algerian Basin. The maximum thickness of syn-rift sediments is 3.5 km, and the oldest recorded deposits are Serravallian. The WNW-ESE Yusuf fault formed a buttress separating and accommodating variable extension between two different tectonic domains: the thinned continental crust of Alboran and the oceanic spreading of the Algerian Basin. Late Tortonian to present-day NW-SE Africa/Eurasia plate convergence drove shortening and reactivation of some of the earlier extensional structures as reverse and strike-slip faults, forming complex, compartmentalised subbasins. Tectonic inversion coexisted with the formation of new faults and folds. Inversion was partial along the Habibas Basin and Al-Idrisi fault, but complete along the Alboran Ridge, where some SW-NE trending faults were perpendicular to the recent NW-SE plate convergence and were reactivated as thrusts. The WNW-ESE Yusuf fault is oblique to the convergence vector, and therefore, reactivation is mainly expressed as transpressional deformation. Volcanic rocks intruded along the Alboran Ridge and Yusuf faults during the latest stages of extension formed rheological anisotropies that localised the later inversion.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF A STRETCH-SHORTENING CYCLE FATIGUE PROTOCOL ON KNEE KINEMATICS DURING RUNNING IN UNTRAINED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatalas T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of an intensive stretch shortening-cycle (SSC protocol (100 plyometric jumps on knee kinematics during running on a treadmill in healthy children using 3D kinematics. Twelve healthy and untrained children volunteered. Their mean + age, height and weight was 10,1±0,5 years, 142± 6,1 cm and 37 ±4,6kg, respectively. Muscle damage of lower extremities was caused by 100 maximal intensity plyometric jumps performed as 10 sets of 10 continuous jumps with a 30 second restperiod between sets. Muscle damage indicators [delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee-joint flexion/extension angles during running on a treadmill (speed at 2.8 m/s] were assessed pre-, 0h, 24h, 48h and 72h post exercise. Kinematic data were captured at 100 Hz using a six-camera 3D motion analysis system (VICON 612. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA with five levels were utilised for the parameters. Allmuscle damage indicators revealed significant changes post- compared to pre-exercise data (p<0.05. Kinematic analysis revealed that the 100 plyometric jumps decreased knee-joint angles at different phases of stance (impact, support, push-off phase. These changes were more evident just after (0h the protocol and 48h after this, and remained till 72h post at a great extent (p<0.05. Lastly, children suffered from delayed muscle soreness on their thigh muscles which remained only 24 hours after this (p<0.05. Muscle damage causesalterations in treadmill running in knee kinematics of untrained children probable due to differentiation of their central nervous system running strategy

  15. Elastic energy within the human plantar aponeurosis contributes to arch shortening during the push-off phase of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Justin C; Challis, John H

    2016-03-21

    During locomotion, the lower limb tendons undergo stretch and recoil, functioning like springs that recycle energy with each step. Cadaveric testing has demonstrated that the arch of the foot operates in this capacity during simple loading, yet it remains unclear whether this function exists during locomotion. In this study, one of the arch׳s passive elastic tissues (the plantar aponeurosis; PA) was investigated to glean insights about it and the entire arch of the foot during running. Subject specific computer models of the foot were driven using the kinematics of eight subjects running at 3.1m/s using two initial contact patterns (rearfoot and non-rearfoot). These models were used to estimate PA strain, force, and elastic energy storage during the stance phase. To examine the release of stored energy, the foot joint moments, powers, and work created by the PA were computed. Mean elastic energy stored in the PA was 3.1±1.6J, which was comparable to in situ testing values. Changes to the initial contact pattern did not change elastic energy storage or late stance PA function, but did alter PA pre-tensioning and function during early stance. In both initial contact patterns conditions, the PA power was positive during late stance, which reveals that the release of the stored elastic energy assists with shortening of the arch during push-off. As the PA is just one of the arch׳s passive elastic tissues, the entire arch may store additional energy and impact the metabolic cost of running. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Shortened hospital stay for elective cesarean section after initiation of a fast-track program and midwifery home-care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Johanna; Bjornsdottir, Thorbjörg Edda; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Halldorsdottir, Gudrun; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas

    2011-07-01

    To audit whether hospital stay shortened without increasing readmissions after implementation of fast-track methodology for elective cesarean section and characterize what influences length of stay. A fast-track program was initiated in November 2008, with a one year clinical audit and satisfaction survey. Discharge criteria were predefined and midwife home visits included if discharge was within 48 hours. Hospital stay by parity for women with elective section for singleton pregnancy between 1.11. 2008 - 31.10. 2009 (n=213, fast-track 182) was compared to 2003 (n=199) and 2007 (n=183). Readmissions and outpatient visits 2007 and 2008-9 were counted. Reasons for longer stay were recorded in fast-track, and body mass index. Median hospital stay decreased significantly from 81 to 52 hours between 2007 and 2008-9. Readmissions were four in each period and outpatient visit rates similar. In 2008-9, 66% of all women were discharged within 48 hours. Women in the fast-track program were satisfied with early discharge. Hospital stay for parous women was shorter in 2007 compared to 2003, but unchanged for nulliparas. Parity had a minimal influence on length of stay in 2008-9, although nulliparous women ≤ 25 years were more likely to stay >48 hours. Body mass index did not correlate with length of stay. Pain was rarely the reason for a longer stay in the fast-track program and 90% were satisfied with pain-medication after discharge. Most healthy women can be discharged early after singleton birth by elective cesarean, without increasing readmissions.

  17. Validation of shortened 2-day sterility testing of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapeutic preparation on an automated culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysák, Daniel; Holubová, Monika; Bergerová, Tamara; Vávrová, Monika; Cangemi, Giuseppina Cristina; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Kruzliak, Peter; Jindra, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Cell therapy products represent a new trend of treatment in the field of immunotherapy and regenerative medicine. Their biological nature and multistep preparation procedure require the application of complex release criteria and quality control. Microbial contamination of cell therapy products is a potential source of morbidity in recipients. The automated blood culture systems are widely used for the detection of microorganisms in cell therapy products. However the standard 2-week cultivation period is too long for some cell-based treatments and alternative methods have to be devised. We tried to verify whether a shortened cultivation of the supernatant from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture obtained 2 days before the cell harvest could sufficiently detect microbial growth and allow the release of MSC for clinical application. We compared the standard Ph. Eur. cultivation method and the automated blood culture system BACTEC (Becton Dickinson). The time to detection (TTD) and the detection limit were analyzed for three bacterial and two fungal strains. The Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recognized within 24 h with both methods (detection limit ~10 CFU). The time required for the detection of Bacillus subtilis was shorter with the automated method (TTD 10.3 vs. 60 h for 10-100 CFU). The BACTEC system reached significantly shorter times to the detection of Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis growth compared to the classical method (15.5 vs. 48 and 31.5 vs. 48 h, respectively; 10-100 CFU). The positivity was demonstrated within 48 h in all bottles, regardless of the size of the inoculum. This study validated the automated cultivation system as a method able to detect all tested microorganisms within a 48-h period with a detection limit of ~10 CFU. Only in case of B. subtilis, the lowest inoculum (~10 CFU) was not recognized. The 2-day cultivation technique is then capable of confirming the microbiological safety of MSC and

  18. High-intensity stretch-shortening contraction training modifies responsivity of skeletal muscle in old male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of high-intensity resistance training to counter age-related sarcopenia is currently debated because of the potential for maladaptation when training design is inappropriate. Training design is problematic because the influence of various loading variables (e.g. contraction mode, repetition number, and training frequency) is still not well characterized at old age. To address this in a precisely controlled manner, we developed a rodent model of high-intensity training consisting of maximally-activated stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), contractions typical during resistance training. With this model, we determined that at old age, high-repetition SSC training (80 SSCs: 8 sets of 10 repetitions) performed frequently (i.e. 3 days per week) for 4.5 weeks induced strength deficits with no muscle mass gain while decreasing frequency to 2 days per week promoted increases in muscle mass and muscle quality (i.e. performance normalized to muscle mass). This finding confirmed the popular notion that decreasing training frequency has a robust effect with age. Meanwhile, the influence of other loading variables remains contentious. The aim of the present study was to assess muscle adaptation following modulation of contraction mode and repetition number during high-intensity SSC training. Muscles of young (3 month old) and old (30 month old) male rats were exposed to 4.5 weeks of low-repetition static training of 4 (i.e. 4 sets of one repetition) isometric (ISO) contractions 3 days per week or a more moderate-repetition dynamic training of 40 SSCs (i.e. 4 sets of 10 repetitions) 3 days per week. For young rats, performance and muscle mass increased regardless of training protocol. For old rats, no muscle mass adaptation was observed for 4 ISO training while 40 SSC training induced muscle mass gain without improvement in muscle quality, an outcome distinct from modulating training frequency. Muscle mass gain for old rats was accompanied by

  19. Considering Time in Orthophotography Production: from a General Workflow to a Shortened Workflow for a Faster Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G.

    2015-08-01

    orthophoto production faster. The shortened workflow reduces the production time by more than three whereas the positional error increases from 1 GSD to 1.5 GSD. The examination of time allocation through the production process shows that it is worth sparing time in the post-processing phase.

  20. OC30 - Fracture reduction with nitrous oxide at the children's emergency department shortens the length of stay and reduces the use of full anaesthesia in the operating department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sigrid; Wentzel, Anna-Pia; Ekstrom, Malin

    2016-05-09

    Theme: Accreditation and quality improvement. Dislocated fractures are common in the children's emergency department (ER). All forms of fracture reduction are very painful requiring nitrous oxide. The purpose is to shorten the length of stay in the hospital as well as sustain a high quality of care. All nurses received theoretical and practical training in the use of nitrous oxide. Evaluations with the families were made by telephone. A total of 40 enclosed fracture reductions were made at the ER, leading to a reduction of 33 patients in the operating department and the length of stay was shortened - this compared to the same time in 2014. No adverse event was reported and no patient felt any increase in pain during the treatment. All patients would repeat the procedure if necessary. The treatment has reduced the length of stay in the hospital without affecting the other patients in the ER or the quality of care.

  1. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined trans monounsaturated fatty acid contents in all margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark, and in frying fats used by the fast-food restaurants Burger King and McDonald's. Trans C-18:1 content was 4.1 +/- 3.8% (g per 100 g fatty acids) in hard margarines, significantly...... of trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years...

  2. Thick-skinned tectonics in a Late Cretaceous-Neogene intracontinental belt (High Atlas Mountains, Morocco): The flat-ramp fault control on basement shortening and cover folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, A.; Ouanaimi, H.; Michard, A.; Soulaimani, A.; Ettachfini, E. M.; Berrada, I.; El Arabi, H.; Lagnaoui, A.; Saddiqi, O.

    2018-04-01

    Most of the structural studies of the intracontinental High Atlas belt of Morocco have dealt with the central part of the belt, whose basement does not crop out. Here we study the Alpine deformation of the North Subatlas Zone, which is the part of the Western High Atlas (WHA) Paleozoic Massif that involves both Paleozoic basement units and remnants of their Mesozoic-Cenozoic cover formations. Our aim is to better constrain the geometry and kinematics of the basement faults during the Alpine shortening. Based on detail mapping, satellite imagery and field observations, we describe an array of sub-equatorial, transverse and oblique faults between the WHA Axial Zone and the Haouz Neogene basin. They define a mosaic of basement blocks pushed upon one another and upon the Haouz basement along the North Atlas Fault (NAF). The Axial Zone makes up the hanging-wall of the Adassil-Medinet Fault (AMF) south of this mosaic. The faults generally presents flat-ramp-flat geometry linked to the activation of multiple décollement levels, either within the basement where its foliation is subhorizontal or within favourable cover formations (Jurassic evaporites, Lower Cretaceous silty red beds, Upper Cretaceous evaporitic marls, Neogene basal argillites). The occurrence of the North Atlas detachment (NAD) allowed folded pop-up units to develop in front of the propagating NAF. Shortening began as early as the Campanian-Maastrichtian along the AMF. The direction of the maximum horizontal stress rotated from NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE from the Maastrichtian-Paleocene to the Neogene. The amount of shortening reaches 20% in the Azegour transect. This compares with the shortening amount published for the central-eastern High Atlas, suggesting that similar structures characterize the Paleozoic basement all along the belt. The WHA thick-skinned tectonics evokes that of the frontal Sevier belt and of the external Western Alps, although with a much minor pre-inversion burial.

  3. A novel temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature dependent fluorescence......We present a new temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with external heater and temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  4. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    2013-01-01

    steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence......We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  5. Evaluating the superiority of honey over silver sulphadiazine dressing in shortening healing duration of burn injury: an evidence-based case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy S. Sopandi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Burn injury is a global health problem associated with major morbidity and mortality. Honey has long been used in wound management due to its ability to accelerate healing rates and prevent infection. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of honey dressing in shortening healing duration of burn injury compared to silver sulphadiazine (SSD).Methods: A PubMed and Proquest database search was conducted to identify relevant studies. The studies were then appraised and ranke...

  6. Differences in the performance tests of the fast and slow stretch and shortening cycle among professional, amateur and elite youth soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Keiner, Michael; Sander, Andre; Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether physical attributes can differentiate between professional, amateur and elite youth soccer players; such a distinction could aid in the selection process for youth soccer. Therefore, this investigation evaluated a suspected difference in the performance tests of the slow and fast stretch and the shortening cycle (squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], and drop jump from varying heights [DJ]) among professional, amateur and elite youth s...

  7. Effect of kinesiotaping in shortening rehabilitation deadlines in sportsmen operated of anterior cruciate ligament : Randomized clinical trial, double blinded and multicentre

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Vargas, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is not much scientific evidence available about this application of kinesiotaping (KNT) due to it being a new and recent technique of application in physiotherapy world. This study is pioneer in demonstrating the effectiveness of KNT in shortening deadlines of recuperation time after a cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Objectives: To demonstrate the capacity of KNT to recover the correct muscular tone in hamstrings and this make a reduction in recovery times after an ACL surg...

  8. MÉTODO SIMPLES PARA ESTIMAR ENCURTAMENTO PELO FRIO EM CARNE BOVINA A SIMPLE METHOD TO ESTIMATE COLD SHORTENING IN BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordão Barrozo Heinemann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available É bem conhecido o fato de que o encurtamento pelo frio pode influenciar negativamente a textura da carne. Por isso, a determinação do grau de contração do tecido muscular é um recurso analítico de grande importância quando se estuda a otimização dos procedimentos industriais. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas comparativamente duas metodologias de microscopia. Para isso, os músculos Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus obtidos de nove carcaças bovinas com três diferentes graus de acabamento foram analisados de forma pareada por ambos os métodos. O músculo Longissimus dorsi apresentou menor comprimento de sarcômero e o m. Semimembranosus o maior (p0,05, revelando a possibilidade de emprego do método mais simples.The negative influence of cold shortening on meat texture is well known. Because of that, the determination of the muscle contraction extent represents an important analytical tool for the optimization of the industrial procedures. In this work, two methodologies to evaluate cold shortening were compared. Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles from 9 cattle carcasses with three different fat thickness grades were paired analyzed by both methodologies. Longissimus dorsi muscle showed the shortest sarcomere length while Semimembranosus m. showed the longest one (p0.05, which suggests the possibility of using the simpler method for cold shortening evaluation.

  9. SPECIAL RULES OF MITIGATION OF PUNISHMENT IN CASE OF THE CONCLUSION OF THE PRE-TRIAL COOPERATION AGREEMENT, AT THE SPECIAL PROCEDURE OF FOR THE TRIAL AND AT THE SHORTENED ORDER OF INQUIRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Nepomnyashchaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article analyzes the rules for the appointment of punishment in the case of a pre-trial cooperation agreement, with a special procedure for the trial and with a shortened procedure of conducting inquiry, regulated by art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code “Turning out a Sentence when Mitigating Circumstances Exist”. The authors give an answer to two questions: 1 Does the legal nature of these institutions correspond to the legal nature of mitigating circumstances; 2 Is it advisable to consolidate in a one article of the law different legal regulations.Methodology. Authors use such researching methods as analysis and synthesis, formally legal, comparative legal.Results. Rules for the appointment of punishment in the conclusion of a pre-trial cooperation agreement, stipulated by the pt. 2, 4 of art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code, regulate not the order of accounting for mitigating circumstances, but the legal consequences associated with the promotion of a person, which concluded and executed a pre-trial cooperation agreement, that does not correspond to the legal nature of the pt. 1, 3 of art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code.The legal nature of the rules for the appointment of punishment, established in pt. 5 of art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code, also does not correspond to the legal nature of the rules for the imposition of punishment in the presence of mitigating circumstances, because mitigation of punishment occurs on criminal procedural grounds, which are not mitigating circumstances.Conclusions. In authors opinion, fastening in art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code of three independent rules for the imposition of punishment, namely, the rules for the imposition of punishment in the presence of mitigating circumstances (pt. 1, 3 of art. 62 of the Criminal Code, at the conclusion of a pre-trial cooperation agreement (pt. 2, 4 of art. 62 of the Crim-inal Code, with a special order of the trial and a shortened procedure for conducting an inquiry

  10. High spatial and temporal resolution retrospective cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance from shortened free breathing real-time acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Kellman, Peter; Larocca, Gina; Arai, Andrew E; Hansen, Michael S

    2013-11-14

    Cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is challenging in patients who cannot perform repeated breath holds. Real-time, free-breathing acquisition is an alternative, but image quality is typically inferior. There is a clinical need for techniques that achieve similar image quality to the segmented cine using a free breathing acquisition. Previously, high quality retrospectively gated cine images have been reconstructed from real-time acquisitions using parallel imaging and motion correction. These methods had limited clinical applicability due to lengthy acquisitions and volumetric measurements obtained with such methods have not previously been evaluated systematically. This study introduces a new retrospective reconstruction scheme for real-time cine imaging which aims to shorten the required acquisition. A real-time acquisition of 16-20s per acquired slice was inputted into a retrospective cine reconstruction algorithm, which employed non-rigid registration to remove respiratory motion and SPIRiT non-linear reconstruction with temporal regularization to fill in missing data. The algorithm was used to reconstruct cine loops with high spatial (1.3-1.8 × 1.8-2.1 mm²) and temporal resolution (retrospectively gated, 30 cardiac phases, temporal resolution 34.3 ± 9.1 ms). Validation was performed in 15 healthy volunteers using two different acquisition resolutions (256 × 144/192 × 128 matrix sizes). For each subject, 9 to 12 short axis and 3 long axis slices were imaged with both segmented and real-time acquisitions. The retrospectively reconstructed real-time cine images were compared to a traditional segmented breath-held acquisition in terms of image quality scores. Image quality scoring was performed by two experts using a scale between 1 and 5 (poor to good). For every subject, LAX and three SAX slices were selected and reviewed in the random order. The reviewers were blinded to the reconstruction approach and acquisition protocols and

