WorldWideScience

Sample records for wall loading

  1. The DEMO wall load challenge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horáček, Jan; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 046002. ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : DEMO * power loads * first wall Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4

  2. Scaling of reactor cavity wall loads and stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1977-11-01

    Scalings of reactor cavity wall loads and stresses are determined by deriving an analytic expression in terms of relevant parameters for each loading induced in the reactor cavity walls by fuel pellet microexplosion and by deriving associated expressions relating resulting stresses to shell thicknesses. Also identified are problems that require additional investigations to obtain satisfactory explicit stress estimates for the reactor cavity walls

  3. Local wall power loading variations in thermonuclear fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.C.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A 2 1/2-dimensional geometric model is presented that allows calculation of power loadings at various points on the first wall of a thermonuclear fusion device. Given average wall power loadings for brems-strahlung, cyclotron radiation charged particles, and neutrons, which are determined from various plasma-physics computation models, local wall heat loads are calculated by partitioning the plasma volume and surface into cells and superimposing the heating effects of the individual cells on selected first-wall differential areas. Heat loads from the entire plasma are thus determined as a function of position on the first-wall surface. Significant differences in local power loadings were found for most fusion designs, and it was therefore concluded that the effect of local power loading variations must be taken into account when calculating temperatures and heat transfer rates in fusion device first walls

  4. Lateral load performance of SIP walls with full bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boren Yeh; Tom Skaggs; Xiping Wang; Tom Williamson

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop test data needed to characterize lateral load performance of structural insulated panel (SIP) walls with full bearing (restrained). The research program involved structural testing of 29 full-size SIP walls (8 ft tall by 8 ft long) of various configurations that bracket a range of SIP wall configurations commonly used in the...

  5. Spalling of concrete walls under blast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A common effect of the detonation of explosives in close proximity of concrete shield walls is the spalling (scabbing) of the back face of the wall. Spalling is caused by the free surface reflection of the shock wave induced in the wall by high pressure air blast and occurs whenever the dynamic tensile rupture strength is exceeded. While a complex process, reasonable analytical spall estimates can be obtained for brittle materials with low tensile strengths, such as concrete, by assuming elastic material behavior and instantaneous spall formation. Specifically, the spall thicknesses and velocities for both normal and oblique incidence of the shock wave on the back face of the wall are calculated. The complex exponential decay wave forms of the air blast are locally approximated by simple power law expressions. Variations of blast wave strength with distance to the wall, charge weight and angle of incidence are taken into consideration. The shock wave decay in the wall is also accounted for by assuming elastic wave propagation. For explosions close-in to the wall, where the reflected blast wave pressures are sufficiently high, multiple spall layers are formed. Successive spall layers are of increasing thickness, at the same time the spall velocities decrease. The spall predictions based on elastic theory are in overall agreement with experimntal results and provide a rapid means of estimating spalling trends of concrete walls subjected to air blast. (Auth.)

  6. Experimental Investigations on Axially and Eccentrically Loaded Masonry Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshava, Mangala; Raghunath, Seshagiri Rao

    2017-12-01

    In India, un-reinforced masonry walls are often used as main structural components in load bearing structures. Indian code on masonry accounts the reduction in strength of walls by using stress reduction factors in its design philosophy. This code was introduced in 1987 and reaffirmed in 1995. The present study investigates the use of these factors for south Indian masonry. Also, with the gaining popularity in block work construction, the aim of this study was to find out the suitability of these factors given in the Indian code to block work masonry. Normally, the load carrying capacity of masonry walls can be assessed in three ways, namely, (1) tests on masonry constituents, (2) tests on masonry prisms and (3) tests on full-scale wall specimens. Tests on bricks/blocks, cement-sand mortar, brick/block masonry prisms and 14 full-scale brick/block masonry walls formed the experimental investigation. The behavior of the walls was investigated under varying slenderness and eccentricity ratios. Hollow concrete blocks normally used as in-fill masonry can be considered as load bearing elements as its load carrying capacity was found to be high when compared to conventional brick masonry. Higher slenderness and eccentricity ratios drastically reduced the strength capacity of south Indian brick masonry walls. The reduction in strength due to slenderness and eccentricity is presented in the form of stress reduction factors in the Indian code. These factors obtained through experiments on eccentrically loaded brick masonry walls was lower while that of brick/block masonry under axial loads was higher than the values indicated in the Indian code. Also the reduction in strength is different for brick and block work masonry thus indicating the need for separate stress reduction factors for these two masonry materials.

  7. Liquid loading experiments with tube wall modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Schiferli, W.; Veltin, J.; Veeken, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the multiphase flow mechanism responsible for gas-well liquid loading. It demonstrates that the conventional idea of droplet flow reversal (Turner et al. (1)) does not capture reality and that actual observations are better described by film flow reversal phenomenon. The

  8. Poloidal variations in toroidal fusion reactor wall power loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.C.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    A geometric formulation is developed by the authors for determining poloidal variations in bremmstrahlung, cyclotron radiation, and neutron wall power loadings in toroidal fusion devices. Assuming toroidal symmetry and utilizing a numerical model which partitions the plasma into small cells, it was generally found that power loadings are highest on the outer surface of the torus, although variations are not as large as some have predicted. Results are presented for various plasma power generation configurations, plasma volume fractions, and toroidal aspect ratios, and include plasma and wall blockage effects

  9. Buckling of thin-walled beams under concentrated transverse loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menken, C.M.; Erp, van G.M.; Krupta, V.; Drdacky, M.

    1991-01-01

    The transversely loaded thin-walled beam under a non-uniform bending moment forms an example of the detrimental influence that a local effect may have on the overall behaviour. The local effect is the plate buckling in the region of maximum bending moment. The overall behaviour is the

  10. Fragility assessment method of Concrete Wall Subjected to Impact Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Daegi; Shin, Sang Shup; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, recently, the regulation and the assessment of the safety of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) against to an aircraft impact are strongly encouraged to adopt a probabilistic approach, i.e., the probabilistic risk assessment of an aircraft impact. In Korea, research to develop aircraft impact risk quantification technology was initiated in 2012 by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In this paper, for the one example of the probabilistic safety assessment approach, a method to estimate the failure probability and fragility of concrete wall subjected to impact loading caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts will be introduced. This method and the corresponding results will be used for the total technical roadmap and the procedure to assess the aircraft impact risk (Fig.1). A method and corresponding results of the estimation of the failure probability and fragility for a concrete wall subjected to impact loadings caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts was introduced. The detailed information of the target concrete wall in NPP, and the example aircraft engine model is considered safeguard information (SGI), and is not contained in this paper

  11. Finite element limit loads for non-idealized through-wall cracks in thick-walled pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Do-Jun; Han, Tae-Song; Huh, Nam-Su

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The lower bound bulging factor of thin-walled pipe can be used for thick-walled pipe. • The limit loads are proposed for thick-walled, transition through-wall cracked pipe. • The correction factors are proposed for estimating limit loads of transition cracks. • The limit loads of short transition cracks are similar to those of idealized cracks. - Abstract: The present paper provides plastic limit loads for non-idealized through-wall cracks in thick-walled pipe. These solutions are based on detailed 3-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses which can be used for structural integrity assessment of nuclear piping. To cover a practical range of interest, the geometric variables and loading conditions affecting the plastic limit loads of thick-walled pipe with non-idealized through-wall cracks were systematically varied. In terms of crack orientation, both circumferential and axial through-wall cracks were considered. As for loading conditions, axial tension, global bending, and internal pressure were considered for circumferential cracks, whereas only internal pressure was considered for axial cracks. Furthermore, the values of geometric factor representing shape characteristics of non-idealized through-wall cracks were also systematically varied. In order to provide confidence in the present FE analyses results, plastic limit loads of un-cracked, thick-walled pipe resulting from the present FE analyses were compared with the theoretical solutions. Finally, correction factors to the idealized through-wall crack solutions were developed to determine the plastic limit loads of non-idealized through-wall cracks in thick-walled pipe

  12. Limit load analysis of thick-walled concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Faust, G.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper illustrates the interaction of constitutive modeling and finite element solution techniques for limit load prediction of concrete structures. On the constitutive side, an engineering model of concrete fracture is developed in which the Mohr-Coulomb criterion is augmented by tension cut-off to describe incipient failure. Upon intersection with the stress path the failure surface collapses for brittle behaviour according to one of three softening rules, no-tension, no-cohesion, and no-friction. The stress transfer accompanying the energy dissipation during local failure is modelled by several fracture rules which are examined with regard to ultimate load prediction. On the numerical side the effect of finite element idealization is studied first as far as ultimate load convergence is concerned. Subsequently, incremental tangential and initial load techniques are compared together with the effect of step size. Limit load analyses of a thick-walled concrete ring and a lined concrete reactor closure conclude the paper with examples from practical engineering. (orig.) [de

  13. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Amit H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  14. The effect of load-controlled bending load on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Yoon, Min Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated bending load effect on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows. • Burst tests were conducted on real-scale elbow specimens with local wall thinning. • The tests were performed under combined pressure and load-controlled bending. • Load-controlled bending reduced the failure pressure of wall-thinned elbows. • Bending load effect was significant for opening-mode and intrados wall-thinning case. - Abstract: In this research, burst tests were conducted on real-scale elbow specimens, each with an artificial local wall-thinning defect, under combined internal pressure and constant in-plane bending load, as well as under simple internal pressure, to evaluate the effect of load-controlled bending load on the failure pressure of locally wall-thinned pipe elbows. Ninety-degree, 65A Schedule 80 elbows, with wall-thinning defects in the intrados and extrados, were used as specimens. The bending loads were in-plane opening- and closing-mode bending, applied in load-control mode. The results clearly indicated that a load-controlled in-plane bending load reduced the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows, in contrast to observations previously made under displacement-controlled bending conditions. The effect of the bending load was more significant for opening-mode than for closing-mode bending, regardless of the wall-thinning location in the elbow. Also, the effect was greater when the wall-thinning defect was located in the intrados region of the elbow, rather than the extrados region. Existing models that have been proposed to evaluate the failure of wall-thinned elbows under simple internal pressure conservatively predicted the failure pressure of elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and load-controlled bending load

  15. limit loads for wall-thinning feeder pipes under combined bending and internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, Jin Ho; Lee, Kuk Hee; Chung, Ha Joo; Kim, Ju Hee; Han, Jae Jun; Kim, Yun Jae

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) during inservice conditions produces local wall-thinning in the feeder pipes of CANDU. The Wall-thinning in the feeder pipes is main degradation mechanisms affecting the integrity of piping systems. This paper discusses the integrity assessment of wall-thinned feeder pipes using limit load analysis. Based on finite element limit analyses, this paper compare limit loads for wall-thinning feeder pipes under combined bending and internal pressure with proposed limit loads. The limit loads are determined from limit analyses based on rectangular wall-thinning and elastic-perfectly-plastic materials using the large geometry change.

  16. Consistent HYLIFE wall design that withstands transient loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1980-10-01

    The design for a first structural wall (FSW) promises to satisfy the impact and thermal stress loads for the 30-year lifetime anticipated for the HYLIFE reaction chamber. The FSW is a 50-mm-thick cylindrical plate that is 10 m in diameter; it can withstand a rapidly varying liquid metal impact stress up to a peak of 60 MPa, combined with slowly varying thermal stresses up to 86 MPa. We selected 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo ferritic steel as the structural material because it has adequate fatigue properties and yield strength at the peak operating temperature of 810 0 K, is compatible with liquid lithium, and has good neutron activation characteristics

  17. Power loading on the first wall during disruptions in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janos, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.; Wilfrid, E.

    1992-01-01

    Heating of the first wall of TFTR due to disruptions is investigated experimentally using an extensive array of thermocouples. By comparing results from discharges with and without disruptions, we extract effects due to the disruption alone. Disruptions preferentially heat the same areas which are heated during discharges without disruptions. Hot areas are inward protrusions or regions unshielded by neighboring areas. Peaking factors in the toroidal direction, defined as peak temperature divided by average toroidal temperature, as a function of poloidal angle, are calculated. For nondisruptive discharges, the peaking factor varies between 2 and 4. For the disruptive portion of a discharge only, the peaking factor near the midplane, where most of the energy is deposited, ranges from 3 to 5. Further away from the midplane, the peaking factor can reach 28, although the heat load is less in that region. (orig.)

