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Sample records for wall mannan structure

  1. [Demonstration of β-1,2 mannan structures expressed on the cell wall of Candida albicans yeast form but not on the hyphal form by using monoclonal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Cevahir; Ataoğlu, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus that may be observed as both commensal and opportunistic pathogen in humans. As one of the major components of Candida cell wall structure, mannan plays an important role in the fungus-host cell interaction and in virulence. The ability to switch from yeast to hypha form of microorganism is crutial in the development of C.albicans infections. Hyphal form has different antigenic properties compared to yeast form and structural changes occur in the yeast cell wall during transition from yeast to hypha form. Although there are several factors associated with this transition process, sufficient information is not available. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of configuration in mannan structure found in C.albicans cell wall by using monoclonal antibodies. C.albicans (NIHA 207) serotype A strains were used as test strains throughout the study, together with Salmonella choleraesuis 211 and Salmonella infantis as controls with similar cell wall structures to that of C.albicans. Cultures were maintained on YPD-agar medium by incubating at 28°C for yeast forms, and on YPD-broth medium in a shaking incubator at 37°C for 3-4 hours for the growth of hyphal forms. Cells were harvested in the exponential phase, and after being washed, the mannan content from C.albicans were extracted from pellet by heating in 20 mM sodium citrate buffer for 90 minutes at 125°C. Hybridoma technique was used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. After immunizing the Balb/C mice with antigen, the splenocytes were harvested and fusion was performed between spleen cells and F0 myeloma cells. The clones grown in HAT medium were screened for the presence of antibody producing hybrid cells by ELISA method. The antibody isotypes were determined by using a commercial kit (Pierce Biotechnology, ABD). The culture supernatants which contained monoclonal antibodies were collected and purified according to the ammonium sulphate method

  2. A multifunctional mannosyltransferase family in Candida albicans determines cell wall mannan structure and host-fungus interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora-Montes, H.M.; Bates, S.; Netea, M.G.; Castillo, L.; Brand, A.; Buurman, E.T.; Diaz-Jimenez, D.F.; Kullberg, B.J.; Brown, A.J.; Odds, F.C.; Gow, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The cell wall proteins of fungi are modified by N- and O-linked mannosylation and phosphomannosylation, resulting in changes to the physical and immunological properties of the cell. Glycosylation of cell wall proteins involves the activities of families of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-located gl

  3. Diverse patterns of cell wall mannan/galactomannan occurrence in seeds of the Leguminosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, João Francisco; Mazzaro, Irineu; de Almeida Silva, Lia Magalhães; de Azevedo Moreira, Renato; Ferreira, Marília Locatelli Correa; Reicher, Fany; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2013-01-30

    Endosperms from seeds of different subfamilies of Leguminosae were submitted to sequential aqueous and alkaline aqueous extractions. The extractions from species belonging to the Mimosoideae and Faboideae subfamilies yielded galactomannans with constant Man:Gal ratios, whereas the extractions from Caesalpinioideae seeds gave rise to galactomannans with increasing values of the Man:Gal ratio. The presence of a family of galactomannans within the same species may be a trait found only in Caesalpinioideae subfamily. The final insoluble residues that were obtained after the removal of galactomannans from the Caesalpinioideae and Faboideae subfamilies are composed of pure mannans and do not contain cellulose, while those from the Mimosoideae subfamily are composed of cellulose. A mannan was isolated from the unripe endosperm of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, suggesting no developmental relationship between galactomannan and mannan. These results are consistent with the presence of a distinctive cell wall pattern in the endosperms of Leguminosae species.

  4. Structural studies of novel glycoconjugates from polymerized allergens (allergoids) and mannans as allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Ana I; Javier Cañada, F; Cases, Bárbara; Sirvent, Sofia; Soria, Irene; Palomares, Oscar; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Casanovas, Miguel; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Subiza, José L

    2016-02-01

    Immunotherapy for treating IgE-mediated allergies requires high doses of the corresponding allergen. This may result in undesired side effects and, to avoid them, hypoallergenic allergens (allergoids) polymerized with glutaraldehyde are commonly used. Targeting allergoids to dendritic cells to enhance cell uptake may result in a more effective immunotherapy. Allergoids coupled to yeast mannan, as source of polymannoses, would be suitable for this purpose, since mannose-binding receptors are expressed on these cells. Conventional conjugation procedures of mannan to proteins use oxidized mannan to release reactive aldehydes able to bind to free amino groups in the protein; yet, allergoids lack these latter because their previous treatment with glutaraldehyde. The aim of this study was to obtain allergoids conjugated to mannan by an alternative approach based on just glutaraldehyde treatment, taking advantage of the mannoprotein bound to the polymannose backbone. Allergoid-mannan glycoconjugates were produced in a single step by treating with glutaraldehyde a defined mixture of allergens derived from Phleum pratense grass pollen and native mannan (non-oxidized) from Saccharomyces cerevisae. Analytical and structural studies, including 2D-DOSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, demonstrated the feasibility of such an approach. The glycoconjugates obtained were polymers of high molecular weight showing a higher stability than the native allergen or the conventional allergoid without mannan. The allergoid-mannan glycoconjugates were hypoallergenic as detected by the IgE reactivity with sera from grass allergic patients, even with lower reactivity than conventional allergoid without mannan. Thus, stable hypoallergenic allergoids conjugated to mannan suitable for using in immunotherapy can be achieved using glutaraldehyde. In contrast to mannan oxidation, the glutaraldehyde approach allows to preserve mannoses with their native geometry, which may be

  5. Immunochemistry of pathogenic yeast, Candida species, focusing on mannan

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIBATA, Nobuyuki; KOBAYASHI, Hidemitsu; SUZUKI, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    This review describes recent findings based on structural and immunochemical analyses of the cell wall mannan of Candida albicans, and other medically important Candida species. Mannan has been shown to consist of α-1,2-, α-1,3-, α-1,6-, and β-1,2-linked mannopyranose units with few phosphate groups. Each Candida species has a unique mannan structure biosynthesized by sequential collaboration between species-specific mannosyltransferases. In particular, the β-1,2-linked mannose units have been shown to comprise a characteristic oligomannosyl side chain that is strongly antigenic. For these pathogenic Candida species, cell-surface mannan was also found to participate in the adhesion to the epithelial cells, recognition by innate immune receptors and development of pathogenicity. Therefore, clarification of the precise chemical structure of Candida mannan is indispensable for understanding the mechanism of pathogenicity, and for development of new antifungal drugs and immunotherapeutic procedures. PMID:22728440

  6. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  7. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity following vaccination with synthetic Candida cell wall mannan derived heptamannoside-protein conjugate: immunomodulatory properties of heptamannoside-BSA conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulovičová, Lucia; Paulovičová, Ema; Karelin, Alexander A; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Bystrický, Slavomír

    2012-10-01

    Chemically defined glycoprotein conjugate composed of synthetically prepared mannan-derived heptamannoside with terminal β-1,2-linked mannose residue attached to the α-1,3-linked mannose residues and BSA as carrier protein (M7-BSA conjugate) was analysed for the capacity to induce protective humoral immunity and appropriate alteration cellular immunity. To identify protective antigenic structure of Candida cell wall mannan M7-BSA conjugate was used for BALB/c mice immunization. The obtained results were compared with placebo group and with heat-inactivated C. albicans whole cells immunization. The administration route of M7-BSA conjugate secondary booster injection significantly affected the intensity of humoral immune response and the specificity of produced antibodies. All prepared sera were able to elevate candidacidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in cooperation with complement. Moreover, polyclonal sera obtained after secondary subcutaneous (s.c.) booster injection of M7-BSA conjugate were able to induce candidacidal activity of PMN also in complement independent manner. M7-BSA conjugate immunization induced increases of phagocytic activity and respiratory burst of granulocytes, caused a raise of the proportion of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and increased the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio. We observed also an increasing proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells compared to immunization with heat inactivated whole C. albicans cells, which in turn promoted an increase of the CD8(+)CD25(+) cell proportion. Immunization with M7-BSA conjugate induced Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune responses as indicated by the elevation of relevant cytokines levels. These data provide some insights on the immunomodulatory properties of oligomannosides and contribute to the development of synthetic oligosaccharide vaccines against fungal diseases.

  8. [Structure and function of fungal cell wall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Naohito

    2008-12-01

    Cell wall glycans of fungi/yeasts are reviewed. Fungi/yeasts produce various kinds of polysaccharides. As part of the cell wall they are interlinked with other components forming a huge network. The insolubility and complex with multiple components makes the research very tough. Studies on beta-glucan have been performed from various views, such as chemistry, conformation, solubility, tissue distribution and metabolism, biological activity, clinical application, receptor, biosynthesis, and antibody. Studies on mannan focus on immunotoxicity, such as anaphylactoid reaction and coronary arteritis induction. alpha-glucan, chitin, and capsular polysaccharide were also mentioned in relation to structure and genes. Compared with human and animal polysaccharides, fungi/yeasts polysaccharides have very characteristic properties.

  9. Characterization of oligosaccharides from an antigenic mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M; Davies, M J; Bailey, D; Gradwell, M J; Smestad-Paulsen, B; Wold, J K; Barnes, R M; Hounsell, E F

    1998-08-01

    Mannans of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been implicated as containing the allergens to which bakers and brewers are sensitive and also the antigen recognized by patients with Crohn's disease. A fraction of S. cerevisiae mannan, Sc500, having high affinity for antibodies in Crohn's patients has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy followed by fragmentation using alkaline elimination, partial acid hydrolysis and acetolysis. The released oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration on a Biogel P4 column and analyzed by fluorescence labeling, HPLC and methylation analysis. The relationship between structure and antigen activity was measured by competitive ELISA. The antigenic activity of the original high molecular weight mannan could be ascribed to terminal Manalpha1-->3Manalpha1-->2 sequences which are rarely found in human glycoproteins but were over-represented in Sc500 compared to other yeast mannans.

  10. Transcription factors that directly regulate the expression of CSLA9 encoding mannan synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Chan; Reca, Ida-Barbara; Kim, Yongsig; Park, Sunchung; Thomashow, Michael F; Keegstra, Kenneth; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides that have a structural role and serve as storage reserves during plant growth and development. Previous studies led to the conclusion that mannan synthase enzymes in several plant species are encoded by members of the cellulose synthase-like A (CSLA) gene family. Arabidopsis has nine members of the CSLA gene family. Earlier work has shown that CSLA9 is responsible for the majority of glucomannan synthesis in both primary and secondary cell walls of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. Little is known about how expression of the CLSA9 gene is regulated. Sequence analysis of the CSLA9 promoter region revealed the presence of multiple copies of a cis-regulatory motif (M46RE) recognized by transcription factor MYB46, leading to the hypothesis that MYB46 (At5g12870) is a direct regulator of the mannan synthase CLSA9. We obtained several lines of experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis. First, the expression of CSLA9 was substantially upregulated by MYB46 overexpression. Second, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to demonstrate the direct binding of MYB46 to the promoter of CSLA9 in vitro. This interaction was further confirmed in vivo by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, over-expression of MYB46 resulted in a significant increase in mannan content. Considering the multifaceted nature of MYB46-mediated transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis, we reasoned that additional transcription factors are involved in the CSLA9 regulation. This hypothesis was tested by carrying out yeast-one hybrid screening, which identified ANAC041 and bZIP1 as direct regulators of CSLA9. Transcriptional activation assays and EMSA were used to confirm the yeast-one hybrid results. Taken together, we report that transcription factors ANAC041, bZIP1 and MYB46 directly regulate the expression of CSLA9.

  11. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M. C.; Sikivie, P.

    1985-09-01

    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  12. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.C.; Sikivie, P.

    1985-09-15

    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  13. The seeds of Lotus japonicus lines transformed with sense, antisense, and sense/antisense galactomannan galactosyltransferase constructs have structurally altered galactomannans in their endosperm cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mary E; Choo, Tze-Siang; Dickson, Cathryn A; Scott, Catherine; Gidley, Michael J; Reid, J S Grant

    2004-03-01

    Galactomannan biosynthesis in legume seed endosperms involves two Golgi membrane-bound glycosyltransferases, mannan synthase and galactomannan galactosyltransferase (GMGT). GMGT specificity is an important factor regulating the distribution and amount of (1-->6)-alpha-galactose (Gal) substitution of the (1-->4)-beta-linked mannan backbone. The model legume Lotus japonicus is shown now to have endospermic seeds with endosperm cell walls that contain a high-Gal galactomannan (mannose [Man]/Gal = 1.2-1.3). Galactomannan biosynthesis in developing L. japonicus endosperms has been mapped, and a cDNA encoding a functional GMGT has been obtained from L. japonicus endosperms during galactomannan deposition. L. japonicus has been transformed with sense, antisense, and sense/antisense ("hairpin loop") constructs of the GMGT cDNA. Some of the sense, antisense, and sense/antisense transgenic lines exhibited galactomannans with altered (higher) Man/Gal values in their (T(1) generation) seeds, at frequencies that were consistent with posttranscriptional silencing of GMGT. For T(1) generation individuals, transgene inheritance was correlated with galactomannan composition and amount in the endosperm. All the azygous individuals had unchanged galactomannans, whereas those that had inherited a GMGT transgene exhibited a range of Man/Gal values, up to about 6 in some lines. For Man/Gal values up to 4, the results were consistent with lowered Gal substitution of a constant amount of mannan backbone. Further lowering of Gal substitution was accompanied by a slight decrease in the amount of mannan backbone. Microsomal membranes prepared from the developing T(2) generation endosperms of transgenic lines showed reduced GMGT activity relative to mannan synthase. The results demonstrate structural modification of a plant cell wall polysaccharide by designed regulation of a Golgi-bound glycosyltransferase.

  14. Coevolution of yeast mannan digestion: Convergence of the civilized human diet, distal gut microbiome, and host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D Wade; Martens, Eric C; Gilbert, Harry J; Cuskin, Fiona; Lowe, Elisabeth C

    2015-01-01

    The complex carbohydrates accessible to the distal gut microbiota (DGM) are key drivers in determining the structure of this ecosystem. Typically, plant cell wall polysaccharides and recalcitrant starch (i.e. dietary fiber), in addition to host glycans are considered the primary nutrients for the DGM; however, we recently demonstrated that α-mannans, highly branched polysaccharides that decorate the surface of yeast, are also nutrients for several members of Bacteroides spp. This relationship suggests that the advent of yeast in contemporary food technologies and the colonization of the intestine by endogenous fungi have roles in microbiome structure and function. Here we discuss the process of yeast mannan metabolism, and the intersection between various sources of intestinal fungi and their roles in recognition by the host innate immune system.

  15. Cloning, expression in Pichia pastoris, and characterization of a thermostable GH5 mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger BK01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigoillot Jean-Claude

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannans are key components of lignocellulose present in the hemicellulosic fraction of plant primary cell walls. Mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidases (1,4-β-D-mannanases catalyze the random hydrolysis of β-1,4-mannosidic linkages in the main chain of β-mannans. Biodegradation of β-mannans by the action of thermostable mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase offers significant technical advantages in biotechnological industrial applications, i.e. delignification of kraft pulps or the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass rich in mannan for the production of second generation biofuels, as well as for applications in oil and gas well stimulation, extraction of vegetable oils and coffee beans, and the production of value-added products such as prebiotic manno-oligosaccharides (MOS. Results A gene encoding mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase or 1,4-β-D-mannan mannanohydrolase (E.C. 3.2.1.78, commonly termed β-mannanase, from Aspergillus niger BK01, which belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5, was cloned and successfully expressed heterologously (up to 243 μg of active recombinant protein per mL in Pichia pastoris. The enzyme was secreted by P. pastoris and could be collected from the culture supernatant. The purified enzyme appeared glycosylated as a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of approximately 53 kDa. The recombinant β-mannanase is highly thermostable with a half-life time of approximately 56 h at 70°C and pH 4.0. The optimal temperature (10-min assay and pH value for activity are 80°C and pH 4.5, respectively. The enzyme is not only active towards structurally different mannans but also exhibits low activity towards birchwood xylan. Apparent Km values of the enzyme for konjac glucomannan (low viscosity, locust bean gum galactomannan, carob galactomannan (low viscosity, and 1,4-β-D-mannan (from carob are 0.6 mg mL-1, 2.0 mg mL-1, 2.2 mg mL-1 and 1.5 mg mL-1, respectively, while the kcat values for these

  16. Transport and coherent structures in wall turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Tardu, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Wall bounded turbulent flows are of major importance in industrial and environmental fluid mechanics. The structure of the wall turbulence is intrinsically related to the coherent structures that play a fundamental role in the transport process. The comprehension of their regeneration mechanism is indispensable for the development of efficient strategies in terms of drag control and near wall turbulence management. This book provides an up-to-date overview on the progress made in this specific area in recent years.

  17. [Structure of the interalveolar wall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senelar, R

    1975-01-01

    The wall, which unites as well as separates two contiguous pulmonary alveoli is composed of: - a conjuntival partition, the veritable skeleton of the wall, which is occupied, to the largest extent, by capillary blood vessels. Between the capillaries, conjunctival cells are dispursed: fibrocytes, fibroblasts and histiocytes, of which some can be mobilised, transformed into macrophages, and penetrate into the alveolar lumen; - modified epithelial cells, whose very thin, vast expansions cover the conjunctival partition; - a liquid film, 0.2 mu in thickness, which separates the epithelial cells, or pneumocytes from the alveolar air. Numerous physiological implications result from this organisation.

  18. Human gut Bacteroidetes can utilize yeast mannan through a selfish mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskin, Fiona; Lowe, Elisabeth C; Temple, Max J; Zhu, Yanping; Cameron, Elizabeth A; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Porter, Nathan T; Urs, Karthik; Thompson, Andrew J; Cartmell, Alan; Rogowski, Artur; Hamilton, Brian S; Chen, Rui; Tolbert, Thomas J; Piens, Kathleen; Bracke, Debby; Vervecken, Wouter; Hakki, Zalihe; Speciale, Gaetano; Munōz-Munōz, Jose L; Day, Andrew; Peña, Maria J; McLean, Richard; Suits, Michael D; Boraston, Alisdair B; Atherly, Todd; Ziemer, Cherie J; Williams, Spencer J; Davies, Gideon J; Abbott, D Wade; Martens, Eric C; Gilbert, Harry J

    2015-01-08

    Yeasts, which have been a component of the human diet for at least 7,000 years, possess an elaborate cell wall α-mannan. The influence of yeast mannan on the ecology of the human microbiota is unknown. Here we show that yeast α-mannan is a viable food source for the Gram-negative bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a dominant member of the microbiota. Detailed biochemical analysis and targeted gene disruption studies support a model whereby limited cleavage of α-mannan on the surface generates large oligosaccharides that are subsequently depolymerized to mannose by the action of periplasmic enzymes. Co-culturing studies showed that metabolism of yeast mannan by B. thetaiotaomicron presents a 'selfish' model for the catabolism of this difficult to breakdown polysaccharide. Genomic comparison with B. thetaiotaomicron in conjunction with cell culture studies show that a cohort of highly successful members of the microbiota has evolved to consume sterically-restricted yeast glycans, an adaptation that may reflect the incorporation of eukaryotic microorganisms into the human diet.

  19. Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pągowska-Klimek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease. MBL appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in consequence, coronary artery disease and also inflammation and tissue injury after myocardial infarction and heart transplantation. The relationship between MBL and disease is rather complex and depends on different genetic and environmental factors. That could be why the data obtained from animal and clinical studies are sometimes contradictory proving not for the first time that innate immunity is a “double-edge sword,” sometimes beneficial and, at other times disastrous for the host.

  20. Hydrogen uptake in vanadium first wall structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, E.P.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Evaluation of hydrogen sources and transport are needed to assess the mechanical integrity of V structures. Two sources include implantation and transmutation. The proposed coatings for the DEMO and ITER first wall strongly influence retention of hydrogen isotopes. Upper limit calculations of hydrogen inventory were based on recycling to the plasma and an impermeable coolant-side coating. Hydrogen isotope concentrations in V approaching 1,000 appm may be activated.

  1. Genetic influences on mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, GL; Petersen, I; Thiel, Steffen;

    2007-01-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system is activated when Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in complex with MASP-2 binds microorganisms. Polymorphisms in both genes are responsible for low serum levels, which associate with increased risk of infection and autoimmune disease. The present study....... Heritabilites of MBL levels and MASP-2 activity were estimated using structural equation modeling allowing assessment of the contribution of common genes affecting both traits. The estimated heritability was 0.77 [95% CI 0.64;0.91] for MBL levels and 0.75 [95% CI 0.59;0.81] for MASP-2 activity with the presence...

  2. The GH5 1,4-β-mannanase from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 possesses a low-affinity mannan-binding module and highlights the diversity of mannanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrill, Johan; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Sulewska, Anna Maria;

    2015-01-01

    β-Mannans are abundant and diverse plant structural and storage polysaccharides. Certain human gut microbiota members including health-promoting Bifidobacterium spp. catabolize dietary mannans. Little insight is available on the enzymology of mannan deconstruction in the gut ecological niche. Here....... Surface plasmon resonance analysis confirmed the binding of the CBM10 to manno-oligosaccharides, albeit with slightly lower affinity than the catalytic module of the enzyme. This is the first example of a low-affinity mannan-specific CBM, which forms a subfamily of CBM10 together with close homologs...... by an exceptionally low Km and the presence of an atypical low affinity CBM, which increases binding to specifically to soluble mannan while causing minimal decrease in catalytic efficiency as opposed to enzymes with canonical mannan binding modules. These features highlight fine tuning of catalytic and binding...

  3. On coherent structure in wall turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A S

    2013-01-01

    A new theory of coherent structure in wall turbulence is presented. The theory is the first to predict packets of hairpin vortices and other structure in turbulence, and their dynamics, based on an analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, under an assumption of a turbulent mean profile. The assumption of the turbulent mean acts as a restriction on the class of possible structures. It is shown that the coherent structure is a manifestation of essentially low-dimensional flow dynamics, arising from a critical layer mechanism. Using the decomposition presented in McKeon & Sharma (J. Fluid Mech, 658, 2010), complex coherent structure is recreated from minimal superpositions of response modes predicted by the analysis, which take the form of radially-varying travelling waves. By way of example, simple combinations of these modes are offered that predicts hairpins and modulated hairpin packets. The phase interaction also predicts important skewness and correlation results known in the literature. It is also sho...

  4. Second-generation nanofiltered plasma-derived mannan-binding lectin product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, I.; Houen, G.; Højrup, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of the innate immune defence; it binds to carbohydrate structures on pathogenic micro-organisms resulting in complement activation and opsonization. Individuals with low MBL levels are at risk of recurrent and severe...

  5. The GH5 1,4-β-mannanase from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 possesses a low-affinity mannan-binding module and highlights the diversity of mannanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrill, Johan; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Sulewska, Anna Maria;

    2015-01-01

    β-Mannans are abundant and diverse plant structural and storage polysaccharides. Certain human gut microbiota members including health-promoting Bifidobacterium spp. catabolize dietary mannans. Little insight is available on the enzymology of mannan deconstruction in the gut ecological niche. Here......, we report the biochemical properties of the first family 5 subfamily 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH5_8) mannanase from the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 (BlMan5_8). BlMan5_8 possesses a novel low affinity carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specific for soluble mannan...

  6. The GH5 1,4-β-mannanase from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 possesses a low-affinity mannan-binding module and highlights the diversity of mannanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrill, Johan; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Sulewska, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    β-Mannans are abundant and diverse plant structural and storage polysaccharides. Certain human gut microbiota members including health-promoting Bifidobacterium spp. catabolize dietary mannans. Little insight is available on the enzymology of mannan deconstruction in the gut ecological niche. Here......, we report the biochemical properties of the first family 5 subfamily 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH5_8) mannanase from the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 (BlMan5_8). BlMan5_8 possesses a novel low affinity carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specific for soluble mannan...

  7. Propriedades funcionais (tecnológicas da parede celular de leveduras da fermentação alcoólica e das frações glicana, manana e glicoproteína Functional (technological properties of yeast cellular wall of alcoholic fermentation and its glycan, mannan, and glycoprotein fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saula Goulart Chaud

    2006-06-01

    glycan, mannan and glycoprotein. Fractionation was realized by the physico-chemical processes of extraction, centrifugation and spray drying; chemical characterization, by determination of centesimal composition and the functional properties through well-known techniques. In the cellular wall (CW, predominated protein (19% and soluble fiber (74%. Glycoprotein presented 35.5% protein and 56% soluble fiber. In the mannnan (M and soluble glycan (SG, the soluble fiber (70% was predominant, whereas in the insoluble glycan (IG predominated the insoluble fiber (70.7%. Solubility of the various fractions in aqueous media ranged from 40% to 100% and was not pH dependent. Soluble glycan showed the highest water retention capacity (14.4 g H2O/g sample and the higher water solubility indices (WSI were found for mannan (60% and for glycoprotein (83.8%. The glycans (soluble and insoluble presented good gelling properties at 12 and 14% solid concentrations. Glycoprotein, mannan and soluble glycan presented excellent emulsifying capacity (1,500 to 2,000 ml oil/g sample. The glycoprotein and soluble glycan emulsitions were the most stable. Addition of ovalbumin (0.2% in the emulsifying media increased significantly the cellular wall and soluble glycan emulsifying capacity. It also contributed for the stabilization of the mannan (M and glycans (IG and SG emultions.

  8. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  9. Thin-walled reinforcement lattice structure for hollow CMC buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Diego, Peter

    2017-06-27

    A hollow ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine bucket with an internal reinforcement lattice structure has improved vibration properties and stiffness. The lattice structure is formed of thin-walled plies made of CMC. The wall structures are arranged and located according to high stress areas within the hollow bucket. After the melt infiltration process, the mandrels melt away, leaving the wall structure to become the internal lattice reinforcement structure of the bucket.

  10. Mite allergoids coupled to nonoxidized mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisae efficiently target canine dendritic cells for novel allergy immunotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Irene; Alvarez, Javier; Manzano, Ana I; López-Relaño, Juan; Cases, Bárbara; Mas-Fontao, Ana; Cañada, F Javier; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Casanovas, Miguel; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Palomares, Oscar; Viñals-Flórez, Luis M; Subiza, José L

    2017-08-01

    We have recently reported that grass pollen allergoids conjugated with nonoxidized mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisae using glutaraldehyde results in a novel hypoallergenic mannan-allergen complex with improved properties for allergen vaccination. Using this approach, human dendritic cells show a better allergen uptake and cytokine profile production (higher IL-10/IL-4 ratio) for therapeutic purposes. Here we aim to address whether a similar approach can be extended to dogs using canine dendritic cells. Six healthy Spanish Greyhound dogs were used as blood donors to obtain canine dendritic cells (DC) derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae mite were polymerized and conjugated with nonoxidized mannan. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblotting and IgE-ELISA inhibition studies were conducted to evaluate the main characteristics of the allergoid obtained. Mannan-allergen conjugate and controls were assayed in vitro for canine DC uptake and production of IL-4 and IL-10. The results indicate that the conjugation of D. farinae allergens with nonoxidized mannan was feasible using glutaraldehyde. The resulting product was a polymerized structure showing a high molecular weight as detected by NMR and SDS-PAGE analysis. The mannan-allergen conjugate was hypoallergenic with a reduced reactivity with specific dog IgE. An increase in both allergen uptake and IL-10/IL-4 ratio was obtained when canine DCs were incubated with the mannan-allergen conjugate, as compared with the control allergen preparations (unmodified D. farinae allergens and oxidized mannan-allergen conjugate). We conclude that hypoallergenic D. farinae allergens coupled to nonoxidized mannan is a novel allergen preparation suitable for canine allergy immunotherapy targeting dendritic cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon nanocones: wall structure and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Nalum Naess, Arnljot Elgsaeter, Geir Helgesen and Kenneth D Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale production of conical carbon nanostructures is possible through pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in a plasma torch process. The resulting carbon cones occur in five distinctly different forms, and disc-shaped particles are produced as well. The structure and properties of these carbon cones and discs have been relatively little explored until now. Here we characterize the structure of these particles using transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron x-ray and electron diffraction. The carbon nanocones are found to exhibit several interesting structural features; instead of having a uniform cross-section, the walls consist of a relatively thin inner graphite-like layer with a non-crystalline envelope, where the amount of the latter can be modified significantly by annealing. The cones appear with a well-defined faceting along the cone edge, demonstrating strict long-range atomic ordering; they also present occasional examples of symmetry breaking, such as two apexes appearing in the same carbon nanocone.

  12. combined spatially and temporally structured walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Riahi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Benney's theory of evolution of disturbances in shear flows over smooth and flat boundary is extended to study for shear flows over combined spatially and temporally corrugated walls. Perturbation and multiple-scales analyses are employed for the case where both amplitude of the corrugations and the amplitude of wave motion are small. Analyses for instability of modulated mean shear flows with respect to spanwise-periodic disturbance rolls and for the subsequent vortex formation and vortex stability are presented, and the effects of the corrugated walls on the resulting flow and vortices are determined. It is found that particular corrugated walls can originate and control the longitudinal vortices, while some other types of corrugated walls can enhance instability of such vortices.

  13. A comparison between a yeast cell wall extract (Bio-Mos® and palm kernel expeller as mannan-oligosaccharides sources on the performance and ileal microbial population of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Navidshad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effect of a yeast cell wall extract (Bio- Mos and palm kernel expeller (PKE on the performance, nutrient digestibility, and ileal bacteria population of broiler chickens. A total of 60 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were fed one of the 3 isonitrogenous and isocaloric diet including a control diet, or a control diet supplemented with 2 g/kg Bio-Mos (1-42 d, and for the third group, the control diet at 1-28 d following a diet containing 200 g/kg of an enzymatically-treated PKE at 29-42 d. The weight gains of birds fed the PKE containing diet (96.17 g/d were less than other groups (109.10 and 104.42 g/d for the Bio-Mos and control diet, respectively (P0.05, but the birds fed PKE or Bio-Mos containing diets had a lower population of Escherichia coli than the control group (P<0.05. The results showed that PKE potentially has a prebiotic property for chicken; however, a 200 g/kg dietary inclusion rate of PKE is not commercially recommendable because of its negative effects on the nutrients digestibility.

  14. Specificity of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody screening in patients with haematological malignancies at risk for fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duettmann, Wiebke; Koidl, Christoph; Krause, Robert; Lackner, Gertrude; Woelfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Combination of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody (Mn/A-Mn) testing has been reported a useful and specific strategy for diagnosis of invasive Candida infections (ICIs). We evaluated Mn/A-Mn as a screening tool in patients with haematological malignancies. This clinical prospective study was performed at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Graz, Austria between July and December 2012. Patients at risk for fungal infection were included into the study and twice weekly screened by Mn/A-Mn testing, yielding 650 samples. Of overall 67 patients 66 had no evidence for ICI. From those, 153/640 serum samples (23.9%) were positive for mannan Ab, and nine (1.4%) for Ag. Most false positive Ab results were observed among 375 samples from patients without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (34.9% resulted positive). Combined specificity of Mn/A-Mn was 74.8%. Of 10 samples obtained in the single patient with candidemia, five were positive for mannan Ag (from the day of diagnosis up to 40 days after detection of candidemia) and none for Ab. In conclusion, mannan Ab screening yielded a high number of false positive results. While mannan Ag was found to be highly specific and may have potential for diagnostic driven testing, mannan Ab testing cannot be recommended based on our study results. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation: biology and disease association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steen Vang; Thiel, S; Jensenius, J C

    2001-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a plasma protein found in association with several serine proteases (MASPs) forming the MBL complex. MBL recognises carbohydrate structures arranged in a particular geometry, such as those found on the surface of micro-organisms. When bound to e.g. bacteria the MBL...... as an initiator of the host response against potential pathogenic micro-organisms. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Aug...

  16. Polysaccharides from the green seaweed Codium decorticatum. Structure and cell wall distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Paula Virginia; Raffo, María Paula; Alberghina, Josefina; Ciancia, Marina

    2015-03-06

    The cell wall polysaccharides from Codium decorticatum and their assembly were studied and these results were compared with those obtained previously for this genus. The water soluble polysaccharides are: (i) Pyruvylated and sulfated 3- and 6-linked β-D-galactans with sulfate mainly on C-4 and also on C-6. Pyruvate ketals are linked to O-3 and O-4 of terminal β-D-galactose or O-4 and O-6 of 3-linked β-D-galactose. (ii) Sulfated 3-linked β-L-arabinans substituted on C-2 or C-2 and C-4 predominantly with sulfate, but also with single stubs of arabinose, and (iii) 4-linked β-D-mannans with a low degree of sulfation on C-2. The whole polysaccharide system comprises 6.9% of sulfated polysaccharides and 32.9% of fibrillar polysaccharides, mostly insoluble mannans. By in situ localization it was possible to detect two similar fibrillar layers separated by a zone rich in charged polymers. Besides, arabinogalactan proteins co-localized with the fibrillar components.

  17. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); O' Neill, Malcolm A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); York, William S. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  18. Structurally Motivated Models of the Arterial Wall Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Hadi; Shadpour, Mohammad Tafazzoli

    2013-05-01

    Mechanical characteristics of soft biological tissues mostly depend on their hierarchy at different scales from nano- to macro-structure. It is shown that arterial wall tissue is highly sensitive to its mechanical environment and any alteration in mechanical factors such as blood pressure, triggers physio- pathological processes within arterial wall. Quantification of these mechanical properties will provide us with deeper insights of ongoing biological events. In this context, mechanical contributions of wall constituents in health and diseases are of growing interest. Hence, this review is concerned with mechanical models of arterial wall tissue with a focus on microstructurally motivated representations.

  19. Dynamic stiffness for thin-walled structures by power series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Bin; LEUNG A.Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic stiffness method is introduced to analyze thin-walled structures including thin-walled straight beams and spatial twisted helix beam. A dynamic stiffness matrix is formed by using frequency dependent shape functions which are exact solutions of the governing differential equations. With the obtained thin-walled beam dynamic stiffness matrices, the thin-walled frame dynamic stiffness matrix can also be formulated by satisfying the required displacements compatibility and forces equilibrium, a method which is similar to the finite element method (FEM). Then the thin-walled structure natural frequencies can be found by equating the determinant of the system dynamic stiffness matrix to zero. By this way, just one element and several elements can exactly predict many modes of a thin-walled beam and a spatial thin-walled frame, respectively. Several cases are studied and the results are compared with the existing solutions of other methods. The natural frequencies and buckling loads of these thin-walled structures are computed.

  20. Atherosclerotic imaging using 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxides: New possibilities for mannan-coated particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Keiko, E-mail: keikot@belle.shiga-medac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nitta, Norihisa, E-mail: r34nitta@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Otani, Hideji, E-mail: otani@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi, E-mail: murata@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Shiomi, Masashi, E-mail: ieakusm@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Institute for Experimental Animals, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Tyuoku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Tabata, Yasuhiko, E-mail: yasuhiko@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Syogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nohara, Satoshi, E-mail: s-nohara@meito-sangyo.co.jp [The Nagoya Research Laboratory, Meito Sangyo Co., Ltd., 25-5 Nishibiwajima-cho, Kiyosu, Aichi 452-0067 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histologic techniques to compare the uptake by the rabbit atherosclerotic wall of 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, i.e. SPIO, mannan-coated SPIO (M-SPIO), ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO), and mannan-coated USPIO (M-USPIO). Materials and methods: All experimental protocols were approved by our institutional animal experimentation committee. We intravenously injected 12 Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with one of the 4 types of SPIO (0.8 mmol Fe/kg). Two other rabbits served as the control. The rabbits underwent in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before- and 5 days after these injections; excised aortae were subjected to in vitro MRI. In the in vivo and in vitro studies we assessed the signal intensity of the vessels at identical regions of interest (ROI) and calculated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For histologic assessment we evaluated the iron-positive regions in Prussian blue-stained specimens. Results: There were significant differences in iron-positive regions where M-USPIO > USPIO, M-SPIO > SPIO, USPIO > SPIO (p < 0.05) but not between M-USPIO and M-SPIO. The difference between the pre- and post-injection SNR was significantly greater in rabbits treated with M-USPIO than USPIO and in rabbits injected with M-SPIO than SPIO (p < 0.05). On in vitro MRI scans SNR tended to be lower in M-USPIO- and M-SPIO- than USPIO- and SPIO-treated rabbits (p < 0.1). Conclusion: Histologic and imaging analysis showed that mannan-coated SPIO and USPIO particles were taken up more readily by the atherosclerotic rabbit wall than uncoated SPIO and USPIO.

  1. Modeling Effects on Forces in Shear Wall-Frame Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Surahman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shear walls are added to a structural system to reduce lateral deformations in moment resisting frames and are designed to carry a major portion of lateral load induced by an earthquake. A small percentage error in the shear wall calculation will have a significant effect on the frame forces. The results show that even a slight difference in structural assumption, or modeling, results in significant differences. Some of these differences are beyond the values that are covered by safety factors for errors in modeling. The differences are more obvious in the upper stories. It is not recommended to overestimate shear wall stiffness, nor underestimate frame stiffness.

  2. Domain walls, domain wall transformations and structural changes in permalloy nanowires when subjected to current pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempe, E.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Klaeui, M.; Krzyk, S.; Ruediger, U. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Kasama, T. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Backes, D. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Junginger, F. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Heyderman, L.J. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dunin-Borkowski, R. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Center for Electron Nanoscopy, DTU (Denmark)

    2007-12-15

    We report the direct transmission electron microscopy observation of spin structure transformations in nanoscale Permalloy zigzag wires due to Joule heating during the injection of current pulses. This heating is sufficient to overcome the energy barriers separating the different metastable domain wall spin structures. Due to the large energy barriers these are stable and observable at room temperature by off-axis electron holography and Fresnel imaging. The interaction between different domain walls is probed and the main pinning mechanism is determined to be the edge roughness. In addition to transformations, we also report on thermally assisted domain wall hopping between two pinning sites and structural changes that occur when the samples are subjected to even higher current pulses. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Model-Corrected Microwave Imaging through Periodic Wall Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A model-based imaging framework is applied to correct the target distortion seen in microwave imaging through a periodic wall structure. In addition to propagation delays caused by the wall, it is shown that the structural periodicity induces high-order space harmonics leading to other ghost artifacts in the through-wall image. To overcome these distortions, the periodic layer Green’s function is incorporated into the forward model. A linear back-projection solution and a nonlinear minimization solution are applied to solve the inverse problem. The model-based back-projection image corrects the distortion and has higher resolution compared with free space due to the inclusion of multipath propagation through the periodic wall, but considerable sidelobe clutter is present. The nonlinear solution not only corrects target distortion without clutter but also reduces the solution to a sparse form.

  4. Static and dynamic buckling of thin-walled plate structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    This monograph deals with buckling and postbuckling behavior of thin plates and thin-walled structures with flat wall subjected to static and dynamic load. The investigations are carried out in elastic range. The basic assumption here is the  thin plate theory. This method is used to determination the buckling load and postbuckling analysis of thin-walled structures subjected to static and dynamic load. The book introduces two methods for static and dynamic buckling investigation which allow for a wider understanding of the phenomenon. Two different methods also can allow uncoupling of the phenomena occurring at the same time and attempt to estimate their impact on the final result. A general mathematical model, adopted in proposed analytical-numerical method, enables the consideration of all types of stability loss i.e.local, global and interactive forms of buckling. The applied numerical-numerical method includes adjacent of walls, shear-lag phenomenon and a deplanation of cross-sections.

  5. Thick-walled carbon composite multifunctional structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, John M.; Jacobs, Jack H.; McIlroy, Bruce E.

    1997-06-01

    Satellite programs are moving in the direction of smaller and lighter structures. Technological advances have permitted more sophisticated equipment to be consolidated into compact spaces. Micro-satellites, between 10 and 100 kg, will incorporate micro-electric devices into the lay-up of the satellite structure. These structures will be designed to carry load, provide thermal control, enhance damping, and include integrated passive electronics. These multifunctional structures offer lighter weight, reduced volume, and a 'smarter' overall package for incorporation of sensors, electronics, fiber optics, powered appendages or active components. McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) has applied technology from the synthesis and processing of intelligent cost effective structures (SPICES) and independent research and development (IRAD) programs to the modular instrument support system (MISS) for multifunctional space structures and micro-satellites. The SPICES program was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop affordable manufacturing processes for smart materials to be used in vibration control, and the MISS program was funded by NASA-Langley. The MISS program was conceived to develop concepts and techniques to make connections between different multifunctional structures. MDA fabricated a trapezoidal carbon composite structure out of IM7/977-3 tape prepreg. Flex circuits, thermal and optical conduits were embedded to realize a utility modular connector. These provide electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical connections between micro- satellite components. A quick disconnect mount was also developed to accommodate a variety of devices such as solar arrays, power sources, thermal transfer and vibration control modules.

  6. Shear-layer structures in near-wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A. V.; Alfredsson, P. H.; Kim, J.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of internal shear layer observed in the near-wall region of turbulent flows is investigated by analyzing flow fields obtained from numerical simulations of channel and boundary-layer flows. It is found that the shear layer is an important contributor to the turbulence production. The conditionally averaged production at the center of the structure was almost twice as large as the long-time mean value. The shear-layer structure is also found to retain its coherence over streamwise distances on the order of a thousand viscous length units, and propagates with a constant velocity of about 10.6 u sub rho throughout the near wall region.

  7. Structural analysis of cell wall polysaccharides using PACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, Jennifer C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Institute

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall is composed of many complex polysaccharides. The composition and structure of the polysaccharides affect various cell properties including cell shape, cell function and cell adhesion. Many techniques to characterize polysaccharide structure are complicated, requiring expensive equipment and specialized operators e.g. NMR, MALDI-MS. PACE (Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis) uses a simple, rapid technique to analyze polysaccharide quantity and structure (Goubet et al. 2002). Whilst the method here describes xylan analysis, it can be applied (by use of the appropriate glycosyl hydrolase) to any cell wall polysaccharide.

  8. Domain and wall structures in films with helical magnetization profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubuget, Vincent [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, Universite Francois Rabelais, CNRS UMR 6157, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France); CEA, DAM, Le Ripault, F-37260 Monts (France); Thiaville, Andre [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8502, Bat. 510, F-91405 Orsay (France); Adenot-Engelvin, Anne-Lise, E-mail: anne-lise.adenot-engelvin@cea.f [CEA, DAM, Le Ripault, F-37260 Monts (France); Duverger, Francois; Dubourg, Sebastien [CEA, DAM, Le Ripault, F-37260 Monts (France)

    2011-06-15

    We study soft magnetic bilayers having orthogonal, in-plane easy axes. The layers are thicker than the Bloch wall width linked to the anisotropy, so that a helical magnetization with a large angle exists across the sample thickness. The magnetic domains structure has been investigated at both sample surfaces, using magneto-optical microscopy. The domain structure is found to be similar to that of double films with biquadratic coupling. Two kinds of domain walls are identified, namely with a 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} rotation of the average magnetization. The detailed structure and energy of these walls are studied by micromagnetic calculations. - Research highlights: This paper is devoted to the peculiar domain structure resulting from an anisotropy distribution in the thickness of the sample, realized through specific elaboration conditions. The helical magnetization profile obtained leads to a complex dynamic behaviour described and modelled in Phys.Rev. B 80, 134412 (published in October 2009) which has been already cited three times. This paper sheds light on of the demagnetized state of such samples: a variety of domains structure has been observed by Kerr microscopy, under various saturation fields. The most striking conclusion is driven by the analysis of the magnetization process which implies the co-existence of two types of domain walls in the sample, with four possible directions for the mean magnetization. The magnetization profile of the two walls has been confirmed by numerical simulation.

  9. Seismic strengthening of RC structures with exterior shear walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Kaplan; Salih Yilmaz; Nihat Cetinkaya; Ergin Atimtay

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained research attention and numerous techniques have been developed to achieve this. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. In this study, a new strengthening alternative for RC structures, namely exterior shear walls, has been experimentally investigated under reversed cyclic loading. Using the proposed technique, it is possible to strengthen structures without disturbing their users or vacating the building during renovation. In this technique, shear walls are installed in parallel to the building’s exterior sides. It has been observed that the usage of exterior shear walls considerably improve the capacity and sway stiffness of RC structures. The experimental results have also been compared and found to be in agreement with the numerical solutions. Post attached exterior shear walls behaved as a monolithic member of the structure. Design considerations for the exterior shear wall-strengthened buildings have also been discussed in the paper.

  10. Structure of ductile iron in thin walled castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górny

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It this work it has been shown that it is possible to produce thin wall ductile iron (TWDI castings with considerably length using Archimedes spiral with wall thickness of 1, 2 and 3 mm. Inmould technique was used to produce TWDI. It has been estimated castability and metallographic investigations were made using different moulding materials. From castability measurements result that it is possible to obtain thin wall ductile iron castings with wall thickness down to 1 mm with castability of 200 mm. Using mould with small ability to absorb heat castability increases twice. At wall thickness equal 3 mm castability reaches 1000 mm and using LDASC sand its value increases to over 1500 mm. Structure parameters for different wall thickness and moulding materials (graphite nodule count, ferrite and cementite fraction are plotted versus distance from the beginning of spiral. It is shown strong influence of LDASC sand (material with small ability to absorb heat on structure parameters (NF, Vf i VC revealing gradient character of TWDI.

  11. Method and apparatus for constructing an underground barrier wall structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Stewart, Willis E.; Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for constructing a underground barrier wall structure using a jet grout injector subassembly comprising a pair of primary nozzles and a plurality of secondary nozzles, the secondary nozzles having a smaller diameter than the primary nozzles, for injecting grout in directions other than the primary direction, which creates a barrier wall panel having a substantially uniform wall thickess. This invention addresses the problem of the weak "bow-tie" shape that is formed during conventional jet injection when using only a pair of primary nozzles. The improvement is accomplished by using at least four secondary nozzles, of smaller diameter, located on both sides of the primary nozzles. These additional secondary nozzles spray grout or permeable reactive materials in other directions optimized to fill in the thin regions of the bow-tie shape. The result is a panel with increased strength and substantially uniform wall thickness.

  12. Soft impact testing of a wall-floor-wall reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsä, Ari, E-mail: ari.vepsa@vtt.fi; Calonius, Kim; Saarenheimo, Arja; Aatola, Seppo; Halonen, Matti

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A wall-floor-wall reinforced concrete structure was built. • The structure was subjected to three almost identical soft impact tests. • Response was measured with accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges. • Modal tests was also carried out with the same structure in different conditions. • The results are meant to be used for validation of computational methods and models. - Abstract: Assessing the safety of the reactor building of a nuclear power plant against the crash of an airplane calls for valid computational tools such as finite element models and material constitutive models. Validation of such tools and models in turn calls for reliable and relevant experimental data. The problem is that such data is scarcely available. One of the aspects of such a crash is vibrations that are generated by the impact. These vibrations tend to propagate from the impact point to the internal parts of the building. If strong enough, these vibrations may cause malfunction of the safety-critical equipment inside the building. To enable validation of computational models for this type of behaviour, we have conducted a series of three tests with a wall-floor-wall reinforced concrete structure under soft impact loading. The response of the structure was measured with accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges. In addition to impact tests, the structure was subjected to modal tests under different conditions. The tests yielded a wealth of useful data for validation of computational models and better understanding about shock induced vibration physics especially in reinforced concrete structures.

  13. Mannan-binding lectin and healing of a radiation-induced chronic ulcer--a case report on mannan-binding lectin replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Bonde, C; Laursen, I

    2011-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin is an important component of innate immunity, and insufficiency is associated with several clinical disorders. Recently, experimental replacement therapy with plasma-derived mannan-binding lectin has become an option. The current article presents the case of a patient with a...... that deficiency of mannan-binding lectin can explain cases of otherwise unexplained impaired healing, and that replacement therapy is considered in such cases.......Mannan-binding lectin is an important component of innate immunity, and insufficiency is associated with several clinical disorders. Recently, experimental replacement therapy with plasma-derived mannan-binding lectin has become an option. The current article presents the case of a patient...... with an insufficient level of mannan-binding lectin and a chronic radiation-induced ulcer following the treatment of breast cancer. After 15 months of initially conservative treatment and thereafter plastic surgery, the healing was still impaired with necrosis in the periphery of the ulcer. Immunological work...

  14. Sequential microwave superheated water extraction of mannans from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Cláudia P; Moreira, Ana S P; Domingues, M Rosário M; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2014-03-15

    The feasibility of using sequential microwave superheated water extraction (MAE) for the recovery of mannans from spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Due to the high contents of mannose still present in the SCG residue left after two consecutive MAE, the unextracted material was re-suspended in water and submitted to a third microwave irradiation (MAE3) at 200 °C for 3 min. With MAE3, mannose recovery achieved 48%, increasing to 56% by MAE4, and reaching a maximum of 69% with MAE5. Glycosidic-linkage analysis showed that in MAE3 mainly galactomannans were recovered, while debranched galactomannans were recovered with MAE4 and MAE5. With increasing the number of extractions, the average degree of polymerization of the mannans decreased, as observed by size-exclusion chromatography and by methylation analysis. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a decrease on cell walls thickness. After final MAE5, the remaining un-extracted insoluble material, representing 22% of the initial SCG, was composed mainly by cellulose (84%).

  15. Primary Cell Wall Structure in the Evolution of Land Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of the primary cell walls of lower plants improves our understanding of the cell biology of these organisms but also has the potential to improve our understanding of cell wall structure and function in angiosperms that evolved from lower plants. Cell walls were prepared from eight species, ranging from a moss to advanced gymnosperms, and subjected to sequential chemical extraction to separate the main polysaccharide fractions. The glycosyl compositions of these fractions were then determined by gas chromatography. The results were compared among the eight plants and among data from related studies reported in the existing published reports to identify structural features that have been either highly conserved or clearly modified during evolution. Among the highly conserved features are the presence of a cellulose framework, the presence of certain hemicelluloses such as xyloglucan, and the presence of rhamnogalacturonan Ⅱ, a domain in pectic polysaccharides. Among the modified features are the abundance of mannosyl-containing hemicelluloses and the presence of methylated sugars.

  16. Optimal Branching Structure of Fluidic Networks with Permeable Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius R. Pepe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological and engineering studies of Hess-Murray’s law are focused on assemblies of tubes with impermeable walls. Blood vessels and airways have permeable walls to allow the exchange of fluid and other dissolved substances with tissues. Should Hess-Murray’s law hold for bifurcating systems in which the walls of the vessels are permeable to fluid? This paper investigates the fluid flow in a porous-walled T-shaped assembly of vessels. Fluid flow in this branching flow structure is studied numerically to predict the configuration that provides greater access to the flow. Our findings indicate, among other results, that an asymmetric flow (i.e., breaking the symmetry of the flow distribution may occur in this symmetrical dichotomous system. To derive expressions for the optimum branching sizes, the hydraulic resistance of the branched system is computed. Here we show the T-shaped assembly of vessels is only conforming to Hess-Murray’s law optimum as long as they have impervious walls. Findings also indicate that the optimum relationship between the sizes of parent and daughter tubes depends on the wall permeability of the assembled tubes. Our results agree with analytical results obtained from a variety of sources and provide new insights into the dynamics within the assembly of vessels.

  17. Cell wall structure and function in lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Kulakauskas, Saulius

    2014-08-29

    The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is a complex assemblage of glycopolymers and proteins. It consists of a thick peptidoglycan sacculus that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane and that is decorated with teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. It plays a major role in bacterial physiology since it maintains cell shape and integrity during growth and division; in addition, it acts as the interface between the bacterium and its environment. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are traditionally and widely used to ferment food, and they are also the subject of more and more research because of their potential health-related benefits. It is now recognized that understanding the composition, structure, and properties of LAB cell walls is a crucial part of developing technological and health applications using these bacteria. In this review, we examine the different components of the Gram-positive cell wall: peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. We present recent findings regarding the structure and function of these complex compounds, results that have emerged thanks to the tandem development of structural analysis and whole genome sequencing. Although general structures and biosynthesis pathways are conserved among Gram-positive bacteria, studies have revealed that LAB cell walls demonstrate unique properties; these studies have yielded some notable, fundamental, and novel findings. Given the potential of this research to contribute to future applied strategies, in our discussion of the role played by cell wall components in LAB physiology, we pay special attention to the mechanisms controlling bacterial autolysis, bacterial sensitivity to bacteriophages and the mechanisms underlying interactions between probiotic bacteria and their hosts.

  18. Mannan-binding lectin and mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Complement activation may play a prominent role in acute pancreatitis (AP). Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) participate in complement activation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of MBL and MASP-2 as markers in AP with regard to...

  19. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables.

  20. The role of the cell wall in fungal pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, David M; Prieto, Daniel; Román, Elvira; Nombela, César; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca; Pla, Jesús

    2009-05-01

    Fungal infections are a serious health problem. In recent years, basic research is focusing on the identification of fungal virulence factors as promising targets for the development of novel antifungals. The wall, as the most external cellular component, plays a crucial role in the interaction with host cells mediating processes such as adhesion or phagocytosis that are essential during infection. Specific components of the cell wall (called PAMPs) interact with specific receptors in the immune cell (called PRRs), triggering responses whose molecular mechanisms are being elucidated. We review here the main structural carbohydrate components of the fungal wall (glucan, mannan and chitin), how their biogenesis takes place in fungi and the specific receptors that they interact with. Different model fungal pathogens are chosen to illustrate the functional consequences of this interaction. Finally, the identification of the key components will have important consequences in the future and will allow better approaches to treat fungal infections.

  1. Distinct pathways of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)- and C1-complex autoactivation revealed by reconstitution of MBL with recombinant MBL-associated serine protease-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, T; Petersen, Steen Vang; Hansen, A G;

    2000-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) plays a pivotal role in innate immunity by activating complement after binding carbohydrate moieties on pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Structural similarities shared by MBL and C1 complexes and by the MBL- and C1q-associated serine proteases, MBL-associated serine...

  2. Airway wall stiffening increases peak wall shear stress: a fluid-structure interaction study in rigid and compliant airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guohua; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2010-05-01

    The airflow characteristics in a computed tomography (CT) based human airway bifurcation model with rigid and compliant walls are investigated numerically. An in-house three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method is applied to simulate the flow at different Reynolds numbers and airway wall stiffness. As the Reynolds number increases, the airway wall deformation increases and the secondary flow becomes more prominent. It is found that the peak wall shear stress on the rigid airway wall can be five times stronger than that on the compliant airway wall. When adding tethering forces to the model, we find that these forces, which produce larger airway deformation than without tethering, lead to more skewed velocity profiles in the lower branches and further reduced wall shear stresses via a larger airway lumen. This implies that pathologic changes in the lung such as fibrosis or remodeling of the airway wall-both of which can serve to restrain airway wall motion-have the potential to increase wall shear stress and thus can form a positive feed-back loop for the development of altered flow profiles and airway remodeling. These observations are particularly interesting as we try to understand flow and structural changes seen in, for instance, asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and interstitial lung disease.

  3. Structural constraints and dynamics of bacterial cell wall architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel De Pedro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The peptidoglycan wall (PG is a unique structure which confers physical strength and defined shape to bacteria. It consists of a net-like macromolecule of peptide interlinked glycan chains overlying the cell membrane. The structure and layout of the PG dictates that the wall has to be continuously modified as bacteria go through division, morphological differentiation and adaptive responses. The PG is poorly known in structural terms. However, to understand morphogenesis a precise knowledge of glycan strand arrangement and of local effects of the different kinds of subunits is essential. The scarcity of data led to a conception of the PG as a regular, highly ordered structure which strongly influenced growth models. Here, we review the structure of the PG to define a more realistic conceptual framework. We discuss the consequences of the plasticity of murein architecture in morphogenesis and try to define a set of minimal structural constraints that must be fulfilled by any model to be compatible with present day information.

  4. Inhibitory effect of coated mannan against the adhesion of Candida biofilms to denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Ohshima, Tomoko; Maeda, Nobuko; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    The adherence of Candida on dentures is related to diseases such as denture stomatitis and aspiration pneumonia. Mannan is a major component of the Candida cell surface, and contributes to the cell adherence. A previous report indicated that the adherence of C. albicans to culture dishes was inhibited by the coating them with mannan. The purpose of this study was to examine the adhesion inhibitory effect of mannan coating on acrylic denture surfaces against C. albicans and C. glabrata. The amount of Candida attached on the acrylic surfaces coated with mannan was calibrated by culture methods. Mannan showed significant inhibitory effects on Candida adhesion in both the yeast and hyphal form in a concentration-dependent manner, and the durability of the inhibitory effect continued for three days. These results suggest that mannan coating on the denture base acrylic can prevent Candida adhesion on the denture.