  11. Geriatric comanagement reduces perioperative complications and shortens duration of hospital stay after lumbar spine surgery: a prospective single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Vuong, Victoria D; Moreno, Jessica; Cheng, Joseph; Karikari, Isaac O; Bagley, Carlos A

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Geriatric patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery have unique needs due to the physiological changes of aging. They are at risk for adverse outcomes such as delirium, infection, and iatrogenic complications, and these complications, in turn, contribute to the risk of functional decline, nursing home admission, and death. Whether preoperative and perioperative comanagement by a geriatrician reduces the incidence of in-hospital complications and length of in-hospital stay after elective lumbar spine surgery remains unknown. METHODS A unique model of comanagement for elderly patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery was implemented at a major academic medical center. The Perioperative Optimization of Senior Health (POSH) program was launched with the aim of improving outcomes in elderly patients (> 65 years old) undergoing complex lumbar spine surgery. In this model, a geriatrician evaluates elderly patients preoperatively, in addition to performing routine preoperative anesthesia surgical screening, and comanages them daily throughout the course of their hospital stay to manage medical comorbid conditions and coordinate multidisciplinary rehabilitation along with the neurosurgical team. The first 100 cases were retrospectively reviewed after initiation of the POSH protocol and compared with the immediately preceding 25 cases to assess the incidence of perioperative complications and clinical outcomes. RESULTS One hundred twenty-five patients undergoing lumbar decompression and fusion were enrolled in this pilot program. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. The mean length of in-hospital stay was 30% shorter in the POSH cohort (6.13 vs 8.72 days; p = 0.06). The mean duration of time between surgery and patient mobilization was significantly shorter in the POSH cohort compared with the non-POSH cohort (1.57 days vs 2.77 days; p = 0.02), and the number of steps ambulated on day of discharge was 2-fold higher in the POSH cohort (p = 0

  12. Shortened strongyle-type egg reappearance periods in naturally infected horses treated with moxidectin and failure of a larvicidal dose of fenbendazole to reduce fecal egg counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Smith, A R; Lyons, E T

    2010-10-29

    Deworming horses with anthelmintics that have activity against encysted small strongyle larvae (L(3) and L(4)) is a common practice in parasite control programs. The two drugs currently available for this use are moxidectin (MOX) administered in a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg and fenbendazole (FBZ) given at the larvicidal dose (10mg/kg for 5 days). Here, we report the efficacy of MOX and the larvicidal dose of FBZ for reducing counts of strongyle-type eggs per gram of feces in naturally infected horses. Fecal egg counts (FECs) of 15 yearlings were observed following deworming. On day 0, 6 of the 15 yearlings were administered a larvicidal dose of FBZ; 14 days later, all 15 yearlings received MOX at a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg. Feces were collected on day 0 for pre-treatment egg counts. Feces were collected at weekly intervals thereafter during FEC observation periods. FECs of FBZ-treated horses were compared at day 0 and 14 days post-treatment. The difference in means pre- and post-treatment with FBZ was not statistically significant (p=0.65). On days 0 and 42 of the MOX treatment observation period the mean FEC of the yearlings that had not received the FBZ treatment did not differ significantly from that of the FBZ-treated yearlings. MOX was effective in reducing fecal egg counts to 0 EPG for 21 days. At day 35 all but 2 of the yearlings had some eggs present (range=4-361 EPG) and at day 42 all but 1 yearling had eggs present (range=3-432 EPG). At day 42 the group mean FEC reduction had fallen from 100% to 67%. Results of this study do not support the use of the larvicidal dose of FBZ for small strongyle control. Larger field studies will be needed to investigate whether egg reappearance periods are shortening for MOX-treated horses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of range of motion and muscular shortening in female flamenco dancers. Valoración de las amplitudes articulares y acortamientos musculares en bailaoras de flamenco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Costa Sepúlveda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess flexibility and range of motion in flamenco dancers of Cádiz, Sevilla and Jaén (Spain through a tests battery. The study population comprised 37 healthy flamenco dancers (25 ± 7,2 years, 1,6 ± 0,5 m y 56 ± 7,6 Kg. They performed a range of flexibility and motion tests (i.e. Kendall test, Nachlas test. Results has shown that there is muscle shortening in most of the tests that flamenco dancers has passed. We conclude that there are not many articles on physiological and fitness aspects of dance and we think that it is necessary a specific physical dancer training, to prevent injuries and to extend dancers life.El objetivo de este estudio es la valoración de la flexibilidad muscular y la amplitud articular en bailaoras de flamenco de la provincia de Cádiz, Sevilla y Jaén, a través de una batería de tests. En el estudio participaron 37 bailaoras de danza flamenca de 25 ± 7,2 años, con una altura con valores de 1,6 ± 0,5 m y 56 ± 7,6 Kg de peso. La batería está compuesta de las siguientes pruebas que se realizarán a través del protocolo de actuación especificado: Prueba de rotadores internos y aductores del hombro, Prueba de Kendall, Prueba de Diagonal Posterior, Prueba de Nachlas, Prueba de Ridge, Prueba de Flexión de cadera con rodilla en extensión, Prueba de Thomas y Prueba de Elongación de los flexores plantares. Los resultados demuestran que existen acortamientos en diferente musculatura implicada como los rotadores internos y aductores del hombro, dorsal ancho, pectoral mayor, redondo mayor, cintura escapular, psoas-ilíaco, recto anterior del muslo y sóleo. Concluir con la escasa existencia de artículos relacionados con la valoración de la condición física de bailarines de cualquier modalidad de danza y con la necesaria aplicación de un entrenamiento planificado complementario con una propuesta de ejercicios de mejora de la musculatura implicada y, así, poder prevenir futuras

  14. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties; Compatibilidad de grasas vegetales formuladas como sustitutas de la manteca: microestructura, formas polimórficas y propiedades texturales.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanty, N.A.M.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Miskandar, M.S.; Bockstaele, F. Van; Dewettinck, K.; Nusantoro, B.P.

    2017-07-01

    A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD) in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF) with palm stearin (PS) in a 99:1 (w/w) ratio; avocado fat (Avo) with PS and cocoa butter (CB) in a 84:7:9 (w/w) ratio; palm oil (PO) with PS, soybean oil (SBO) and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w) ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure. [Spanish] Se realizó un estudio para determinar la compatibilidad de tres shortenings vegetales con manteca (LD) en términos de microestructura, formas polimórficas y propiedades texturales. Los shortenings de las mezclas de grasas binarias, ternarias y cuaternarias se prepararon de acuerdo con un procedimiento estándar mezclando la grasa de mee (MF) con estearina de palma (PS) en una relación de 99:1 (p/p); grasa de aguacate (Avo) con PS y manteca de cacao (CB) en la relación 84:7:9 (p/p); aceite de palma (PO) con PS, aceite de soja (SBO) y CB en la relación 38:5:52:5 (p/p), respectivamente. Se evaluó la composición de triacilgliceridos, las formas polimórficas, la morfología cristalina y las propiedades texturales de las grasas. Este estudio encontró que los tres shortenings a base de plantas y LD fueron similares con respecto a su consistencia, dureza y valores de compresión y adhesividad. Sin embargo, se encontró que todas las grasas a base de plantas eran distintas al shortening de LD con respecto a la

  15. The T2-Shortening Effect of Gadolinium and the Optimal Conditions for Maximizing the CNR for Evaluating the Biliary System: a Phantom Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoon, Choon Sik; Song, Si Young; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Woo Sun

    2011-01-01

    Clear depiction of the common bile duct is important when evaluating neonatal cholestasis in order to differentiate biliary atresia from other diseases. During MR cholangiopancreatography, the T2-shortening effect of gadolinium can increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bile duct and enhance its depiction. The purpose of this study was to confirm, by performing a phantom study, the T2-shortening effect of gadolinium, to evaluate the effect of different gadolinium chelates with different gadolinium concentrations and different magnetic field strengths for investigating the optimal combination of these conditions, and for identifying the maximum CNR for the evaluation of the biliary system. MR imaging using a T2-weighted single-shot fast spin echo sequence and T2 relaxometry was performed with a sponge phantom in a syringe tube. Two kinds of contrast agents (Gd-DTPA and Gd-EOB-DTPA) with different gadolinium concentrations were evaluated with 1.5T and 3T scanners. The signal intensities, the CNRs and the T2 relaxation time were analyzed. The signal intensities significantly decreased as the gadolinium concentrations increased (p < 0.001) with both contrast agents. These signal intensities were higher on a 3T (p < 0.001) scanner. The CNRs were higher on a 1.5T (p < 0.001) scanner and they showed no significant change with different gadolinium concentrations. The T2 relaxation time also showed a negative correlation with the gadolinium concentrations (p < 0.001) and the CNRs showed decrease more with Gd-EOB-DTPA (versus Gd-DTPA; p < 0.001) on a 3T scanner (versus 1.5T; p < 0.001). A T2-shortening effect of gadolinium exhibits a negative correlation with the gadolinium concentration for both the signal intensities and the T2 relaxation time. A higher CNR can be obtained with Gd-DTPA on a 1.5T MRI scanner.

  16. Economic evaluation of a shortened standardised treatment regimen of antituberculosis drugs for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (STREAM): study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Elvis; Madan, Jason; Langley, Ivor; Girma, Mamo; Evans, Denise; Rosen, Sydney; Squire, S Bertel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:\\ud Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a serious financial challenge to health systems and patients. The current treatment for patients with MDR-TB takes up to 24 months to complete. Evidence for a shorter regimen which differs from the standard WHO recommended MDR-TB regimen and typically lasts between 9 and 12 months has been reported from Bangladesh. This evaluation aims to assess the economic impact of a shortened regimen on patients and health systems. This eval...

  17. [Comparative study of proximal femoral shortening after the third generation of Gamma nail versus proximal femoral nail anti-rotation in treatment of intertrochanteric fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Yao, Qi; Zhang, Gen'ai; Ding, Lixiang

    2018-03-01

    To explore the difference of the proximal femoral shortening (PFS) between the third generation of Gamma nail (TGN) and the proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) in treating intertrochanteric fracture of femur. The clinical data of 158 patients with intertrochanteric fracture of femur who were treated with TGN internal fixation or PFNA internal fixation between January 2014 and December 2015 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into TGN group (69 cases) and PFNA group (89 cases) according to surgical operation. There was no significant difference in gender, age, bone mineral density, causes of injury, AO/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) classification, accompanied disease, and the time from injury to operation between 2 groups ( P >0.05). The result of fracture reduction was divided into 3 types: positive medial cortex support, neutral position cortex support, and negative medial cortex support according to the method of Chang et al . At 18 months postoperatively, bilateral hip anteroposterior X-ray films were taken to measure horizontal PFS values (marked as X), vertical PFS values (marked as Y), and calculate the total PFS values (marked as Z). The PFS values were divided into 4 grades according to the criteria (≤1.0 mm, 1.0-4.9 mm, 5.0-9.9 mm, and ≥10.0 mm), and the constituent ratio was calculated and compared between 2 groups. The X, Y, and Z values and the collodiaphyseal angles of 2 groups at 18 months postoperatively were compared. The X, Y, and Z values of 2 groups of patients with failed fixation and normal healing within 18 months after operation were recorded and compared. The X, Y, and Z values of 2 groups of the patients with different cortex support types were also compared. There were 34 cases of positive medial cortex support, 30 cases of neutral position cortex support, and 5 cases of negative medial cortex support in TGN group, and there were 45, 33, and 11 cases in PFNA group respectively

  18. The role of Mesozoic sedimentary basin tapers on the formation of Cenozoic crustal shortening structures and foredeep in the western Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    The foreland basin records important clues of tectonic and sedimentary process of mountain-building, thus to explore its dynamic mechanism on the formation is an important issue of the mountain-basin interaction. The Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt and its adjacent Sichuan basin located in the eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau, are one of the most-concerned regions of studying modern mountain-building and seismic process, and are also a natural laboratory of studying the dynamics of the formation and development of foreland basin. However, it still need further explore on the mechanics of the development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust-belts in the western Sichuan Basin. The Longmen Shan thrust belt has experienced multi-stages of tectonics evolution, foreland basin formation and topography growth since Late Triassic, and whether the early formed basin architecture and large Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper can influence the formation and development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust belts? To solve these issues, this project aim to focus on the Cenozoic foreland basin and internal crustal shortening structures in the western Sichuan basin, on the basis of growth critical wedge taper theory. We will reconstruct the shape of multi-phases of sedimentary basin tapers, the temporal-spatial distribution of crustal shortening and thrusting sequences, and analyze the control mechanism of Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper on the formation of Cenozoic foreland basins, and final explore the interaction between the tectonics geomorphology, stress field and dynamic propagation of foreland basin.

  19. Preoperative management of surgical patients by "shortened fasting time": a study on the amount of total body water by multi-frequency impedance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is an established procedure to be practiced for patients before surgery, but optimal preoperative fasting time still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of "shortened preoperative fasting time" on the change in the amount of total body water (TBW) in elective surgical patients. TBW was measured by multi-frequency impedance method. The patients, who were scheduled to undergo surgery for stomach cancer, were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Before surgery, patients in the control group were managed with conventional preoperative fasting time, while patients in the "enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS)" group were managed with "shortened preoperative fasting time" and "reduced laxative medication." TBW was measured on the day before surgery and the day of surgery before entering the operating room. Defecation times and anesthesia-related vomiting and aspiration were monitored. TBW values on the day of surgery showed changes in both groups as compared with those on the day before surgery, but the rate of change was smaller in the ERAS group than in the control group (2.4±6.8% [12 patients] vs. -10.6±4.6% [14 patients], pfasting time" and "reduced administration of laxatives" is effective in the maintenance of TBW in elective surgical patients.

  20. Muscle-Specific Histone H3K36 Dimethyltransferase SET-18 Shortens Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by Repressing daf-16a Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangping Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence shows that histone methylation, a typical epigenetic mark, is crucial for gene expression regulation during aging. Decreased trimethylation of Lys 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me3 in worms and yeast is reported to shorten lifespan. The function of H3K36me2 in aging remains unclear. In this study, we identified Caenorhabditis elegans SET-18 as a histone H3K36 dimethyltransferase. SET-18 deletion extended lifespan and increased oxidative stress resistance, dependent on daf-16 activity in the insulin/IGF pathway. In set-18 mutants, transcription of daf-16 isoform a (daf-16a was specifically upregulated. Accordingly, a decrease in H3K36me2 on daf-16a promoter was observed. Muscle-specific expression of SET-18 increased in aged worms (day 7 and day 11, attributable to elevation of global H3K36me2 and inhibition of daf-16a expression. Consequently, longevity was shortened. These findings suggested that chromatic repression mediated by tissue-specific H3K36 dimethyltransferase might be detrimental to lifespan and may have implications in human age-related diseases.

  1. Muscle-Specific Histone H3K36 Dimethyltransferase SET-18 Shortens Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by Repressing daf-16a Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liangping; Li, Hongyuan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Tingting; Zhang, Yongjun; Ba, Xueqing; Li, Zhongwei; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun; Zhao, Yanmei; Li, Xiaoxue

    2018-03-06

    Mounting evidence shows that histone methylation, a typical epigenetic mark, is crucial for gene expression regulation during aging. Decreased trimethylation of Lys 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me3) in worms and yeast is reported to shorten lifespan. The function of H3K36me2 in aging remains unclear. In this study, we identified Caenorhabditis elegans SET-18 as a histone H3K36 dimethyltransferase. SET-18 deletion extended lifespan and increased oxidative stress resistance, dependent on daf-16 activity in the insulin/IGF pathway. In set-18 mutants, transcription of daf-16 isoform a (daf-16a) was specifically upregulated. Accordingly, a decrease in H3K36me2 on daf-16a promoter was observed. Muscle-specific expression of SET-18 increased in aged worms (day 7 and day 11), attributable to elevation of global H3K36me2 and inhibition of daf-16a expression. Consequently, longevity was shortened. These findings suggested that chromatic repression mediated by tissue-specific H3K36 dimethyltransferase might be detrimental to lifespan and may have implications in human age-related diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prophylactic first-line antibiotics reduce infectious fever and shorten hospital stay during chemotherapy-induced agranulocytosis in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqin; Ruan, Yongsheng; He, Yuelin; Zhang, Yuming; Wu, Xuedong; Liu, Huayin; Liu, Xuan; He, Lan; Li, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    There exists few pediatric data on the safety and efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics during chemotherapy-induced agranulocytosis. We prospectively studied the incidence of infection-related fever in 38 children, aged 2-16 years, with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) over 121 chemotherapy treatment cycles. A prophylactic group (n = 18) was given either vancomycin/cefepime (400 mg/m(2), q12 h/50 mg/kg, q12 h) or piperacillin/tazobactam (110 mg/kg, q12 h). Control patients (n = 20) received no preventive antibiotics. The prophylactic group (59 treatment cycles) experienced fever less frequently than the control group (0.4 vs. 0.9 events; p chemotherapy-induced agranulocytosis can effectively reduce the incidence of infectious fever and can shorten the average length of hospital stay, improving treatment success and quality of life. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Presence of post-systolic shortening is an independent predictor of heart failure in patients following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brainin, Philip; Haahr-Pedersen, Sune; Sengeløv, Morten

    2018-01-01

    echocardiography (STE) in six myocardial walls from all three apical projections. During a median follow-up period of 5.4 years (interquartile range, 4.1-6.0 years), 180 events occurred: 59 deaths, 70 heart failures (HF) and 51 new myocardial infarctions (MI). In multivariable analysis adjusting for: age, sex......Following an ischemic event post systolic shortening (PSS) may occur. We investigated the association between PSS in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and occurrence of cardiovascular events at follow...... incrementally with increasing numbers of walls displaying PSS. The increased risk of HF was confirmed when assessing the post-systolic index by STE (HR 1.29 95% CI 1.09-1.53, P = 0.003, per 1% increase). A regional analysis showed that PSS by TDI in the septal wall was the strongest predictor of HF (HR 1.77, 95...