  18. Experimental evaluation of the interaction between strength concrete block walls under vertical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. CASTRO

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to evaluate the interaction between structural masonry walls made of high performance concrete blocks, under vertical loads. Two H-shaped flanged wall series, all full scale and using direct bond, have been analyzed experimentally. In one series, three flanged-walls were built with the central wall (web supported and, in the other one, three specimens were built without any support at the central web. The load was applied on the central wall and vertical displacements were measured by means of displacement transducers located at eighteen points in the wall-assemblages. The results showed that the estimated load values for the flanges were close to those supported by the walls without central support, where 100% of the load transfer to the flanges occur. The average transfer load rate calculated based on the deformation ratio in the upper and lower section of the flanged-walls, with the central web support, were 37.65% and 77.30%, respectively, showing that there is load transfer from the central wall (web toward the flanges, particularly in the lower part of the flanged walls. Thus, there is indication that the distribution of vertical loads may be considered for projects of buildings for service load, such as in the method of isolated walls group. For estimation of the failure load, the method that considers the walls acting independently showed better results, due to the fact that failure started at the top of the central wall, where there is no effect of load distribution from the adjacent walls.

  19. Numerical Investigation of Structural Response of Corrugated Blast Wall Depending on Blast Load Pulse Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Sohn

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon explosions are one of most hazardous events for workers on offshore platforms. To protect structures against explosion loads, corrugated blast walls are typically installed. However, the profiles of real explosion loads are quite different depending on the congestion and confinement of Topside structures. As the level of congestion and confinement increases, the explosion load increases by up to 8 bar, and the rising time of the load decreases. This study primarily aims to investigate the structural behavior characteristics of corrugated blast walls under different types of explosion loadings. Four loading shapes were applied in the structural response analysis, which utilized a dynamic nonlinear finite element method.

  20. Air permeability for a concrete shear wall after a damaging seismic load simulation cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girrens, S.P.; Farrar, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    A study was initiated to estimate air leakage, driven by wind-generated pressure gradients, from a seismically damaged concrete structure. This paper describes an experiment performed to measure the air permeability in a reinforced concrete shear wall, both before and after simulated seismic loading. Static load-cycle testing was used to simulate earthquake loading. Permeability measurements were made by pressurizing one side of the shear wall above atmospheric conditions and recording the transient-pressure decay. Air permeability measurements made on the shear wall before loading fell within the range of values for concrete permeability published in the literature. As long as the structure exhibited linear load-displacement response, no variation in the air permeability was detected. However, experimental results indicate that the air permeability in the shear wall increased by a factor of 40 after the wall had been damaged (cracked)

  1. Experimental study on concrete shear wall behavior under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantenbein, F.; Queval, J.C.; Epstein, A.; Dalbera, J.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken on the dynamic behavior of shear walls with and without openings. The experimental set-up, the test program and the main results will be detailed in the paper

  2. Reliability Analysis of Retaining Walls Subjected to Blast Loading by Finite Element Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuhaRay, Anasua; Mondal, Stuti; Mohiuddin, Hisham Hasan

    2018-02-01

    Conventional design methods adopt factor of safety as per practice and experience, which are deterministic in nature. The limit state method, though not completely deterministic, does not take into account effect of design parameters, which are inherently variable such as cohesion, angle of internal friction, etc. for soil. Reliability analysis provides a measure to consider these variations into analysis and hence results in a more realistic design. Several studies have been carried out on reliability of reinforced concrete walls and masonry walls under explosions. Also, reliability analysis of retaining structures against various kinds of failure has been done. However, very few research works are available on reliability analysis of retaining walls subjected to blast loading. Thus, the present paper considers the effect of variation of geotechnical parameters when a retaining wall is subjected to blast loading. However, it is found that the variation of geotechnical random variables does not have a significant effect on the stability of retaining walls subjected to blast loading.

  3. Multiaxial loading of large-diameter, thin-walled tube rock specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, S.S.; Petrovic, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    A large-scale mechanical testing facility permits previously impossible thin-walled tube multiaxial loading experiments on rock materials. Constraints are removed regarding tube wall thickness in relation to rock microstructural features and tube diameter as well as test machine load capacity. Thin-walled tube studies clarify the influence of intermediate principal stress sigma 2 on rock fracture and help define a realistic rock fracture criterion for all multiaxial stressing situations. By comparing results of thin-walled and thick-walled tube fracture investigations, effects of stress gradients can be established. Finally, influence of stress path on rock fracture, an area largely ignored in current rock failure criteria, can be examined in detail using controlled loading changes as well as specimen prestrains

  4. Simulation of reinforced concrete short shear wall subjected to cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Pegon, P.; Wenzel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the capacity of squat shear wall using tests and analysis. • Modification of model of concrete in the softening part. • Pushover analysis using softened truss theory and FE analysis is performed. • Modified concrete model gives reasonable accurate peak load and displacement. • The ductility, ultimate load and also crack pattern can be accurately predicted. - Abstract: This paper addresses the strength and deformation capacity of stiff squat shear wall subjected to monotonic and pseudo-static cyclic loading using experiments and analysis. Reinforced concrete squat shear walls offer great potential for lateral load resistance and the failure mode of these shear walls is brittle shear mode. Shear strength of these shear walls depend strongly on softening of concrete struts in principal compression direction due to principal tension in other direction. In this work simulation of the behavior of a squat shear wall is accurately predicted by finite element modeling by incorporating the appropriate softening model in the program. Modification of model of concrete in the softening part is suggested and reduction factor given by Vecchio et al. (1994) is used in the model. The accuracy of modeling is confirmed by comparing the simulated response with experimental one. The crack pattern generated from the 3D model is compared with that obtained from experiments. The load deflection for monotonic loads is also obtained using softened truss theory and compared with experimental one

  5. Load bearing capacity of welded joints between dissimilar pipelines with unequal wall thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beak, Jonghyun; Kim, Youngpyo; Kim, Woosik [Korea Gas Corporation, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The behavior of the load bearing capacity of a pipeline with unequal wall thickness was evaluated using finite element analyses. Pipelines with a wall thickness ratio of 1.22-1.89 were adopted to investigate plastic collapse under tensile, internal pressure, or bending stress. A parametric study showed that the tensile strength and moment of a pipeline with a wall thickness ratio less than 1.5 were not influenced by the wall thickness ratio and taper angle; however, those of a pipeline with a wall thickness ratio more than 1.5 decreased considerably at a low taper angle. The failure pressure of a pipeline with unequal wall thickness was not influenced by the wall thickness ratio and taper angle.

  6. Experimental and analytical investigation of the lateral load response of confined masonry walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Okail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of confined masonry walls subjected to lateral loads. Six full-scale wall assembles, consisting of a clay masonry panel, two confining columns and a tie beam, were tested under a combination of vertical load and monotonic pushover up to failure. Wall panels had various configurations, namely, solid and perforated walls with window and door openings, variable longitudinal and transverse reinforcement ratios for the confining elements and different brick types, namely, cored clay and solid concrete masonry units. Key experimental results showed that the walls in general experienced a shear failure at the end of the lightly reinforced confining elements after the failure of the diagonal struts formed in the brick wall due to transversal diagonal tension. Stepped bed joint cracks formed in the masonry panel either diagonally or around the perforations. A numerical model was built using the finite element method and was validated in light of the experimental results. The model showed acceptable correlation and was used to conduct a thorough parametric study on various design configurations. The conducted parametric study involved the assessment of the load/displacement response for walls with different aspect ratios, axial load ratios, number of confining elements as well as the size and orientation of perforations. It was found that the strength of the bricks and the number of confining elements play a significant role in increasing the walls’ ultimate resistance and displacement ductility.

  7. Structural pounding of concrete frame structure with masonry infill wall under seismic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Rozaina; Hasnan, Mohd Hafizudin; Shamsudin, Nurhanis

    2017-10-01

    Structural pounding is additional problem than the other harmful damage that may occurs due to the earthquake vibrations. A lot of study has been made by past researcher but most of them did not include the walls. The infill masonry walls are rarely involved analysis of structural systems but it does contribute to earthquake response of the structures. In this research, a comparison between adjacent building of 10-storey and 7-storey concrete frame structure without of masonry infill walls and the same dynamic properties of buildings. The diagonal strut approach is adopted for modeling masonry infill walls. This research also focused on finding critical building separation in order to prevent the adjacent structures from pounding. LUSAS FEA v14.03 software has been used for modeling analyzing the behavior of structures due to seismic loading and the displacement each floor of the building has been taken in order to determine the critical separation distance between the buildings. From the analysis that has been done, it is found that masonry infill walls do affect the structures behavior under seismic load. Structures without masonry infill walls needs more distance between the structures to prevent structural pounding due to higher displacement of the buildings when it sways under seismic load compared to structures with masonry infill walls. This shows that contribution of masonry infill walls to the analysis of structures cannot be neglected.

  8. Failure mode and fracture behavior evaluation of pipes with local wall thinning subjected to bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seok Hwan; Nam, Ki Woo; Kim, Seon Jin; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture behaviors of pipes with local wall thinning are very important for the integrity of nuclear power plant. In pipes of energy plants, sometimes, the local wall thinning may result from severe Erosion-Corrosion (E/C) damage. However, the effects of local wall thinning on strength and fracture behaviors of piping system were not well studied. In this paper, the monotonic bending tests were performed of full-scale carbon steel pipes with local wall thinning. A monotonic bending load was applied to straight pipe specimens by four-point loading at ambient temperature without internal pressure. From the tests, fracture behaviors and fracture strength of locally thinned pipe were manifested systematically. The observed failure modes were divided into four types; ovalization, crack initiation/growth after ovalization, local buckling and crack initiating/growth after local buckling. Also, the strength and the allowable limit of piping system with local wall thinning were evaluated

  9. Total contact cast wall load in patients with a plantar forefoot ulcer and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Lindy; McLaughlin, Patrick; Vicaretti, Mauro; Fletcher, John; Burns, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The total contact cast (TCC) is an effective intervention to reduce plantar pressure in patients with diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer. The walls of the TCC have been indirectly shown to bear approximately 30 % of the plantar load. A new direct method to measure inside the TCC walls with capacitance sensors has shown that the anterodistal and posterolateral-distal regions of the lower leg bear the highest load. The objective of this study was to directly measure these two regions in patients with Diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer to further understand the mechanism of pressure reduction in the TCC. A TCC was applied to 17 patients with Diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer. TCC wall load (contact area, peak pressure and max force) at the anterodistal and posterolateral-distal regions of the lower leg were evaluated with two capacitance sensor strips measuring 90 cm(2) (pliance®, novel GmbH, Germany). Plantar load (contact area, peak pressure and max force) was measured with a capacitance sensor insole (pedar®, novel GmbH, Germany) placed inside the TCC. Both pedar® and pliance® collected data simultaneously at a sampling rate of 50Hz synchronised to heel strike. The magnitude of TCC wall load as a proportion of plantar load was calculated. The TCC walls were then removed to determine the differences in plantar loading between the TCC and the cut down shoe-cast for the whole foot, rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot (region of interest). TCC wall load was substantial. The anterodistal lower leg recorded 48 % and the posterolateral-distal lower leg recorded 34 % of plantar contact area. The anterodistal lower leg recorded 28 % and the posterolateral-distal lower leg recorded 12 % of plantar peak pressure. The anterodistal lower leg recorded 12 % and the posterolateral-distal lower leg recorded 4 % of plantar max force. There were significant differences in plantar load between the TCC and the cut down shoe-cast for the whole foot, rearfoot, midfoot and

  10. Effect of plastic soil on a retaining wall subjected to surcharge loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Juari Khawla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation and climatic changes play a significant role that affects the stresses exerted on a retaining wall, and the state of stresses in the soil mass behind the wall especially for highly expansive soil. These stresses resulted in the wall moving either away or towards the soil. In this study, a laboratory physical model of the retaining wall formed of a box having (950×900×600 mm dimensions with one side representing the wall being developed. After the soil being laid out in the box in specified layers, specified conditions of saturation and normal stresses were applied. The wall is allowed to move horizontally in several distances (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 , 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm, and the stresses being measured, then the vertical loading was released. The main measured variables during the tests are; the active and passive earth pressures, vertical movement of the soil, total suction and time. Results showed that the lateral earth pressure along the depth of the wall largely decreased when wall moved away from the soil. Total suction was slightly affected during wall’s movement. At unloading stage, the lateral earth pressure decreased at the upper half of wall height, but increased at the other wall part. Total suction was increased at all depths during this stage.