  5. Electromagnetic simulation study of dielectric wall accelerator structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Quan-Tang; ZHANG Zi-Min; YUAN Ping; CAO Shu-Chun; SHEN Xiao-Kang; JING Yi; LIU Ming; ZHAO Hong-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two types of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) structures,a bi-polar Blumlein line and zero integral pulse line (ZIP) structures were investigated.The high gradient insulator simulated by the particle in cell code confirms that it has little influence on the axial electric field.The results of simulations using CST microwave studio indicate how the axial electric field is formed,and the electric field waveforms agree with the theoretical one very well.The influence of layer-to-layer coupling in a ZIP structure is much smaller and the electric field waveform is much better.The axial of the Blumlein structure's electric field has better axial stability.From both of the above,it found that for a shorter pulse width,the axial electric field is much higher and the pulse stability and fidelity are much better.The CST simulation is very helpful for designing DWA structures.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES ADDED POLEN ON BRED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIMPIA COLIBAR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics (oligosaccharides and acidifying agents appeared in the place of the old antibiotics. Mannan -oligosaccharides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beer-yeast are used with success in the nutrition of pigs, chickens and rabbits. The beer-yeast is used also in the bee family’s foraging with a major success. The bee-bred which is the protein source for the honey bees contains also many species of yeast. Our experiment of adding mannan -oligosaccharides in the energetic and protein feed and of using the artificial bee-bread in the place of pollen shows that those methods didn’t lead an increased performance of the frozen pollen, honey energetic and protein feed.

  7. Clinical manifestations of mannan-binding lectin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Steffen; Frederiksen, Pernille Dorthea; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    2006-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a plasma protein of the innate immune system with the ability to initiate antimicrobial and inflammatory actions. MBL deficiency is common. More than 10% of the general population may, depending on definition, be classified as MBL deficient, underlining the redundan...... of the immune system. Ongoing research attempt to illuminate at which conditions MBL deficiency may lead to disease. With examples, this review illustrates the diversity of results obtained so far....

  8. The Dynamic Similitude Design Method of Thin Walled Structures and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the applicability of dynamic similitude models of thin walled structures, such as engine blades, turbine discs, and cylindrical shells, the dynamic similitude design of typical thin walled structures is investigated. The governing equation of typical thin walled structures is firstly unified, which guides to establishing dynamic scaling laws of typical thin walled structures. Based on the governing equation, geometrically complete scaling law of the typical thin walled structure is derived. In order to determine accurate distorted scaling laws of typical thin walled structures, three principles are proposed and theoretically proved by combining the sensitivity analysis and governing equation. Taking the thin walled annular plate as an example, geometrically complete and distorted scaling laws can be obtained based on the principles of determining dynamic scaling laws. Furthermore, the previous five orders’ accurate distorted scaling laws of thin walled annular plates are presented and numerically validated. Finally, the effectiveness of the similitude design method is validated by experimental annular plates.

  9. Stress analysis for wall structure in mobile hot cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan, E-mail: hannan@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Rahman, Anwar Abdul, E-mail: anwar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Mohd Arif, E-mail: arif@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Mamat, Mohd Rizal; Azman, Azraf; Hasan, Hasni [Prototype and Plant Development Centre, Technical Services Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) in order to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) such as teletherapy heads and irradiators. At present, there are only two units of MHC in the world, in South Africa and China. Malaysian Mobile Hot cell is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design in order to fulfil the safety requirement in operation of MHC. This paper discusses the loading analysis effect from the sand to the MHC wall structure.

  10. Electronic structure of multi-walled carbon fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doore, Keith; Cook, Matthew; Clausen, Eric; Lukashev, Pavel V.; Kidd, Tim E.; Stollenwerk, Andrew J.

    2017-02-01

    Despite an enormous amount of research on carbon based nanostructures, relatively little is known about the electronic structure of multi-walled carbon fullerenes, also known as carbon onions. In part, this is due to the very high computational expense involved in estimating electronic structure of large molecules. At the same time, experimentally, the exact crystal structure of the carbon onion is usually unknown, and therefore one relies on qualitative arguments only. In this work we present the results of a computational study on a series of multi-walled fullerenes and compare their electronic structures to experimental data. Experimentally, the carbon onions were fabricated using ultrasonic agitation of isopropanol alcohol and deposited onto the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite using a drop cast method. Scanning tunneling microscopy images indicate that the carbon onions produced using this technique are ellipsoidal with dimensions on the order of 10 nm. The majority of differential tunneling spectra acquired on individual carbon onions are similar to that of graphite with the addition of molecular-like peaks, indicating that these particles span the transition between molecules and bulk crystals. A smaller, yet sizable number exhibited a semiconducting gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels. These results are compared with the electronic structure of different carbon onion configurations calculated using first-principles. Similar to the experimental results, the majority of these configurations are metallic with a minority behaving as semiconductors. Analysis of the configurations investigated here reveals that each carbon onion exhibiting an energy band gap consisted only of non-metallic fullerene layers, indicating that the interlayer interaction is not significant enough to affect the total density of states in these structures.

  11. Antibody-based screening of cell wall matrix glycans in ferns reveals taxon, tissue and cell-type specific distribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroux, Olivier; Sørensen, Iben; Marcus, Susan E.;

    2015-01-01

    plants, ferns have been largely neglected in cell wall comparative studies. Results: To explore fern cell wall diversity sets of monoclonal antibodies directed to matrix glycans of angiosperm cell walls have been used in glycan microarray and in situ analyses with 76 fern species and four species...... across the ferns and specifically associated with phloem cell walls and similarly the LM11 xylan epitope was associated with xylem cell walls. The LM5 galactan and LM6 arabinan epitopes, linked to pectic supramolecules in angiosperms, were associated with vascular structures with only limited detection...... in ground tissues. Mannan epitopes were found to be associated with the development of mechanical tissues. We provided the first evidence for the presence of MLG in leptosporangiate ferns. Conclusions: The data sets indicate that cell wall diversity in land plants is multifaceted and that matrix glycan...

  12. Disruption of Protein Mannosylation Affects Candida guilliermondii Cell Wall, Immune Sensing, and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Arias, María J.; Defosse, Tatiana A.; Dementhon, Karine; Csonka, Katalin; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; Dias Valério, Aline; González-Hernández, Roberto J.; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Hernández, Nahúm V.; Pérez-García, Luis A.; Singh, Dhirendra K.; Vizler, Csaba; Gácser, Attila; Almeida, Ricardo S.; Noël, Thierry; López, Mercedes G.; Papon, Nicolas; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.

    2016-01-01

    The fungal cell wall contains glycoproteins that interact with the host immune system. In the prominent pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, Pmr1 acts as a Golgi-resident ion pump that provides cofactors to mannosyltransferases, regulating the synthesis of mannans attached to glycoproteins. To gain insight into a putative conservation of such a crucial process within opportunistic yeasts, we were particularly interested in studying the role of the PMR1 homolog in a low-virulent species that rarely causes candidiasis, Candida guilliermondii. We disrupted C. guilliermondii PMR1 and found that loss of Pmr1 affected cell growth and morphology, biofilm formation, susceptibility to cell wall perturbing agents, mannan levels, and the wall composition and organization. Despite the significant increment in the amount of β1,3-glucan exposed at the wall surface, this positively influenced only the ability of the mutant to stimulate IL-10 production by human monocytes, suggesting that recognition of both mannan and β1,3-glucan, is required to stimulate strong levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, our results indicate C. guilliermondii sensing by monocytes was critically dependent on the recognition of N-linked mannans and β1,3-glucan, as reported in other Candida species. In addition, chemical remotion of cell wall O-linked mannans was found to positively influence the recognition of C. guilliermondii by human monocytes, suggesting that O-linked mannans mask other cell wall components from immune cells. This observation contrasts with that reported in C. albicans. Finally, mice infected with C. guilliermondii pmr1Δ null mutant cells had significantly lower fungal burdens compared to animals challenged with the parental strain. Accordingly, the null mutant showed inability to kill larvae in the Galleria mellonella infection model. This study thus demonstrates that mannans are relevant for the C. guilliermondii-host interaction, with an atypical role for O

  13. Disruption of Protein Mannosylation Affects Candida guilliermondii Cell Wall, Immune Sensing, and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Navarro-Arias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungal cell wall contains glycoproteins that interact with the host immune system. In the prominent pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, Pmr1 acts as a Golgi-resident ion pump that provides cofactors to mannosyltransferases, regulating the synthesis of mannans attached to glycoproteins. To gain insight into a putative conservation of such a crucial process within opportunistic yeasts, we were particularly interested in studying the role of the PMR1 homolog in a low-virulent species that rarely causes candidiasis, Candida guilliermondii. We disrupted C. guilliermondii PMR1 and found that loss of Pmr1 affected cell growth and morphology, biofilm formation, susceptibility to cell wall perturbing agents, mannan levels, and the wall composition and organization. Despite there was a significant increment in the amount of β1,3-glucan exposed at the wall surface, this positively influenced only the ability of the mutant to stimulate IL-10 production by human monocytes, suggesting that recognition of both mannan and β1,3-glucan, is required to stimulate strong levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, our results indicate C. guilliermondii sensing by monocytes was critically dependent on the recognition of N-linked mannans and β1,3-glucan, as reported in other Candida species. In addition, chemical remotion of cell wall O-linked mannans was found to positively influence the recognition of C. guilliermondii by human monocytes, suggesting that O-linked mannans mask other cell wall components from immune cells. This observation contrasts with that reported in C. albicans. Finally, mice infected with C. guilliermondii pmr1 null mutant cells had significantly lower fungal burdens compared to animals challenged with the parental strain. Accordingly, the null mutant showed inability to kill larvae in the Galleria mellonella infection model. This study thus demonstrates that mannans are relevant for the C. guilliermondii-host interaction, with

  14. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Mannan from Konjac (Amorphophallus sp.) Using Mannanase from Streptomyces lipmanii to Produce Manno-oligosaccharides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasongko, Ashadi; Yopi, Yopi; Rahmani, Nanik; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Saepudin, Endang

    2015-01-01

    Mannan is an abundant polysaccharide that can be found in konjac (Amorphophallus sp.). Mannan can be enzymatically hydrolyzed using mannanase to produce manno-oligosaccharides which can be used as a prebiotic...

  15. Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes-Based Organic Memory Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundes Fakher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electrical behaviour of organic memory structures, based on single-walled carbon-nanotubes (SWCNTs, metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS and thin film transistor (TFT structures, using poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA as the gate dielectric, are reported. The drain and source electrodes were fabricated by evaporating 50 nm gold, and the gate electrode was made from 50 nm-evaporated aluminium on a clean glass substrate. Thin films of SWCNTs, embedded within the insulating layer, were used as the floating gate. SWCNTs-based memory devices exhibited clear hysteresis in their electrical characteristics (capacitance–voltage (C–V for MIS structures, as well as output and transfer characteristics for transistors. Both structures were shown to produce reliable and large memory windows by virtue of high capacity and reduced charge leakage. The hysteresis in the output and transfer characteristics, the shifts in the threshold voltage of the transfer characteristics, and the flat-band voltage shift in the MIS structures were attributed to the charging and discharging of the SWCNTs floating gate. Under an appropriate gate bias (1 s pulses, the floating gate is charged and discharged, resulting in significant threshold voltage shifts. Pulses as low as 1 V resulted in clear write and erase states.

  16. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: II. The Hemicellulose of the Walls of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, W D; Talmadge, K W; Keegstra, K; Albersheim, P

    1973-01-01

    The molecular structure, chemical properties, and biological function of the xyloglucan polysaccharide isolated from cell walls of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells are described. The sycamore wall xyloglucan is compared to the extracellular xyloglucan secreted by suspension-cultured sycamore cells into their culture medium and is also compared to the seed "amyloid" xyloglucans.Xyloglucan-or fragments of xyloglucan-and acidic fragments of the pectic polysaccharides are released from endopolygalacturonase-pretreated sycamore walls by treatment of these walls with 8 m urea, endoglucanase, or 0.5 n NaOH. Some of the xyloglucan thus released is found to cochromatograph with the acidic pectic fragments on diethylaminoethyl Sephadex. The chemical or enzymic treatments required for the release of xyloglucan from the walls and the cochromatography of xyloglucan with the acidic pectic fragments indicate that xyloglucan is covalently linked to the pectic polysaccharides and is noncovalently bound to the cellulose fibrils of the sycamore cell wall.The molecular structure of sycamore xyloglucan was characterized by methylation analysis of the oligosaccharides obtained by endoglucanase treatment of the polymer. The structure of the polymer is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of 4 residues of beta-1-4-linked glucose and 3 residues of terminal xylose. A single xylose residue is glycosidically linked to carbon 6 of 3 of the glucosyl residues.

  17. Active stabilization of thin-wall structures under compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Jared; Calius, Emilio P.; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2003-08-01

    The active suppression of elastic buckling instability has the potential to significantly increase the effective strength of thin-wall structures. Despite all the interest in smart structures, the active suppression of buckling has received comparatively little attention. This paper addresses the effects of embedded actuation on the compression buckling strength of laminated composite plates through analysis and simulation. Numerical models are formulated that include the influence of essential features such as sensor uncertainty and noise, actuator saturation and control architecture on the buckling process. Silicon-based strain sensors and diffuse laser distance sensors are both considered for use in the detection of incipient buckling behavior due to their increased sensitivity. Actuation is provided by paired distributions of piezo-electric material incorporated into both sides of the laminate. Optimal controllers are designed to command the structure to deform in ways that interfere with the development of buckling mode shapes. Commercial software packages are used to solve the resulting non-linear equations, and some of the tradeoffs are enumerated. Overall, the results show that active buckling control can considerably enhance resistance to instability under compressive loads. These buckling load predictions demonstrate the viability of optimal control and piezo-electric actuation for implementing active buckling control. Due to the importance of early detection, the relative effectiveness of active buckling control is shown to be strongly dependent on the performance of the sensing scheme, as well as on the characteristics of the structure.

  18. Mannan-binding lectin in astma and allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, S.; Thiel, Steffen; Sarma, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a vital and versatile component of innate immunity. It is present in serum and may bind to a plethora of microbial pathogens and mediate opsonization of these by complement-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Low-MBL levels in serum, attributed to certain genetic...... polymorphisms, constitute a major factor predisposing to several infectious diseases. However, recent studies propose that MBL extends beyond its classic role as a first-line host-defense molecule to a modulator of inflammation. In this review, we summarize and explore this potential and a possible novel role...

  19. Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, B.; Martensson, U.; Weintraub, A.;

    2006-01-01

    Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera...... and in sera with other defined defects of complement to assess other mechanisms through which MBL might recruit complement. The capacity of serum to support C3 deposition was examined by ELISA using microtiter plates coated with O antigen-specific oligosaccharides derived from Salmonella typhimurium, S...

  20. Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of Hypervelocity Projectile Impact on Double-Wall Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沿海; 张庆明; 黄风雷

    2004-01-01

    Tests of hypervelocity projectile impact on double-wall structure were performed with the front wall ranging from 0.5 mm to 2.0 mm thick and different impact velocities. Smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code in LS-DYNA was employed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact on the double-wall structure. By using elementary shock wave theory, the experimental results above are analyzed. The analysis can provide an explanation for the penetration mechanism of hypervelocity projectile impact on double-wall structure about the effect of front wall thickness and impact velocity.

  1. Design criteria for structural design of silage silo walls

    OpenAIRE

    von Wachenfelt, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Östergaard, Göran; Olofsson, Anders; Karlsson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Existing Swedish design guidelines (JBR) cover silo wall heights up to about 3 m. These guidelines presumably overestimate the forces and pressures exerted by silage juice when silo walls are more than 3 m high, which could result in over-sizing, material waste and increased capital costs. This study determined silage physical properties in terms of horizontal wall pressure and evaluated silage juice levels in silos with a wall height of 3 m or more.Wall pressure was measured by transducers m...

  2. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  3. Genetic influences on mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Petersen, Inge; Thiel, Steffen;

    2007-01-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system is activated when Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in complex with MASP-2 binds microorganisms. Polymorphisms in both genes are responsible for low serum levels, which associate with increased risk of infection and autoimmune disease. The present study...... of additive genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors. The genetic correlation, i.e., common genetic factors affecting MBL and MASP-2 activity was estimated to r(g) = 0.34 [0.25;0.42]. The data indicate a strong genetic influence for the serum levels of MBL...

  4. The fine structure of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga cyst wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemgruber, Leandro; Lupetti, Pietro; De Souza, Wanderley; Vommaro, Rossiane C; da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are present in diverse environments, from freshwater to soil, and also in humans, causing serious brain and corneal infections. Their life cycle presents two stages: the dividing trophozoite and the quiescent cyst. The structures of these life stages have been studied for many years, and structural data have been used for taxonomy. The ultrastructural work on Acanthamoeba cysts was carried out previously by routine transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a process that requires the use of chemical fixation, a procedure that can cause serious artifacts in the ultrastructure of the studied material. In order to prevent fixation artifacts, we processed Acanthamoeba polyphaga cysts by ultrarapid freezing, followed by freeze-fracturing and deep-etching, in order to obtain a 3D visualization of the arrangements of the cyst wall. The exocyst presented an irregular surface, with vesicles located within or near this layer. The endocyst, instead, showed a biphasic arrangement with a more compact district in its innermost part, and a more loosened outer layer. For this reason, it was difficult to distinguish the filaments present in the intercyst space from those forming the endocyst. Surprisingly, the intercyst space was thinner when compared with samples processed by conventional TEM, evidencing the possible damage consequent to the use of chemical fixation.

  5. Structural basis of cell wall cleavage by a staphylococcal autolysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Zoll

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The major autolysins (Atl of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus play an important role in cell separation, and their mutants are also attenuated in virulence. Therefore, autolysins represent a promising target for the development of new types of antibiotics. Here, we report the high-resolution structure of the catalytically active amidase domain AmiE (amidase S. epidermidis from the major autolysin of S. epidermidis. This is the first protein structure with an amidase-like fold from a bacterium with a gram-positive cell wall architecture. AmiE adopts a globular fold, with several alpha-helices surrounding a central beta-sheet. Sequence comparison reveals a cluster of conserved amino acids that define a putative binding site with a buried zinc ion. Mutations of key residues in the putative active site result in loss of activity, enabling us to propose a catalytic mechanism. We also identified and synthesized muramyltripeptide, the minimal peptidoglycan fragment that can be used as a substrate by the enzyme. Molecular docking and digestion assays with muramyltripeptide derivatives allow us to identify key determinants of ligand binding. This results in a plausible model of interaction of this ligand not only for AmiE, but also for other PGN-hydrolases that share the same fold. As AmiE active-site mutations also show a severe growth defect, our findings provide an excellent platform for the design of specific inhibitors that target staphylococcal cell separation and can thereby prevent growth of this pathogen.

  6. Xyloglucans from flaxseed kernel cell wall: Structural and conformational characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huihuang H; Cui, Steve W; Goff, H Douglas; Chen, Jie; Guo, Qingbin; Wang, Qi

    2016-10-20

    The structure of ethanol precipitated fraction from 1M KOH extracted flaxseed kernel polysaccharides (KPI-EPF) was studied for better understanding the molecular structures of flaxseed kernel cell wall polysaccharides. Based on methylation/GC-MS, NMR spectroscopy, and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, the dominate sugar residues of KPI-EPF fraction comprised of (1,4,6)-linked-β-d-glucopyranose (24.1mol%), terminal α-d-xylopyranose (16.2mol%), (1,2)-α-d-linked-xylopyranose (10.7mol%), (1,4)-β-d-linked-glucopyranose (10.7mol%), and terminal β-d-galactopyranose (8.5mol%). KPI-EPF was proposed as xyloglucans: The substitution rate of the backbone is 69.3%; R1 could be T-α-d-Xylp-(1→, or none; R2 could be T-α-d-Xylp-(1→, T-β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Xylp-(1→, or T-α-l-Araf-(1→2)-α-d-Xylp-(1→; R3 could be T-α-d-Xylp-(1→, T-β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Xylp-(1→, T-α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Xylp-(1→, or none. The Mw of KPI-EPF was calculated to be 1506kDa by static light scattering (SLS). The structure-sensitive parameter (ρ) of KPI-EPF was calculated as 1.44, which confirmed the highly branched structure of extracted xyloglucans. This new findings on flaxseed kernel xyloglucans will be helpful for understanding its fermentation properties and potential applications. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF HIGH RISE STRUCTURES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DISCRETE STAGGERED SHEAR WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. B. KAMESHWARI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established fact that shear walls are quite effective in lateral load resistance of low-rise to medium-rise reinforced concrete buildings. Restriction in the architectural design by the presence of the shear walls may contribute to discourage the engineers from adopting the shear walls. Due to this a new concept ofproviding storey deep and bay wide discrete staggered shear wall panels have been introduced. In this study, the effect of various configurations of shear walls on high-rise structure is analysed. The drift and inter-storey drift of the structure in the following configurations of shear wall panels is studied and is compared with that of bare frame: (1 Conventional shear walls. (2 Alternate arrangement of shear walls. (3 Diagonal arrangement of shear walls. (4 Zigzag arrangement of shear walls. (5 Influence of lift core walls. Of the configurations studied, the zigzag shear wall configuration is found to be better than the other systems studied in controlling the response to earthquake loading. The diagonal configuration is found to be having significant role in controlling the response of structures to earthquake.

  8. The dorsal shell wall structure of Mesozoic ammonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Radtke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pristine preserved shells of Mesozoic Ammonoidea shows different types of construction and formation of the dorsal shell wall. We observe three major types: (i The vast majority of Ammonoidea, usually planispirally coiled, has a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of an outer organic component (e.g., wrinkle layer, which is the first layer to be formed, and the subsequently formed dorsal inner prismatic layer. The dorsal mantle tissue suppresses the formation of the outer prismatic layer and nacreous layer. With the exception of the outer organic component, secretion of a shell wall is omitted at the aperture. A prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is always secreted immediately after the hatching during early teleoconch formation. Due to its broad distribution in (planispiral Ammonoidea, the prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is probably the general state. (ii Some planispirally coiled Ammonoidea have a nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of three mineralized layers: two prismatic layers (primary and secondary dorsal inner prismatic layer and an enclosed nacreous layer (secondary dorsal nacreous layer. The dorsal shell wall is omitted at the aperture and was secreted in the rear living chamber. Its layers are a continuation of an umbilical shell doubling (reinforcement by additional shell layers that extends towards the ventral crest of the preceding whorl. The nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall is formed in the process of ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall. (iii Heteromorph and some planispirally coiled taxa secrete a complete dorsal shell wall which forms a continuation of the ventral and lateral shell layers. It is formed during ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall or a priori. The construction is identical with the ventral and lateral shell wall, including a dorsal nacreous layer. The wide distribution of the ability to form dorsal nacre indicates that it is

  9. Study the Effectiveof Seismic load on Behavior of Shear Wall in Frame Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Hadi Hosseini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Structural walls, or shear walls, are elements used to resist lateral loads, such as those generated by wind and earthquakes. Structural walls are considerably deeper than typical beams or columns. This attribute gives structural walls considerable in-plane stiffness which makes structural walls a natural choice for resisting lateral loads. In addition to considerable strength, structural walls can dissipate a great deal of energy if detailed properly. Walls are an invaluable structural element when protecting buildings from seismic events. Buildings often rely on structural walls as the main lateral force resisting system. Shear walls are required to perform in multiple ways. Shear walls can then be designed to limit building damage to the specified degree. The load-deformation response of the structural walls must be accurately predicted and related to structural damage in order to achieve these performance goals under loading events of various magnitudes. The applied load is generally transferred to the wall by a diaphragm or collector or drag member. The performance of the framed buildings depends on the structural system adopted for the structure The term structural system or structural frame in structural engineering refers to load-resisting sub-system of a structure. The structural system transfers loads through interconnected structural components or members. These structural systems need to be chosen based on its height and loads and need to be carried out, etc. The selection of appropriate structural systems for building must satisfy both strength and stiffness requirements. The structural system must be adequate to resist lateral and gravity loads that cause horizontal shear deformation and overturning deformation. The efficiency of a structural system is measured in terms of their ability to resist lateral load, which increases with the height of the frame. A building can be considered as tall when the effect of lateral loads is

  10. Study Effective of Wind Load on Behavior of ShearWall in Frame Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hosseini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind load is really the result of wind pressures acting on the building surfaces during a wind event. This wind pressure is primarily a function of the wind speed because the pressure or load increases with the square of the wind velocity.Structural walls, or shear walls, are elements used to resist lateral loads, such as those generated by wind and earthquakes. Structural walls are considerably deeper than typical beams or columns. This attribute gives structural walls considerable in-plane stiffness which makes structural walls a natural choice for resisting lateral loads. In addition to considerable strength, structural walls can dissipate a great deal of energy if detailed properly. Walls are an invaluable structural element when protecting buildings from seismic events. Buildings often rely on structural walls as the main lateral force resisting system. Shear walls are required to perform in multiple ways. Shear walls can then be designed to limit building damage to the specified degree. The loaddeformation response of the structural walls must be accurately predicted and related to structural damage in order to achieve these performance goals under loading events of various magnitudes. The applied load is generally transferred to the wall by a diaphragm or collector or drag member. The performance of the framed buildings depends on the structural system adopted for the structure The term structural system or structural frame in structural engineering refers to load-resisting sub-system of a structure. The structural system transfers loads through interconnected structural components or members. These structural systems need to be chosen based on its height and loads and need to be carried out, etc. The selection of appropriate structural systems for building must satisfy both strength and stiffness requirements. The structural system must be adequate to resist lateral and gravity loads that cause horizontal shear deformation and

  11. Chemical and in situ characterization of macromolecular components of the cell walls from the green seaweed Codium fragile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, José Manuel; Fernández, Paula Virginia; Kasulin, Luciana; Dupree, Paul; Ciancia, Marina

    2009-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the carbohydrate-containing macromolecules from the coencocytic green seaweed Codium fragile and their arrangement in the cell wall was carried out. Cell walls in this seaweed are highly complex structures composed of 31% (w/w) of linear (1-->4)-beta-D-mannans, 9% (w/w) of pyruvylated arabinogalactan sulfates (pAGS), and low amounts of hydroxyproline rich-glycoprotein epitopes (HRGP). In situ chemical imaging by synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy and by immunolabeling using antibodies against specific cell wall carbohydrate epitopes revealed that beta-d-mannans and pAGS are placed in the middle part of the cell wall, whereas HRGP epitopes (arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and extensins) are located on the wall boundaries, especially in the utricle apical zone. pAGS are sulfated at C-2 and/or C-4 of the 3-linked beta-L-arabinopyranose units and at C-4 and/or C-6 of the 3-linked beta-D-galactopyranose residues. In addition, high levels of ketals of pyruvic acid were found mainly at 3,4- of some terminal beta-D-Galp units forming a five-membered ring. Ramification was found at some C-6 of the 3-linked beta-D-Galp units. In agreement with the immunolabeled AGP epitopes, a nonsulfated branched furanosidic arabinan with 5-linked alpha-L-Araf, 3,5-linked alpha-L-Araf, and terminal alpha-L-Araf units and a nonsulfated galactan structure composed of 3-(3,6)-linked beta-D-Galp residues, both typical of type-II AG glycans were found, suggesting that AGP structures are present at low levels in the cell walls of this seaweed. Based on this study, it is starting to emerge that Codium has developed unique cell wall architecture, when compared, not only with that of vascular plants, but also with other related green seaweeds and algae.

  12. Domain wall structure transition during magnetization reversal process in magnetic nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The analytical micromagnetics and numerical simulations were used to investigate the domain wall structure during the magnetization reversal in nanowires. Micromagnetic analysis shows that the domain wall structure is mainly determined by the competition between the demagnetization energy and exchange energy. The wall with vortex magnetization structure in cross-section is energetically more favorable for wires with large diameter. With the reduction of diameter the exchange energy increases. At a critical diameter the vortex structure can not be sustained and the transition from vortex wall to transverse wall occurs. The critical diameters for this transition are about 40 nm for Ni wire and 20 nm for Fe wire, respectively. A series of micromagnetic simulations on the cone-shaped wire confirm the analytical results. The simulations also show that during the reversal process the vortex domain wall moves much faster than the transverse one.

  13. Structural finite element analysis of ITER In-wall shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Moinuddin S., E-mail: moins@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Pathak, H.A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Oliver, Tailhardat [Assystem EOS, Zac Saint Martin, 23 Rue Benjamin Franklin, 84120 Pertuis (France); Wang, Xiaoyu [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    The In-wall shielding (IWS) located between two shells of the vacuum vessel is part of the vacuum vessel of ITER. The function of the IWS is to provide neutron shielding and to reduce toroidal field ripple. The IWS plates are fastened using M30 bolts to hold them securely and the IWS blocks are mounted to the support ribs using the brackets and M20 bolts. The paper presents a structural finite element analysis of one sample IWS block carried out using ANSYS* to establish the benchmark analysis procedure of the IWS blocks. Boundary conditions are set taking into account the assembly procedure of the IWS blocks. The analysis is carried out in three load steps (1). Pretension on M30 (2). Pretension on M30 and M20 and (3) pretension on M30 and M20 plus Electromagnetic forces, dynamic forces, Seismic forces, etc. The stresses and displacements of individual IWS components are evaluated against their allowable stress limits as per an ASME guideline. The ITER-India’s results of analysis are compared with the ITER-IO’s results for the worst category 3-load step 3 and they are found comparable. This establishes the analysis procedure to be used for all of the IWS blocks.

  14. Mannan-Modified PLGA Nanoparticles for Targeted Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fansheng Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies of targeted gene delivery nanocarriers have gained increasing attention during the past decades. In this study, mannan modified DNA loaded bioadhesive PLGA nanoparticles (MAN-DNA-NPs were investigated for targeted gene delivery to the Kupffer cells (KCs. Bioadhesive PLGA nanoparticles were prepared and subsequently bound with pEGFP. Following the coupling of the mannan-based PE-grafted ligands (MAN-PE with the DNA-NPs, the MAN-DNA-NPs were delivered intravenously to rats. The transfection efficiency was determined from the isolated KCs and flow cytometry was applied for the quantitation of gene expression after 48 h post transfection. The size of the MAN-DNA-NPs was found to be around 190 nm and the Zeta potential was determined to be −15.46mV. The pEGFP binding capacity of MAN-DNA-NPs was (88.9±5.8% and the in vitro release profiles of the MAN-DNA-NPs follow the Higuchi model. When compared with non-modified DNA-NPs and Lipofectamine 2000-DNA, MAN-DNA-NPs produced the highest gene expressions, especially in vivo. The in vivo data from flow cytometry analysis showed that MAN-DNA-NPs displayed a remarkably higher transfection efficiency (39% than non-modified DNA-NPs (25% and Lipofectamine 2000-DNA (23% in KCs. The results illustrate that MAN-DNA-NPs have the ability to target liver KCs and could function as promising active targeting drug delivery vectors.

  15. THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE PRODUCTS OF HYDROLYSIS OF NATURAL POLYMERS (MANNAN AND FUCOIDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Cherenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of oligosaccharides, obtained from mild acid and fermentative mannan and fucoidan hydrolysis was investigated. Dependence of manno- and fucoooligosaccharides antioxidant activity on hydrolysis conditions was shown.

  16. Review: Kandungan Mannan pada Tanaman Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMARWOTO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannan is a kind of polysaccharide that shaped from mannose and glucose with molar ratio 3:2. Sum of total mannan have a variation rate, influenced by the age, kind of plant, beginning treatment before drying and many other reason. This kind of carbohydrate is important for the plant, it self, and for human, it can be used for many industries. This polysaccharide produced most by a tuber like iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. mannan polymer has a special character which have an attitude between cellulose and galactomannan, so have and ability to crystallize and shaping soft patterns. Besides Amorphophallus, mannan can be found in a small number of another plant, like Ivory nut, and some of Orchidaceae and some in subdivision Gymnosperm. The way to isolate can be in physically and chemically. And the benefits are for the development of many industries, like food, medical, paper, laboratory, etc.

  17. Immunodiagnosis of systemic candidiasis: mannan antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M H; Coats-Stephen, M

    1979-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects candida mannan was developed so that immunodiagnosis of systemic candidiasis could be improved. The RIA was evaluated in an animal model of disseminated disease and in a panel of patient sera. Mannan antigenemia was detected with the RIA in 52% of 29 rabbits with systemic candidasis, but not in 60 normal rabbits or 31 rabbits with systemic aspergillosis. In an evaluation of human sera, mannan antigenemia was detected in five of 11 patients with systemic candidiasis, one of three patients with invasive gastrointestinal candidiasis, and one patient with a sustained candidemia associated with an infected intravenous catheter. Mannan was not detected in sera from 11 patients with superficial candida infections, seven patients colonized with Candida, three patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, eight patients with other systemic mycoses, or 22 normal donors. This study demonstrates the utility of this RIA for early, specific immunodiagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  18. Structure of ristocetin A in complex with a bacterial cell-wall mimetic

    OpenAIRE

    Nahoum, Virginie; Spector, Sherri; Loll, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the complex between ristocetin A and the cell-wall peptide mimetic N-acetyl-lysine-d-alanine-d-alanine has been solved. Structural details explaining the anticooperativity of the antibiotic have been identified.

  19. AFM force spectroscopy reveals how subtle structural differences affect the interaction strength between Candida albicans and DC-SIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Riet, Joost; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Figdor, Carl G; Cambi, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is the most common cause of mycotic infections in immunocompromised hosts. Little is known about the initial interactions between Candida and immune cell receptors, such as the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intracellular cell adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), because a detailed characterization at the structural level is lacking. DC-SIGN recognizes specific Candida-associated molecular patterns, that is, mannan structures present in the cell wall of Candida. The molecular recognition mechanism is however poorly understood. We postulated that small differences in mannan-branching may result in considerable differences in the binding affinity. Here, we exploit atomic force microscope-based dynamic force spectroscopy with single Candida cells to gain better insight in the carbohydrate recognition capacity of DC-SIGN. We demonstrate that slight differences in the N-mannan structure of Candida, that is, the absence or presence of a phosphomannan side chain, results in differences in the recognition by DC-SIGN as follows: (i) it contributes to the compliance of the outer cell wall of Candida, and (ii) its presence results in a higher binding energy of 1.6 kB T. The single-bond affinity of tetrameric DC-SIGN for wild-type C. albicans is ~10.7 kB T and a dissociation constant kD of 23 μM, which is relatively strong compared with other carbohydrate-protein interactions described in the literature. In conclusion, this study shows that DC-SIGN specifically recognizes mannan patterns on C. albicans with high affinity. Knowledge on the binding pocket of DC-SIGN and its pathogenic ligands will lead to a better understanding of how fungal-associated carbohydrate structures are recognized by receptors of the immune system and can ultimately contribute to the development of new anti-fungal drugs.

  20. Application of novel analytical ultracentrifuge analysis to solutions of fungal mannans

    KAUST Repository

    Gillis, Richard B.

    2016-07-21

    Polysaccharides, the most abundant biopolymers, are required for a host of activities in lower organisms, animals, and plants. Their solution characterization is challenging due to their complex shape, heterogeneity, and size. Here, recently developed data analysis approaches were applied for traditional sedimentation equilibrium and velocity methods in order to investigate the molar mass distribution(s) of a subtype of polysaccharide, namely, mannans from four Candida spp. The molecular weight distributions of these mannans were studied using two recently developed equilibrium approaches: SEDFIT-MSTAR and MULTISIG, resulting in corroboratory distribution profiles. Additionally, sedimentation velocity data for all four mannans, analyzed using ls-g*(s) and Extended Fujita approaches, suggest that two of the fungal mannans (FM-1 and FM-3) have a unimodal distribution of molecular species whereas two others (FM-2 and FM-4) displayed bi-modal and broad distributions, respectively: this demonstrates considerable molecular heterogeneity in these polysaccharides, consistent with previous observations of mannans and polysaccharides in general. These methods not only have applications for the characterization of mannans but for other biopolymers such as polysaccharides, DNA, and proteins (including intrinsically disordered proteins).

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies on concrete structures with special-shaped shear walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jianxin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of concept design and staggered shear panels structure,this paper puts forward a new reinforced concrete high rise biuding structure with special-shaped shear walls and presents an experimental study of the seismic performance of the new special-shaped shear walls structure under low reversed cyclic loading using MTS electro hydraulic servo system.Compared with experimental results,a finite element analysis on this special-shaped shear wall structure,which considers the nonlinearity of concrete structure,is found suitable.It shows that the experimental results fairly confirms to the calculated values,which indicates that this new structure has advantages as good architecture function,big effective space,high overall lateral stiffness,fine ductility,advanced seismic behavior,etc..That is,the close r agreement between the theoretical and experimental results indicates the proposed shear wall structure has wide applications.

  2. Degree of coupling in high-rise mixed shear walls structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C D Hoenderkamp

    2012-08-01

    A simple method of analysis is presented to determine the influence of single shear walls (SSW) on the degree of coupling DoC and on the peak shear demand PSD for beams of coupled shear walls (CSW) in mixed shear wall structures (MSW). Non-coupled lateral load resisting structures such as singular planar walls and cores will reduce primary bending moments in the coupled shear wall bents of MSW structures thereby increasing the degree of coupling. They will also change the location and magnitude of the maximum shear in and rotation of the coupling beams. These changes in the coupled wall bents may increase the demand on their performance beyond capacity. It is, therefore, important to have an indication of the change in the coupling beam design parameters at an early stage of the design. The proposed graphical method is based on the continuous medium theory and allows a rapid assessment of the structural behaviour of coupled shear wall bents in mixed shear wall structures that are subject to horizontal loading.

  3. Study on Seismic Behavior of Recycled Concrete Energy-efficient Homes Structure Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point is to study the seismic behavior of the lattice type recycled concrete energy saving wall under low-cyclic loading,to provide the basis for the seismic performance of application of recycled concrete lattice wall in energy-saving residential structure. Design two walls with the same structure measures, include Lattice type recycled concrete wall and natural concrete wall, they are tested under low-cycle repetitive loading, compared failure mode and seismic performance in different reinforcement conditions of side column. The bearing capacity and ductility of recycled aggregate concrete are better than natural aggregate concrete, The stiffness degradation curves and the skeleton curves of the walls are basically the same, both of them have better seismic energy dissipation capacity. Lattice type concrete wall is good at seismic performance, recycled aggregate concrete is good at plastic deformation ability, it is advantageous to seismic energy dissipation of wall, it can be applied in energy efficient residential structure wall.

  4. Local Impact Simulation of SC Wall Structures using Aircraft Engine Projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Lee, Jungwhee; Lee, Hanjoo [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Raeyoung; Hyun, Changhun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    SC wall structure developed for nuclear power plant buildings consists of plain concrete and two steel plates on both surface of the concrete, while RC structure consists of re bar and concrete. SC structure has higher scabbing resistance than RC structure due to the action of steel plate on the rear side of impact. Therefore SC structure is known as more effective structure from the viewpoint of aircraft crash than RC structure. However, most of the recent researches and experiments about local impact damage deal with RC structures, and the effect of re bar and steel plate is not considered reasonably. Although Walter et al. and Make-work et al. suggested a formula for evaluating perforation depth of steel plate covered RC walls, most of the previous researches about SC structure are focused on perforation and scabbing due to the impact of hard projectile, rather than soft projectile such as an aircraft. In this research a soft projectile, i. e. aircraft engine, is utilized for impact simulation of RC and SC walls. To evaluate local damage of SC wall structures, parametric study with the variables of wall thickness and steel ratio of the cover plate is performed, and the results are compared with those of RC structures. Since scabbing was prevented by the steel plates, penetration mode of damage was observed in SC walls while scabbing damage was occurred in RC walls. It is confirmed that the rear steel plate not only contains concrete debris, but also reduces the internal damage of the concrete walls. Penetration depth of SC walls did not largely vary due to the increasing steel ratio, and similar results to RC walls were observed when the wall thickness is larger than a certain value since the impact resistance of SC wall is mainly governed by the thickness of concrete part. Therefore, it is expected that similar level of impact resistance to RC structure can be produced with the minimum thickness of steel plates of SC structure. According to these results, SC

  5. Micro-aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot mechanism for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Uk; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Jong-Heon; Myung, Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the maintenance or inspection of large structures is labor-intensive, so it has a problem of the large cost due to the staffing professionals and the risk for hard to reach areas. To solve the problem, the needs of wall-climbing robot are emerged. Infra-based wall-climbing robots to maintain an outer wall of building have high payload and safety. However, the infrastructure for the robot must be equipped on the target structure and the infrastructure isn't preferred by the architects since it can injure the exterior of the structure. These are the reasons of why the infra-based wall-climbing robot is avoided. In case of the non-infra-based wall-climbing robot, it is researched to overcome the aforementioned problems. However, most of the technologies are in the laboratory level since the payload, safety and maneuverability are not satisfactory. For this reason, aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot is researched. It is a flying possible wallclimbing robot based on a quadrotor. It is a famous aerial vehicle robot using four rotors to make a thrust for flying. This wall-climbing robot can stick to a vertical wall using the thrust. After sticking to the wall, it can move with four wheels installed on the robot. As a result, it has high maneuverability and safety since it can restore the position to the wall even if it is detached from the wall by unexpected disturbance while climbing the wall. The feasibility of the main concept was verified through simulations and experiments using a prototype.

  6. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elizabeth A; Tran, Mai L; Dimos, Christos S; Budziszek, Michael J; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Roberts, Alison W

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.

  7. Immuno and affinity cytochemical analysis of cell wall composition in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Berry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalacturonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogeneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.

  8. Fluid-Structure Simulations of a Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: Constant versus Patient-Specific Wall Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, S; Glaßer, S; Hoffmann, T; Beuing, O; Weigand, S; Jachau, K; Preim, B; Thévenin, D; Janiga, G; Berg, P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is intensively used to deepen the understanding of aneurysm growth and rupture in order to support physicians during therapy planning. However, numerous studies considering only the hemodynamics within the vessel lumen found no satisfactory criteria for rupture risk assessment. To improve available simulation models, the rigid vessel wall assumption has been discarded in this work and patient-specific wall thickness is considered within the simulation. For this purpose, a ruptured intracranial aneurysm was prepared ex vivo, followed by the acquisition of local wall thickness using μCT. The segmented inner and outer vessel surfaces served as solid domain for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation. To compare wall stress distributions within the aneurysm wall and at the rupture site, FSI computations are repeated in a virtual model using a constant wall thickness approach. Although the wall stresses obtained by the two approaches-when averaged over the complete aneurysm sac-are in very good agreement, strong differences occur in their distribution. Accounting for the real wall thickness distribution, the rupture site exhibits much higher stress values compared to the configuration with constant wall thickness. The study reveals the importance of geometry reconstruction and accurate description of wall thickness in FSI simulations.

  9. Structure reconstruction of TiO2-based multi-wall nanotubes: first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, A V; Evarestov, R A; Lukyanov, S I

    2014-07-28

    A new method of theoretical modelling of polyhedral single-walled nanotubes based on the consolidation of walls in the rolled-up multi-walled nanotubes is proposed. Molecular mechanics and ab initio quantum mechanics methods are applied to investigate the merging of walls in nanotubes constructed from the different phases of titania. The combination of two methods allows us to simulate the structures which are difficult to find only by ab initio calculations. For nanotube folding we have used (1) the 3-plane fluorite TiO2 layer; (2) the anatase (101) 6-plane layer; (3) the rutile (110) 6-plane layer; and (4) the 6-plane layer with lepidocrocite morphology. The symmetry of the resulting single-walled nanotubes is significantly lower than the symmetry of initial coaxial cylindrical double- or triple-walled nanotubes. These merged nanotubes acquire higher stability in comparison with the initial multi-walled nanotubes. The wall thickness of the merged nanotubes exceeds 1 nm and approaches the corresponding parameter of the experimental patterns. The present investigation demonstrates that the merged nanotubes can integrate the two different crystalline phases in one and the same wall structure.

  10. Mitigation of blast loadings on structures by an anti-blast plastic water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 陈力; 方秦; 张亚栋

    2016-01-01

    Seven in-situ tests were carried out in far field to study the blast mitigation effect of a kind of water filled plastic wall. Test results show that the mitigation effect of water filled plastic wall is remarkable. The maximum reduction of peak reflected overpressure reaches up to 94.53%, as well as 36.3% of the minimum peak reflected overpressure reduction in the scaled distance ranging from 1.71 m/kg1/3 to 3.42 m/kg1/3. Parametric studies were also carried out. The effects of the scaled gauge height, water/charge scaled distance (the distance between the explosive charge and the water wall), water wall scaled height and water/structure scaled distance (the distance between the water wall and the structure) were systematically investigated and compared with the usual rigid anti-blast wall. It is concluded that these parameters affect the mitigation effects of plastic water wall on blast loadings significantly, which is basically consistent to the trend of usual rigid anti-blast wall. Some formulae are also derived based on the numerical and test results, providing a simple but reliable prediction model to evaluate the peak overpressure of mitigated blast loadings on the structures.

  11. The Small-Scale Structure of Acceleration in Wall Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kenneth T.; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2001-11-01

    Temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are measured in the streamwise--wall-normal plane of turbulent channel flow at Re_τ=547, 1133, and 1734 using a new technique called particle-image accelerometry. Pairs of temporally-resolved instantaneous velocity fields are acquired in rapid succession using a two-CCD-camera arrangement, and the associated instantaneous temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are computed numerically from this data. Advection of the small-scale vortices embedded within the flow dominates the small-scale behavior of the velocity time-derivative as noted in both the instantaneous rate-of-change fields as well as in the statistics of the temporal derivative. However, in a reference frame traveling with the vortices, a marked deceleration is present and represents the evolution of the flow. This large-scale deceleration is conjectured to be the dynamic influence of larger-scale vortices present further away from the wall on the smaller scale vortices present closer to the wall.

  12. Effects of calcination temperature on the pore size and wall crystalline structure of mesoporous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-Xi; Zheng, Ting-Ting; Bo, Qi-Bing; Du, Miao; Forsling, Willis

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, mesoporous alumina with different pore sizes and wall crystalline structures was synthesized at calcination temperatures over 550 degrees C. The characterization of the samples calcined at 550, 800, 1100, and 1300 degrees C, respectively, was performed using TEM, XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques. The correlation between pore size and wall crystalline structure on calcination temperature was systematically investigated.

  13. Effects of Openings in Shear Wall on Seismic Response of Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal A. Itware

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effects of openings in shear wall on seismic response of structures. For parametric study 6 and 12 storied 7x3 bays apartment buildings with typical floor plan of 35mx15m and floor height of 3m with different openings size and location in shear walls were modeled in STAAD pro. An equivalent static analysis for three dimensional models of the buildings was performed as per IS 1893 (part 1: 2002. Seismic responses of the analyzed structures were compared. The results reveal that for opening area 20%, the stiffness of the system is significantly affected by openings configuration in shear walls.

  14. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  15. An examination of the earthquake behaviour of a retaining wall considering soil-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köktan, Utku; Demir, Gökhan; Kerem Ertek, M.

    2017-04-01

    The earthquake behavior of retaining walls is commonly calculated with pseudo static approaches based on Mononobe-Okabe method. The seismic ground pressure acting on the retaining wall by the Mononobe-Okabe method does not give a definite idea of the distribution of the seismic ground pressure because it is obtained by balancing the forces acting on the active wedge behind the wall. With this method, wave propagation effects and soil-structure interaction are neglected. The purpose of this study is to examine the earthquake behavior of a retaining wall taking into account the soil-structure interaction. For this purpose, time history seismic analysis of the soil-structure interaction system using finite element method has been carried out considering 3 different soil conditions. Seismic analysis of the soil-structure model was performed according to the earthquake record of "1971, San Fernando Pacoima Dam, 196 degree" existing in the library of MIDAS GTS NX software. The results obtained from the analyses show that the soil-structure interaction is very important for the seismic design of a retaining wall. Keywords: Soil-structure interaction, Finite element model, Retaining wall

  16. In-vitro detection of mannan and galactomannan in components of total parenteral nutrition (TPN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoth, H; Maywald, D; Walter, W

    2016-05-01

    Detection of Candida mannan and Aspergillus galactomannan in serum with the Platelia enzyme immunoassay is applied for diagnosing invasive fungal infections. High risk patients for invasive fungal infections are often receiving parenteral nutrition. It is important to know whether false-positive Platelia test results occur during total parenteral nutrition. Studies to false-positivity in intravenous feeding solutions lack so that we start an in-vitro investigation. We used two different enzyme immunoassays to test the feeding solutions. We tested infusions (n = 19) which are applied for the production of individual parenteral nutrition in the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden. We used the Platelia Aspergillus EIA to analyse the Aspergillus antigen galactomannan in the solutions. In addition, the Platelia Candida Ag plus was used to determine the concentration of the Candida antigen mannan. In summary, four solutions (21%) showed measurable concentrations of the Candida mannan. They were considered positive with a concentration > 0.125 ng/ ml mannan (Tracitrans infant, calcium gluconate solution) and borderline with a concentration between 0.0625 and 0.125 ng/ml mannan (Tracitrans plus, SMOFlipid). None of the analysed infusions contained the Aspergillus galactomannan. In conclusion, further investigations on the topic are necessary to determine their in-vivo impact. A positive Platelia test result can simulate the presence of invasive fungal infections. As a consequence the patient may be treated with expensive, systemic antimycotics with a high risk of adverse events. Therefore a definite diagnosis is important.

  17. Modeling of individual coherent structures in wall region of a turbulent boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周恒; 陆昌根; 罗纪生

    1999-01-01

    Models for individual coherent structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer are proposed. Method of numerical simulations is used to follow the evolution of the structures. It is found that the proposed model does bear many features of coherent structures found in experiments.

  18. Contact angle and droplet heat transfer during evaporation on structured and smooth surfaces of heated wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, S. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Water evaporation in a wide range of droplet diameters and wall temperatures on the structured and smooth surfaces were studied experimentally. Linear dependence of evaporation rate (dV/dt) on a droplet radius varies when the volume is greater than 40-60 μl. The static contact angles on the structured surface vary with a droplet diameter for high wall superheating. Dependence of the contact angle on diameter for the corrugated surface is defined by a change in both potential energy barrier U and three-phase contact line tension τcl. This energy barrier for the structured wall changes with an increase in the initial droplet diameter and becomes constant for the large droplets. For high wall superheating, the power in the law of evaporation increases from 1 to 1.45 with an increase in the initial droplet diameter. Depending on the droplet radius, number of droplets and heater length, four different characters of evaporation are realized. Complete droplet evaporation time on structured surface is less than smooth wall. Heat transfer coefficient is greater for structured wall than smooth one. When simulating droplet evaporation and heat transfer, it is necessary to take into account free convection of air and vapor.

  19. Soya beans and Maize : The effect of chemical and physical structure of cell wall polysaccharides on fermentation kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Laar, van de, P.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between cell wall composition and fermentation of endosperm cell walls of soya beans and maize was approached from three different angles. Firstly, the fermentation (rate and extent of fermentation, the sugar degradation pattern, and volatile fatty acid production) of soya bean and maize cell walls was analysed, both in situ and in vitro. This analysis revealed that the physical structure of the cell wall (particle size and cell wall thickness) influences cell...

  20. Solidified structure of thin-walled titanium parts by vertical centrifugal casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shiping

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The solidified structure of the thin-walled and complicated Ti-6Al-4V castings produced by the vertical centrifugal casting process was studied in the present work. The results show that the wall thickness of the section is featured with homogeneously distributed fine equiaxial grains, compared with the microstructure of the thick-walled section. The grain size of the castings has a tendency to decrease gradually with the increasing of the centrifugal radius. The inter-lamellar space in thick-walled casting parts is bigger than that of the thin-walled parts, and the profile of inter-lamellar space is not susceptible to the centrifugal radius.

  1. Serum mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 levels in colorectal cancer: relation to recurrence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Thiel, Steffen;

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) is a plasma protein involved in inflammatory processes. MASP-2 circulates in complex with the protein mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins, and is activated to recruit the complement system when MBL binds to its targets...

  2. Structural changes in cell wall pectins during strawberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Candelas; Santiago-Doménech, Nieves; Kirby, Andrew R; Gunning, A Patrick; Morris, Victor J; Quesada, Miguel A; Matas, Antonio J; Mercado, José A

    2017-09-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × anannasa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruit. Rapid loss of firmness occurs during the ripening process, resulting in a short shelf life and high economic losses. To get insight into the role of pectin matrix in the softening process, cell walls from strawberry fruit at two developmental stages, unripe-green and ripe-red, were extracted and sequentially fractionated with different solvents to obtain fractions enriched in a specific component. The yield of cell wall material as well as the per fresh weight contents of the different fractions decreased in ripe fruit. The largest reduction was observed in the pectic fractions extracted with a chelating agent (trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid, CDTA fraction) and those covalently bound to the wall (extracted with Na2CO3). Uronic acid content of these two fractions also decreased significantly during ripening, but the amount of soluble pectins extracted with phenol:acetic acid:water (PAW) and water increased in ripe fruit. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the different fractions showed that the degree of esterification decreased in CDTA pectins but increased in soluble fractions at ripen stage. The chromatographic analysis of pectin fractions by gel filtration revealed that CDTA, water and, mainly PAW polyuronides were depolymerised in ripe fruit. By contrast, the size of Na2CO3 pectins was not modified. The nanostructural characteristics of CDTA and Na2CO3 pectins were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Isolated pectic chains present in the CDTA fractions were significantly longer and more branched in samples from green fruit than those from red fruit. No differences in contour length were observed in Na2CO3 strands between samples of both stages. However, the percentage of branched chains decreased from 19.7% in unripe samples to 3.4% in ripe fruit. The number of pectin aggregates was higher in green fruit samples of both fractions. These

  3. Domain wall spin structures in mesoscopic Fe rings probed by high resolution SEMPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautscheid, Pascal; Reeve, Robert M.; Lauf, Maike; Krüger, Benjamin; Kläui, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the energetic stability and accessibility of different domain wall spin configurations in mesoscopic magnetic iron rings. The evolution is investigated as a function of the width and thickness in a regime of relevance to devices, while Fe is chosen as a material due to its simple growth in combination with attractive magnetic properties including high saturation magnetization and low intrinsic anisotropy. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to predict the lowest energy states of the domain walls, which can be either the transverse or vortex wall spin structure, in good agreement with analytical models, with further simulations revealing the expected low temperature configurations observable on relaxation of the magnetic structure from saturation in an external field. In the latter case, following the domain wall nucleation process, transverse domain walls are found at larger widths and thicknesses than would be expected by just comparing the competing energy terms demonstrating the importance of metastability of the states. The simulations are compared to high spatial resolution experimental images of the magnetization using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis to provide a phase diagram of the various spin configurations. In addition to the vortex and simple symmetric transverse domain wall, a significant range of geometries are found to exhibit highly asymmetric transverse domain walls with properties distinct from the symmetric transverse wall. Simulations of the asymmetric walls reveal an evolution of the domain wall tilting angle with ring thickness which can be understood from the thickness dependencies of the contributing energy terms. Analysis of all the data reveals that in addition to the geometry, the influence of materials properties, defects and thermal activation all need to be taken into account in order to understand and reliably control the experimentally accessible

  4. Free torsion of thin-walled structural members of open- and closed-sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-yuan LI; D. EASTERBROOK

    2014-01-01

    Free torsion of thin-walled structures of open- and closed-sections is a classical elastic mechanics problem, which, in literature, is often solved by the method of membrane analogy. The method of membrane analogy, however, can be only applied to structures of a single material. If the structure consists of both open-and closed-sections, the method of membrane analogy is difficult to be applied. In this paper, a new method is presented for solving the free torsion of thin-walled structures of open- and/or closed-sections with multiple materials. By utilizing a simple statically indeterminate concept, torsional equations are derived based on the equilibrium and compatibility conditions. The method presented here not only is very simple and easy to understand but also can be applied to thin-walled structures of combined open-and closed-sections with multiple materials.

  5. Vacuum Domain Walls in D-dimensions Local and Global Space-Time Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetic, M; Cvetic, Mirjam; Wang, Jing

    2000-01-01

    We study local and global gravitational effects of (D-2)-brane configurations (domain-walls) in the vacuum of D-dimensional space-time. We focus on infinitely thin vacuum domain walls with arbitrary cosmological constants on either side of the wall. In the comoving frame of the wall we derive a general metric Ansatz, consistent with the homogeneity and isotropy of the space-time intrinsic to the wall, and employ Israel's matching conditions at the wall. The space-time, intrinsic to the wall, is that of (D-1)-dimensional Freedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe (with k=-1,0,1) which has a (local) description as either anti-deSitter, Minkowski or deSitter space-time. For each of these geometries, we provide a systematic classification of the local and global space-time structure transverse to the walls, for those with both positive and negative tension; they fall into different classes according to the values of their energy density relative to that of the extreme (superysmmetric) configurations. We find tha...