  4. Effects of shortening the close-up period length coupled with increased supply of metabolizable protein on performance and metabolic status of multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, T Amirabadi; Amanlou, H; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2017-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare conventional (CON; 21 d) and shortened (SH; 10 d) close-up period, and evaluate the effect of shortened close-up period combined with feeding different metabolizable protein (MP) levels on dry matter (DM) intake, metabolic status, and performance of dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows with similar parity, body weight (BW), and previous lactation milk yield were divided into 2 groups. The first group (n = 24) received the far-off diet from -60 to -21 d (CON), and the second group (n = 24) received same far-off diet from -60 to -10 d (SH) relative to expected parturition. Cows were then moved to individual stalls and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 close-up diets: low MP diet (LMP; MP = 79 g/kg of DM), medium MP diet (MMP; MP = 101 g/kg of DM), or high MP diet (HMP; MP = 118 g/kg of DM). Treatments were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 lengths of close-up period (CON and SH) and 3 levels of MP (LMP, MMP, and HMP). All diets were fed for ad libitum intake during the close-up period. After calving, all cows received the same fresh cow diet. We found no interaction between close-up period length and MP levels for traits, except for postpartum serum fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). The concentrations of postpartum serum fatty acids and BHB were higher on LMP than MMP and HMP diets in SH group. The cows of the SH group tended to produce less colostrum in the first milking than cows in CON group. The length of close-up period did not affect pre- and postpartum DM intake or energy balance of cows during the last week of prepartum, but cows of the CON group had greater BW changes during the last 3 wk before parturition than cows in SH group. Cows fed MMP and HMP diets consumed 1.2 and 1 kg more DM than for those fed LMP prepartum, respectively. The concentrations of prepartum BHB and Ca were higher for SH cows than CON group cows. Except for blood urea N concentration, no other blood metabolite in

  5. A prospective multicentric international study on the surgical outcomes and patients' satisfaction rates of the 'sliding' technique for end-stage Peyronie's disease with severe shortening of the penis and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luigi; Falcone, Marco; Ceruti, Carlo; Timpano, Massimiliano; Sedigh, Omid; Ralph, David J; Kuehhas, Franklin; Oderda, Marco; Preto, Mirko; Sibona, Mattia; Gillo, Arianna; Garaffa, Giulio; Gontero, Paolo; Frea, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    To report the results from a prospective multicentric study of patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) treated with the 'sliding' technique (ST). From June 2010 to January 2014, 28 consecutive patients affected by stable PD with severe penile shortening and end-stage erectile dysfunction (ED) were enrolled in three European PD tertiary referral centres. The validated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) Questions 2 and 3, and the Peyronie's disease questionnaire (PDQ) were completed preoperatively by all patients. At the follow-up visits (at 3, 6 and 12 months), the IIEF, the SEP Questions 2 and 3, the PDQ, and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) were completed. The outcome analysis was focused on penile length restoration, and intra- and postoperative complications classified according the Clavien-Dindo Classification. The mean (range) follow-up was 37 (9-60) months. A malleable penile prosthesis (PP) was implanted in seven patients, while an inflatable three-pieces PP was placed in the remainder. In the case of inflatable PP implantation, porcine small intestinal submucosa and acellular porcine dermal matrix were used to cover the tunical defects. While in patients undergoing malleable PP implantation, collagen-fibrin sponge was used. The mean operative time was 145 min in the inflatable PP group and 115 min in the malleable PP group. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications included profuse bleeding requiring a blood transfusion in one patient (3.5%) on anticoagulation therapy for a mechanical heart valve (Grade II) and PP infection requiring the removal of the device (7%) (Grade III). There were no late recurrences of the shaft deformation. The postoperative functional data showed a progressive improvement in the score of all questionnaires, peaking at 12 months postoperatively. The mean (range) penile lengthening was 3.2 (2.5-4) cm and no

  6. Deoxyribonucleic acid telomere length shortening can predict the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Fan; Li, Zeng-Yi; Lv, Ke; Zhou, Mei-Cen; Dong, Ya-Xiu; Sun, Qi; Li, Yu-Xiu

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effect of telomere shortening and other predictive factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a 6-year prospective cohort study. A total of 70 type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 57.8 ± 6.7 years) patients without NAFLD were included in the study, and 64 of them were successfully followed up 6 years later, excluding four cases with significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD was diagnosed by the hepatorenal ratio obtained by a quantitative ultrasound method using NIH image analysis software. The 39 individuals that developed NAFLD were allocated to group A, and the 21 individuals that did not develop NAFLD were allocated to group B. Fluorescent real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure telomere length. There was no significant difference between the two groups in baseline telomere length; however, at the end of the 6th year, telomere length had become shorter in group A compared with group B. There were significant differences between these two groups in baseline body mass index, waistline, systolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin and fasting C-peptide level. In addition, the estimated indices of baseline insulin resistance increased in group A. Fasting insulin level, body mass index, systolic blood pressure at baseline and the shortening of telomere length were independent risk factors of NAFLD in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Telomere length became shorter in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who developed NAFLD over the course of 6 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who developed NAFLD had more serious insulin resistance compared with those who did not develop NAFLD a long time ago. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. The influence of sex on life shortening and tumor induction in CBA/Cne mice exposed to x rays or fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Majo, V.; Coppola, M.; Rebessi, S.; Saran, A.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study of male and female CBA/Cne mice was set up at Casaccia primarily to investigate the influence of sex on long-term survival and tumor induction after exposure to high- and low-LET radiation. Mice were whole-body-irradiated at 3 months of age with fission-neutron doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.8 Gy at the RSV-TAPIRO reactor (mean neutron energy 0.4 MeV, in terms of kerma, y D = 51.5 KeV/μm), or with 250 KVp X-ray doses of 1, 3, 5 and 7 Gy. Control and irradiated animals were then followed for their entire life span. As a general finding, male CBA/Cne mice appear more susceptible to tumori-genesis than females. In particular, the incidences of induced acute myeloid leukemia and malignant lymphomas are significant only in male mice. Benign and malignant solid tumors of many types are observed in mice of both sexes, the most frequent being in the lung, liver and ovary. However, evidence for a radiation response is limited to the case of Harderian gland neoplasms. In addition, a comparison of the observed frequency of all irradiated compared to unirradiated animals bearing solid tumors shows that the total tumor occurrence is not altered markedly by radiation exposure. A decrease in survival time is observed for both sexes and radiation types and correlates well with increasing dose. Moreover, both sex and radiation quality appear to influence the life shortening. A similar dose dependence of survival time is found when tumor-free animals alone are considered, suggesting a non-specific component of life-shortening. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Development of anti-drug antibodies is associated with shortened survival in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with ipilimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kverneland, Anders H.; Enevold, Christian; Donia, Marco

    2018-01-01

    significantly with a shorter OS (p = 0.01) and PFS (p = 0.02). Eight patients (26%) were ADA-positive at either timepoint. ADA positivity correlated significantly with a shorter OS (p = 0.03) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.0 (95% CI: 1.2-7.8). Four of 8 ADA-positive patients (50%) discontinued therapy before......Introduction: Checkpoint inhibitors, including the CTLA-4 blocking antibody ipilimumab, have become the new standard therapy for many metastatic cancers. Development of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) after treatment with other biopharmaceuticals has been thoroughly described, but the induction of ADAs...... for serum levels of ipilimumab and ADAs to ipilimumab at baseline, and before the 2nd and 4th infusion using an in-house bead-based assay. The results were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Low serum levels of ipilimumab before the 2nd infusion correlated...

  9. A shortened version of the THERP/Handbook approach to human reliability analysis for probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The approach to human reliability analysis (HRA) known as THERP/Handbook has been applied to several probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and other complex systems. The approach is based on a thorough task analysis of the man-machine interfaces, including the interactions among the people, involved in the operations being assessed. The idea is to assess fully the underlying performance shaping factors (PSFs) and dependence effects which result either in reliable or unreliable human performance

  10. Widespread Shortening of 3' Untranslated Regions and Increased Exon Inclusion Are Evolutionarily Conserved Features of Innate Immune Responses to Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athma A Pai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of pre-mRNA processing mechanisms to the regulation of immune responses remains poorly studied despite emerging examples of their role as regulators of immune defenses. We sought to investigate the role of mRNA processing in the cellular responses of human macrophages to live bacterial infections. Here, we used mRNA sequencing to quantify gene expression and isoform abundances in primary macrophages from 60 individuals, before and after infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In response to both bacteria we identified thousands of genes that significantly change isoform usage in response to infection, characterized by an overall increase in isoform diversity after infection. In response to both bacteria, we found global shifts towards (i the inclusion of cassette exons and (ii shorter 3' UTRs, with near-universal shifts towards usage of more upstream polyadenylation sites. Using complementary data collected in non-human primates, we show that these features are evolutionarily conserved among primates. Following infection, we identify candidate RNA processing factors whose expression is associated with individual-specific variation in isoform abundance. Finally, by profiling microRNA levels, we show that 3' UTRs with reduced abundance after infection are significantly enriched for target sites for particular miRNAs. These results suggest that the pervasive usage of shorter 3' UTRs is a mechanism for particular genes to evade repression by immune-activated miRNAs. Collectively, our results suggest that dynamic changes in RNA processing may play key roles in the regulation of innate immune responses.

  11. A chemical biology approach reveals period shortening of the mammalian circadian clock by specific inhibition of GSK-3beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Lewis, Warren G; Liu, Andrew C; Lee, Jae Wook; Schultz, Peter G; Kay, Steve A

    2008-12-30

    The circadian clock controls daily oscillations of gene expression at the cellular level. We report the development of a high-throughput circadian functional assay system that consists of luminescent reporter cells, screening automation, and a data analysis pipeline. We applied this system to further dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the mammalian circadian clock using a chemical biology approach. We analyzed the effect of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds with diverse structures on the circadian period length that is indicative of the core clock mechanism. Our screening paradigm identified many compounds previously known to change the circadian period or phase, demonstrating the validity of the assay system. Furthermore, we found that small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) consistently caused a strong short period phenotype in contrast to the well-known period lengthening by lithium, another presumed GSK-3 inhibitor. siRNA-mediated knockdown of GSK-3beta also caused a short period, confirming the phenotype obtained with the small molecule inhibitors. These results clarify the role of GSK-3beta in the period regulation of the mammalian clockworks and highlight the effectiveness of chemical biology in exploring unidentified mechanisms of the circadian clock.

  12. Numerical modelling of thin-walled Z-columns made of general laminates subjected to uniform shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Andrzej; Kolakowski, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The numerical modelling of a plate structure was performed with the finite element method and a one-mode approach based on Koiter's method. The first order approximation of Koiter's method enables one to solve the eigenvalue problem. The second order approximation describes post-buckling equilibrium paths. In the finite element analysis, the Lanczos method was used to solve the linear problem of buckling. Simulations of the non-linear problem were performed with the Newton-Raphson method. Detailed calculations were carried out for a short Z-column made of general laminates. Configurations of laminated layers were non-symmetric. Due to possibilities of its application, the general laminate is very interesting. The length of the samples was chosen to obtain the lowest value of local buckling load. The amplitude of initial imperfections was 10% of the wall thickness. Thin-walled structures were simply supported on both ends. The numerical results were verified in experimental tests. A strain-gauge technique was applied. A static compression test was performed on a universal testing machine and a special grip, which consisted of two rigid steel plates and clamping sleeves, was used. Specimens were obtained with an autoclave technique. Tests were performed at a constant velocity of the cross-bar equal to 2 mm/min. The compressive load was less than 150% of the bifurcation load. Additionally, soft and thin pads were used to reduce inaccuracy of the sample ends.

  13. Shortening the length of stay and mechanical ventilation time by using positive suggestions via MP3 players for ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Szilágyi, Adrienn; Diószeghy, Csaba; Fritúz, Gábor; Gál, János; Varga, Katalin

    2014-03-01

    Long stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and prolonged ventilation are deleterious for subsequent quality of life and surcharge financial capacity. We have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of using suggestive communication on recovery time during intensive care. The aim of our present study was to prove the same effects with standardized positive suggestive message delivered by an MP3 player. Patients ventilated in ICU were randomized into a control group receiving standard ICU treatment and two groups with a standardized pre-recorded material delivered via headphones: a suggestive message about safety, self-control, and recovery for the study group and a relaxing music for the music group. Groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and mortality, but the SAPS II scores were higher in the study group than that in the controls (57.8 ± 23.6 vs. 30.1 ± 15.5 and 33.7 ± 17.4). Our post-hoc analysis results showed that the length of ICU stay (134.2 ± 73.3 vs. 314.2 ± 178.4 h) and the time spent on ventilator (85.2 ± 34.9 vs. 232.0 ± 165.6 h) were significantly shorter in the study group compared to the unified control. The advantage of the structured positive suggestive message was proven against both music and control groups.

  14. Over-expression of Eph and ephrin genes in advanced ovarian cancer: ephrin gene expression correlates with shortened survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Douglas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased expression of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands has been implicated in tumor progression in a number of malignancies. This report describes aberrant expression of these genes in ovarian cancer, the commonest cause of death amongst gynaecological malignancies. Methods Eph and ephrin expression was determined using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Correlation of gene expression was measured using Spearman's rho statistic. Survival was analysed using log-rank analysis and (was visualised by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results Greater than 10 fold over-expression of EphA1 and a more modest over-expression of EphA2 were observed in partially overlapping subsets of tumors. Over-expression of EphA1 strongly correlated (r = 0.801; p Conclusion These data imply that increased levels of ephrins A1 and A5 in the presence of high expression of Ephs A1 and A2 lead to a more aggressive tumor phenotype. The known functions of Eph/ephrin signalling in cell de-adhesion and movement may explain the observed correlation of ephrin expression with poor prognosis.

  15. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters (PICCs) and Potential Cost Savings and Shortened Bed Stays In an Acute Hospital Setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Brien, C

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral inserted central catheters (PICCs) have increasingly become the mainstay of patients requiring prolonged treatment with antibiotics, transfusions, oncologic IV therapy and total parental nutrition. They may also be used in delivering a number of other medications to patients. In recent years, bed occupancy rates have become hugely pressurized in many hospitals and any potential solutions to free up beds is welcome. Recent introductions of doctor or nurse led intravenous (IV) outpatient based treatment teams has been having a direct effect on early discharge of patients and in some cases avoiding admission completely. The ability to deliver outpatient intravenous treatment is facilitated by the placement of PICCs allowing safe and targeted treatment of patients over a prolonged period of time. We carried out a retrospective study of 2,404 patients referred for PICCs from 2009 to 2015 in a university teaching hospital. There was an exponential increase in the number of PICCs requested from 2011 to 2015 with a 64% increase from 2012 to 2013. The clear increase in demand for PICCs in our institution is directly linked to the advent of outpatient intravenous antibiotic services. In this paper, we assess the impact that the use of PICCs combined with intravenous outpatient treatment may have on cost and hospital bed demand. We advocate that a more widespread implementation of this service throughout Ireland may result in significant cost savings as well as decreasing the number of patients on hospital trollies.

  16. Safety and effectiveness of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of Peyronie's disease using a new modified shortened protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Raheem, Amr; Capece, Marco; Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Abdel-Raheem, Tarek; Falcone, Marco; Johnson, Mark; Ralph, Oliver G; Garaffa, Giulio; Christopher, Andrew N; Ralph, David J

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH; Xiapex ® , Xiaflex ® ) in the treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD) using a new modified treatment protocol that aims at reducing the number of injections needed and reducing patient visits, thus reducing the duration and cost of treatment. A prospective study of 53 patients with PD who had treatment with CCH at a single centre using a new modified protocol. The angle of curvature assessment after an intracavernosal injection of prostaglandin E1, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Peyronie's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ) were completed at baseline and at week 12 (4 weeks after the last injection). The Global Assessment of Peyronie's disease (GAPD) questionnaire was completed at week 12. Under a penile block of 10 mL plain lignocaine 1%, a total of three intralesional injections of CCH (0.9 mg) were given at 4-weekly intervals using a new modified injection technique. In between injections patients used a combination of home modelling, stretching and a vacuum device on a daily basis to mechanically stretch the plaque. Investigator modelling was not performed. The mean (range) penile curvature at baseline was 54 (30-90)°. Of the 53 patients in the study, 51 patients (96.2%) had an improvement in the angel of curvature by a mean (range) of 17.36 (0-40)° or 31.4 (0-57)% from baseline after three CCH injections. The final mean (range) curvature was 36.9 (12-75)° (P effective, and cost efficient. The results of using only three CCH injections according to this modified protocol are comparable to those of the clinical trials that used eight CCH injections. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Deficiency in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Shortens Lifespan and Leads to Development of Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sommer, Samantha; Morrice, Nicola; Pesaresi, Martina; Thompson, Dawn; Vickers, Mark A; Murray, Graeme I; Mody, Nimesh; Neel, Benjamin G; Bence, Kendra K; Wilson, Heather M; Delibegović, Mirela

    2018-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a critical regulator of signaling pathways controlling metabolic homeostasis, cell proliferation, and immunity. In this study, we report that global or myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B in mice decreases lifespan. We demonstrate that myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B is sufficient to promote the development of acute myeloid leukemia. LysM-PTP1B -/- mice lacking PTP1B in the innate myeloid cell lineage displayed a dysregulation of bone marrow cells with a rapid decline in population at midlife and a concomitant increase in peripheral blood blast cells. This phenotype manifested further with extramedullary tumors, hepatic macrophage infiltration, and metabolic reprogramming, suggesting increased hepatic lipid metabolism prior to overt tumor development. Mechanistic investigations revealed an increase in anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage responses in liver and spleen, as associated with increased expression of arginase I and the cytokines IL10 and IL4. We also documented STAT3 hypersphosphorylation and signaling along with JAK-dependent upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl2 and BclXL. Our results establish a tumor suppressor role for PTP1B in the myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Significance: This study defines a tumor suppressor function for the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B in myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Res; 78(1); 75-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Shortening the Miles to the Milestones: Connecting EPA-Based Evaluations to ACGME Milestone Reports for Internal Medicine Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, John H; Knight, Christopher L; Stiling, Rebekah; Corning, Kelli; Lock, Keli; Steinberg, Kenneth P

    2016-07-01

    The Next Accreditation System requires internal medicine training programs to provide the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) with semiannual information about each resident's progress in 22 subcompetency domains. Evaluation of resident "trustworthiness" in performing entrustable professional activities (EPAs) may offer a more tangible assessment construct than evaluations based on expectations of usual progression toward competence. However, translating results from EPA-based evaluations into ACGME milestone progress reports has proven to be challenging because the constructs that underlay these two systems differ.The authors describe a process to bridge the gap between rotation-specific EPA-based evaluations and ACGME milestone reporting. Developed at the University of Washington in 2012 and 2013, this method involves mapping EPA-based evaluation responses to "milestone elements," the narrative descriptions within the columns of each of the 22 internal medicine subcompetencies. As faculty members complete EPA-based evaluations, the mapped milestone elements are automatically marked as "confirmed." Programs can maintain a database that tallies the number of times each milestone element is confirmed for a resident; these data can be used to produce graphical displays of resident progress along the internal medicine milestones.Using this count of milestone elements allows programs to bridge the gap between faculty assessments of residents based on rotation-specific observed activities and semiannual ACGME reports based on the internal medicine milestones. Although potentially useful for all programs, this method is especially beneficial to large programs where clinical competency committee members may not have the opportunity for direct observation of all residents.