  11. Deflection Prediction of No-Fines Lightweight Concrete Wall Using Neural Network Caused Dynamic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Bayuaji

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available No-fines lightweight concrete wall with horizontal reinforcement refers to an alternative material for wall construction with an aim of improving the wall quality towards horizontal loads. This study is focused on artificial neural network (ANN application to predicting the deflection deformation caused by dynamic loads. The ANN method is able to capture the complex interactions among input/output variables in a system without any knowledge of interaction nature and without any explicit assumption to model form. This paper explains the existing data research, data selection and process of ANN modelling training process and validation. The results of this research show that the deformation can be predicted more accurately, simply and quickly due to the alternating horizontal loads.

  12. Experimental assessment of air permeability in a concrete shear wall subjected to simulated seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girrens, S.P.; Farrar, C.R.

    1991-07-01

    A safety concern for the proposed Special Nuclear Materials Laboratory (SNML) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was air leakage from the facility if it were to experience a design basis earthquake event. To address this concern, a study was initiated to estimate air leakage, driven by wind-generated pressure gradients, from a seismically damaged concrete structure. This report describes a prototype experiment developed and performed to measure the air permeability in a reinforced concrete shear wall, both before and after simulated seismic loading. A shear wall test structure was fabricated with standard 4000-psi concrete mix. Static load-cycle testing was used to simulate earthquake loading. Permeability measurements were made by pressurizing one side of the shear wall above atmospheric conditions and recording the transient pressure decay. As long as the structure exhibited linear load displacement response, no variation in the air permeability was detected. However, experimental results indicate that the air permeability in the shear wall increased by a factor of 40 after the wall had been damaged (cracked). 17 figs., 8 tabs

  13. Stability of Monolithic Rubble Mound Breakwater Crown Walls Subjected to Impulsive Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the validity of a simple onedimensional dynamic analysis as well as a FEM model to determine the sliding of a rubble mound breakwater crown wall. The evaluation is based on a case example with real wave load time series and displacements measured from two-dimensional physical...... model tests. The outcome is a more reliable evaluation of the applicability of simple dynamic calculations for the estimation of sliding distances of rubble mound superstructures. This is of great practical importance since many existing rubble mound crown walls are subjected to increasing wave loads...

  14. Thermal and radiation loads on the first wall and divertor plates in the KTM tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, Eh.A.; Buzhinskij, O.I.; Gladush, G.G.; Darmagraj, V.V.; Priyampol'skij, I.R.; Dvorkin, N.Ya.; Lejkin, I.N.; Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Shestakov, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    The constructing of the KTM tokamak is intended for wide scale studies of behavior both inner-chamber element materials and structures (first wall, limiters, divertor, hf-antennas, etc.) under conditions approaching to the ITER-FEAT and a future thermonuclear reactors. The KTM tokamak is designed for maintain of interaction conditions of plasma-wall, plasma flows and divertor field, stimulating conditions of ITER-FEAT; and for examination of a future tokamaks' materials. In the work the thermal loads on the first wall, divertor plates are presented

  15. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, B.; Janeschitz, G.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2009-04-01

    The beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall in the ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Melting thresholds and melt layer depth of the Be armour under transient loads are estimated for different temperatures of the bulk Be and different shapes of transient loads. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the Lorentz force are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of FW under radiative loads arising during mitigated disruptions is numerically simulated.

  16. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylev, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: bazylev@ihm.fzk.de; Janeschitz, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Fusion, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loarte, A. [ITER Organisation, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-04-30

    The beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall in the ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Melting thresholds and melt layer depth of the Be armour under transient loads are estimated for different temperatures of the bulk Be and different shapes of transient loads. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the Lorentz force are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of FW under radiative loads arising during mitigated disruptions is numerically simulated.

  17. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B.; Janeschitz, G.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2009-01-01

    The beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall in the ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Melting thresholds and melt layer depth of the Be armour under transient loads are estimated for different temperatures of the bulk Be and different shapes of transient loads. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the Lorentz force are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of FW under radiative loads arising during mitigated disruptions is numerically simulated.

  18. Effect of load eccentricity on the buckling of thin-walled laminated C-columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysmulski, Pawel; Teter, Andrzej; Debski, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    The study investigates the behaviour of short, thin-walled laminated C-columns under eccentric compression. The tested columns are simple-supported. The effect of load inaccuracy on the critical and post-critical (local buckling) states is examined. A numerical analysis by the finite element method and experimental tests on a test stand are performed. The samples were produced from a carbon-epoxy prepreg by the autoclave technique. The experimental tests rest on the assumption that compressive loads are 1.5 higher than the theoretical critical force. Numerical modelling is performed using the commercial software package ABAQUS®. The critical load is determined by solving an eigen problem using the Subspace algorithm. The experimental critical loads are determined based on post-buckling paths. The numerical and experimental results show high agreement, thus demonstrating a significant effect of load inaccuracy on the critical load corresponding to the column's local buckling.

  19. Flexural behavior and design of steel-plate composite (SC) walls for accident thermal loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Peter N., E-mail: boothpn@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sener, Kadir C., E-mail: ksener@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Malushte, Sanjeev R. [Bechtel Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Modular steel-plate composite (SC) safety-related nuclear power plant structures must be designed to resist accident thermal and mechanical loads. The design accident thermal load represents the condition where high pressure and temperature steam is released as result of a mechanical failure and applied against the surfaces of power plant structural walls. The effect of heating and pressure can have both short and long term effects on the mechanical integrity of SC structures including degradation and cracking of concrete infill, residual stresses, and out-of-plane deformations. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of thermal and mechanical loads on the out-of-plane flexural response of SC walls and to develop simplified equations that can be used to predict behavior. Four experimental beam tests are reported that represent full-scale cross-sections of SC walls subjected to combinations of mechanical and thermal loads. The study determined that thermal loads reduce the out-of-plane flexural stiffness of SC walls. For the ambient condition, the flexural stiffness closely matches a conventional elastic cracked-transformed model, and at elevated temperatures, the stiffness is reduced to a fully-cracked flexural stiffness that only takes into account the stiffness of the steel faceplates. A method is presented for estimating the thermal curvature, ϕ{sub th}, and thermal moment, M{sub th}, resulting from unequal heating of opposing faces of an SC wall. Based on the tests in this study, the application of accident thermal loads did not result in a reduction of the flexural strength of the SC section.

  20. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Card, P.; Carvalho, B.B.; Devaux, S.; Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J.; Maviglia, F.; McCullen, P.; Reux, C.; Rimini, F.; Stephen, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented

  1. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, D.F., E-mail: daniel.valcarcel@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, D. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Card, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Carvalho, B.B. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Devaux, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Reux, C. [Ecole Polytechnique, LPP, CNRS UMR 7648, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rimini, F.; Stephen, A. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St., Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented.

  2. load-displacement and stability characteristics of tidn-walled beams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    construction. Such structural ... The finite displacement formulation is used for load- displacement .... The other stress term, which is the incremental linear stress term a/ is .... formulation, only two out of the four general governing ..... 119, Paper. No. 2700 ... Deformations Spatial Buckling of Thin-Walled Beams and Frames ...

  3. Distribution of Wave Loads for Design of Crown Walls in Deep and Shallow Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new method to determine horizontal wave loads on rubble mound breakwater crown walls with specific exceedance probabilities based on the formulae by Nørgaard et al. (2013) as well as presents a new modified version of the wave run-up formula by Van der Meer & Stam (1992)...

  4. Layer-dependent role of collagen recruitment during loading of the rat bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangzhou; Birder, Lori A; Kullmann, F Aura; Hornsby, Jack; Watton, Paul N; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Mark; Robertson, Anne M

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we re-evaluated long-standing conjectures as to the source of the exceptionally large compliance of the bladder wall. Whereas these conjectures were based on indirect measures of loading mechanisms, in this work we take advantage of advances in bioimaging to directly assess collagen fibers and wall architecture during biaxial loading. A custom biaxial mechanical testing system compatible with multiphoton microscopy was used to directly measure the layer-dependent collagen fiber recruitment in bladder tissue from 9 male Fischer rats (4 adult and 5 aged). As for other soft tissues, the bladder loading curve was exponential in shape and could be divided into toe, transition and high stress regimes. The relationship between collagen recruitment and loading curves was evaluated in the context of the inner (lamina propria) and outer (detrusor smooth muscle) layers. The large extensibility of the bladder was found to be possible due to folds in the wall (rugae) that provide a mechanism for low resistance flattening without any discernible recruitment of collagen fibers throughout the toe regime. For more extensible bladders, as the loading extended into the transition regime, a gradual coordinated recruitment of collagen fibers between the lamina propria layer and detrusor smooth muscle layer was found. A second important finding was that wall extensibility could be lost by premature recruitment of collagen in the outer wall that cut short the toe region. This change was correlated with age. This work provides, for the first time, a mechanistic understanding of the role of collagen recruitment in determining bladder extensibility and capacitance.

  5. Development of assessment methodology for locally wall-thinned pipe under combined loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Do Jun; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Chi Yong

    2005-01-01

    Recently authors have proposed a new method to estimate failure strength of a pipe with local wall thinning subject to either internal pressure or global bending. The proposed method was based on the equivalent stress averaged over the minimum ligament in the locally wall thinned region, and the simple scheme to estimate the equivalent stress in the minimum ligament was proposed, based on the reference stress concept. This paper extends the new method to combined internal pressure and global bending. The proposed method is validated against FE results for various geometries of local wall thinning under combined loading. The effect of internal pressure is also investigated in the present study. Comparison of maximum moments, predicted according to the proposed method, with published full-scale pipe test data for locally wall-thinned pipes under combined internal pressure and global bending, shows good agreement

  6. Numerical Analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Shear Walls and Steel Strips under Cyclic Loads Using Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Askarizadeh, N.; Mohammadizadeh, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main elements of resistance against lateral loads in reinforced concrete structures. These walls should not only provide sufficient resistance but also provide sufficient ductility in order to avoid brittle fracture, particularly under strong seismic loads. However, many reinforced concrete shear walls need to be stabilized and reinforced due to various reasons such as changes in requirements of seismic regulations, weaknesses in design and execution, p...

  7. Controlled nanostructure and high loading of single-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced polycarbonate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiren; Liang Zhiyong; Pham, Giang; Park, Young-Bin; Wang, Ben; Zhang, Chuck; Kramer, Leslie; Funchess, Percy

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an effective technique to fabricate thermoplastic nanocomposites with high loading of well-dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNT membranes were made from a multi-step dispersion and filtration method, and then impregnated with polycarbonate solution to make thermoplastic nanocomposites. High loading of nanotubes was achieved by controlling the viscosity of polycarbonate solution. SEM and AFM characterization results revealed the controlled nanostructure in the resultant nanocomposites. Dynamic mechanical property tests indicated that the storage modulus of the resulting nanocomposites at 20 wt% nanotubes loading was improved by a factor of 3.4 compared with neat polycarbonate material. These results suggest the developed approach is an effective way to fabricate thermoplastic nanocomposites with good dispersion and high SWNT loading

  8. Heterogeneous upper-bound finite element limit analysis of masonry walls out-of-plane loaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, G.; Zuccarello, F. A.; Olivito, R. S.; Tralli, A.