  6. Epidemiology of chronic wound patients and relation to serum levels of mannan-binding lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, Mikael; Laursen, Inga; Engel, Anne-Mari

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of chronic wounds in a large cohort of patients from a tertiary hospital out-patient clinic, and examine the significance of serum mannan-binding lectin for the occurrence and clinical presentation of such wounds. The study comprised 489...... consecutive patients with chronic foot and leg ulcers. A clinical classification of wound- aetiology was performed, and mannan-binding lectin was measured in the sera of patients and healthy controls. The patients presented with 639 wounds altogether; diabetic foot ulcers (309), venous leg ulcers (188......), arterial ulcers (109), and vasculitis (33). The mannan-binding lectin levels of patients with venous leg ulcer, alone or in combination with other types of wounds, differed significantly from the control group, and the frequency of values

  7. Mannan-binding protein forms complexes with alpha-2-macroglobulin. A protein model for the interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, P; Holm Nielsen, E; Skriver, E;

    1995-01-01

    We report that alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) can form complexes with a high molecular weight porcine mannan-binding protein (pMBP-28). The alpha 2M/pMBP-28 complexes was isolated by PEG-precipitation and affinity chromatography on mannan-Sepharose, protein A-Sepharose and anti-IgM Sepharose......-PAGE, which reacted with antibodies against alpha 2M and pMBP-28, respectively, in Western blotting. Furthermore, alpha 2M/pMBP-28 complexes were demonstrated by electron microscopy. Fractionation of pMBP-containing D-mannose eluate from mannan-Sepharose on Superose 6 showed two protein peaks which reacted...

  8. Structure and stability of SnS2-based single- and multi-wall nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Evarestov, Robert A.

    2015-11-01

    Hybrid density functional method PBE0 which mixes the 75% Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and 25% Hartree-Fock exchange functional has been applied for investigation of the electronic and atomic structures of nanotubes obtained by rolling up of hexagonal layers of tin disulfide. Calculations have been performed on the basis of the localized atomic functions by means of the CRYSTAL09 computer code. The calculated strain energy of SnS2 single-wall nanotubes approximately obeys the R- 2 law (R is nanotube radius) of the classical elasticity theory. The SnS2 nanotube electronic band structures yield a semiconducting behavior. Band gap of single-wall nanotubes decreases linearly with R- 1. The dispersion force correction is found to be important for prediction of the multi-wall nanotube stability. The distance and interaction energy between the single-wall components of the double-wall nanotubes are proved to be close to the distance and interaction energy between layers in the bulk crystal. Analysis of the relaxed nanotube shape using the offered method demonstrates a small but noticeable deviation from completely cylindrical cross-section of the external walls in the armchair-like double- and triple-walled nanotubes.

  9. Reynolds number invariance of the structure inclination angle in wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Ivan; Heuer, Weston D C

    2007-09-14

    Cross correlations of the fluctuating wall-shear stress and the streamwise velocity in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers are reported over 3 orders of magnitude change in Reynolds number. These results are obtained using hot-film and hot-wire anemometry in a wind tunnel facility, and sonic anemometers and a purpose-built wall-shear stress sensor in the near-neutral atmospheric surface layer on the salt flats of Utah's western desert. The direct measurement of fluctuating wall-shear stress in the atmospheric surface layer has not been available before. Structure inclination angles are inferred from the cross correlation results and are found to be invariant over the large range of Reynolds number. The findings justify the prior use of low Reynolds number experiments for obtaining structure angles for near-wall models in the large-eddy simulation of atmospheric surface layer flows.

  10. Wall effect on fluid-structure interactions of a tethered bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumant; Raghav, Vrishank; Komerath, Narayanan; Smith, Marilyn

    2013-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have shown an unexplained amplification of the free motion of a tethered bluff body in a small wind tunnel relative to that in a large wind tunnel. The influence of wall proximity on fluid-structure interaction is explored using a compound pendulum motion in the plane orthogonal to a steady freestream with a doublet model for aerodynamic forces. Wall proximity amplifies a purely symmetric single degree of freedom oscillation with the addition of an out-of-phase force. The success of this simple level of simulation enables progress to develop metrics for unsteady wall interference in dynamic testing of tethered bluff bodies.

  11. Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant in the Spacetime of a Cosmic Domain Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, L.; Cea, P.; Tedesco, L.

    The gravitational field produced by a domain wall acts as a medium with spacetime-dependent permittivity ɛ. Therefore, the fine structure constant α=e2/4πɛ will be a time-dependent function at fixed position. The most stringent constraint on the time-variation of α comes from the natural reactor Oklo and gives |˙ α /α | < few × 10-17 yr-1. This limit constrains the tension of a cosmic domain wall to be less than σ ≲ 10-2 MeV3, and then represents the most severe limit on the energy density of a cosmic wall stretching our Universe.

  12. Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant in the Spacetime of a Domain Wall

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, L; Tedesco, L

    2005-01-01

    The gravitational field produced by a domain wall acts as a medium with spacetime-dependent permittivity \\epsilon. Therefore, the fine structure constant \\alpha = e^2/4 \\pi \\epsilon will be a time-dependent function at fixed position. The most stringent constraint on the time-variation of \\alpha comes from the natural reactor Oklo and gives |\\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha| < few 10^{-17} yr^{-1}. This limit constrains the tension of a cosmic domain wall to be less than \\sigma \\lesssim 10^{-2} MeV^3, and then represents the most severe limit on the energy density of a cosmic wall stretching our Universe.

  13. Numerical Comparison of Active Acoustic and Structural Noise Control in a Stiffened Double Wall Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1996-01-01

    The active acoustic and structural noise control characteristics of a double wall cylinder with and without ring stiffeners were numerically evaluated. An exterior monopole was assumed to acoustically excite the outside of the double wall cylinder at an acoustic cavity resonance frequency. Structural modal vibration properties of the inner and outer shells were analyzed by post-processing the results from a finite element analysis. A boundary element approach was used to calculate the acoustic cavity response and the coupled structural-acoustic interaction. In the frequency region of interest, below 500 Hz, all structural resonant modes were found to be acoustically slow and the nonresonant modal response to be dominant. Active sound transmission control was achieved by control forces applied to the inner or outer shell, or acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shell. A least mean square technique was used to minimize the interior sound pressures at the nodes of a data recovery mesh. Results showed that single acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shells resulted in better sound transmission control than six distributed point forces applied to either one of the shells. Adding stiffeners to the double wall structure constrained the modal vibrations of the shells, making the double wall stiffer with associated higher modal frequencies. Active noise control obtained for the stiffened double wall configurations was less than for the unstiffened cylinder. In all cases, the acoustic control monopoles controlled the sound transmission into the interior better than the structural control forces.

  14. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Wind Pressure Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  15. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance. Wind Pressure Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRenzis, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  16. Intercellular relations and wall structures in mature embryo sacs of four species of angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Fougére-Rifot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the maturation process of an ovule, the internal walls of the embryo sac becomes gradually thinner from the poles to the central cell. The thinning process results in an association of two plasma membranes with no polysaccharide structure betwen them. The presence of one disymmetrical ER cistern along the walls during the thinning process permits to anticipate a turn-over of carbohydrates.

  17. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengjun Tang; Daibiao Zhou; Chenwei Peng; Wenping Wu

    2015-01-01

    The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with prof...

  18. Fine Structure Constant, Domain Walls, and Generalized Uncertainty Principle in the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tedesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the corrections to the fine structure constant from the generalized uncertainty principle in the spacetime of a domain wall. We also calculate the corrections to the standard formula to the energy of the electron in the hydrogen atom to the ground state, in the case of spacetime of a domain wall and generalized uncertainty principle. The results generalize the cases known in literature.

  19. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment of the qual...... of the quality actually produced. Existing and new formulas for the capacity are evaluated by comparison to the test results and a new model with a good correlation with the test results is presented....

  20. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Gerardo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A Control diet (no YCW plus anticoccidial vaccine; B Control diet plus coccidiostat; C YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.

  1. A β-mannan utilization locus in Bacteroides ovatus involves a GH36 α-galactosidase active on galactomannans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sumitha K; Bågenholm, Viktoria; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Bouraoui, Hanene; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Martens, Eric C; Stålbrand, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    The Bacova_02091 gene in the β-mannan utilization locus of Bacteroides ovatus encodes a family GH36 α-galactosidase (BoGal36A), transcriptionally upregulated during growth on galactomannan. Characterization of recombinant BoGal36A reveals unique properties compared to other GH36 α-galactosidases, which preferentially hydrolyse terminal α-galactose in raffinose family oligosaccharides. BoGal36A prefers hydrolysing internal galactose substitutions from intact and depolymerized galactomannan. BoGal36A efficiently releases (> 90%) galactose from guar and locust bean galactomannans, resulting in precipitation of the polysaccharides. As compared to other GH36 structures, the BoGal36A 3D model displays a loop deletion, resulting in a wider active site cleft which likely can accommodate a galactose-substituted polymannose backbone. © 2016 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with collagen-like regions, mannan-binding lectin, ficolins and associated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin, M-ficolin and H-ficolin are all complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with recognition domains linked to collagen-like regions. All four may form complexes with four structurally related proteins, the three MBL-associated serine...... proteases (MASPs), MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3, and a smaller MBL-associated protein (MAp19). The four recognition molecules recognize patterns of carbohydrate or acetyl-group containing ligands. After binding to the relevant targets all four are able to activate the complement system. We thus have a system...... where four different and/or overlapping patterns of microbial origin or patterns of altered-self may be recognized, but in all cases the signalling molecules, the MASPs, are shared. MASP-1 and MASP-3 are formed from one gene, MASP1/3, by alternative splicing generating two different mRNAs from a single...

  3. Progressive collapse resisting capacity of reinforced concrete load bearing wall structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Rahai; Alireza Shahin; Farzad Hatami

    2015-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) load bearing wall is widely used in high-rise and mid-rise buildings. Due to the number of walls in plan and reduction in lateral force portion, this system is not only stronger against earthquakes, but also more economical. The effect of progressive collapse caused by removal of load bearing elements, in various positions in plan and stories of the RC load bearing wall system was evaluated by nonlinear dynamic and static analyses. For this purpose, three-dimensional model of 10-story structure was selected. The analysis results indicated stability, strength and stiffness of the RC load-bearing wall system against progressive collapse. It was observed that the most critical condition for removal of load bearing walls was the instantaneous removal of the surrounding walls located at the corners of the building where the sections of the load bearing elements were changed. In this case, the maximum vertical displacement was limited to 6.3 mm and the structure failed after applying the load of 10 times the axial load bored by removed elements. Comparison between the results of the nonlinear dynamic and static analyses demonstrated that the “load factor” parameter was a reasonable criterion to evaluate the progressive collapse potential of the structure.

  4. Numerical Analysis of Composite Steel Concrete Structural Shear Walls with Steel Encased Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of common reinforced concrete shear walls in high rise buildings is sometimes limited because of the large amount of reinforcement localized at the end of the element. A good alternative in avoiding this disadvantage is to use composite steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles. This solution used for high rise buildings, offers to designers lateral stiffness, shear capacity and high bending resisting moment of structural walls. The encasement of the steel shapes in concrete is applied also for the following purposes: flexural stiffening and strengthening of compression elements; fire protection; potentially easier repairs after moderate damage; economy with respect both to material and construction. Until now in the national and international literature poor information about nonlinear behaviour of composite steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles is available. A theoretical and experimental program related to the behaviour of steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles is developed at “Politehnica” University of Timişoara. The program refers to six different elements, which differ by the shape of the steel encased profile and also by the arrangement of steel shapes on the cross section of the element. In order to calibrate the elements for experimental study some numerical analysis were made. The paper presents the results of numerical analysis with details of stress distribution, crack distribution, structural stiffness at various loads, and load bearing capacity of the elements.

  5. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  6. COUPLED VIBRATION OF STRUCTURAL THIN-WALLED CORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiu Cho; J.S. Kuang

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the coupled vibration of asymmetric core structures in tall buildings. The governing equation of free vibration and its corresponding eigenvalue problem, which is a set of equations for laterally flexural vibrations in two different directions coupled by a warping-St. Venant torsional vibration, are derived. Based on the Calerkin method, a generalized approximate method is developed for the analysis of coupled vibration and thus proposed for determining the natural fiequeneies and mode shapes of the structure in triply-coupled vibration. The results of the proposed method for the example structure show good agreement with those of the FEM analysis. The proposed method has been shown to provide a sim ple and rapid, yet accurate, means for coupled vibration analysis of core structures.

  7. Stress state of thin – walled member of the structure with operation damages under nonuniform loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.

  8. Seismic Analysis of Shear-Wall Structures with Vertically Installed Dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jun; Li Li; Fan Aiwu

    2005-01-01

    Shear-wall structures are quite common in seismic areas because of their successful seismic behavior during severe earthquakes. But shear walls are prone to brittle failure. This study proposes a new method of vertically installed dampers (VID) to reduce the vibration in shear-wall structures. The motion characteristic of a vertical damping system is that every mass has horizontal and rotational displacements simultaneously. The establishment of dynamic equations should take into account the equilibrium conditions of both horizontal and rotational vibrations. Dynamic equilibrium equations of VID systems are derived from a model of a structure with VID. An example shear-wall structure, with and without VID, is studied. There are some changes in the characteristics of the maximum horizontal displacement response. Without dampers, the relative displacements between different floors in the shear wall increase with height. With dampers, the relative displacements are more uniformly distributed, and lateral displacements at the top and at the bottom are closer. When the damping coefficient is 1 000 kN·s/m, the numerical results reveal that the maximum horizontal displacement and the maximum rotational displacement of the top floor have reduced by 59.3 % and 54.8 % respectively.

  9. Organised structures in wall turbulence as deduced from stability theory-based methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Sen; S V Veeravalli; P W Carpenter; G Joshi; P S Josan

    2007-02-01

    In earlier work, we have explored the relevance of hydrodynamic stability theory to fully developed turbulent wall flows. Using an extended Orr-Summerfeld Equation, based on an anisotropic eddy-viscosity model, it was shown that there exists a wide range of unstable wave numbers (wall modes), which mimic some of the key features of turbulent wall flows. Here we present experimental confirmation for the same. There is good qualitative and quantitative agreement between theory and experiment. Once the dominant coherent structure is obtained from stability theory, control of turbulence would be the next logical step. As shown, the use of a compliant wall shows considerable promise. We also present some theoretical work for bypass transition (Klebanoff/K-modes), wherein the receptivity of a laminar boundary layer to a vortex sheet in the freestream has been studied. Further, it is shown that triadic interaction between K-modes, 2D TS waves and 3D TS waves can lead to rapid algebraic growth. A similar mechanism seems to carry over to inner wall structures in wall turbulence and perhaps this is the “root cause” for sustenance of turbulence.

  10. Insights into cell wall structure of Sida hermaphrodita and its influence on recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Tatjana; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Günl, Markus; Jablonowski, Nicolai David; O'Neill, Malcolm; Grün, Katharina Susanne; Grande, Philipp Michael; Leitner, Walter; Schurr, Ulrich; Usadel, Björn; Klose, Holger

    2017-07-15

    The perennial plant Sida hermaphrodita (Sida) is attracting attention as potential energy crop. Here, the first detailed view on non-cellulosic Sida cell wall polysaccharide composition, structure and architecture is given. Cell walls were prepared from Sida stems and sequentially extracted with aqueous buffers and alkali. The structures of the quantitatively predominant polysaccharides present in each fraction were determined by biochemical characterization, glycome profiling and mass spectrometry. The amounts of glucose released by Accellerase-1500(®) treatment of the cell wall and the cell wall residue remaining after each extraction were used to assess the roles of pectin and hemicellulose in the recalcitrance of Sida biomass. 4-O-Methyl glucuronoxylan with a low proportion of side substitutions was identified as the major non-cellulosic glycan component of Sida stem cell walls. Pectic polysaccharides and xylans were found to be associated with lignin, suggesting that these polysaccharides have roles in Sida cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on near-wall turbulence structures with local Reynolds stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLI; ChunxiaoXU; GuixiangCUI; ZhaoshunZHANG

    2000-01-01

    The direct-numerical-simulated channel turbulence is analyzed with twodimensional wavelet transform. Considering the relation between turbulence coherent structure and Reynolds stress in near wall region, the local Reynolds stress (LRS) is defined.A new method for extracting coherent signals from turbulence based on the LRS is developed. Velocity fluctuations are decomposed to coherent signals and background signals. It is found that the scaling exponents of coherent signals have a considerable deviation from the Kolmogorov scaling law q/3 (K41 theory), while that, of background signals is very close to q/3. It is confirmed that coherent signals are mainly responsible for the anomalous scalings.Locally characterized by the positive peaks of LRS, the typical structures in near wall regionare obtained by conditional statistical averaging. It is shown that the local character of near-wall turbulence structures can be effectively described with LRS.

  12. Polydopamine microcapsules with different wall structures prepared by a template-mediated method for enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiafu; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Zhongyi; Zhang, Wenyan; Song, Xiaokai; Ai, Qinghong; Tian, Chunyong

    2013-10-23

    Microcapsules with diverse wall structures may exhibit different performance in specific applications. In the present study, three kinds of mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) microcapsules with different wall structures have been prepared by a template-mediated method. More specifically, three types of CaCO3 microspheres (poly(allylamine hydrochloride), (PAH)-doped CaCO3; pure-CaCO3; and poly(styrene sulfonate sodium), (PSS)-doped CaCO3) were synthesized as sacrificial templates, which were then treated by dopamine to obtain the corresponding PDA-CaCO3 microspheres. Through treating these microspheres with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA-2Na) to remove CaCO3, three types of PDA microcapsules were acquired: that was (1) PAH-PDA microcapsule with a thick (∼600 nm) and highly porous capsule wall composed of interconnected networks, (2) pure-PDA microcapsule with a thick (∼600 nm) and less porous capsule wall, (3) PSS-PDA microcapsule with a thin (∼70 nm) and dense capsule wall. Several characterizations confirmed that a higher degree in porosity and interconnectivity of the capsule wall would lead to a higher mass transfer coefficient. When serving as the carrier for catalase (CAT) immobilization, these enzyme-encapsulated PDA microcapsules showed distinct structure-related activity and stability. In particular, PAH-PDA microcapsules with a wall of highly interconnected networks displayed several significant advantages, including increases in enzyme encapsulation efficiency and enzyme activity/stability and a decrease in enzyme leaching in comparison with other two types of PDA microcapsules. Besides, this hierarchically structured PAH-PDA microcapsule may find other promising applications in biocatalysis, biosensors, drug delivery, etc.

  13. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with profile-steel bearing and cylindrical-Wall bearing have similar values in Mises stress, but the steel silo with profile-steel bearing has a smaller radial displacement and a better capability of buckling resistance. Meanwhile, the total steel volumes reduced 8.0% comparing to the steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing. Therefore, steel soil with profile-steel bearing not only has a less steel volumes but also a good stability.

  14. Isogeometric analysis for thin-walled composite structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual ideas behind isogeometric analysis (IGA) are aimed at unifying computer aided design (CAD) and finite element analysis (FEA). Isogeometric analysis employs the non-uniform rational B-spline functions (NURBS) used for the geometric description of a structure to approximate its physical

  15. Increasing antiviral activity of surfactant protein d trimers by introducing residues from bovine serum collectins: dissociation of mannan-binding and antiviral activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, K L; White, M R; Smith, K;

    2010-01-01

    Collectins contribute to host defence through interactions with glycoconjugates on pathogen surfaces. We have prepared recombinant trimeric neck and carbohydrate recognition domains (NCRD) of collectins, and we now show that the NCRD of bovine conglutinin and CL-46 (like that of CL-43) have greater....... These findings indicate differences in the recognition of glycan structures of mannan and IAV by the NCRD and emphasize the importance of the flanking sequences in determining the differing interactions of human SP-D and bovine serum collectins with mannose-rich glycoconjugates on IAV and other pathogens...

  16. Mannan-binding lectin in cerebrospinal fluid: a leptomeningeal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiber Hansotto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannan-binding lectin (MBL, a protein of the innate immune response is attracting increasing clinical interest, in particularly in relation to its deficiency. Due to its involvement in brain diseases, identifying the source of MBL in CSF is important. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF can provide data that discriminates between blood-, brain-, and leptomeninges-derived proteins. To detect the source of MBL in CSF we need to consider three variables: the molecular size-dependent concentration gradient between CSF and blood, the variation in transfer between blood and CSF, and the CSF MBL concentration correlation with the albumin CSF/serum quotient (QAlb, i.e., with CSF flow rate. Methods MBL was assayed in samples of CSF and serum with an ELISA, coated with anti MBL antibodies. Routine parameters such as albumin-, immunoglobulin- CSF/serum quotients, oligoclonal IgG and cell count were used to characterize the patient groups. Groups comprised firstly, control patients without organic brain disease with normal CSF and normal barrier function and secondly, patients without inflammatory diseases but with increased QAlb, i.e. with a blood CSF barrier dysfunction. Results MBL concentration in CSF was at least five-fold higher than expected for a molecular-size-dependent passage from blood. Secondly, in a QIgM/QAlb quotient diagram (Reibergram 9/13 cases showed an intrathecal fraction in some cases over 80% of total CSF MBL concentration 3 The smaller inter-individual variation of MBL concentrations in CSF of the control group (CV = 66% compared to the MBL concentrations in serum (CV = 146% indicate an independent source of MBL in CSF. 4 The absolute MBL concentration in CSF increases with increasing QAlb. Among brain-derived proteins in CSF only the leptomeningeal proteins showed a (linear increase with decreasing CSF flow rate, neuronal and glial proteins are invariant to changes of QAlb. Conclusions MBL in CSF is

  17. Graft Copolymerization of Acrylic Acid onto Fungal Cell Wall Structural Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Acrylic acid was graft-copolymerized onto Rhi. oryzae's cell wall structural polysacchaxide directly and efficiently in aqueous solution with ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The maximal grafting percentage of 135.5% was obtained under the condition of [Ce4+]=5mmol.L-1, [AA]=1mol.L-1, T=60°C and t=3h. Graft copolymerization was suggested to proceed through free radical reaction mechanism. Grafting occurred primarily on chitosan. Acrylic acid was also attempted to be grafted onto Asp. niger cell wall structural polysaccharide, and only 44.2% of grafting percentage was resulted.

  18. Influence of major surgery on the mannan-binding lectin pathway of innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Christensen, I J; Basse, L;

    2006-01-01

    The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2, and for compari...

  19. Preoperative mannan-binding lectin pathway and prognosis in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of innate immunity is associated with increased susceptibility to infections. In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), postoperative infection is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1...

  20. Mannan-binding lectin polymorphisms and serum levels in patients with endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Christina; Steffensen, Rudi; Nielsen, Hans J;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible association between endometriosis and low levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL). STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study of blood samples from 100 patients with endometriosis compared with results from a group of 350 blood donors. RESULT: The frequency of MBL levels...... endometriosis and low levels of MBL....

  1. Oligomerization of Mannan-binding Lectin Dictates Binding Properties and Complement Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, T R; Jensen, L; Hansen, A; Dani, R; Jensenius, J C; Dobó, J; Gál, P; Thiel, S

    2016-07-01

    The complement system is a part of the innate immune system and is involved in recognition and clearance of pathogens and altered-self structures. The lectin pathway of the complement system is initiated when soluble pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with collagen-like regions bind to foreign or altered self-surfaces. Associated with the collagen-like stems of these PRMs are three mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and two MBL-associated proteins (MAps). The most studied of the PRMs, MBL, is present in serum mainly as trimeric and tetrameric oligomers of the structural subunit. We hypothesized that oligomerization of MBL may influence both the potential to bind to micro organisms and the interaction with the MASPs and MAps, thus influencing the ability to initiate complement activation. When testing binding at 37 °C, we found higher binding of tetrameric MBL to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than trimeric and dimeric MBL. In serum, we found that tetrameric MBL was the main oligomeric form present in complexes with the MASPs and MAp44. Such preference was confirmed using purified forms of recombinant MBL (rMBL) oligomers, where tetrameric rMBL interacted stronger with all of the MASPs and MAp44, compared to trimeric MBL. As a direct consequence of the weaker interaction with the MASPs, we found that trimeric rMBL was inferior to tetrameric rMBL in activating the complement system. Our data suggest that the oligomeric state of MBL is crucial both for the binding properties and the effector function of MBL.

  2. Analytical and Numerical Evaluation of Limit States of MSE Wall Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simplification of the design of Mechanically Stabilized Earth wall structures (MSE wall or MSEW is now an important factor that helps us not only to save a time and costs, but also to achieve the desired results more reliably. It is quite common way in practice, that the designer of a section of motorway or railway line gives order for design to a supplier of geosynthetics materials. However, supplier company has experience and skills, but a general designer does not review the safety level of design and its efficiency, and is simply incorporating into the overall design of the construction project. Actually, large number of analytical computational methods for analysis and design of MSE walls or similar structures are known. The problem of these analytical methods is the verification of deformations and global stability of structure. The article aims to clarify two methods of calculating the internal stability of MSE wall and their comparison with FEM numerical model. Comparison of design approaches allows us to draft an effective retaining wall and tells us about the appropriateness of using a reinforcing element.

  3. Analytical and Numerical Evaluation of Limit States of MSE Wall Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusa, Marián; Vlček, Jozef; Holičková, Martina; Kais, Ladislav

    2016-12-01

    Simplification of the design of Mechanically Stabilized Earth wall structures (MSE wall or MSEW) is now an important factor that helps us not only to save a time and costs, but also to achieve the desired results more reliably. It is quite common way in practice, that the designer of a section of motorway or railway line gives order for design to a supplier of geosynthetics materials. However, supplier company has experience and skills, but a general designer does not review the safety level of design and its efficiency, and is simply incorporating into the overall design of the construction project. Actually, large number of analytical computational methods for analysis and design of MSE walls or similar structures are known. The problem of these analytical methods is the verification of deformations and global stability of structure. The article aims to clarify two methods of calculating the internal stability of MSE wall and their comparison with FEM numerical model. Comparison of design approaches allows us to draft an effective retaining wall and tells us about the appropriateness of using a reinforcing element.

  4. Structure of Plant Cell Walls: XI. GLUCURONOARABINOXYLAN, A SECOND HEMICELLULOSE IN THE PRIMARY CELL WALLS OF SUSPENSION-CULTURED SYCAMORE CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvill, J E; McNeil, M; Darvill, A G; Albersheim, P

    1980-12-01

    The isolation, purification, and partial characterization of a glucuronoarabinoxylan, a previously unobserved component of the primary cell walls of dicotyledonous plants, are described. The glucuronoarabinoxylan constitutes approximately 5% of the primary walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. This glucuronoarabinoxylan possesses many of the structural characteristics of analogous polysaccharides that have been isolated from the primary and secondary cell walls of monocots as well as from the secondary cell walls of dicots. The glucuronoarabinoxylan of primary dicot cell walls has a linear beta-1,4-linked d-xylopyranosyl backbone with both neutral and acidic sidechains attached at intervals along its length. The acidic sidechains are terminated with glucuronosyl or 4-O-methyl glucuronosyl residues, whereas the neutral sidechains are composed of arabinosyl and/or xylosyl residues.

  5. Finite-Temperature Atomic Structure of 180^o Ferroelectric Domain Walls in PbTiO3

    OpenAIRE

    Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we obtain the finite-temperature structure of 180^o domain walls in PbTiO3 using a quasi-harmonic lattice dynamics approach. We obtain the temperature dependence of the atomic structure of domain walls from 0K up to room temperature. We also show that both Pb-centered and Ti-centered 180^o domain walls are thicker at room temperature; domain wall thickness at T=300K is about three times larger than that of T=0K. Our calculations show that Ti-centered domain walls have a lower f...

  6. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Michela; Grillo, Andrea; Losurdo, Pasquale; Panizon, Emiliano; Mearelli, Filippo; Cattin, Luigi; Barazzoni, Rocco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Zanetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.

  8. STRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF PSSDB WALL PANEL WITH SQUARE OPENING AND VARIED SCREW SPACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HAWA HAMZAH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Profiled steel sheet dry boards or PSSDB system is an alternative composite construction system comprising of profiled steel sheet compositely connected to dry boards by self-tapping self-driving screws. PSSDB system was used widely as flooring system in the lightweight construction of buildings and office space in factories. Due to its superiority in the installation techniques, PSSDB system was expanded in the application as load bearing wall panel system in buildings. The PSSDB system is as an alternative construction technique on load bearing wall panel that offers cost savings synonymously with the rapid progress of science and technology which leads to the shift from traditional utilization of construction materials to newer construction techniques. A finite element analysis was carried out to determine the effect of screw spacing on the PSSDB wall panel. The spacing selected was between 100 mm to 500 mm, at an increment of 100 mm in each different model. The wall panel measured 3000 mm by 3000 mm with a 1200 mm square window opening, 78 mm thick and butt joints vertically positioned in the dry boards. This paper looks into the system as load bearing wall panels, analyzing it under axial compressive load using established Finite Element technique. The deformation profile of the PSSDB wall panel system showed a single curvature deformation profile, maximum lateral displacement at two-thirds wall panel height and critical sections at the upper corners of the square opening. The finite element analysis had provided good prediction of the structural behavior of the PSSDB wall panel system and it is concluded that the PW200 model possesses the optimum arrangement of the fixing screws used.

  9. Review of Ballistic Limit Equations for Composite Structure Walls of Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Frank K.*; Schneider, E.; Lambert, M.

    2004-08-01

    In this paper a review of existing ballistic limit equations for CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics) structure walls of satellites is given, and two new ballistic limit equations are presented. The predictive capabilities of the equations are compared to a set of experimental hypervelocity impact test data of CFRP plates and CFRP honeycomb sandwich panels (satellite structure wall) from ENVISAT, AXAF, and a generic technology program. In the literature, three ballistic limit equations for sandwich panels (SP) made from CFRP face-sheets and Al- honeycomb (H/C) core were found and analyzed (Frost's approach, Approach using Christiansen's Whipple shield Ballistic Limit Equation (BLE), and Taylor's approach). Furthermore, in this paper, a new ballistic limit equation was proposed for CFRP H/C SP (Modified ESA Triple Wall Equation) and for composite panels (plates) with and without MLI attached to the surface. The amount of impact data on CFRP structure walls of satellites found in the literature was rather scarce. The new BLE for CFRP plates makes good predictions to the available set of test data. For the BLE for CFRP H/C SP, it was found that Frost's approach and application of Christiansen's BLE to CFRP H/C SP lead to an overprediction of the ballistic limit diameters for ENVISAT structure walls and the samples of the generic technology program. Taylor's approach and the newly designed MET ballistic limit equation have both yielded good predictions for all samples except for the AXAF samples that had rather thin-walled face-sheets and a thin Al H/C core: for these samples the predictions were conservative. Thus, for use in risk analysis tools for satellites (e. g. ESA's ESABASE/DEBRIS tool or NASA's BUMPER code), it is recommended to use either the MET or Taylor equation.

  10. Seismic retroftting of RC columns with RC jackets and wing walls with different structural details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuenn-Yih; Chen, Ting-Wei; Tran, Ngoc-Cuong; Liao, Wen-I.

    2014-06-01

    An original reinforced concrete (RC) column and four strengthened specimens, two with RC jackets and two with wing walls, were tested in this study. The original column specimen was designed to comply with older (pre-1999) design standards so that the usual detailing deficiencies in existing school buildings in Taiwan could be simulated. Two different structural details were chosen to fabricate the full-scale specimens for each retrofitting technique. The study confirmed that either RC jacketing or the installation of wing walls with two different structural details can effectively improve the stiffness and strength of an existing column. RC jacketing shows a better improvement in energy dissipation and ductility when compared to the columns with wing walls installed. This is because the two RC jacketed columns experienced a flexural failure, while a shear failure was found in the two columns with the wing walls installed, and thus led to a drastic decrease of the maximum lateral strengths and ductility. Since many factors may affect the installation of a post-installed anchor, it is better to use standard hooks to replace post-installed anchors in some specific points when using RC jacketing or installing wing walls.

  11. Spiral plume structures in turbulent natural convection between two vertical walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By means of direct numerical simulation, coherent structures are investigated in turbulent natural convection between two vertical differentially heated walls. It is observed that large-scale spanwise vortices and spiral plume structures exist together in the flow. Spiral plume structures appear at the positions with relatively large helicity, large normal vorticity and high fluctuating temperature. In this note, the shape, the characteristics and formation of the spiral structures are studied and compared with those in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The conditional sampling analysis indicates the main properties of the spiral structures.

  12. Large structural, thin-wall castings made of metals subject to hot tearing, and their fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smashey, Russell W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An article, such as a gas turbine engine mixer, is made by providing a mold structure defining a thin-walled, hollow article, and a base metal that is subject to hot tear cracking when cast in a generally equiaxed polycrystalline form, such as Rene' 108 and Mar-M247. The article is fabricated by introducing the molten base metal into the mold structure, and directionally solidifying the base metal in the mold structure to form a directionally oriented structure. The directionally oriented structure may be formed of a single grain or oriented multiple grains.

  13. Structure of the cell wall of mango after application of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Josenilda M.; Villar, Heldio P.; Pimentel, Rejane M. M.

    2012-11-01

    Cells of the mesocarp of mango cultivar Tommy Atkins were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope—TEM to evaluate the effects of doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy applied immediately after the fruit and after storage for twenty days at a temperature of 12 °C followed by 5 days of simulated marketing at a temperature of 21 °C. No alteration was found in the structure of the cell wall, middle lamella, and plasma membrane of fruits when analyzed immediately after application of doses. The mesocarp cell structure of the cell wall, middle lamella, and the plasma membrane did however undergo changes after storage. Fruits that received a dose of 0.5 kGy displayed slight changes in cell wall structure and slight disintegration of the middle lamella. Fruits that received a dose of 1.0 kGy displayed more severe changes in the structure of the cell wall, greater middle lamella degradation, and displacement of the plasma membrane.

  14. Quantum Oscillations of the Nanoscale Structural Inhomogeneities of the Domain Wall in Magnetic Bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, A B; Barabash, M Yu

    2015-12-01

    It is shown that at low temperatures, quantum oscillations of nanoscale structural inhomogeneities (the vertical Bloch line and the Bloch point) occur in the domain walls of cylindrical magnetic domains formed in a uniaxial magnetic film with strong magnetic anisotropy. The conditions for the excitation of these oscillations are determined.

  15. Morphometry of the small intestine from broilers treated with diets added of containing mannan oligosaccharides and enzymatic complex additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antônio Gravena

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS and enzymatic complex (EC on the morphometry and absorption surface of the small intestine wall in broilers were studied. Seven hundred and fifty birds were used in a completely randomized design and 2 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement – two MOS levels (0 and 0.1% from 1 to 21 days and 0.05% from 22 to 42 days of age, two EC levels (0 and 0.05% and a positive control diet with antibiotics – totaling five treatments with five replicates. Positive control x factorial interaction was significant for the longitudinal muscular thickness and for the absorption surface in the duodenum and ileum, being higher in birds subjected to MOS treatment. MOS x EC interaction was significant for the duodenal mucosa at 21 days and for the jejunum and ileum at 42 days, being lower in birds treated with no additives. The same effect was observed for the duodenal absorption surface at 21 days, and for the ileum at 42 days. MOS inclusion increased (P<0.05, and EC inclusion reduced (P<0.02, the longitudinal muscular thickness of the duodenum at 42 days. MOS addition increased the longitudinal muscular thickness and the mucosa, and this was reflected in the form of a more extensive intestinal absorption surface.

  16. Embedded Acoustic Black Holes for semi-passive broadband vibration attenuation in thin-walled structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuxian; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of structure-embedded Acoustic Black Holes (ABH) to design thin-walled structural components exhibiting broadband vibration attenuation characteristics. The ABH is a geometric taper with a power-law profile fully integrated into the structural component and able to induce a smooth and progressive decrease of both the velocity and the wavelength of flexural waves. Previous studies have shown these characteristics to be critical to enable highly efficient vibration attenuation systems. The performance of ABH thin-walled structures is numerically and experimentally evaluated under both transient and steady state excitation conditions. Both numerical and experimental results suggest that the proposed approach enables highly efficient and broadband vibration attenuation performance.

  17. Experimental determination of excitonic band structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes using circular dichroism spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Tanaka, Takeshi; Yomogida, Yohei; Sato, Naomichi; Saito, Riichiro; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2016-10-05

    Experimental band structure analyses of single-walled carbon nanotubes have not yet been reported, to the best of our knowledge, except for a limited number of reports using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Here we demonstrate the experimental determination of the excitonic band structures of single-chirality single-walled carbon nanotubes using their circular dichroism spectra. In this analysis, we use gel column chromatography combining overloading selective adsorption with stepwise elution to separate 12 different single-chirality enantiomers. Our samples show higher circular dichroism intensities than the highest values reported in previous works, indicating their high enantiomeric purity. Excitonic band structure analysis is performed by assigning all observed Eii and Eij optical transitions in the circular dichroism spectra. The results reproduce the asymmetric structures of the valence and conduction bands predicted by density functional theory. Finally, we demonstrate that an extended empirical formula can estimate Eij optical transition energies for any (n,m) species.

  18. Experimental determination of excitonic band structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes using circular dichroism spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Tanaka, Takeshi; Yomogida, Yohei; Sato, Naomichi; Saito, Riichiro; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2016-10-01

    Experimental band structure analyses of single-walled carbon nanotubes have not yet been reported, to the best of our knowledge, except for a limited number of reports using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Here we demonstrate the experimental determination of the excitonic band structures of single-chirality single-walled carbon nanotubes using their circular dichroism spectra. In this analysis, we use gel column chromatography combining overloading selective adsorption with stepwise elution to separate 12 different single-chirality enantiomers. Our samples show higher circular dichroism intensities than the highest values reported in previous works, indicating their high enantiomeric purity. Excitonic band structure analysis is performed by assigning all observed Eii and Eij optical transitions in the circular dichroism spectra. The results reproduce the asymmetric structures of the valence and conduction bands predicted by density functional theory. Finally, we demonstrate that an extended empirical formula can estimate Eij optical transition energies for any (n,m) species.

  19. Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wall-modifying enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2015-11-25

    The advent of user-friendly instruments for measuring force/deflection curves of plant surfaces at high spatial resolution has resulted in a recent outpouring of reports of the ‘Young's modulus’ of plant cell walls. The stimulus for these mechanical measurements comes from biomechanical models of morphogenesis of meristems and other tissues, as well as single cells, in which cell wall stress feeds back to regulate microtubule organization, auxin transport, cellulose deposition, and future growth directionality. In this article I review the differences between elastic modulus and wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. Some of the inherent complexities, assumptions, and potential pitfalls in the interpretation of indentation force/deflection curves are discussed. Reported values of elastic moduli from surface indentation measurements appear to be 10- to >1000-fold smaller than realistic tensile elastic moduli in the plane of plant cell walls. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed, but further work is needed to make sense of the huge range in reported values. The significance of wall stress relaxation for growth is reviewed and connected to recent advances and remaining enigmas in our concepts of how cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins are assembled to make an extensible cell wall. A comparison of the loosening action of α-expansin and Cel12A endoglucanase is used to illustrate two different ways in which cell walls may be made more extensible and the divergent effects on wall mechanics.

  20. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-11-03

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104.

  1. Right ventricular wall abscess in structurally normal heart after leg osteomyelitis: First case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Pasarad, Ashwini Kumar; Kishore, Kolkebaile Sadanand; Maheshwarappa, Nandakumar Neralakere

    2016-09-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with fever and acute dyspnea for 4 days. She had suffered an injury to the left lower leg 3 weeks earlier, with abscess formation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed osteomyelitis of the lower tibia. Echocardiography showed a mass in the right ventricular wall. She underwent concomitant heart surgery for removal of the right ventricular mass and limb arthrotomy. We believe this is a first reported case in which a ventricular wall abscess developed in a structurally normal heart following leg osteomyelitis.

  2. Simulations of super-structure domain walls in two dimensional assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordanovic, Jelena; Beleggia, Marco; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    taking the role of the atomic spins. The coupling is, however, different. The superspins interact only by dipolar interactions as exchange coupling between individual nanoparticles may be neglected due to interparticle spacing. We observe that it is energetically favorable to introduce domain walls...... oriented along the long dimension of nanoparticle assemblies rather than along the short dimension. This is unlike what is typically observed in continuous magnetic materials, where the exchange interaction introduces an energetic cost proportional to the area of the domain walls. Structural disorder...

  3. Control of Dynamic Response of Thin-Walled Composite Beams using Structural Tailoring and Piezoelectric Actuation

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Sungsoo

    1997-01-01

    A dual approach integrating structural tailoring and adaptive materials technology and designed to control the dynamic response of cantilever beams subjected to external excitations is addressed. The cantilevered structure is modeled as a thin-walled beam of arbitrary cross-section and incorporates a number of non-classical effects such as transverse shear, warping restraint, anisotropy of constituent materials and heterogeneity of the construction. Whereas structura...

  4. The Influence of Infill Wall Topology and Seismic Characteristics on the Response and Damage Distribution in Frame Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Nanos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the effects of infill wall existence and arrangement in the seismic response of frame structures utilising the global structural damage index after Park/Ang (GDIPA and the maximum interstorey drift ratio (MISDR to express structural seismic response. Five different infill wall topologies of a 10-storey frame structure have been selected and analysed presenting an improved damage distribution model for infill wall bearing frames, hence promoting the use of nonstructural elements as a means of improving frame structural seismic behaviour and highlighting important aspects of structural response, demonstrating the suitability of such element implementation beyond their intended architectural scope.

  5. Regulation of genes involved in cell wall synthesis and structure during Ustilago maydis dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Briones, Mariana; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2013-02-01

    The cell wall is the structure that provides the shape to fungal cells and protects them from the difference in osmotic pressure existing between the cytosol and the external medium. Accordingly, changes in structure and composition of the fungal wall must occur during cell differentiation, including the dimorphic transition of fungi. We analyzed, by use of microarrays, the transcriptional regulation of the 639 genes identified to be involved in cell wall synthesis and structure plus the secretome of the Basidiomycota species Ustilago maydis during its dimorphic transition induced by a change in pH. Of these, 189 were differentially expressed during the process, and using as control two monomorphic mutants, one yeast like and the other mycelium constitutive, 66 genes specific of dimorphism were identified. Most of these genes were up-regulated in the mycelial phase. These included CHS genes, genes involved in β-1,6-glucan synthesis, N-glycosylation, and proteins containing a residue of glycosylphosphatidylinositol, and a number of genes from the secretome. The possible significance of these data on cell wall plasticity is discussed.

  6. Structures of xyloglucans in primary cell walls of gymnosperms, monilophytes (ferns sensu lato) and lycophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yves S Y; Harris, Philip J

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of vascular plants (tracheophytes) other than angiosperms. Xyloglucan structures were examined in 13 species of gymnosperms, 13 species of monilophytes (ferns sensu lato), and two species of lycophytes. Wall preparations were obtained, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analysed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles from the gymnosperm walls were similar to those from the walls of most eudicotyledons and non-commelinid monocotyledons, indicating that the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, containing the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles for six of the monilophyte species were similar to those of the gymnosperms, indicating they were also fucogalactoxyloglucans. Phylogenetically, these monilophyte species were from both basal and more derived orders. However, the profiles for the other monilophyte species showed various significant differences, including additional oligosaccharides. In three of the species, these additional oligosaccharides contained arabinosyl residues which were most abundant in the profile of Equisetum hyemale. The two species of lycophytes examined, Selaginella kraussiana and Lycopodium cernuum, had quite different xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles, but neither were fucogalactoxyloglucans. The S. kraussiana profile had abundant oligosaccharides containing arabinosyl residues. The L. cernuum profile indicated the xyloglucan had a very complex structure.

  7. 8th Annual Glycoscience Symposium: Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadi, Paratoo [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) of the University of Georgia holds a symposium yearly that highlights a broad range of carbohydrate research topics. The 8th Annual Georgia Glycoscience Symposium entitled “Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly” was held on April 7, 2014 at the CCRC. The focus of symposium was on the role of glycans in plant cell wall structure and synthesis. The goal was to have world leaders in conjunction with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and research scientists to propose the newest plant cell wall models. The symposium program closely followed the DOE’s mission and was specifically designed to highlight chemical and biochemical structures and processes important for the formation and modification of renewable plant cell walls which serve as the basis for biomaterial and biofuels. The symposium was attended by both senior investigators in the field as well as students including a total attendance of 103, which included 80 faculty/research scientists, 11 graduate students and 12 Postdoctoral students.

  8. Smooth- and rough-wall boundary layer structure from high spatial range particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, D. T.; Morrill-Winter, C.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.; Schultz, M. P.; Klewicki, J. C.

    2016-10-01

    Two particle image velocimetry arrangements are used to make true spatial comparisons between smooth- and rough-wall boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers across a very wide range of streamwise scales. Together, the arrangements resolve scales ranging from motions on the order of the Kolmogorov microscale to those longer than twice the boundary layer thickness. The rough-wall experiments were obtained above a continuous sandpaper sheet, identical to that used by Squire et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 795, 210 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2016.196], and cover a range of friction and equivalent sand-grain roughness Reynolds numbers (12 000 ≲δ+≲ 18000, 62 ≲ks+≲104 ). The smooth-wall experiments comprise new and previously published data spanning 6500 ≲δ+≲17 000 . Flow statistics from all experiments show similar Reynolds number trends and behaviors to recent, well-resolved hot-wire anemometry measurements above the same rough surface. Comparisons, at matched δ+, between smooth- and rough-wall two-point correlation maps and two-point magnitude-squared coherence maps demonstrate that spatially the outer region of the boundary layer is the same between the two flows. This is apparently true even at wall-normal locations where the total (inner-normalized) energy differs between the smooth and rough wall. Generally, the present results provide strong support for Townsend's [The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1956), Vol. 1] wall-similarity hypothesis in high Reynolds number fully rough boundary layer flows.

  9. Color structured light system of chest wall motion measurement for respiratory volume evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huijun; Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jue; Que, Chengli; Wang, Guangfa; Fang, Jing

    2010-01-01

    We present a structured light system to dynamically measure human chest wall motion for respiratory volume estimation. Based on a projection of an encoded color pattern and a few active markers attached to the trunk, respiratory volumes are obtained by evaluating the 3-D topographic changes of the chest wall in an anatomically consistent measuring region during respiration. Three measuring setups are established: a single-sided illuminating-recording setup for standing posture, an inclined single-sided setup for supine posture, and a double-sided setup for standing posture. Results are compared with the pneumotachography and show good agreement in volume estimations [correlation coefficient: R>0.99 (Pevaluation with high accuracy, but also regional pulmonary function assessment in different chest wall behaviors, with the advantage of whole-field measurement.

  10. A XANES characterization of structural defects in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Jun [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Song Li [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yan Dongwei [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) and National Center for NanoScience and Technology, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: wuzy@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Wang Chunru [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xie Sishen [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Qian Haijie [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2006-11-15

    Structural defects play an important role in the physics of carbon nanototube. However, very few investigations of the structural changes induced by purifying process and other treatments have been performed by means of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. We used XANES spectroscopy to detect the presence of defects induced in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by nitric acid treated processes and by an Ar{sup +} ion bombardment. The relationship between the features in XANES spectrum and the structural defects has been discussed systematically. Data also addresses evidence of oxygen effect induced by aging on nanotubes.

  11. Colloidal membranes of hard rods: unified theory of free edge structure and twist walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, C Nadir; Meyer, Robert B

    2014-07-14

    Monodisperse suspensions of rod like chiral fd viruses are condensed into a rod-length thick colloidal monolayers of aligned rods by depletion forces. Twist deformations of the molecules are expelled to the monolayer edge as in a chiral smectic A liquid crystal, and a cholesteric band forms at the edge. Coalescence of two such isolated membranes results in a twist wall sandwiched between two regions of aligned rods, dubbed π-walls. By modeling the membrane as a binary fluid of coexisting cholesteric and chiral smectic A liquid-crystalline regions, we develop a unified theory of the π-walls and the monolayer edge. The mean-field analysis of our model yields the molecular tilt profiles, the local thickness change, and the crossover from smectic to cholesteric behavior at the monolayer edge and across the π-wall. Furthermore, we calculate the line tension associated with the formation of these interfaces. Our model offers insights regarding the stability and the detailed structure of the π-wall and the monolayer edge.

  12. Structural studies of complex carbohydrates of plant cell walls. Progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains the abstracts of fourteen papers published, in press, or in preparation reporting on research activities to investigate the structure, as well as the function of cell walls in plants. This document also contains research on methods to determine the structure of complex carbohydrates of the cell walls.

  13. Energy transmission in a mechanically-linked double-wall structure coupled to an acoustic enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Li, Y. Y.; Gao, J. X.

    2005-05-01

    The energy transmission in a mechanically linked double-wall structure into an acoustic enclosure is studied in this paper. Based on a fully coupled vibro-acoustic formulation, focus is put on investigating the effect of the air gap and mechanical links between the two panels on the energy transmission and noise insulation properties of such structures. An approximate formula reflecting the gap effect on the lower-order coupled frequencies of the system is proposed. A criterion, based on the ratio between the aerostatic stiffness of the gap cavity and the stiffness of the link, is proposed to predict the dominant transmitting path, with a view to provide guidelines for the design of appropriate control strategies. Numerical results reveal the existence of three distinct zones, within which energy transmission takes place following different mechanisms and transmitting paths. Corresponding effects on noise insulation properties of the double-wall structure are also investigated. .

  14. Evolution and dynamics of shear-layer structures in near-wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Arne V.; Alfredsson, P. H.; Kim, John

    1991-01-01

    Near-wall flow structures in turbulent shear flows are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the study of their space-time evolution and connection to turbulence production. The results are obtained from investigation of a database generated from direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow at a Reynolds number of 180 based on half-channel width and friction velocity. New light is shed on problems associated with conditional sampling techniques, together with methods to improve these techniques, for use both in physical and numerical experiments. The results clearly indicate that earlier conceptual models of the processes associated with near-wall turbulence production, based on flow visualization and probe measurements need to be modified. For instance, the development of asymmetry in the spanwise direction seems to be an important element in the evolution of near-wall structures in general, and for shear layers in particular. The inhibition of spanwise motion of the near-wall streaky pattern may be the primary reason for the ability of small longitudinal riblets to reduce turbulent skin friction below the value for a flat surface.

  15. Dynamic response of thin-walled structures by variable kinematic one-dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, E.; Varello, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper investigates the accuracy capabilities of using variable kinematic modeling in compact and thin-walled beam-like structures with dynamic loadings. Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF) is employed to introduce refined one-dimensional (1D) models with a variable order of expansion for the displacement unknowns over the beam cross-section. Classical Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories are obtained as particular cases of these variable kinematic models while a higher order expansion permits the detection of in-plane cross-section deformation, since it leads to shell-like solutions. Finite element (FE) method is used to provide numerical results and the Newmark method is implemented as a time integration scheme. Some assessments with closed form solutions are discussed and comparisons with shell-type results obtained with commercial FE software are made. Further analyses address both compact and thin-walled cross-sections. In particular, the case of a deformable thin-walled cylinder loaded by time-dependent internal forces is discussed. The results clearly show that finite elements which are formulated in the CUF framework do not introduce additional numerical problems with respect to classical beam theories. Comparisons with elasticity solutions prove that the present 1D CUF model offers an accuracy in analyzing thin-walled structures which is typical of shell or three-dimensional models with a remarkable reduction in the computational cost required.

  16. Vibro-acoustic modelling of aircraft double-walls with structural links using Statistical Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolina, Bruno L.

    The prediction of aircraft interior noise involves the vibroacoustic modelling of the fuselage with noise control treatments. This structure is composed of a stiffened metallic or composite panel, lined with a thermal and acoustic insulation layer (glass wool), and structurally connected via vibration isolators to a commercial lining panel (trim). The goal of this work aims at tailoring the noise control treatments taking design constraints such as weight and space optimization into account. For this purpose, a representative aircraft double-wall is modelled using the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method. Laboratory excitations such as diffuse acoustic field and point force are addressed and trends are derived for applications under in-flight conditions, considering turbulent boundary layer excitation. The effect of the porous layer compression is firstly addressed. In aeronautical applications, compression can result from the installation of equipment and cables. It is studied analytically and experimentally, using a single panel and a fibrous uniformly compressed over 100% of its surface. When compression increases, a degradation of the transmission loss up to 5 dB for a 50% compression of the porous thickness is observed mainly in the mid-frequency range (around 800 Hz). However, for realistic cases, the effect should be reduced since the compression rate is lower and compression occurs locally. Then the transmission through structural connections between panels is addressed using a four-pole approach that links the force-velocity pair at each side of the connection. The modelling integrates experimental dynamic stiffness of isolators, derived using an adapted test rig. The structural transmission is then experimentally validated and included in the double-wall SEA model as an equivalent coupling loss factor (CLF) between panels. The tested structures being flat, only axial transmission is addressed. Finally, the dominant sound transmission paths are

  17. BiFeO3 domain wall energies and structures: a combined experimental and density functional theory+U study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Nelson, Chris; Melville, Alexander; Winchester, Benjamin; Shang, Shunli; Liu, Zi-Kui; Schlom, Darrell G; Pan, Xiaoqing; Chen, Long-Qing

    2013-06-28

    We determined the atomic structures and energies of 109°, 180°, and 71° domain walls in BiFeO3, combining density functional theory+U calculations and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy images. We find a substantial Bi sublattice shift and a rather uniform Fe sublattice across the walls. The calculated wall energies (γ) follow the sequence γ109<γ180<γ71 for the 109°, 180°, and 71° walls. We attribute the high 71° wall energy to an opposite tilting rotation of the oxygen octahedra and the low 109° wall energy to the opposite twisting rotation of the oxygen octahedra across the domain walls.

  18. Pebble bed structures in the vicinity of concave and convex walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Joerg, E-mail: reimann-langhans@web.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brun, Emmanuel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Garching (Germany); Ferrero, Claudio [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Vicente, Jérôme [Polytech Marseille, Marseille (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Detailed tomography experiments were performed to study the packing structure close to concave and convex walls. • A model for arbitrary container geometries is proposed to predict the inner packing factor based on the known total packing factor. • The results are important for the design of ceramic breeder blankets. • The results are relevant for models describing the thermo-mechanical interaction of pebble beds with the blanket structure. - Abstract: Computed tomography experiments were performed with mostly spherical particles in containers with concave, plane and convex walls. Regular pebble packings exist also close to convex cylindrical walls even if the cylinder-to-pebble diameter ratio is about 1, characteristic of thermocouples within the pebble bed. A model for arbitrary container shapes is proposed which predicts the inner packing factor based on the known total packing factor. With increasing vibration efficiency the total packing factor rises because the zones with structured packing increase. Depending on container dimensions, a structured packing can occur in the total pebble bed. Large packing factors are desirable, however, these pebble beds can probably no longer be considered as isotropic with respect to thermo-mechanic properties.

  19. Structural proteins of the primary cell wall: extraction, purification, and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Derek T A; Tan, Li; Kieliszewski, Marcia J

    2011-01-01

    Structural proteins of the primary cell wall present unusual but interesting problems for structural biologists in particular and plant biologists in general. As structure is the key to function; then the biochemical isolation of these glycoproteins for further study is paramount. Here, we detail the "classical" method for isolating soluble extensin monomers by elution of monomeric precursors to network extensin from tissue cultures. We also outline an additional approach involving genetic engineering that can potentially yield the complete genomic range of extensins and other hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGPs) currently underutilized for biotechnology.

  20. Micromagnetic structure of the domain wall with Bloch lines in an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borich, M. A.; Tankeev, A. P.; Smagin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The micromagnetic structure of the domain wall (DW) with periodically distributed horizontal Bloch lines in a ferromagnetic film in an external electric field has been studied. The effect of the electric field on the internal DW micromagnetic structure is caused by inhomogeneous magnetoelectric coupling. Possible scenarios of the DW internal structure transformations implemented with varying the electric fields strength have been analyzed in detail. For each scenario, static characteristics of the system, such as the energy, DW profile, DW effective thickness, and electric polarization have been calculated.