  19. Critical role of surface chemical modifications induced by length shortening on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussy Cyrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given the increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNT in composite materials and their possible expansion to new areas such as nanomedicine which will both lead to higher human exposure, a better understanding of their potential to cause adverse effects on human health is needed. Like other nanomaterials, the biological reactivity and toxicity of CNT were shown to depend on various physicochemical characteristics, and length has been suggested to play a critical role. We therefore designed a comprehensive study that aimed at comparing the effects on murine macrophages of two samples of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT specifically synthesized following a similar production process (aerosol-assisted CVD, and used a soft ultrasonic treatment in water to modify the length of one of them. We showed that modification of the length of MWCNT leads, unavoidably, to accompanying structural (i.e. defects and chemical (i.e. oxidation modifications that affect both surface and residual catalyst iron nanoparticle content of CNT. The biological response of murine macrophages to the two different MWCNT samples was evaluated in terms of cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and oxidative stress. We showed that structural defects and oxidation both induced by the length reduction process are at least as responsible as the length reduction itself for the enhanced pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative response observed with short (oxidized compared to long (pristine MWCNT. In conclusion, our results stress that surface properties should be considered, alongside the length, as essential parameters in CNT-induced inflammation, especially when dealing with a safe design of CNT, for application in nanomedicine for example.

  20. Endoscopic palliation of patients with biliary obstruction caused by nonresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: efficacy of self-expandable metallic Wallstents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, John L. S.; Bruno, Marco J.; Bergman, Jacques J.; Rauws, Erik A.; Tytgat, Guido N.; Huibregtse, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an endoscopically inserted self-expandable metal stent for treatment of biliary obstruction caused by nonresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: Data on all patients with nonresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma receiving

  1. Hydroponic cultivation techniques: good results with Eg system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimiola, G; Sigliuzzo, C [Tecnagro, Valenzano (Italy)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes results obtained at the Tecnagro agronomic institute (Valenzano, Italy) in which research is being carried out on the use of the Eg hydroponic system developed in Israel. The research program examined the following: composition of nutritive solutions for ornamental plants and vegetables, methods of application of nutritive substances, breeding densities for ornamental plants and vegetables. Successful nutritive formulas were obtained which resulted, in the case of ornamental plants, in increases in plant height (from 30 to 50%), foliage area (50%), as well as, in shortened growth cycles. For vegetables, shortened growth cycles were developed along with a greater and more consistant production. From the economics point of view, tomatoes proved to be the best choice of vegetable for cultivation with the Eg technique.

  2. Femoral neck shortening in adult patients under the age of 55 years is associated with worse functional outcomes: Analysis of the prospective multi-center study of hip fracture outcomes in China (SHOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobogean, Gerard P; Stockton, David J; Zeng, Bing-Fang; Wang, Dong; Ma, Baotong; Pollak, Andrew N

    2017-08-01

    Young femoral neck fracture patients require surgical fixation to preserve the native hip joint and accommodate increased functional demands. Recent reports have identified a high incidence of fracture shortening and this may have negative functional consequences. We sought to determine if fracture shortening is associated with poor functional outcome in young femoral neck fracture patients. One hundred and forty-two patients with femoral neck fractures age 18-55 were recruited in this prospective cohort study across three Level 1 trauma hospitals in Mainland China. Patient-reported and objective functional outcomes were measured with the Harris Hip Score (HHS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and SF-36 Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS) at 12 months. Radiographic fracture shortening was measured along the long axis of the femoral neck and corrected for magnification. Severe shortening was defined as ≥10mm. The primary analysis measured associations between severe radiographic shortening and HHS at one-year post-fixation. One hundred and two patients had complete radiographic and functional outcomes available for analysis at one year. The mean age of participants was 43.7±10.8years and 53% were male. Fifty-five percent of fractures were displaced and 37% were vertically orientated (Pauwels Type 3). The mean functional outcome scores were: HHS 90.0±10.8, TUG 12.0±5.1s, and PCS 48.5±8.6. Severe shortening occurred in 13% of patients and was associated with worse functional outcome scores: HHS mean difference 9.9 (p=0.025), TUG mean difference 3.2s (p=0.082), and PCS mean difference 5.4 (p=0.055). Severe shortening is associated with clinically important decreases in functional outcome as measured by HHS following fixation of young femoral neck fractures, occurring in 13% of patients in this population. The principle of fracture site compression utilized by modern constructs may promote healing; however, excessive shortening is associated with worse patient

  3. GLUTAMIN MEMPERCEPAT WAKTU PEMULIHAN JUMLAH SEL LIMFOSIT LIEN SETELAH AKTIVITAS FISIK MAKSIMAL PADA MENCIT (GLUTAMINE SHORTENS RECOVERY TIME OF LIEN LYMPHOCYTES AFTER EXCESSIVE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Jawi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The immunologic? system? of the body requires? suitable recovery time after? excessive physical? activity. The recovery? time of spleen lymphocytes after? excessive? physical activity? in one? investigation was? 3? days. The? aim? of this? research is to identify?the role of? glutamine? in shortening? the recovery time of? spleen? lymphocytes? after?excessive physical activity. The? study? was conducted? on? 70? adults? Balb/c mice which? were? divided? into? 7? groups, with? a randomized control? group post-test? only design. In this? study? an observation? was made on? spleen? lymphocytes? of control, after? excessive? physical activity(in the the? form of swimming? until? near? drowning with glutamine,? without glutamine ?and? after? the? recovery time of 1 and 2 days? of? each of? the 10 mice. Spleen? lymphocytes? were? counted in spleen preparation by mikroskop. The data obtained were tested? by? one way Anova. The findings? showed? that the number of spleen? lymphocytes significantly decrease after? excessive? physical activity?? in the?glutamine? and? non glutamine groups ( p < 0,05.The number of spleen? lymphocytes? was? not different as compered to control group or returned? to normal after recovery? time? of 1? day? in? the? glutamine group (p > 0,05 .?In the nonglutamine group the number of spleen lymphocytes was different from control group until 2 days (p<0,05 . From this finding it can be concluded that glutamine? shortens the recovery time of spleen lymphocytes? after? excessive? physical activity in mice.

  4. Shallow Geological Structures Triggered During the Mw6.4 Meinong Earthquake and Their Significance in Accommodating Long-term Shortening Across the Foothills of Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Beon, M.; Suppe, J.; Huang, M. H.; Huang, S. T.; Ulum, H. H. M.; Ching, K. E.; Hsieh, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 Mw6.4 Meinong earthquake generated up to 10 cm surface displacement located 10-35 km W of the epicenter and monitored by InSAR and GPS. In addition to coseismic deformation related to the deep earthquake source, InSAR revealed three sharp surface displacement gradients that suggest slip triggering on shallow structures. To characterize these shallow structures, we build two EW regional balanced cross-sections, based on surface geology, subsurface data, and coseismic and interseismic geodetic data. From the Coastal Plain to the eastern edge of the coseismic deformation area, we propose a series of three active W-dipping back-thrusts: the Houchiali fault, the Napalin-Pitou back-thrust, and the Lungchuan back-thrust. They all root on the 3.5-4.0 km deep Tainan detachment located near the base of the 3-km-thick Plio-Pleistocene Gutingkeng mudstone. Further east, the detachment would ramp down to a 7-km-deep detachment, allowing the E-dipping Lungchuan thrust and Pingxi thrust to bring Miocene formations to the surface. Another ramp from 7 to 11-km depth, is expected further east to bring the slate belt to the surface. Coseismic surface deformation measurements suggest that, in addition to the deeper (15-20 km) main rupture plane, mostly the 4-7-km deep ramp, the Lungchuan back-thrust, and the Tainan detachment slipped aseismically during or right after the earthquake. Preliminary restorations show that the E-dipping Lungchuan thrust and Pingxi thrust consumed >10 km shortening each, while evidence for present-day tectonic activity remains to be found. By contrast, structures located west of the 4-7-km deep ramp accommodated all together <10 km shortening since 450 ka ago or less based on published nannostratigraphy, and they show numerous evidence of Late Quaternary and present-day activity. The restorations also allow connecting the 11-km-depth detachment to a main detachment level evidenced from a velocity inversion in the local tomography. By contrast, the

  5. After Nerve Injury, Lineage Tracing Shows That Myelin and Remak Schwann Cells Elongate Extensively and Branch to Form Repair Schwann Cells, Which Shorten Radically on Remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Pilch, Kjara S; van der Lans, Milou; Fazal, Shaline V; Benito, Cristina; Wagstaff, Laura J; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristjan R

    2017-09-13

    There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair. Using genetic lineage-tracing and scanning-block face electron microscopy, we show that injury of sciatic nerves from mice of either sex triggers extensive and unexpected Schwann cell elongation and branching to form long, parallel processes. Repair cells are 2- to 3-fold longer than myelin and Remak cells and 7- to 10-fold longer than immature Schwann cells. Remarkably, when repair cells transit back to myelinating cells, they shorten ∼7-fold to generate the typically short internodes of regenerated nerves. The present experiments define novel morphological transitions in injured nerves and show that repair Schwann cells have a cell-type-specific structure that differentiates them from other cells in the Schwann cell lineage. They also provide the first direct evidence using genetic lineage tracing for two basic assumptions in Schwann cell biology: that myelin and Remak cells generate the elongated cells that build Bungner bands in injured nerves and that such cells can transform to myelin cells after regeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT After injury to peripheral nerves, the myelin and Remak Schwann cells distal to the injury site reorganize and modify their properties to form cells that support the survival of injured neurons, promote axon growth, remove myelin-associated growth inhibitors, and guide regenerating axons to their targets. We show that the

  6. A combined paging alert and web-based instrument alters clinician behavior and shortens hospital length of stay in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimagno, Matthew J; Wamsteker, Erik-Jan; Rizk, Rafat S; Spaete, Joshua P; Gupta, Suraj; Sahay, Tanya; Costanzo, Jeffrey; Inadomi, John M; Napolitano, Lena M; Hyzy, Robert C; Desmond, Jeff S

    2014-03-01

    There are many published clinical guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP). Implementation of these recommendations is variable. We hypothesized that a clinical decision support (CDS) tool would change clinician behavior and shorten hospital length of stay (LOS). Observational study, entitled, The AP Early Response (TAPER) Project. Tertiary center emergency department (ED) and hospital. Two consecutive samplings of patients having ICD-9 code (577.0) for AP were generated from the emergency department (ED) or hospital admissions. Diagnosis of AP was based on conventional Atlanta criteria. The Pre-TAPER-CDS-Tool group (5/30/06-6/22/07) had 110 patients presenting to the ED with AP per 976 ICD-9 (577.0) codes and the Post-TAPER-CDS-Tool group (5/30/06-6/22/07) had 113 per 907 ICD-9 codes (7/14/10-5/5/11). The TAPER-CDS-Tool, developed 12/2008-7/14/2010, is a combined early, automated paging-alert system, which text pages ED clinicians about a patient with AP and an intuitive web-based point-of-care instrument, consisting of seven early management recommendations. The pre- vs. post-TAPER-CDS-Tool groups had similar baseline characteristics. The post-TAPER-CDS-Tool group met two management goals more frequently than the pre-TAPER-CDS-Tool group: risk stratification (P6L/1st 0-24 h (P=0.0003). Mean (s.d.) hospital LOS was significantly shorter in the post-TAPER-CDS-Tool group (4.6 (3.1) vs. 6.7 (7.0) days, P=0.0126). Multivariate analysis identified four independent variables for hospital LOS: the TAPER-CDS-Tool associated with shorter LOS (P=0.0049) and three variables associated with longer LOS: Japanese severity score (P=0.0361), persistent organ failure (P=0.0088), and local pancreatic complications (<0.0001). The TAPER-CDS-Tool is associated with changed clinician behavior and shortened hospital LOS, which has significant financial implications.

  7. Peculiarities of acronyms and shortenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MELENCIUC

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La deuxième moitié du XX-e siècle et le début du XXI-e siècle sont marqués par la présence de plus en plus visible dans tous les domaines de l’activité humaine des acronymes, des ”initialismes” et des abréviations: les problèmes sociaux, politiques, nationaux et internationaux, tout ce qui est lié à l’existence humaine, sont affectés par ce phénomène sociolinguistique. On peut affirmer sans réserves que l’importance des acronymes dans le processus de la communication humaine est incontestable. Dans le présent article les auteurs présentent les visions de différentes écoles linguistiques sur les particularités des unités terminologiques issues de ce type de formation.

  8. Oral nutritional support can shorten the duration of parenteral hydration in end-of-life cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiki, Hiroto; Iwase, Satoru; Gyoda, Yasuaki; Kanai, Yoshiaki; Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Miyaji, Tempei; Tahara, Yukiko; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Chinzei, Mieko; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Tube feeding or hydration is often considered for end-of-life cancer patients despite the negative effects on quality of life. The efficacy of oral nutritional support in this setting is unknown. We conducted a randomized trial to compare the efficacies of an amino acid jelly, Inner Power® (IP), and a liquid enteral product, Ensure Liquid® (EL), in terminally ill cancer patients. We randomly assigned patients to 3 arms: EL, IP, and EL+IP. The primary endpoint was drip infusion in vein (DIV)-free survival, which was defined as the duration from nutritional support initiation to administration of parenteral hydration. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 21 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The median age of the subjects was 69 yr. There were significant differences between the arms with regard to the median DIV-free survival (0.5, 6.0, and 4.5 days in the EL, IP, and EL + IP arms, respectively; P = 0.05). The median overall survival was 7, 9, and 8 days in the EL, IP, and EL + IP arms, respectively. IP may shorten the duration of parenteral hydration in terminally ill cancer patients and does not affect their survival.

  9. Estimation of gadolinium-induced T1-shortening with measurement of simple signal intensity ratio between the cochlea and brain parenchyma on 3D-FLAIR. Correlation with T1 measurement by TI scout sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishihara, Shunichi; Iwano, Shingo; Kawai, Hisashi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to T 1 -shortening of labyrinthine fluid on 3-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) has been reported in many inner ear disorders. Although semi-quantitative assessment by simple signal intensity ratio between cochlear fluid and brain tissue has been tried, its feasibility using a multi-channel phased-array head coil with an inherently inhomogenous sensitivity distribution has not been fully evaluated. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring simple signal intensity ratio by correlating rapid T 1 measurements using an inversion time (TI) scout sequence. We evaluated 10 patients with Meniere's disease and 4 patients with sudden deafness. Nine of the patients with Meniere's disease received a unilateral intratympanic injection of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA); the tenth patient received bilateral injections. The 4 patients with sudden deafness received a double-dose intravenous injection. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained 24 hours after intratympanic injections and 4 hours after intravenous injections at 3 tesla using a 32-channel head coil. We measured the ratio (CM ratio) between the signal intensity of the perilymph in the cochlea (C) and that of the medulla oblongata (M) and correlated it with the null-point inversion time (TI null ) obtained with the TI scout sequence. The TI scout consisted of 85 images obtained with TI values between 132.5 and 3087.5 ms at increments of 37.5 ms. The correlation coefficient between TI null and the natural logarithm of the CM ratio was -0.88 (P<0.01). There was significant negative linear correlation. Measurement of the simple signal intensity ratio between the cochlea and the medulla can be used for semi-quantitative analysis of 3D-FLAIR. The results of this study may facilitate clinical research of inner-ear disease using 3D-FLAIR. (author)

  10. Suppressing cAMP response element-binding protein transcription shortens the duration of status epilepticus and decreases the number of spontaneous seizures in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinjian; Dubey, Deepti; Bermudez, Camilo; Porter, Brenda E

    2015-12-01

    Current epilepsy therapies directed at altering the function of neurotransmitter receptors or ion channels, or release of synaptic vesicles fail to prevent seizures in approximately 30% of patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying epilepsy is needed to provide new therapeutic targets. The activity of cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), a major transcription factor promoting CRE-mediated transcription, increases following a prolonged seizure called status epilepticus. It is also increased in the seizure focus of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. Herein we explored the effect of acute suppression of CREB activity on status epilepticus and spontaneous seizures in a chronic epilepsy model. Pilocarpine chemoconvulsant was used to induce status epilepticus. To suppress CREB activity, a transgenic mouse line expressing an inducible dominant negative mutant of CREB (CREB(IR) ) with a serine to alanine 133 substitution was used. Status epilepticus and spontaneous seizures of transgenic and wild-type mice were analyzed using video-electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the effect of CREB suppression on seizures. Our findings indicate that activation of CREB(IR) shortens the duration of status epilepticus. The frequency of spontaneous seizures decreased in mice with chronic epilepsy during CREB(IR) induction; however, the duration of the spontaneous seizures was unchanged. Of interest, we found significantly reduced levels of phospho-CREB Ser133 upon activation of CREB(IR) , supporting prior work suggesting that binding to the CRE site is important for CREB phosphorylation. Our results suggest that CRE transcription supports seizure activity both during status epilepticus and in spontaneous seizures. Thus, blocking of CRE transcription is a novel target for the treatment of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Long-term retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills after shortened chest compression-only training and conventional training: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Chika; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ando, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Marukawa, Seishiro; Kawamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how much the length of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program can be reduced without ruining its effectiveness. The authors aimed to compare CPR skills 6 months and 1 year after training between shortened chest compression-only CPR training and conventional CPR training. Participants were randomly assigned to either the compression-only CPR group, which underwent a 45-minute training program consisting of chest compressions and automated external defibrillator (AED) use with personal training manikins, or the conventional CPR group, which underwent a 180-minute training program with chest compressions, rescue breathing, and AED use. Participants' resuscitation skills were evaluated 6 months and 1 year after the training. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of appropriate chest compressions 1 year after the training. A total of 146 persons were enrolled, and 63 (87.5%) in the compression-only CPR group and 56 (75.7%) in the conventional CPR group completed the 1-year evaluation. The compression-only CPR group was superior to the conventional CPR group regarding the proportion of appropriate chest compression (mean ± SD = 59.8% ± 40.0% vs. 46.3% ± 28.6%; p = 0.036) and the number of appropriate chest compressions (mean ± SD = 119.5 ± 80.0 vs. 77.2 ± 47.8; p = 0.001). Time without chest compression in the compression-only CPR group was significantly shorter than that in the conventional CPR group (mean ± SD = 11.8 ± 21.1 seconds vs. 52.9 ± 14.9 seconds; p CPR training program appears to help the general public retain CPR skills better than the conventional CPR training program. UMIN-CTR UMIN000001675. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Rapid blood clearance and lack of long-term renal toxicity of 177Lu-DOTATATE enables shortening of renoprotective amino acid infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Raghava; Eu, Peter; Jackson, Price; Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Zannino, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of shortening the recommended 4-h renoprotective amino acid infusion in patients receiving peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) using radiosensitizing 5-fluorouracil. We evaluated the clearance of radiopeptide from the blood, long-term nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing PRCRT with the conventional 4-h amino acid infusion and renal uptake in patients receiving an abbreviated infusion. The whole-blood clearance of 177 Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) was measured in 13 patients receiving PRCRT. A retrospective analysis of short-term and long-term changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 96 consecutive patients receiving a 4-h infusion was performed. Renal LuTate retention estimated using quantitative SPECT/CT in 22 cycles delivered with a 2.5-h amino acid infusion was compared with that in 72 cycles with the 4-h infusion. LuTate demonstrated biexponential blood clearance with an initial clearance half-time of 21 min. Approximately 88 % of blood activity was cleared within 2 h. With the 4-h protocol, there was no significant change in GFR (1.2 ml/min mean increase from baseline; 95 % CI -6.9 to 4.4 ml/min) and no grade 3 or 4 nephrotoxicity at the end of induction PRCRT. The long-term decline in GFR after a median follow up of 22 months was 2.2 ml/min per year. There was no significant difference in the renal LuTate retention measured in patients receiving a 2.5-h amino acid infusion compared to those who had a 4-h infusion. The greatest renal exposure to circulating radiopeptide occurs in the first 1 - 2 h after injection. This, combined with the safety of LuTate PRCRT, allows consideration of an abbreviated amino acid infusion, increasing patient convenience and reducing human resource allocation. (orig.)