    2007-11-01

    A heterogeneous approach for FE upper bound limit analyses of out-of-plane loaded masonry panels is presented. Under the assumption of associated plasticity for the constituent materials, mortar joints are reduced to interfaces with a Mohr Coulomb failure criterion with tension cut-off and cap in compression, whereas for bricks both limited and unlimited strength are taken into account. At each interface, plastic dissipation can occur as a combination of out-of-plane shear, bending and torsion. In order to test the reliability of the model proposed, several examples of dry-joint panels out-of-plane loaded tested at the University of Calabria (Italy) are discussed. Numerical results are compared with experimental data for three different series of walls at different values of the in-plane compressive vertical loads applied. The comparisons show that reliable predictions of both collapse loads and failure mechanisms can be obtained by means of the numerical procedure employed.

  9. Properties of single-walled carbon nanotube-based aerogels as a function of nanotube loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Hamza, Alex V.; Satcher, Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we present the synthesis and characterization of low-density single-walled carbon nanotube-based aerogels (SWNT-CA). Aerogels with varying nanotube loading (0-55 wt.%) and density (20-350 mg cm -3 ) were fabricated and characterized by four-probe method, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen porosimetry. Several properties of the SWNT-CAs were highly dependent upon nanotube loading. At nanotube loadings of 55 wt.%, shrinkage of the aerogel monoliths during carbonization and drying was almost completely eliminated. Electrical conductivities are improved by an order of magnitude for the SWNT-CA (55 wt.% nanotubes) compared to those of foams without nanotubes. Surface areas as high as 184 m 2 g -1 were achieved for SWNT-CAs with greater than 20 wt.% nanotube loading.

  10. A computational and experimental investigation of wall loading near the DITE limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, G.P.; Allen, J.; Fielding, S.J.; Johnson, P.C.; Matthews, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Recycling from the DITE fixed limiter has been simulated employing a three-dimensional version of the DEGAS Monte Carlo neutral particle transport code. Experimental plasma data are used for input, in conjunction with a reasonable approximation to the DITE geometry. Between basic cases, moments of the neutral distribution function exhibit a scaling with limiter ion flux which becomes increasingly non-linear with order, a prominent instance being the first wall power loading. This reflects principally the influence of charge exchange neutrals sensing the ion temperature profiles. By also modifying the geometry, the neutral distribution is found for the regime investigated to depend primarily on plasma properties in velocity space and confining geometry in configuration space. On DITE, a so-called 'energy sensor array' (ESA) of bolometers detects wall loading adjacent to the limiter directly. Supposing a homogeneous radiation background, the computational model agress with ESA data roughly within a factor of 2. (orig.)

  11. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour after ITER transient heat loads and runaway electrons action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylev, B., E-mail: boris.bazylev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Igitkhanov, Yu.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loarte, A. [ITER Organisation, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-01

    Beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall (FW) in ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) and runaway electrons impact are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting, evaporation, and melt motion, which determine the life-time of the plasma facing components. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the J x B forces are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of the FW due to heat loads caused by runaway electrons is numerically simulated.

  12. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour after ITER transient heat loads and runaway electrons action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B.; Igitkhanov, Yu.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall (FW) in ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) and runaway electrons impact are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting, evaporation, and melt motion, which determine the life-time of the plasma facing components. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the J x B forces are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of the FW due to heat loads caused by runaway electrons is numerically simulated.

  13. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhl, Jakob C., E-mail: jbruhl@purdue.edu; Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu; Kim, Joo Min, E-mail: kim1493@purdue.edu

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  14. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhl, Jakob C.; Varma, Amit H.; Kim, Joo Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  15. Experimental study on lateral strength of wall-slab joint subjected to lateral cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrom, Mohd Asha'ari; Mohamad, Mohd Elfie; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul; Yusuff, Amer

    2017-10-01

    Tunnel form building has been utilised in building construction since 1960 in Malaysia. This method of construction has been applied extensively in the construction of high rise residential house (multistory building) such as condominium and apartment. Most of the tunnel form buildings have been designed according to British standard (BS) whereby there is no provision for seismic loading. The high-rise tunnel form buildings are vulnerable to seismic loading. The connections between slab and shear walls in the tunnel-form building constitute an essential link in the lateral load resisting mechanism. Malaysia is undergoing a shifting process from BS code to Eurocode (EC) for building construction since the country has realised the safety threats of earthquake. Hence, this study is intended to compare the performance of the interior wall slab joint for a tunnel form structure designed based on Euro and British codes. The experiment included a full scale test of the wall slab joint sub-assemblages under reversible lateral cyclic loading. Two sub-assemblage specimens of the wall slab joint were designed and constructed based on both codes. Each specimen was tested using lateral displacement control (drift control). The specimen designed by using Eurocode was found could survive up to 3.0% drift while BS specimen could last to 1.5% drift. The analysis results indicated that the BS specimen was governed by brittle failure modes with Ductility Class Low (DCL) while the EC specimen behaved in a ductile manner with Ductility Class Medium (DCM). The low ductility recorded in BS specimen was resulted from insufficient reinforcement provided in the BS code specimen. Consequently, the BS specimen could not absorb energy efficiently (low energy dissipation) and further sustain under inelastic deformation.

  16. Two-leaf wall structures under 'soft' impact load - aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibl, J.; Block, K.

    1982-01-01

    The article describes a mechanical model with which the load conditions associated with aircraft crash on a two-leaf wall or roof structure can be analysed quite simply. The necessary assumptions for the material behaviour governing the contact of the two slabs and, in general, the maximum limit deformations of reinforced concrete slabs are more particularly dealt with. Treating the problem the authors make use, inter alia, of some of their own experimental results. (orig.)

  17. Maximum attainable power density and wall load in tokamaks underlying reactor relevant constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Buende, R.

    1979-09-01

    The characteristic data of tokamaks optimized with respect to their power density or wall load are determined. Reactor relevant constraints are imposed, such as a fixed plant net power output, a fixed blanket thickness and the dependence of the maximum toroidal field on the geometry and conductor material. The impact of finite burn times is considered. Various scaling laws of the toroidal beta with the aspect ratio are discussed. (orig.) 891 GG/orig. 892 RDG [de

  18. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  19. Transfer cell wall ingrowths and vein loading characteristics in pea leaf discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmers, L.E.; Turgeon, R.

    1987-01-01

    Transfer cell wall ingrowths are thought to increase transport capacity by increasing plasmalemma surface area. Leaf minor vein phloem transfer cells presumably enhance phloem loading. In Pisum sativum cv. Little marvel grown under different light regimes (150 to 1000 μmol photons m -2 sec -1 ) there is a positive correlation between light intensity and wall ingrowth area in phloem transfer cells. The extent of ingrowth and correlation to light intensity is greatest in minor veins, decreasing as vein size increases. Vein loading was assayed by floating abraded leaf discs on 14 C-sucrose (10 mM). There is a positive correlation between uptake and transfer cell wall area, although the latter increased more than the former. The difference in uptake is stable throughout the photoperiod, and is also stable in mature leaves for at least four days after plants are transfered to a different light intensity. Sucrose uptake is biphasic. The saturable component of uptake is sensitive to light intensity, the Km for sucrose is negatively correlated to light intensity, while V/sub max/remains unchanged

  20. Thermal load resistance of erosion-monitoring beryllium maker tile for JET ITER like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Sundelin, P.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Lungu, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER reference materials, beryllium (Be), carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten (W), have been tested separately in tokamaks. An integrated test demonstrating both compatibility of metal plasma facing components with high-power operation and acceptable tritium retention has not yet been carried out. At JET, the size, magnetic field strength and high plasma current allow to conducting tests with the combination of the materials. Thus, the ITER-like Wall (ILW) project has been launched. In the project, Be will be the plasmafacing material on the main chamber wall of JET. To assess the erosion of the Be tiles, a Be marker tile was proposed and designed. The test samples which simulate the JET Be marker tile have been produced in MEdC, Romania in order to study the thermal load resistance of the JET Be marker (20 x 20 mm 2 size with 30 mm height). The marker tile sample consists of bulk Be, high-Z interlayer (2-3 μm Ni coating) and 8-9 μm Be coating. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) techniques based on the electron-induced evaporation have been selected for this purpose. In the present work, the global characterization of the maker tile samples and thermal load tests were performed. After the pre-characterization (microstructure observation by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis by means of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), the thermal loading tests were performed in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The coating consisted of tiny platelets of ∝0.1 um in diameter and localized larger platelets of 1 um in diameter. The surface and bulk temperature were observed during the tests. In the screening thermal load test, the samples were loaded to 6 MW/m 2 for 10 s. The layers did not show any macroscopic damages at up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (45 MJ/m 2 ). However, the coating delaminated and the maker was damaged when the thermal loading reached at 5 MW/m 2 (∝50 MJ/m 2 ). Cyclic heat load tests were

  1. Beam heat load due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance in COLDDIAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalbuoni, S.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Spataro, B.

    2012-11-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconductive insertion devices is the understanding of the heat intake from the electron beam. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the underlying mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) was built. It is equipped with the following instrumentation: retarding field analyzers to measure the electron flux, temperature sensors to measure the beam heat load, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. Possible beam heat load sources are: synchrotron radiation, wakefield effects due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance and electron/ion bombardment. The flexibility of the engineering design will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG was first installed in the Diamond Light Source (DLS) in 2011. Due to a mechanical failure of the thermal transition of the cold liner, the cryostat had to be removed after one week of operation. After having implemented design changes in the thermal liner transition, COLDDIAG has been reinstalled in the DLS at the end of August 2012. In order to understand the beam heat load mechanism it is important to compare the measured COLDDIAG parameters with theoretical expectations. In this paper we report on the analytical and numerical computation of the COLDDIAG beam heat load due to coupling impedances deriving from unavoidable step transitions, ports used for pumping and diagnostics, surface roughness, and resistive wall. The results might have an important impact on future technological solutions to be applied to cold bore devices.

  2. Performance of Screen Grid Insulating Concrete Form Walls under Combined In-Plane Vertical and Lateral Loads

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    Insulating Concrete Forms (ICF) walls generally comprise two layers of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), steel reinforcement is placed in the center between the two layers and concrete is poured to fill the gap between those two layers. ICF\\'s have many advantages over traditional methods of wall construction such as reduced construction time, noise reduction, strength enhancement, energy efficiency, and compatibility with any inside or outside surface finish. The focus of this study is the Screen Grid ICF wall system consisting of a number of beams and columns forming a concrete mesh. The performance of ICF wall systems under lateral loads simulating seismic effect is experimentally evaluated in this paper. This work addresses the effect of the different design parameters on the wall behavior under seismic simulated loads. This includes different steel reinforcement ratio, various reinforcement distribution, wall aspect ratios, different openings sizes for windows and doors, as well as different spacing of the grid elements of the screen grid wall. Ten full scale wall specimens were tested where the effects of the various parameters on wall behavior in terms of lateral load capacity, lateral displacement, and modes of failure are presented. The test results are stored to be used for further analysis and calibration of numerical models developed for this study. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.

  3. The effect of optimal wall loads and blanket technologies on the cost of fusion electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.J.; Ward, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of trends in fusion economics based on technology, as well as, physics arguments. Based on relatively simple physics considerations, supported by detailed systems code calculations, it is shown that optimal wall loads are not high. The results of systems code calculations, focussing on the economic impact of different blanket technologies, are described. These suggest that the economically favourable thermodynamic efficiencies of some blankets capable of operating at higher temperatures may be counterbalanced by the economic penalties of shorter lifetimes

  4. Upper and Lower Bound Limit Loads for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Used for Aerosol Cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic compensation method proposed by Mackenzie and Boyle is used to estimate the upper and lower bound limit (collapse loads for one-piece aluminium aerosol cans, which are thin-walled pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure loading. Elastic-plastic finite element predictions for yield and collapse pressures are found using axisymmetric models. However, it is shown that predictions for the elastic-plastic buckling of the vessel base require the use of a full three-dimensional model with a small unsymmetrical imperfection introduced. The finite element predictions for the internal pressure to cause complete failure via collapse fall within the upper and lower bounds. Hence the method, which involves only elastic analyses, can be used in place of complex elastic-plastic finite element analyses when upper and lower bound estimates are adequate for design purposes. Similarly, the lower bound value underpredicts the pressure at which first yield occurs.