  1. Cell wall glucomannan in Arabidopsis is synthesised by CSLA glycosyltransferases, and influences the progression of embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubet, Florence; Barton, Christopher J; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhinong; Miles, Godfrey P; Richens, Jenny; Liepman, Aaron H; Seffen, Keith; Dupree, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides that have previously been implicated as structural constituents of cell walls and as storage reserves but which may serve other functions during plant growth and development. Several members of the Arabidopsis cellulose synthase-like A (CSLA) family have previously been shown to synthesise mannan polysaccharides in vitro when heterologously expressed. It has also been found that CSLA7 is essential for embryogenesis, suggesting a role for the CSLA7 product in development. To determine whether the CSLA proteins are responsible for glucomannan synthesis in vivo, we characterised insertion mutants in each of the nine Arabidopsis CSLA genes and several double and triple mutant combinations. csla9 mutants showed substantially reduced glucomannan, and triple csla2csla3csla9 mutants lacked detectable glucomannan in stems. Nevertheless, these mutants showed no alteration in stem development or strength. Overexpression of CSLA2, CSLA7 and CSLA9 increased the glucomannan content in stems. Increased glucomannan synthesis also caused defective embryogenesis, leading to delayed development and occasional embryo death. The embryo lethality of csla7 was complemented by overexpression of CSLA9, suggesting that the glucomannan products are similar. We conclude that CSLA2, CSLA3 and CSLA9 are responsible for the synthesis of all detectable glucomannan in Arabidopsis stems, and that CSLA7 synthesises glucomannan in embryos. These results are inconsistent with a substantial role for glucomannan in wall strength in Arabidopsis stems, but indicate that glucomannan levels affect embryogenesis. Together with earlier heterologous expression studies, the glucomannan deficiency observed in csla mutant plants demonstrates that the CSLA family encodes glucomannan synthases.

  2. An assay for the mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steen Vang; Thiel, S; Jensen, L;

    2001-01-01

    The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation has been established as the third pathway of complement activation. MBL is a carbohydrate-binding serum protein, which circulates in complex with serine proteases known as mannan-binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASPs...... activation. Therefore, in a generally applicable complement activation assay specific for the MBL pathway, the activity of the classical pathway must be inhibited. This can be accomplished by exploiting the finding that high ionic strength buffers inhibit the binding of C1q to immune complexes and disrupt...... the C1 complex, whereas the carbohydrate-binding activity of MBL and the integrity of the MBL complex is maintained under hypertonic conditions. In the assay described here, the specific C4b-depositing capacity of the MBL pathway was determined by incubating serum diluted in buffer containing 1 M Na...

  3. Influence of major surgery on the mannan-binding lectin pathway of innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Basse, L.

    2006-01-01

    The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2, and for compari......The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2...... comprised 27 patients undergoing elective, open surgery for colorectal cancer, and was included in order to cover blood sampling between days 2 and 6. As expected, the surgical stress induced a marked acute phase response, as evidenced by a large increase in IL-6 (18-fold) and CRP (13-fold) levels...... cohorts (r = 0.71, P surgery influenced only marginally the two...

  4. The pattern-recognition molecule mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelgaard, Esben; Thiel, Steffen; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    The pattern-recognition molecule mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy Esben Axelgaard*; Steffen Thiel*; Jakob Appel Østergaard† and Troels Krarup Hansen† *Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Wilhelm Meyer´s Allé 4, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. †Department...... of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and The Danish Diabetes Academy, Nørrebrogade 44, build. 3, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark The complement system is part of the innate immune system and is an important part of the first line of defence against pathogens. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the pattern-recognition...... mechanisms are proposed, 1) the formation of neoepitopes for MBL pattern recognition on host cells would enable lectin pathway activation and 2) inactivation of complement regulatory proteins by glycation that may exaggerate complement attack on host cells. MBL initiates the lectin pathway through binding...

  5. Structural insight into the transglycosylation step of bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, Andrew L; de Castro, Liza H; Lim, Daniel; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2007-03-09

    Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyze the polymerization step of cell-wall biosynthesis, are membrane-bound, and are highly conserved across all bacteria. Long considered the "holy grail" of antibiotic research, they represent an essential and easily accessible drug target for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We have determined the 2.8 angstrom structure of a bifunctional cell-wall cross-linking enzyme, including its transpeptidase and GT domains, both unliganded and complexed with the substrate analog moenomycin. The peptidoglycan GTs adopt a fold distinct from those of other GT classes. The structures give insight into critical features of the catalytic mechanism and key interactions required for enzyme inhibition.

  6. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) SIMULATIONS OF DRAG REDUCTION WITH PERIODIC MICRO-STRUCTURED WALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; ZHOU Ming; WU Bo; YE Xia; CAI Lan

    2008-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics(CFD) simulations are adopted to investigate rectangular microchannel flows with various periodic micro-structured wall by introducing velocity slip boundary condition at low Reynolds number. The purpose of the current study is to numerically find out the effects of periodic micro-structured wall on the flow resistance in rectangular microchannel with the different spacings between microridges ranging from 15 to 60 μm. The simulative results indicate that pressure drop with different spacing between microridges increases linearly with flow velocity and decreases monotonically with slip velocity; Pressure drop reduction also increases with the spacing between microridges at the same condition of slip velocity and flow velocity. The results of numerical simulation are compared with theoretical predictions and experimental results in the literatures. It is found that there is qualitative agreement between them.

  7. Low field domain wall dynamics in artificial spin-ice basis structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J. [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Goolaup, S.; Lim, G. J.; Kerk, I. S.; Lew, W. S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Chang, C. H., E-mail: echchang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Roy, K. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Artificial magnetic spin-ice nanostructures provide an ideal platform for the observation of magnetic monopoles. The formation of a magnetic monopole is governed by the motion of a magnetic charge carrier via the propagation of domain walls (DWs) in a lattice. To date, most experiments have been on the static visualization of DW propagation in the lattice. In this paper, we report on the low field dynamics of DW in a unit spin-ice structure measured by magnetoresistance changes. Our results show that reversible DW propagation can be initiated within the spin-ice basis. The initial magnetization configuration of the unit structure strongly influences the direction of DW motion in the branches. Single or multiple domain wall nucleation can be induced in the respective branches of the unit spin ice by the direction of the applied field.

  8. Association of mannan-binding lectin gene polymorphisms with progression of severe lupus nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常欣蓓

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs)of the mannan-binding lectin(MBL)gene with serum levels,development,progression and prognosis of severe lupus nephritis(LN).Methods A total of 107 severe lupus nephritis patients were enrolled in the study from January 2003 to October2013.Integrated capillary electrophoresis was used to detect MBL gene polymorphism in peripheral blood

  9. Structure of Plant Cell Walls : XXVI. The Walls of Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cells Contain a Family of Rhamnogalacturonan-I-Like Pectic Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, T; Thomas, J; Darvill, A; Albersheim, P

    1989-02-01

    Considerable information has been obtained about the primary structures of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell-wall pectic polysaccharides, i.e. rhamnogalacturonan I, rhamnogalacturonan II, and homogalacturonan. However, these polysaccharides, which are solubilized from the walls by endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase, account for only about half of the pectic polysaccharides known to be present in sycamore cell walls. We now report that, after exhaustive treatment with endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase, additional pectic polysaccharides were extracted from sycamore cell walls by treatment with Na(2)CO(3) at 1 and 22 degrees C. These previously uncharacterized polysaccharides accounted for approximately 4% of the cell wall. Based on the glycosyl and glycosyl-linkage compositions and the nature of the products obtained by treating the quantitatively predominant NaCO(3)-extracted polysaccharides with lithium metal dissolved in ethylenediamine, the polysaccharides were found to strongly resemble rhamnogalacturonan I. However, unlike rhamnogalacturonan I that characteristically had equal amounts of 2- and 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues in its backbone, the polysaccharides extracted in Na(2)CO(3) at 1 degrees C had markedly disparate ratios of 2- to 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues. We concluded that polysaccharides similar to rhamnogalacturonan I but with different degrees of branching are present in the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells.

  10. Direct measurement of chiral structure and transport in single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Taoran; Lin, Letian; Qin, Lu-Chang; Washburn, Sean

    2016-11-01

    Electrical devices based on suspended multi-wall carbon nanotubes were constructed and studied. The chiral structure of each shell in a particular nanotube was determined using nanobeam electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope. The transport properties of the carbon nanotube were also measured. The nanotube device length was short enough that the transport was nearly ballistic, and multiple subbands contributed to the conductance. Thermal excitation of carriers significantly affected nanotube resistance at room temperature.

  11. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: I. The Macromolecular Components of the Walls of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells with a Detailed Analysis of the Pectic Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, K W; Keegstra, K; Bauer, W D; Albersheim, P

    1973-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers dealing with the structure of cell walls isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus). These studies have been made possible by the availability of purified hydrolytic enzymes and by recent improvements in the techniques of methylation analysis. These techniques have permitted us to identify and quantitate the macromolecular components of sycamore cell walls. These walls are composed of 10% arabinan, 2% 3,6-linked arabinogalactan, 23% cellulose, 9% oligo-arabinosides (attached to hydroxyproline), 8% 4-linked galactan, 10% hydroxyproline-rich protein, 16% rhamnogalacturonan, and 21% xyloglucan.The structures of the pectic polymers (the neutral arabinan, the neutral galactan, and the acidic rhamnogalacturonan) were obtained, in part, by methylation analysis of fragments of these polymers which were released from the sycamore walls by the action of a highly purified endopolygalacturonase. The data suggest a branched arabinan and a linear 4-linked galactan occurring as side chains on the rhamnogalacturonan. Small amounts or pieces of a xyloglucan, the wall hemicellulose, appear to be covalently linked to some of the galactan chains. Thus, the galactan appears to serve as a bridge between the xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan components of the wall.The rhamnogalacturonan consists of an alpha-(1 --> 4)-linked galacturonan chain which is interspersed with 2-linked rhamnosyl residues. The rhamnosyl residues are not randomly distributed in the chain but probably occur in units of rhamnosyl- (1 --> 4)-galacturonosyl- (1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl. This sequence appears to alternate with a homogalacturonan sequence containing approximately 8 residues of 4-linked galacturonic acid. About half of the rhamnosyl residues are branched, having a substituent attached to carbon 4. This is likely to be the site of attachment of the 4-linked galactan.The hydroxyprolyl oligo-arabinosides of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein

  12. INTERACTIVE STUDY BETWEEN IDENTICAL COHERENT STRUCTURES IN THE WALL REGION OF A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical model for identical coherent structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer was proposed, using the idea of general resonant triad of the hydrodynamic stability. The evolution of the structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer was studied by combining the compact finite differences of high numerical accuracy and the Fourier spectral hybrid method for solving the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. In this method, the third order mixed explicit-implicit scheme was applied for the time integration. The fifth-order upwind compact finite difference schemes for the nonlinear convection terms in the physical space, and the sixth-order center compact schemes for the derivatives in spectral space were introduced, respectively. The fourth-order compact schemes satisfied by the velocities and pressure in spectral space was derived. As an application, the method was implemented to the wall region of a turbulent boundary to study the evolution of identical coherent structures. It is found that the numerical results are satisfactory.

  13. Automatic analysis of image of surface structure of cell wall-deficient EVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Hu, K; Cai, N; Su, W; Xiong, H; Lou, Z; Lin, T; Hu, Y

    2001-01-01

    Some computer applications for cell characterization in medicine and biology, such as analysis of surface structure of cell wall-deficient EVC (El Tor Vibrio of Cholera), operate with cell samples taken from very small areas of interest. In order to perform texture characterization in such an application, only a few texture operators can be employed: the operators should be insensitive to noise and image distortion and be reliable in order to estimate texture quality from images. Therefore, we introduce wavelet theory and mathematical morphology to analyse the cellular surface micro-area image obtained by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). In order to describe the quality of surface structure of cell wall-deficient EVC, we propose a fully automatic computerized method. The image analysis process is carried out in two steps. In the first, we decompose the given image by dyadic wavelet transform and form an image approximation with higher resolution, by doing so, we perform edge detection of given images efficiently. In the second, we introduce many operations of mathematical morphology to obtain morphological quantitative parameters of surface structure of cell wall-deficient EVC. The obtained results prove that the method can eliminate noise, detect the edge and extract the feature parameters validly. In this work, we have built automatic analytic software named "EVC.CELL".

  14. Sensitivity to fuel diesel oil and cell wall structure of some Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Tukaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of three Scenedesmus strains exposed to aqueous fuel-oil extract (AFOE is strongly strain-dependent S. quadricauda is the most resistant, S. armatus moderately tolerant whereas the most sensitive appears to be S. microspina. The sensitivity of tested species increases parallel with decreasing of cell size and cell number in coenobium. The values of the cell surface/cell volumes ratios only partly explain the above relationships. Electron microscope investigations reveal that the sensitivity may depend on cell wall structure of the strains. Cell wall of all here investigated strains is built of two layers: the inner so-called cellulosic layer and the outer one showing a three-laminar structure (TLS. The latter contains an acetolysis-resistant biopolymer (ARB. These two layers are similar in thickness in the three strains tested, but the surface of Scenedesmus is covered with various epistructures that are characteristic of strains. Some of them as the tightly fitting warty layer of S. armatus and especially the loosely fitting reticulate layer of S. quadricauda may contribute to lower permeability of cell wall. The structure of the rosettes also appears to be correlated with the sensitivity of strains. Presence of invaginations of plasmalemma in areas under rosettes indicates their role in transport processes inside/outside the cells.

  15. Fluid-structure-interaction analysis for welded pipes with flow-accelerated corrosion wall thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L.; Ding, Y., E-mail: lan.sun@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    The flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) entrance effect results in enhanced wall thinning immediately downstream of a weld if the weld connects an upstream FAC-resistant material with a downstream less resistant material. The weld regions, especially those with local repairs, are susceptible to cracking due to the high residual stresses induced by fabrication. The combined effects of the FAC entrance effect and high stresses at a weld might compromise the structural integrity of the piping and lead to a failure. Weld degradation by FAC entrance effect has been observed at nuclear and fossil power plants. This paper describes an application using fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) modelling to study the combined effects of FAC wall thinning, weld residual stresses, and in-service loads on welded structures. Simplified cases analyzed were based on CANDU outlet feeder conditions. The analysis includes the flow and mass transfer modelling of the FAC entrance effect using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and nonlinear structural analyses of the welded structures with wall thinning and an assumed weld residual stress and strain distribution. The FSI analyses were performed using ANSYS Workbench, an integrated platform that enables the coupling of CFD and structural analysis solutions. The obtained results show that the combination of FAC, weld residual stresses, in-service loads (including the internal pressure) and (or) extreme loads could cause high stresses and affect the integrity of the welded pipes. The present work demonstrated that the FSI modelling can be used as an effective approach to assess the integrity of welded structures. (author)

  16. Direct numerical simulation of Taylor-Couette flow with grooved walls: torque scaling and flow structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of Taylor-Couette flow with grooved walls at a fixed radius ratio $\\eta=r_i/r_o=0.714$ with inner cylinder Reynolds number up to $Re_i=3.76\\times10^4$, corresponding to Taylor number up to $Ta=2.15\\times10^9$. The grooves are axisymmetric V-shaped obstacles attached to the wall with a tip angle of $90^\\circ$. Results are compared with the smooth wall case in order to investigate the effects of grooves on Taylor-Couette flow. We focus on the effective scaling laws for the torque, flow structures, and boundary layers. It is found that, when the groove height is smaller than the boundary layer thickness, the torque is the same as that of the smooth wall cases. With increasing $Ta$, the boundary layer thickness becomes smaller than the groove height. Plumes are ejected from tips of the grooves and a secondary circulation between the latter is formed. This is associated to a sharp increase of the torque and thus the effective scaling law for the torque vs. $Ta$ becomes much ...

  17. Anatomical structure and ultrastructure of the endocarp cell walls of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaa, H S; Harche, M Kaid

    2014-12-01

    The anatomical and histochemical study of young and adult endocarps of Argania spinosa (sampled from Tindouf; Algeria) shows a general structure that is similar to that of majority of stone fruits. These samples consist of tissues that contain lignified and cellulosic cell walls. The majority of the tissues are composed of sclerenchyma cells; with very thick lignified cell walls and conducting tissues. Coniferyl lignins are abundant in the majority of the lignified tissues. However, the coniferyl lignins appear at the primary xylem during lignification. Syringyl lignins are present in small quantities. The electron microscopy observation of the sclerenchyma cell walls of the young endocarp shows polylamellate strates and, cellular microfibrils in arced patterns. This architecture is observed in the cell walls of the adult endocarp only after the incubation of the tissue in methylamine. These configurations (arcs) are the result of a regular and complete rotation with a 180° variation in the microfibril angle; the complete and symmetrical arcs show a helicoidal mode of construction. The observation of the sclerenchyma cells revealed the capacity of helicoidal morphogenesis to adjust itself under the influence of topological constraints, such as the presence of a large number of pit canals, which maintain symplastic transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Feruloylated pectins from the primary cell wall: their structure and possible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, S C

    1983-03-01

    Primary cell walls from exponentially growing cell-suspension cultures of spinach contained ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid esterified with galactopyranose and arabinopyranose residues of polysaccharides. The feruloylated polysaccharides behaved in exactly the same way as total cell-wall pectin with respect to (1) extraction with chelating agents, (2) extraction by trans-elimination degradation, (3) extraction with mild acid, and (4) electrophoretic separation into acidic and neutral species. Partial digestion of cell walls with Driselase, under conditions which specifically inhibited galactanase and galactosidases yielded galactose-containing feruloyl tri- to pentasaccharides, in all of which the feruloyl group was on the non-reducing terminus. Larger feruloyl oligosaccharides were also found, some of which were acidic. Partial acid-hydrolysis of cell walls gave a homologous series of feruloyl oligosaccharides, probably with the structure Feruloyl-arabinopyranose-(arabinofuranose)n-arabinose where n=0-7. Evidence is presented that the arabinose chain was unbranched, with the feruloyl group on the nonreducing terminus. It is suggested that acidic and neutral pectins carry ferulic acid on the non-reducing termini of the neutral arabinose- and/or galactose-containing domains. The pectins carry approximately one feruloyl residue per 60 sugar residues. Possible rôles of feruloyl pectin in the regulation of cell expansion, in disease resistance, and in the initiation of lignification are discussed.

  19. Antibodies against glucan, chitin, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan as new biomarkers of Candida albicans infection that complement tests based on C. albicans mannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendid, B; Dotan, N; Nseir, S; Savaux, C; Vandewalle, P; Standaert, A; Zerimech, F; Guery, B P; Dukler, A; Colombel, J F; Poulain, D

    2008-12-01

    Antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan (ASCA) and antibodies against synthetic disaccharide fragments of glucans (ALCA) and chitin (ACCA) are biomarkers of Crohn's disease (CD). We previously showed that Candida albicans infection generates ASCA. Here, we explored ALCA and ACCA as possible biomarkers of invasive C. albicans infection (ICI). ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and Candida mannan antigen and antibody detection tests were performed on 69 sera obtained sequentially from 18 patients with ICIs proven by blood culture, 59 sera from CD patients, 47 sera from hospitalized subjects colonized by Candida species (CZ), and 131 sera from healthy controls (HC). ASCA, ALCA, and ACCA levels in CD and ICI patients were significantly different from those in CZ and HC subjects (PACCA, and Platelia Candida tests, 100% of ICIs were detected, with the kinetics of the antibody response depending on the patient during the time course of infection. A large number of sera presented with more than three positive tests. This is the first evidence that the detection of antibodies against chitin and glucans has diagnostic value in fungal infections and that these tests can complement more specific tests. Future trials are necessary to assess the value of these tests in multiparametric analysis, as well as their pathophysiological relevance.

  20. Analysis about the Influence of Clay Core Wall Structure towards the Slope Stability of High Embankment Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the main part of the anti-seepage system, core wall is a key point in the design of high em-bankment dam. The dam slope stability is a major factor for the type of core wall. But it is still unclear what effects the core wall structure might have on the slope stability. Based on practical projects of high embankment dam in Nuozhadu, Lianghekou and Shuangjiangkou, this paper analyzes safety factors and dangerous slip sur-faces of dam slopes of high embankment dams in both straight and slanting core wall structures and compares the influences of different core wall structures on the slope stability of high embankment dam through numerical calculations. The safety margin of the embankment dam of straight core wall is larger than that of slanting core wall in the operating condition of the reservoir water level’s drawdown. Compared with that of the straight core wall scheme, the position of the dangerous slip surface of the downstream dam slope is closer to the dam crest in the slanting core wall scheme.

  1. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid...... is described and provides information on the structural design with its advantages. Experimental and numerical investigations of the BFRP connecting systems were performed. The experimental program included testing of small scale specimens by applying shear (push-off) loading and semi-full scale specimens...

  2. On the vibration of double-walled carbon nanotubes using molecular structural and cylindrical shell models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.; Rouhi, S.; Aryayi, M.

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of double-walled carbon nanotubes is studied by the use of the molecular structural and cylindrical shell models. The spring elements are employed to model the van der Waals interaction. The effects of different parameters such as geometry, chirality, atomic structure and end constraint on the vibration of nanotubes are investigated. Besides, the results of two aforementioned approaches are compared. It is indicated that by increasing the nanotube side length and radius, the computationally efficient cylindrical shell model gives rational results.

  3. Reinforcement of thin-walled root canal structures for placement of esthetic dowels: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamed F; Bahannan, Salma A; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2011-01-01

    Thin-walled root canals always present a challenge to dentists to select a restorative treatment that does not further weaken the thin tooth structure. The prognosis of dowel and core restorations can be unpredictable. This clinical report describes the treatment of a patient with extensive caries extending into the root canal of an endodontically treated maxillary central incisor. The use of a flowable composite resin in combination with a quartz fiber reinforced post is described, resulting in the rehabilitation of a structurally compromised root canal with satisfactory esthetic and functional outcomes.

  4. Optimal Shakedown of the Thin-Wall Metal Structures Under Strength and Stiffness Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawdin Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical optimization problems of metal structures confined mainly with 1st class cross-sections. But in practice it is common to use the cross-sections of higher classes. In this paper, a new mathematical model for described shakedown optimization problem for metal structures, which elements are designed from 1st to 4th class cross-sections, under variable quasi-static loads is presented. The features of limited plastic redistribution of forces in the structure with thin-walled elements there are taken into account. Authors assume the elastic-plastic flexural buckling in one plane without lateral torsional buckling behavior of members. Design formulae for Methods 1 and 2 for members are analyzed. Structures stiffness constrains are also incorporated in order to satisfy the limit serviceability state requirements. With the help of mathematical programming theory and extreme principles the structure optimization algorithm is developed and justified with the numerical experiment for the metal plane frames.

  5. Lunar Return Reentry Thermal Analysis of a Generic Crew Exploration Vehicle Wall Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Tran, Van T.; Bowles, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Thermostructural analysis was performed on generic crew exploration vehicle (GCEV) heat shielded wall structures subjected to reentry heating rates based on five potential lunar return reentry trajectories. The GCEV windward outer wall is fabricated with a graphite/epoxy composite honeycomb sandwich panel and the inner wall with an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The outer wall is protected with an ablative Avcoat-5026-39H/CG thermal protection system (TPS). A virtual ablation method (a graphical approximation) developed earlier was further extended, and was used to estimate the ablation periods, ablation heat loads, and the TPS recession layer depths. It was found that up to 83 95 percent of the total reentry heat load was dissipated in the TPS ablation process, leaving a small amount (3-15 percent) of the remaining total reentry heat load to heat the virgin TPS and maintain the TPS surface at the ablation temperature, 1,200 F. The GCEV stagnation point TPS recession layer depths were estimated to be in the range of 0.280-0.910 in, and the allowable minimum stagnation point TPS thicknesses that could maintain the substructural composite sandwich wall at the limit temperature of 300 F were found to be in the range of 0.767-1.538 in. Based on results from the present analyses, the lunar return abort ballistic reentry was found to be quite attractive because it required less TPS weight than the lunar return direct, the lunar return skipping, or the low Earth orbit guided reentry, and only 11.6 percent more TPS weight than the low Earth orbit ballistic reentry that will encounter a considerable weight penalty to obtain the Earth orbit. The analysis also showed that the TPS weight required for the lunar return skipping reentry was much more than the TPS weight necessary for any of the other reentry trajectories considered.

  6. To Problem Pertaining to Calculation of Resistance to Heat Transfer in Modern Structures of Building External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nesterov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new methodology for determination of resistance to heat transfer of building external walls with the introduction of heat engineering uniformity factors obtained on the basis of calculating two- and three-dimensional temperature pattern. The methodology makes it possible to take into account influence of joints, connections with adjoining structures and jambs of external walls.

  7. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Integrated Rim Header Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRenzis, A. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Two prominent approaches within the Building America Program to construct higher R-value walls have included use of larger dimension framing and exterior rigid foam insulation. These approaches have been met with some success; however for many production builders, where the cost of changing framing systems is expensive, the changes have been slow to be realized. In addition, recent building code changes have raised some performance issues for exterior sheathing and raised heel trusses, for example, that indicates a need for continued performance testing for wall systems. The testing methods presented in this report evaluate structural rim header designs over openings up to 6 ft wide and applicable to one- and two-story homes.

  8. Structures, nanomechanics, and disintegration of single-walled GaN nanotubes: atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung; Song, Ki Oh; Choi, Won Young; Byun, Ki Ryang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Woo [Juseong College, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    We have investigated the structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of single-walled GaN nanotubes by using atomistic simulations and a Tersoff-type potential. The Tersoff potential for GaN effectively describes the properties of GaN nanotubes. The nanomechanics of GaN nanotubes under tensile and compressive loadings have also been investigated, and Young's modulus has been calculated. The caloric curves of single-walled GaN nanotubes can be divided into three regions corresponding to nanotubes, the disintegrating range, and vapor. Since the stability or the stiffness of a tube decreases with increasing curving sheet-to-tube strain energy, the disintegration temperatures of GaN nanotubes are closely related to the curving sheet-to-tube strain energy.

  9. Dynamics of propagating turbulent pipe flow structures. Part I: Effect of drag reduction by spanwise wall oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Duggleby, A; Paul, M R

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comparative analysis between turbulent pipe flow and drag reduced turbulent pipe flow by spanwise wall oscillation based upon a Karhunen-Loeve expansion are presented. The turbulent flow is generated by a direct numerical simulation at a Reynolds number Re_\\tau = 150. The spanwise wall oscillation is imposed as a velocity boundary condition with an amplitude of A^+ = 20 and a period of T^+ = 50. The flow is driven by a constant pressure gradient, resulting in a 27% mean velocity increase with wall oscillation. The peaks of the Reynolds stress and root-mean-squared velocities shift away from the wall and the Karhunen-Loeve dimension of the turbulent attractor is reduced from 2453 to 102. The coherent vorticity structures are pushed away from the wall into higher speed flow, causing an increase of their advection speed of 34% as determined by a normal speed locus. The mechanism of drag reduction by spanwise wall oscillation is discussed.

  10. Structural and Morphological Investigation for Water-Processed Graphene Oxide/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, M. R.; Ramli, M. M.; Mat Isa, S. S.; Halin, D. S. C.; Talip, L. F. A.; Mazelan, N. S.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Danial, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    New group of materials derived from hybridization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) which resulting novel three dimensional (3D) materials generates an outstanding properties compared to corresponding SWCNTs and GO/Graphene. In this paper, we describe a simple approach using water processing method to develop integrated rGO/GO-SWCNT hybrids with different hybrid ratios. The hybrid ratios were varied into three divided ratio and the results were compared between pristine SWCNTs and GO in order to investigate the structural density and morphology of these carbonaceous materials. With an optimized ratio of rGO/GO-SWCNT, the hybrid shows a well-organized hybrid film structures with less defects density sites. The optimized mixture ratio emphasized the important of both rGO and SWCNTs in the hybrid structures. Morphological structural and defects density degrees were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy.

  11. A coupled soil-fluid-structure simulation of the near-field earthquake effects on gravity type quay-walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinoddini, M.; Matin Nikoo, H.; Ahmadpour, F.

    2013-08-01

    This study focuses on non-linear seismic response of concrete gravity quay-wall structures subjected to near-fault ground motions, a subject which seems not to have received much attention in the literature. A two-dimensional coupled fluid-structure-soil finite element modelling is employed to obtain the quay-wall response. The seawater medium is represented by acoustic type, potential based fluid elements. The elasto-plastic behavior of the soil medium is idealized using Drucker-Prager yield criterion based on associated flow rule assumption. Four nodded plane strain elements are used to model the concrete wall, foundation, subsoil, backfill and seabed zones. Fluid Structure Interface (FSI) elements are considered between the seawater interfaces with the quay-wall and the seabed. Frictional contact elements are employed between the wall and soil interfaces. The numerical model is validated using field measurements available for permanent drifts in a quay-wall damaged during Kobe earthquake. Reasonable agreements are obtained between the model predictions and the field measurements. Non-linear seismic analyses of the selected quay-wall subjected to both near-fault and far-fault ground motions are performed. An incremental dynamic analysis approach (IDA) is used. In general, at least for models examined in the current study, the gravity quay-walls are found to be more vulnerable to near-field, in comparison with the corresponding far-field, earthquakes.

  12. Synthetic surgical meshes used in abdominal wall surgery: Part I-materials and structural conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todros, S; Pavan, P G; Natali, A N

    2017-04-01

    Surgical implants are commonly used in abdominal wall surgery for hernia repair. Many different prostheses are currently offered to surgeons, comprising permanent synthetic polymer meshes and biologic scaffolds. There is a wide range of synthetic meshes currently available on the market with differing chemical compositions, fiber conformations, and mesh textures. These chemical and structural characteristics determine a specific biochemical and mechanical behavior and play a crucial role in guaranteeing a successful post-operative outcome. Although an increasing number of studies report on the structural and mechanical properties of synthetic surgical meshes, nowadays there are no consistent guidelines for the evaluation of mechanical biocompatibility or common criteria for the selection of prostheses. The aim of this work is to review synthetic meshes by considering the extensive bibliography documentation of their use in abdominal wall surgery, taking into account their material and structural properties, in Part I, and their mechanical behavior, in Part II. The main materials available for the manufacture of polymeric meshes are described, including references to their chemical composition, fiber conformation, and textile structural properties. These characteristics are decisive for the evaluation of mesh-tissue interaction process, including foreign body response, mesh encapsulation, infection, and adhesion formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 689-699, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Water structures inside and outside single-walled carbon nanotubes under perpendicular electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen XU; Guo-hui HU; Zhi-liang WANG; Zhe-wei ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    The structures of water inside and outside (6,6), (8,8), and (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) under an electric field perpendicular to the tube axis are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that dipole reorientation induced by electric field plays a significant role on the structures of confined water inside and outside SWCNTs. Inside SWCNTs, the average water occupancy and the average number of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) per water molecule decrease as the electric intensity increases. Because the field intensity is sufficiently strong, the initial water structures inside the SWCNTs are destroyed, and the isolated water clusters are found. Outside SWCNTs, the azimuthal distributions of the density and the average number of H-bonds per water molecule around the solid walls become more and more asymmetric as the electric intensity increases. The percentages of water molecules involved in 0-5 H-bonds for all the three types of SWCNTs under different field intensities are displayed. The results show that those water molecules involved with most H-bonds are the most important to hold the original structures. When the electric field direction is parallel with the original preferred orientation, the density and the H-bond connections in water will be increased; when the electric field direction is perpendicular to the original preferred orientation, the density and the H-bond connections in water will be decreased.

  14. The Importance of Hydraulic Structures for Society: Quay Walls and Dikes in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gijt J.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since mankind exists, men have undertaken engineering activities to make their life more pleasant and secure. However this has not been an easy task, especially in the past. The knowledge of mathematics and physics to describe engineering problems became available only since 1400-1500. Nevertheless, great achievements have been made by man before that time, e.g. the pyramids in Egypt, the first sluice in China, the Borobudur temple in Indonesia, and the design and building activities of the Inca’s in South America. To illustrate this development, also the world economy, world ecology will be shortly mentioned. The structures that are briefly discussed in this paper are: soil and concrete dams for generating electricity, reservoirs for irrigation and drinking water, dikes, sluices, inland and sea, tunnels, and quay walls. This paper presents an overview of hydraulic structures in general with the emphasis on quay walls and dikes in the Netherlands. Examples of these structures will be discussed illustrating present state of the art and also with a view to the future. Conclusions and recommendations are given to enhance the knowledge of hydraulic structures.

  15. Synthesis of siliceous hollow spheres with large mesopore wall structure by supercritical CO2-in-water interface templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Xia, Yongde; Wang, Wenxin; Mokaya, Robert; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2005-01-14

    Hollow silica spheres with large mesopore wall structures have been synthesized via CO(2)-in-water emulsion templating in the presence of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers under supercritical fluid conditions.

  16. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and virginiamycin on the cecal microbial community and intestinal morphology of chickens raised under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Xu, Zhengxin; Baurhoo, Bushansingh; Chevaux, Eric; Zhao, Xin

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing movement against use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed. Prebiotic supplementation is a potential alternative to enhance the host's natural defense through modulation of gut microbiota. In the present study, the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and virginiamycin (VIRG) on cecal microbial ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens raised under suboptimal conditions was evaluated. MOS and VIRG induced different bacterial community structures, as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA. The antibiotic treatment reduced cecal microbial diversity while the community equitability increased. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in the cecum of MOS-supplemented birds. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that MOS changed the cecal microbiota in favor of the Firmicutes population but not the Bacteroidetes population. No difference was observed in total bacterial counts among treatments. MOS promoted the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cecum and increased villus height and goblet cell numbers in the ileum and jejunum. These results provide a deeper insight into the microbial ecological changes after supplementation of MOS prebiotic in poultry diets.

  17. Dynamic Response of High Rise Structures Under The Influence of Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Khasim Mutwalli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the procedure for seismic performance estimation of high-rise buildings based on a concept of the capacity spectrum method. In 3D analytical model of thirty storied buildings have been generated for symmetric buildings Models and analyzed using structural analysis tool ETABS. The analytical model of the building includes all important components that influence the mass, strength, stiffness and deformability of the structure. To study the effect of concrete core wall & shear wall at different positions during earthquake, seismic analysis using both linear static, linear dynamic and non-linear static procedure has been performed. The deflections at each storey level has been compared by performing Equivalent static, response spectrum method as well as pushover method has also been performed to determine capacity, demand and performance level of the considered building models. From the below studies it has been observed that non-linear pushover analysis provide good estimate of global as well as local inelastic deformation demands and also reveals design weakness that may remain hidden in an elastic analysis and also the performance level of the structure. Storey drifts are found within the limit as specified by code (IS: 1893-2002 in Equivalent static, linear dynamic & non-linear static analysis.

  18. Structure of Ristocetin A in Complex with a Bacterial Cell-wall Mimetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahoum, V.; Spector, S; Loll, P

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance is a serious public health problem and the development of new antibiotics has become an important priority. Ristocetin A is a class III glycopeptide antibiotic that is used in the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease and which has served as a lead compound for the development of new antimicrobial therapeutics. The 1.0 A resolution crystal structure of the complex between ristocetin A and a bacterial cell-wall peptide has been determined. As is observed for most other glycopeptide antibiotics, it is shown that ristocetin A forms a back-to-back dimer containing concave binding pockets that recognize the cell-wall peptide. A comparison of the structure of ristocetin A with those of class I glycopeptide antibiotics such as vancomycin and balhimycin identifies differences in the details of dimerization and ligand binding. The structure of the ligand-binding site reveals a likely explanation for ristocetin A's unique anticooperativity between dimerization and ligand binding.

  19. Relationships among the structural topology, bond strength, and mechanical properties of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Kai-Hsin; Tsou, Nien-Ti; Kang, Dun-Yen

    2015-10-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are regarded as small but strong due to their nanoscale microstructure and high mechanical strength (Young's modulus exceeds 1000 GPa). A longstanding question has been whether there exist other nanotube materials with mechanical properties as good as those of CNTs. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (AlSiNTs) using a multiscale computational method and then conducted a comparison with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). By comparing the potential energy estimated from molecular and macroscopic material mechanics, we were able to model the chemical bonds as beam elements for the nanoscale continuum modeling. This method allowed for simulated mechanical tests (tensile, bending, and torsion) with minimum computational resources for deducing their Young's modulus and shear modulus. The proposed approach also enabled the creation of hypothetical nanotubes to elucidate the relative contributions of bond strength and nanotube structural topology to overall nanotube mechanical strength. Our results indicated that it is the structural topology rather than bond strength that dominates the mechanical properties of the nanotubes. Finally, we investigated the relationship between the structural topology and the mechanical properties by analyzing the von Mises stress distribution in the nanotubes. The proposed methodology proved effective in rationalizing differences in the mechanical properties of AlSiNTs and SWCNTs. Furthermore, this approach could be applied to the exploration of new high-strength nanotube materials.

  20. Structural and electronic properties of boron-doped double-walled silicon carbide nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Somayeh, E-mail: somayeh.behzad@gmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Rostam [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Science Research Laboratory, Department of Nano Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chegel, Raad [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-01

    The effects of boron doping on the structural and electronic properties of (6,0)-(14,0) double-walled silicon carbide nanotube (DWSiCNT) are investigated by using spin-polarized density functional theory. It is found that boron atom could be more easily doped in the inner tube. Our calculations indicate that a Si site is favorable for B under C-rich condition and a C site is favorable under Si-rich condition. Additionally, B-substitution at either single carbon or silicon atom site in DWSiCNT could induce spontaneous magnetization.

  1. Status of nucleon structure calculations with 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Meifeng

    2013-01-01

    We report the status of our nucleon structure calculations with 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions on the RBC-UKQCD $32^3\\times64$ gauge ensembles with the Iwasaki+DSDR action. These ensembles have a fixed lattice scale of 1/a = 1.37 GeV, and two pion masses of about 170 and 250 MeV. Preliminary results for the isovector electromagnectic form factors and their corresponding root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) radii will be presented.

  2. Three-dimensional polymeric structures of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Chao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Tao

    2014-05-01

    We explore by ab initio calculations the possible crystalline phases of polymerized single-wall carbon nanotubes (P-SWNTs) and determine their structural, elastic, and electronic properties. Based on direct cross-linking and intertube sliding-assisted cross-linking mechanisms, we have identified a series of stable three-dimensional polymeric structures for the zigzag nanotubes up to (10,0). Among proposed P-SWNT phases, the structures with favorable diamond-like sp3 intertube bonding configuration and small tube cross-section distortion are found to be the most energetically stable ones. These polymeric crystalline phases exhibit high bulk and shear moduli superior to SWNT bundles, and show metallic or semiconducting properties depending on the diameter of constituent tubes. We also propose by hydrostatic pressure simulations that the intertube sliding between van der Waals bonded nanotubes may be an effective route to promote the polymerization of SWNTs under pressure.

  3. Three-dimensional polymeric structures of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Chao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Tao, E-mail: wjt@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-28

    We explore by ab initio calculations the possible crystalline phases of polymerized single-wall carbon nanotubes (P-SWNTs) and determine their structural, elastic, and electronic properties. Based on direct cross-linking and intertube sliding-assisted cross-linking mechanisms, we have identified a series of stable three-dimensional polymeric structures for the zigzag nanotubes up to (10,0). Among proposed P-SWNT phases, the structures with favorable diamond-like sp{sup 3} intertube bonding configuration and small tube cross-section distortion are found to be the most energetically stable ones. These polymeric crystalline phases exhibit high bulk and shear moduli superior to SWNT bundles, and show metallic or semiconducting properties depending on the diameter of constituent tubes. We also propose by hydrostatic pressure simulations that the intertube sliding between van der Waals bonded nanotubes may be an effective route to promote the polymerization of SWNTs under pressure.

  4. Impact of structural design criteria on first wall surface heat flux limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The irradiation environment experienced by the in-vessel components of fusion reactors presents structural design challenges not envisioned in the development of existing structural design criteria such as the ASME Code or RCC-MR. From the standpoint of design criteria, the most significant issues stem from the irradiation-induced changes in material properties, specifically the reduction of ductility, strain hardening capability, and fracture toughness with neutron irradiation. Recently, Draft 7 of the ITER structural design criteria (ISDC), which provide new rules for guarding against such problems, was released for trial use by the ITER designers. The new rules, which were derived from a simple model based on the concept of elastic follow up factor, provide primary and secondary stress limits as functions of uniform elongation and ductility. The implication of these rules on the allowable surface heat flux on typical first walls made of type 316 stainless steel and vanadium alloys are discussed.

  5. Nanocatalyst structure as a template to define chirality of nascent single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Zhao, Jin; Balbuena, Perla B

    2011-01-01

    Chirality is a crucial factor in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) because it determines its optical and electronic properties. A chiral angle spanning from 0° to 30° results from twisting of the graphene sheet conforming the nanotube wall and is equivalently expressed by chiral indexes (n,m). However, lack of chirality control during SWCNT synthesis is an obstacle for a widespread use of these materials. Here we use first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to propose and illustrate basic concepts supporting that the nanocatalyst structure may act as a template to control the chirality during nanotube synthesis. DFT optimizations of metal cluster (Co and Cu)∕cap systems for caps of various chiralities are used to show that an inverse template effect from the nascent carbon nanostructure over the catalyst may exist in floating catalysts; such effect determines a negligible chirality control. Classical MD simulations are used to investigate the influence of a strongly interacting substrate on the structure of a metal nanocatalyst and illustrate how such interaction may help preserve catalyst crystallinity. Finally, DFT optimizations of carbon structures on stepped (211) and (321) cobalt surfaces are used to demonstrate the template effect imparted by the nanocatalyst surface on the growing carbon structure at early stages of nucleation. It is found that depending on the step structure and type of building block (short chains, single atoms, or hexagonal rings), thermodynamics favor armchair or zigzag termination, which provides guidelines for a chirality controlled process based on tuning the catalyst structure and the type of precursor gas.

  6. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: IV. A Structural Comparison of the Wall Hemicellulose of Cell Suspension Cultures of Sycamore (Acer PseudoPlatAnus) and of Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, B M; Albersheim, P

    1973-05-01

    The molecular structure and chemical properties of the hemicellulose present in the isolated cell walls of suspension cultures of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has recently been described by Bauer et al. (Plant Physiol. 51: 174-187). The hemicellulose of the sycamore primary cell wall is a xyloglucan. This polymer functions as an important cross-link in the structure of the cell wall; the xyloglucan is hydrogen-bonded to cellulose and covalently attached to the pectic polymers.The present paper describes the structure of a xyloglucan present in the walls and in the extracellular medium of suspension-cultured Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells and compares the structure of the bean xyloglucan with the structure of the sycamore xyloglucan. Although some minor differences were found, the basic structure of the xyloglucans in the cell walls of these distantly related species is the same. The structure is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of four residues of beta-1, 4-linked glucose and three residues of terminal xylose linked to the 6 position of three of the glucosyl residues.

  7. Effect of the hydroaffinity and topology of pore walls on the structure and dynamics of confined water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, Michael F., E-mail: harrach@fkp.tu-darmstadt.de; Klameth, Felix; Drossel, Barbara; Vogel, Michael, E-mail: michael.vogel@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-01-21

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to observe the structure and dynamics of SPC/E water in amorphous silica pores and amorphous ice pores with radii slightly larger than 10 Å. In addition to atomically rough pores, we construct completely smooth pores such that the potential felt at a given distance from the pore wall is an averaged atomic potential. As compared to rough walls, smooth walls induce stronger distortions of water structure for both silica and ice confinements. On the other hand, unlike the smooth pores, the rough pores strongly slow down water dynamics at the pore wall. The slowdown vanishes when reducing the atomic charges in the wall, i.e., when varying the hydroaffinity, while keeping the surface topology, indicating that it is not a geometric effect. Rather, it is due to the fact that the wall atoms provide a static energy landscape along the surface, e.g., fixed anchor-points for hydrogen bonds, to which the water molecules need to adapt, blocking channels for structural rearrangement. In the smooth pores, water dynamics can be faster than in the bulk liquid not only at the pore wall but also in the pore center. Changes in the tetrahedral order rather than in the local density are identified as the main cause for this change of the dynamical behavior in the center of smooth pores.

  8. Comparison of the Structural Performance of Monolithic and Precast Reinforced Concrete Core Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Nakachi, Tadaharu

    2014-01-01

    In the core wall system in high-rise buildings, the four L-shaped core walls at the center effectively reduce seismic vibration. On the other hand, precast core walls are effective for construction because they can be built more quickly than cast-in-place core walls. In this study, a lateral loading test was conducted on a monolithic wall column simulating the corner and the area near the corner of an L-shaped core wall. The test results were compared with those of a precast wall column teste...

  9. USAGE OF MICRO-MODULAR HEAT-INSULATION LAYER IN STRUCTURES OF WALL PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of requirements to existing heat-insulation layers in enclosure structures of wall panels has been carried out, a general principles on development of thermal insulation systems, substantiation on the necessity to develop a new wall panel design with improved thermal characteristics. The proposed design of the wall panel differs from the existing one in the fact that its external layer is made of protective sheets being perforated in their top and bottom parts with perforated aluminum foil layer placed on them. Air layer performs function of one of thermal insulation layers, and the second layer is made up in the form of several micro-modular sub-layers which are divided by perforated aluminum foil and a grid. An inner concrete layer is also separated from micro-modular layers by aluminum foil. Protective sheets and the grid can be made of aluminum or polyethylene.The arrangement of hollow micro-modular cells in the zone of negative temperatures prevents condensate accumulation. The arrangement of the perforated aluminum foil layers between micro- modular layers leads to increase in thermal resistance of the panel due to decrease of a radiant component in presence of several screens and does not interfere with a vapor permeability of thermal insulation layers from micro-modules. At the same time placement of a non-perforated foil layer on an inside panel layer interferes with penetration of water vapor from rooms in micro-modular thermal insulation layers.Technological principles lie in the arrangement of perforation slots in the top and bottom zones of protective sheets that allows to delete excess moisture from thermal insulation layers and air layer and also leads to improvement of thermo-technical characteristics, durability and reliability in construction operation as a whole. The executed calculations of heat and humidity fields in external enclosure structures confirm advantages of the presented technical

  10. Nanostructured carbon electrocatalyst supports for intermediate-temperature fuel cells: Single-walled versus multi-walled structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandrew, Alexander B.; Elgammal, Ramez A.; Tian, Mengkun; Tennyson, Wesley D.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Geohegan, David B.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    It is unknown if nanostructured carbons possess the requisite electrochemical stability to be used as catalyst supports in the cathode of intermediate-temperature solid acid fuel cells (SAFCs) based on the CsH2PO4 electrolyte. To investigate this application, single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were used as supports for Pt catalysts in SAFCs operating at 250 °C. SWNH-based cathodes display greater maximum activity than their MWNT-based counterparts at a cell voltage of 0.8 V, but are unstable in the SAFC cathode as a consequence of electrochemical carbon corrosion. MWNT-based cells are resistant to this effect and capable of operation for at least 160 h at 0.6 V and 250 °C. Cells fabricated with nanostructured carbon supports are more active (52 mA cm-1vs. 28 mA cm-1 at 0.8 V) than state-of-the-art carbon-free formulations while simultaneously displaying enhanced Pt utilization (40 mA mgPt-1vs. 16 mA mgPt-1 at 0.8 V). These results suggest that MWNTs are a viable support material for developing stable, high-performance, low-cost air electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices operating above 230 °C.

  11. Lamb-Wave Embedded NDE with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Thin-Wall Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2004-02-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are inexpensive, non-intrusive, unobtrusive devices that can be surface-mounted on existing structures or inserted between the layers of new composite structures. The PWAS can be used in both active and passive modes. PWAS generate and detect Lamb waves and enable the development of embedded NDE concepts. This paper will present two embedded NDE concepts based on the PWAS technology and Lamb waves approach. The first concept utilizes traveling Lamb waves and could be described as embedded ultrasonics. It is shown that embedded PWAS are able to reproduce most of the conventional ultrasonic techniques, such as pitch-catch, pulse-echo, and phased array. Several experiments using Lamb waves traveling in thin-wall structures are presented.

  12. Increased activity of the mannan-binding lectin complement activation pathway in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Jensenius, J C; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative bacterial infectious complications are frequent in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), with subsequent increased recurrence rates and poor prognosis. Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) complement activation pathway may cause increased risk of infection...... with colorectal cancer compared with healthy persons. However, similar frequencies of MBL pathway deficiency are observed in patients and healthy persons....... in certain patient groups. It is hypothesized that a deficient MBL pathway might be more frequent among patients with CRC than in healthy individuals. The MBL pathway was therefore evaluated in serum obtained preoperatively from 193 patients with primary CRC and in serum from 150 healthy volunteers. METHODS...

  13. A study of the turbulence structures of wall-bounded shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, M. S.; Soria, J.; Perry, A. E.; Chacin, J.; Na, Y.; Cantwell, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    This project extends the study of the structure of wall-bounded flows using the topological properties of eddying motions as developed by Chong et al. (1990), Soria et al. (1992, 1994), and as recently extended by Blackburn et al. (1996) and Chacin et al. (1996). In these works, regions of flow which are focal in nature are identified by being enclosed by an isosurface of a positive small value of the discriminant of the velocity gradient tensor. These regions resemble the attached vortex loops suggested first by Theodorsen (1955). Such loops are incorporated in the attached eddy model versions of Perry & Chong (1982), Perry et al. (1986), and Perry & Marusic (1995), which are extensions of a model first formulated by Townsend (1976). The DNS data of wall bounded flows studied here are from the zero pressure gradient flow of Spalart (1988) and the boundary layer with separation and reattachment of Na & Moin (1996). The flow structures are examined from the viewpoint of the attached eddy hypothesis.

  14. Cell wall carbohydrates from fruit pulp of Argania spinosa: structural analysis of pectin and xyloglucan polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboughe-Angone, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Ghosh, Partha; Lerouge, Patrice; Ishii, Tadashi; Ray, Bimalendu; Driouich, Azeddine

    2008-01-14

    Isolated cell walls of Argania spinosa fruit pulp were fractionated into their polysaccharide constituents and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. The data reveal the presence of homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) in the pectic fraction. RG-I is abundant and contains high amounts of Ara and Gal, indicative of an important branching in this polysaccharide. RG-II is less abundant than RG-I and exists as a dimer. Structural characterisation of xyloglucan using enzymatic hydrolysis, gas chromatography, MALDI-TOF-MS and methylation analysis shows that XXGG, XXXG, XXLG and XLLG are the major subunit oligosaccharides in the ratio of 0.6:1:1.2:1.6. This finding demonstrates that the major neutral hemicellulosic polysaccharide is a galacto-xyloglucan. In addition, Argania fruit xyloglucan has no XUFG, a novel xyloglucan motif recently discovered in Argania leaf cell walls. Finally, the isolation and analysis of arabinogalactan-proteins showed that Argania fruit pulp is rich in these proteoglycans.

  15. Ignition, Flame Structure and Near-Wall Burning in Transverse Hydrogen Jets in Supersonic Crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Mirko; Godfrey Mungal, M.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2010-11-01

    The work aims at investigating near-wall ignition and flame structure in transverse underexpanded hydrogen jets in high-enthalpy supersonic crossflows generated in an expansion tube. Crossflow conditions are held fixed at M=2.4, p=40 kPa and T 1400 K, while jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratios J in the range 0.3-5.0 are considered. Schlieren and OH^* chemiluminescence imaging are used to characterize flow structure, ignition and flame penetration, while the instantaneous reaction zone is identified with planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of OH on side- and plan-view planes. The upstream separation length is found to scale as J^0.44D (D jet diameter). Similarly, the ignition point xig strongly depends on J: xig tends to a limiting value of ˜22D as J->0, and the flame is anchored in the upstream recirculation region and lee-side of the jet for J>3. Flame penetration is well described by the traditional form k(x/DJ)^m where both k and m are found to depend on J but these parameters reach a limiting value of k 1 and m 0.3 for J>2. The roles of the unsteady bow shock, the separation and recirculation regions on the near-wall ignition, stabilization and mixing at large J are discussed.

  16. Structure Functions in Wall-bounded Flows at High Reynolds Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Marusic, Ivan; Johnson, Perry; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    The scaling of the structure function Dij = (where i = 1,2,3 and r is the two-point displacement, ui is the velocity fluctuation in the xi direction), is studied in wall-bounded flows at high Reynolds number within the framework of the Townsend attached eddy model. While the scaling of Dij has been the subject of several studies, previous work focused on the scaling of D11 for r = (Δx ,0,0) (for streamwise velocity component and displacements only in the streamwise direction). Using the Hierarchical-Random-Additive formalism, a recently developed attached-eddy formalism, we propose closed-form formulae for the structure functionDij with two-point displacements in arbitrary directions, focusing on the log region . The work highlights new scalings that have received little attention, e.g. the scaling of Dij for r =(0, Δy, Δz) and for i ≠ j . As the knowledge on Dij leads directly to that of the Reynolds stress, statistics of the filtered flow field, etc., an analytical formula of Dij for arbitrary r can be quite useful for developing physics-based models for wall-bounded flows and validating existing LES and reduced order models.

  17. Optical signature of structural defects in single walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dilip K; Iyer, P K; Giri, P K

    2009-09-01

    Though defects are invariably present in as-grown and purified carbon nanotubes (NTs), spectroscopic properties of defects in NTs have not been established yet. In this work, single walled (SW) and multiwalled (MW) carbon nanotubes (NTs) grown by chemical vapor deposition have been studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermo gravometric (TGA) analysis. Raman spectra of both SWNT and MWNT show additional features in the frequency range intermediate between 600-1300 cm(-1) and 1700-2600 cm(-1), in addition to well-known radial breathing modes, D- and G-bands. Room temperature PL studies show two broad but distinct peaks centered at approximately 2.05 eV and approximately 2.33 eV, for both SWNT and MWNT samples. TGA analysis shows very low impurity content in MWNT sample as compared to the SWNT sample. HRTEM analysis reveals various kinds of structural defects in nanotube wall. With the help of HRTEM and ESR studies, we argue that the intermediate frequency Raman modes and the visible PL from the pristine NTs are definite signatures of structural defects in the nanotubes.

  18. Effects of phosphorus-doping upon the electronic structures of single wall carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN AQing; SHAO QingYi; LIN ZhiCheng

    2009-01-01

    The phosphorus-doped single wall carbon nanotube (PSWCNT) is studied by using First-Principle methods based on Density Function Theory (DFT). The formation energy, total energy, band structure, geometry structure and density of states are calculated. It is found that the formation energy of the P-doped single carbon nanotubes increases with diameters; the total energy of carbon nanotubes with the same diameter decreases as the doping rate increases. The effects of impurity position on the im-purity level are discussed. It illustrates that the position of the impurity level may depend on the C-P-C bond angle. According to the above results, it is feasible to substitute a carbon atom with a phosphorus atom in SWCNT. It is also found that P-doped carbon nanotubes are N type semiconductor.

  19. Large rotation FE transient analysis of piezolaminated thin-walled smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. Q.; Schmidt, R.

    2013-10-01

    A geometrically nonlinear large rotation shell theory is proposed for dynamic finite element (FE) analysis of piezoelectric integrated thin-walled smart structures. The large rotation theory, which has six independent kinematic parameters but expressed by five nodal degrees of freedom (DOFs), is based on first-order shear deformation (FOSD) hypothesis. The two-dimensional (2D) FE model is constructed using eight-node quadrilateral shell elements with five mechanical DOFs per node and one electrical DOF per piezoelectric material layer with linear constitutive equations. The linear and nonlinear dynamic responses are determined by the central difference algorithm (CDA) and the Newmark method. The results are compared with those obtained by simplified nonlinear theories, as well as those reported in the literature. It is shown that the present large rotation theory yields considerable improvement if the structures undergo large displacements and rotations.

  20. Effects of phosphorus-doping upon the electronic structures of single wall carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The phosphorus-doped single wall carbon nanotube(PSWCNT) is studied by using First-Principle methods based on Density Function Theory(DFT).The formation energy,total energy,band structure,geometry structure and density of states are calculated.It is found that the formation energy of the P-doped single carbon nanotubes increases with diameters;the total energy of carbon nanotubes with the same diameter decreases as the doping rate increases.The effects of impurity position on the impurity level are discussed.It illustrates that the position of the impurity level may depend on the C-P-C bond angle.According to the above results,it is feasible to substitute a carbon atom with a phosphorus atom in SWCNT.It is also found that P-doped carbon nanotubes are N type semiconductor.