  13. Estrategia de tratamiento acortado y estrictamente supervisado en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar confirmada Strategy of strictly monitored and shortened treatment in patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis René Tablada del Risco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal para caracterizar a los pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar, cuyos esputos fueran positivos para bacilos-ácido-alcohol-resistente, en una población abierta del municipio de Santiago de Cuba, desde el 2003 hasta el 2007, los cuales se acogieron a la estrategia de tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado. En la casuística predominaron el sexo masculino, los adultos jóvenes, así como los factores de riesgo: hábito tabáquico, alcoholismo y antecedente de contactos con personas afectadas por dicha enfermedad. La atención primaria de salud no cumplió el indicador operacional del diagnóstico de estos pacientes ni el seguimiento baciloscópico mensual. Se recomienda elaborar una estrategia de intervención que contemple un proyecto capacitante, encaminado a elevar la competencia profesional del personal sanitario en relación con la asistencia integral incluida en el Programa Nacional de Control de la Tuberculosis.A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to characterize patients with pulmonary tuberculosis whose sputa were positive for acid-alcohol resistant bacilli, in a general population of Santiago de Cuba municipality, from 2003 to 2007, who opted for the strategy of strictly monitored and shortened treatment. Male sex, young adults as well as risk factors: smoking habit, alcoholism and history of contacts with people affected by this disease prevailed in the case material. Primary health care neither meet the operational indicator of the diagnosis of these patients nor the monthly bacilloscopy. It is recommended to develop an intervention strategy that includes a project aimed at improving the professional competence of health personnel with regard to comprehensive care included in the National Program of Tuberculosis Control.

  14. Rapid blood clearance and lack of long-term renal toxicity of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE enables shortening of renoprotective amino acid infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Raghava; Eu, Peter [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Jackson, Price [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Physical Sciences, Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Melbourne (Australia); Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu [Universite Laval, Department of Radiology, Quebec City (Canada); Zannino, Diana [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of shortening the recommended 4-h renoprotective amino acid infusion in patients receiving peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) using radiosensitizing 5-fluorouracil. We evaluated the clearance of radiopeptide from the blood, long-term nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing PRCRT with the conventional 4-h amino acid infusion and renal uptake in patients receiving an abbreviated infusion. The whole-blood clearance of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) was measured in 13 patients receiving PRCRT. A retrospective analysis of short-term and long-term changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 96 consecutive patients receiving a 4-h infusion was performed. Renal LuTate retention estimated using quantitative SPECT/CT in 22 cycles delivered with a 2.5-h amino acid infusion was compared with that in 72 cycles with the 4-h infusion. LuTate demonstrated biexponential blood clearance with an initial clearance half-time of 21 min. Approximately 88 % of blood activity was cleared within 2 h. With the 4-h protocol, there was no significant change in GFR (1.2 ml/min mean increase from baseline; 95 % CI -6.9 to 4.4 ml/min) and no grade 3 or 4 nephrotoxicity at the end of induction PRCRT. The long-term decline in GFR after a median follow up of 22 months was 2.2 ml/min per year. There was no significant difference in the renal LuTate retention measured in patients receiving a 2.5-h amino acid infusion compared to those who had a 4-h infusion. The greatest renal exposure to circulating radiopeptide occurs in the first 1 - 2 h after injection. This, combined with the safety of LuTate PRCRT, allows consideration of an abbreviated amino acid infusion, increasing patient convenience and reducing human resource allocation. (orig.)

  15. 1998 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the financial and commercial results of Gaz de France (GdF) company for 1998. The following points are presented successively: financial results (budget results, turnover, self-financing capacity, investments, debt situation), commercial results (some remarkable numbers and records, the tertiary and residential market, the industrial market, cogeneration and natural gas for vehicles), the strategy, 1998 realizations and perspectives (the natural gas energy in the 21. century, the development of GdF, the gas distribution and services (development of the French distribution system, export of the know-how, development of services), the transportation and storage systems threw Europe (densification of the pipeline network, the key-position of France, the north-south equilibrium of the distribution network), the natural gas production by GdF, the diversification of supplies, and the main daughter companies abroad). (J.S.)

  16. Physical property and MR imaging of self-expandable metallic stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hong Gee; Kang, Sung Gwon; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Lim, Myung Kwan; Cho, Soon Gu; Yoh, Kyu Tong; Suh, Chang Hae [Inha Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    In order to furnish basic information prior to their use, the physical properties of various self-expandable metallic stents and their MR characteristics were evaluated. Four commercially available self-expandable metallic stents-Gianturco-the Rosch, Hanaro, Memotherm, and Wallstent-were used in this study. For evaluation of the physical properties of each, hoop strengths and changes in radii according to the degrees of longitudinal flexion were compared. Stent characteristics seen on MR images were evaluated by measuring magnetic torque and by comparing images obtained in the vascular phantom using SE T1TI, FSE T2WI, and FMPSPGR sequences. These images were analyzed with special emphasis on artifact size and the apparant shepe of the stent. Hoop strength was greatest in the Gianturco-Rosch stent, followed by the Memotherm, Hanaro, and Wallstent. When flexed in the longitudinal axis, the radius of the Hanaro and Memotherm stent decreased slightly as a larger flexion angle was applied. When this was 90 deg, however, the connection of the Gianturco-Rosch stent collapsed. In contrast, the radius of the Wallstent became larger as a larger flexion angle was applied. At the portal of the MR imaging unit, neither the Memotherm nor Wallstent showed deflection; except for a thin hyperintense rim at both ends, their images were excellent, and the lumina of these stents were also clearly seen. In contrast, the Gianturco-Rosch and Hanaro stent demonstrated large deflexion and showed a severe black-hole artifact. As a result, visualization of the stents themselves and their lumina was impossible. The Gianturco-Rosch stent showed greatrer hoop strength than the others. The Wallstent showed good longitudinal flexibility and was thought to be effective in tortuous vessels. For follow-up after placement, especially when the nonferromagnetic Memotherm and Wallstent are used, MR imaging appears to be safe and useful.=20.

  17. Extraordinary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicova, V.

    2012-01-01

    For the first time in the history, Slovenske elektrarne became the first winner in a new category Business and Biodiversity in the competition of European companies aimed at the environment protection. Excellent results were achieved by a long-term co-operation with the Tatras National Park, in particular in saving the endangered animals.

  18. Ganil results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1992-06-01

    Recent Ganil results are presented: hot nuclei properties and multifragmentation, study of flow change around the inversion energy. Mesons and hard photons production are also briefly discussed. Correlations with studies that have been led in Saturne energy range, and the developments that can be foreseen in the future have been discussed

  19. SAGE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69+/-10(stat)+5/-7(syst) SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU. The initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies are also discussed by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93+0.15, -0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. (author)

  20. Feasibility of Angioplasty and Stenting for Abdominal Aortic Lesions Adjacent to Previously Stented Visceral Artery Lesions in Patients with Takayasu Arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, George; George, Paul V.; Pati, Purendra Kumar; Chandy, Sunil Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Two young female patients with Takayasu arteritis presented with symptomatic long-segment abdominal aortic stenosis in the vicinity of previously deployed celiac and renal artery stents that projected markedly into the narrowed aortic lumen. Crushing or distortion of the visceral artery stents during aortic angioplasty was avoided by performing simultaneous or alternating balloon dilatations in the aorta and in the visceral artery stents. Consequently, the visceral artery stents remained patent and shortened longitudinally, allowing unhindered deployment of Wallstents in the adjacent aorta and abolition of a pressure gradient across the aortic lesions. Access to side branches covered by the Wallstent was obtained without difficulty, enabling the performance of balloon dilatation in multiple side branches and ostial stent deployment in a renal artery. These techniques could increase the scope of endovascular therapy in the treatment of patients with Takayasu arteritis

  1. Prostate stromal cell telomere shortening is associated with risk of prostate cancer in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Christopher M; Gaonkar, Gaurav; Peskoe, Sarah B; Joshu, Corinne E; De Marzo, Angelo M; Lucia, M Scott; Goodman, Phyllis J; Lippman, Scott M; Thompson, Ian M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Meeker, Alan K

    2015-08-01

    Telomeres are repetitive nucleoproteins that help maintain chromosomal stability by inhibiting exonucleolytic degradation, prohibiting inappropriate homologous recombination, and preventing chromosomal fusions by suppressing double-strand break signals. We recently observed that men treated for clinically localized prostate cancer with shorter telomeres in their cancer-associated stromal cells, in combination with greater variation in cancer cell telomere lengths, were significantly more likely to progress to distant metastases, and die from their disease. Here, we hypothesized that shorter stromal cell telomere length would be associated with prostate cancer risk at time of biopsy. Telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed in normal-appearing stromal, basal epithelial, and luminal epithelial cells in biopsies from men randomized to the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Prostate cancer cases (N = 32) were either detected on a biopsy performed for cause or at the end of the study per trial protocol, and controls (N = 50), defined as negative for cancer on an end-of-study biopsy performed per trial protocol (e.g., irrespective of indication), were sampled. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between mean telomere length of the particular cell populations, cell-to-cell telomere length variability, and risk of prostate cancer. Men with short stromal cell telomere lengths (below median) had 2.66 (95% CI 1.04-3.06; P = 0.04) times the odds of prostate cancer compared with men who had longer lengths (at or above median). Conversely, we did not observe statistically significant associations for short telomere lengths in normal-appearing basal (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 0.86-5.39; P= 0 .10) or luminal (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.47-2.80; P = 0.77) cells. These findings suggest that telomere shortening in normal stromal cells is associated with prostate cancer risk. It is essential

  2. Validating the shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55) in a sample of children with drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou; Speechley, Kathy N; Ferro, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the newly developed shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55) in a sample of children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Data came from 136 children enrolled in the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery on Health-Related Quality of Life Study (PEPSQOL), a multicenter prospective cohort study. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the higher-order factor structure of the QOLCE-55. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by correlating subscales of the KIDSCREEN-27 with the QOLCE-55. Measurement equivalence of the QOLCE-55 was evaluated using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis of children with drug-resistant epilepsy from PEPSQOL versus children with new-onset epilepsy from HERQULES (Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study). The higher-order factor structure of the QOLCE-55 demonstrated adequate fit: Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.948; Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.946; Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.060 (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.054-0.065); Weighted Root Mean Square Residuals (WRMR) = 1.247. Higher-order factor loadings were strong, ranging from λ = 0.74 to 0.81. Internal consistency reliability was excellent (α = 0.97, subscales α > 0.82). QOLCE-55 subscales demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with similar subscales of the KIDSCREEN-27 (ρ = 0.43-0.75) and weak to moderate correlations with dissimilar subscales (ρ = 0.25-0.42). The QOLCE-55 demonstrated partial measurement equivalence at the level of strict invariance - χ 2 (2,823) = 3,727.9, CFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.049 (0.044, 0.053), WRMR = 1.834. The findings provide support for the factor structure of the QOLCE-55 and contribute to its robust psychometric profile as a reliable and valid measure. Researchers and health practitioners should consider the QOLCE-55 as a viable option for reducing respondent burden when assessing health-related quality of life

  3. Caloric restriction shortens lifespan through an increase in lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis in the G93A mouse, an animal model of ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha P Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR extends lifespan through a reduction in oxidative stress, delays the onset of morbidity and prolongs lifespan. We previously reported that long-term CR hastened clinical onset, disease progression and shortened lifespan, while transiently improving motor performance in G93A mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS that shows increased free radical production. To investigate the long-term CR-induced pathology in G93A mice, we assessed the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and oxidative capacity (CS--citrate synthase content and activity, cytochrome c oxidase--COX activity and protein content of COX subunit-I and IV and UCP3-uncoupling protein 3, oxidative damage (MDA--malondialdehyde and PC--protein carbonyls, antioxidant enzyme capacity (Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase, inflammation (TNF-alpha, stress response (Hsp70 and markers of apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9, cleaved caspase 9 in their skeletal muscle. At age 40 days, G93A mice were divided into two groups: Ad libitum (AL; n = 14; 7 females or CR (n = 13; 6 females, with a diet equal to 60% of AL. COX/CS enzyme activity was lower in CR vs. AL male quadriceps (35%, despite a 2.3-fold higher COX-IV/CS protein content. UCP3 was higher in CR vs. AL females only. MnSOD and Cu/Zn-SOD were higher in CR vs. AL mice and CR vs. AL females. MDA was higher (83% in CR vs. AL red gastrocnemius. Conversely, PC was lower in CR vs. AL red (62% and white (30% gastrocnemius. TNF-alpha was higher (52% in CR vs. AL mice and Hsp70 was lower (62% in CR vs. AL quadriceps. Bax was higher in CR vs. AL mice (41% and CR vs. AL females (52%. Catalase, Bcl-2 and caspases did not differ. We conclude that CR increases lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis, while decreasing mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency, protein oxidation and stress response in G93A mice.

  4. Endovascular therapy of abdominal aortic aneurysm: results of a mid-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, M.B.; Schweitzer, H.; Herber, S.; Thelen, M.; Schmiedt, W.; Neufang, A.; Dueber, C.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective study to evaluate clinical results and complications of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment in a mid-term follow-up. Materials and methods: A total of 122 patients (9 females, 113 males, average age 70.0±7,9 years) with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated with stent grafts (53 Vanguard or Stentor endografts, 69 Talent endografts). Group I consisted of 40 patients who had all aortic tributaries of the aneurysm sac occluded prior to endovalscular grafting, either spontaneously by parietal thrombosis or by selective coil embolization of the respective ostia preserving collateral circulation distal to the vessel occlusion. Group II consisted of 82 patients and included all cases without or with incomplete coil embolization with at least one patent vessel. Stent grafting was performed in general anesthesia in the first 21 patients, followed by peridural anesthesia in 15 cases, and local anesthesia with conscious sedation in 86 cases. The results were evaluated with Spiral-CT, MRI and radiographs of the endovascular graft, with follow-up examinations obtained at 3, 6, 12 months, and every year - Implantation was successfully completed in all cases without primary conversion surgery, laparotomy or any significant complication. Mean follow-up was 29±21 months (maximum 82 months). The 30-day mortality was 0,8% due to a myocardial infarction 3 days after discharge from the hospital. A total of 47 re-interventions were performed in 29 patients (23.8%), with 35 re-interventions in 18 cases with Vanguard or Stentor endografts and 12 re-interventions in 11 patients with Talent endografts. 23 percutaneous re-interventions included distal graft extension (n=11), Wallstent for kinking and limb stenosis (n=3), and secondary coil embolization of collateral vessels (n=9). 24 surgical re-interventions included proximal graft extension (n=6), new endovascular grafts (n=3), surgical clipping of lumbar and mesenteric artery branches for type-II endoleaks

  5. Relative shortening and functional tethering of spinal cord in adolescent scoliosis – Result of asynchronous neuro-osseous growth, summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burwell R Geoffrey

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE introduced the electronic focus group (EFG as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has been designated as an on-line Delphi discussion. The Statement for this debate was written by Dr WCW Chu and colleagues who examine the spinal cord to vertebral growth interaction during adolescence in scoliosis. Using the multi-planar reconstruction technique of magnetic resonance imaging they investigated the relative length of spinal cord to vertebral column including ratios in 28 girls with AIS (mainly thoracic or double major curves and 14 age-matched normal girls. Also evaluated were cerebellar tonsillar position, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs, and clinical neurological examination. In severe AIS compared with normal controls, the vertebral column is significantly longer without detectable spinal cord lengthening. They speculate that anterior spinal column overgrowth relative to a normal length spinal cord exerts a stretching tethering force between the two ends, cranially and caudally leading to the initiation and progression of thoracic AIS. They support and develop the Roth-Porter concept of uncoupled neuro-osseous growth in the pathogenesis of AIS which now they prefer to term 'asynchronous neuro-osseous growth'. Morphological evidence about the curve apex suggests that the spinal cord is also affected, and a 'double pathology' is suggested. AIS is viewed as a disorder with a wide spectrum and a common neuroanatomical abnormality namely, a spinal cord of normal length but short relative to an abnormally lengthened anterior vertebral column. Neuroanatomical changes and/or abnormal neural function may be expressed only in severe cases. This asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept is regarded as one component of a larger concept. The other component relates to the brain and cranium of AIS subjects because abnormalities have been found in brain (infratentorial and supratentorial and skull (vault and base. The possible relevance of systemic melatonin-signaling pathway dysfunction, platelet calmodulin levels and putative vertebral vascular biology to the asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept is discussed. A biomechanical model to test the spinal component of the concept is in hand. There is no published research on the biomechanical properties of the spinal cord for scoliosis specimens. Such research on normal spinal cords includes movements (kinematics, stress-strain responses to uniaxial loading, and anterior forces created by the stretched cord in forward flexion that may alter sagittal spinal shape during adolescent growth. The asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept for the spine evokes controversy. Dr Chu and colleagues respond to five other concepts of pathogenesis for AIS and suggest that relative anterior spinal overgrowth and biomechanical growth modulation may also contribute to AIS pathogenesis.