  5. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylev, B.; Janeschitz, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S. [FZK-Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association Euratom-FZK, Technik und Umwelt, Karlsruhe (Germany); Loarte, A. [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Garching bei Munchen(Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Operation of ITER at high fusion gain is assumed to be the H-mode. A characteristic feature of this regime is the transient release of energy from the confined plasma onto divertor and the first wall by multiple ELMs (about 10{sup 4} ELMs per ITER discharge), which can play a determining role in the erosion rate and lifetime of these components. It is expected that about 50-70 % of the ELM energy releases onto divertor armour and the rest is dumped onto the First Wall (FW) armour. The expected energy heat loads on the ITER divertor and FW during Type I ELM are in range 0.5 - 4 MJ/m{sup 2} in timescales of 0.3-0.6 ms. In case of the ITER disruptions the material evaporated from the divertor expands into the SOL and generates significant radiation heating of the FW armour up to several GW/m2 during a few milliseconds that can also lead to the its melting and noticeable damage. Beryllium macro-brush armour (Be-brushes) is foreseen as plasma FW facing component (PFC) in ITER. During the intense transient events in ITER the surface melting, melt motion, melt splashing and evaporation are seen as the main mechanisms of Be-erosion. The expected erosion of the ITER plasma facing components under transient energy loads can be properly estimated by numerical simulations using the codes MEMOS and PHEMOBRID validated against experimental data obtained at the plasma gun facilities QSPA-T, MK-200UG and QSPA-Kh50 that provide a way to simulate the energy loads expected in ITER in laboratory experiments. The numerical simulations were carried out for the expected ITER ELMs for the heat loads in the range 0.5 - 3.0 MJ/m{sup 2} and the timescale up 0.6 ms and ITER disruptions for the heat loads in the range 2 - 13 MJ/m{sup 2} in timescales of 1-5 ms. Radiation heat loads at the FW armour from the vapour expanded into the SOL were calculated using the codes FOREV-2 and TOKES for both ITER ELM and ITER disruption scenarios. Melt layer damage of the Be

  6. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B.; Janeschitz, G.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Operation of ITER at high fusion gain is assumed to be the H-mode. A characteristic feature of this regime is the transient release of energy from the confined plasma onto divertor and the first wall by multiple ELMs (about 10 4 ELMs per ITER discharge), which can play a determining role in the erosion rate and lifetime of these components. It is expected that about 50-70 % of the ELM energy releases onto divertor armour and the rest is dumped onto the First Wall (FW) armour. The expected energy heat loads on the ITER divertor and FW during Type I ELM are in range 0.5 - 4 MJ/m 2 in timescales of 0.3-0.6 ms. In case of the ITER disruptions the material evaporated from the divertor expands into the SOL and generates significant radiation heating of the FW armour up to several GW/m2 during a few milliseconds that can also lead to the its melting and noticeable damage. Beryllium macro-brush armour (Be-brushes) is foreseen as plasma FW facing component (PFC) in ITER. During the intense transient events in ITER the surface melting, melt motion, melt splashing and evaporation are seen as the main mechanisms of Be-erosion. The expected erosion of the ITER plasma facing components under transient energy loads can be properly estimated by numerical simulations using the codes MEMOS and PHEMOBRID validated against experimental data obtained at the plasma gun facilities QSPA-T, MK-200UG and QSPA-Kh50 that provide a way to simulate the energy loads expected in ITER in laboratory experiments. The numerical simulations were carried out for the expected ITER ELMs for the heat loads in the range 0.5 - 3.0 MJ/m 2 and the timescale up 0.6 ms and ITER disruptions for the heat loads in the range 2 - 13 MJ/m 2 in timescales of 1-5 ms. Radiation heat loads at the FW armour from the vapour expanded into the SOL were calculated using the codes FOREV-2 and TOKES for both ITER ELM and ITER disruption scenarios. Melt layer damage of the Be FW macro

  7. Recent results on high thermal energy load testing of beryllium for ITER first wall application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Roedig, M.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Linke, J.; Gervash, A. A.; Giniyatulin, R. N.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Khimchenko, L.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, progress in the high heat flux (HHF) qualification testing of TGP-56FW beryllium grade for ITER first wall applications is presented. Two actively cooled Be/CuCrZr brazing mock-ups were tested under complex thermal loading conditions in the electron beam facility JUDITH-1 (step 1: vertical displacement event test at 40 MJ m-2, 0.3 s, 1 shot; step 2: disruption tests at 3 MJ m-2, 1 shot, Δt=5 ms; step 3: repetitive fatigue test at 80 MW m-2, 1000 shots, Δt=25 ms). After testing, metallographic investigations on the microstructure and crack morphology were carried out. The results of these studies of Be tiles are reported and discussed. The overall results of TGP-56FW grade qualification testing have demonstrated the reliable performance capability of TGP-56FW for application as the armor of the ITER first wall. In addition, the results of first experiments with TGP-56FW and S-65C beryllium grades in the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are also reported. In these experiments, beryllium tiles (80×80×10 mm3) were tested in a hydrogen plasma stream (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration 0.5 ms and heat loads of 0.5-2 MJ m-2. Experiments were performed at room temperature. The evolution of the surface microstructure and mass loss of beryllium exposed to up to 100 shots is presented.

  8. Recent results on high thermal energy load testing of beryllium for ITER first wall application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I B; Nikolaev, G N; Kurbatova, L A; Roedig, M; Linke, J; Gervash, A A; Giniyatulin, R N; Podkovyrov, V L; Muzichenko, A D; Khimchenko, L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, progress in the high heat flux (HHF) qualification testing of TGP-56FW beryllium grade for ITER first wall applications is presented. Two actively cooled Be/CuCrZr brazing mock-ups were tested under complex thermal loading conditions in the electron beam facility JUDITH-1 (step 1: vertical displacement event test at 40 MJ m - 2, 0.3 s, 1 shot; step 2: disruption tests at 3 MJ m - 2, 1 shot, Δt=5 ms; step 3: repetitive fatigue test at 80 MW m - 2, 1000 shots, Δt=25 ms). After testing, metallographic investigations on the microstructure and crack morphology were carried out. The results of these studies of Be tiles are reported and discussed. The overall results of TGP-56FW grade qualification testing have demonstrated the reliable performance capability of TGP-56FW for application as the armor of the ITER first wall. In addition, the results of first experiments with TGP-56FW and S-65C beryllium grades in the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are also reported. In these experiments, beryllium tiles (80×80×10 mm 3 ) were tested in a hydrogen plasma stream (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration 0.5 ms and heat loads of 0.5-2 MJ m - 2. Experiments were performed at room temperature. The evolution of the surface microstructure and mass loss of beryllium exposed to up to 100 shots is presented.

  9. Optimum Insulation Thickness for Walls and Roofs for Reducing Peak Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings in Lahore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBGHA SIDDIQUE SIDDIQUE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulation is the most effective energy saving measure for cooling in buildings. Therefore, the main subject of many engineering investigations is the selection and determination of the optimum insulation thickness. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness on external walls and roofs is determined based on the peak cooling loads for an existing residential building in Lahore, Pakistan. Autodesk® Revit 2013 is used for the analysis of the building and determination of the peak cooling loads. The analysis shows that the optimum insulation thickness to reduce peak cooling loads up to 40.1% is 1 inch for external walls and roof respectively.

  10. Optimum Insulation Thickness for Walls and Roofs for Reducing Peak Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings in Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, S.; Arif, S.; Khan, A.; Alam, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal insulation is the most effective energy saving measure for cooling in buildings. Therefore, the main subject of many engineering investigations is the selection and determination of the optimum insulation thickness. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness on external walls and roofs is determined based on the peak cooling loads for an existing residential building in Lahore, Pakistan. Autodesk at the rate Revit 2013 is used for the analysis of the building and determination of the peak cooling loads. The analysis shows that the optimum insulation thickness to reduce peak cooling loads up to 40.1 percent is 1 inch for external walls and roof respectively. (author)

  11. Dynamic loading of the structural wall in a lithium fall fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    In one version of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power reactor, the laser-imploded pellet is surrounded by a thick, annular 'waterfall' of liquid lithium. The fall has three functions: to breed tritium for pellet resupply, to act as an energy sink and heat exchange mdeium with an external power loop, and to protect the first wall of the reactor from excessive neutronic and hydrodynamic loading. Our primary concern here is with this last function. We formulated a simple model of a lithium-fall ICF reactor and calculated the fall disassembly and the subsequent fluid-wall interaction resulting from the energy deposition by the imploded pellet. Two potential mechanisms for wall damage were identified: surface erosion and hoop failure. For single fall designs, the erosion problem appears to be serious. Concentric annuli (multiple fall) or packed jet configurations may be feasible but experiments are needed to clarify the physical model, especially with reg (orig.)ard to /orig.the characteristics of the cavitated liquid lithium and of the two-phase liquid-vapor region.

  12. Numerical Analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP Shear Walls and Steel Strips under Cyclic Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Askarizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main elements of resistance against lateral loads in reinforced concrete structures. These walls should not only provide sufficient resistance but also provide sufficient ductility in order to avoid brittle fracture, particularly under strong seismic loads. However, many reinforced concrete shear walls need to be stabilized and reinforced due to various reasons such as changes in requirements of seismic regulations, weaknesses in design and execution, passage of time, damaging environmental factors, patch of rebar in plastic hinges and in some cases failures and weaknesses caused by previous earthquakes or explosion loads. Recently, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP components have been extensively and successfully used in seismic improvement. This study reinforces FRP reinforced concrete shear walls and steel strips. CFRP and steel strips are evaluated by different yield and ultimate strength. Numerical and experimental studies are done on walls with scale 1/2. These walls are exposed to cyclic loading. Hysteresis curves of force, drift and strain of FRP strips are reviewed in order to compare results of numerical work and laboratory results. Both numerical and laboratory results show that CFRP and steel strips increase resistance, capacity and ductility of the structure.

  13. Effect of Eccentricity of Load on Critical Force of Thin-Walled Columns CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wysmulski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study was a thin-walled C-section made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP. Column was subjected to eccentric compression in the established direction. In the computer simulation, the boundary conditions were assumed in the form of articulated support of the sections of the column. Particular studies included an analysis of the effects of eccentricity on the critical force value. The research was conducted using two independent research methods: numerical and experimental. Numerical simulations were done using the finite element method using the advanced system Abaqus®. The high sensitivity of the critical force value corresponding to the local buckling of the channel section to the load eccentricity was demonstrated.

  14. In-pile testing of ITER first wall mock-ups at relevant thermal loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litunovsky, N.; Gervash, A.; Lorenzetto, P.; Mazul, I.; Melder, R.

    2009-04-01

    The paper describes the experimental technique and preliminary results of thermal fatigue testing of ITER first wall (FW) water-cooled mock-ups inside the core of the RBT-6 experimental fission reactor (RIAR, Dimitrovgrad, Russia). This experiment has provided simultaneous effect of neutron fluence and thermal cycling damages on the mock-ups. A PC-controlled high-temperature graphite ohmic heater was applied to provide cyclic thermal load onto the mock-ups surface. This experiment lasted for 309 effective irradiation days with a final damage level (CuCrZr) of 1 dpa in the mock-ups. About 3700 thermal cycles with a heat flux of 0.4-0.5 MW/m 2 onto the mock-ups were realized before the heater fails. Then, irradiation was continued in a non-cycling mode.