  1. Understanding effect of wall structure on the hydrothermal stability of mesostructured silica SBA-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuqiang; Yan, Yan; Yang, Haifeng; Meng, Yan; Yu, Chengzhong; Tu, Bo; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2005-05-12

    Mesostructured silica SBA-15 materials with different structural parameters, such as pore size, pore volume, and wall thickness, etc., were prepared by varying the postsynthesis hydrothermal treatment temperature and adding inorganic salts. The hydrothermal stabilities of these materials in steam (100% water vapor) were systematically investigated using a variety of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption, and (29)Si solid-state NMR. The effect of the pore size, microporosity or mesoporosity, and wall thickness on the stability was discussed. The results show that all of the SBA-15 materials have a good hydrothermal stability under steam of 600 degrees C for at least 24 h. N(2) sorption measurements show that the Brumauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of SBA-15 materials is decreased by about 62% after treatment under steam at 600 degrees C for 24 h. The materials with thicker walls and more micropores show relatively better hydrothermal stability in steam of 600 degrees C. Interestingly, we found that the microporosity of the mesostructured silica SBA-15 is a very important factor for the hydrothermal stability. To the materials with more micropores, the recombination of Si-O-Si bonds during the high-temperature steam treatment may not cause direct destruction to the wall structure. As a result, SBA-15 materials with more micropores show better stability in pure steam of 600 degrees C. Nevertheless, these materials are easily destroyed in steam of 800 degrees C for 6 h. Two methods to effectively improve the hydrothermal stability are introduced here: one is a high-temperature treatment, and another is a carbon-propping thermal treatment. Thermal treatment at 900 degrees C can enhance the polymerization degree of Si-O-Si bonds and effectively improve the hydrothermal stability of these SBA-15 materials in 800 degrees C steam for 12 h. But, this approach will cause very serious shrinkage of the mesopores

  2. Evolutionary divergence of β-expansin structure and function in grasses parallels emergence of distinctive primary cell wall traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Javier; Guttman, Mara; Li, Lian-Chao; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Expansins are wall-loosening proteins that promote the extension of primary cell walls without the hydrolysis of major structural components. Previously, proteins from the EXPA (α-expansin) family were found to loosen eudicot cell walls but to be less effective on grass cell walls, whereas the reverse pattern was found for EXPB (β-expansin) proteins obtained from grass pollen. To understand the evolutionary and structural bases for the selectivity of EXPB action, we assessed the extension (creep) response of cell walls from diverse monocot families to EXPA and EXPB treatments. Cell walls from Cyperaceae and Juncaceae (families closely related to grasses) displayed a typical grass response ('β-response'). Walls from more distant monocots, including some species that share with grasses high levels of arabinoxylan, responded preferentially to α-expansins ('α-response'), behaving in this regard like eudicots. An expansin with selective activity for grass cell walls was detected in Cyperaceae pollen, coinciding with the expression of genes from the divergent EXPB-I branch that includes grass pollen β-expansins. The evolutionary origin of this branch was located within Poales on the basis of phylogenetic analyses and its association with the 'sigma' whole-genome duplication. Accelerated evolution in this branch has remodeled the protein surface in contact with the substrate, potentially for binding highly substituted arabinoxylan. We propose that the evolution of the divergent EXPB-I group made a fundamental change in the target and mechanism of wall loosening in the grass lineage possible, involving a new structural role for xylans and the expansins that target them.

  3. Wall Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  4. Structural-and-functional alterations in the arterial wall and clinical manifestations of nonspecific aortoarteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Kuntsevich, G I; Zotikov, E A; Burtseva, E A; Kulbak, V A

    2009-01-01

    The authors studied structural-and-functional properties of the arterial wall, also assessing elastic properties of the common femoral artery and the brachial artery flow-dependent dilatation (FDD) index in a total of thirty-six patients presenting with nonspecific aortoarteritis (NAA). The overwhelming majority of the patients, i. e., twenty-four (89%), showed a statistically significant decrease in the FDD as compared with the control-group patients (P<0.05). We revealed a statistically reliable (P=0.0005) inverse correlation between the level of systolic arterial pressure and an increase in the rigidity index of the common femoral artery wall. Also determined was a correlation of the femoral artery wall rigidity (systolic AP equalling 140 mm Hg and higher) and the brachial artery flow-dependent dilatation index (r=-0.61). All the patients suffering from non-specific aortoarteritis were diagnosed as having a decrease in the elasticity values, accompanied by an increase in systolic arterial pressure (r=0.36; P=0.07). Comparing the level of systolic arterial pressure with the values of the distensibility coefficient and compliance coefficient revealed a weak inverse correlation (r=-0.28 and 0.21, respectively). Evaluating the impact of duration of the disease on the distensibility coefficient, compliance coefficient and the rigidity index made it possible to detect a statistically significant (P=0.0039) direct correlation between the rigidity index and the duration of non-specific aortoarteritis. To a leaser degree, the duration of the inflammatory process influenced the distensibility coefficient and compliance coefficient (r=-0.28; r=-0.30, respectively; P=0.06).

  5. Identification of cracks in thin-walled structures by means of wavenumber filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Paweł; Radzieński, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    This research is related to a signal processing of full wavefield data as an effective tool for detection, localization and visualization of a crack growth in thin-walled structures. Full wavefield data of propagating Lamb waves in structures such as plates and shells made out of metallic alloys and composite laminates contain a wealth of information about wave pattern anomalies due to occurrence of a damage. The aim is to demonstrate a method for enhancing damage visualization in structures such that estimation of the length and orientation of the crack can be easily obtained. The proposed signal processing involves application of discrete fast Fourier transform, wavenumber domain filtering and inverse discrete Fourier transform. The method is further enhanced by a technique for compensation of the wave attenuation so that the effects of structural damage have the same influence regardless of the location. The concept is first illustrated on numerically simulated data, and then tested on experimental results. In the experiments, full wavefield measurements are obtained using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, which allows the measurement of displacements and/or velocities along three axes over a user-defined grid. In the proposed method only out-of-plane velocities are used. Tests performed on simple aluminum and composite plates with artificially introduced longitudinal cracks confirm the effectiveness of the method and its potential for application to the inspection of a variety of structural components.

  6. Structure and machinability of thin-walled parts made of titanium alloy powder using electron beam melting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, A.; Grechishnikov, V.; Kozochkin, M.; Volosova, M.; Petuhov, Yu; Peretyagin, P.

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims at study of structure and properties of raw and thermal treated titanium-based powder material used to produce the thin-walled components by electron beam melting technology. Producing the end product means also studying the finishing cutting process. Examining the quality of end product in terms of geometric tolerance and thin walls thickness stability consists of control the surface roughness is also included in this study.

  7. Simplified Dynamic Structural Time History Response Analysis of Flexible Approach Walls Founded on Clustered Pile Groups Using Impact_Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The user assigns a fixed ERDC/ITL TR-16-1 243 damping ratio and Impact_Deck estimates the natural frequencies and calculate the coefficients...for a similar structure. ERDC/ITL TR-16-1 244 I.4 Flexible Wall frequency estimates For the flexible wall problem specified in Appendix C...Impact_Deck example problem . .......................... 39 Table 2.4 Extreme forces/moments for the Impact_Deck example problem

  8. Dietary mannan oligosaccharide and Bacillus subtilis in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vieira de Azevedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A six week study was conducted to investigate the supplementation of prebiotic (Mannan oligosaccharide – MOS, from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, probiotic (Bacillus subtilis – BS, C-3102 strain and their combination in diets for Nile tilapia. 192 fishes (4.03 ± 0.28 g were distributed into 16 tanks (40-L, in a completely randomized design (n=4. The following treatments were evaluated: control; prebiotic - 2 g MOS kg-1; probiotic - 2 g BS kg-1 and synbiotic - 1 g MOS kg-1 plus 1 g BS kg-1. Fishes fed diets pre-, pro- and synbiotic supplemented performed better in average daily gain, feed conversion rate, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, carcass yield, total and standard length and body height than those maintained on control diets. The probiotic supplementation resulted in higher villus height and intestinal perimeter ratio than the control diet while the pre- and synbiotic supplementation in diets resulted in higher intestinal perimeter ratio. Carcass protein and ether extract were, respectively, higher and lower in fish fed synbiotic diets than other fish. The results of this study indicated that the mannan oligosaccharide and Bacillus subtilis supplementation, isolated or combined (synbiotic, could improve growth, body index, intestine morphometry and carcass composition in Nile tilapia.

  9. Growth, immune status and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia fed dietary prebiotics (mannan oligosaccharides-MOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Yuji-Sado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Farmers must conform to Best Management Practices in fish production such as the development of non-antibiotic dietary supplements for fish growth and health management. We determined the effects of increasing levels of dietary mannan oligosaccharides on growth, immune system and intestine integrity of Nile tilapia. Fish (49.6 ± 10.8 g were randomly distributed into 12 tanks (250 L; 20 fish per tank and fed during 60 days with a practical diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% dietary mannan oligosaccharides (n = 3. Fish growth and immune system were not affected (P > 0.05 by treatments. Fish fed 0.4% prebiotic supplementation presented increased (P < 0.05 intestinal fold height. Moreover, the intestine muscular layer thickness was increased in fish fed 0.4 and 0.6% dietary prebiotic. After 60 days, there were no effects on intestinal morphology. Studies regarding characterization of intestinal microbiota and experiment that reproduce commercial fish production systems hearing conditions are necessary to determine the effective use of this dietary supplement for the species.

  10. Influence of major surgery on the mannan-binding lectin pathway of innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H.; Christensen, I.J.; Basse, L.;

    2006-01-01

    The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2, and for compari......The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2......, and for comparison also measured the interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients belonging to two different cohorts. Cohort 1 comprised 60 patients undergoing open or laparoscopic colectomy for benign disease (n = 12) or colon cancer (n = 48). Cohort 2...... comprised 27 patients undergoing elective, open surgery for colorectal cancer, and was included in order to cover blood sampling between days 2 and 6. As expected, the surgical stress induced a marked acute phase response, as evidenced by a large increase in IL-6 (18-fold) and CRP (13-fold) levels...

  11. The mechanism of domain-wall structure formation in Ar-Kr submonolayer films on graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrykiejew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Monte Carlo simulation method in the canonical ensemble, we have studied the commensurate-incommensurate transition in two-dimensional finite mixed clusters of Ar and Kr adsorbed on graphite basal plane at low temperatures. It has been demonstrated that the transition occurs when the argon concentration exceeds the value needed to cover the peripheries of the cluster. The incommensurate phase exhibits a similar domain-wall structure as observed in pure krypton films at the densities exceeding the density of a perfect (√3x√3R30º commensurate phase, but the size of commensurate domains does not change much with the cluster size. When the argon concentration increases, the composition of domain walls changes while the commensurate domains are made of pure krypton. We have constructed a simple one-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova-like model that yields the results being in a good qualitative agreement with the Monte Carlo results obtained for two-dimensional systems.

  12. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  13. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided.

  14. Infilled masonry walls contribution in mitigating progressive collapse of multistory reinforced concrete structures according to UFC guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Huda; Hadhoud, Hamed; Mourad, Sherif

    2015-09-01

    A structure is subjected to progressive collapse when an element fails, resulting in failure of adjoining structural elements which, in their turn, cause further structural failure leading eventually to partial or total collapse. The failure of a primary vertical support might occur due to extreme loadings such as bomb explosion in a terrorist attack, gas explosion and huge impact of a car in the parking area. Different guidelines such as the General Services Administration (GSA 2003) and the Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC 2009) addressed the structural progressive collapse due to the sudden loss of a main vertical support. In the current study, a progressive collapse assessment according to the UFC guidelines is carried out for a typical ten-story reinforced concrete framed structure designed according to codes [(ACI 318-08) and (ASCE 7-10)] for minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. Fully nonlinear dynamic analysis for the structure was carried out using Applied Element Method (AEM). The investigated cases included the removal of a corner column, an edge column, an edge shear wall, internal columns and internal shear wall. The numerical analysis showed that simplification of the problem into 3D bare frames would lead to uneconomical design. It was found for the studied case that, the infilled masonry walls have a valuable contribution in mitigating progressive collapse of the reinforced concrete framed structures. Neglecting these walls would lead to uneconomical design.

  15. Structural basis for selective recognition of pneumococcal cell wall by modular endolysin from phage Cp-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Juan A; Monterroso, Begoña; Albert, Armando; Galán, Beatriz; Ahrazem, Oussama; García, Pedro; Martínez-Ripoll, Martín; García, José Luis; Menéndez, Margarita

    2003-10-01

    Pneumococcal bacteriophage-encoded lysins are modular choline binding proteins that have been shown to act as enzymatic antimicrobial agents (enzybiotics) against streptococcal infections. Here we present the crystal structures of the free and choline bound states of the Cpl-1 lysin, encoded by the pneumococcal phage Cp-1. While the catalytic module displays an irregular (beta/alpha)(5)beta(3) barrel, the cell wall-anchoring module is formed by six similar choline binding repeats (ChBrs), arranged into two different structural regions: a left-handed superhelical domain configuring two choline binding sites, and a beta sheet domain that contributes in bringing together the whole structure. Crystallographic and site-directed mutagenesis studies allow us to propose a general catalytic mechanism for the whole glycoside hydrolase family 25. Our work provides the first complete structure of a member of the large family of choline binding proteins and reveals that ChBrs are versatile elements able to tune the evolution and specificity of the pneumococcal surface proteins.

  16. Remote sensing of voids in large concrete structures: runways, taxiways, bridges, and building walls and roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-10-01

    Maintenance of our world's infrastructure presents many unique challenges. Engineering and maintenance personnel must maintain around the clock service to millions of people each year while maintaining millions of cubic meters of concrete distributed throughout facilities. This infrastructure includes runways, taxiways, roadways, walkways, bridges, building walls and roofs. Presently only a limited number of accurate and economical techniques exist to test this myriad of concrete structures for integrity and safety as well as insure that they meet original design specifications. Remote sensing, non-destructive testing techniques, such as Infrared Thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar, Magnetometer and Pachometer, measure physical properties affected by the various materials and conditions found within, and under, concrete infrastructure. These techniques have established reputations for accurate investigations of concrete anomalies. This paper will review the applications of different non- destructive testing techniques on many concrete infrastructure components.

  17. Nondestructive testing of airport concrete structures: runways, taxiways, roads, bridges, building walls, and roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Maintenance of airport infrastructure presents many unique challenges. Airport engineering and maintenance personnel must maintain around the clock service to millions of people each year while maintaining millions of cubic meters of concrete distributed throughout the facilities. This infrastructure includes runways, taxiways, roadways, walkways, bridges, building walls and roofs. Presently only a limited number of accurate and economical techniques exist to test this myriad of concrete structures for integrity and safety as well as insure that they meet original design specifications. Remote sensing, non-destructive testing techniques, such as IR thermography, ground penetrating radar, magnetometer and pachometer, measure physical properties affected by the various materials and conditions found within, and under, concrete infrastructure. These techniques have established reputations for accurate investigations of concrete anomalies.

  18. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging that at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The ferritic-martensitic steels HT-9 and F82H show significantly greater reductions in fracture toughness that the austenitic stainless steels.

  19. Tuning Electronic Structures of BN and C Double-Wall Hetero-Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueran Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First principle calculations based on density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation were carried out to investigate the energetic and electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride double-wall hetero-nanotubes (C/BN-DWHNTs with different chirality and size, including an armchair (n, n carbon nanotube (CNT enclosed in (m, m boron nitride nanotube (BNNT and a zigzag (n, 0 CNT enclosed in (m, 0 BNNT. The electronic structure of these DWHNTs under a transverse electric field was also investigated. The ability to tune the band gap with changing the intertube distance (di and imposing an external electric field (F of zigzag DWHNTs provides the possibility for future electronic and electrooptic nanodevice applications.

  20. Computation of macro-fiber composite integrated thin-walled smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, S. Y.; Chen, M.; Bai, J.; Li, J.

    2016-07-01

    Due to high flexibility, reliability, and strong actuation forces, piezo fiber based composite smart material, macro-fiber composite (MFC), is increasingly applied in various fields for vibration suppression, shape control, and health monitoring. The complexity arrangement of MFC materials makes them difficult in numerical simulations. This paper develops a linear electro-mechanically coupled finite element (FE) model for composite laminated thin-walled smart structures bonded with MFC patches considering arbitrary piezo fiber orientation. Two types of MFCs are considered, namely, MFC-d31 in which the d 31 effect dominates the actuation forces, and MFC-d33 which mainly uses the d 33 effect. The proposed FE model is validated by static analysis of an MFC bonded smart plate.

  1. Superconductivity on the density-wave background with soliton-wall structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, P. D.

    2009-03-01

    Superconductivity (SC) may microscopically coexist with density wave (DW) when the nesting of the Fermi surface (FS) is not perfect. There are, at least, two possible microscopic structures of a DW state with quasi-particle states remaining on the Fermi level and leading to the Cooper instability: (i) the soliton-wall phase and (ii) the small ungapped FS pockets. The dispersion of such quasi-particle states strongly differs from that without DW, and so do the properties of SC on the DW background. The upper critical field H in such an SC state strongly increases as the system approaches the critical pressure, where SC first appears. H may considerably exceed its typical value without DW and has unusual upward curvature as function of temperature. The results obtained explain the experimental observations in layered organic superconductors (TMTSF)2PF6 and α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4.

  2. Structure and Properties of poly (para phynelyne benzobisoxazole) (PBO) /single wall carbon nano tube composite fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Zhang, Xiefei; Bhattacharyya, Arup R.; Min, Byung G.; Dang, T. D.; Arnold, F. E.; Vaia, Richard A.; Ramesh, S.; Willis, P. A.; Hauge, R. H.; Smalley, R. E.

    2002-03-01

    The liquid crystalline compositions are prepared by the in-situ polycondensation of diamines and diacid monomers in the presence of single wall carbon nano tubes (SWNT). Processing of the new compositions into fibers provide hybrid materials with improved mechanical properties. The in-situ polymerizations were carried out in polyphosphoric acid (PPA). Carbon nano tubes as high as 10 wt.polymer weight have been utilized. Fiber spinning has been carried out using dry jet wet spinning using a piston driven spinning system and the fiber coagulated in water and subsequently vacuum dried and heat treated in nitrogen at 400oC. Structure and properties of these fibers have been studied. Tensile strength of the composite fibers increased by about 50morphology of these fibers have been studied using X- ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Nonlinear mechanics of thin-walled structures asymptotics, direct approach and numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vetyukov, Yury

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a hybrid approach to the mechanics of thin bodies. Classical theories of rods, plates and shells with constrained shear are based on asymptotic splitting of the equations and boundary conditions of three-dimensional elasticity. The asymptotic solutions become accurate as the thickness decreases, and the three-dimensional fields of stresses and displacements can be determined. The analysis includes practically important effects of electromechanical coupling and material inhomogeneity. The extension to the geometrically nonlinear range uses the direct approach based on the principle of virtual work. Vibrations and buckling of pre-stressed structures are studied with the help of linearized incremental formulations, and direct tensor calculus rounds out the list of analytical techniques used throughout the book. A novel theory of thin-walled rods of open profile is subsequently developed from the models of rods and shells, and traditionally applied equations are proven to be asymptotically exa...

  4. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of bioprosthetic heart valves: Significance of arterial wall deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Chen; Kamensky, David; Bazilevs, Yuri; Sacks, Michael S; Hughes, Thomas J R

    2014-10-01

    We propose a framework that combines variational immersed-boundary and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methods for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation of a bioprosthetic heart valve implanted in an artery that is allowed to deform in the model. We find that the variational immersed-boundary method for FSI remains robust and effective for heart valve analysis when the background fluid mesh undergoes deformations corresponding to the expansion and contraction of the elastic artery. Furthermore, the computations presented in this work show that the arterial wall deformation contributes significantly to the realism of the simulation results, leading to flow rates and valve motions that more closely resemble those observed in practice.

  5. Phase transitions, interfacial fluctuations and hidden symmetries for fluids near structured walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A O Parry; J M Romero-Enrique

    2005-05-01

    Fluids adsorbed at micro-patterned and geometrically structured substrates can exhibit novel phase transitions and interfacial fluctuation effects distinct from those characteristic of wetting at planar, homogeneous walls. We review recent theoretical progress in this area paying particular attention to filling transitions pertinent to fluid adsorption near wedges, which have highlighted a deep connection between geometrical and contact angles. We show that filling transitions are not only characterized by large scale interfacial fluctuations leading to universal critical singularities but also reveal hidden symmetries with short-ranged critical wetting transitions and properties of dimensional reduction. We propose a non-local interfacial model which fulfills all these properties and throws light on long-standing problems regarding the order of the 3D short-range critical wetting transition.

  6. Chlorophenol sorption on multi-walled carbon nanotubes: DFT modeling and structure-property relationship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marquita; Sizochenko, Natalia; Moore, Quentarius; Golebiowski, Marek; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2017-02-01

    The presence of chlorophenols in drinking water can be hazardous to human health. Understanding the mechanisms of adsorption under specific experimental conditions would be beneficial when developing methods to remove toxic substances from drinking water during water treatment in order to limit human exposure to these contaminants. In this study, we investigated the sorption of chlorophenols on multi-walled carbon nanotubes using a density functional theory (DFT) approach. This was applied to study selected interactions between six solvents, five types of nanotubes, and six chlorophenols. Experimental data were used to construct structure-adsorption relationship (SAR) models that describe the recovery process. Specific interactions between solvents and chlorophenols were taken into account in the calculations by using novel specific mixture descriptors.

  7. Identification and characterization of porcine mannan-binding lectin A (pMBL-A), and determination of serum concentration heritability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H. R.; Krogh-Meibom, T.; Henryon, M.;

    2006-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is an innate immune collectin present in the serum of humans and many farm animals. This oligomeric pattern-recognition protein effectively binds to the glycoconjugate arrays present on the surfaces of microorganisms and activates the complement system to enhance patho...

  8. A structural analysis in seismic archaeology: the walls of Noto and the 1693 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lombardini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A crucial problenl for seismic archeology is how to recognize seismic effects and how to date them. On an experimental basis. we proposed that the problem be reversed, and that we begin at the other end: i.e. by analyzing already known seismic effects on ancient structures, testified by written sources. to be able to .calibrate>> the types or possible observations and any subsequent elaborations. The choice of the walls of Noto was suggested by the fact that Noto was abandoned following the earthquake of l693 (I,= XI MCS. Me 7.5 which had already been studied in depth as part of an ING research programme (1988-92. Moreover, just after recent research, this event proved to be reconstructed with a high quality standard. Photogrammetric measurements were made on several parts of the town walls to plot a numerical model aimed at ascertaining specific aspects of the earthquake damage. An estimate of the ground acceleration during the earthquake has been attempted via non-linear finite-element analyses of a building located by the main city gate. The analyses show that. in order to obtain the building vault collapse, a ground acceleration of 0.5 to 0.7 g had to be reached during the earthquake. This result, typical of a strong earthquake such as the one of 1693, proves that an approach based on finite element analysis and a sound engineering judgment Inay be systematically applied to historical earthquake sites to obtain some estimates of ground acceleration in historical earthquakes. On the whole, this work aimed at starting up the second development phase of the great event of 1693 of which the macroseismic erfects are known. In the meantime, some possibilities of tackling structural analyses in seismic archaeology are being explored.

  9. Serviceability limit state related to excessive lateral deformations to account for infill walls in the structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. S. ALVA

    Full Text Available Brazilian Codes NBR 6118 and NBR 15575 provide practical values for interstory drift limits applied to conventional modeling in order to prevent negative effects in masonry infill walls caused by excessive lateral deformability, however these codes do not account for infill walls in the structural model. The inclusion of infill walls in the proposed model allows for a quantitative evaluation of structural stresses in these walls and an assessment of cracking in these elements (sliding shear diagonal tension and diagonal compression cracking. This paper presents the results of simulations of single-story one-bay infilled R/C frames. The main objective is to show how to check the serviceability limit states under lateral loads when the infill walls are included in the modeling. The results of numerical simulations allowed for an evaluation of stresses and the probable cracking pattern in infill walls. The results also allowed an identification of some advantages and limitations of the NBR 6118 practical procedure based on interstory drift limits.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Different Masonry Infill Walls with Structural Fuse Elements Based on In-Plane Cyclic Load Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kauffman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of a structural fuse concept developed for use as a seismic isolation system in the design and retrofit of masonry infill walls. An experimental program was developed and executed to study the behavior of the structural fuse system under cyclic loads, and to evaluate the performance of the system with various masonry materials. Cyclic tests were performed by applying displacement controlled loads at the first, second, and third stories of a two-bay, three-story steel test frame with brick infill walls; using a quasi-static loading protocol to create a first mode response in the structural system. A parametric study was also completed by replacing the brick infill panels with infill walls constructed of concrete masonry units and autoclaved aerated concrete blocks, and applying monotonically increasing, displacement controlled loads at the top story of the test frame.

  11. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir P S

    2015-07-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. It was found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy-assisted purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Dongwei [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhong Jun [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Chunru [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: crwang@iccas.ac.cn; Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-07-15

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes were produced by the conventional arc discharge method, and purified with a two-step treatment. First, the raw soot containing single-walled carbon nanotubes was burned up at ca. 350 deg. C in air to remove amorphous carbon, and then it was treated by strong acidic solvents to remove metal catalysts. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was applied to analyze the defects on single-walled carbon nanotubes in whole purification process, so the experimental conditions can be optimized, and finally high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes were obtained as revealed by various spectroscopic characterizations such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Energy efficiency of the Rural Wall multi-layer structure in low-rise building design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Golova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study on energy efficiency of various wall design solutions and a new multi-layer wall design for low-rise construction as well as the results of television studies on multi-layer and single-layer envelopes. Indoor climate parameters for various wall design solutions are determined. The study reveals the optimal wall design solutions and specifies the theoretical assessment of their energy efficiency in compliance with Russia's national building code 23-02-2003. The paper presents calculations of building heat loss through the exterior building envelope, reduced resistance to heat transfer of walls and total heat loss of the building with the selected outer wall design during the heating season. Recommendations on the application of the new multi-layer wall design using local wall materials in the construction of energy-efficient low-rise buildings are developed. The recommendations include requirements for wall materials, thermal calculations, production guidelines, properties of layers in a multi-layer walls and physical and mechanical properties of wall layers.

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Structures and Interactions of Vancomycin Antibiotics with Cell Wall Analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhibo; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Laskin, Julia

    2008-10-01

    Surface-induced dissociation (SID) of the singly protonated complex of vancomycin antibiotic with cell wall peptide analogue (Nα,Nε-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala) was studied using a 6 T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) specially configured for SID experiments. The binding energy between the vancomycin and the peptide was obtained from the RRKM modeling of the time- and energy resolved fragmentation efficiency curves (TFECs) of the precursor ion and its fragments. Electronic structure calculations of the geometries, proton affinities and binding energies were performed for several model systems including vancomycin (V), vancomycin aglycon (VA), Nα,Nε-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala, and non-covalent complexes of VA with N-acetyl-D-Ala-D-Ala and Nα,Nε-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. Comparison between the experimental and computational results suggests that the most probable structure of the complex observed in our experiments corresponds to the neutral peptide bound to the vancomycin protonated at the secondary amino group of the N-methyl-leucine residue. The experimental binding energy of 30.9 ± 1.8 kcal/mol is in good agreement with the binding energy of 29.3 ± 2.5 kcal/mol calculated for the model system representing the preferred structure of the complex.

  15. Structural ensemble dynamics based closure model for wall-bounded turbulent flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Su She; Ning Hu; You Wu

    2009-01-01

    Wall-bounded turbulent flow involves the development of multi-scale turbulent eddies, as well as a sharply varying boundary layer. Its theoretical descriptions are yet phenomenological. We present here a new framework called structural ensemble dynamics (SED), which aims at using systematically all relevant statistical properties of turbulent structures for a quantitative description of ensemble means. A new set of closure equations based on the SED approach for a turbulent channel flow is presented. SED order functions are defined, and numerically determined from data of direct numerical simulations (DNS). Computational results show that the new closure model reproduces accurately the solution of the original Navier-Stokes simulation, including the mean velocity profile, the kinetic energy of the stream-wise velocity component, and every term in the energy budget equation. It is suggested that the SED-based studies of turbulent structure builds a bridge between the studies of physical mechanisms of turbulence and the development of accurate model equations for engineering predictions.

  16. Electron tomography of structures in the wall of hazel pollen grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacik, Lubomir; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Grote, Monika; Reichelt, Rudolf

    2009-06-01

    The three-dimensional structure of channels and bacula cavities in the wall of hazel pollen grains was investigated by automated electron tomography in order to explore their role in the release of allergen proteins from the pollen grains. 3D reconstructions of 100-150 nm thick resin-embedded sections, stabilized by thin platinum-carbon coating, revealed that the channels aimed directly towards the surface of the grain and that the bacula cavities were randomly sized and merged into larger ensembles. The number and the dimensions of the ensembles were quantitatively determined by neighboring voxel analysis on thresholded reconstructed volumes. To simulate the allergen release, allergen proteins were approximated by a hard sphere model of a diameter corresponding to the largest dimension of the known 3D structure of the major birch allergen, Bet v 1, whose amino acid sequence is highly similar to the amino acid sequence of the major hazel allergen, Cor a 1. The analysis of positions where the hard sphere fits into the resolved channels and bacula cavity structures revealed that unbound allergens could freely traverse through the channels and that the bacula cavities support the path of the allergens towards the surface of the grain.

  17. Turbulent structures in wall-bounded shear flows observed via three-dimensional numerical simulators. [using the Illiac 4 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three recent simulations of tubulent shear flow bounded by a wall using the Illiac computer are reported. These are: (1) vibrating-ribbon experiments; (2) study of the evolution of a spot-like disturbance in a laminar boundary layer; and (3) investigation of turbulent channel flow. A number of persistent flow structures were observed, including streamwise and vertical vorticity distributions near the wall, low-speed and high-speed streaks, and local regions of intense vertical velocity. The role of these structures in, for example, the growth or maintenance of turbulence is discussed. The problem of representing the large range of turbulent scales in a computer simulation is also discussed.

  18. Structural insights into the pH-controlled targeting of plant cell-wall invertase by a specific inhibitor protein

    OpenAIRE

    Hothorn, Michael; Van den Ende, Wim; Lammens, Willem; Rybin, Vladimir; Scheffzek, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Invertases are highly regulated enzymes with essential functions in carbohydrate partitioning, sugar signaling, and plant development. Here we present the 2.6 Å crystal structure of Arabidopsis cell-wall invertase 1 (INV1) in complex with a protein inhibitor (CIF, or cell-wall inhibitor of β-fructosidase) from tobacco. The structure identifies a small amino acid motif in CIF that directly targets the invertase active site. The activity of INV1 and its interaction with CIF are strictly pH-depe...

  19. Extraordinary improvement of the graphitic structure of continuous carbon nanofibers templated with double wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papkov, Dimitry; Beese, Allison M; Goponenko, Alexander; Zou, Yan; Naraghi, Mohammad; Espinosa, Horacio D; Saha, Biswajit; Schatz, George C; Moravsky, Alexander; Loutfy, Raouf; Nguyen, Sonbinh T; Dzenis, Yuris

    2013-01-22

    Carbon nanotubes are being widely studied as a reinforcing element in high-performance composites and fibers at high volume fractions. However, problems with nanotube processing, alignment, and non-optimal stress transfer between the nanotubes and surrounding matrix have so far prevented full utilization of their superb mechanical properties in composites. Here, we present an alternative use of carbon nanotubes, at a very small concentration, as a templating agent for the formation of graphitic structure in fibers. Continuous carbon nanofibers (CNF) were manufactured by electrospinning from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with 1.2% of double wall nanotubes (DWNT). Nanofibers were oxidized and carbonized at temperatures from 600 °C to 1850 °C. Structural analyses revealed significant improvements in graphitic structure and crystal orientation in the templated CNFs, with the largest improvements observed at lower carbonization temperatures. In situ pull-out experiments showed good interfacial bonding between the DWNT bundles and the surrounding templated carbon matrix. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of templated carbonization confirmed oriented graphitic growth and provided insight into mechanisms of carbonization initiation. The obtained results indicate that global templating of the graphitic structure in fine CNFs can be achieved at very small concentrations of well-dispersed DWNTs. The outcomes reveal a simple and inexpensive route to manufacture continuous CNFs with improved structure and properties for a variety of mechanical and functional applications. The demonstrated improvement of graphitic order at low carbonization temperatures in the absence of stretch shows potential as a promising new manufacturing technology for next generation carbon fibers.

  20. Structural characteristics of oligomeric DNA strands adsorbed onto single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxbury, Daniel; Jagota, Anand; Mittal, Jeetain

    2013-01-10

    The single-stranded DNA to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) hybrid continues to attract significant interest as an exemplary biological molecule-nanomaterial conjugate. In addition to their many biomedical uses, such as in vivo sensing and delivery of molecular cargo, DNA-SWCNT hybrids enable the sorting of SWCNTs according to their chirality. Current experimental methods have fallen short of identifying the actual structural ensemble of DNA adsorbed onto SWCNTs that enables and controls several of these phenomena. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been a useful tool for studying the structure of these hybrid molecules. In recent studies, using replica exchange MD (REMD) simulation we have shown that novel secondary structures emerge and that these structures are DNA-sequence and SWCNT-type dependent. Here, we use REMD to investigate in detail the structural characteristics of two DNA-SWCNT recognition pairs: (TAT)(4)-(6,5)-SWCNT, i.e., DNA sequence TATTATTATTAT bound to the (6,5) chirality SWCNT, and (CCG)(2)CC-(8,7)-SWCNT as well as off-recognition pairs (TAT)(4)-(8,7)-SWCNT and (CCG)(2)CC-(6,5)-SWCNT. From a structural clustering analysis, dominant equilibrium structures are identified and show a right-handed self-stitched motif for (TAT)(4)-(6,5) in contrast to a left-handed β-barrel for (CCG)(2)CC-(8,7). Additionally, characteristics such as DNA end-to-end distance, solvent accessible SWCNT surface area, DNA hydrogen bonding between bases, and DNA dihedral distributions have been probed in detail as a function of the number of DNA strands adsorbed onto the nanotube. We find that the DNA structures adsorbed onto a nanotube are also stabilized by significant numbers of non-Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds (intrastrand and interstrand) in addition to π-π stacking between DNA bases and nanotube surface and Watson-Crick pairs. Finally, we provide a summary of DNA structures observed for various DNA-SWCNT hybrids as a preliminary set of motifs that may be

  1. Effects of hanging wall and forward directivity in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake on inelastic displacement response of structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuang; Xie Lili

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of the inelastic response of structures affected by hanging wall and forward directivity in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake are investigated. Inelastic displacement ratios (IDRs) for ground motions impacted by these nearfield effects are evaluated and comprehensively compared to far-field ground motions. In addition, the inelastic displacement responses to hanging wall and footwall ground motions are compared. It is concluded that the inelastic displacement response is significantly affected in the short period range by hanging wall and in the long period range by footwall. Although high peak ground acceleration was observed at hanging wall stations, the IDRs for structures on hanging wall sites are only larger than footwall sites in the very long period range. Forward directivity effects result in larger IDRs for periods longer than about 0.5s. Adopting statistical relationships for IDRs established using far-field ground motions may lead to either overestimation or underestimation in the seismic evaluation of existing structures located in near-field regions, depending on their fundamental vibration periods.

  2. Correlation of Processing, Inner Structure, and Part Properties of Injection Moulded Thin-Wall Parts on Example of Polyamide 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Drummer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In micro- and thin-wall injection moulding the process conditions affect the developed internal structures and thus the resulting part properties. This paper investigates exemplarily on polyamide 66 the interactions of different cooling conditions on the morphological and crystalline structures. The investigations reveal that a slow cooling rate of the melt results in a homogeneous morphology and a higher degree of crystallinity and also a favoured crystalline structure. Consequently, the dielectric behaviour and light transmitting part properties are affected.

  3. Phylogenetic and functional alterations in bacterial community compositions in broiler ceca as a result of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, A; de Leeuw, Marcel; Penaud-Frézet, Stéphanie; Dimova, Diliana; Murphy, R A

    2015-05-15

    This study focused on identifying reproducible effects of dietary supplementation with a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on the broiler cecal bacterial community structure and function in a commercial production setting. Two separate trials, each with a control and a supplemented group, were carried out in the same commercial location and run concurrently. Approximately 10,000 birds from the same commercial hatchery were mirror imaged into each of four commercial broiler sheds and fed either a control or supplemented diet. Cecal contents were obtained on days 7, 21, and 35 posthatch from 12 randomly caught broilers from each group. Bacterial pyrosequencing was performed on all samples, with approximately 250,000 sequences obtained per treatment per time point. The predominant phyla identified at all three time points in both trials were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes, representing >99% of all sequences. MOS supplementation altered the bacterial community composition from 7 days supplementation through 35 days supplementation. Bacteroidetes appeared to be replacing Firmicutes as a result of supplementation, with the most noticeable effects after 35 days. The effects of supplementation were reproducible across both trials. PICRUSt was used to identify differences between the functional potentials of the bacterial communities as a result of MOS supplementation. Using level 3 KEGG ortholog function predictions, differences between control and supplemented groups were observed, with very strong segregation noted on day 35 posthatch in both trials. This indicated that alterations of bacterial communities as a result of MOS are likely to alter the functional capability of the cecum. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Applications of Circular Dichroism for Structural Analysis of Gelatin and Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Circular dichroism (CD is a useful technique for monitoring changes in the conformation of antimicrobial peptides or gelatin. In this study, interactions between cationic peptides and gelatin were observed without affecting the triple helical content of the gelatin, which was more strongly affected by anionic surfactant. The peptides did not adopt a secondary structure in the presence of aqueous solution or Tween 80, but a peptide secondary structure formed upon the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The peptides bound to the phosphate group of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and displayed an alpha-helical conformation while (KW4 adopted a folded conformation. Further, the peptides did not specifically interact with the fungal cell wall components of mannan or laminarin. Tryptophan blue shift assay indicated that these peptides interacted with SDS, LPS, and gelatin but not with Tween 80, mannan, or laminarin. The peptides also displayed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa without cytotoxicity against HaCaT cells at MIC, except for HPA3NT3-analog peptide. In this study, we used a CD spectroscopic method to demonstrate the feasibility of peptide characterization in numerous environments. The CD method can thus be used as a screening method of gelatin-peptide interactions for use in wound healing applications.

  5. Structure of the complex between teicoplanin and a bacterial cell-wall peptide: use of a carrier-protein approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Zentner, Isaac J. [Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (United States); Lazo, Edwin; Jakoncic, Jean; Stojanoff, Vivian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Weeks, Stephen D.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J. [Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Using a carrier-protein strategy, the structure of teicoplanin bound to its bacterial cell-wall target has been determined. The structure reveals the molecular determinants of target recognition, flexibility in the antibiotic backbone and intrinsic radiation sensitivity of teicoplanin. Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are commonly treated with glycopeptide antibiotics such as teicoplanin. This drug inhibits bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding and sequestering a cell-wall precursor: a d-alanine-containing peptide. A carrier-protein strategy was used to crystallize the complex of teicoplanin and its target peptide by fusing the cell-wall peptide to either MBP or ubiquitin via native chemical ligation and subsequently crystallizing the protein–peptide–antibiotic complex. The 2.05 Å resolution MBP–peptide–teicoplanin structure shows that teicoplanin recognizes its ligand through a combination of five hydrogen bonds and multiple van der Waals interactions. Comparison of this teicoplanin structure with that of unliganded teicoplanin reveals a flexibility in the antibiotic peptide backbone that has significant implications for ligand recognition. Diffraction experiments revealed an X-ray-induced dechlorination of the sixth amino acid of the antibiotic; it is shown that teicoplanin is significantly more radiation-sensitive than other similar antibiotics and that ligand binding increases radiosensitivity. Insights derived from this new teicoplanin structure may contribute to the development of next-generation antibacterials designed to overcome bacterial resistance.

  6. Chemical and structural analysis of Eucalyptus globulus and E. camaldulensis leaf cuticles: a lipidized cell wall region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eGuzmán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant cuticle has traditionally been conceived as an independent hydrophobic layer that covers the external epidermal cell wall. Due to its complexity, the existing relationship between cuticle chemical composition and ultra-structure remains unclear to date. This study aimed to examine the link between chemical composition and structure of isolated, adaxial leaf cuticles of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus by the gradual extraction and identification of lipid constituents (cutin and soluble lipids, coupled to spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The soluble compounds and cutin monomers identified could not be assigned to a concrete internal cuticle ultra-structure. After cutin depolymerization, a cellulose network resembling the cell wall was observed, with different structural patterns in the regions ascribed to the cuticle proper and cuticular layer, respectively. Our results suggest that the current cuticle model should be revised, stressing the presence and major role of cell wall polysaccharides. It is concluded that the cuticle may be interpreted as a modified cell wall region which contains additional lipids. The major heterogeneity of the plant cuticle makes it difficult to establish a direct link between cuticle chemistry and structure with the existing methodologies.

  7. Chemical and structural analysis of Eucalyptus globulus and E. camaldulensis leaf cuticles: a lipidized cell wall region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Paula; Fernández, Victoria; Graça, José; Cabral, Vanessa; Kayali, Nour; Khayet, Mohamed; Gil, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The plant cuticle has traditionally been conceived as an independent hydrophobic layer that covers the external epidermal cell wall. Due to its complexity, the existing relationship between cuticle chemical composition and ultra-structure remains unclear to date. This study aimed to examine the link between chemical composition and structure of isolated, adaxial leaf cuticles of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus by the gradual extraction and identification of lipid constituents (cutin and soluble lipids), coupled to spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The soluble compounds and cutin monomers identified could not be assigned to a concrete internal cuticle ultra-structure. After cutin depolymerization, a cellulose network resembling the cell wall was observed, with different structural patterns in the regions ascribed to the cuticle proper and cuticular layer, respectively. Our results suggest that the current cuticle model should be revised, stressing the presence and major role of cell wall polysaccharides. It is concluded that the cuticle may be interpreted as a modified cell wall region which contains additional lipids. The major heterogeneity of the plant cuticle makes it difficult to establish a direct link between cuticle chemistry and structure with the existing methodologies.

  8. Changes in plant cell-wall structure of corn stover due to hot compressed water pretreatment and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Liu, Jianfei; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-08-01

    Corn stover is a potential feedstock for biofuel production. This work investigated physical and chemical changes in plant cell-wall structure of corn stover due to hot compressed water (HCW) pretreatment at 170-190 °C in a tube reactor. Chemical composition analysis showed the soluble hemicellulose content increased with pretreatment temperature, whereas the hemicellulose content decreased from 29 to 7 % in pretreated solids. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the parenchyma-type second cell-wall structure of the plant was almost completely removed at 185 °C, and the sclerenchyma-type second cell wall was greatly damaged upon addition of 5 mmol/L ammonium sulfate during HCW pretreatment. These changes favored accessibility for enzymatic action. Enzyme saccharification of solids by optimized pretreatment with HCW at 185 °C resulted in an enzymatic hydrolysis yield of 87 %, an enhancement of 77 % compared to the yield from untreated corn stover.

  9. Turbulent boundary layer control through spanwise wall oscillation using Kagome lattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Santer, Matthew; Morrison, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    It is well established that a reduction in skin-friction and turbulence intensity can be achieved by applying in-plane spanwise forcing to a surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer. It has also been shown in DNS (M. Quadrio, P. Ricco, & C. Viotti; J. Fluid Mech; 627, 161, 2009), that this phenomenon is significantly enhanced when the forcing takes the form of a streamwise travelling wave of spanwise perturbation. In the present work, this type of forcing is generated by an active surface comprising a compliant structure, based on a Kagome lattice geometry, supporting a membrane skin. The structural design ensures negligible wall normal displacement while facilitating large in-plane velocities. The surface is driven pneumatically, achieving displacements of 3 mm approximately, at frequencies in excess of 70 Hz for a turbulent boundary layer at Reτ ~ 1000 . As the influence of this forcing on boundary layer is highly dependent on the wavenumber and frequency of the travelling wave, a flat surface was designed and optimised to allow these forcing parameters to be varied, without reconfiguration of the experiment. Simultaneous measurements of the fluid and surface motion are presented, and notable skin-friction drag reduction is demonstrated. Airbus support agreement IW202838 is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Structural model for the first wall W-based material in ITER project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehua Xu; Xinkui He; Shuiquan Deng; Yong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    The preparation, characterization, and test of the first wall materials designed to be used in the fusion reactor have remained challenging problems in the material science. This work uses the first-principles method as implemented in the CASTEP package to study the influ-ences of the doped titanium carbide on the structural sta-bility of the W–TiC material. The calculated total energy and enthalpy have been used as criteria to judge the structural models built with consideration of symmetry. Our simulation indicates that the doped TiC tends to form its own domain up to the investigated nano-scale, which implies a possible phase separation. This result reveals the intrinsic reason for the composite nature of the W–TiC material and provides an explanation for the experimen-tally observed phase separation at the nano-scale. Our approach also sheds a light on explaining the enhancing effects of doped components on the durability, reliability, corrosion resistance, etc., in many special steels.

  11. Wall-crossing structures in Donaldson-Thomas invariants, integrable systems and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kontsevich, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Wall-Crossing Structure and discuss it in several examples including complex integrable systems, Donaldson-Thomas invariants and Mirror Symmetry. For a big class of non-compact Calabi-Yau 3-folds we construct complex integrable systems of Hitchin type with the base given by the moduli space of deformations of those 3-folds. Then Donaldson-Thomas invariants of the Fukaya category of such a Calabi-Yau 3-fold can be (conjecturally) described in two more ways: in terms of the attractor flow on the base of the corresponding complex integrable system and in terms of the skeleton of the mirror dual to the total space of the integrable system. The paper also contains a discussion of some material related to the main subject, e.g. Betti model of Hitchin systems with irregular singularities, WKB asymptotics of connections depending on a small parameter, attractor points in the moduli space of complex structures of a compact Calabi-Yau 3-fold, relation to cluster varieties, etc.

  12. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y; Turner, D; Yates, K M; Tizard, I

    2004-12-20

    The clear pulp, also known as inner gel, of Aloe vera L. leaf is widely used in various medical, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. Many beneficial effects of this plant have been attributed to the polysaccharides present in the pulp. However, discrepancies exist regarding the composition of pulp polysaccharide species and an understanding of pulp structure in relation to its chemical composition has been lacking. Thus, we examined pulp structure, isolated structural components and determined their carbohydrate compositions along with analyzing a partially purified pulp-based product (Acemannan hydrogel) used to make Carrisyn hydrogel wound dressing. Light and electron microscopy showed that the pulp consisted of large clear mesophyll cells with a diameter as large as 1000 microm. These cells were composed of cell walls and cell membranes along with a very limited number of degenerated cellular organelles. No intact cellular organelles were found in mesophyll cells. Following disruption of pulp by homogenization, three components were isolated by sequential centrifugation. They were thin clear sheets, microparticles and a viscous liquid gel, which corresponded to cell wall, degenerated cellular organelles and liquid content of mesophyll cells based on morphological and chemical analysis. These three components accounted for 16.2% (+/-3.8), 0.70% (+/-0) and 83.1% of the pulp on a dry weight basis. The carbohydrate composition of each component was distinct; liquid gel contained mannan, microparticles contained galactose-rich polysaccharide(s) and cell walls contained an unusually high level of galacturonic acid (34%, w/w; Gal A). The same three components were also found in Acemannan Hydrogel with mannan as the predominant component. Thus, different pulp structural components are associated with different polysaccharides and thus may potentially be different functionally. These findings may help lay a basis for further studies and development of better

  13. Evolutionary conservation of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in bony fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walter; Sørensen, Rasmus Reng; Koch, Claus

    2010-01-01

    characterized in the rainbow trout but so far no molecules of the lectin pathway have been identified. Based on the generally accepted idea of complement evolution, which predicts that the alternative pathway predates the two other pathways, and that the lectin pathway developed before the classical, we set out...... intestine and the liver. In the liver, we saw co-expression with mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease (MASP). The MBL homologues 2 and 3 (MBL-H2,3) were also found in the vascular system of the rainbow trout. By means of gel size exclusion chromatography of serum we found that MBL-H2......,3 oligomerized heterogeneously from monomers to tetramers of a trimeric collagenous subunit. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic studies showed that the homologues were more related with MBL than any other collectins, and that two previously characterized trout proteins, designated MBL1 and MBL2, should...

  14. Preoperative mannan-binding lectin pathway and prognosis in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of innate immunity is associated with increased susceptibility to infections. In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), postoperative infection is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1......) the relation between the MBL pathway and postoperative infectious complications and survival of patients resected for CRC, and (2) the role of MBL in acute phase response compared to C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: Preoperative MBL concentration, MBL-associated serine protease (MBL/MASP) activity and CRP...... were determined in serum from 611 patients and 150 healthy controls. The patients were observed for 8 years. Postoperative infections, recurrence and survival were recorded. RESULTS: The MBL pathway components were increased in the patients compared with the healthy controls (p

  15. Increased activity of the mannan-binding lectin complement activation pathway in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Christensen, I J

    2004-01-01

    in the colon or rectum, and disease stages according to Dukes' classification. No statistical difference (P=0.20) in frequency of MBL deficiency was found between the patients (20%) and the donors (27%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the MBL complement activation pathway is significantly increased in patients......BACKGROUND: Postoperative bacterial infectious complications are frequent in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), with subsequent increased recurrence rates and poor prognosis. Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) complement activation pathway may cause increased risk of infection......: Serum MBL concentrations and MBL/MASP activity were determined using immunofluorometric assays. The levels are presented as the median, inter-quartile range and range. RESULTS: Serum MBL levels were significantly (P

  16. The organization of the wall filaments and characterization of the matrix structures of Toxoplasma gondii cyst form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemgruber, Leandro; Lupetti, Pietro; Martins-Duarte, Erica S; De Souza, Wanderley; Vommaro, Rossiane C

    2011-12-01

    The encystation process is a key step in Toxoplasma gondii life cycle, allowing the parasite to escape from the host immune system and the transmission among the hosts. A detailed characterization of the formation and structure of the cyst stage is essential for a better knowledge of toxoplasmosis. Here we isolated cysts from mice brains and analysed the cyst wall structure and cyst matrix organization using different electron microscopy techniques. Images obtained showed that the cyst wall presented a filamentous aspect, with circular openings on its surface. The filaments were organized in two layers: a compact one, facing the exterior of the whole cyst and a more loosen one, facing the matrix. Within the cyst wall, we observed tubules and a large number of vesicles. The cyst matrix presented vesicles of different sizes and tubules, which were organized in a network connecting the bradyzoites to each other and to the cyst wall. Large vesicles, with a granular material in their lumen of glycidic nature were observed. Similar vesicles were also found associated with the posterior pole of the bradyzoites and in proximity to the cyst wall. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Influence of large-eddy breakup device on near-wall turbulent structures in turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Seok; Hwang, Jinyul; Yoon, Min; Ahn, Junsun; Sung, Hyung Jin; Flow Control Lab Team

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of a large-eddy breakup (LEBU) device in a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer was performed to investigate the influence of outer structures on the near-wall turbulence. The thin and rectangular shaped LEBU device was placed on y / δ = 0 . 8 and the device reduced the skin-friction coefficient (Cf) up to 17%. Decomposition of Cf showed that the contribution of the Reynolds shear stress decreased along the wall-normal direction. The reduction of the Reynolds shear stress was associated with the decrease of the ejection and sweep events, and in particular the latter was significantly reduced compared to the former in the near-wall region. The spanwise length scale of high-speed structures was more shortened than that of low-speed very near the wall (y+ = 20). As a result, the dispersive motions induced by the outer sweeps were weakened leading to the reduction of Cf even the LEBU device located far from the wall. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  18. Partial overlap of anti-mycobacterial, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Müller; Thomas Schaffer; Alain M Schoepfer; Annamarie Hilty; Thomas Bodmer; Frank Seibold

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To test whether humoral immune reaction against mycobacteria may play a role in anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) generation in Crohn's disease (CD) and/or whether it correlates with clinical subtypes.METHODS: The dominant ASCA epitope was detected by Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNL)-binding assay. ASCA and IgG against mycobacterial lysates (M avium, M smegmatis, M chelonae, M bovis BCG, M avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP)] or purified lipoarabinomannans (LAM) were detected by ELISA. ASCA and anti-mycobacterial antibodies were affinity purified to assess cross-reactivities. Anti-mycobacterial IgG were induced by BCG-infection of mice.RESULTS: GNL bound to different extents to mycobacterial lysates, abundantly to purified mannose-capped (Man) I_AM from M tuberculosis, but not to uncapped LAM from M smegmatis. Fifteen to 45% of CD patients but only 0%-6% of controls were seropositive against different mycobacterial antigens. Anti-mycobacterial IgG correlated with ASCA (r=0.37-0.64; P=0.003-P<0.001). ASCA-positivity and deficiency for mannan-binding lectin synergistically associated with anti-mycobacterial IgG. In some patients, anti-mycobacterial antibodies represent cross-reactive ASCA. Vice-versa, the predominant fraction of ASCA did not cross-react with mycobacteria. Finally, fistulizing disease associated with antibodies against M avium, M smegmatis and MAP (P=0.024,0.004 and 0.045, respectively).CONCLUSION: Similar to ASCA, seroreactivity against mycobacteria may define CD patients with complicated disease and a predisposition for immune responses against ubiquitous antigens. While in some patients anti-mycobacterial antibodies strongly cross-react with yeast mannan; these cross-reactive antibodies only represent a minor fraction of total ASCA. Thus, mycobacterial infection unlikely plays a role in ASCA induction.

  19. Comparison of two Candida mannan vaccines: the role of complement in protection against disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongmoon; Rhew, Ki Yon

    2012-11-01

    We have previously shown that Candida albicans mannan extract encapsulated in liposomes [Lipo-mann] or conjugated to a protein (bovine serum albumin) [Conju-mann] induces the production of antibody in BALB/c mice with normal complement system that protect against disseminated candidiasis. In this present study, we determined the protective abilities of two formulae in a C5-deficient mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. It is known that the lack of C5 is known to aggravate candidal infection. In experiments, BALB/c or C5-deficient mice-DBA/2J and AKR mice, were immunized with one of the formulae before intravenous challenge with live C. albicans yeast cells and their degrees of survivability were measured. Results showed that Conju-mann was 100% protective in BALB/c mice against disseminated candidiasis, whereas only 60% of Lipo-mann immunized mice survived the entire 50 day observation period (p < 0.05). With the DBA/2J strain, Conju-mann resulted in a partial protection, but Lipo-mann had no protection. The conjugate vaccine enhanced the resistance of AKR mice, which resulted in three survivors of the five Conju-immunized AKR mice until the end of 50 day observation period (p < 0.05). Lipo-mann showed little protection in AKR mice. By agglutination analyses, it was determined that there was the same level of production of polyclonal antisera specific to the mannan regardless of the mouse strains. All data indicate that both formulations require complement in the protection. However, Conju-mann appears to be superior to Lipo-mann because the conjugate vaccine is protective even in the absence of C5. These observations suggest that the conjugate vaccine can be an excellent vaccine formulation against C. alibicans infections.

  20. bcpmr1 encodes a P-type Ca(2+)/Mn(2+)-ATPase mediating cell-wall integrity and virulence in the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Verónica; Lagües, Yanssuy; Carvajal, Mauro; Pérez-García, Luis A; Mora-Montes, Hector M; Canessa, Paulo; Larrondo, Luis F; Castillo, Luis

    2015-03-01

    The cell wall of fungi is generally composed of an inner skeletal layer consisting of various polysaccharides surrounded by a layer of glycoproteins. These usually contain both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides, coupled to the proteins by stepwise addition of mannose residues by mannosyltransferases in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. In yeast, an essential luminal cofactor for these mannosyltransferases is Mn(2+) provided by the Ca(2+)/Mn(2+)-ATPase known as Pmr1. In this study, we have identified and characterized the Botrytis cinerea pmr1 gene, the closest homolog of yeast PMR1. We hypothesized that bcpmr1 also encodes a Ca(2+)/Mn(2+)-ATPase that plays an important role in the protein glycosylation pathway. Phenotypic analysis showed that bcpmr1 null mutants displayed a significant reduction in conidial production, radial growth and diameter of sclerotia. Significant alterations in hyphal cell wall composition were observed including a 83% decrease of mannan levels and an increase in the amount of chitin and glucan. These changes were accompanied by a hypersensitivity to cell wall-perturbing agents such as Calcofluor white, Congo red and zymolyase. Importantly, the Δbcpmr1 mutant showed reduced virulence in tomato (leafs and fruits) and apple (fruits) and reduced biofilm formation. Together, our results highlight the importance of bcpmr1 for protein glycosylation, cell wall structure and virulence of B. cinerea.