  6. Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the mechanical properties of the clots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung TW

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tze-Wen Chung,1,3 Pei-Yi Lin,2 Shoei-Shen Wang,2 Yen-Fung Chen31Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, 2Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP (ANPs or fibrinogen (FNPs were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten blood clotting time and prevent severe local hemorrhage. The structure and mechanical properties of the blood clot induced with ANP (clot/ANP or FNP (clot/FNP were also investigated. The NPs, ANPs, and FNPs, which had particle sizes of 245.1±14.0, 251.0±9.8, and 326.5±14.5 nm and zeta potentials of 24.1±0.5, 20.6±1.9, and 15.3±1.5 mV (n=4, respectively, were fabricated by ionic gelation and then decorated with ADP and fibrinogen. The zeta potentials and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy of the NPs confirmed that their surfaces were successfully coated with ADP and fibrinogen. The scanning electron microscope (SEM micrographs of the structure of the clot induced with "undecorated" chitosan NPs (clot/NP, clot/ANP, and clot/FNP (at 0.05 wt% were different, after citrated bloods had been recalcified by a calcium chloride solution containing NPs, ANPs, or FNPs. This indicated that many NPs adhered on the membrane surfaces of red blood cells, that ANPs induced many platelet aggregates, and that FNPs were incorporated into the fibrin network in the clots. Measurements of the blood clotting times (Tc of blood clot/NPs, clot/ANPs, and clot/FNPs, based on 90% of ultimate frequency shifts measured on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, were significantly (P<0.05 (n=4 shorter than that of a clot induced by a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS (clot/PBS (63.6%±3.1%, 48.3%±6.2%, and 63.2%±4.7%, respectively. The ∆F2

  7. Handgrip strength, quadriceps muscle power, and optimal shortening velocity roles in maintaining functional abilities in older adults living in a long-term care home: a 1-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozicka I

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Izabela Kozicka, Tomasz Kostka Department of Geriatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Purpose: To assess the relative role of handgrip strength (HGS, quadriceps muscle power (Pmax, and optimal shortening velocity (υopt in maintaining functional abilities (FAs in older adults living in a long-term care home over a 1-year follow-up. Subjects and methods: Forty-one inactive older institutionalized adults aged 69.8±9.0 years participated in this study. HGS, Pmax, υopt, cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination, depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale, nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, and physical activity (PA using the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. FAs were assessed with activities of daily living (ADL, instrumental ADL, and Timed Up & Go test. Results: Both at baseline and at follow-up, FAs were related to age, HGS, Pmax/kg, υopt, MNA, and PA. These associations were generally similar in both sexes. As revealed in multiple regression analysis, υopt was the strongest predictor of FA, followed by Pmax/kg, PA, and MNA. FA deteriorated after 1 year as measured by ADL and Timed Up & Go test. Pmax and υopt, but not HGS, also decreased significantly after 1 year. Nevertheless, 1-year changes in FAs were not related to changes in HGS, Pmax, υopt, or PA. Conclusion: The 1-year period of physical inactivity among older institutionalized adults was found to have a negative effect on their FAs, Pmax, and υopt. The present study demonstrates that Pmax and, especially, υopt correlated with FAs of older adults more than HGS, both at baseline and at follow-up. Despite this, 1-year natural fluctuations of PA, Pmax, and υopt are not significant enough to influence FAs in inactive institutionalized older adults. Keywords: aging, handgrip strength, institutionalization, functional status, physical activity

  8. Long-term results of forearm lengthening and deformity correction by the Ilizarov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Wiktor; Morasiewicz, Leszek; Krawczyk, Artur; Dragan, Szymon; Czapiński, Jacek

    2002-06-30

    Background. Shortening and deformity of the forearm is most frequently caused by congenital disorders or posttraumatic injury. Given its complex anatomy and biomechanics, the forearm is clearly the most difficult segment for lengthening and deformity correction. Material and methods. We analyzed 16 patients with shortening and deformity of the forearm, treated surgically, using the Ilizarov method in our Department from 1989 to 2001. in 9 cases 1-stage surgery was sufficient, while the remaining 7 patients underwent 2-5 stages of treatment. At total of 31 surgical operations were performed. The extent of forearm shortening ranged from 1,5 to 14,5 cm (5-70%). We development a new fixator based on Schanz half-pins. Results. The length of forearm lengthening per operative stage averaged 2,35 cm. the proportion of lengthening ranged from 6% to 48% with an average of 18,3%. The mean lengthening index was 48,15 days/cm. the per-patient rate of complications was 88% compared 45% per stage of treatment, mostly limited rotational mobility and abnormal consolidation of regenerated bone. Conclusions. Despite the high complication rate, the Ilizarov method is the method of choice for patients with forearm shortenings and deformities. Treatment is particularly indicated in patients with shortening caused by disproportionate length of the ulnar and forearm bones. Treatment should be managed so as cause the least possible damage to arm function, even at the cost of limited lengthening. Our new stabilizer based on Schanz half-pins makes it possible to preserve forearm rotation.

  9. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  10. Relationship between the shortening of the posterior muscle chain and the forward shift of the head and shoulder in female athletes from the youth category Relação entre o encurtamento de cadeia muscular posterior e a anteriorização da cabeça e ombros em atletas infanto-juvenis do gênero feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Maciel Rabello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the shortening of the posterior muscle chain, mainly the hamstrings and the forward shift of the head and shoulder, as a possible adaptation in high level/performance athletes. The sample involved 59 female athletes from the youth category of different sports modalities. Group 1: 35 athletes with significant hamstrings’ shortening evaluated by the “bear’s position”; Control group: 24 athletes without hamstrings’ shortening, evaluated by the same position. Data collection was performed using digital analysis of pictures taken with the athlete standing (lateral vision in the “bear’s position”. Luminous markers were placed in the temporomandibular joint, lateral region of the acromio, femur great trochanter, external femoral condyle and lateral malleolus. Variables were measured by the computerized angular cinematic analysis, using the software for posture evaluation SAPO, 0.68 version, always performed by the same rater. Statistical analysis was performed with the Shapiro Wilk test, Unpaired t test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set at p?0.05. Group 1 showed 2.5 degrees (SD=1,12 of forward inclination in the lateral view and 43.15 degrees (SD=9,41 of knee flexion in the “bear’s position”. In group 2, there was 2.77 (DP=1.02 degrees in the lateral analysis and -2.19 (DP=4.05 degrees in the “bear’s position”. The statistical analysis between the two groups showed p=0.50 for the comparison of the anterior trunk imbalance in the lateral view and p=0,00 for the comparison of the “bear’s position”. The correlation analysis between the anterior trunk imbalance and the posterior muscle chain shortening, emphasizing the hamstrings, showed r=0.04 in the group with posterior chain shortening and r=0.1 in the control group. It can be concluded that the hamstrings’ muscle shortening did not show any relation with the

  11. Single base mutation in the proα2(I) collagen gene that causes efficient splicing of RNA from exon 27 to exon 29 and synthesis of a shortened but in-frame proα2(I) chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromp, G.; Prockop, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Previous observations demonstrated that a lethal variant of osteogenesis imperfecta had two altered alleles for proα2(I) chains of type I procollagen. One mutation produced a nonfunctioning allele in that there was synthesis of mRNA but no detectable synthesis of proα2(I) chains from the allele. The mutation in the other allele caused synthesis of shortened proα2(I) chains that lacked most or all of the 18 amino acids encoded by exon 28. Subclones of the proα2(I) gene were prepared from the proband's DNA and the DNA sequence was determined for a 582-base-pair (bp) region that extended from the last 30 bp of intervening sequence 26 to the first 26 bp of intervening sequence 29. Data from six independent subclones demonstrated that all had the same sequence as a previously isolated normal clone for the proα2(I) gene except that four subclones had a single base mutation at the 3' end of intervening sequence 27. The mutation was a substitution of guanine for adenine that changed the universal consensus sequence for the 3' splicing site of RNA from -AG- to -GG-. S1 nuclease experiments demonstrated that about half the proα2(I) mRNA in the proband's fibroblasts was abnormally spliced and that the major species of abnormal proα2(I) mRNA was completely spliced from the last codon of exon 27 to the first codon of exon 29. The mutation is apparently unique among RNA splicing mutations of mammalian systems in producing a shortened polypeptide chain that is in-frame in terms of coding sequences, that is used in the subunit assembly of a protein, and that contributes to a lethal phenotype

  12. Surgeon-Performed Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (SP-US-FNAC) Shortens Time for Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei Xiang; Tan, Chuen Seng; Ho, Thomas W T

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) of thyroid nodules is an important diagnostic procedure. In most hospitals, patients are referred to radiologists for US-FNAC, but this often results in a long waiting time before results are available. Surgeon-performed US-FNAC (SP-US-FNAC) during the initial patient consultation attempts to reduce the waiting time but it is not known whether this is as accurate as radiologist-performed US-FNAC (RP-US-FNAC). The aim of this study is to compare the clinical efficiency between SP-US-FNAC and RP-US-FNAC. A retrospective study was performed on patients from the Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) who underwent an US-FNAC from August 2011 to May 2012. All cases of SP-US-FNAC were performed by a single surgeon. This study compared the rates of positive diagnoses achieved by SP-US-FNAC and RPUS- FNAC as well as the time interval to reach a cytological diagnosis by each group. A total of 40 cases of SP-US-FNAC and 72 cases of RP-US-FNAC were included in the study. SP-US-FNAC resulted in 28 (70%) positive diagnoses and 12 (30%) nondiagnoses while RP-US-FNAC resulted in 47 (65.3%) positive diagnoses and 25 (34.7%) non-diagnoses. These results were comparable (P=0.678). The median time taken to reach a cytological diagnosis was 1 working day for SP-US-FNAC and 29.5 working days for RP-US-FNAC resulting in a shorter interval to reaching a cytological diagnosis for SP-US-FNAC (P<0.001). In the workup of thyroid nodules, SP-US-FNAC is as accurate as RP-US-FNAC but significantly reduces the time taken to reach a cytological diagnosis. This leads to greater clinical efficiency in the management of patients with thyroid nodules, which in turn leads to other benefits such as decreased patient anxiety and increased patient satisfaction.

  13. Quantitative Renal Cortical Perfusion in Human Subjects with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles: Influence of T1 Shortening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, A.; Ahlstrom, H.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Abildgaard, A.; Bock, M.; Bjoernerud, A. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Using conventional contrast agents, the technique of quantitative perfusion by observing the transport of a bolus with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited to the brain due to extravascular leakage. Purpose: To perform quantitative perfusion measurements in humans with an intravascular contrast agent, and to estimate the influence of the T1 relaxivity of the contrast agent on the first-pass response. Material and Methods: Renal cortical perfusion was measured quantitatively in six patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis using a rapid gradient double-echo sequence in combination with an intravenous bolus injection of NC100150 Injection, an intravascular contrast agent based on iron-oxide nanoparticles. The influence of T1 relaxivity was measured by comparing perfusion results based on single- and double-echo data. Results: The mean values of cortical blood flow, cortical blood volume, and mean transit time in the normal kidneys were measured to 339+-60 ml/min/100 g, 41+-8 ml/100 g, and 7.3+-1.0 s, respectively, based on double-echo data. The corresponding results based on single-echo data, which are not compensated for the T1 relaxivity, were 254+-47 ml/min/100 g, 27+-3 ml/100 g, and 6+-1.2 s, respectively. Conclusion: The use of a double-echo sequence enabled elimination of confounding T1 effects and consequent systematic underestimation of the perfusion.

  14. A Protein Data Bank survey reveals shortening of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in ligand-protein complexes when a halogenated ligand is an H-bond donor.

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    Jarosław Poznański

    Full Text Available Halogen bonding in ligand-protein complexes is currently widely exploited, e.g. in drug design or supramolecular chemistry. But little attention has been directed to other effects that may result from replacement of a hydrogen by a strongly electronegative halogen. Analysis of almost 30000 hydrogen bonds between protein and ligand demonstrates that the length of a hydrogen bond depends on the type of donor-acceptor pair. Interestingly, lengths of hydrogen bonds between a protein and a halogenated ligand are visibly shorter than those estimated for the same family of proteins in complexes with non-halogenated ligands. Taking into account the effect of halogenation on hydrogen bonding is thus important when evaluating structural and/or energetic parameters of ligand-protein complexes. All these observations are consistent with the concept that halogenation increases the acidity of the proximal amino/imino/hydroxyl groups and thus makes them better, i.e. stronger, H-bond donors.

  15. A Protein Data Bank survey reveals shortening of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in ligand-protein complexes when a halogenated ligand is an H-bond donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznański, Jarosław; Poznańska, Anna; Shugar, David

    2014-01-01

    Halogen bonding in ligand-protein complexes is currently widely exploited, e.g. in drug design or supramolecular chemistry. But little attention has been directed to other effects that may result from replacement of a hydrogen by a strongly electronegative halogen. Analysis of almost 30000 hydrogen bonds between protein and ligand demonstrates that the length of a hydrogen bond depends on the type of donor-acceptor pair. Interestingly, lengths of hydrogen bonds between a protein and a halogenated ligand are visibly shorter than those estimated for the same family of proteins in complexes with non-halogenated ligands. Taking into account the effect of halogenation on hydrogen bonding is thus important when evaluating structural and/or energetic parameters of ligand-protein complexes. All these observations are consistent with the concept that halogenation increases the acidity of the proximal amino/imino/hydroxyl groups and thus makes them better, i.e. stronger, H-bond donors.

  16. Use of NON-PARAMETRIC Item Response Theory to develop a shortened version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nonparametric item response theory (IRT) was used to examine (a) the performance of the 30 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items and their options ((levels of severity), (b) the effectiveness of various subscales to discriminate among differences in symptom severity, and (c) the development of an abbreviated PANSS (Mini-PANSS) based on IRT and a method to link scores to the original PANSS. Methods Baseline PANSS scores from 7,187 patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective disorder who were enrolled between 1995 and 2005 in psychopharmacology trials were obtained. Option characteristic curves (OCCs) and Item Characteristic Curves (ICCs) were constructed to examine the probability of rating each of seven options within each of 30 PANSS items as a function of subscale severity, and summed-score linking was applied to items selected for the Mini-PANSS. Results The majority of items forming the Positive and Negative subscales (i.e. 19 items) performed very well and discriminate better along symptom severity compared to the General Psychopathology subscale. Six of the seven Positive Symptom items, six of the seven Negative Symptom items, and seven out of the 16 General Psychopathology items were retained for inclusion in the Mini-PANSS. Summed score linking and linear interpolation was able to produce a translation table for comparing total subscale scores of the Mini-PANSS to total subscale scores on the original PANSS. Results show scores on the subscales of the Mini-PANSS can be linked to scores on the original PANSS subscales, with very little bias. Conclusions The study demonstrated the utility of non-parametric IRT in examining the item properties of the PANSS and to allow selection of items for an abbreviated PANSS scale. The comparisons between the 30-item PANSS and the Mini-PANSS revealed that the shorter version is comparable to the 30-item PANSS, but when applying IRT, the Mini-PANSS is also a good indicator of illness severity

  17. Microscale to manufacturing scale-up of cell-free cytokine production--a new approach for shortening protein production development timelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, James F; Yin, Gang; Steiner, Alexander R; Yang, Junhao; Naresh, Alpana; Roy, Sushmita M; Gold, Daniel S; Heinsohn, Henry G; Murray, Christopher J

    2011-07-01

    Engineering robust protein production and purification of correctly folded biotherapeutic proteins in cell-based systems is often challenging due to the requirements for maintaining complex cellular networks for cell viability and the need to develop associated downstream processes that reproducibly yield biopharmaceutical products with high product quality. Here, we present an alternative Escherichia coli-based open cell-free synthesis (OCFS) system that is optimized for predictable high-yield protein synthesis and folding at any scale with straightforward downstream purification processes. We describe how the linear scalability of OCFS allows rapid process optimization of parameters affecting extract activation, gene sequence optimization, and redox folding conditions for disulfide bond formation at microliter scales. Efficient and predictable high-level protein production can then be achieved using batch processes in standard bioreactors. We show how a fully bioactive protein produced by OCFS from optimized frozen extract can be purified directly using a streamlined purification process that yields a biologically active cytokine, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, produced at titers of 700 mg/L in 10 h. These results represent a milestone for in vitro protein synthesis, with potential for the cGMP production of disulfide-bonded biotherapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Parent and Patient Perceptions of Functional Impairment Due to Tourette Syndrome: Development of a Shortened Version of the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfell, Kara S Francis; Snyder, Ryan R; Isaacs-Cloes, Kelly M; Garris, Jordan F; Roeckner, Alyssa R; Horn, Paul S; Guthrie, Michael D; Wu, Steve W; Gilbert, Donald L

    2017-07-01

    The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale (CTIM) rates 37 problems in school, social, and home domains separately for tics and for comorbid diagnoses. However, a shorter version would be easier to implement in busy clinics. Using published data from 85 children with Tourette syndrome, 92 controls, and parents, factor analysis was used to generate a "mini-CTIM" composed of 12 items applied to tic and comorbid diagnoses. Child- and parent-rated mini-CTIM scores were compared and correlated across raters and accounting for clinician-rated tic severity and presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The mini-CTIM achieved domain Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.71 to 0.94 and intra-item correlation coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.96. The resulting scale correlated with clinician-rated tic severity and reflected the presence of ADHD and OCD. The mini-CTIM appears promising as a practical assessment tool for tic- and non-tic-related impairment in children with Tourette syndrome.

  19. Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie S. M. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9 were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P= 0.064 group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.

  20. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  1. Whole-body computed tomography in trauma patients: optimization of the patient scanning position significantly shortens examination time while maintaining diagnostic image quality

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    Hickethier T

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tilman Hickethier,1,* Kamal Mammadov,1,* Bettina Baeßler,1 Thorsten Lichtenstein,1 Jochen Hinkelbein,2 Lucy Smith,3 Patrick Sven Plum,4 Seung-Hun Chon,4 David Maintz,1 De-Hua Chang1 1Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 3Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Canada; 4Department of General, Visceral and Cancer Surgery, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The study was conducted to compare examination time and artifact vulnerability of whole-body computed tomographies (wbCTs for trauma patients using conventional or optimized patient positioning. Patients and methods: Examination time was measured in 100 patients scanned with conventional protocol (Group A: arms positioned alongside the body for head and neck imaging and over the head for trunk imaging and 100 patients scanned with optimized protocol (Group B: arms flexed on a chest pillow without repositioning. Additionally, influence of two different scanning protocols on image quality in the most relevant body regions was assessed by two blinded readers. Results: Total wbCT duration was about 35% or 3:46 min shorter in B than in A. Artifacts in aorta (27 vs 6%, liver (40 vs 8% and spleen (27 vs 5% occurred significantly more often in B than in A. No incident of non-diagnostic image quality was reported, and no significant differences for lungs and spine were found. Conclusion: An optimized wbCT positioning protocol for trauma patients allows a significant reduction of examination time while still maintaining diagnostic image quality. Keywords: CT scan, polytrauma, acute care, time requirement, positioning

  2. Effects of shortened host life span on the evolution of parasite life history and virulence in a microbial host-parasite system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koella Jacob C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological factors play an important role in the evolution of parasite exploitation strategies. A common prediction is that, as shorter host life span reduces future opportunities of transmission, parasites compensate with an evolutionary shift towards earlier transmission. They may grow more rapidly within the host, have a shorter latency time and, consequently, be more virulent. Thus, increased extrinsic (i.e., not caused by the parasite host mortality leads to the evolution of more virulent parasites. To test these predictions, we performed a serial transfer experiment, using the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and its bacterial parasite Holospora undulata. We simulated variation in host life span by killing hosts after 11 (early killing or 14 (late killing days post inoculation; after killing, parasite transmission stages were collected and used for a new infection cycle. Results After 13 cycles (≈ 300 generations, parasites from the early-killing treatment were less infectious, but had shorter latency time and higher virulence than those from the late-killing treatment. Overall, shorter latency time was associated with higher parasite loads and thus presumably with more rapid within-host replication. Conclusion The analysis of the means of the two treatments is thus consistent with theory, and suggests that evolution is constrained by trade-offs between virulence, transmission and within-host growth. In contrast, we found little evidence for such trade-offs across parasite selection lines within treatments; thus, to some extent, these traits may evolve independently. This study illustrates how environmental variation (experienced by the host can lead to the evolution of distinct parasite strategies.