  15. Si-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes under axial loads: An atomistic simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haiyang; Zha Xinwei

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the Si-coated imperfect (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), the imperfect (5, 5) SWCNT and several perfect armchair SWCNTs under axial loads were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The interactions between atoms were modeled using the empirical Tersoff potential and the Tersoff-Brenner potential coupled with the Lennard-Jones potential. We get Young's modulus of the defective (5, 5) nanotube with and without the Si coating under axial tension 1107.92 and 1076.02 GPa, respectively. The results also show that the structure failure of the Si-coated imperfect (5, 5) SWCNT under axial compression occurs at a slightly higher strain than for the perfect (5, 5) SWCNT. Therefore, we can confirm the protective effect of Si as a coating material for defective SWCNTs. We also obtain the critical buckling strains of perfect SWCNTs

  16. Study on structural integrity of thinned wall piping against seismic loading-overview and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Izumi; Otani, Akihito; Shiratori, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the behavior of thinned wall pipes under seismic events, cyclic in-plane and/or out-of-plane bending tests on thinned straight pipe and elbow and also shaking table tests using degraded piping system models were conducted. Relation between the failure mode and thinned condition and the influence of the final failure mode of degraded piping systems were investigated. In addition to these experiments, elastic-plastic FEM analysis using ABAQUS were conducted on thinned piping elements. It has been found that the strain concentrated point could be predicted and the cause of its generation could be explained by the simulated deformation behavior of the pipe. In order to predict the piping system's maximum response under elastic-plastic response, a simple response prediction method was proposed. Further tests and safety margin analyses of thinned pipes against seismic loading will be performed. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and HPCSP’s geometrical parameters as well as on material cost function in the HPCSP design. Cost functions are presented for High Performance Concrete (HPC), insulation layer, reinforcement and include labour-related costs. The present study reports the economic data corresponding to specific manufacturing......The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  18. Fast ion power loads on ITER first wall structures in the presence of NTMs and microturbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurki-Suonio, T.; Asunta, O.; Hirvijoki, E.; Koskela, T.; Snicker, A.; Sipilae, S.; Hauff, T.; Jenko, F.; Poli, E.

    2011-01-01

    The level and distribution of the wall power flux of energetic ions in ITER have to be known accurately in order to ensure the integrity of the first wall. Until now, most quantitative estimates have been based on the assumption that fast ion transport is dictated by neoclassical effects only. However, in ITER, the fast ion distribution is likely to be affected by various MHD effects and probably also by microturbulence. We have now upgraded our orbit-following Monte Carlo code ASCOT so that it has simple, theory-based models for neoclassical tearing mode (NTM)-type islands as well as for turbulent diffusion. ASCOT also allows for full-orbit following, which is important close to the material surfaces and, possibly, also when strong toroidal inhomogeneities are present in the magnetic field. Here we introduce the new models, preliminary results obtained with them, and how these models could be made more realistic in the future. The simulations are carried out for thermonuclear alpha particles in ITER scenario 2 plasma, because we consider this combination to be most critical for the successful operation of ITER. Neither the turbulent transport nor NTM-type islands are found to introduce alarming changes in the wall loads. However, at this stage it was not possible to combine the island structures with the non-axisymmetric magnetic field of ITER, and it remains to be seen what the combined effect of drift islands together with the toroidal ripple and local field aberrations, such as those due to test blanket modules and resonant magnetic perturbations will be.

  19. Proposal of failure criterion applicable to finite element analysis results for wall-thinned pipes under bending load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshii, Toshiyuki, E-mail: meshii@u-fukui.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui (Japan); Ito, Yoshiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Limit bending load (LBL) of wall-thinned pipe by large strain FEA was considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net section yield load had sufficient margin to LBL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LBL for collapse was the load when volume with nominal thickness yielded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LBL for cracking was the load when flawed section stress exceeded tensile strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Failure criterion considering above was named Domain Collapse Criterion. - Abstract: In this work, a failure criterion applicable to large strain Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results was proposed in order to predict both the fracture mode (collapse or cracking) and the limit bending load of wall-thinned straight pipes. This work was motivated from the recent experimental results of ; that is, fracture mode is not always collapse, and the fracture mode affects the limit bending load. The key finding in comparing their test results and a detailed large strain FEA results was that the Mises stress distribution at the limit bending load of a flawed cylinder was similar to that of a flawless cylinder; specifically, in case of collapse, the Mises stress exceeded the true yield stress of a material for the whole 'volume' of a cylinder with a nominal wall thickness. Based on this finding, a failure criterion applicable to large strain FEA results of wall-thinned straight pipes under a bending load that can predict both fracture mode and limit bending load was proposed and was named the Domain Collapse Criterion (DCC). DCC predicts the limit bending load as the lower value of either the M{sub c}{sup FEA}, which is the load at which the Mises stress exceeds the true yield strength of a straight pipe for the whole 'volume' with a nominal wall thickness (fracture mode: collapse), or the M{sub c}{sup FEAb}, which is the load at which the Mises stress in a section of the flaw ligament exceeds the true tensile stress

  20. Plato (power load analysis tool) - a module of west wall monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Sutapa; Travere, Jean-marcel; Moreau, P.

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamak) project, is to upgrade the medium- sized superconducting Tokamak, Tore Supra in a major scale. One of it's objectives, is to also act as a test-bed for ITER divertor components, to be procured and used in ITER. WEST would be installing actively cooled Tungsten divertor elements, like the ones to be used in ITER. These components would be tested under two experimental scenarios: high power (Ip = 0.8MA, lasting 30s with 15MW injected power) and high fluence (Ip = 0.6 MA, lasting 1000s with 12 MW injected power). Heat load on the divertor target will range from a few MW/m 2 up to 20 MW/m 2 depending on the X point location and the heat flux decay length. The tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are less tolerant to overheating than their Carbon counterparts and prevention of their burnout is a major concern. It is in this context that the Wall Monitoring System (WMS) - a software framework aimed at monitoring the health of the Wall components, was conceived. WMS has been divided into three parts: a) a pre-discharge power load analysis tool to check compatibility between plasma scenario and PFC's operational limits in terms of heat flux b) a real-time system during discharge, to take into account all necessary measurements involved in the PFCs protection c) a set of analysis tools that would be used post-discharge, that would access WEST database and compare predicted and experimental results. This paper presents an overview of PLATo - the pre-pulse module of WMS that has been recently developed under IPR-IRFM research collaboration. PLAto has two major components - one that produces heat flux information of the PFCS and the other that produces energy graphs depending on shot profile defined by time variant magnetic equilibrium and injected power profiles. Preliminary results will be presented based on foreseen WEST plasma reference scenarios. (author)

  1. Thermal load testing of erosion-monitoring beryllium marker tile for the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Likonen, J.; Lungu, C.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Philipps, V.; Wessel, E.

    2008-01-01

    ITER-Like Wall Project has been launched at JET in order to perform a fully integrated test of plasma-facing materials. During the next major shutdown a full metal wall will be installed: tungsten in the divertor and beryllium in the main chamber. Beryllium erosion is one of key issues to be addressed. Special marker tiles have been designed for this purpose. Test coupons of such markers have been manufactured and examined. The performance test under high power deposition was carried in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The results of material characterization before and after high heat flux loads are presented. The samples survived, without macroscopic damage, power loads of up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (surface temperature ∼650 deg. C) and 50 cyclic loads at 3.5 MW/m 2 lasting 10 s each (surface temperature ∼600 deg. C)

  2. Plastic Limit Loads for Slanted Circumferential Through-Wall Cracked Pipes Using 3D Finite-Element Limit Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Min; Cho, Doo Ho; Kim, Young Jin; Huh, Nam Su; Shim, Do Jun; Choi, Young Hwan; Park, Jung Soon

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of detailed 3D finite-element (FE) limit analyses, the plastic limit load solutions for pipes with slanted circumferential through-wall cracks (TWCs) subjected to axial tension, global bending, and internal pressure are reported. The FE model and analysis procedure employed in the present numerical study were validated by comparing the present FE results with existing solutions for plastic limit loads of pipes with idealized TWCs. For the quantification of the effect of slanted crack on plastic limit load, slant correction factors for calculating the plastic limit loads of pipes with slanted TWCs from pipes with idealized TWCs are newly proposed from extensive 3D FE calculations. These slant-correction factors are presented in tabulated form for practical ranges of geometry and for each set of loading conditions

  3. The stability of through-wall circumferential cracks in cylindrical pipes subjected to bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1983-01-01

    Tada, Paris and Gamble have used the tearing modulus approach to show that when a circumferential through-wall crack exists in a 304 SS circular cylindrical pipe, and the pipe is subjected to an applied bending moment, then crack growth requires the rotation at the pipe-ends to be increased, (i.e. crack growth is stable), unless the pipe length is unduly large. On this basis it was concluded that unstable fracture is unlikely to occur in BWR SS piping, when the system is designed in accord with the ASME Code load levels for normal operation and anticipated transients. The Tada-Paris-Gamble analysis focuses on the inter-relation between instability and the onset of crack extension, and does not specifically consider the possibility that a crack might become unstable after some stable crack extension. The paper addresses this aspect of the crack stability problem using a crack tip opening angle criterion for crack extension, which has similarities with the tearing modulus approach. The results show that unstable fracture should not occur even after some stable crack extension, again provided that the pipe length is not unduly large. In other words, guillotine failure of a pipe in a BWR system is unlikely, even though the ASME Code limiting stress levels as might be exceeded, as may be the case with a very severe earthquake. (orig./HP)

  4. Effect of design geometry of the demo first wall on the plasma heat load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Igitkhanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyse the effect of W armour surface shaping on the heat load on the W/EUROFER DEMO sandwich type first wall blanket module with the water coolant. The armour wetted area is varied by changing the inclination and height of the «roof» type armor surface. The deleterious effect of leading edge at the tiles corner caused by misalignment is replaced in current design by rounded corners. Analysis has been carried out by means of the MEMOS code to assess the influence of the thickness of the layers and effect of the magnetic field inclination. Calculations show the evolution of the maximum temperatures in the tungsten, EUROFER, Cu allow and the stainless-steel water tube for different level of surface inclination (chamfering and in the case of rounded corners used in the current design. It is shown that the blanket module materials remain within a proper temperature range only at shallow incident angle if the width of EUROFER is reduced at list twice compare with the reference case.

  5. A compression and shear loading test of concrete filled steel bearing wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sekimoto, Hisashi; Fukihara, Masaaki; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Hara, Kiyoshi.

    1991-01-01

    Concrete-filled steel bearing walls called SC structure which are the composite structure of concrete and steel plates have larger load-carrying capacity and higher ductility as compared with conventional RC structures, and their construction method enables the rationalization of construction procedures at sites and the shortening of construction period. Accordingly, the SC structures have become to be applied to the inner concrete structures of PWR nuclear power plants, and subsequently, it is planned to apply them to the auxiliary buildings of nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to establish a rational design method for the SC structures which can be applied to the auxiliary buildings of nuclear power plants. In this study, the buckling strength of surface plates and the ultimate strength of the SC structure were evaluated with the results of the compression and shear tests which have been carried out. The outline of the study and the tests, the results of the compression test and the shear test and their evaluation are reported. Stud bolts were effective for preventing the buckling of surface plates. The occurrence of buckling can be predicted analytically. (K.I.)

  6. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment...

  7. Room temperature elastic--plastic response of thin-walled tubes subjected to nonradial combinations of axial and torsional loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Two tubular specimens of type 304 stainless steel with uniform thin walls were subjected to a program of segmental combined tension/compression and torsion loadings at room temperature. A proportional, or radial, loading into the plastic range was initially applied to each specimen. Two nonproportional (nonradial) loadings along straight line segments for which neither the loading paths nor their linear extrapolations passed through the origin of the stress space were then applied. The axial and torsional stress-strain curves for these segmental prestress loadings were plotted. Hence, the stress-strain response characteristics for nonproportional loadings as well as for proportional loading can be studied. In addition, the axial and torsional plastic strain components were calculated, and the total plastic strain trajectories were plotted in a plastic strain space. Finally, using results from a detailed study of yield surfaces, which was performed for the first specimen, a spectrum of initial and subsequent yield curves corresponding to the segmental prestress loadings is presented. (U.S.)