  1. Influence of Zn ion implantation on structures and field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The structures and field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays implanted with Zn+ by MEVVA ion implanter have been investigated.The results revealed that Zn+implantation induced structural damage and that the top of carbon nanotubes with multi-layered graphite structure were transformed into carbon nanowires with amorphous structure.Meanwhile,C:Zn solid solution was synthesized after Zn+ implantation.The turn-on field and threshold field were 0.80 and 1.31 V/μm,respectively for original multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays and were reduced to 0.66 and 1.04 V/μm due to the synthesis of C and Zn composite,in which the work function was reduced after low doses of Zn+implantation.It is indicated that low doses of Zn+implantation can improve field emission performance of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays.Otherwise,high doses of Zn+implantation can reduce field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays,because radiation damage reduces the electric field enhancement factor.

  2. Electron irradiation-induced change of structure and damage mechanisms in multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑群; 李兴冀; 刘超铭; 马国亮; 高峰

    2015-01-01

    Owing to their unique structure and excellent electrical property, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an ideal candidate for making future electronic components have great application potentiality. In order to meet the requirements for space appli-cation in electronic components, it is necessary to study structural changes and damage mechanisms of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), caused by the irradiations of 70 and 110 keV electrons. In the paper, the changes of structure and damage mechanisms in the irradiated MWCNTs, induced by the irradiations of 70 and 110 keV electrons, are investigated. The changes in surface morphology and structure of the irradiated MWCNT film are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. It is found that the MWCNTs show different behaviors in structural changes after 70 and 110 keV electron irradiation due to different damage mechanisms. SEM results reveal that the irra-diation of 70 keV electrons does not change surface morphology of the MWCNT film, while the irradiation of 110 keV electrons with a high fluence of 5 × 1015 cm−2 leads to evident morphological changes, such as the formation of a rough surface, the entanglement of nanotubes and the shrinkage of nanotubes. Based on Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and XRD analyses, it is confirmed that the irradiation of 70 keV electrons increases the interlayer spacing of the MWCNTs and disorders their structure through electronic excitations and ionization effects, while the irradiation of 110 keV electrons obviously reduces the interlayer spacing of the MWCNTs and improves their graphitic order through knock-on atom dis-placements. The improvement of the irradiated MWCNTs by 110 keV electrons is attributed to the restructuring of defect sites induced by knock-on atom displacements. EPR spectroscopic analyses reveal that the MWCNTs

  3. Control of cracking in R.C. Structures: Numerical simulation of a squat shear wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoni, C.; Belletti, B.; Lilliu, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the behavior of a squat shear wall subjected to monotonic shear loading is investigated. The study fits into the experimental program driven by CEOS.fr on modeling of the behavior of the tested mocks-ups (monotonic and cycling loading-under prevented or free shrinkage). The shear wall

  4. First-principles calculations on the structure and electronic properties of boron doping zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN QingBo; YU ShanSheng; ZHENG WeiTao

    2009-01-01

    Calculations have been made for single-walled zigzag (n, 0) carbon nanotubes containing substitutional boron impurity atoms using ab initio density functional theory. It is found that the formation energies of these nanotubes depend on the tube diameter, as do the electronic properties, and show periodic fea-ture that results from their different π bonding structures compared to those of perfect zigzag carbon nanotubes. When more boron atoms are incorporated into a single-walled zigzag carbon nanotube, the substitutional boron atoms tend to come together to form structure of BC3 nanodomains, and B-doped tubes have striking acceptor states above the top of the valence bands. For the structure of BC3, there are two kinds of configurations with different electronic structures.

  5. First-principles calculations on the structure and electronic properties of boron doping zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Calculations have been made for single-walled zigzag(n,0) carbon nanotubes containing substitutional boron impurity atoms using ab initio density functional theory.It is found that the formation energies of these nanotubes depend on the tube diameter,as do the electronic properties,and show periodic fea-ture that results from their different π bonding structures compared to those of perfect zigzag carbon nanotubes.When more boron atoms are incorporated into a single-walled zigzag carbon nanotube,the substitutional boron atoms tend to come together to form structure of BC3 nanodomains,and B-doped tubes have striking acceptor states above the top of the valence bands.For the structure of BC3,there are two kinds of configurations with different electronic structures.

  6. Modification of the electronic structure in single-walled carbon nanotubes with aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S. [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G. [Department of Physics, Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Bulusheva, L.G. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 3 Ac. Lavrentyev ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx ave., Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    We investigated the interactions of two aromatic amines, N,N,N'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks. Adsorption and intercalation of amine molecules in bundled SWNTs is expected to modify the electronic structure of nanotubes in a similar way as has already been observed for alkali metals. Our ab initio density functional calculations demonstrate that TMPD donates electron to the nanotube and produces donor-like states below the conduction band whereas the effect of the TMP treatment is very weak. The electron transfer to the nanotubes has been supported experimentally by the XPS valence band spectra which show strongly modified spectral features. Especially an increase of the electronic density at the Fermi level upon adsorption of TMPD and TMP is clearly demonstrated. Rather intensive features between {pi}* and {sigma}* transitions in the NEXAFS spectrum of the pristine SWNTs attributed to the oxidized carbon functional groups are chemically modified upon adsorption of amines on the networks. This fact suggests that the aromatic amines evidently react with the defects, remove or replace oxygen species responsible for the p-type doping of SWNTs, and therefore are acting as a de-doping agent for the naturally p-type doped semiconducting SWNTs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Structure, stability, and motion of dislocations in double-wall carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Kai-Wang; Li Zhong-Qiu; Wu Jian; Peng Xiang-Yang; Tan Xin-Jun; Sun Li-Zhong; Zhong Jian-Xin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a novel double-wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT) with both edge and screw dislocations is studied by using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The differences between two adjacent tubule indexes of armchair and zigzag nanotubes are determined to be 5 and 9,respectively,by taking into account the symmetry,integrality,and thermal stability of the composite structures. It is found that melting first occurs near the dislocations,and the melting temperatures of the dislocated armchair and zigzag DWCNTs are around 2600 K-2700 K.At the premelting temperatures,the shrink of the dislocation loop,which is comprised of edge and screw dislocations,implies that the composite dislocation in DWCNTs has self-healing ability.The dislocated DWCNTs first fracture at the edge dislocations,which induces the entire break in axial tensile test. The dislocated DWCNTs have a smaller fracture strength compared to the perfect DWCNTs.Our results not only match with the dislocation glide of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in experiments,but also can free from the electron beam radiation under experimental conditions observed by the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM),which is deemed to cause the motion of dislocation loop.

  8. Structure, stability, and motion of dislocations in double-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Wang; Li, Zhong-Qiu; Wu, Jian; Peng, Xiang-Yang; Tan, Xin-Jun; Sun, Li-Zhong; Zhong, Jian-Xin

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel double-wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT) with both edge and screw dislocations is studied by using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The differences between two adjacent tubule indexes of armchair and zigzag nanotubes are determined to be 5 and 9, respectively, by taking into account the symmetry, integrality, and thermal stability of the composite structures. It is found that melting first occurs near the dislocations, and the melting temperatures of the dislocated armchair and zigzag DWCNTs are around 2600 K—2700 K. At the pre-melting temperatures, the shrink of the dislocation loop, which is comprised of edge and screw dislocations, implies that the composite dislocation in DWCNTs has self-healing ability. The dislocated DWCNTs first fracture at the edge dislocations, which induces the entire break in axial tensile test. The dislocated DWCNTs have a smaller fracture strength compared to the perfect DWCNTs. Our results not only match with the dislocation glide of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in experiments, but also can free from the electron beam radiation under experimental conditions observed by the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), which is deemed to cause the motion of dislocation loop.

  9. ARTERIAL WALL OF THE ALBINO RAT: MORPHOMETRIC STRUCTURE AND GENERAL MORPHOPHYSIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Orsi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological structure and some morphometric parameters referring the aortic architecture of the adult albino rat were focused from the three segmental parts of the aorta comprising the thoracic ascendant and thoracic descendant parts, and the abdominal part of aorta immediately caudal to the renal arteries emergency. Slides containing transversal samples of aortic segments stained by Masson’s trichromes were studied and morphometrically analyzed through a Zeiss KS 300® system. The abdominal aortic segment showed a mixed pattern from the mural building formed by similar amounts of smooth muscle cells and connective matrix elements, being represented by collagen and elastic lamellae and fibers. However a classic elastic mural pattern was verified in the thoracic segments of the rat aorta, an intermingled pattern mainly occurred between the smooth muscle cells and matrix elements in all the segments of the rat aorta. The thickness of the aortic wall showed a numeric progressive lower from the ascendant part to the abdominal part of aorta. Similar pattern was verified for the number of elastic lamellae, which the major lamellar number observed could be related with the luminal vortex flow observed inside the ascendant aortic part. Also the aortic diameters verified decreased progressively from the ascendant to the abdominal part of aorta.

  10. Superconductivity on the density-wave background with soliton-wall structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, P.D. [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: grigorev@itp.ac.ru

    2009-03-01

    Superconductivity (SC) may microscopically coexist with density wave (DW) when the nesting of the Fermi surface (FS) is not perfect. There are, at least, two possible microscopic structures of a DW state with quasi-particle states remaining on the Fermi level and leading to the Cooper instability: (i) the soliton-wall phase and (ii) the small ungapped FS pockets. The dispersion of such quasi-particle states strongly differs from that without DW, and so do the properties of SC on the DW background. The upper critical field H{sub c2} in such an SC state strongly increases as the system approaches the critical pressure, where SC first appears. H{sub c2} may considerably exceed its typical value without DW and has unusual upward curvature as function of temperature. The results obtained explain the experimental observations in layered organic superconductors (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} and {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4}.

  11. Templated Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Specific Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Li, Meihui; Liu, Xiyan; Zhao, Xiulan; Zhang, Daqi; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Juan; Li, Yan

    2016-04-19

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have shown great potential in various applications attributed to their unique structure-dependent properties. Therefore, the controlled preparation of chemically and structurally pristine SWNTs is a crucial issue for their advanced applications (e.g., nanoelectronics) and has been a great challenge for two decades. Epitaxial growth from well-defined seeds has been shown to be a promising strategy to control the structure of SWNTs. Segments of carbon nanotubes, including short pipes from cutting of preformed nanotubes and caps from opening of fullerenes or cyclodehydrogenation of polycyclic hydrocarbon precursors, have been used as the seeds to grow SWNTs. Single-chirality SWNTs were obtained with both presorted chirality-pure SWNT segments and end caps obtained from polycyclic hydrocarbon molecules with designed structure. The main challenges of nanocarbon-segment-seeded processes are the stability of the seeds, yield, and efficiency. Catalyst-mediated SWNT growth is believed to be more efficient. The composition and morphology of the catalyst nanoparticles have been widely reported to affect the chirality distribution of SWNTs. However, chirality-specific SWNT growth is hard to achieve by alternating catalysts. The specificity of enzyme-catalyzed reactions brings us an awareness of the essentiality of a unique catalyst structure for the chirality-selective growth of SWNTs. Only catalysts with the desired atomic arrangements in their crystal planes can act as structural templates for chirality-specific growth of SWNTs. We have developed a new family of catalysts, tungsten-based intermetallic compounds, which have high melting points and very special crystal structures, to facilitate the growth of SWNTs with designed chirality. By the use of W6Co7 catalysts, (12,6) SWNTs were directly grown with purity higher than 92%. Both high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements and density functional theory simulations

  12. NUCLEON STRUCTURE IN LATTICE QCD WITH DYNAMICAL DOMAIN--WALL FERMIONS QUARKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIN H.-W.; OHTA, S.

    2006-10-02

    We report RBC and RBC/UKQCD lattice QCD numerical calculations of nucleon electroweak matrix elements with dynamical domain-wall fermions (DWF) quarks. The first, RBC, set of dynamical DWF ensembles employs two degenerate flavors of DWF quarks and the DBW2 gauge action. Three sea quark mass values of 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 in lattice units are used with 220 gauge configurations each. The lattice cutoff is a{sup -1} {approx} 1.7GeV and the spatial volume is about (1.9fm){sup 3}. Despite the small volume, the ratio of the isovector vector and axial charges g{sub A}/g{sub V} and that of structure function moments {sub u-d}/{sub {Delta}u-{Delta}d} are in agreement with experiment, and show only very mild quark mass dependence. The second, RBC/UK, set of ensembles employs one strange and two degenerate (up and down) dynamical DWF quarks and Iwasaki gauge action. The strange quark mass is set at 0.04, and three up/down mass values of 0.03, 0.02 and 0.01 in lattice units are used. The lattice cutoff is a{sup -1} {approx} 1.6GeV and the spatial volume is about (3.0fm){sup 3}. Even with preliminary statistics of 25-30 gauge configurations, the ratios g{sub A}/g{sub V} and {sub u-d}/{sub {Delta}u-{Delta}d} are consistent with experiment and show only very mild quark mass dependence. Another structure function moment, d{sub 1}, though yet to be renormalized, appears small in both sets.

  13. The mechanism for the generation of coherent structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周恒; 熊忠民

    1995-01-01

    By using the idea of resonant triad of the theory of hydrodynamic stability, a theoretical model was proposed for the generation of the coherent structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. The obtained structural configuration, the spanwise length scale and the convective speed of the coherent structures are in agreement with those obtained by numerical simulations. To further characterize these structures, the probability density distribution of the non-dimensional circulation difference of the largely unsymmetric streamwise vortex pairs has been calculated. Its comparison with those obtained by the numerical simulations is in general satisfactory.

  14. Study of coherent structures of turbulence with large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties using direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinink, Shawn K.; Yaras, Metin I.

    2015-06-01

    Forced-convection heat transfer in a heated working fluid at a thermodynamic state near its pseudocritical point is poorly predicted by correlations calibrated with data at subcritical temperatures and pressures. This is suggested to be primarily due to the influence of large wall-normal thermophysical property gradients that develop in proximity of the pseudocritical point on the concentration of coherent turbulence structures near the wall. The physical mechanisms dominating this influence remain poorly understood. In the present study, direct numerical simulation is used to study the development of coherent vortical structures within a turbulent spot under the influence of large wall-normal property gradients. A turbulent spot rather than a fully turbulent boundary layer is used for the study, for the coherent structures of turbulence in a spot tend to be in a more organized state which may allow for more effective identification of cause-and-effect relationships. Large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties are created by heating the working fluid which is near the pseudocritical thermodynamic state. It is found that during improved heat transfer, wall-normal gradients in density accelerate the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism in the shear layer enveloping low-speed streaks, causing it to roll up into hairpin vortices at a faster rate. It is suggested that this occurs by the baroclinic vorticity generation mechanism which accelerates the streamwise grouping of vorticity during shear layer roll-up. The increased roll-up frequency leads to reduced streamwise spacing between hairpin vortices in wave packets. The density gradients also promote the sinuous instability mode in low-speed streaks. The resulting oscillations in the streaks in the streamwise-spanwise plane lead to locally reduced spanwise spacing between hairpin vortices forming over adjacent low-speed streaks. The reduction in streamwise and spanwise spacing between

  15. Transverse and vortex domain wall structure in magnetic nanowires with uniaxial in-plane anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M T; Bance, S; Dean, J; Schrefl, T; Allwood, D A

    2012-01-18

    Micromagnetic and analytical models are used to investigate how in-plane uniaxial anisotropy affects transverse and vortex domain walls in nanowires where shape anisotropy dominates. The effect of the uniaxial anisotropy can be interpreted as a modification of the effective wire dimensions. When the anisotropy axis is aligned with the wire axis (θ(a) = 0), the wall width is narrower than when no anisotropy is present. Conversely, the wall width increases when the anisotropy axis is perpendicular to the wire axis (θ(a) = π/2). The anisotropy also affects the nanowire dimensions at which transverse walls become unstable. This phase boundary shifts to larger widths or thicknesses when θ(a) = 0, but smaller widths or thicknesses when θ(a) = π/2.

  16. External wall structure of green rural houses in Daqing, China, based on life cycle and ecological footprint theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Daqing is situated in one of the severely cold regions of China. The living environment in this region is extremely poor because of the harsh climate and the backward economy. The external wall is an important component of the external envelope of buildings, and it greatly contributes to the indoor thermal environment. By taking the external wall as the research object, this study summarizes the characteristics of the external wall structure and analyzes the common materials used in existing rural residences. Specifically, we combine life cycle theory and ecological footprint (EF theory and introduce the green external wall structure, as well as its application in practice, in accordance with the local ecosystem. Results show that anecological residence offers a better environment and greater economic benefits than a traditional residence. The annual energy consumption, CO2 consumption, and EF of the ecological residence in this study are lower than those of the traditional residence by 69.61%, 17.5 t, and 99.47%, respectively.

  17. Simulating low frequency sound transmission through walls and windows by a two-way coupled fluid structure interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvholt, Finn; Norèn-Cosgriff, Karin; Madshus, Christian; Ellingsen, Ståle Engvik

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft, supersonic flights, blasts, and explosions emit sound with substantial energy below 100 Hz. When the low frequency sound is transmitted inside a building, it generates vibration and rattling that may lead to annoyance. Our understanding of these low frequency phenomena is presently limited. In this paper, we attempt to improve our computational capabilities related to the low frequency sound transmission. For this purpose, a finite element methodology that incorporates a two-way coupled fluid-structure interaction, has been developed. Results from a broad experimental investigation of low frequency sound transmission are compared with the numerical finite element simulations. Plain walls, and walls with windows are studied. Close agreement between the simulations and the laboratory measurement data is obtained in the frequency range investigated (10-100 Hz). It was found that structural connections were of large importance for modeling the vibration and sound transmission. The windows control the low frequency transmission from 15 to 30 Hz, whereas the walls control the sound transmission from 30 to 100 Hz. Mitigation of vibrations and rattling induced by low frequency sound therefore needs to consider both wall and window construction.

  18. Three-dimensional structures and turbulence closure of the wake developing in a wall shear layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, C.

    1981-01-01

    The turbulent wake interacting with the rotating wall shear layer is investigated analytically and numerically. The turbulent wakes of the rotating blades in a compressor which are interacting with the rotating hub-wall boundary layer are analyzed. A modified version of the closure model of the pressure-strain correlation term in the Reynolds stress transport equation is developed to predict the effect of rotation, which is appreciable for the present flow because the thick hub-wall boundary layer is interacting with the rotor wake. It is noted that the Poisson type equation for the pressure-strain correlation has an extra rotation term when the entire flow field is rotating. This extra rotation term is modeled to accommodate the effect of rotation. In addition, the standard correction for the wall effect is incorporated for the utilized Reynolds stress closure model. The rotation-modified Reynolds stress closure model is used to predict the present flow, and the predictions are compared with the experimental data. The experimental data reveal that the characteristics of the three-dimensional turbulent wake interacting with the wall shear layer are considerably altered by the effects of the wall and the rotation. These features are predicted with good accuracy by the turbulence closure model developed.

  19. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Mannan from Konjac (Amorphophallus sp. Using Mannanase from Streptomyces lipmanii to Produce Manno-oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashadi Sasongko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mannan is an abundant polysaccharide that can be found in konjac (Amorphophallus sp.. Mannan can be enzymatically hydrolyzed using mannanase to produce manno-oligosaccharides which can be used as a prebiotic. The aims of this research are to determine the production time of mannanase from Streptomyces lipmanii, perform enzyme characterization, optimize the hydrolysis time, and characterize the hydrolysis product. A qualitative assay using the indicator Congo red showed that S. lipmanii generated a clear zone, indicating that S. lipmanii produced mannanase in konjac medium and possessed mannanolytic activity. Enzyme activity was determined through reducing sugar measurement using the dinitrosalycylic acid method, and optimum enzyme production was achieved at the second day of culture. Characterization of the enzyme showed that hydrolysis was optimum at pH 7 and at a temperature of 50 oC. The reducing sugar content was increased by an increasing the hydrolysis time, and reached an optimum time at 2 h. The degree of polymerization value of three was achieved after 2 h hydrolysis of mannan from konjac, indicating the formation of oligosaccharides. Analysis by thin layer chromatography using butanol, acetic acid, and water in a ratio of 2:1:1 as eluent showed the presence of compounds with a retention time between those of mannose and mannotetrose. Confirmation was also performed by HPLC, based on the retention time

  20. Influence of the structural properties on the pseudocritical magnetic behavior of single-wall ferromagnetic nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-Enriquez, C.D. [PCM Computational Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Manizales, A.A. 127 Manizales (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [PCM Computational Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Manizales, A.A. 127 Manizales (Colombia); Restrepo, J. [Grupo de Magnetismo y Simulacion Gplus, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-04-15

    In this work we address the influence of the crystalline structure, concretely when the system under study is formed by square or hexagonal unit cells, upon the magnetic properties and pseudocritical behavior of single-wall ferromagnetic nanotubes. We focus not only on the effect of the geometrical shape of the unit cell but also on their dimensions. The model employed is based on the Monte Carlo method, the Metropolis dynamics and a nearest neighbors classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian. Magnetization per magnetic site, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and magnetic energy were computed. These properties were computed varying the system size, unit cell dimension and temperature. The dependence of the nearest neighbor exchange integral on the nanotubes geometrical characteristics is also discussed. Results revealed a strong influence of the system topology on the magnetic properties caused by the difference in the coordination number between square and hexagonal unit cell. Moreover, the nanotubes diameter influence on magnetic properties is only observed at very low values, when the distance between atoms is less than it, presented by the 2D sheet. On the other hand, it was concluded that the surface-related finite-size effects do not influence the magnetic nanotubes properties, contrary to the case of other nano-systems as thin films and nanoparticles among others. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit cell geometry has strong influence on the magnetic properties in ferromagnetic nanotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanotube diameter increase produces a decrease of interaction between nearest neighbor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface-related finite-size effects do not influence the magnetic nanotubes properties.

  1. Coupled Static and Dynamic Buckling Modelling of Thin-Walled Structures in Elastic Range Review of Selected Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołakowski Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of papers that investigate the static and dynamic coupled buckling and post-buckling behaviour of thin-walled structures is carried out. The problem of static coupled buckling is sufficiently well-recognized. The analysis of dynamic interactive buckling is limited in practice to columns, single plates and shells. The applications of finite element method (FEM or/and analytical-numerical method (ANM to solve interaction buckling problems are on-going. In Poland, the team of scientists from the Department of Strength of Materials, Lodz University of Technology and co-workers developed the analytical-numerical method. This method allows to determine static buckling stresses, natural frequencies, coefficients of the equation describing the post-buckling equilibrium path and dynamic response of the plate structure subjected to compression load and/or bending moment. Using the dynamic buckling criteria, it is possible to determine the dynamic critical load. They presented a lot of interesting results for problems of the static and dynamic coupled buckling of thin-walled plate structures with complex shapes of cross-sections, including an interaction of component plates. The most important advantage of presented analytical-numerical method is that it enables to describe all buckling modes and the post-buckling behaviours of thin-walled columns made of different materials. Thin isotropic, orthotropic or laminate structures were considered.

  2. Structure and Mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarS, the Wall Teichoic Acid β-glycosyltransferase Involved in Methicillin Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Sobhanifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing interest in teichoic acids as targets for antibiotic drug design against major clinical pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, reflecting the disquieting increase in antibiotic resistance and the historical success of bacterial cell wall components as drug targets. It is now becoming clear that β-O-GlcNAcylation of S. aureus wall teichoic acids plays a major role in both pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. Here we present the first structure of S. aureus TarS, the enzyme responsible for polyribitol phosphate β-O-GlcNAcylation. Using a divide and conquer strategy, we obtained crystal structures of various TarS constructs, mapping high resolution overlapping N-terminal and C-terminal structures onto a lower resolution full-length structure that resulted in a high resolution view of the entire enzyme. Using the N-terminal structure that encapsulates the catalytic domain, we furthermore captured several snapshots of TarS, including the native structure, the UDP-GlcNAc donor complex, and the UDP product complex. These structures along with structure-guided mutants allowed us to elucidate various catalytic features and identify key active site residues and catalytic loop rearrangements that provide a valuable platform for anti-MRSA drug design. We furthermore observed for the first time the presence of a trimerization domain composed of stacked carbohydrate binding modules, commonly observed in starch active enzymes, but adapted here for a poly sugar-phosphate glycosyltransferase.

  3. Dietary live yeast and mannan-oligosaccharide supplementation attenuate intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction induced by Escherichia coli in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Li, Zhui; Han, Qiqi; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Bo; D'inca, Romain

    2016-12-01

    The effects of live yeast (LY) and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on intestinal disruption induced by Escherichia coli in broilers were investigated. The experimental design was a 3×2 factorial arrangement with three dietary treatments (control, 0·5 g/kg LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 1·0×1010 colony-forming units/g), 0·5 g/kg MOS) and two immune treatments (with or without E. coli challenge from 7 to 11 d of age). Samples were collected at 14 d of age. The results showed that E. coli challenge impaired (P<0·05) growth performance during the grower period (1-21 d) and the overall period (1-35 d) of broilers, increased (P<0·05) serum endotoxin and diamine oxidase levels coupled with ileal myeloperoxidase and lysozyme activities, whereas reduced (P<0·05) maltase activity, and compromised the morphological structure of the ileum. Besides, it increased (P<0·05) the mRNA expressions of several inflammatory genes and reduced occludin expression in the ileum. Dietary treatment with both LY and MOS reduced (P<0·05) serum diamine oxidase and ileal myeloperoxidase levels, but elevated villus height (P<0·10) and the ratio of villus height:crypt depth (P<0·05) of the ileum. It also alleviated (P<0·05) E. coli-induced increases (P<0·05) in ileal Toll-like receptor 4, NF-κ B and IL-1 β expressions. Moreover, LY supplementation reduced (P<0·05) feed conversion ratio of birds during the grower period and enhanced (P<0·05) the community diversity (Shannon and Simpson indices) of ileal microbiota, whereas MOS addition counteracted (P<0·05) the decreased ileal IL-10 and occludin expressions in challenged birds. In conclusion, both LY and MOS supplementation could attenuate E. coli-induced intestinal disruption by alleviating intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction in broilers. Moreover, LY addition could improve intestinal microbial community structure and feed efficiency of broilers.

  4. Discrimination of the wall effect in a thin counter with micro-gap structure for neutron position sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakae, Takeji; Manabe, Tohru; Kitamura, Yasunori; Nohtomi, Akihiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Sigeyasu

    1996-07-01

    Simulation by the Monte Carlo method is applied to estimate the wall effect in a thermal neutron counter having a new function for discriminating the effect. The counter is designed to have paralleled electrodes with micro-gap structure. A resistive anode is used for position sensing on the center of a set of the three electrode. The structure can be made by simple arrangement of anode and cathode wires on an insulator plane. The calculation shows discrimination of the wall effect can be achieved by coincident counting of two or three elements included in the counter. By using the coincident counting, the thickness of the neutron counter can be made into 1 mm with the information of the total energy created in the neutron detection. (author)

  5. Evolution of plant cell wall: Arabinogalactan-proteins from three moss genera show structural differences compared to seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Desirée; Baumann, Alexander; Maeder, Malte; Geske, Thomas; Heise, Esther Marie; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Classen, Birgit

    2017-05-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are important proteoglycans of plant cell walls. They seem to be present in most, if not all seed plants, but their occurrence and structure in bryophytes is widely unknown and actually the focus of AGP research. With regard to evolution of plant cell wall, we isolated AGPs from the three mosses Sphagnum sp., Physcomitrella patens and Polytrichastrum formosum. The moss AGPs show structural characteristics common for AGPs of seed plants, but also unique features, especially 3-O-methyl-rhamnose (trivial name acofriose) as terminal monosaccharide not found in arabinogalactan-proteins of angiosperms and 1,2,3-linked galactose as branching point never found in arabinogalactan-proteins before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonlinear Modeling of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Wall Strengthened using Ferrocement Sandwich Structure

    KAUST Repository

    M., Abdel-Mooty

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block are used mainly as non-load-bearing walls that provide heat insulation. This results in considerable saving in cooling energy particularly in hot desert environment with large variation of daily and seasonal temperatures. However, due to the relatively low strength there use load bearing walls is limited to single storey and low-rise construction. A system to enhance the strength of the AAC masonry wall in resisting both inplane vertical and combined vertical and lateral loads using ferrocement technology is proposed in this research. The proposed system significantly enhances the load carrying capacity and stiffness of the AAC wall without affecting its insulation characteristics. Ferrocement is made of cement mortar reinforced with closely spaced wire mesh. Full scale wall specimens with height of 2100mm and width of 1820mm were tested with different configuration of ferrocement. A finite elementmodel is developed and verified against the experimentalwork. The results of the finite element model correlates well with the experimental results.

  7. Spin distributions and dynamics in domain walls guided by soft magnetic nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jusang; Erskine, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to investigate static and dynamic properties of spin distributions within domain walls confined by rectangular cross section Permalloy nanowire conduits having widths up to 1000 nm and thickness up to 50 nm. Phase boundaries and critical regions associated with domain-wall spin distributions of various topologies [transverse (or asymmetric transverse), vortex, double-vortex, triple-vortex and cross-tie] are accurately determined using high-performance computing resources. Mobility curves are calculated that characterize domain-wall propagation for an interesting region of the spin texture phase diagram: 20 nm thick nanowires with widths of 60-700 nm at axial drive fields extending to 150 Oe. The simulations (and corresponding experiments, which are discussed), reveal new propagating fixed configuration domain-wall topologies with enhanced velocity. Effects of temperature on the spin distributions and dynamics are explored, by conducting simulations that include separately varying temperature-dependent parameters (saturation magnetization and exchange constant) and simulating effects of temperature-dependent fluctuations using the Langevin dynamics feature of the simulation code. Related temperature-dependent experiments are discussed. The simulation studies demonstrate a close connection between static and (field-driven) dynamic spin configurations in nanowire-confined domain walls and demonstrate the importance of exploring model-system parameter space at high numerical precision.

  8. Effect of Agave tequilana juice on cell wall polysaccharides of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca; Arrizon, Javier; Ramirez, Jesús; Solis-Pacheco, Josué

    2007-02-01

    In this study, a characterization of cell wall polysaccharide composition of three yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages was performed. The three yeast strains were isolated from different media (tequila, mezcal and bakery) and were evaluated for the beta(1,3)-glucanase lytic activity and the beta-glucan/ mannan ratio during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice and in YPD media (control). Fermentations were performed in shake flasks with 30 g l(-1) sugar concentration of A. tequilana juice and with the control YPD using 30 g l(-1) of glucose. The three yeasts strains showed different levels of beta-glucan and mannan when they were grown in A. tequilana juice in comparison to the YPD media. The maximum rate of cell wall lyses was 50% lower in fermentations with A. tequilana juice for yeasts isolated from tequila and mezcal than compared to the bakery yeast.

  9. Nucleon structure from mixed action calculations using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratt, Jonathan; Engelhardt, Michael; Haegler, Philipp; Huey-Wen, Lin; Lin, Meifeng; Meyer, Harvey; Musch, Bernhard; Negele, John; Orginos, Konstantinos; Pochinsky, Andrew; Procura, Massimiliano; Richards, David; Schroers, Wolfram; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2010-11-01

    We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin.

  10. Complete Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) Analyses of I-walls Embedded in Level Ground During Flood Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    8217 El=-2.5’ Sheet pile tip ERDC/ITL TR-12-4 10 (CWALSHT) ( Dawkins 1991) and procedures outlined in HQUSACE (1994). The initial design depth of...mechanics. 6th ed. New York: Chapman and Hall. Dawkins , W. P. 1991. User’s guide: Computer program for design and analysis of sheet- pile walls by... Dawkins , R. Mosher, and I. Hallal. 1997. Soil-structure interaction effects in floodwalls. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. http

  11. Reorganization of Coherent Structures Downstream a Circular Cylinder Located between Two Parallel Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rehimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed at low Reynolds numbers in the range 75 Re 275 in the wake of a circular cylinder of dc diameter placed symmetrically between two parallel walls of H height. 2D2C particle image velocimetry (PIV was used to investigate the flow downstream the cylinder. In the unsteady flow regime downstream the cylinder, the detached primary vortices (Pi interact with walls generating secondary ones (Pi’ and modify the cylinder wake dynamic. The kinematical properties (advection velocity, circulation, rotation kinetic energy, etc. of the generated secondary vortices are studied and compared with the primary ones in order to show how the walls influence the von Kármán vortex street. The authors propose here a relation between the circulations and kinetic energies of primary and secondary vortices.

  12. Pea border cell maturation and release involve complex cell wall structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Hansen, Aleksander Riise

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases though, plant cells are programmed to detach and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this....... Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we...... undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea (Pisum sativum) root tip cell walls. Our study included immuno-carbohydrate microarray profiling, monosaccharide composition determination, Fourier-transformed infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR), quantitative RT-PCR of cell wall biosynthetic genes, analysis...

  13. Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy applications for monitoring the structural plasticity of plant cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; Hernández-Altamirano, Mabel; García-Calvo, Laura; Alonso-Simón, Ana; Álvarez, Jesús; Acebes, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy has been extensively used as a potent, fast and non-destructive procedure for analyzing cell wall architectures, with the capacity to provide abundant information about their polymers, functional groups, and in muro entanglement. In conjunction with multivariate analyses, this method has proved to be a valuable tool for tracking alterations in cell walls. The present review examines recent progress in the use of FT-MIR spectroscopy to monitor cell wall changes occurring in muro as a result of various factors, such as growth and development processes, genetic modifications, exposition or habituation to cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors and responses to other abiotic or biotic stresses, as well as its biotechnological applications. PMID:25071791

  14. A Computational Model to Assess Poststenting Wall Stresses Dependence on Plaque Structure and Stenosis Severity in Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuned Hajiali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents computational models to investigate the poststenting hemodynamic stresses and internal stresses over/within the diseased walls of coronary arteries which are in different states of atherosclerotic plaque. The finite element method is applied to build the axisymmetric models which include the plaque, arterial wall, and stent struts. The study takes into account the mechanical effects of the opening pressure and its association with the plaque severity and the morphology. The wall shear stresses and the von Mises stresses within the stented coronary arteries show their strong dependence on the plaque structure, particularly the fibrous cap thickness. Higher stresses occur in severely stenosed coronaries with a thinner fibrous cap. Large stress concentrations around the stent struts cause injury or damage to the vessel wall which is linked to the mechanism of restenosis. The in-stent restenosis rate is also highly dependent on the opening pressure, to the extent that stenosed artery is expanded, and geometry of the stent struts. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that the restenosis is to be viewed as a consequence of biomechanical design of a stent repeating unit, the opening pressure, and the severity and morphology of the plaque.

  15. Manipulation of multiple 360o domain wall structures and its current-driven motion in a magnetic nanostripe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Dong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of multiple transverse walls (TWs in a magnetic nanostripe is studied by micromagnetic simulations. It shows that, when TWs are arranged in a stripe with same orientation, they will attract each other and finally annihilate. However, when adjacent TWs are arranged with opposite orientation, a metastable complex wall can be formed, e.g., two TWs lead to 360o wall. For three or more TWs, the formed complex wall includes a number of 360o substructures, which is called multiple 360o structure (M360S here. The M360S itself may be used to store multiple logical data since each 360o substructure can act as logical ”0” or ”1”. On the other hand, the M360S may behave like single TW under an applied current, namely, the M360S can be driven steadily by current like that of single TW. A parity effect of the number of 360o substructures on the critical current for the annihilation is found. Namely, when the number is odd or even, the critical current increase or decrease with the increasing of the number, respectively. The parity effect is relevant to the out-of-plane magnetic moment of the M360S.

  16. Structure and function of the first full-length murein peptide ligase (Mpl cell wall recycling protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanu Das

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, an essential polymer made by enzymes in the Mur pathway. These proteins are specific to bacteria, which make them targets for drug discovery. MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF catalyze the synthesis of the peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine by the sequential addition of amino acids onto UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc. MurC-F enzymes have been extensively studied by biochemistry and X-ray crystallography. In gram-negative bacteria, ∼30-60% of the bacterial cell wall is recycled during each generation. Part of this recycling process involves the murein peptide ligase (Mpl, which attaches the breakdown product, the tripeptide L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate, to UDP-MurNAc. We present the crystal structure at 1.65 Å resolution of a full-length Mpl from the permafrost bacterium Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 (PaMpl. Although the Mpl structure has similarities to Mur enzymes, it has unique sequence and structure features that are likely related to its role in cell wall recycling, a function that differentiates it from the MurC-F enzymes. We have analyzed the sequence-structure relationships that are unique to Mpl proteins and compared them to MurC-F ligases. We have also characterized the biochemical properties of this enzyme (optimal temperature, pH and magnesium binding profiles and kinetic parameters. Although the structure does not contain any bound substrates, we have identified ∼30 residues that are likely to be important for recognition of the tripeptide and UDP-MurNAc substrates, as well as features that are unique to Psychrobacter Mpl proteins. These results provide the basis for future mutational studies for more extensive function characterization of the Mpl sequence-structure relationships.

  17. Hematology of juvenile pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 fed graded levels of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Yuji Sado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of aquaculture production systems exposes fish to numerous stressors, which may negatively affect their health. This study determined the effects of increasing levels of dietary mannan oligosaccharides (ActiveMOS®-Biorigin on biochemical and hematological parameters of juvenile pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus. Fish (44.04 ± 5.27 g were randomly distributed into 24 tanks (500 L; 10 fishes per tank and fed during 63 days with a commercial diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% MOS. Blood samples were collected at 42 and 63 trial. Red blood cell count (RBC and total plasmatic protein were affected by dietary MOS levels (P < 0.05. Fish fed 1.0% dietary MOS presented higher neutrophils numbers when compared to fish fed control diet and fish fed 1.5% MOS for 42 days presented significant higher granulocytic cell numbers. During trial fish presented increased (P < 0.05 hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and plasmatic glucose concentrations and decreased (P < 0.05 RBC, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell and differential leukocyte count. Dietary MOS levels did not present prebiotic effects for pacu and did not minimize stress effects on hematological and biochemical parameters for the species.

  18. Effect of mannan oligosaccharides and enzyme utilization on broiler bone parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral levels, weight, morphometry, breaking resistance and density of tibia from broilers fed on diets, supplemented or not with mannan oligosaccharides (MOS and/or enzymes, were evaluated. Seven hundred and fifty birds were used in a completely randomized design and factorial arrangement: 2 x 2 + 1 – two MOS levels (0 and 0.1%/0.05%, from 1 to 21/22 to 42 days x two enzyme levels (0 and 0.05% + positive control diet with antibiotics, totalling five treatments with five replicates. At 42 days of age, 50 birds were sacrificed for tibia analyses. There was no effect (P >0.05 of positive control x factorial or MOS x enzyme interactions on P and mineral matter levels, length and distal epiphysis density. MOS inclusion increased Ca levels (P <0.05. Enzymatic supplementation reduced (P <0.04 the weight, diameter and breaking resistance of tibia. Positive control x factorial interaction was significant (P <0.01 for diaphysis and average density, and birds fed diets with no additives had tibia with lower densities than those from the control treatment. It was concluded that diets with reduced crude protein and metabolizable energy of 2%, supplemented with MOS, can be used for broilers with no negative effects on the bone quality.

  19. Diabetes Is Associated with Increased Autoreactivity of Mannan-Binding Lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) has been reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. MBL is a pattern-recognition molecule of the innate immune system that initiates the lectin pathway of the complement system upon recognition of evolutionary conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns or to altered self-tissue. Our group have previously shown direct effects of MBL on diabetes-induced kidney damage, and we hypothesized that MBL may cause autoactivation of the complement system via binding to neoepitopes induced by hyperglycemia. In the present study, we induced diabetes in MBL knockout mice and in wild type C57BL/6J mice by low-dose streptozotocin injection and measured blood glucose and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio to monitor development of diabetes. After 24 weeks, fluorescently labelled recombinant MBL was injected intravenously in diabetic MBL knockout mice after which the distribution was investigated using in vivo fluorescence imaging. Mice were subjected to in vivo and ex vivo imaging 24 hours after injection. MBL was found to accumulate in the kidneys of diabetic mice as compared to healthy control mice (p < 0.0001). These findings support the hypothesis of a significant role of MBL and the complement system in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Prebiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan on Allergic Asthma Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Betty Lew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the unmet needs for asthma management is a new therapeutic agent with both anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle (ASM remodeling effects. The mannose receptor (MR family plays an important role in allergen uptake and processing of major allergens Der p 1 and Fel d 1. We have previously reported that ASM cells express a mannose receptor (ASM-MR and that mannan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC-MN inhibits mannosyl-rich lysosomal hydrolase-induced bovine ASM cell proliferation. Using a humanized transgenic mouse strain (huASM-MRC2 expressing the human MRC2 receptor in a SM tissue-specific manner, we have demonstrated that ASM hyperplasia/hypertrophy can occur as early as 15 days after allergen challenge in this mouse model and this phenomenon is preventable with SC-MN treatment. This proof-of-concept study would facilitate future development of a potential asthma therapeutic agent with dual function of anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle remodeling effects.

  1. The effect of fibronectin on structural and biological properties of single walled carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farokhi, Mehdi [National cell bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atyabi, Fatemeh [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanoechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omidvar, Ramin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National cell bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghizadeh, Majid, E-mail: sadeghma@modares.ac.ir [Department Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the cytocompatibility of single walled carbon nanotube by loading fibronectin. • Enhancing the hydrophilicity and nanosurface roughness of single walled carbon nanotube after loading fibronectin. • Fibronectin makes the surface properties of single walled carbon nanotube more suitable for cell proliferation and growth. - Abstract: Despite the attractive properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), cytoxicity and hydrophobicity are two main considerable features which limit their application in biomedical fields. It was well established that treating CNTs with extracellular matrix components could reduce these unfavourable characteristics. In an attempt to address these issues, fibronectin (FN) with different concentrations was loaded on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) substrate. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were preformed in order to characterize FN loaded SWCNTs substrates. According to XPS and AFM results, FN could interact with SWCNTs and for this, the hydrophilicity of SWCNTs was improved. Additionally, SWCNT modified with FN showed less cytotoxicity compared with neat SWCNT. Finally, FN was shown to act as an interesting extracellular component for enhancing the biological properties of SWCNT.

  2. Structural and chemical evolution of single-wall carbon nanotubes under atomic and molecular deuterium interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.; Keim, E.G.; Berg, van den A.H.J.; Smithers, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of atomic (D) and molecular (D2) deuterium, as present in a (D + D2) gas mixture, with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been studied by means of a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SWNT samp

  3. Spectral and spatial structure of extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser plasma-wall interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, A. S.; Stuik, R.; F. Bijkerk,; Shevelko, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation was observed during the interaction of low-temperature laser plasmas and wall materials. Laser plasmas with electron temperature T-e similar to 40 eV were created on massive solid targets (CF2 and Al) by an excimer KrF laser (248 nm/0.5 J/13 ns/1 Hz). The

  4. Effects of tebuconazole on morphology, structure, cell wall components and trichothecene production of Fusarium culmorum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Z; Huang, L; Krieg, U; Mauler-Machnik, A; Buchenauer, H

    2001-06-01

    The effects of tebuconazole, a systemic fungicide, on the morphology, structure, cell wall components and toxin production of Fusarium culmorum were investigated in vitro. Treatment was by application of four filter paper strips (0.75 cm x 5.0 cm) soaked in 20 micrograms ml-1 fungicide placed around a point inoculum in Petri dishes. Mycelial growth was strongly inhibited by fungicide treatment. Scanning electron microscopic observations showed that the fungicide caused irregular swelling and excessive branching of hyphae. The morphological changes induced by the fungicide at the ultrastructural level included considerable thickening of the hyphal cell walls, excessive septation, the formation of the incomplete septa, extensive vacuolisation, accumulation of lipid bodies and progressing necrosis or degeneration of the hyphal cytoplasm. Non-membrane inclusion bodies were often detected in the hyphal cytoplasm. Furthermore, the formation of new hyphae (daughter hyphae) inside collapsed hyphal cells was common following treatment. The daughter hyphae also displayed severe alterations such as irregular thickening of the cell walls and necrosis of the cytoplasm. Using cytochemical techniques, the labelling densities of chitin and beta-1,3-glucan in the cell walls of the fungicide-treated hyphae were more pronounced than in those of the control hyphae. Moreover, immunogold labelling with antiserum against deoxynivalenol (DON) revealed that Fusarium toxin DON was localized in the cell walls, cytoplasm, mitochondria and vacuoles of the hyphae from the control and the fungicide treatment, but the labelling density in the fungicide-treated hyphae decreased dramatically compared with the control hyphae, indicating that tebuconazole reduced Fusarium toxin production of the fungus.

  5. Water structuring and hydroxide ion binding at the interface between water and hydrophobic Walls of varying rigidity and van der Waals interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vacha, Robert; Zangi, Ronen; Engberts, Jan B. F. N.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    The interfacial behavior of hydroxide ions has been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous KOH solutions between hydrophobic carbon-like walls. In agreement with previous calculations, we show that a rigid, attractive wall strongly structures water molecules in neighborin

  6. The immune response after stimulation with wall components of gram-positive bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigou, Evdoxia; Aloizos, Stavros; Stavros, Aloizos; Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Pavlos, Myrianthefs; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Stavros, Gourgiotis; Tsakris, Athanassios; Athanassios, Tsakris; Baltopoulos, George; George, Baltopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Although several components of the microbial wall of gram-positive bacteria and fungi possess immunostimulatory properties, their pathogenetic role remains incompletely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to assess the basic immune status of patients susceptible to infections and their capability for cytokine production after stimulation with wall components of gram-positive bacteria and fungi. We measured serum cytokine levels as well as cytokine production after ex vivo lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and mannan stimulation of whole blood. The blood was taken from 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), 10 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and 10 patients on their 2nd day of stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who suffered from non septic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and had an APACHE II score ≥25. We used 1 μg/ml LTA and 100 μg/ml mannan for an incubation period of 8 h to stimulate 100 μl aliquots of whole blood. All patient groups had higher baseline values of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 compared to the control group, but only for ICU patients the difference was statistically significant. The ratio IL-10/IL-6 was found 0.33, 0.22, and 0.96 in healthy persons, ESRD, and DM patients respectively, and 1.32 in ICU patients. In all examined groups, the levels of cytokines significantly increased after stimulation by LTA and mannan, although in severely ill patients this change was considerably smaller, possibly reflecting a state of monocytes' depression and relative hyporesponsiveness. No significant differences between the LTA and the mannan stimulation were observed.

  7. Cytochemical Localization of Polysaccharides in Dendrobium officinale and the Involvement of DoCSLA6 in the Synthesis of Mannan Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunmei; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; Liu, Xuncheng; Zeng, Songjun; Yu, Zhenming; Zhang, Xinghua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Deng, Rufang; Tan, Jianwen; Luo, Jianping; Duan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its abundant polysaccharides found in stems. We determined the composition of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch content in D. officinale stems. The extracted water-soluble polysaccharide content was as high as 35% (w/w). Analysis of the composition of monosaccharides showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides were dominated by mannose, to a lesser extent glucose, and a small amount of galactose, in a molar ratio of 223:48:1. Although starch was also found, its content was less than 10%. This result indicated that the major polysaccharides in D. officinale stems were non-starch polysaccharides, which might be mannan polysaccharides. The polysaccharides formed granules and were stored in plastids similar to starch grains, were localized in D. officinale stems by semi-thin and ultrathin sections. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A (CSLA) family members encode mannan synthases that catalyze the formation of mannan polysaccharides. To determine whether the CSLA gene from D. officinale was responsible for the synthesis of mannan polysaccharides, 35S:DoCSLA6 transgenic lines were generated and characterized. Our results suggest that the CSLA family genes from D. officinale play an important role in the biosynthesis of mannan polysaccharides.

  8. Analysis of Multi-Loop Control Structures of Dividing-Wall Distillation Columns Using a Fundamental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Tututi-Avila

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividing-wall columns (DWCs have significant potential as energy-efficient processes for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. However, in addition to an efficient steady state design, dynamics and control also play a major part for the success of a technology. This is especially so for complex distillation systems. This paper investigates the dynamics of a dividing wall column used for the separation of ternary mixtures. A detailed dynamic first principles-based model of the column I s developed in gPROMS. The model is used to generate data used for control loop pairing via the Relative Gain Array (RGA, and controller parameters are found by using Internal Model Control (IMC tuning. The best control structures for DWC systems, involving four different ternary mixtures, and two different feed compositions for each mixture, are investigated.

  9. The Lamportian cell wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. (Michigan State Univ. Plant Research Lab., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  10. Fruit wall anatomical structure of the genus Betula section Lenta (Betulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Yatsenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of the Lentae are referred to lower syncarpous nuts. Unlike most birches, the three-lobed scales in section Lentae stay attached to the axis for a long time. The fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp (derivative of outer tissues of inferior ovary, the tissues of receptacular origin and the pericarp itself (mesocarp and the endocarp derivating from the ovary wall. The epicarp consists of two zones: epidermis and subepidermal zone. Two-four layers of larger sclerenchymatous cells represent the mesocarp. Several layers of parenchymatous cells, which are squeezed and partly obliterated by fruit maturity, compose endocarp. The morphogenetic type of fruit of the genus Betula section Lentae is the pyrenarium of the Olea-type.

  11. Microwave detection of surface and volume moisture in building walls and related structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, E. M.; Ricca, A. M.

    Microwave technique for non-contacting volume and surface moisture measurements in concrete and building walls is described. The reflection and attenuation coefficients of an electromagnetic wave, in the microwave spectrum region, impinging upon a humid wall are studied. Reflection and attenuation are related to the water content. The attenuation coefficient is related to the space-average humidity, while reflection measurements depend also on the humidity profile. By means of a computer simulation surface humidity and surface humidity gradient are both measured by reflectometric techniques. Combining reflection and attenuation measurements, information about the humidity profile is obtained in a non-contacting way. Experimental results on reflection and attenuation measurements are also presented.

  12. Strain-controlled magnetic domain wall propagation in hybrid piezoelectric/ferromagnetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Na; Devolder, Thibaut; Agnus, Guillaume; Aubert, Pascal; Daniel, Laurent; Kim, Joo-Von; Zhao, Weisheng; Trypiniotis, Theodossis; Cowburn, Russell P.; Chappert, Claude; Ravelosona, Dafiné; Lecoeur, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The control of magnetic order in nanoscale devices underpins many proposals for integrating spintronics concepts into conventional electronics. A key challenge lies in finding an energy-efficient means of control, as power dissipation remains an important factor limiting future miniaturization of integrated circuits. One promising approach involves magnetoelectric coupling in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric systems, where induced strains can bear directly on the magnetic anisotropy. While such processes have been demonstrated in several multiferroic heterostructures, the incorporation of such complex materials into practical geometries has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the possibility of generating sizeable anisotropy changes, through induced strains driven by applied electric fields, in hybrid piezoelectric/spin-valve nanowires. By combining magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetoresistance measurements, we show that domain wall propagation fields can be doubled under locally applied strains. These results highlight the prospect of constructing low-power domain wall gates for magnetic logic devices.

  13. Wavelet spectrum analysis on energy transfer of multi-scale structures in wall turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-yan XIA; Yan TIAN; Nan JIANG

    2009-01-01

    The streamwise velocity components at different vertical heights in wall turbulence were measured. Wavelet transform was used to study the turbulent energy spectra, indicating that the global spectrum results from the weighted average of Fourier spectrum based on wavelet scales. Wavelet transform with more vanishing moments can express the declining of turbulent spectrum. The local wavelet spectrum shows that the physical phenomena such as deformation or breakup of eddies are related to the vertical position in the boundary layer, and the energy-containing eddies exist in a multi-scale form. Moreover, the size of these eddies increases with the measured points moving out of the wall. In the buffer region, the small scale energy-containing eddies with higher frequency are excited. In the outer region, the maximal energy is concentrated in the low-frequency large-scale eddies, and the frequency domain of energy-containing eddies becomes narrower.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of Taylor–Couette flow with grooved walls: torque scaling and flow structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Ostilla-Monico, Rodolfo; Verzicco, R.; Lohse, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of Taylor–Couette flow with grooved walls at a fixed radius ratio ${\\it\\eta}=r_{i}/r_{o}=0.714$η=ri/ro=0.714 with inner cylinder Reynolds number up to $Re_{i}=3.76\\times 10^{4}$Rei=3.76×104, corresponding to Taylor number up to $Ta=2.15\\times 10^{9}$Ta=2.15×10

  15. Structure and Characterization of Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Márquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube bundles, SWCNTs, have been synthesized by simple alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition process, carried out at 800∘C. The formed SWCNTs are organized in small groups perpendicularly aligned and attached to the substrate. These small bundles show a constant diameter of ca. 30 nm and are formed by the adhesion of no more than twenty individual SWCNTs perfectly aligned along their length.

  16. Effects of stem structure and cell wall components on bending strength in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Morphological traits, anatomical features, chemical components and bending stress in the stems of three genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), namely Xiaoyan54, 8602 and Xiaoyan81, were examined by means of light microscopy coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Noticeable changes in morphological and anatomical traits were observed, including outer radius of stem, the ratio of stem outer radius to stem wall thickness, various tissue proportions and variations among different types of vascular bundles. The results of chemical analysis revealed that Xiaoyan81 had the highest cellulose content in comparison with Xiaoyan54 and 8602, whereas lignin level in Xiaoyan81 was lower than that in 8602 but higher that that in Xiaoyan54. Bending stress analysis demonstrated that Xiaoyan81 may be the main target for identification, for it had the highest bending stress among the stems of three genotypes. Associated with bending stress, all the results presented here suggested that the ratio of stem wall thickness to its outer radius, schlerenchyma tissue proportion, the average number of big VB per unit and the cellulose content are four important factors affecting the mechanical strength of Xiaoyan81 wheat stems, which can be considered as the key parameters for selecting varieties with bending stress. Therefore, it was suggested that in the selection of lodging resistant cultivars one should consider those characterized with large ratio of outer radius of stem to stem wall thickness, greaterschlerenchyma tissue proportion, high average number of big VB per unit with high cellulose content in their stems.

  17. PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian

    2012-11-01

    The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.

  18. Structural insights into the pH-controlled targeting of plant cell-wall invertase by a specific inhibitor protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothorn, Michael; Van den Ende, Wim; Lammens, Willem; Rybin, Vladimir; Scheffzek, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Invertases are highly regulated enzymes with essential functions in carbohydrate partitioning, sugar signaling, and plant development. Here we present the 2.6 Å crystal structure of Arabidopsis cell-wall invertase 1 (INV1) in complex with a protein inhibitor (CIF, or cell-wall inhibitor of β-fructosidase) from tobacco. The structure identifies a small amino acid motif in CIF that directly targets the invertase active site. The activity of INV1 and its interaction with CIF are strictly pH-dependent with a maximum at about pH 4.5. At this pH, isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that CIF tightly binds its target with nanomolar affinity. CIF competes with sucrose (Suc) for the same binding site, suggesting that both the extracellular Suc concentration and the pH changes regulate association of the complex. A conserved glutamate residue in the complex interface was previously identified as an important quantitative trait locus affecting fruit quality, which implicates the invertase–inhibitor complex as a main regulator of carbon partitioning in plants. Comparison of the CIF/INV1 structure with the complex between the structurally CIF-related pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) and pectin methylesterase indicates a common targeting mechanism in PMEI and CIF. However, CIF and PMEI use distinct surface areas to selectively inhibit very different enzymatic scaffolds. PMID:20858733

  19. Structural insights into the pH-controlled targeting of plant cell-wall invertase by a specific inhibitor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothorn, Michael; Van den Ende, Wim; Lammens, Willem; Rybin, Vladimir; Scheffzek, Klaus

    2010-10-05

    Invertases are highly regulated enzymes with essential functions in carbohydrate partitioning, sugar signaling, and plant development. Here we present the 2.6 Å crystal structure of Arabidopsis cell-wall invertase 1 (INV1) in complex with a protein inhibitor (CIF, or cell-wall inhibitor of β-fructosidase) from tobacco. The structure identifies a small amino acid motif in CIF that directly targets the invertase active site. The activity of INV1 and its interaction with CIF are strictly pH-dependent with a maximum at about pH 4.5. At this pH, isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that CIF tightly binds its target with nanomolar affinity. CIF competes with sucrose (Suc) for the same binding site, suggesting that both the extracellular Suc concentration and the pH changes regulate association of the complex. A conserved glutamate residue in the complex interface was previously identified as an important quantitative trait locus affecting fruit quality, which implicates the invertase-inhibitor complex as a main regulator of carbon partitioning in plants. Comparison of the CIF/INV1 structure with the complex between the structurally CIF-related pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) and pectin methylesterase indicates a common targeting mechanism in PMEI and CIF. However, CIF and PMEI use distinct surface areas to selectively inhibit very different enzymatic scaffolds.