  3. A stochastic model of cell replicative senescence based on telomere shortening, oxidative stress, and somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozou, P D; Kirkwood, T B

    2001-12-21

    Human diploid fibroblast cells can divide for only a limited number of times in vitro, a phenomenon known as replicative senescence or the Hayflick limit. Variability in doubling potential is observed within a clone of cells, and between two sister cells arising from a single mitotic division. This strongly suggests that the process by which cells become senescent is intrinsically stochastic. Among the various biochemical mechanisms that have been proposed to explain replicative senescence, particular interest has been focussed on the role of telomere reduction. In the absence of telomerase--an enzyme switched off in normal diploid fibro-blasts-cells lose telomeric DNA at each cell division. According to the telomere hypothesis of cell senescence, cells eventually reach a critically short telomere length and cell cycle arrest follows. In support of this concept, forced expression of telomerase in normal fibroblasts appears to prevent cell senescence. Nevertheless, the telomere hypothesis in its basic form has some difficulty in explaining the marked stochastic variations seen in the replicative lifespans of individual cells within a culture, and there is strong empirical and theoretical support for the concept that other kinds of damage may contribute to cellular ageing. We describe a stochastic network model of cell senescence in which a primary role is played by telomere reduction but in which other mechanisms (oxidative stress linked particularly to mitochondrial damage, and nuclear somatic mutations) also contribute. The model gives simulation results that are in good agreement with published data on intra-clonal variability in cell doubling potential and permits an analysis of how the various elements of the stochastic network interact. Such integrative models may aid in developing new experimental approaches aimed at unravelling the intrinsic complexity of the mechanisms contributing to human cell ageing. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Determinants of the abilities to jump higher and shorten the contact time in a running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Zushi, Koji

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain useful information for developing training techniques for the running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball (lay-up shot jump). The ability to perform the lay-up shot jump and various basic jumps was measured by testing 19 male basketball players. The basic jumps consisted of the 1-legged repeated rebound jump, the 2-legged repeated rebound jump, and the countermovement jump. Jumping height, contact time, and jumping index (jumping height/contact time) were measured and calculated using a contact mat/computer system that recorded the contact and air times. The jumping index indicates power. No significant correlation existed between the jumping height and contact time of the lay-up shot jump, the 2 components of the lay-up shot jump index. As a result, jumping height and contact time were found to be mutually independent abilities. The relationships in contact time between the lay-up shot jump to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the 2-legged repeated rebound jump were correlated on the same significance levels (p jumping height existed between the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the lay-up shot jump (p jumping height between the lay-up shot jump and both the 2-legged repeated rebound jump and countermovement jump. The lay-up shot index correlated more strongly to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump index (p jump index (p jump is effective in improving both contact time and jumping height in the lay-up shot jump.

  5. Use of non-parametric item response theory to develop a shortened version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Lewis, Charles; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2011-11-16

    Nonparametric item response theory (IRT) was used to examine (a) the performance of the 30 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items and their options ((levels of severity), (b) the effectiveness of various subscales to discriminate among differences in symptom severity, and (c) the development of an abbreviated PANSS (Mini-PANSS) based on IRT and a method to link scores to the original PANSS. Baseline PANSS scores from 7,187 patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective disorder who were enrolled between 1995 and 2005 in psychopharmacology trials were obtained. Option characteristic curves (OCCs) and Item Characteristic Curves (ICCs) were constructed to examine the probability of rating each of seven options within each of 30 PANSS items as a function of subscale severity, and summed-score linking was applied to items selected for the Mini-PANSS. The majority of items forming the Positive and Negative subscales (i.e. 19 items) performed very well and discriminate better along symptom severity compared to the General Psychopathology subscale. Six of the seven Positive Symptom items, six of the seven Negative Symptom items, and seven out of the 16 General Psychopathology items were retained for inclusion in the Mini-PANSS. Summed score linking and linear interpolation was able to produce a translation table for comparing total subscale scores of the Mini-PANSS to total subscale scores on the original PANSS. Results show scores on the subscales of the Mini-PANSS can be linked to scores on the original PANSS subscales, with very little bias. The study demonstrated the utility of non-parametric IRT in examining the item properties of the PANSS and to allow selection of items for an abbreviated PANSS scale. The comparisons between the 30-item PANSS and the Mini-PANSS revealed that the shorter version is comparable to the 30-item PANSS, but when applying IRT, the Mini-PANSS is also a good indicator of illness severity.

  6. Shortening of the Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 AggLb protein switches its activity from auto-aggregation to biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Miljković

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AggLb is the largest (318.6 kDa aggregation-promoting protein of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 responsible for forming large cell aggregates, which causes auto-aggregation, collagen binding and pathogen exclusion in vitro. It contains an N-terminus leader peptide, followed by six successive collagen binding domains, 20 successive repeats (CnaB-like domains and an LPXTG sorting signal at the C-terminus for cell wall anchoring. Experimental information about the roles of the domains of AggLb is currently unknown. To define the domain that confers cell aggregation and the key domains for interactions of specific affinity between AggLb and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM, we constructed a series of variants of the aggLb gene and expressed them in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGKP1-20 using a lactococcal promoter. All of the variants contained a leader peptide, an inter collagen binding-CnaB domain region (used to raise an anti-AggLb antibody, an anchor domain and a different number of collagen binding and CnaB-like domains. The role of the collagen binding repeats of the N-terminus in auto-aggregation and binding to collagen and fibronectin was confirmed. Deletion of the collagen binding repeats II, III and IV resulted in a loss of the strong auto-aggregation, collagen and fibronectin binding abilities whereas the biofilm formation capability was increased. The strong auto-aggregation, collagen and fibronectin binding abilities of AggLb were negatively correlated to biofilm formation.

  7. Shortening the decade-long gap between adult and paediatric drug formulations: a new framework based on the HIV experience in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penazzato, Martina; Lewis, Linda; Watkins, Melynda; Prabhu, Vineet; Pascual, Fernando; Auton, Martin; Kreft, Wesley; Morin, Sébastien; Vicari, Marissa; Lee, Janice; Jamieson, David; Siberry, George K

    2018-02-01

    Despite the coordinated efforts by several stakeholders to speed up access to HIV treatment for children, development of optimal paediatric formulations still lags 8 to 10 years behind that of adults, due mainly to lack of market incentives and technical complexities in manufacturing. The small and fragmented paediatric market also hinders launch and uptake of new formulations. Moreover, the problems affecting HIV similarly affect other disease areas where development and introduction of optimal paediatric formulations is even slower. Therefore, accelerating processes for developing and commercializing optimal paediatric drug formulations for HIV and other disease areas is urgently needed. The Global Accelerator for Paediatric Formulations (GAP-f) is an innovative collaborative model that will accelerate availability of optimized treatment options for infectious diseases, such as HIV, tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, affecting children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It builds on the HIV experience and existing efforts in paediatric drug development, formalizing collaboration between normative bodies, research networks, regulatory agencies, industry, supply and procurement organizations and funding bodies. Upstream, the GAP-f will coordinate technical support to companies to design and study optimal paediatric formulations, harmonize efforts with regulators and incentivize manufacturers to conduct formulation development. Downstream, the GAP-f will reinforce coordinated procurement and communication with suppliers. The GAP-f will be implemented in a three-stage process: (1) development of a strategic framework and promotion of key regulatory efficiencies; (2) testing of feasibility and results, building on the work of existing platforms such as the Paediatric HIV Treatment Initiative (PHTI) including innovative approaches to incentivize generic development and (3) launch as a fully functioning structure. GAP-f is a key partnership example enhancing

  8. Results of operation of BWRs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueki, Kensuke

    1987-01-01

    It is considered that the development of BWR plants in Japan has been advanced relatively smoothly though sometimes there were complications. As of the end of fiscal year 1986, the BWR plants in operation were 16, and the total power output amounted to 12,917 MW, which was equivalent to 8 % of 153 GW of the total power source facilities in Japan. Reflecting the excellent operational result of BWR plants, the generated electric power in fiscal year 1986 reached 85.9 TWh and about 15 % of the total, exceeding hydroelectric power. This means that about 18 million tons of petroleum import was reduced. At the initial stage, BWR plants suffered the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel pipings in the reactor primary system. This trouble was successfully solved by the efforts of the government, electric power companies, plant manufacturers and research institutes. In fiscal year 1983, the capacity factor of all BWR plants in Japan recovered to more than 70 %, and in fiscal year 1986, it has reached 75.9 %. In order to improve the capacity factor further, it is necessary to prevent troubles by the development of diagnostic techniques and preventive maintenance, and to shorten regular inspection period. The change of accidents and troubles, the measures to reduce regular inspection period, the reduction of radiation exposure, and the reduction of wastes are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Elite athletes: is survival shortened in boxers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Fabbricatore, C; Sanna, N; Fabiano, C; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P

    2007-08-01

    Moderate exercise and intense physical training are associated with increased life expectancy (LE). Boxing is characterized by intentional and repetitive head blows, sometimes causing brain injury, possibly reducing LE. We examined a sample of male athletes born between 1860 and 1930 selected from the international "hall of fame" inductees in baseball (n = 154), ice hockey (n = 130), tennis (n = 83), football (n = 81), boxing (n = 81), track and field (n = 59), basketball (n = 58), swimming (n = 37) and wrestling (n = 32). In boxing, we analyzed the number of disputed bouts/rounds and career records. Sports were also analyzed according to physiological demand and occurrence and kind of contact (intentional, unintentional). The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival curves (significance: p LE of the samples was 76.0 yrs and no differences were observed in different sports, although it was lower in boxers (73.0 yrs) and higher in tennis players (79.0 yrs). Sports of different physiological demand were similar in respect to LE. No differences in LE were found related to occurrence and kind of impact. Similar LE was found in boxers of different weight or career records. In conclusion, this study indicates that LE in top-level athletes is unaffected by the type of discipline, and not related to physiological demand and intentional contact.

  11. Shortening the juvenile phase for flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higazy, M.K.M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Higazy tried to determine whether the duration of the juvenile phase for flowering was a fixed character or whether it could be influenced by external growth factors.

    Lunaria biennis was chosen as a cold-requiring biennial, Silene armeria as a long-day plant and Salvia

  12. SUMO expression shortens the lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast growth caused by complex interactive effects of major mixed fermentation inhibitors found in hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Kadowaki, Masafumi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Horie, Kenta; Suzuki, Akihiro; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The complex inhibitory effects of inhibitors present in lignocellulose hydrolysate suppress the ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the interactive inhibitory effects play important roles in the actual hydrolysate, few studies have investigated glycolaldehyde, the key inhibitor of hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulose hydrolysate. Given this challenge, we investigated the interactive effects of mixed fermentation inhibitors, including glycolaldehyde. First, we confirmed that glycolaldehyde was the most potent inhibitor in the hydrolysate and exerted interactive inhibitory effects in combination with major inhibitors. Next, through genome-wide analysis and megavariate data modeling, we identified SUMOylation as a novel potential mechanism to overcome the combinational inhibitory effects of fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, overall SUMOylation was increased and Pgk1, which produces an ATP molecule in glycolysis by substrate-level phosphorylation, was SUMOylated and degraded in response to glycolaldehyde. Augmenting the SUMO-dependent ubiquitin system in the ADH1-expressing strain significantly shortened the lag phase of growth, released cells from G2/M arrest, and improved energy status and glucose uptake in the inhibitor-containing medium. In summary, our study was the first to establish SUMOylation as a novel platform for regulating the lag phase caused by complex fermentation inhibitors.

  13. Interdisciplinary interventional therapy for tracheobronchial stenosis with modern metal net stents; Interdisziplinaere interventionelle Therapie tracheobronchialer Stenosen mit modernen Metallmaschenstents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fedorowski, A.; Pfeifer, K.J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Hautmann, H.; Huber, R.M. [Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abteilung Pulmonologie, Medizinische Klinik

    2002-08-01

    Study objectives: Assessment of the therapeutic potential of tracheobronchial stenting for obstructive tracheobronchial disease, in-vivo comparison of different stent types and development of helpful criteria for choosing the suitable stent type. Material and Methods: Prospective case analysis. Between 1993 and 1999 53 stents were implanted into the tracheobronchial system of 39 consecutive patients with benign or malignant airway obstruction. Every single stent (26 Strecker Stents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Accuflex Nitinolstents, 1 Dumon-, 1 Ruesch- and 1 Palmazstent) was recorded in an unified database. Analysis comprised clinical effectiveness, lung function if possible, relevant complications and radiologic follow-up parameters. The probability of their remaining within the tracheobronchial system, of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for three stent types. Results: Stent placement proved itself to be an effective treatment in 86% of the patients. Resistance could be normalized in 9/9 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly revealed a higher probability for the Wall- and Nitinolstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system and to remain uncompressed. Dislocation also occurred more rarely. Explanation of the Wallstent, however, if desired, was much more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also occasionally led to the formation of granulation tissue especially at the proximal stent end and, as such, required reintervention. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Erfassung des therapeutischen Potenzials der Stentbehandlung bei tracheobronchialen Stenosen, in-vivo Vergleich verschiedener Stenttypen und Erarbeitung von geeigneten Kriterien zur Stentwahl. Material und Methodik: Prospektive Fallanalyse. Zwischen 1993 und 1999 wurden insgesamt 53 Stents in das Tracheobronichalsystem von 39 konsekutiven Patienten implantiert. Jeder einzelne Stent (26 Streckerstents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Nitinolstents, ein Dumonstent

  14. Avoiding unfavorable results in postburn contracture hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sameek

    2013-01-01

    Deformities of the hands are a fairly common sequel of burn especially in the developing world. This is because of high incidence of burns, limited access to standard treatment and rehabilitation. The best outcome of a burnt hand is when deformities are prevented from developing. A good functional result is possible when due consideration is paid to hands during resuscitation, excisional surgery, reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy. The post-burns deformities of hand develop due direct thermal damage or secondary to intrinsic minus position due to oedema or vascular insufficiency. During the acute phase the concerns are, maintenance circulation minimize oedema prevent unphysiological positioning and wound closure with autogenous tissue as soon as possible. The rehabilitation program during the acute phase starts from day one and goes on till the hand has healed and has regained full range of motion. Full blown hand contractures are challenging to correct and become more difficult as time passes. Long-standing cases often land up with attenuation of extensor apparatus leading to swan neck and boutonniere deformity, muscle shortening and bony ankylosis. The major and most common pitfall after contracture release is relapse. The treatment protocol of contracture is solely directed towards countering this tendency. This article aims to guide a surgeon in obtaining optimal hand function and avoid pit falls at different stages of management of hand burns. The reasons of an unfavourable outcome of a burnt hand are possible lack of optimal care in the acute phase, while planning and performing reconstructive procedure and during aftercare and rehabilitation. PMID:24501479

  15. Alterations to Swallowing Physiology as the Result of Effortful Swallowing in Healthy Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Hsu, Chuan-Ya; Lu, Ying; Lazarus, Cathy L

    2018-06-01

    A significant proportion of healthy seniors report difficulty swallowing, thought to result from age-related decline in muscle bulk/function. Effortful Swallowing (ES) is used both as a compensatory maneuver to improve pharyngeal propulsion/clearance and has been proposed as an exercise to improve pharyngeal strength. This study sought to quantify the immediate kinematic, temporal, and functional changes during an ES maneuver to quantify its exercise potential to combat age-related changes in swallowing. Videofluoroscopy data were collected from 44 healthy seniors (21 male) over 65 years old (mean = 76.9, SD = 7.1). Each participant swallowed six 5 ml boluses of Varibar nectar-thick liquids: three with regular effort and three using ES. Individual swallows (n = 260) were measured on pharyngeal constriction, pharyngeal shortening, laryngeal closure duration, hyoid movement duration, UES opening duration, stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, pharyngeal response duration, Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS), and the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). Non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank Sum for repeated measures tested the effect of ES on each outcome. Exact p-values were calculated based on permutation methods, individual p values < 0.008 was deemed to be significant. The ES maneuver significantly prolonged all temporal variables. While we found no significant differences for pharyngeal constriction, significantly less (i.e., worse) pharyngeal shortening was observed in ES condition compared with regular effort swallows. Further, significantly worse pyriform sinus residue (NRRSv) was observed in the ES condition. No differences between ES and regular effort swallows were noted for pharyngeal constriction, NRRSv or PAS. We speculate that these negative manifestations of worse kinematics (less pharyngeal shortening) and function (increase in NRRSp) may be the result of forced volitional manipulation of swallowing in the ES condition in an otherwise

  16. Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention: shortened interrupted time series evaluation of a behavioural and structural health promotion and violence prevention intervention for young people in informal settlements in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Gibbs, Andrew; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mushinga, Mildred; Washington, Laura; Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Skiweyiya, Yandisa

    2014-12-29

    Gender-based violence and HIV are highly prevalent in the harsh environment of informal settlements and reducing violence here is very challenging. The group intervention Stepping Stones has been shown to reduce men's perpetration of violence in more rural areas, but violence experienced by women in the study was not affected. Economic empowerment interventions with gender training can protect older women from violence, but microloan interventions have proved challenging with young women. We investigated whether combining a broad economic empowerment intervention and Stepping Stones could impact on violence among young men and women. The intervention, Creating Futures, was developed as a new generation of economic empowerment intervention, which enabled livelihood strengthening though helping participants find work or set up a business, and did not give cash or make loans. We piloted Stepping Stones with Creating Futures in two informal settlements of Durban with 232 out of school youth, mostly aged 18-30 and evaluated with a shortened interrupted time series of two baseline surveys and at 28 and 58 weeks post-baseline. 94/110 men and 111/122 women completed the last assessment, 85.5% and 90.2% respectively of those enrolled. To determine trend, we built random effects regression models with each individual as the cluster for each variable, and measured the slope of the line across the time points. Men's mean earnings in the past month increased by 247% from R411 (~$40) to R1015 (~$102, and women's by 278% R 174 (~$17) to R 484 (about $48) (trend test, p < 0.0001). There was a significant reduction in women's experience of the combined measure of physical and/or sexual IPV in the prior three months from 30.3% to 18.9% (p = 0.037). This was not seen for men. However both men and women scored significantly better on gender attitudes and men significantly reduced their controlling practices in their relationship. The prevalence of moderate or severe depression

  17. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  18. [Fine mesh metal endoprostheses for treatment of extensive cervical and intrathoracic tracheomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, E; Berger, H; Dienemann, H; Jolk, A

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of tracheal stenoses caused by tracheomalacia is mainly carried out by means of sleeve resection, tracheopexy with ring support or other tracheoplastic operative procedures. If patients cannot be treated by surgical operative strategies, conventional stents are usually used to dilate the trachea. The use of a self-expanding elastic metal prosthesis in 5 patients with tracheal airway obstruction caused by tracheomalacia proved to be a true alternative in the therapy of tracheobronchial stenoses. We report on the long term use of 5 patients with tracheal stenoses treated by implantation of elastic metal wallstents. The implantation of the stents resulted in immediate improvement in respiratory function in all 5 patients. None of the patients experienced complications secondary to the stent placement. The stents were well tolerated (long-time follow-up 26 months). The implantation of self-expanding metal stents type "wallstent" seems to offer alternative possibilities for the treatment of tracheomalacia.