  8. A More Realistic Lateral Load Pattern for Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Moment Frames and Shear Walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Khosahmadi, Arash

    2008-01-01

    In this research it has been tried to find a more realistic distribution pattern for the seismic load in reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings, having moment frames with shear walls as their lateral resisting system, by using Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NLTHA). Having shear wall as lateral load bearing system decreases the effect of infill walls in the seismic behavior of the building, and therefore the case of buildings with shear walls has been considered for this study as the first stage of the studies on lateral load patterns for R/C buildings. For this purpose, by assuming three different numbers of bays in each direction and also three different numbers of stories for the buildings, several R/C buildings, have been studied. At first, the buildings have been designed by the Iranian National Code for R/C Buildings. Then they have been analyzed by a NLTHA software using the accelerograms of some well-known earthquakes. The used accelerograms have been also scaled to various levels of peak ground acceleration (PGA) such as 0.35 g, 0.50 g, and 0.70 g, to find out the effect of PGA in the seismic response. Numerical results have shown that firstly the values of natural period of the building and their shear force values, calculated by the code, are not appropriate in all cases. Secondly, it has been found out that the real lateral load pattern is quite different with the one suggested by the seismic code. Based on the NLTHA results a new lateral load pattern has been suggested for this kind of buildings, in the form of some story-dependent modification factors applied to the existing code formula. The effects of building's natural period, as well as its number of stories, are taken into account explicitly in the proposed new load pattern. The proposed load pattern has been employed to redesign the buildings and again by NLTHA the real lateral load distribution in each case has been obtained which has shown very good agreement with the proposed pattern

  9. Fracture toughness of epoxy/multi-walled carbon nanotube nano-composites under bending and shear loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayatollahi, M.R.; Shadlou, S.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mode I and mode II fracture tests were conducted on epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites. → Addition of MWCNT to epoxy increased both K Ic and K IIc of nano-composites. → The improvement in K IIc was more pronounced than in K Ic . → Mode I and mode II fracture surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the mechanical properties of epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites were studied with emphasis on fracture toughness under bending and shear loading conditions. Several finite element (FE) analyses were performed to determine appropriate shear loading boundary conditions for a single-edge notch bend specimen (SENB) and an equation was derived for calculating the shear loading fracture toughness from the fracture load. It was seen that the increase in fracture toughness of nano-composite depends on the type of loading. That is to say, the presence of MWCNTs had a greater effect on fracture toughness of nano-composites under shear loading compared with normal loading. To study the fracture mechanisms, several scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures were taken from the fracture surfaces. A correlation was found between the characteristics of fracture surface and the mechanical behaviors observed in the fracture tests.

  10. Wall envelopes in office buildings: design trend and implications on cooling load of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.; Ahmed, A.Z.; Ahmed, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The wall envelope is a vital element of a building especially to a high rise building where its wall to building volume ratio is higher compared to other building forms. As well as a means of architectural expression, the wall envelope protects and regulates the indoor environment. In recent years there have been many applications of glass products and cladding systems in high-rise buildings built in Kuala Lumpur. This paper describes a recent research and survey on wall envelope designs adopted in 33 high-rise office buildings built in the central business district of Kuala Lumpur since 1990. This research adopts component design analysis to identify dominant trends on wall envelope design for the surveyed buildings. The paper seeks to discourse the implications of this design trend on energy consumption of high-rise office buildings in the country

  11. Allowable heat load on the edge of the ITER first wall panel beryllium flat tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mitteau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasma facing components are usually qualified to a given heat load density applied at the top face of the armour tiles with normal incidence angle. When employed in tokamak fusion machines, heat loading on the tile sides is possible due to optimised shaping, that doesn't provide edge shadowing for all design situations. An edge heat load may occur both at the tile and component scales. The edge load needs to be controlled and quantified. The adequate control of edge heat loads is especially critical for water cooled components that uses armour tiles which are bonded to the heat sink, for ensuring the long-term integrity of the tile bonding. An edge heat load allowance criterion of 10% of the top heat load is proposed. The 10% criterion is supported by experimental heat flux tests.

  12. Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of active metals, catalyst supports, and metal loading percentage on the formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were studied. In particular, iron, cobalt, and nickel were investigated for SWNTs synthesis. Iron was found to grow better-quality SWNTs compared to cobalt and nickel. To study the effect of catalyst supports, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and aluminium oxide were chosen for iron. Among the studied supports, MgO was identified to be a suitable support for iron as it produced SWNTs with better graphitisation determined by Raman analysis. Increasing the iron loading decreased the quality of SWNTs due to extensive agglomeration of the iron particles. Thus, lower metal loading percentage is preferred to grow better-quality SWNTs with uniform diameters.

  13. Loads experiments study on two-story RC box and truncated conical walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asega, H.; Iizuka, S.; Kurihara, I.; Kubo, T.

    1987-01-01

    The failure modes of the two specimens were the sliding shear failure. The two specimens showed almost equal deformation at the maximum shear strength. The ratio of the flexural deformation in the deformation of the truncated conical was larger than that of the box wall. The ratio of the shear deformation in the deformation of the two-story RC box wall was larger than that of the flexural deformation. (orig./HP)

  14. Properties of Shredded Roof Membrane–Sand Mixture and Its Application as Retaining Wall Backfill under Static and Earthquake Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Livingston

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available About 20 billion square feet of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM rubber is installed on roofs in the United States and most of them will be reaching the end of their lifespan soon. The purpose of this study is to investigate potential reuses of this rubber in Civil Engineering projects rather than disposing it into landfills. First, laboratory tests were performed on various shredded rubber-sand mixtures to quantify the basic geotechnical engineering properties. The laboratory test results show that the shredded rubber-sand mixture is lightweight with good drainage properties and has shear strength parameters comparable to sand. This indicates that the rubber-sand mixture has potential to be used for retaining wall backfill and many other projects. To assess the economic advantage of using shredded rubber-sand mixtures as a lightweight backfill for retaining walls subjected to static and earthquake loadings, geotechnical designs of a 6 m tall gravity cantilever retaining wall were performed. The computed volume of concrete to build the structural components and volume of backfill material were compared with those of conventional sand backfill. Results show significant reductions in the volume of concrete and backfill material in both static and earthquake loading conditions when the portion of shredded rubber increased in the mixture.

  15. Measurement of the nonaxisymmetric heat load distribution on the first wall of TFTR due to locked modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janos, A.C.; Fredrickson, E.; McGuire, K.M.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    The first wall of TFTR is covered in large part (23%) by an inner-wall bumper limiter which is the primary power handling structure in TFTR. The limiter is comprised of more than 2000 tiles, and is instrumented with a large number (>100) of thermocouples in a two-dimensional (2D) array, primarily for protection of the wall. While only about 5% of the tiles are monitored, this thermocouple system is nevertheless capable of mapping details in the nonaxisymmetric, as well as symmetric, heat load patterns encountered under different conditions. In particular, helical heating patterns are observed in discharges which have locked modes. The helical patterns clearly match the expected trajectories based on the m/n mode numbers obtained from Mirnov coils (m/n=2/1 and 4/1), so that the thermocouple system can and was used to identify the existence and mode number of a locked mode. While TFTR discharges rarely suffer from locked modes, locked modes always alter the heating pattern. The locked modes are found to very significantly redistribute the heat load for both ohmic and NBI heated discharges. Locked modes can make what were the coldest areas into the hottest areas, and vice versa. Locked modes also can alter the heat pattern resulting from the frequent disruptions which occur as a result of a locked mode

  16. Experimental Studies on the Behavior of a Newly-Developed Type of Self-Insulating Concrete Masonry Shear Wall under in-Plane Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Bakre Abdelmoneim Elamin Mohamad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the inelastic behavior of a newly-developed type of self-insulating concrete masonry shear wall (SCMSW under in-plane cyclic loading. The new masonry system was made from concrete blocks with special configurations to provide a stronger bond between units than ordinary concrete masonry units. A total of six fully-grouted SCMSWs were prepared with different heights (1.59 to 5.78 m and different vertical steel configurations. The developed masonry walls were tested under in-plane cyclic loading and different constant axial load ratios. In addition, the relationship between the amount of axial loading, the amount of the flexural reinforcement and the wall aspect ratios and the nonlinear hysteretic response of the SCMSW was evaluated. The results showed that the lateral load capacity of SCMSW increases with the amount of applied axial load and the amount of vertical reinforcement. However, the lateral load capacity decreases as the wall aspect ratio increases. The existence of the boundary elements at the SCMSW ends increases the ductility and the lateral load capacity. Generally, the SCMSW exhibited predominantly flexural behavior. These results agreed with those reported in previous research for walls constructed with ordinary units.

  17. Numerical investigation of the influence of particle-particle and particle-wall collisions in turbulent wall-bounded flows at high mass loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alletto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the simulation of turbulent particle-laden flows at high mass loadings. In order to achieve this goal, the fluid flow is described by means of the eddy-resolving concept known as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and the particles are described in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Special emphasis is placed on the interparticle collisions and the impact of solid particles on rough walls. Both mechanisms are shown to be crucial for the correct description of the particle dynamics in wall-bounded flows. In order to distinguish the present methodology from the variety of methods available in the literature to treat turbulent flows laden with solid particles, the thesis starts with an overview of different simulation techniques to calculate this class of flows. In this overview special care is taken to underline the parameter space, where the different simulation methods are valid. After that, the governing equations and the boundary conditions applied for the continuous phase of the Euler-Lagrange approach used in the present thesis are given. In the subsequent section the governing equations for the solid particles and their interaction with smooth and rough walls are discussed. Here a new wall roughness model for the particles which incorporates an amplitude parameter used in technical applications such as the mean roughness height or the root-mean-squared roughness is presented. After that, the coupling mechanisms between the phases and the algorithmic realization are discussed. Furthermore, a new agglomeration model capable to treat interparticle collisions with friction is presented. However, the agglomeration model is not evaluated in such a detail as the interparticle collisions and the particle-wall collisions. The reason is that it does not represent a central aspect of this thesis. The numerical methods for the continuous and the disperse phase are presented in the subsequent section. The efficient algorithm to detect the interparticle

  18. Numerical investigation of the influence of particle-particle and particle-wall collisions in turbulent wall-bounded flows at high mass loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alletto, Michael

    2014-05-16

    The present work deals with the simulation of turbulent particle-laden flows at high mass loadings. In order to achieve this goal, the fluid flow is described by means of the eddy-resolving concept known as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and the particles are described in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Special emphasis is placed on the interparticle collisions and the impact of solid particles on rough walls. Both mechanisms are shown to be crucial for the correct description of the particle dynamics in wall-bounded flows. In order to distinguish the present methodology from the variety of methods available in the literature to treat turbulent flows laden with solid particles, the thesis starts with an overview of different simulation techniques to calculate this class of flows. In this overview special care is taken to underline the parameter space, where the different simulation methods are valid. After that, the governing equations and the boundary conditions applied for the continuous phase of the Euler-Lagrange approach used in the present thesis are given. In the subsequent section the governing equations for the solid particles and their interaction with smooth and rough walls are discussed. Here a new wall roughness model for the particles which incorporates an amplitude parameter used in technical applications such as the mean roughness height or the root-mean-squared roughness is presented. After that, the coupling mechanisms between the phases and the algorithmic realization are discussed. Furthermore, a new agglomeration model capable to treat interparticle collisions with friction is presented. However, the agglomeration model is not evaluated in such a detail as the interparticle collisions and the particle-wall collisions. The reason is that it does not represent a central aspect of this thesis. The numerical methods for the continuous and the disperse phase are presented in the subsequent section. The efficient algorithm to detect the interparticle

  19. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedded steel plates. The lateral cyclic loading test is executed to investigate the seismic behavior and the electric and thermal performance with different drift angles. The seismic behavior, including failure pattern, lateral force-top displacement relationship, and deformation capacity, was investigated. The power generation and temperature variation on the back of the PV module and both sides of the shear wall were also tested. Two main results are demonstrated through the experiment: (1 the U-shaped steel connectors provide enough deformation capacity for the compatibility of the PV module to the shear wall during the whole cyclic test; (2 the electricity generation capacity is effective and stable during this seismic simulation test.