  20. [Numerical Simulation of Propagation of Electric Excitation in the Heart Wall Taking into Account Its Fibrous-Laminar Structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasserman, I N; Matveenko, V P; Shardakov, I N; Shestakov, A P

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of excitation wave in the inhomogeneous anisotropic finite element model of cardiac muscle is investigated. In this model, the inhomogeneity stands for the rotation of anisotropy axes through the wall thickness and results from a fibrous-laminar structure of the cardiac muscle tissue. Conductivity of the cardiac muscle is described using a monodomain model and the Aliev-Panfilov equations are used as the relationships between the transmembrane current and transmembrane potential. Numerical simulation is performed by applying the splitting algorithm, in which the partial differential solution to the nonlinear boundary value problem is reduced to a sequence of simple ordinary differential equations and linear partial differential equations. The simulation is carried out for a rectangular block of the cardiac tissue, the minimal size of which is considered to be the thickness of the heart wall. Two types of distribution of the fiber orientation angle are discussed. The first case corresponds 'to the left ventricle of a dog. The endocardium and epicardium fibers are generally oriented in the meridional direction. The angle of fiber orientation varies smoothly through the wall thickness making a half-turn. A circular layer, in which the fibers are oriented in the circumferential direction locates deep in the cardiac wall. The results of calculations show that for this case the wave form strongly depends on a place of initial excitation. For the endocardial and epicardial initial excitation one can see the earlier wave front propagation in the endocardium and epicardium, respectively. At the intramural initial excitation the simultaneous wave front propagation in the endocardium and epicardium occurs, but there is a wave front lag in the middle of the wall. The second case refers to the right ventricle of a swine, in which the endocardium and epicardium fibers are typically oriented in the circumferential direction, whereas the subepicardium fibers

  1. A new Density Functional Theory (DFT) based method for supporting the assignment of vibrational signatures of mannan and cellulose—Analysis of palm kernel cake hydrolysis by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh; Jørgensen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    method for polysaccharide IR band assignments. Palm kernel cake is enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented, which targets cellulose and mannan in particular. The DFT method helps to identify their spectral changes and gives new knowledge on their spectral signatures. This method thus provides...... a prerequisite for FT-IR analysis. The removal of mannan is identified and correlates with positional shifts of both the mannan glycosidic linkage vibration at 1180 cm-1 and the 896 cm-1 cellulose exocyclic C6H2 vibration. This indicates a cellulose environment change, and for mannan the theoretical results show...... a decreasing degree of polymerization to be a plausible cause, although others may interfere. Keywords: Cellulose; Mannan; FT-IR; DFT; Molecular modelling; Palm kernel...

  2. Structural characterization of the acid-degraded secondary cell wall polymer of Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bent O; Sára, Margit; Mader, Christoph; Mayer, Harald F; Sleytr, Uwe B; Pabst, Martin; Puchberger, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Hofinger, Andreas; Duus, Jens Ø; Kosma, Paul

    2008-06-09

    The secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2, which is involved in the anchoring of the surface-layer protein to the bacterial cell wall layer, is composed of 2-amino-2-deoxy- and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-mannose, and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-mannuronic acid. The primary structure of the acid-degraded polysaccharide--liberated by HF-treatment from the cell wall--was determined by high-field NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry using N-acetylated and hydrolyzed polysaccharide derivatives as well as Smith-degradation. The polysaccharide was shown to consist of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit containing a pyruvic acid acetal at a side-chain 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl residue. Substoichiometric substitutions of the repeating unit were observed concerning the degree of N-acetylation of glucosamine residues and the presence of side-chain linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl units: [Formula: see text].

  3. Analysis of gene expression profiles of Lactobacillus paracasei induced by direct contact with Saccharomyces cerevisiae through recognition of yeast mannan

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMASAKI-YASHIKI, Shino; SAWADA, Hiroshi; KINO-OKA, Masahiro; KATAKURA, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Co-culture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast induces specific responses that are not observed in pure culture. Gene expression profiles of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 co-cultured with Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0216 were analyzed by DNA microarray, and the responses induced by direct contact with the yeast cells were investigated. Coating the LAB cells with recombinant DnaK, which acts as an adhesive protein between LAB and yeast cells, enhanced the ratio of adhesion of the LAB cells to the yeast cells. The signals induced by direct contact were clarified by removal of the LAB cells unbound to the yeast cells. The genes induced by direct contact with heat-inactivated yeast cells were very similar to both those induced by the intact yeast cells and those induced by a soluble mannan. The top 20 genes upregulated by direct contact with the heat-inactivated yeast cells mainly encoded proteins related to exopolysaccharide synthesis, modification of surface proteins, and transport systems. In the case of the most upregulated gene, LSEI_0669, encoding a protein that has a region homologous to polyprenyl glycosylphosphotransferase, the expression level was upregulated 7.6-, 11.0-, and 8.8-fold by the heat-inactivated yeast cells, the intact yeast cells, and the soluble mannan, respectively, whereas it was only upregulated 1.8-fold when the non-adherent LAB cells were not removed before RNA extraction. Our results indicated that the LAB responded to direct contact with the yeast cells through recognition of mannan on the surface of the yeast.

  4. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in two chickens breeds and the correlation with experimental Pasteurella multocida infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Christensen, J P

    2010-01-01

    The present study is the first demonstration of an association of the genetic serum Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) concentration with bacterial infections in chickens. The genetic serum MBL concentration was determined in two chicken breeds, and the association with the specific Pasteurella multocid...... of defence against P. multocida by diminishing the infection before the adaptive immune response takes over. Udgivelsesdato: May...... humoral immune response during an experimental infection was examined. Furthermore, we examined the association of the genetic serum MBL concentration with systemic infection. The chickens with systemic infection had a statistically significant lower mean serum MBL concentration than the rest...

  5. Developing LBM Process Parameters for Ti-6Al-4V Thin Wall Structures and Determining the Corresponding Mechanical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Schaub, Adam; Karg, Michael; Lechner, Michael; Merklein, Marion; Schmidt, Michael

    The Laser Beam Melting (LBM) process technology within the family of Additive Manufacturing technology is characterized by its ability to fabricate fully dense 3D structures directly from micro-sized metal powder. With the current state of the art, Ti-6Al-4V has been processed using LBM machine systems constituting a laser with a beam diameter of about 100 μm. In order to fabricate structures with smaller wall thicknesses, processing of Ti-6Al-4V is attempted on the LBM machine system, Realizer SLM 50 consisting of a laser with a beam diameter 10 μm. The proposed paper presents the development of process parameters for fabricating fully dense Ti-6Al-4V 3D structures using the LBM machine system, Realizer SLM 50. Further experiments are carried out to determine the wall thickness and mechanical properties achievable using the selected process parameters. Analysis and scientific arguments are presented to explain the influence of building direction and heat treatment on mechanical properties.

  6. Out-of-plane (SH) soil-structure interaction: a shear wall with rigid and flexible ring foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thang; Lee, Vincent W.; Luo, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) of a building and shear wall above a foundation in an elastic half-space has long been an important research subject for earthquake engineers and strong-motion seismologists. Numerous papers have been published since the early 1970s; however, very few of these papers have analytic closed-form solutions available. The soil-structure interaction problem is one of the most classic problems connecting the two disciplines of earthquake engineering and civil engineering. The interaction effect represents the mechanism of energy transfer and dissipation among the elements of the dynamic system, namely the soil subgrade, foundation, and superstructure. This interaction effect is important across many structure, foundation, and subgrade types but is most pronounced when a rigid superstructure is founded on a relatively soft lower foundation and subgrade. This effect may only be ignored when the subgrade is much harder than a flexible superstructure: for instance a flexible moment frame superstructure founded on a thin compacted soil layer on top of very stiff bedrock below. This paper will study the interaction effect of the subgrade and the superstructure. The analytical solution of the interaction of a shear wall, flexible-rigid foundation, and an elastic half-space is derived for incident SH waves with various angles of incidence. It found that the flexible ring (soft layer) cannot be used as an isolation mechanism to decouple a superstructure from its substructure resting on a shaking half-space.

  7. Plant Cell Wall Proteomics: Mass Spectrometry Data, a Trove for Research on Protein Structure/Function Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cécile Albenne; Hervé Canut; Georges Boudart; Yu Zhang; Héléne San Clemente; Rafael Pont-Lezica; Elisabeth Jamet

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics allows the large-scale study of protein expression either in whole organisms or in purified organ-elles. In particular, mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of gel-separated proteins produces data not only for protein identi-fication, but for protein structure, location, and processing as well. An in-depth analysis was performed on MS data from etiolated hypocotyl cell wall proteomics of Arabidopsis thaliana. These analyses show that highly homologous members of multigene families can be differentiated. Two lectins presenting 93% amino acid identity were identified using peptide mass fingerprinting. Although the identification of structural proteins such as extensins or hydroxyproline/proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs) is arduous, different types of MS spectra were exploited to identify and characterize an H/PRR Matu-ration events in a couple of cell wall proteins (CWPs) were analyzed using site mapping. N-glycosylation of CWPs as well as the hydroxylation or oxidation of amino acids were also explored, adding information to improve our understanding of CWP structure/function relationships. A bioinformatic tool was developed to locate by means of MS the N-terminus of mature secreted proteins and N-glycosylation.

  8. Plant cell wall proteomics: mass spectrometry data, a trove for research on protein structure/function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Zhang, Yu; San Clemente, Hélène; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2009-09-01

    Proteomics allows the large-scale study of protein expression either in whole organisms or in purified organelles. In particular, mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of gel-separated proteins produces data not only for protein identification, but for protein structure, location, and processing as well. An in-depth analysis was performed on MS data from etiolated hypocotyl cell wall proteomics of Arabidopsis thaliana. These analyses show that highly homologous members of multigene families can be differentiated. Two lectins presenting 93% amino acid identity were identified using peptide mass fingerprinting. Although the identification of structural proteins such as extensins or hydroxyproline/proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs) is arduous, different types of MS spectra were exploited to identify and characterize an H/PRP. Maturation events in a couple of cell wall proteins (CWPs) were analyzed using site mapping. N-glycosylation of CWPs as well as the hydroxylation or oxidation of amino acids were also explored, adding information to improve our understanding of CWP structure/function relationships. A bioinformatic tool was developed to locate by means of MS the N-terminus of mature secreted proteins and N-glycosylation.

  9. Mechanically durable and highly conductive elastomeric composites from long single-walled carbon nanotubes mimicking the chain structure of polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Seisuke; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2012-06-13

    By using long single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a filler possessing the highest aspect ratio and small diameter, we mimicked the chain structure of polymers in the matrix and realized a highly conductive elastomeric composite (30 S/cm) with an excellent mechanical durability (4500 strain cycles until failure), far superior to any other reported conductive elastomers. This exceptional mechanical durability was explained by the ability of long and traversing SWNTs to deform in concert with the elastomer with minimum stress concentration at their interfaces. The conductivity was sufficient to operate many active electronics components, and thus this material would be useful for practical stretchable electronic devices.

  10. The investigation of coherent structures in the wall region of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer based on DNS database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Through temporal mode direct numerical simulation, flow field database of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with Mach number 4.5 and Reynolds number Reθ =1094 has been obtained. Commonly used detection meth- ods in experiments are applied to detecting coherent structures in the flow field, and it is found that coherent structures do exist in the wall region of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer. The detected results show that a low-speed streak is de- tected by using the Mu-level method, the rising parts of this streak are detected by using the second quadrant method, and the crossing regions from a low-speed streak to the high-speed one are detected by using the VITA method respectively. Notwithstanding that different regions are detected by different methods, they are all accompanied by quasi-stream-wise vortex structures.

  11. The investigation of coherent structures in the wall region of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer based on DNS database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG ZhangFeng; ZHOU Heng; LUO JiSheng

    2007-01-01

    Through temporal mode direct numerical simulation, flow field database of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with Mach number 4.5 and Reynolds number Reθ=1094 has been obtained. Commonly used detection methods in experiments are applied to detecting coherent structures in the flow field,and it is found that coherent structures do exist in the wall region of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer. The detected results show that a low-speed streak is detected by using the Mu-level method, the rising parts of this streak are detected by using the second quadrant method, and the crossing regions from a low-speed streak to the high-speed one are detected by using the VITA method respectively.Notwithstanding that different regions are detected by different methods, they are all accompanied by quasi-stream-wise vortex structures.

  12. Structural profiling and biological performance of phospholipid-hyaluronan functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvash, Ram; Khatchatouriants, Artium; Solmesky, Leonardo J

    2013-01-01

    In spite of significant insolubility and toxicity, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) erupt into the biomedical research, and create an increasing interest in the field of nanomedicine. Single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are highly hydrophobic and have been shown to be toxic while systemically administrated. Thus......, SWCNTs have to be functionalized to render water solubility and biocompatibility. Herein, we introduce a method for functionalizing SWCNT using phospholipids (PL) conjugated to hyaluronan (HA), a hydrophilic glycosaminoglycan, with known receptors on many types of cancer and immune cells...

  13. Field theory for ionic systems. From fluctuations and structure at a hard wall to thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Caprio, D.; Stafiej, J.; Badiali, J.P

    2003-09-30

    We use a field theoretical approach to study ionic systems. In this paper we illustrate this formalism in a grand canonical ensemble for the long range Coulomb potential. For the inhomogeneous system near a hard neutral plane wall we go beyond the well known Debye-Hueckel electrolyte results and predict the existence of a desorption profile. The results are compared with well established sum rules for ionic systems and thermodynamic relations are verified. We also calculate the differential capacitance in a slab using the linear response theory. The capacitance is calculated from the charge-charge correlations for the neutral system using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem.

  14. Structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes purified and cut using polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yudasaka, M.; Koshio, A.; Jabs, C.; Ichihashi, T.; Iijima, S.

    2002-01-01

    Following on from our previous report that a monochlorobenzene solution of polymethylmethacrylate is useful for purifying and cutting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and thinning SWNT bundles, we show in this report that polymer and residual amorphous carbon can be removed by burning in oxygen gas. The SWNTs thus obtained had many holes (giving them a worm-eaten look) and were thermally unstable. Such severe damage caused by oxidation is unusual for SWNTs; we think that they were chemically damaged during ultrasonication in the monochlorobenzene solution of polymethylmethacrylate.

  15. Structural investigations of single-wall carbon nanotubes grown from nanosized graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M.L.; Piccirillo, S.; Sessa, V.; Sbornicchia, P. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche; Rossi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica and INFM, Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , via A. Scarpa 16, I-00162, Rome (Italy); Botti, S. [ENEA, Dipartimento Innovazione, Divisione Fisica Applicata, CR Frascati PO Box 65, 00044, Frascati (Italy)

    2000-10-16

    We report on the production of single-wall carbon nanotubes from nanosized graphite powders and atomic hydrogen using a novel growth technique. The individual nanotubes produced during the process form rather thick layers of bundles deposited onto the iron-coated Si substrates. Raman spectroscopy in the 150-250 cm{sup -1} region and reflection electron diffraction in selected area configuration have been used to define the geometrical details of the nanotubes. The proposed growth methodology is found to yield prevalently nanotubes belonging to the (n, 0) zigzag achiral subclass, with a diameter distribution function centred at about 1.6 nm. (orig.)

  16. Helical structure of longitudinal vortices embedded in turbulent wall-bounded flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Okulov, Valery

    2009-01-01

    Embedded vortices in turbulent wall-bounded flow over a flat plate, generated by a passive rectangular vane-type vortex generator with variable angle \\beta to the incoming flow in a low-Reynolds number flow (Re = 2600 based on the inlet grid mesh size L = 0:039 m and free stream velocity U......_{\\infty} = 1.0 ms^{-1}) have been studied with respect to helical symmetry. The studies were carried out in a low-speed closed-circuit wind tunnel utilizing Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). The vortices have been shown to possess helical symmetry, allowing the flow to be described in a simple...

  17. Structural characterization of feruloyl oligosaccharides from spinach-leaf cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, T; Tobita, T

    1993-10-04

    Hydrolysis of spinach-leaf cell walls with Driselase (a fungal enzyme preparation) released two arabino-oligosaccharides and one galactobiose, each carrying a ferulic acid moiety. The oligosaccharides were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis, and FABMS. They were O-(2-O-trans-feruloyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl)-(1-->5)-L-arabinof uranose, O-(6-O-trans-feruloyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-D-galactopy ranose, and O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->3)-O-(2-O-trans-feruloyl-alpha-L-a rabino- furanosyl)-(1-->5)-L-arabinofuranose.

  18. Artificial chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an epitaxial oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noheda, Beatriz

    Progress in nanotechnology requires new paradigms for materials synthesis that allow controlling their functionality down to the smallest scales. Here we report a novel two-dimensional ferromagnetic phase that is synthesized at the domain walls (DWs) of the antiferromagnetic insulator TbMnO3 when grown in thin layers under epitaxial strain. This Mn oxide phase presents an atomic arrangement that does not exist in bulk and cannot be synthesized by standard chemical routes. The number of 2D ferromagnetic sheets can be controlled by tuning the thickness of the thin films, giving rise to volume fractions that go up to 25% of the total film volume. Such novel phases are driven by a unique environment induced by the symmetry breaking and large stresses present at domain walls, which function as nanoreactors. This new class of nanoscale materials may find innovative applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. The work is published as S. Farokhipoor, C. Magén, S. Venkatesan, J. Íñiguez, C. J. M. Daumont, D. Rubi, E. Snoeck, M. Mostovoy, C. de Graaf, A. Müller, M. Döblinger, C. Scheu, B. Noheda, Nature 515, 379 (2014)

  19. Modelling of single walled carbon nanotube cylindrical structures with finite element method simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, E.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the modulus of elasticity and shear modulus values of single-walled carbon nanotubes SWCNTs were modelled by using both finite element method and the Matlab code. Initially, cylindrical armchair and zigzag single walled 3D space frames were demonstrated as carbon nanostructures. Thereafter, macro programs were written by the Matlab code producing the space truss for zigzag and armchair models. 3D space frames were introduced to the ANSYS software and then tension, compression and additionally torsion tests were performed on zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes with BEAM4 element in obtaining the exact values of elastic and shear modulus values. In this study, two different boundary conditions were tested and especially used in torsion loading. The equivalent shear modulus data was found by averaging the corresponding values obtained from ten different nodal points on the nanotube path. Finally, in this study it was determined that the elastic constant values showed proportional changes by increasing the carbon nanotube diameters up to a certain level but beyond this level these values remained stable.

  20. Monte Carlo calculations on the magnetization profile and domain wall structure in bulk systems and nanoconstricitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serena, P. A. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Costa-Kraemer, J. L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm suitable to study systems described by an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian is presented. This technique has been tested successfully with 3D and 2D systems, illustrating how magnetic properties depend on the dimensionality and the coordination number. We have found that magnetic properties of constrictions differ from those appearing in bulk. In particular, spin fluctuations are considerable larger than those calculated for bulk materials. In addition, domain walls are strongly modified when a constriction is present, with a decrease of the domain-wall width. This decrease is explained in terms of previous theoretical works. [Spanish] Se presenta un algoritmo de Monte Carlo para estudiar sistemas discritos por un hamiltoniano anisotropico de Heisenburg. Esta tecnica ha sido probada exitosamente con sistemas de dos y tres dimensiones, ilustrado con las propiedades magneticas dependen de la dimensionalidad y el numero de coordinacion. Hemos encontrado que las propiedades magneticas de constricciones difieren de aquellas del bulto. En particular, las fluctuaciones de espin son considerablemente mayores. Ademas, las paredes de dominio son fuertemente modificadas cuando una construccion esta presente, originando un decrecimiento del ancho de la pared de dominio. Damos cuenta de este decrecimiento en terminos de un trabajo teorico previo.

  1. Structural stability of transparent conducting films assembled from length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Harris; G. R. S. Iyer; D. O. Simien; J. A. Fagan; J. Y. Huh; J. Y. Chung; S. D. Hudson; J. Obrzut; J. F. Douglas; C. M. Stafford; E. K. Hobbie

    2011-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films show significant promise for transparent electronics applications that demand mechanical flexibility, but durability remains an outstanding issue. In this work, thin membranes of length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are uniaxially and isotropically compressed by depositing them on prestrained polymer substrates. Upon release of the strain, the topography, microstructure, and conductivity of the films are characterized using a combination of optical/fluorescence microscopy, light scattering, force microscopy, electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. Above a critical surface mass density, films assembled from nanotubes of well-defined length exhibit a strongly nonlinear mechanical response. The measured strain dependence reveals a dramatic softening that occurs through an alignment of the SWCNTs normal to the direction of prestrain, which at small strains is also apparent as an anisotropic increase in sheet resistance along the same direction. At higher strains, the membrane conductivities increase due to a compression-induced restoration of conductive pathways. Our measurements reveal the fundamental mode of elasto-plastic deformation in these films and suggest how it might be suppressed.

  2. Structural alteration of cell wall pectins accompanies pea development in response to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laëtitia; Domon, Jean-Marc; Klimek, John F; Fournet, Françoise; Sellier, Hélène; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Carpita, Nicholas C; Rayon, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) cell wall metabolism in response to chilling was investigated in a frost-sensitive genotype 'Terese' and a frost-tolerant genotype 'Champagne'. Cell walls isolated from stipules of cold acclimated and non-acclimated plants showed that cold temperatures induce changes in polymers containing xylose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid residues. In the tolerant cultivar Champagne, acclimation is accompanied by increases in homogalacturonan, xylogalacturonan and highly branched Rhamnogalacturonan I with branched and unbranched (1→5)-α-arabinans and (1→4)-β-galactans. In contrast, the sensitive cultivar Terese accumulates substantial amounts of (1→4)-β-xylans and glucuronoxylan, but not the pectins. Greater JIM7 labeling was observed in Champagne compared to Terese, indicating that cold acclimation also induces an increase in the degree of methylesterification of pectins. Significant decrease in polygalacturonase activities in both genotypes were observed at the end of cold acclimation. These data indicate a role for esterified pectins in cold tolerance. The possible functions for pectins and their associated arabinans and galactans in cold acclimation are discussed.

  3. Energetics and structure of organic molecules embedded in single-wall carbon nanotubes from first principles: The example of benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milko, Matus; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    Stability and structural properties of nanopeapods are investigated by means of density-functional theory (DFT) including van der Waals interactions. As a prototypical system of organic π-conjugated molecules embedded into single-wall carbon nanotubes, we study benzene inside zig-zag nanotubes (n,0), with n ranging from 10 to 18. We explore the position and orientation of the molecule inside the cavity and find the optimal tube diameter for encapsulation to be around 1 nm. We compute that, overall, the molecule tends to align its molecular plane parallel to the tube axis. The internal orientation and molecule-wall distance depend, however, quite strongly on the tube diameter. The overall energy minimum is found for a situation in which the benzene ring takes a tilted position inside the (13,0) nanotube. Chirality turns out not to play a role in terms of the energetics. When benzene arrays are confined in nanotubes, the intermolecular distances can differ from those in the gas phase. Intermolecular interactions are important and further stabilize the peapods. As these as well as the molecule-tube interactions are governed by dispersive forces, we critically assess the performance of different DFT-based methods in this respect. Comparing four different computational schemes including both ab initio and semi-empirical treatment of van der Waals interactions, we conclude that vdW-DF is most reliable in terms of energetics and structural properties of these hybrids.

  4. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CRITICAL STATE OF THIN-WALLED STRUCTURE WITH Z-PROFILE CROSS SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Różyło

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was the thin-walled profile with Z-shaped cross section made of the carbon-epoxy composite. Material model was prepared based on the implemented orthotropic properties. The purpose of study was to determine the value of the critical load at which buckling occurs, the form of buckling and operating characteristics in critical condition. In order to achieve this numerical analysis were carried out. Additionally, the effects of the modification in arrangement of layers of the laminate to the stability and strength of thin-walled composite structures was presented. Numerical studies were carried out using commercial simulation software - ABAQUS®. Within the FEM research, both forms of buckling and the associated critical load, dependent on the configuration the layers of the composite were achieved. Analysis of the obtained results, allowed the evaluation of the structure's work in relation to the level of energy consumption or rigidity estimation. In the paper only numerical simulations of the critical state were conducted.

  5. Argyres-Douglas Loci, Singularity Structures and Wall-Crossings in Pure N=2 Gauge Theories with Classical Gauge Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Jihye

    2012-01-01

    N=2 Seiberg-Witten theories allow an interesting interplay between the Argyres-Douglas loci, singularity structures and wall-crossing formulae. In this paper we investigate this connection by first studying the singularity structures of hyper-elliptic Seiberg-Witten curves for pure N=2 gauge theories with SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups, and propose new methods to locate the Argyres-Douglas loci in the moduli space, where multiple mutually non-local BPS states become massless. In a region of the moduli space, we compute dyon charges for all 2r+2 and 2r+1 massless dyons for SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups respectively for rank r>1. From here we elucidate the connection to the wall-crossing phenomena for pure Sp(4) Seiberg-Witten theory near the Argyres-Douglas loci, despite our emphasis being only at the massless sector of the BPS spectra. We also present 2r-1 candidates for the maximal Argyres-Douglas points for pure SO(2r+1) Seiberg-Witten theory.

  6. Cell Wall Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Boudart, Georges; Minic, Zoran; Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside hydrolases, proteases, lectins, and inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of proteomic techniques to elucidate the structure of various cell wall...

  7. Films, layers and droplets: The effect of near-wall fluid structure on spreading dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Hanyu; Thiele, Uwe; Archer, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the spreading of liquid droplets on a solid substrate at very small scales. We focus on the regime where effective wetting energy (binding potential) and surface tension effects significantly influence steady and spreading droplets. In particular, we focus on strong packing and layering effects in the liquid near the substrate due to underlying density oscillations in the fluid caused by attractive substrate-liquid interactions. We show that such phenomena can be described by a thin-film (or long-wave or lubrication) model including an oscillatory Derjaguin (or disjoining/conjoining) pressure, and explore the effects it has on steady droplet shapes and the spreading dynamics of droplets on both, an adsorption (or precursor) layer and completely dry substrates. At the molecular scale, commonly used two-term binding potentials with a single preferred minimum controlling the adsorption layer height are inadequate to capture the rich behaviour caused by the near-wall layered molecular packin...

  8. Phase-averaged waveforms of Reynolds stress in wall turbulence during the burst events of coherent structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Nan; LIU Wei; LIU JianHua; TIAN Yan

    2008-01-01

    The time sequence signals of instantaneous longitudinal and normal velocity components at different vertical locations in the turbulent boundary layer over a smooth flat plate have been finely measured by constant temperature anemometry of model IFA-300 and X-shaped hot-wire sensor probe in a wind tunnel. The longitudinal and normal velocity components have been decomposed into multi-scales by wavelet transform. The upward eject and downward sweep motions in a burst process of coherent structure have been detected by the maximum energy criterion of identifying burst event in wall turbulence through wavelet analysis. The relationships of phase-averaged waveforms among longitudinal velocity component, normal velocity component and Reynolds stress component have been studied through a correlation function method. The dynamics course of coherent structures and their effects on statistical characteristics of turbulent flows are analyzed.

  9. A variable limit for the instability parameter of wall-frame or core-frame bracing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Ellwanger

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the viability and convenience of adopting a variable limit α1 for the instability parameter of buildings with reinforced concrete wall-frame or core-frame structures. Initially, the evolution of tall buildings global stability theory is summarized, giving emphasis to define when a second order analysis is needed. The treatment given to this subject by the present Brazilian code for concrete structures design (NBR 6118:2007 is also showed. It follows a detailed analytical study that led to the derivation of an equation for the variable limit α1; a series of examples is presented to check its accuracy. Results are analyzed, showing the validity bounds of the equation and research directions are suggested, in order to improve it.

  10. A tale of two neglected systems - structure and function of the thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes in monocotyledonous leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted eBotha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a large body of information relating to the ontogeny, development and the vasculature of eudicotyledonous leaves. However there is less information available concerning the vascular anatomy of monocotyledonous leaves. This is surprising, given that there are two uniquely different phloem systems present in large groups such as grasses and sedges. Monocotyledonous leaves contain marginal, large, intermediate and small longitudinal veins that are interconnected by numerous transverse veins. The longitudinal veins contain two metaphloem sieve tube types, which, based upon their ontogeny and position within the phloem, are termed early (thin-walled and late (thick-walled sieve tubes. Early metaphloem comprises sieve tubes, companion cells and vascular parenchyma cells, whilst the late metaphloem, contains thick-walled sieve tubes that lack companion cells. Thick-walled sieve tubes are generally adjacent to, or no more than one cell removed from the metaxylem. Unlike thin-walled sieve tube-companion cell complexes, thick-walled sieve tubes are connected to parenchyma by pore-plasmodesma units and are generally symplasmically isolated from the thin walled sieve tubes. This paper addresses key structural and functional differences between thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes and explores the unique advantages of alternate transport strategies that this 5 to 7 million year old dual system may offer. It would seem that these two systems may enhance, add to, or play a significant role in increasing the efficiency of solute retrieval as well as of assimilate transfer.

  11. Enhanced mannan-derived fermentable sugars of palm kernel cake by mannanase-catalyzed hydrolysis for production of biobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Hafiza; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Rahman, Norliza A; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

    2016-10-01

    Catalytic depolymerization of mannan composition of palm kernel cake (PKC) by mannanase was optimized to enhance the release of mannan-derived monomeric sugars for further application in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of PKC was studied by evaluating effects of PKC concentration, mannanase loading, hydrolysis pH value, reaction temperature and hydrolysis time on production of fermentable sugars using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA results revealed that all factors studied had highly significant effects on total sugar liberated (P<0.01). The optimum conditions for PKC hydrolysis were 20% (w/v) PKC concentration, 5% (w/w) mannanase loading, hydrolysis pH 4.5, 45°C temperature and 72h hydrolysis time. Enzymatic experiments in optimum conditions revealed total fermentable sugars of 71.54±2.54g/L were produced including 67.47±2.51g/L mannose and 2.94±0.03g/L glucose. ABE fermentation of sugar hydrolysate by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 resulted in 3.27±1.003g/L biobutanol.

  12. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  13. Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L A; Newman, M C; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2002-10-01

    Brewers dried yeast, a source of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), was assessed as an alternative to an antimicrobial agent (carbadox) for young pigs in two experiments. The yeast contained 5.2% MOS. Agglutination tests confirmed adsorption of several serovars of E. coli and Salmonella spp. onto the yeast product. In Exp. 1, seven replicates (five pigs per pen) of 22-d-old pigs were fed a nonmedicated basal diet or the basal diet with carbadox (55 mg/kg), yeast (3%), or a combination of 3% yeast and 2% citric acid for 28 d. Carbadox did not improve growth performance. Growth rate and feed intake were depressed (P yeast alone or in combination with acid. Log counts of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens in feces were not affected by diet, but Bifidobacteria spp. counts were lower (P yeast + acid diet and lactobacilli counts were higher (P yeast. Fecal pH and VFA concentrations and intestinal morphological traits were not consistently affected by diet. Serum IgG levels were elevated in the yeast + acid (P yeast and carbadox additions to the diet on enteric microbial populations in young pigs housed in isolation units were evaluated. Pigs (n = 24) were weaned at 11 d of age (4.1 kg BW) and placed in isolation chambers (two pigs per chamber) equipped with individual air filtering systems and excrement containers. Treatments were a nonmedicated basal diet and the basal diet with 55 mg/kg of carbadox or with 3% yeast. Diets were fed for 29 d, then each pig was orally dosed with approximately 9.5 x 10(8) CFU of E. coli K88. Daily fecal E. coli K88 counts were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, but fecal shedding of carbadox-resistant coliforms was higher (P yeast (P Yeast reduced colonization oftotal coliforms in the duodenum,jejunum, cecum, and colon, but it did not have a consistent effect on colonization of E. coli K88. Pigs fed yeast tended (P yeast and carbadox had minimal effects on growth, microbial populations, and intestinal health

  14. Structure function tensor scaling in the logarithmic region derived from the attached eddy model of wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. I. A.; Baidya, R.; Johnson, P.; Marusic, I.; Meneveau, C.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the scaling of the velocity structure function tensor Di j(r ,z ) in high Reynolds number wall-bounded turbulent flows, within the framework provided by the Townsend attached eddy hypothesis. Here i ,j =1 ,2 ,3 denote velocity components in the three Cartesian directions, and r is a general spatial displacement vector. We consider spatial homogeneous conditions in wall-parallel planes and dependence on wall-normal distance is denoted by z . At small scales (r =|r |≪z ) where turbulence approaches local isotropy, Di j(r ,z ) can be fully characterized as a function of r and the height-dependent dissipation rate ɛ (z ) , using the classical Kolmogorov scalings. At larger distances in the logarithmic range, existing previous studies have focused mostly on the scaling of Di j for r in the streamwise direction and for the streamwise velocity component (i =j =1 ) only. No complete description is available for Di j(r ,z ) for all i ,j , and r directions. In this paper we show that the hierarchical random additive process model for turbulent fluctuations in the logarithmic range (a model based on the Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis) may be used to make new predictions on the scaling of Di j(r ,z ) for all velocity components and in all two-point displacement directions. Some of the generalized scaling relations of Di j(r ,z ) in the logarithmic region are then compared to available data. Nevertheless, a number of predictions cannot yet be tested in detail, due to a lack of simultaneous two-point measurements with arbitrary cross-plane displacements, calling for further experiments to be conducted at high Reynolds numbers.

  15. A general formalism for the determination of the effective mass of the nanoscale structural inhomogeneities of the domain wall in uniaxial ferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Andriy; Barabash, Maksym

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the method of gyrotropic Thiele forces, we build a formalism that allows the determination of the effective mass of the nanoscales structural elements of the domain wall (DW): vertical Bloch line and Bloch point in uniaxial ferromagnets. As shown, the effective mass of these magnetic inhomogeneities depends on the value of the gyrotropic domain wall bend that is created by their movement.

  16. Mannan-binding lectin MBL2 gene polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C: association with the severity of liver fibrosis and response to interferon therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves Pedroso, ML; Boldt, AB; Pereira-Ferrari, L

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of hepatic disease and of liver transplantation worldwide. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), encoded by the MBL2 gene, can have an important role as an opsonin and complement activating molecule in HCV persistence and liver injury. We assessed the MBL2 polymorp...

  17. Biological Variation in Circulating Levels of Mannan-Binding Lectin (MBL) and MBL-Associated Serine Protease-2 and the Influence of Age, Gender and Physical Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Thiel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) are central components of the MBL pathway of complement activation, and may have potential as clinical biomarkers in colorectal cancer (CRC). Prior to clinical usage, knowledge of the biological variations of the molecules ...

  18. Influence of a yeast fermented product on the serum levels of the mannan-binding lectin and the antibodies against the Newcastle disease virus in Ross broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortés-Coronado, R F; Gómez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M;

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the serum concentrations of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) at different ages in Ross broilers fed increasing amounts of a yeast-fermented product (YFP) and inoculated with a vaccine against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Eighty mixed Ross B308 broilers...

  19. Surface-functionalized, pH-responsive poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microparticles for intranasal vaccine delivery: Effect of surface modification with chitosan and mannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ze; Xiong, Fangfang; He, Jintian; Dai, Xiaojing; Wang, Gaizhen

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, surface-functionalized, pH-responsive poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles were investigated for nasal delivery of hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg). pH-responsive PLGA, chitosan modified PLGA (CS-PLGA), mannan modified PLGA (MN-PLGA), mannan and chitosan co-modified PLGA (MN-CS-PLGA) microparticles were prepared utilizing a double-emulsion method. Antigen was released rapidly from four types of microparticles at pH5.0 and pH 6.0, but slowly released at pH 7.4. Mannan and chitosan surface modification enhanced intracellular microparticle uptake by macrophages. Following intracellular macrophage antigen uptake, antigen release occurred in three different patterns: fast release from PLGA and MN-PLGA microparticles in endosomes/lysosomes, slow release from CS-PLGA microparticles in cytoplasm and a combination of fast release and slow release patterns from MN-CS-PLGA microparticles. Furthermore, chitosan coating modification increased the residence time of CS-PLGA and MN-CS-PLGA microparticles in the nasal cavity. In vivo immunogenicity studies indicated that MN-CS-PLGA microparticles induced stronger humoral and cell-mediated immune responses compared with PLGA, MN-PLGA and CS-PLGA microparticles. These results suggest that surface modification of pH-responsive PLGA microparticles with mannan and chitosan is a promising tool for nasal delivery of HBsAg. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and probiotic mixture (PM) on growth performance, intestinal histology, and corticosterone concentrations in broilers kept under chronic heat stress (HS). Four hundred and fifty day-old chicks were...

  1. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1), a serine protease associated with humoral pattern-recognition molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Steffen; Degn, Søren Egedal; Nielsen, H J;

    2012-01-01

    The pattern-recognition molecules mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and the three ficolins circulate in blood in complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). When MBL or ficolin recognizes a microorganism, activation of the MASPs occurs leading to activation of the complement system, an impo...

  2. Joining and fabrication techniques for high temperature structures including the first wall in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Kim, K. B

    2003-09-01

    The materials for PFC's (Plasma Facing Components) in a fusion reactor are severely irradiated with fusion products in facing the high temperature plasma during the operation. The refractory materials can be maintained their excellent properties in severe operating condition by lowering surface temperature by bonding them to the high thermal conducting materials of heat sink. Hence, the joining and bonding techniques between dissimilar materials is considered to be important in case of the fusion reactor or nuclear reactor which is operated at high temperature. The first wall in the fusion reactor is heated to approximately 1000 .deg. C and irradiated severely by the plasma. In ITER, beryllium is expected as the primary armour candidate for the PFC's; other candidates including W, Mo, SiC, B4C, C/C and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Since the heat affected zones in the PFC's processed by conventional welding are reported to have embrittlement and degradation in the sever operation condition, both brazing and diffusion bonding are being considered as prime candidates for the joining technique. In this report, both the materials including ceramics and the fabrication techniques including joining technique between dissimilar materials for PFC's are described. The described joining technique between the refractory materials and the dissimilar materials may be applicable for the fusion reactor and Generation-4 future nuclear reactor which are operated at high temperature and high irradiation.

  3. Turbulent flow structure response to a varying wall-roughness arrangement: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakirlic, Suad; Krumbein, Benjamin; Fooroghi, Pourya; Magagnato, Franco; Frohnapfel, Bettina; Darmstadt Collaboration; Karlsruhe Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Presently adopted approach to the modelling of rough surfaces relies on introducing an additional drag term in the appropriately 'filtered' Navier-Stokes equations, accounting for the form drag and blockage effects, the roughness elements exert on the flow. A non-dimensional drag function D(y) accounting for the shape of roughness elements is introduced. It is evaluated by applying a reference DNS of an open channel flow over a wall characterized by varying arrangement (aligned/staggered) of differently-shaped/sized roughness elements at a bulk Reynolds number Re =6500 by Fooroghi et al.. The prime objective of the present work is to assess the roughness model capability to predict mean velocities and turbulent intensities in conjunction with a recently formulated hybrid LES/RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) model, based on the Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) concept of Speziale. A seamless transition from RANS to LES is enabled depending on the ratio of the turbulent viscosities associated with the unresolved scales corresponding to the LES cut-off and those related to the turbulent properties of the VLES residual motion.

  4. Structure and Properties of Self-assembled Narural Rubber/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zheng; FENG Chunfang; LUO Yongyue; YI Zhifeng; KONG Lingxue

    2011-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) composites were prepared by combining self-assembly and latex compounding techniques.The acid-treated MWCNTs (H2SO4∶HNO3=3∶1,volume ratio) were self-assembled with poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) through electrostatic adhesion.In the second assembling,NR/MWCNTs composites were developed by mixing MWCNTs/PDDA solution with NR latex.The results show that MWCNTs are homogenously distributed throughout the NR matrix as single tube and present a great interfacial adhesion with NR phase when MWCNTs contents are less than 3 wt%.Moreover,the addition of the MWCNTs brings about the remarkable enhancement in tensile strength and crosslink density compared with the NR host,and the data peak at 2 wt% MWCNTs loadings.When more MWCNTs are loaded,aggregations of MWCNTs are gradually generated,and the tensile strength and crosslink both decrease to a certain extent.

  5. Electrospun single-walled carbon nanotube/polyvinyl alcohol composite nanofibers: structure property relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naebe, Minoo; Lin, Tong; Staiger, Mark P.; Dai, Liming; Wang, Xungai

    2008-07-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/PVA composite nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning. An apparent increase in the PVA crystallinity with a concomitant change in its main crystalline phase and a reduction in the crystalline domain size were observed in the SWNT/PVA composite nanofibers, indicating the occurrence of a SWNT-induced nucleation crystallization of the PVA phase. Both the pure PVA and SWNT/PVA composite nanofibers were subjected to the following post-electrospinning treatments: (i) soaking in methanol to increase the PVA crystallinity, and (ii) cross-linking with glutaric dialdehyde to control the PVA morphology. Effects of the PVA morphology on the tensile properties of the resultant electrospun nanofibers were examined. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyses of both pure PVA and SWNT/PVA composite electrospun nanofibers indicated that SWNT-polymer interaction facilitated the formation of crystalline domains, which can be further enhanced by soaking the nanofiber in methanol and/or cross-linking the polymer with glutaric dialdehyde.

  6. Electrospun single-walled carbon nanotube/polyvinyl alcohol composite nanofibers: structure-property relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naebe, Minoo; Lin Tong; Wang Xungai [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Staiger, Mark P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); Dai Liming [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States)], E-mail: tong.lin@deakin.edu.au

    2008-07-30

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/PVA composite nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning. An apparent increase in the PVA crystallinity with a concomitant change in its main crystalline phase and a reduction in the crystalline domain size were observed in the SWNT/PVA composite nanofibers, indicating the occurrence of a SWNT-induced nucleation crystallization of the PVA phase. Both the pure PVA and SWNT/PVA composite nanofibers were subjected to the following post-electrospinning treatments: (i) soaking in methanol to increase the PVA crystallinity, and (ii) cross-linking with glutaric dialdehyde to control the PVA morphology. Effects of the PVA morphology on the tensile properties of the resultant electrospun nanofibers were examined. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyses of both pure PVA and SWNT/PVA composite electrospun nanofibers indicated that SWNT-polymer interaction facilitated the formation of crystalline domains, which can be further enhanced by soaking the nanofiber in methanol and/or cross-linking the polymer with glutaric dialdehyde.

  7. Films, layers, and droplets: The effect of near-wall fluid structure on spreading dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hanyu; Sibley, David N.; Thiele, Uwe; Archer, Andrew J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the spreading of liquid droplets on a solid substrate at very small scales. We focus on the regime where effective wetting energy (binding potential) and surface tension effects significantly influence steady and spreading droplets. In particular, we focus on strong packing and layering effects in the liquid near the substrate due to underlying density oscillations in the fluid caused by attractive substrate-liquid interactions. We show that such phenomena can be described by a thin-film (or long-wave or lubrication) model including an oscillatory Derjaguin (or disjoining or conjoining) pressure and explore the effects it has on steady droplet shapes and the spreading dynamics of droplets on both an adsorption (or precursor) layer and completely dry substrates. At the molecular scale, commonly used two-term binding potentials with a single preferred minimum controlling the adsorption layer height are inadequate to capture the rich behavior caused by the near-wall layered molecular packing. The adsorption layer is often submonolayer in thickness, i.e., the dynamics along the layer consists of single-particle hopping, leading to a diffusive dynamics, rather than the collective hydrodynamic motion implicit in standard thin-film models. We therefore modify the model in such a way that for thicker films the standard hydrodynamic theory is realized, but for very thin layers a diffusion equation is recovered.

  8. Structural characterization of a mixed-linkage glucan deficient mutant reveals alteration in cellulose microfibril orientation in rice coleoptile mesophyll cell walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Michelle Smith-Moritz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE F6 (CslF6 gene was previously shown to mediate the biosynthesis of mixed-linkage glucan (MLG, a cell wall polysaccharide that is hypothesized to be a tightly associated with cellulose and also have a role in cell expansion in the primary cell wall of young seedlings in grass species. We have recently shown that loss-of-function cslf6 rice mutants do not accumulate MLG in most vegetative tissues. Despite the absence of a structurally important polymer, MLG, these mutants are unexpectedly viable and only show a moderate growth compromise compared to wild type. Therefore these mutants are ideal biological systems to test the current grass cell wall model. In order to gain a better understanding of the role of MLG in the primary wall, we performed in-depth compositional and structural analyses of the cell walls of three day-old rice seedlings using various biochemical and novel microspectroscopic approaches. We found that cellulose content as well as matrix polysaccharide composition was not significantly altered in the MLG deficient mutant. However, we observed a significant change in cellulose microfibril bundle organization in mesophyll cell walls of the cslf6 mutant. Using synchrotron source Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectromicroscopy for high-resolution imaging, we determined that the bonds associated with cellulose and arabinoxylan, another major component of the primary cell was of grasses, were in a lower energy configuration compared to wild type, suggesting a slightly weaker primary wall in MLG deficient mesophyll cells. Taken together, these results suggest that MLG may influence cellulose deposition in mesophyll cell walls without significantly affecting anisotropic growth thus challenging MLG importance in cell wall expansion.

  9. Domain wall dynamics under electric field in CoFeB-MgO structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelosona, Dafine

    2016-10-01

    One crucial breakthrough in spin electronics has recently been achieved regarding the possibility to move magnetic domain walls (DWs) in magnetic tracks using the sole action of an electrical current instead of a conventional magnetic field. Here, we will present our recent results of DW dynamics obtained in Ta-CoFeB-MgO nanodevices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), which are widely used in STT-RAM applications, and discuss the critical problems to be addressed for implementation into a memory device. Using NV center microscopy to map DW pinning along a magnetic wire, we will first show1 that Ta/CoFeB(1nm)/MgO structures exhibit a very low density of pinning defects with respect to others materials with PMA. Then, we will focus on the possibility to use Electric Field Effect to control domain wall motion with low power dissipation. We will demonstrate gate voltage modulation of DW dynamics using different approaches based on dielectrics, piezoelectrics and ionic liquid layers.

  10. Static and simulated seismic testing of the TRG-7 through -16 shear wall structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Baker, W.E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dove, R.C. (Dove (R.C.), Del Norte, CO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Results from the static, simulated seismic base excitation, and experimental modal analysis tests performed on the TRG-7 through -16 structures are reported. These results were used to establish the scalability of static and dynamic response measured on small structural models to the dynamic response of conventional concrete structures. In addition, these tests provided information concerning cumulative damage effects that occur in concrete structures when they are subjected to different dynamic load sequences. In contrast to previous results obtained in the early part of this program, TRG-7 through -16 responded to simulated seismic excitations with theoretical stiffness values until peak nominal base shear stress levels of 150 psi were reached. A summary of all experimental data obtained during this program is provided. 23 refs., 47 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. Simulation of polyethylene oxide : improved structure using better models for hydrogen and flexible walls.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halley, J. W.; Duan, Y.; Nielsen, B.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Univ. of Minnesota

    2001-08-22

    We describe calculations of the structure of amorphous polyethylene oxide using a previously reported model, but with better treatment of hydrogen positions and in a code which allows relaxation of stresses in the polymerized sample by Rahman-Parrinello techniques. We also report the effects of two different intermolecular force field potentials and find that our earlier, empirical force field produces better agreement with experimental neutron scattering results than a force field derived from ab initio electronic structure calculations.

  12. Fractal structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes in biologically relevant conditions: role of chirality vs. media conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iftheker A; Aich, Nirupam; Afrooz, A R M Nabiul; Flora, Joseph R V; Schierz, P Ariette; Ferguson, P Lee; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Saleh, Navid B

    2013-11-01

    Aggregate structure of covalently functionalized chiral specific semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was systematically studied employing static light scattering (SLS). Fractal dimensions (Df) of two specific chirality SWNTs-SG65 and SG76 with (6, 5) and (7, 6) chiral enrichments-were measured under four biological exposure media conditions, namely: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium, and 0.9% saline solution. The SWNTs exhibited chiral dependence on Df with SG65 showing more fractal or loosely bound aggregate structures, i.e., lower Df values (range of 2.24±0.03 to 2.64±0.05), compared to the SG76 sample (range of 2.58±0.13 to 2.90±0.08). All the Df values reported are highly reproducible, measured from multiple SLS runs and estimated with 'random block-effects' statistical analysis that yielded all p values to be fractal aggregates. Moreover, presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), used to mimic the in vitro cell culture condition, reduced the Df values, i.e., created more fractal structures. Steric hindrance to aggregation was identified as the key mechanism for creating the fractal structures. Also, increase in FBS concentration from 1% to 10% resulted in increasingly lower Df values.

  13. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticle modified reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid structures for electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Zhao, Zhenting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun

    2017-02-01

    In this work, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs) were successfully prepared by a combination of electrochemical reduction with electrodeposition method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized hybrid structures were modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and further utilized for hydrazine sensing. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry experiments were carried out on Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures to investigate the interface properties and sensing performance. The measured results demonstrate that the fabricated Pd/rGO-MWCNTs/GCE sensor show a high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM-1 cm-2 in a large concentration range of 1.0 to 1100 μM and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. Moreover, the as-prepared sensor exhibits good selectivity and stability for the determination of hydrazine under interference conditions.

  14. Isogeometric Analysis of Deformation, Inelasticity and Fracture In Thin-Walled Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, René

    2016-08-01

    The basic idea of isogeometric analysis (IGA) is to use splines, which are the functions commonly used in computer-aided design (CAD) to describe the geometry, as the basis function for the analysis as well. A main advantage is that a sometimes elaborate meshing process is by-passed. Another benefit is that spline basis-functions possess a higher-order degree of continuity, which enables a more accurate representation of the stress. Further, the order of continuity of the basis-functions can be reduced locally by knot insertion. This feature can be used to model interfaces and cracks as discontinuities in the displacement field. In order to study failure-mechanisms in thin-walled composite materials, an accurate representation of the full three-dimensional stress field is mandatory. A continuum shell formulation is an obvious choice. Continuum shell elements can be developed based on the isogeometric concept. They exploit NURBS basis functions to construct the mid-surface of the shell. In combination with a higher-order B-spline basis function in the thickness direction a complete three-dimensional representation of the shell is obtained. This isogeometric shell formulation can be implemented in a standard finite element code using Bézier extraction. Weak and strong discontinuities can be introduced in the B-spline function using knot-insertion to model material interfaces and delaminations rigorously as discontinuities in the displacement field. The exact representation of material interfaces vastly improves the accuracy of the through-the- thickness stress field. The ability to provide a double knot insertion enables a straightforward analysis of delamination growth in layered composite shells. Illustrative examples will be given.

  15. Low-density lipoprotein accumulation within a carotid artery with multilayer elastic porous wall: fluid-structure interaction and non-Newtonian considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyranlou, Amin; Niazmand, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mahmood-Reza

    2015-09-18

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is recognized as bad cholesterol, typically has been regarded as a main cause of atherosclerosis. LDL infiltration across arterial wall and subsequent formation of Ox-LDL could lead to atherogenesis. In the present study, combined effects of non-Newtonian fluid behavior and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) on LDL mass transfer inside an artery and through its multilayer arterial wall are examined numerically. Navier-Stokes equations for the blood flow inside the lumen and modified Darcy's model for the power-law fluid through the porous arterial wall are coupled with the equations of mass transfer to describe LDL distributions in various segments of the artery. In addition, the arterial wall is considered as a heterogeneous permeable elastic medium. Thus, elastodynamics equation is invoked to examine effects of different wall elasticity on LDL distribution in the artery. Findings suggest that non-Newtonian behavior of filtrated plasma within the wall enhances LDL accumulation meaningfully. Moreover, results demonstrate that at high blood pressure and due to the wall elasticity, endothelium pores expand, which cause significant variations on endothelium physiological properties in a way that lead to higher LDL accumulation. Additionally, results describe that under hypertension, by increasing angular strain, endothelial junctions especially at leaky sites expand more dramatic for the high elastic model, which in turn causes higher LDL accumulation across the intima layer and elevates atherogenesis risk.

  16. The Nano-Memory Devices of a Single Wall and Peapod Structural Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Kang, K. T.; Park, K. S.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. G.; Fischer, J. E.; Johnson, A. T.

    2003-08-01

    The rediscovery and the memory application of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) give a new method in nanoelectronics applications. At first we will report the memory effects of a SWNT, and attempt to use this property in a memory device. To use a SWNT field effect transistor (FET) as a charge-storage memory device, the device operates by injecting electrons from the nanotube channel of a TubeFET into charge traps on the surface of the SiO2 gate dielectric, thus shifting the threshold voltage. This memory can be written and erased many times, and has a hold time of hundreds of seconds at room temperature. At second we have attempted to make a Peapod tubeFET. It is the structure that a C60 was contained within the tube and separated from it by a graphitic Van der Waals gap. I-V property of the Peapod shows semiconducting property.

  17. DFT Study on Structural and Mechanical Properties of Single-walled Carbon and Boron Nitride Nanotubes Functionalized with Carbenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Petrushenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents quantum chemistry study on structural and mechanical properties of a series of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs functionalized with carbenes. At the PBE/SVP level, the obtained data on pristine nanotubes are in good accordance with the results of previous experimental and theoretical studies. The calculations show that carbenes functionalization, in general, distorts both SWNCTs and BNNTs frameworks, but there exists the difference between ‘axial’ and ‘circumferential’ functionalization. It turns out that in both cases elastic properties diminish with increasing concentration of adsorbents, however, the functionalized SWCNTs and BNNTs remain strong enough to be suitable for reinforcement of composites.

  18. The growth model and electronic properties of single- and double-walled zigzag silicon nanotubes: Depending on the structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang; Lu, Junzhe; Liu, Jing; Tang, Yuchao; Zhu, Hengjiang

    2017-02-01

    The growth model and electronic properties of the capped zigzag single- and double-walled silicon nanotubes (SWSiNTs and DWSiNTs) are studied with the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. Particularly, the morphologies of the silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) and the layer-by-layer growth process are explored. Capping of SiNTs is explained well in terms of pentagons. It seems that pentagons or heptagons play apivotal role during the SiNTs growth. Moreover, the structures of the finite SWSiNTs and DWSiNTs are studied. Finally, the infinite SWSiNTs and DWSiNTs can be set up with the repeat unit cells based on the periodic trait of the corresponding finite SiNTs. All of the zigzag SWSiNTs and DWSiNTs have a narrow band gap.

  19. 框架剪力墙结构施工技术分析%Analysis on construction technology of frame shearing wall structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锋

    2015-01-01

    介绍了框架剪力墙结构的含义及受力特点,从测量放线、基础施工、钢筋施工、混凝土施工四方面,阐述了框架剪力墙结构的施工技术,对保证框架剪力墙结构的施工质量及安全有积极的作用。%The paper introduces the definition and stress characteristics of frame shearing wall structure,describes construction technologies of frame shearing wall structure from four aspects of measurement sampling,fundamental construction,steel construction and concrete construction, which has positive role for guaranteeing construction quality and safety of frame shearing wall structure.

  20. Reliability of Sheet Pile Walls And The Influence of Corrosion: Structural Reliability Analysis with Finite Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Courage, W.M.G.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Finite Element Method is well accepted in design practice nowadays. It can be used for modeling complex structures and systems. The constitutive models are improving, which enables us to make more accurate predictions of the real world behavior. On the other hand, especially in the field of geot

  1. Reliability of sheet pile walls and the influence of corrosion. Structural reliability analysis with finite elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Courage, W.M.G.; Gelder, A.J.M. van

    2007-01-01

    The Finite Element Method is well accepted in design practice nowadays. It can be used for modeling complex structures and systems. The constitutive models are improving, which enables us to make more accurate predictions ofthe real world behavior. On the other hand, especially in the field ofgeotec

  2. Simulation study of structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties of TIP4P/2005 water in single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guse, Christa; Hentschke, Reinhard

    2012-01-19

    Because carbon nanotubes lack a strong interaction with water, its hydrogen bond network is altered mainly by the confining geometry alone, allowing one to study its influence on the structure of water. Here structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties are investigated for TIP4P/2005 water confined in single-walled carbon nanotubes, possessing diameters from 11 to 50 Å. Temperatures range from 220 to 600 K for the two pressures studied, 1 and 1000 atm. The results, based on grand canonical Monte Carlo techniques, include heats of adsorption, temperature and diameter dependent densities, density profiles, diffusion constants, and pressure tensor components. The main findings comprise the suppression of the density maximum in tubes with diameters below 50-25 Å, indicating that structures responsible for this anomaly are of comparable size. Furthermore the axial pressure can be described within the continuum limit with deviations only appearing for diameters below 20 Å. The diffusion constants are similar to that of bulk water, demonstrating that the agility of the hydrogen bond network is preserved in the confining geometries considered here.