  19. First Results of Energy Saving at Process Redesign of Die Forging Al-Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnjak, Tomaz; Kuzman, Karl; Kokol, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The contribution deals with eco-friendly solutions for shortened production chains of forging light alloys. During the die forging operations a remarkable amount of material goes into the flash and later on into chips during finish machining. These low value side products are rich with embedded energy therefore recycling or reprocessing could be very energy saving procedure.In cooperation with a die forging company a shortened reprocessing cycle has been studied starting from re-melting the forging flash and without additional heating to cast preforms for subsequent die forging. As such preforms have not as good formability characteristics as those done from extruded billets the isothermal forging process has been adopted. First results showed that without cracks and other defects the formability is sufficient for a broad spectrum of forgings.To improve the formability a homogenization process of cast preforms has been implemented. As the process started immediately after casting, amount of additional energy for heating was minimized. To reduce voids forging process was redesigned in a way to assure greater hydrostatic pressures in parts during forging. First results were promising therefore research is going towards improving processes without adding significantly more energy as it is needed for casting with homogenization and die forging.

  20. Flow patterns from metallic vascular endoprostheses: in vitro results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.; Grimm, J.; Jahnke, T.; Haeselbarth, G.; Heller, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Kiel (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine flow characteristics and pressure gradients of different balloon- and self-expandable stents in an in vitro flow-model. Seven vascular stents (Bridge, Cragg, Memotherm, Palmaz PS 784, Sinus, Symphony, Wallstent), equal in length (60 mm) and diameter (10 mm), were deployed in a closed flow model. The inner diameter of the tube measured 9 mm. Flow at 1.5 and 6 l/min was applied. Flow patterns were visualized by anionic particles illuminated with two helium-neon lasers. Late laminary flow characteristics and pre- /post-stent pressure gradients were determined in either expanded stent, 25 and 50 % tube stenosis. Stent implantation induced a decrease of laminary flow when compared with an unstented tube with and without concentric 25 % stenosis (p < 0.01) at all flow rates and an increase of pressure gradients when compared with an unstented tube for a flow rate of 6 l/min and all stenoses (p < 0.01). At 1.5 l/min most stents revealed no significant change of pressure gradient, the highest gradient measured 4.0 mmHg. Sinus permitted maximum (expanded: 82.1 % and 76.9 % at 25 % stenosis at 1.5 l/min; p < 0.01) and Palmaz minimum of laminary flow at all flow rates and stenoses (70.2 and 52.4 % at 25 % stenosis at 1.5 l/min; p < 0.01). At 6 l/min, when completely expanded, Sinus is equal to Bridge and Memotherm; in 25 % stenosis Sinus is equal to Bridge, Memotherm, and additionally to Cragg and Wall. None of the endoprostheses revealed laminary flow at 50 % stenosis. Inadequate stent deployment bears the risk of creating less laminary flow and pressure gradients. Since flow disturbances and pressure gradients may influence neointimal hyperplasia, stent design and completeness of stent expansion are important factors regarding the appearance of thrombus formation and postinterventional restenosis. (orig.)

  1. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  2. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  3. Stent impact on the geometry of the carotid bifurcation and the course of the internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkefeld, J.; Zanella, F.E.; Rosendahl, H.; Theron, J.G.; Guimaraens, L.; Treggiari-Venzi, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A measurement system is proposed to evaluate reconstructive effects of carotid stents on the geometry of the carotid bifurcation and the course of the internal carotid artery. To describe deviations of the stenotic internal carotid artery (ICA) from the extended axis of the common carotid artery (CCA) the CCA-ICA angle is measured between the CCA midaxis and the midaxis of the stenotic ICA segment. Maximal extensions of ICA tortuosities perpendicular to the course of the CCA axis are defined as ICA offset. The measurements were applied to DSA images of 224 carotid stenoses to evaluate variation and correlation between the two parameters. Comparative pre- and post-stent evaluation was performed in two series of 55 and 31 carotid stenoses treated with Wallstents and in a historic control group of 35 stenoses treated with Strecker stents. Straight course of the ICA was associated with low angle and low offset values, whereas tortuous course of the ICA showed larger angle and offset. A moderate linear correlation between the two parameters was found. Corresponding to a straightening of the stented segment, Wallstents reduced mean angle and offset values significantly. In five cases of the second series of Wallstents, transferrals of curves above the distal stent end associated with kinks were observed, and offset remained constant or increased. Strecker stent implantation caused no significant changes of bifurcational geometry. The proposed parameters corresponded to visual aspects of ICA tortuosity and detected reconstructive effects of self-expanding Wallstents on the ICA course. The measurement system may provide a basis for geometric evaluation of different stent types or implantation concepts with the aim: to optimize anatomic recanalization results in tortuous high angle-high offset bifurcations. (orig.)

  4. Recent results from TASSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1982-03-01

    Results are presented on the inclusive production of π 0 , K 0 and antiK 0 and lambda and antilambda in e + e - annihilation. These results, together with those on inclusive charged hadron production are used to obtain information on fragmentation mechanisms and the production of heavy quark flavours in e + e - annihilation. (author)

  5. Recent results from TRISTAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Ryoji [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    TRISTAN results on {gamma}{gamma} physics from 1994 to 1995 are reviewed in this report. We have systematically investigated jet production, the {gamma}-structure function, and charm pair production in {gamma}{gamma} processes. The results are discussed, and future prospects are presented.

  6. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  7. Tevatron physics results

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    I will summarize the physics results from the Tevatron experiments with particular emphasis on the experimental methods used in different kinds of analysis. In particular, the Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider that has now accumulated more than 2 fb^-1 of luminosity in the two experiments, called CDF and D0. In this lecture I will review the results on inclusive productions of jets, W- and Z-bosons, the results in the flavor sector, the measurements of top production, searches for Higgs boson production and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In each case I will explain the basic experimental concepts and methods needed for making the measurement.

  8. CMS Higgs boson results

    CERN Document Server

    Bluj, Michal Jacek

    2018-01-01

    In this report we review recent Higgs boson results obtained with pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=\\,$13 TeV recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 for an integrated luminosity of 35.9fb$^{\\text{-1}}$. The 2016 data allowed the observation of the $H \\to \\tau\\tau$ and $H \\to WW$ decays with high significance. We also present a combined measurement based on a full set of CMS analyses performed with 2016 data. These results are compatible with the standard model predictions with precision of several measurements exceeding results from combination of ATLAS and CMS data collected in 2011 and 2012.

  9. Interdisciplinary interventional therapy for tracheobronchial stenosis with modern metal net stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fedorowski, A.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Hautmann, H.; Huber, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Study objectives: Assessment of the therapeutic potential of tracheobronchial stenting for obstructive tracheobronchial disease, in-vivo comparison of different stent types and development of helpful criteria for choosing the suitable stent type. Material and Methods: Prospective case analysis. Between 1993 and 1999 53 stents were implanted into the tracheobronchial system of 39 consecutive patients with benign or malignant airway obstruction. Every single stent (26 Strecker Stents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Accuflex Nitinolstents, 1 Dumon-, 1 Ruesch- and 1 Palmazstent) was recorded in an unified database. Analysis comprised clinical effectiveness, lung function if possible, relevant complications and radiologic follow-up parameters. The probability of their remaining within the tracheobronchial system, of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for three stent types. Results: Stent placement proved itself to be an effective treatment in 86% of the patients. Resistance could be normalized in 9/9 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly revealed a higher probability for the Wall- and Nitinolstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system and to remain uncompressed. Dislocation also occurred more rarely. Explanation of the Wallstent, however, if desired, was much more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also occasionally led to the formation of granulation tissue especially at the proximal stent end and, as such, required reintervention. (orig.) [de

  10. Arsenic speciation results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear combination fitting results of synchrotron data to determine arsenic speciation in soil samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  11. Haiti DevResults

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — DevResults is a web-based portfolio management system that tracks program data for the Haiti Mission that was awarded in April of 2013. (The Mozambique and/or...

  12. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  13. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  14. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  15. Do telomeres have a higher plasticity than thought? Results from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study as a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschenberger, Julia; Kollerits, Barbara; Titze, Stephanie; Köttgen, Anna; Bärthlein, Barbara; Ekici, Arif B; Forer, Lukas; Schönherr, Sebastian; Weissensteiner, Hansi; Haun, Margot; Wanner, Christoph; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kronenberg, Florian

    2015-12-01

    Telomere length is considered as a biological marker for aging. It is expected that telomeres shorten with age and with conditions associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Both are present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a very high cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether CKD duration is associated with relative telomere length (RTL) in 4802 patients from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. We measured RTL in each sample in quadruplicates using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We observed a U-shaped association of RTL with CKD duration: the longest RTL was found in those 339 patients who reported the shortest disease duration (study these surprising results have to be considered with caution and as hypothesis-generating. Whether the longer RTL in patients with long-lasting disease is caused by an activation of telomerase to counteract the shortening of RTL due to oxidative stress and inflammation or whether they are caused by a survival bias needs to be investigated in longitudinal studies. Our data are in support of a higher plasticity of shortening and elongations of RTL as until recently anticipated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New particles: experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.E.

    The results of studies on production and properties of psi(3100) and psi(3700) resonances are presented, particular attention being given to spin, parity, g-parity and isospin determination. Evidence obtained in the SPEAR and DORIS storage rings in psi'→γ chi and psi→γX intermediate states are presented, together with SPEAR results on e-μ events and high energy jet production. (39 references) [fr

  17. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  18. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....

  19. Compilation of results 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A compilation is carried out which in concentrated form presents reports on research and development within the nuclear energy field covering a two and a half years period. The foregoing report was edited in December 1984. The projects are presendted with title, project number, responsible unit, person to contact and short result reports. The result reports consist of short summaries over each project. (L.F.)

  20. Higgs results from ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The updated Higgs measurements in various search channels with ATLAS Run 1 data are reviewed. Both the Standard Model (SM) Higgs results, such as H → γγ, ZZ, WW, ττ, μμ, bb-bar, and Beyond Standard Model (BSM) results, such as the charged Higgs, Higgs invisible decay and tensor couplings, are summarized. Prospects for future Higgs searches are briefly discussed

  1. Unfavorable results in replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them.

  2. Quantification of faults resulting from disregard of standardised facial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riml, S; Piontke, A; Larcher, L; Kompatscher, P

    2011-07-01

    Medical photography is an important part of documentary procedures in plastic surgery both for quality assurance and for protecting surgeons from possible medico-legal claims filed by patients. Photo documentary standards were established to make photos reliable and to enable comparisons between pre- and post-operative views of a patient, different operative procedures and between results achieved by different surgeons. Despite their obvious importance, especially in the documentation of subtle surgical procedures on the face such as rhinoplasty, photo documentary standards continue to be disregarded. In this article, we analyse and quantify faults caused by even small deviations from photo documentary standards. Photos of 10 healthy, young adults (n = 10) taken in accordance with established standards were compared to photos with the similar types of faults in positioning of the head (±10° deviation from the standard), camera angles (±10° deviation from standard) or mimic expression (slight smile). A computer-assisted facial analysis was performed and the effects of faulty photo documentation on the final result were calculated. The analysis showed, for instance, that a +10° fault in positioning of the head causes a mean shortening of the nasal dorsum by 32.34% (pfault elongates the nasal dorsum by 11.93% (pfaults in the final outcome. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metallic stent placement in hemodialysis graft patients after insufficient balloon dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Huei-Lung; Pan, Huay-Ben; Lin, Yih-Huie; Chen, Chiung-Yu; Lai, Pin-Hong; Yang, Chien-Fang; Chung, Hsiao-Min; Wu, Tung-Ho; Chou, Kang-Ju

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to report our experience of metallic stent placement after insufficient balloon dilation in graft hemodialysis patients. Twenty-three patients (13 loop grafts in the forearm and 10 straight grafts in the upper arm) underwent metallic stent placement due to insufficient flow after urokinase thrombolysis and balloon dilation. The indications for metallic stent deployment included 1) recoil and/or kinked venous stenosis in 21 patents (venous anastomosis: 17 patients, peripheral outflow vein: four patients); and 2) major vascular rupture in two patients. Metallic stents 8-10mm in diameter and 40-80 mm in length were used. Of them, eight stents were deployed across the elbow crease. Access patency was determined by clinical follow-up and the overall rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. No procedure-related complications (stent fracture or central migration) were encountered except for a delayed Wallstent shortening/migration at the venous anastomosis, which resulted in early access failure. The overall primary and secondary patency rates (±standard error) of all the vascular accesses in our 23 patients at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months were 69%±9 and 88%±6,41% ±10 and 88%±6, 30%±10 and 77%±10, and 12%±8 and 61%±13, respectively. For the forearm and upper-arm grafts, the primary and secondary patency rates were 51%±16 and 86%±13 vs 45%±15 and 73%±13 at 6 months, and 25%±15 and 71%±17 vs 23%±17 and 73%±13 at 12 months (ρ = .436 and .224), respectively. Metallic stent placement is a safe and effective means for treating peripheral venous lesions in dialysis graft patients after insufficient balloon dilation. No statistically difference in the patency rates between the forearm and upper-arm patient groups was seen

  4. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  5. Results from EQAS 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, A.B.

    An international external quality assurance program on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv (WHO GSS). In 2002 a total of 117 laborator......An international external quality assurance program on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv (WHO GSS). In 2002 a total of 117...... laboratories from 67 countries participated. For serotyping, almost 90 % of the results were correct. For susceptibility testing, 91 % of the results were in agreement with the expected results, and 86 % of the performed tests with the reference strain E. coli ATCC 25922 were inside the quality control range...

  6. RTE - 2012 financial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricour, Olivia; Marguier, Marina; Lartigau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's financial results for 2012: increase of investments for services to clients, performance results, financial balance, stability of the economical model. RTE's regulated economical model, main financial indicators, 2007-2012 investments, 2012 investments by category, 2012 turnover, 2012 costs structure, taxes, financial balance sheet at the end of 2012, and the share of electricity transport in the electricity price are presented in appendixes

  7. Geochemical investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, H.J.; Sander, W.

    1986-01-01

    The following information can be derived from results so far for a final store: - With known mineralogy, precise information can be given on the solution metamorphosis processes to be expected. The previous results of this in-situ experiment have confirmed the theoretical considerations. - Sensors were developed and tested, which make possible continuous monitoring under hydrostatic pressure in a final store in the case of incoming solution, i.e. for exploration bores. - The collection of physical and chemical parameters in open sections and shafts creates the basis for assessing the effect of backfilling from the chemical point of view. (orig./PW) [de

  8. Results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66 -13 +18 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73 -16 +18 (stat) -7 5 (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69 -11 +11 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  9. First AFP results

    CERN Document Server

    Staszewski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) are detectors dedicated to measurements of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at small angles in inelastic processes. The first arm of AFP was installed in 2016. The installation of the full system was finished in 2017. Since 2016 AFP has collected data is special and standard runs. The presentation shows the first results obtained with data collected by AFP.

  10. Recent results of BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, D.

    2001-01-01

    The BABAR detector at SLAC's PEP-II storage ring has collected data amounting to about 30.4 fb -1 until june 2001. Results on CP violation, and in particular search for direct CP violation, and measurement of rare B decays are presented

  11. Roadmap of Infinite Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive summary of equivalence checking results for infinite-state systems. References to the relevant papers will be updated continuously according to the development in the area. The most recent version of this document is available from the web-page http://www.brics.dk/~srba/roadmap....

  12. IRU Results and Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the disciplines within USOBuilt Graduate School as organized in International Research and Design Units, the fora where research and design at a (post)doctorate level is performed and taught. A fixed template was used to self-assess results and perspectives, consisting of

  13. Results of CPLEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickenbach, R.; Adler, R.; Alhalel, T.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Aslanides, E.; Backenstoss, G.; Bargassa, P.; Bee, C.P.; Behnke, O.; Benelli, A.; Bertin, V.; Blanc, F.; Bloch, P.; Carlson, P.; Carroll, M.; Carvalho, J.; Cawley, E.; Charalambous, S.; Chardin, G.; Chertok, M.B.; Cody, A.; Danielsson, M.; Dejardin, M.; Derre, J.; Ealet, A.; Eckart, B.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Evangelou, I.; Faravel, L.; Fassnacht, P.; Felder, C.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fetscher, W.; Fidecaro, M.; Filipcic, A.; Francis, D.; Fry, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Garreta, D.; Gerber, H.-J.; Go, A.; Guyot, C.; Haselden, A.; Hayman, P.J.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hollander, R.W.; Hubert, E.; Jon-And, K.; Kettle, P.-R.; Kochowski, C.; Kokkas, P.; Kreuger, R.; Le Gac, R.; Leimgruber, F.; Liolios, A.; Machado, E.; Mandic, I.; Manthos, N.; Marel, G.; Mikuz, M.; Miller, J.; Montanet, F.; Nakada, T.; Pagels, B.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Policarpo, A.; Polivka, G.; Roberts, B.L.; Ruf, T.; Sakeliou, L.; Sanders, P.; Santoni, C.; Schaefer, M.; Schaller, L.A.; Schietinger, T.; Schopper, A.; Schune, P.; Soares, A.; Tauscher, L.; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.; Touramanis, C.; Triantis, F.; Van Beveren, E.; Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Vlachos, S.; Weber, P.; Wigger, O.; Wolter, M.; Yeche, C.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zimmerman, D.

    1997-01-01

    The CPLEAR experiment uses tagged K 0 and K 0 produced in pp annihilation at rest to measure CP-, T- and CPT-violation parameters in the neutral kaon system. The results of these measurements and some implications are reported. (orig.)

  14. Same query - different results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevyjel, A.

    1983-10-01

    On behalf of a case study a simple truncated adjacency phrase search was executed in the online versions of Chemical Abstracts on five different host computers (DATA-STAR, DIALOG, ESA, SDC, TELESYSTEMES). The reasons for the differences in the appearing results are discussed. (Author) [de