  3. Structural Insight into Fungal Cell Wall Recognition by a CVNH Protein with a Single LysM Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharudin, Leonardus M I; Debiec, Karl T; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2015-11-03

    MGG_03307 is a lectin isolated from Magnaporte oryzae, a fungus that causes devastating rice blast disease. Its function is associated with protecting M. oryzae from the host immune response in plants. To provide the structural basis of how MGG_03307 protects the fungus, crystal structures of its CVNH-LysM module were determined in the absence and presence of GlcNAc-containing cell wall chitin constituents, which can act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Our structures revealed that glycan binding is accompanied by a notable conformational change in the LysM domain and that GlcNAc3 and GlcNAc4 are accommodated similarly. GlcNAc5 and GlcNAc6 interact with the LysM domain in multiple conformations, as evidenced by solution nuclear magnetic resonance studies. No dimerization of MoCVNH3 via its LysM domain was observed upon binding to GlcNAc6, unlike in multiple LysM domain-containing proteins. Importantly, we define a specific consensus binding mode for the recognition of GlcNAc oligomers by single LysM domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of laser radiation on multi-wall carbon nanotubes: study of shell structure and immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoergy, Enikoe, E-mail: egyorgy@icmab.es; Perez del Pino, Angel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMAB-CSIC) (Spain); Roqueta, Jaume; Ballesteros, Belen [Centro de Investigaciones en Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIN2-CSIC) (Spain); Cabana, Laura; Tobias, Gerard [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMAB-CSIC) (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with diameters between 10 and 15 nm were transferred and immobilized onto SiO{sub 2} glass substrates by ultraviolet matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (UV-MAPLE). Toluene was chosen as solvent material for the preparation of the composite MAPLE targets. An UV KrF* ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau}{sub FWHM} {approx_equal} 25 ns, {nu} = 10 Hz) excimer laser source was used for the irradiation experiments. The effects of incident laser fluence on the structure of the laser transferred MWCNTs was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the laser processed MWCNTs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy in acoustic (dynamic) configuration. Network-like structures constituted by individual nanotubes and nanotube bundles were created onto solid substrates. Changes in the nanotubes' shell structure can be induced through the tuning of the laser fluence value incident onto the composite MAPLE targets.

  5. Energy gaps, electronic structures, and x-ray spectroscopies of finite semiconductor single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Jiang, Jun; Wu, ZiYu; Luo, Yi

    2008-02-28

    We report hybrid density functional theory calculations for electronic structures of hydrogen-terminated finite single-walled carbon nanotubes (6,5) and (8,3) up to 100 nm in length. Gap states that are mainly arisen from the hydrogen-terminated edges have been found in (8,3) tubes, but their contributions to the density of states become invisible when the tube is longer than 10 nm. The electronic structures of (6,5) and (8,3) tubes are found to be converged around 20 nm. The calculated band-gap energies of 100 nm long nanotubes are in good agreement with experimental results. The valence band structures of (6,5), (8,3), as well as (5,5) tubes are also investigated by means of ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS), x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra theoretically. The UPS, XES and RIXS spectra become converged already at 10 nm. The length-dependent oscillation behavior is found in the RIXS spectra of (5,5) tubes, indicating that the RIXS spectra may be used to determine the size and length of metallic nanotubes. Furthermore, the chiral dependence observed in the simulated RIXS spectra suggests that RIXS spectra could be a useful technique for the determination of chirality of carbon nanotubes.

  6. A Cross Structured Light Sensor and Stripe Segmentation Method for Visual Tracking of a Wall Climbing Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liguo; Sun, Jianguo; Yin, Guisheng; Zhao, Jing; Han, Qilong

    2015-06-11

    In non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal welds, weld line tracking is usually performed outdoors, where the structured light sources are always disturbed by various noises, such as sunlight, shadows, and reflections from the weld line surface. In this paper, we design a cross structured light (CSL) to detect the weld line and propose a robust laser stripe segmentation algorithm to overcome the noises in structured light images. An adaptive monochromatic space is applied to preprocess the image with ambient noises. In the monochromatic image, the laser stripe obtained is recovered as a multichannel signal by minimum entropy deconvolution. Lastly, the stripe centre points are extracted from the image. In experiments, the CSL sensor and the proposed algorithm are applied to guide a wall climbing robot inspecting the weld line of a wind power tower. The experimental results show that the CSL sensor can capture the 3D information of the welds with high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm contributes to the weld line inspection and the robot navigation.

  7. Hydrodynamic performance of combined cylinders structure with dual arc-shaped porous outer walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gao; Liu, Jun

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the hydrodynamic performance of short-crested wave interaction with a new porous cylindrical structure by using the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM), which is a semi-analytical technique combining the advantages of the finite element method and the boundary element method and with its own special features as well. The cylindrical structure consists of dual arc-shaped porous outer cylinders circumscribing an impermeable inner cylinder. A central feature of the newly extended method is that two virtual outer cylinders extending the arc-shaped porous outer cylinders with the same centre are introduced and variable porous-effect parameters are also introduced for the two virtual cylinders, so that the final SBFEM equation still can be handled in a closed-form analytical manner in the radial direction and by a finite element approximation in the circumferential direction. The entire computational domain is divided into two bounded and one unbounded domains, and a variational principle formulation is used to derive the SBFEM equation in each sub-domain. The velocity potential in bounded and unbounded domains is formulated using sets of Bessel and Hankel functions respectively, and the unknown coefficients are determined from the matching conditions. The results of numerical verification show that the approach discretises only the outermost virtual cylinder with surface finite-elements and fewer elements are required to obtain very accurate results. Influences of the incident wave parameters and structural configurations on the hydrodynamics are examined.

  8. Calculation method for horizontal displacements of multi-grid composite wall-shear wall structure%密肋复合墙-剪力墙混合结构水平位移计算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭猛; 袁泉; 黄炜; 张旭锋; 李鹏飞

    2011-01-01

    Multi-grid composite wall-shear wall structure is a new type of resistant structure consisting of composite walls and shear-walls which can effectively solve some disadvantageous problems about multi-grid structure, such as the constraint of building height and application range in highly seismic area. Displacement calculating method for the structure subjected to horizontal loads was proposed. Based on Timoshenko beam theory, the composite wall was treated as shear-flexural type cantilever wall, and the displacement differential equation was established by using continuous deformation approach, then the analytical solutions were derived. The examples show that frame-shear structure can be regarded as one of special forms of composite wall-shear wall structures, and the whole lateral displacement curve of the structure expresses shear-flexural type characteristic in which shear deformation should not be ignored. The findings provide a theoretical basis to study and to calculate internal forces in anti-seismic design.%密肋复合墙-剪力墙混合结构是把密肋复合墙与剪力墙组合起来,形成的一种新型联合抗侧力结构,有效解决了密肋结构在7度及以上地震烈度区建造高度、应用范围受限的问题.对水平荷载作用下复合墙-剪力墙结构的位移计算方法进行研究:依据Timoshenko梁基本理论,将密肋复合墙视为弯剪型悬臂墙,同时考虑其弯曲变形和剪切变形,采用变形连续化方法建立了结构体系的位移微分方程,以常见倒三角形荷载为例推导了密肋复合墙弯曲变形、剪切变形和结构总水平位移的解析表达式.算例分析表明:复合墙-剪力墙结构与框剪结构的刚度特征值、位移公式完全相容,后者可视为前者在复合墙抗弯刚度取无穷大时的一种特殊表现形式;结构侧移曲线呈现弯曲变形为主的弯剪型特征,但复合墙的剪切变形在总变形中占有一定比重,不应忽略.研究工

  9. Depth Analysis of the Performance of Coupling Beams in Shear Wall Structure%剪力墙结构中的连梁性能深度剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文梅; 李成

    2012-01-01

    连梁是剪力墙结构中的重要构件,具有跨度小、截面大、内力大等特点,连梁是剪力墙结构抗震的第一道防线,因此,做好连梁的受力特性分析非常重要。%Binding beam is very important in shear wall structure. It has small span, big section and big reaction. Binding beam is the first line of defense for seismic in shear wall structure. So it is very important to do the analysis of characteristics.

  10. Immunohistochemical investigation of the tissue distribution of mannan-binding lectin in non-infected and virus-infected chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Hedemand, J.;

    1998-01-01

    This-paper describes the results of immuno-histochemical staining for chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in formalin-fixed tissue sections from non-infected chickens, and from chickens infected with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the non......-infected chickens, MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of a few hepatocytes and in the germinal centres of the caecal tonsils, whereas sections of kidney, heart muscle, spleen, cerebrum, thymus, adrenal gland, bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow and trachea were without staining. In the ILTV-infected chickens, an intense...... staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes and on the surface of, and inside, ILTV-infected cells. Also in the IBDV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes. No staining was seen in the follicles of the bursa...

  11. CD91 interacts with mannan-binding lectin (MBL) through the MBL-associated serine protease-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duus, Karen; Thielens, Nicole M; Lacroix, Monique; Tacnet, Pascale; Frachet, Philippe; Holmskov, Uffe; Houen, Gunnar

    2010-12-01

    CD91 plays an important role in the scavenging of apoptotic material, possibly through binding to soluble pattern-recognition molecules. In this study, we investigated the interaction of CD91 with mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins and lung surfactant proteins. Both MBL and L-ficolin were found to bind CD91. The MBL-CD91 interaction was time- and concentration-dependent and could be inhibited by known ligands of CD91. MBL-associated serine protease 3 (MASP-3) also inhibited binding between MBL and CD91, suggesting that the site of interaction is located at or near the MASP-MBL interaction site. This was confirmed by using MBL mutants deficient for MASP binding that were unable to interact with CD91. These findings demonstrate that MBL and L-ficolin interact with CD91, strongly suggesting that they have the potential to function as soluble recognition molecules for scavenging microbial and apoptotic material by CD91.

  12. Increased All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and High-Expression Mannan-Binding Lectin Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jakob A; Thiel, Steffen; Lajer, Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a complement-activating carbohydrate-recognizing molecule associated with diabetic nephropathy. MBL is associated with all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes, but whether MBL is associated with mortality in type 1 diabetes remains unknown. We therefore...... are both associated with increased mortality rates in type 1 diabetes compared with low MBL expression genotypes and low MBL concentrations....... aimed to investigate this. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied an existing 12-year prospective cohort with type 1 diabetes with 198 patients with diabetic nephropathy (121 men, age 41 years [95% CI 40-42], estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 67 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [95% CI 63-70]) and 174...

  13. CD91 interacts with mannan-binding lectin (MBL) through the MBL-associated serine protease-binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Karen; Thielens, Nicole M; Lacroix, Monique;

    2010-01-01

    CD91 plays an important role in the scavenging of apoptotic material, possibly through binding to soluble pattern-recognition molecules. In this study, we investigated the interaction of CD91 with mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins and lung surfactant proteins. Both MBL and L-ficolin were found...... to bind CD91. The MBL-CD91 interaction was time- and concentration-dependent and could be inhibited by known ligands of CD91. MBL-associated serine protease 3 (MASP-3) also inhibited binding between MBL and CD91, suggesting that the site of interaction is located at or near the MASP-MBL interaction site....... This was confirmed by using MBL mutants deficient for MASP binding that were unable to interact with CD91. These findings demonstrate that MBL and L-ficolin interact with CD91, strongly suggesting that they have the potential to function as soluble recognition molecules for scavenging microbial and apoptotic...

  14. Identification and characterization of porcine mannan-binding lectin A (pMBL-A), and determination of serum concentration heritability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, Helle R.; Krogh-Meibom, Thomas; Heryon, Mark;

    2006-01-01

    affinity, ion exchange, and size exclusion chromatography and determined many of its characteristics. Based on the N-terminal sequence, multiple sequence alignment, and relative affinities to various carbohydrate ligands, we propose that the MBL purified in this study is pMBL-A. We have generated......Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is an innate immune collectin present in the serum of humans and many farm animals. This oligomeric pattern-recognition protein effectively binds to the glycoconjugate arrays present on the surfaces of microorganisms and activates the complement system to enhance...... antibodies to this protein and established an immunoassay to quantify pMBL-A in serum. Using this assay, we found breed differences in pMBL-A concentration distributions and heritability estimates. In the Duroc breed (n=588), pMBL-A concentrations show a unimodal distribution with a mean of 9,125 ng...

  15. The down-stream effects of mannan-induced lectin complement pathway activation depend quantitatively on alternative pathway amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Morten; Garred, Peter; Karlstrøm, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    was not observed even at high mannan concentrations since addition of the inhibiting anti-MBL mAb 3F8 completely abolished generation of the terminal C5b-9 complex (TCC). However, selective blockade of AP by anti-factor D inhibited more than 80% of TCC release into the fluid phase after LP activation showing...... that AP amplification is quantitatively responsible for the final effect of initial specific LP activation. TCC generation on the solid phase was distinctly but less inhibited by anti-fD. C2 bypass of the LP pathway could be demonstrated, and AP amplification was also essential during C2 bypass in LP...... as shown by complete inhibition of TCC generation in C2-deficient serum by anti-fD and anti-properdin antibodies. In conclusion, the down-stream effect of LP activation depends strongly on AP amplification in normal human serum and in the C2 bypass pathway....

  16. Study on the form of structure layer in sandwich wall panel%复合墙板结构层组合形式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同亿; 张兴虎; 于庆荣

    2001-01-01

    通过两种复合墙板拟静力试验,探讨了结构层组合形式对构件的破坏形态、变形性能、刚度以及承载力的影响,论证了两侧等厚结构层复合墙板抗震性能相对优越并对不等厚结构层复合墙板的极限承载力及应用范围进行了讨论.%Based on the quasi-static test of two kinds of sandwich wall panels, some behaviors such as the failure form, the deformation behavior, the stiffness, the intensity and the load bearing capacity of this sandwich wall panel are discussed. The calculation that the seismic behavior of sandwich wall panel with same thickness structure layer takes precedence over that of sandwich wall panel with different thickness structure layer is presented. The capacity and the application of sandwich wall panel with different thickness structure layer is discussed.

  17. Recent structural insights into the enzymology of the ubiquitous plant cell wall glycan xyloglucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Mohamed A; Brumer, Harry

    2016-10-01

    The xyloglucans (XyGs) constitute a family of highly decorated β(1→4)-glucans whose members are widespread and abundant across the plant kingdom. As such, XyGs constitute a significant reserve of metabolically accessible monosaccharides for diverse phytopathogenic, saprophytic, and gut symbiotic micro-organisms. To overcome the intrinsic stability of the diverse glycosidic bonds in XyGs, bacteria and fungi have evolved extensive repertoires of xyloglucan-active enzymes from manifold families, whose exquisitely adapted tertiary structures are recently coming to light.

  18. Extraction process of palm kernel cake as a source of mannan for feed additive on poultry diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yusraini, E.

    2017-05-01

    Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is a by-product of palm kernel oil extraction and found in large quantity in Indonesia. The inclusion of PKC on poultry diet are limited due to some nutritional problems such as anti-nutritional properties (mannan). On the other hand, mannan containing polysaccharides play in various biological functions particularly in enhancing the immune response and to control pathogen in poultry. The research objective to find out the extraction process of PKC and conducted at animal nutrition and Feed Science Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara. Various extraction methode were used in this experiment, including fraction analysis used 7 number sieves, and followed by water and acetic acid extraction. The result indicated that PKC had different particle size according to sieve size and dominated by particle size 850 um. The analysis of sugar content indicated that each particle size had different characteristic on treatment by hot water extraction. The particle size 180—850 um had higher sugar content than coarse PKC (2000—3000 um). The total sugar content were recovered vary between 0.9—3,2% from PKC were extracted. Treatment grinding method followed by hot water extraction (100—120 °C, 1 h) increased total sugar content than previous treatments and reach 8% from PKC were extracted. Utilisation acetic acid decreased the total amount of total sugar from PKC were extracted. It is concluded that treatment by hot temperature (110—120 °C) for 1 h show highest yield to extract sugar from PKC.

  19. Structural investigation of cell wall polysaccharides of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, E; Sadovskaya, I; Cornelissen, A; van Sinderen, D

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacilli are valuable strains for commercial (functional) food fermentations. Their cell surface-associated polysaccharides (sPSs) possess important functional properties, such as acting as receptors for bacteriophages (bacterial viruses), influencing autolytic characteristics and providing protection against antimicrobial peptides. The current report provides an elaborate molecular description of several surface carbohydrates of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain 17. The cell surface of this strain was shown to contain short chain poly(glycerophosphate) teichoic acids and at least two different sPSs, designated here as sPS1 and sPS2, whose chemical structures were examined by 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and methylation analysis. Neutral branched sPS1, extracted with n-butanol, was shown to be composed of hexasaccharide repeating units (-[α-d-Glcp-(1-3)-]-4-β-l-Rhap2OAc-4-β-d-Glcp-[α-d-Galp-(1-3)]-4-α-Rhap-3-α-d-Galp-), while the major component of the TCA-extracted sPS2 was demonstrated to be a linear d-galactan with the repeating unit structure being (-[Gro-3P-(1-6)-]-3-β-Galf-3-α-Galp-2-β-Galf-6-β-Galf-3-β-Galp-).

  20. The dynamics of the asymmetric motion of domain walls of sandwich domain structure in a Fe-based amorphous ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmetko, D.N., E-mail: sergey.zhmetko@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Zaporizhzhya National University, 66 Zhukovsky Street, 69063 Zaporizhzhya (Ukraine); Zhmetko, S.D. [Department of Physics, Zaporizhzhya National University, 66 Zhukovsky Street, 69063 Zaporizhzhya (Ukraine); Troschenkov, Y.N. [Institute for Magnetism, 36-b Vernadsky Boulevard, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Matsura, A.V. [Department of Physics, Zaporizhzhya National University, 66 Zhukovsky Street, 69063 Zaporizhzhya (Ukraine)

    2013-08-15

    The frequency dependence of asymmetry of the domain walls velocity relative to the middle plane of amorphous ribbon is investigated. An additional pressure of the same direction acting on each domain wall caused by dependence of eddy current damping on the coordinate of the domain wall is revealed. The microscopic mechanisms of this additional pressure are considered. - Highlights: ► Additional pressure on the domain wall, caused by inhomogeneity of its damping. ► Asymmetry of the coordinate of the nucleation of domain walls and their damping. ► Connection between the components of additional pressure and its direction. ► Interaction of domain walls with the surface defects of the amorphous ribbon.

  1. Damage Detection on Thin-walled Structures Utilizing Laser Scanning and Standing Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Se Hyeok; Jeon, Jun Young; Kim, Du Hwan; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, To; Han, Soon Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes wavenumber filtering for damage detection using single-frequency standing wave excitation and laser scanning sensing. An embedded piezoelectric sensor generates ultrasonic standing waves, and the responses are measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and mirror tilting device. After scanning, newly developed damage detection techniques based on wavenumber filtering are applied to the full standing wave field. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques, several experiments were performed on composite plates with delamination and aluminum plates with corrosion damage. The results demonstrated that the developed techniques could be applied to various structures to localize the damage, with the potential to improve the damage detection capability at a high interrogation speed.

  2. Temperature control and cracking prevention in coastal thin-wall concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xia GUO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element program for thermal analysis of hydration heat in concrete structures with a plastic pipe cooling system is introduced in this paper. The program was applied to simulation of the temperature and stress field of the Cao’e Sluice during the construction period. From the calculated results, we can find that the temperature and stress of concrete cooled with plastic pipes are much lower than those of concrete without pipes. Moreover, plastic pipes could not be corroded by seawater. That is to say, a good effect of temperature control and cracking prevention can be achieved, which provides a useful reference for other similar nearshore concrete projects.

  3. Role of supramolecular cellulose structures in enzymatic hydrolysis of plant cell walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2011-01-01

    The study of biomass deconstruction by enzymatic hydrolysis has hitherto not focussed on the importance of supramolecular structures of cellulose. In lignocellulose fibres, regions with a different organisation of the microfibrils are present. These regions are called dislocations or slip planes...... and they are known to be more susceptible to various forms of degradation such as acid hydrolysis. Traditionally the cellulose within these regions has been assumed to be amorphous, but in this study it is shown by use of polarized light microscopy that dislocations are birefringent. This indicates that they have...... the initial part of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The implications of this phenomenon have not yet been recognized or explored within cellulosic biofuels....

  4. Structural Investigation of Cell Wall Xylan Polysaccharides from the Leaves of Algerian Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Kadda; Faugeron, Céline; Kaid-Harche, Meriem; Gloaguen, Vincent

    2016-11-21

    Xylan-type polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels collected in the Tindouf area (southwestern Algeria). Xylan fractions were obtained by sequential alkaline extractions and purified on Sepharose CL-4B. The xylan structure was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis with an endo-β(1→4)-xylanase followed by chromatography of the resulting fragments on Biogel P2, characterization by sugar analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS ). The results show that the A. spinosa xylan is composed of a β-(1→4)-d-xylopyranose backbone substituted with 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid and L-arabinose residues.

  5. Structural Investigation of Cell Wall Xylan Polysaccharides from the Leaves of Algerian Argania spinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadda Hachem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xylan-type polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves of Argania spinosa (L. Skeels collected in the Tindouf area (southwestern Algeria. Xylan fractions were obtained by sequential alkaline extractions and purified on Sepharose CL-4B. The xylan structure was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis with an endo-β(1→4-xylanase followed by chromatography of the resulting fragments on Biogel P2, characterization by sugar analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS . The results show that the A. spinosa xylan is composed of a β-(1→4-d-xylopyranose backbone substituted with 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid and L-arabinose residues.

  6. Partial structural characterization of pectin cell wall from Argania spinosa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Kadda; Benabdesslem, Yasmina; Ghomari, Samia; Hasnaoui, Okkacha; Kaid-Harche, Meriem

    2016-02-01

    The pectin polysaccharides from leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, collected from Stidia area in the west coast of northern Algeria, were investigated by using sequential extractions and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. Water-soluble pectic (ALS-WSP) and chelating-soluble pectic (ALS-CSP) fractions were obtained, de-esterified and fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and characterized by sugar analysis combined with methylation analysis and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The data reveal the presence of altering homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) in both pectin fraction. The rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) are consisted of a disaccharide repeating unit [→ α-D-GalpA-1,2-α-L-Rhap-1,4 →] backbone, with side chains contained highly branched α-(1 → 5)-linked arabinan and short linear β-(1 → 4)-linked galactan, attached to O-4 of the rhamnosyl residues.

  7. Antimicrobial action and cell agglutination by the eosinophil cationic protein are modulated by the cell wall lipopolysaccharide structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, David; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Andreu, David; Nogués, M Victòria; Torrent, Marc; Boix, Ester

    2012-05-01

    Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) are essential effectors of innate immunity, acting as a first line of defense against bacterial infections. Many AMPs exhibit high affinity for cell wall structures such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin able to induce sepsis. Hence, understanding how AMPs can interact with and neutralize LPS endotoxin is of special relevance for human health. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an eosinophil secreted protein with high activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. ECP has a remarkable affinity for LPS and a distinctive agglutinating activity. By using a battery of LPS-truncated E. coli mutant strains, we demonstrate that the polysaccharide moiety of LPS is essential for ECP-mediated bacterial agglutination, thereby modulating its antimicrobial action. The mechanism of action of ECP at the bacterial surface is drastically affected by the LPS structure and in particular by its polysaccharide moiety. We have also analyzed an N-terminal fragment that retains the whole protein activity and displays similar cell agglutination behavior. Conversely, a fragment with further minimization of the antimicrobial domain, though retaining the antimicrobial capacity, significantly loses its agglutinating activity, exhibiting a different mechanism of action which is not dependent on the LPS composition. The results highlight the correlation between the protein's antimicrobial activity and its ability to interact with the LPS outer layer and promote bacterial agglutination.

  8. Sensing the structural differences in cellulose from apple and bacterial cell wall materials by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Cybulska, Justyna; Zdunek, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used for assessment of structural differences of celluloses of various origins. Investigated celluloses were: bacterial celluloses cultured in presence of pectin and/or xyloglucan, as well as commercial celluloses and cellulose extracted from apple parenchyma. FT-IR spectra were used to estimate of the I(β) content, whereas Raman spectra were used to evaluate the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose. The crystallinity index (X(C)(RAMAN)%) varied from -25% for apple cellulose to 53% for microcrystalline commercial cellulose. Considering bacterial cellulose, addition of xyloglucan has an impact on the percentage content of cellulose I(β). However, addition of only xyloglucan or only pectins to pure bacterial cellulose both resulted in a slight decrease of crystallinity. However, culturing bacterial cellulose in the presence of mixtures of xyloglucan and pectins results in an increase of crystallinity. The results confirmed that the higher degree of crystallinity, the broader the peak around 913 cm(-1). Among all bacterial celluloses the bacterial cellulose cultured in presence of xyloglucan and pectin (BCPX) has the most similar structure to those observed in natural primary cell walls.

  9. Prospects and problems using vanadium alloys as a structural material of the first wall and blanket of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votinov, S.N. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Solonin, M.I. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Kazennov, Yu.I. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Kondratjev, V.P. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Nikulin, A.D. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Tebus, V.N. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Adamov, E.O. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bougaenko, S.E. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strebkov, Yu.S. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorenkov, A.V. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V.B. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Kazakov, V.A. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Evtikhin, V.A. [SE ``Krasnaya Zvezda``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I.E. [SE ``Krasnaya Zvezda``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Trojanov, V.M. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Rusanov, A.E. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Birgevoj, G.A. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Vanadium-based alloys are most promising as low activation structural materials for DEMO. It was previously established that high priority is to be given to V-alloys of the V-Ti-Cr system as structural materials of a tritium breeding blanket and the first wall of a fusion reactor. However, there is some uncertainty in selecting a specific element ratio between the alloy components in this system. This is primarily explained by the fact that the properties of V-alloys are dictated not only by the ratio between the main alloying elements (here Ti and Cr), but also by impurities, both metallic and oxygen interstitials. Based on a number of papers today one can say that V-Ti-Cr alloys with insignificant variations in the contents of the main constituents within 5-10 mass% Ti and 4-6 mass% Cr must be taken as a base for subsequent optimization of chemical composition and thermomechanical working. However, the database is obviously insufficient to assess the ecological acceptability (activation), physical and mechanical properties, corrosion and irradiation resistance and, particularly, the commercial production of alloys. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive studies of promising V-alloys, namely V-4Ti-4Cr and V-10Ti-5Cr. (orig.).

  10. Special structures and properties of hydrogen nanowire confined in a single walled carbon nanotube at extreme high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyuan Xia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that hydrogen can be confined in single walled carbon nanotubes to form high density and high pressure H2 molecular lattice, which has peculiar shell and axial structures depending on the density or pressure. The band gap of the confined H2 lattice is sensitive to the pressure. Heating the system at 2000K, the H2 lattice is firstly melted to form H2 molecular liquid, and then some of the H2 molecules dissociate accompanied by drastic molecular and atomic reactions, which have essential effect on the electronic structure of the hydrogen system. The liquid hydrogen system at 2000K is found to be a particular mixed liquid, which consists of H2 molecules, H atoms, and H-H-H trimers. The dissociated H atoms and the trimers in the liquid contribute resonance electron states at the Fermi energy to change the material properties substantially. Rapidly cooling the system from 2000K to 0.01 K, the mixed liquid is frozen to form a mixed solid melt with a clear trend of band gap closure. It indicates that this solid melt may become a superconducting nanowire when it is further compressed.

  11. A molecular simulation probing of structure and interaction for supramolecular sodium dodecyl sulfate/single-wall carbon nanotube assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaoning; Yang, Zhen

    2010-03-10

    Here we report a larger-scale atomic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) surfaces and the interaction between supramolecular SDS/SWNT aggregates. We make an effort to address several important problems in regard to carbon nanotube dispersion/separation. At first, the simulation provides comprehensive direct evidence for SDS self-assembly structures on carbon nanotube surfaces, which can help to clarify the relevant debate over the exact adsorption structure. We also, for the first time, simulated the potential of mean force (PMF) between two SWNTs embedded in SDS surfactant micelles. A novel unified PMF approach has been applied to reveal various cooperative interactions between the SDS/SWNT aggregates, which is different from the previous electrostatic repulsion explanation. The unique role of sodium ions revealed here provides a new microscopic understanding of the recent experiments in the electrolyte tuning of the interfacial forces on the selective fractionation of SDS surrounding SWNTs.

  12. Periodic density functional theory study of structural and electronic properties of single-walled zinc oxide and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marana, Naiara L. [Modeling and Molecular Simulations Group, São Paulo State University, UNESP, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, Anderson R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertão Pernambucano, 56400-000 Floresta, PE (Brazil); La Porta, Felipe A. [Chemistry Department, Federal Technological University of Paraná, 86036-370 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Longo, Elson [São Paulo State University, Chemistry Institute, UNESP, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Sambrano, Julio R. [Modeling and Molecular Simulations Group, São Paulo State University, UNESP, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Periodic density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP hybrid functional and all-electron Gaussian basis set were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of single-walled ZnO nanotubes (SWZnONTs) and Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. For all SWZnONTs, the band gap, strain energy, and formation energy converge to ~4.5 eV, 0.0 eV/atom, and 0.40 eV/atom, respectively. This result suggests that the nanotubes are formed more easily from the surface than from the bulk. For SWCNTs, the strain energy is always positive, while the formation energy is negative for armchair and zigzag nanotubes, therefore suggesting that these types of nanotubes can be preferentially formed from the bulk. The electronic properties of SWCNTs depend on the chirality; all armchair nanotubes are metallic, while zigzag and chiral nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the n and m vectors. - Graphical abstract: DFT/B3LYP were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of SWZnONTs and SWCNTs with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. - Highlights: • The energies of SWZnONTs converge for chirality with diameters up 20 Å. • SWCNTs electronic properties depend on the chirality. • The properties of SWZnONTs are very similar to those of monolayer surface.

  13. Effect of compression combined with steam treatment on the porosity, chemical compositon and cellulose crystalline structure of wood cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiangping; Yuan, Tongqi; Lu, Yun; Song, Kunlin; Li, Hanyin; Zhao, Guangjie; Yin, Yafang

    2017-01-02

    The changes of porosity, chemical composition and cellulose crystalline structure of Spruce (Picea abies Karst.) wood cell walls due to compression combined with steam treatment (CS-treatment) were investigated by nitrogen adsorption, confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. A number of slit-shaped mesopores with a diameter of 3.7nm was formed for the CS-treated wood, and more mesopores were found in the steam-treated wood. CRM results revealed cellulose structure was affected by treatment and β-aryl-ether links associated to guaiacyl units of lignin was depolymerized followed by re-condensation reactions. The crystallinity index (CrI) and crystallite thickness (D200) of cellulose for CS-treated wood were largely increased due to crystallization in the semicrystalline region. Higher degree of increase in both CrI and D200 was observed in both the earlywood and latewood of steam-treated wood, ascribing to the greater amount of mesopores in steam-treated wood than CS-treated wood.

  14. Catastrophic vs gradual collapse of thin-walled nanocrystalline Ni hollow cylinders as building blocks of microlattice structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jie; Jang, Dongchan; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; B Carter, William; Greer, Julia R

    2011-10-12

    Lightweight yet stiff and strong lattice structures are attractive for various engineering applications, such as cores of sandwich shells and components designed for impact mitigation. Recent breakthroughs in manufacturing enable efficient fabrication of hierarchically architected microlattices, with dimensional control spanning seven orders of magnitude in length scale. These materials have the potential to exploit desirable nanoscale-size effects in a macroscopic structure, as long as their mechanical behavior at each appropriate scale - nano, micro, and macro levels - is properly understood. In this letter, we report the nanomechanical response of individual microlattice members. We show that hollow nanocrystalline Ni cylinders differing only in wall thicknesses, 500 and 150 nm, exhibit strikingly different collapse modes: the 500 nm sample collapses in a brittle manner, via a single strain burst, while the 150 nm sample shows a gradual collapse, via a series of small and discrete strain bursts. Further, compressive strength in 150 nm sample is 99.2% lower than predicted by shell buckling theory, likely due to localized buckling and fracture events observed during in situ compression experiments. We attribute this difference to the size-induced transition in deformation behavior, unique to nanoscale, and discuss it in the framework of "size effects" in crystalline strength.

  15. Sensing the Structural Differences in Cellulose from Apple and Bacterial Cell Wall Materials by Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Zdunek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy was used for assessment of structural differences of celluloses of various origins. Investigated celluloses were: bacterial celluloses cultured in presence of pectin and/or xyloglucan, as well as commercial celluloses and cellulose extracted from apple parenchyma. FT-IR spectra were used to estimate of the Iβ content, whereas Raman spectra were used to evaluate the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose. The crystallinity index (XCRAMAN% varied from −25% for apple cellulose to 53% for microcrystalline commercial cellulose. Considering bacterial cellulose, addition of xyloglucan has an impact on the percentage content of cellulose Iβ. However, addition of only xyloglucan or only pectins to pure bacterial cellulose both resulted in a slight decrease of crystallinity. However, culturing bacterial cellulose in the presence of mixtures of xyloglucan and pectins results in an increase of crystallinity. The results confirmed that the higher degree of crystallinity, the broader the peak around 913 cm−1. Among all bacterial celluloses the bacterial cellulose cultured in presence of xyloglucan and pectin (BCPX has the most similar structure to those observed in natural primary cell walls.

  16. Reconstruction of St. Petersburg roofs based on light steel thin-walled structures and de-icing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Vatin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Insecurity of applied coatings and low service lives of St. Petersburg roofs generate the development of new technological solutions. Necessity of roof protection from the ice dams is a special factor in selecting technological solutions of the roof structure.The aim is selection of an optimal design solution for the roof and the device against the ice based on the parameters of efficiency and effectiveness. After completion of research as a design of the roof system was chosen light steel thin-walled structures (LSTC. As the device against the ice is proposed a constructive adaptation of drainage, which includes the transfer of the gutter from the roof edge closer to Snow barriers. Herewith downspouts must finish in the system and urban runoff.Efficiency of this method is confirmed by mathematical calculations and trial operation of such existing systems in the Nordic countries. The combination of the device against the ice with modern technology LSTC solve the problem of icicles, and generally can guarantee continuous and reliable operation of the roof.

  17. Variable range hopping in single-wall carbon nanotube thin films: a processing-structure-property relationship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sida; Liu, Tao; Benjamin, Shermane M; Brooks, James S

    2013-07-09

    By varying the ultrasonication and ultracentrifugation conditions, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dispersions with a broad range of SWCNT length and diameter (L = 342-3330 nm; d = 0.5-12 nm) were prepared and characterized by a preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. The well-characterized dispersions were then fabricated into SWCNT thin films by spray coating. Combined optical, spectroscopic, and temperature-dependent electrical measurements were performed to study the effect of SWCNT structures on the charge transport behavior of SWCNT thin films. Regardless of SWCNT size in the dispersion and the thin film thickness, the three-dimensional variable range hopping (3D VRH) conduction model was found to be appropriate in explaining the temperature-dependent sheet resistance results for all SWCNT thin films prepared in this study. More importantly, with the SWCNT structural information determined by the PUM method, we were able to identify a strong correlation between the length of SWCNTs and the 3D VRH parameter T0, the Mott characteristic temperature. When the SWCNT length is less than ∼700 nm, the T0 of SWCNT thin films shows a drastic increase, but when the length is greater than ~700 nm, T0 is only weakly dependent on the SWCNT length. Under the framework of traditional VRH, we further conclude that the electron localization length of SWCNT thin films shows a similar dependence on the SWCNT length.

  18. Solar heating wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, J.L.

    1983-08-16

    A solar heating wall is disclosed including a water pipe circulation system having a plurality of separate tubes, each formed as a loop, connected between a water supply and a return. The separate tubes are arranged in a single vertical plane at the approximate center of the wall. The wall is formed within a frame which is packed with a material suited for use as a thERMAL RESERVOIR, SUCH AS concrete. The frame provides extra support by having a series of horizontally disposed cross supports on one surface of the wall and a series of vertically disposed cross supports on the opposite surface A pressure relief valve may be provided between the water supply to the separate tubes and the water supply to the building or structure containing the solar wall, so that the solar wall can be adapted for use with a city water system.

  19. Effects of the strain background and autolysis process on the composition and biophysical properties of the cell wall from two different industrial yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Marion; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Castex, Mathieu; Dague, Etienne; Marie François, Jean

    2015-03-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface is endowed with some relevant technological properties, notably antimicrobial and biosorption activities. For these purposes, yeasts are usually processed and packaged in an 'autolysed/dried' formula, which may have some impacts on cell surface properties. In this report, we showed using a combination of biochemical, biophysical and molecular methods that the composition of the cell wall of two wine yeast strains was not altered by the autolysis process. In contrast, this process altered the nanomechanical properties as shown by a 2- to 4-fold increased surface roughness and to a higher adhesion to the atomic force microscope tips of the autolysed cells as compared to live yeast cells. Besides, we found that the two strains harboured differences in biomechanical properties that could be due in part to higher levels of mannan in one of them, and to the fact that the surface of this mannan-enriched strain is decorated with highly adhesive patches forming nanodomains. The presence of these nanodomains could be correlated with the upregulation of flocculin encoding FLO11 as well as to higher expression of few other genes encoding cell wall mannoproteins in this mannan-enriched strain as compared to the other strain.

  20. Role of supramolecular cellulose structures in enzymatic hydrolysis of plant cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Felby, Claus

    2011-08-01

    The study of biomass deconstruction by enzymatic hydrolysis has hitherto not focussed on the importance of supramolecular structures of cellulose. In lignocellulose fibres, regions with a different organisation of the microfibrils are present. These regions are called dislocations or slip planes and they are known to be more susceptible to various forms of degradation such as acid hydrolysis. Traditionally the cellulose within these regions has been assumed to be amorphous, but in this study it is shown by use of polarized light microscopy that dislocations are birefringent. This indicates that they have a crystalline organisation. Dislocations may be entry points for endoglucanases. Using a fluorescent labelled endoglucanase combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy, it is shown that the enzyme selectively binds to dislocations during the initial phase of the hydrolysis. Using a commercial cellulase mixture on hydrothermally treated wheat straw, it was found that the fibres were cut into segments corresponding to the sections between the dislocations initially present, as has previously been observed for acid hydrolysis of softwood pulps. The results indicate that dislocations are important during the initial part of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The implications of this phenomenon have not yet been recognized or explored within cellulosic biofuels.

  1. Partial structural characterization of pectin cell wall from Argania spinosa leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadda Hachem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The pectin polysaccharides from leaves of Argania spinosa (L. Skeels, collected from Stidia area in the west coast of northern Algeria, were investigated by using sequential extractions and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. Water-soluble pectic (ALS-WSP and chelating-soluble pectic (ALS-CSP fractions were obtained, de-esterified and fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and characterized by sugar analysis combined with methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The data reveal the presence of altering homogalacturonan (HG and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I in both pectin fraction. The rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I are consisted of a disaccharide repeating unit [→ α-D-GalpA-1,2-α-L-Rhap-1,4 →] backbone, with side chains contained highly branched α-(1 → 5-linked arabinan and short linear β-(1 → 4-linked galactan, attached to O-4 of the rhamnosyl residues.

  2. Structure-property relationship in polyethylene reinforced by polyethylene-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causin, Valerio; Yang, Bing-Xing; Marega, Carla; Goh, Suat Hong; Marigo, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Polyethylene-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PE-g-MWNT) were used to reinforce polyethylene (PE). The nanocomposites possessed not only improved stiffness and strength, but also increased ductility and toughness. The effects on the structure and morphology of composites due to pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and PE-g-MWNT were studied and compared using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SAXS long period, crystalline layer thickness and crystallinity of polymer lamellar stacks were found to decrease significantly in MWNT composites, while the decreases were much smaller in PE-g-MWNT composites. PE-g-MWNT allowed a more efficient and unhindered crystallization at a lamellar level, while MWNT disrupted the order of lamellar stacks, probably because of their tendency to aggregate. The SAXS crystallinity and the mechanical properties of the composites showed similar trends as a function of MWNT content. This suggested that the improvement of the interfacial strength between polymer and carbon nanotubes was a result of synergistic effects of better dispersion of the filler, better stress transfer, due to the grafting of polymer and MWNT, and the nucleation of a crystalline phase around MWNT. The latter effect was confirmed by measurements of kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure and interfacial free energy barriers of mixtures of ionic liquids and divalent salts near a graphene wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-González, Víctor; Docampo-Álvarez, Borja; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Cabeza, Oscar; Ivaništšev, Vladislav B; Fedorov, Maxim V; Gallego, Luis J; Varela, Luis M

    2016-12-21

    A molecular dynamics study of mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) with magnesium tetrafluoroborate (Mg[BF4]2) confined between two parallel graphene walls is reported. The structure of the system is analyzed by means of ionic density profiles, lateral structure of the first layer close to the graphene surface and angular orientations of imidazolium cations. Free energy profiles for divalent magnesium cations are calculated using two different methods in order to evaluate the height of the potential barriers near the walls, and the results are compared with those of mixtures of the same ionic liquid and a lithium salt (Li[BF4]). Preferential adsorption of magnesium cations is analyzed using a simple model and compared to that of lithium cations, and vibrational densities of states are calculated for the cations close to the walls analyzing the influence of the graphene surface charge. Our results indicate that magnesium cations next to the graphene wall have a roughly similar environment to that in the bulk. Moreover, they face higher potential barriers and are less adsorbed on the charged graphene walls than lithium cations. In other words, magnesium cations have a more stable solvation shell than lithium ones.

  4. New structures and composition of cell wall teichoic acids from Nocardiopsis synnemataformans, Nocardiopsis halotolerans, Nocardiopsis composta and Nocardiopsis metallicus: a chemotaxonomic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tul'skaya, Elena M; Shashkov, Alexander S; Streshinskaya, Galina M; Potekhina, Natalia V; Evtushenko, Ludmila I

    2014-12-01

    The structures of the cell wall teichoic acids (TA) from some species of the genus Nocardiopsis were established by chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The cell walls of Nocardiopsis synnemataformans VKM Ac-2518(T) and Nocardiopsis halotolerans VKM Ac-2519(T) both contain two TA with unique structures-poly(polyol phosphate-glycosylpolyol phosphate)-belonging to the type IV TA. In both organisms, the minor TA have identical structures: poly(glycerol phosphate-N-acetyl-β-galactosaminylglycerol phosphate) with the phosphodiester bond between C-3 of glycerol and C-4 of the amino sugar. This structure is found for the first time. The major TA of N. halotolerans has a hitherto unknown structure: poly(glycerol phosphate-N-acetyl-β-galactosaminylglycerol phosphate), the N-acetyl-β-galactosamine being acetalated with pyruvic acid at positions 4 and 6. The major TA of N. synnemataformans is a poly(glycerol phosphate-N-acetyl-β-galactosaminylglycerol phosphate) with the phosphodiester bond between C-3 of glycerol and C-3 of the amino sugar. The cell walls of Nocardiopsis composta VKM Ac-2520 and N. composta VKM Ac-2521(T) contain only one TA, namely 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) partially substituted with N-acetyl-α-glucosamine. The cell wall of Nocardiopsis metallicus VKM Ac-2522(T) contains two TA. The major TA is 1,5-poly(ribitol phosphate), each ribitol unit carrying a pyruvate ketal group at positions 2 and 4. The structure of the minor TA is the same as that of N. composta. The results presented correlate well with the phylogenetic grouping of strains and confirm the species and strain specific features of cell wall TA in members of the genus Nocardiopsis.

  5. Real-Time Imaging of Plant Cell Wall Structure at Nanometer Scale, with Respect to Cellulase Accessibility and Degradation Kinetics (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2012-05-01

    Presentation on real-time imaging of plant cell wall structure at nanometer scale. Objectives are to develop tools to measure biomass at the nanometer scale; elucidate the molecular bases of biomass deconstruction; and identify factors that affect the conversion efficiency of biomass-to-biofuels.

  6. Real-Time Imaging of Plant Cell Wall Structure at Nanometer Scale, with Respect to Cellulase Accessibility and Degradation Kinetics (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2012-05-01

    Presentation on real-time imaging of plant cell wall structure at nanometer scale. Objectives are to develop tools to measure biomass at the nanometer scale; elucidate the molecular bases of biomass deconstruction; and identify factors that affect the conversion efficiency of biomass-to-biofuels.

  7. Structural Alterations of the Glomerular Wall And Vessels in Early Stages of Diabetes Mellitus: Light and Transmission Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dkhil MA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The capillary changes at the initial stage of diabetes may show an angioarchitecture clearly different from those of later stages and,/or very severe glomerular change. However, the onset of alterations in the early phases is unclear. This study attempts to determine the functional and structural alterations of the glomerular wall and vesicles in the early stage of diabetes.Material and Methods: Twenty-five adult rats were used in this study. They were divided into two groups: the first group of five was used as a control .The second group of 20 (the experimental group was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose of streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia. Rats were sacrificed after ten days, two months, and four months.Five rats at two months of age with hyperglycemia were treated with insulin for eight weeks. Renal tissues were prepared by routine technique for light and transmission electron microscopic evaluation. Results: By light microscopy after ten days of induced hyperglycemia, there were no structural modifications detected either in renal glomerular fine vessels or in the glomerular basement membrane of the glomerular capillaries. After two months, there was a moderate glomerular enlargement and dilatation of glomerular capillaries, afferent, and efferent arterioles. After four months, glomerular basement membrane thickening was the only structural alteration observed. Recovery of the glomerular alterations was observed after two months of treatment with insulin. Conclusion: In early stages of diabetes mellitus in rats, there was an increase in the diameter of glomerular vessels. In later stages of the disease, the reverse was seen, but insulin treatment had a positive role in reversing these changes in the study subjects.

  8. Soya beans and maize : the effect of chemical and physical structure of cell wall polysaccharides on fermentation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between cell wall composition and fermentation of endosperm cell walls of soya beans and maize was approached from three different angles. Firstly, the fermentation (rate and extent of fermentation, the sugar degradation pattern, and volatile fatty acid prod

  9. Soya beans and maize : the effect of chemical and physical structure of cell wall polysaccharides on fermentation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between cell wall composition and fermentation of endosperm cell walls of soya beans and maize was approached from three different angles. Firstly, the fermentation (rate and extent of fermentation, the sugar degradation pattern, and volatile fatty acid

  10. Soya beans and Maize : The effect of chemical and physical structure of cell wall polysaccharides on fermentation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between cell wall composition and fermentation of endosperm cell walls of soya beans and maize was approached from three different angles. Firstly, the fermentation (rate and extent of fermentation, the sugar degradation pattern, and volatile fatty acid production) o

  11. Materials and structures of rammed earth walls of Ming great wall-with Datong town section as example%明代夯土长城的城墙材料与构造--以大同镇段为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈旸; 周小棣; 常军富

    2014-01-01

    As the typical rammed earth Great Wall remains,the Ming great wall of Datong town was taken as an example for better understanding the material and structural characteristics of rammed earth walls.On the basis of field work,the theory and methods of soil mechanics was used for refer-ence to finish the classified statistics of types and existing methods of rammed earth materials.Struc-tural characteristics of the rammed earth walls were analyzed from aspects of foundation,rammed layer thickness,rammed layer structure and laying twigs,which revealed that the varied materials and internal structures of the rammed earth Great Wall were closely related with the environment. The results show that the Ming Great Wall of Datong Town is generally of a height of 6 to 10 m, with a slope of 70°to 80°,and the rammed layer thickness of 150 to 250 mm.The materials of rammed earth walls consist of fine-grained soil,gravel,crushed stone,block stone and twigs.The content of gravel,crushed stone and block stone is closely related with the soil environments and ter-rain,which proves that the materials were drawn from nearby.Various rammed layer structures of the soil with paving or doped gravel,crushed stone and block stone reflect that the ancients improved the structures based on practical experience and soil environment.The phenomenon of laid twigs used as the connecting tendons was shown in several cases,which reflects the technological achieve-ments made by the ancients on rammed earth.%为了深入了解夯土长城的材料和构造特征,在对现存明大同镇段长城这一典型夯土长城遗存进行实地考察的基础上,借鉴土力学的相关理论和方法,对城墙夯土材料的种类和存在方式进行了分类统计,并从基础做法、夯层厚度、夯层构造和铺设植物枝条做法等方面分析了城墙的构造特征,揭示出夯土长城在材料和构造方面的丰富性以及与环境的密切相关性。

  12. The concentration of the C-type lectin, mannan-binding protein, in human plasma increases during an acute phase response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Holmskov, U; Hviid, L

    1992-01-01

    Two ELISAs for estimating mannan-binding protein (MBP) were constructed and the concentration of MBP in plasma was followed in patients undergoing major surgery and in patients having a malarial attack. In both cases increases of MBP in the plasma were observed. The relative increase and the kine......Two ELISAs for estimating mannan-binding protein (MBP) were constructed and the concentration of MBP in plasma was followed in patients undergoing major surgery and in patients having a malarial attack. In both cases increases of MBP in the plasma were observed. The relative increase...... and the kinetics varied from person to person. The concentration of MBP increased between 1.5- and three-fold following surgery. In some patients an increase was seen at day 1 whereas in others the increase was not observed until days 3-9. In the malaria patients an increased level of MBP was maintained during 30...

  13. Structure of Wall-Eddies at Very Large Reynolds Number--A Large-Scale PIV Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommema, S. E.; Adrian, R. J.

    2000-11-01

    The results of an experiment performed in the first 5 m of the neutral atmospheric boundary layer are presented. Large-scale PIV measurements (up to 2 m × 2 m field-of-view) were obtained in the streamwise / wall-normal plane of a very-large Reynolds number (Re_θ > 10^6, based on momentum thickness and freestream velocity), flat-plate, zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. Measurements were obtained at the SLTEST facility in the U.S. Army's Dugway Proving Grounds. Coherent packets of ramp-like structures with downstream inclination are observed and show a remarkable resemblance to those observed in typical laboratory-scale experiments at far lower Reynolds number. The results are interpreted in terms of a vortex packet paradigm(Adrian, R.J., C.D. Meinhart, and C.D. Tomkins, Vortex organization in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer, to appear in J. Fluid Mech., 2000.) and begin to extend the model to high Reynolds numbers of technological importance. Additional results obtained during periods of non-neutral atmospheric stability are contrasted with those of the canonical neutral boundary layer. Sample smoke visualization images (3 m × 15 m field-of-view) are available online from the author.

  14. Study on the Surface Integrity of a Thin-Walled Aluminum Alloy Structure after a Bilateral Slid Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laixiao Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For studying the influence of a bilateral slid rolling process (BSRP on the surface integrity of a thin-walled aluminum alloy structure, and revealing the generation mechanism of residual stresses, a self-designed BSRP appliance was used to conduct rolling experiments. With the aid of a surface optical profiler, an X-ray stress analyzer, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM, the differences in surface integrity before and after BSRP were explored. The internal changing mechanism of physical as well as mechanical properties was probed. The results show that surface roughness (Ra is reduced by 23.7%, microhardness is increased by 21.6%, and the depth of the hardening layer is about 100 μm. Serious plastic deformation was observed within the subsurface of the rolled region. The residual stress distributions along the depth of the rolling surface and milling surface were tested respectively. Residual stresses with deep and high amplitudes were generated via the BSRP. Based on the analysis of the microstructure, the generation mechanism of the residual stresses was probed. The residual stress of the rolling area consisted of two sections: microscopic stresses caused by local plastic deformation and macroscopic stresses caused by overall non-uniform deformation.

  15. Radiographic evaluations of the various lesions of maxillary sinus, inferior wall of sinus and surrounding structures using reformatted computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hae Rym; Kim Hee Jin; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate the degree of accuracy of DentaScan reformatted images of the maxillary sinus and periapical, periodontal lesions and to clarify the usefulness of the reconstructed 3-dimensional images to the dental clinical aspects. 33 sides of maxillae of the hemi-sectioned Korean heads were used in this study. Periapical radiographs, computed tomography and DentaScan reformatted cross-sectional images were taken for the radiographic evaluation of the peiapical and peiodontal lesions of the maxillary teeth and inferior wall of maxillary sinus. Compared the degree of accuracy and findings of dental and periapical pathoses on the intraoral radiographs and DentaScan reformatted images with the cross-sectioned specimens, the DentaScan reformatted cross-sectional images were more accurate and more effective than the intraoral radiography with a viewpoint of the detection of dental and periapical pathoses. Comparing the lesions of specimens with intraoral radiographies and DentaScan reformatted images, the dental and periodontal pathoses and topographical structures were more clearly observed in the DentaScan reformatted images, providing the possibility of more applications of reformatted images to clinical dentistry.

  16. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-11-01

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation.

  17. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-11-09

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation.

  18. Stabilization of endangered part of structures by building dry brunt brick buttressing, critical case study of plane wall in DKG-North Area, Mohenjo daro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, J. M.; Park, J.

    2013-07-01

    'World Heritage Sites' are places or buildings of outstanding universal value recognized as constituting a world heritage 'for whose protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to co-operate'. The concept of World Heritage is at the core of the World Heritage Convention, adopted by Heritage List as a means of identifying, protecting, conserving and presenting those parts of the world's natural and cultural heritage that are of sufficient 'outstanding universal value' to be the responsibility of the international community as a whole. By joining the Convention, nation states are pledged to safeguard the WH S by protecting their national heritage. UNESCO in 1972, to which 160 nations have now been adhered. The Convention came into force in 1975 and established a Site in their territory as part of a universally agreed policy for World. Moenjodaro site covering an area of 555 Acres out of which only 10 % of it has been excavated by exposing 50 Kilometer standing walls. The wall of the main street of DK G Area, Mohen jo Daro partially deformed, due to the torque effects this is studied here on a lateral cross wall in the chief house. Furthermore, the resulting behaviour of the bucking wall demonstrates the significant loadbearing capacity of the structure under service conditions and its high sensitivity to imposed changes of the geometry. Although the tensile stresses exceeded the flexural strength at the vertices and the length of the wall, hence both the geometry and condition of this area are critical for the safety of the wall. The results of this study can improve the assessment and thus help in the preservation of many important structures of the metropolitan city. Here the hydrous characteristic of the brick is studied as a general phenomenon, it is observed that the remains of the sites located in Sindh suffered a lot mostly due to age, human neglect variations of atmospheric condition, severe temperature and natural disasters. The main

  19. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of the acoustic transmission of aircraft's double-wall structures including sound package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Dilal

    In the field of aeronautics, reducing the harmful effects of acoustics constitutes a major concern at the international level and justifies the call for further research, particularly in Canada where aeronautics is a key economic sector, which operates in a context of global competition. Aircraft sidewall structure is usually of a double wall construction with a curved ribbed metallic skin and a lightweight composite or sandwich trim separated by a cavity filled with a noise control treatment. The latter is of a great importance in the transport industry, and continues to be of interest in many engineering applications. However, the insertion loss noise control treatment depends on the excitation of the supporting structure. In particular, Turbulent Boundary Layer is of interest to several industries. This excitation is difficult to simulate in laboratory conditions, given the prohibiting costs and difficulties associated with wind tunnel and in-flight tests. Numerical simulation is the only practical way to predict the response to such excitations and to analyze effects of design changes to the response to such excitation. Another kinds of excitations encountered in industrial are monopole, rain on the Roof and diffuse acoustic field. Deterministic methods can calculate in each point the spectral response of the system. Most known are numerical methods such as finite elements and boundary elements methods. These methods generally apply to the low frequency where modal behavior of the structure dominates. However, the high limit of calculation in frequency of these methods cannot be defined in a strict way because it is related to the capacity of data processing and to the nature of the studied mechanical system. With these challenges in mind, and with limitations of the main numerical codes on the market, the manufacturers have expressed the need for simple models immediately available as early as the stage of preliminary drafts. This thesis represents an attempt

  20. STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS AND SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE THERMAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF BUILDINGS MADE OF AUTOCLAVED GAS-CONCRETE BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedov Anatolij Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevant structural solutions, physical and mechanical characteristics, coefficients of thermal conductivity for exterior masonry walls made of autoclaved gas-concrete blocks are provided in the article. If a single-layer wall is under consideration, an autoclaved gas-concrete block is capable of performing the two principal functions of a shell structure, including the function of thermal protection and the bearing function. The functions are performed simultaneously. Therefore, the application of the above masonry material means the design development and erection of exterior walls of residential buildings noteworthy for their thermal efficiency. In the event of frameless structures, the height of the residential building in question may be up to 5 stories, while the use of a monolithic or a ready-made frame makes it possible to build high-rise buildings, and the number of stories is not limited in this case. If the average block density is equal to 400…500 kilograms per cubic meter, the designed wall thickness is to be equal to 400 mm. Its thermal resistance may be lower than the one set in the event of the per-element design of the thermal protection (Rreq = 3.41 м2 C/Watt, in Ufa, although it will meet the requirements of the applicable regulations if per-unit power consumption rate is considered.