  20. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  1. Behavior of deep flaws in a thick-wall cylinder under thermal shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Behavior of inner-surface flaws in thick-walled vessels was studied in a 991-mm OD x 152 mm wall x 1220 mm length cylinder with toughness properties similar to those for HSST Plate. The initial temperature of 93 0 C and a thermal shock medium of liquid nitrogen (-197 0 C) were employed. The initial flaw selected was a sharp, 16 mm deep, long (1220 mm) axial crack. Crack arrest methodology was shown to be valid for deep flaws under severe thermal shock

  2. Stress state of thin – walled member of the structure with operation damages under nonuniform loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.

  3. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  4. Reactive bonding mediated high mass loading of individualized single-walled carbon nanotubes in an elastomeric polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Li, Yongjin; Qiu, Jishan; You, Jichun; Dong, Wenyong; Cao, Xiaojun

    2012-09-01

    A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance.A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Conductivity test of the SEBS-SWCNTs film, transmission spectra and sheet resistance for the spin-coated SEBS-SWCNTs thin films on PET slides. See DOI: 10

  5. Load carrying capacity of shear wall t-connections reinforced with high strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Bryndom, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  6. Radiation loads on the ITER first wall during massive gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, I., E-mail: igor.landman@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bazylev, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pla no. 2 – Torres Diagonal Litoral Edificio B3 7/03, Barselona 08019 (Spain); Pestchanyi, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Putvinski, S.; Sugihara, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The massive gas injection (neon) is simulated with the two-dimensional tokamak code TOKES assuming the toroidal symmetry. • The neon injection, assimilation and transport of impurities through the entire plasma volume are modelled. • The output of TOKES is used by the melt motion code MEMOS to assess beryllium wall temperature and the regime with melting. • Complete plasma cooling occurs in minimum time of 5.7 ms with avoiding Be melting at any point on the first wall. -- Abstract: Unmitigated disruptions in ITER can produce strong localized surface damage on the first wall (FW). Massive gas injection (MGI) systems are being designed to dissipate a large fraction of the plasma stored energy at the disruption thermal quench (TQ) and hence reduce the consequences for FW components. The stored energies can be high enough, however, for there to be potential for the photon flash at the MGI TQ to drive local melting of beryllium FW components. To estimate the poloidal distribution of FW surface temperatures, the MGI process is being simulated using the 2D code TOKES, assuming toroidal symmetry. High pressure neon injection, assimilation and transport of injected impurities through the entire plasma volume are modelled. The output of these simulations is used by the melt motion code MEMOS to assess the resulting maximum surface temperature and the regimes with melting on the FW surface.

  7. Load Carrying Capacity of Shear Wall T-Connections Reinforced with High Strength Wire Ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Bryndum, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction-friendly so......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  8. Nonlinear response of vessel walls due to short-time thermomechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This study addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings fro the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on the dead load, yield stress assumptions, material response and internal pressurization. The analyses considered only short term failure (quasi static) modes, long term failure modes were not considered. Short term failure modes include plastic instabilities of the structure and failure due to exceeding the failure strain. Long term failure odes would be caused by creep rupture that leads to plastic instability of the structure. Due to the sort time durations analyzed, creep was not considered in the analyses presented

  9. Lifetime analysis of the ITER first wall under steady-state and off-normal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R; Sugihara, M; Raffray, R; Carpentier-Chouchana, S; Merola, M; Pitts, R A; Labidi, H; Stangeby, P

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium armor of the ITER first wall is evaluated for normal and off-normal operation. For the individual events considered, the lifetime spans between 930 and 35×10 6 discharges. The discrepancy between low and high estimates is caused by uncertainties about the behavior of the melt layer during off-normal events, variable plasma operation parameters and variability of the sputtering yields. These large uncertainties in beryllium armor loss estimates are a good example of the experimental nature of the ITER project and will not be truly resolved until ITER begins burning plasma operation.

  10. On the sensitivity of a helicopter combustor wall temperature to convective and radiative thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, S.; Richard, S.; Duchaine, F.; Staffelbach, G.; Gicquel, L.Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Coupling of LES, DOM and conduction is applied to an industrial combustor. • Thermal sensitivity of the combustor to convection and radiation is investigated. • CHT based on LES is feasible in an industrial context with acceptable CPU costs. • Radiation heat fluxes are of the same order of magnitude that the convective ones. • CHT with radiation are globally in good agreement with thermocolor test. - Abstract: The design of aeronautical engines is subject to many constraints that cover performance gain as well as increasingly sensitive environmental issues. These often contradicting objectives are currently being answered through an increase in the local and global temperature in the hot stages of the engine. As a result, hot spots could appear causing a premature aging of the combustion chamber. Today, the characterization of wall temperatures is performed experimentally by complex thermocolor tests in advanced phases of the design process. To limit such expensive experiments and integrate the knowledge of the thermal environment earlier in the design process, efforts are currently performed to provide high fidelity numerical tools able to predict the combustion chamber wall temperature including the main physical phenomena: combustion, convection and mixing of hot products and cold flows, radiative transfers as well as conduction in the solid parts. In this paper, partitioned coupling approaches based on a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver, a Discrete Ordinate Method radiation solver and an unsteady conduction code are used to investigate the sensitivity of an industrial combustor thermal environment to convection and radiation. Four computations including a reference adiabatic fluid only simulation, Conjugate Heat Transfer, Radiation-Fluid Thermal Interaction and fully coupled simulations are performed and compared with thermocolor experimental data. From the authors knowledge, such comparative study with LES has never been published. It

  11. Effectively enhanced load transfer by interfacial reactions in multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced Al matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weiwei; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Keiko; Nomura, Naoyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The thermal expansion response of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced Al matrix composites was employed to discuss the improvement of the load transfer at the interface between the MWCNTs and the Al matrix. An aluminum carbide (Al_4C_3) nanostructure at the end of the MWCNTs, incorporated in the Al matrix, was produced by appropriate heat-treatment. The stress contrast around the Al_4C_3 observed in the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image revealed the evidence of a trace of friction, which would lead to the enhancement of the anchor effect from the Al matrix. This anchor effect of Al_4C_3 may hinder the local interfacial slippage and constrain the deformation of the Al matrix. As a result, the thermal expansion behavior became linear and reversible under cyclic thermal load. It is concluded that the formation of Al_4C_3 could effectively enhance the load transfer in MWCNT/Al composites. The yield strength of MWCNT/Al composites was substantially increased under the appropriate quantity of Al_4C_3 produced at the MWCNT-Al interface by precisely controlled heat-treatment.

  12. Rammed earth walls strengthened with polyester fabric strips: Experimental analysis under in-plane cyclic loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccoli, L.; Müller, U.; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 149, September (2017), s. 29-36 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : rammed earth * pseudo-dynamic loads * shear-compression tests * strengthening * polyester fabric strips Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061817310000

  13. Load capacity of a thick-walled cylinder with a radial hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laczek, S.; Rys, J.; Zielinski, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with elastic-plastic analysis of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of a hole in a thick-walled cylindrical pressure vessel. The investigations have been inspired by the phenomenon of ductile fracture observed in a high-pressure reactor. Using finite element calculations, different failure criteria are proposed to aid design and control of high-pressure vessels with piping attachments. They are compared with suggestions of American (ASME) and European (EN) standards. A simple shakedown analysis of the structure is also presented. The local stress distribution near the hole results in a specific failure of the vessel. A plastic zone appears in the vicinity of the internal cylinder surface and propagates along the hole side. The vessel unloading can cause local reverse plasticity, which leads to plastic shakedown in the small zone and then to progressive ductile fracture in this zone. This is dangerous for the whole structure.

  14. Tragacanth gum as a natural polymeric wall for producing antimicrobial nanocapsules loaded with plant extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2015-11-01

    Tragacanth gum as a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer with good properties including emulsifying, viscosity and cross-linking ability can be used as the wall material in encapsulation of different compounds, specifically plant extracts. In this paper, for the first time, Tragacanth gum was used to produce nanocapsules containing plant extract through microemulsion method. The effect of different parameters on the average size of prepared nanocapsules in presence of aluminum and calcium chloride through ultrasonic and magnetic stirrer was investigated. The high efficient nanocapsules were prepared with spherical shape and smooth surface. The average size of nanocapsules prepared through ultrasonic using aluminum chloride (22nm) was smaller than other products. The structure of prepared nanocapsules was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of different nanocapsules against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans was investigated by shake flask method during their release showed 100% microbial reduction after 12h stirring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plastic fracture instability analysis of wall breakthrough in a circumferentially cracked pipe subjected to bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    A method of analyzing internal surface circumferential cracks in ductile reactor piping is presented. The method utilizes an alternate but equivalent definition of the J-integral based on nonlinear structural compliance. The analysis is valid for situations where the cross section containing the crack is fully yielded. Results are obtained for radial and circumferential crack growth for pipes subjected to bending. The stability of radial crack growth (wall breakthrough) is assessed using the J-integral-based tearing modulus approach. The analysis is shown to be in agreement with experimental results on the stability of surface crack growth in Type 304 stainless stee pipes. Example quantitative results for fracture instability assessments for nuclear piping are presented. 23 refs

  16. Plastic fracture instability analysis of wall breakthrough in a circumferentially cracked pipe subjected to bending loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1981-07-01

    A method of analyzing internal surface circumferential cracks in ductile reactor piping is presented. The method utilizes an alternate but equivalent definition of the J-integral based on nonlinear structural compliance. The analysis is valid for situations where the cross section containing the crack is fully yielded. Results are obtained for radial and circumferential crack growth for pipes subjected to bending. The stability of radial crack growth (wall breakthrough) is assessed using the J-integral-based tearing modulus approach. The analysis is shown to be in agreement with experimental results on the stability of surface crack growth in Type 304 stainless stee pipes. Example quantitative results for fracture instability assessments for nuclear piping are presented. 23 refs.

  17. High heat load experiments for first wall materials by high power ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Tsutomu; Kaneko, Osamu; Sakurai, Keiichi; Oka, Yoshihide; Shibui, Masanao; Ohmori, Junji

    1985-09-01

    Preliminary results are presented with some analytical calculations for thermal shock fractures of first-wall material candidates under plasma disruption heating conditions. A 120 keV - 90 A ion source has been used as an energy source to heat large specimens with heat fluxes of about 9 kW/cm/sup 2/ for pulse length of about 57 msec. Materials examined here are graphite (POCO), SiC, AlN, TiC-coated graphite, and sus 304. The SiC and AlN specimens were completely broken by only one thermal shock. The web-like surface cracks with a depth of about 0.6 mm were created in the tungsten specimen during five shots. No apparent destructive changes were observed in the graphite specimen.

  18. Assessment of the impact of degraded shear wall stiffnesses on seismic plant risk and seismic design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, E.W.; Bohn, M.P.; Johnson, J.J.; Asfura, A.P.; Doyle, D.J.

    1994-02-01

    Test results sponsored by the USNRC have shown that reinforced shear wall (Seismic Category I) structures exhibit stiffnesses and natural frequencies which are smaller than those calculated in the design process. The USNRC has sponsored Sandia National Labs to perform an evaluation of the effects of the reduced frequencies on several existing seismic PRAs in order to determine the seismic risk implications inherent in these test results. This report presents the results for the re-evaluation of the seismic risk for three nuclear power plants: the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, and Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit 1 (ANO-1). Increases in core damage frequencies for seismic initiated events at Peach Bottom were 25 to 30 percent (depending on whether LLNL or EPRI hazard curves were used). At the ANO-1 site, the corresponding increases in plant risk were 10 percent (for each set of hazard curves). Finally, at Zion, there was essentially no change in the computed core damage frequency when the reduction in shear wall stiffness was included. In addition, an evaluation of deterministic ''design-like'' structural dynamic calculations with and without the shear stiffness reductions was made. Deterministic loads calculated for these two cases typically increased on the order of 10 to 20 percent for the affected structures

  19. Distortional solutions for loaded semi-discretized thin-walled beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    distortional displacement fields which decouple the reduced order differential equations. In this process the cross section is discretized into finite cross-section elements, and the natural distortional modes as well as the related axial variations are found as solutions to the established coupled fourth...... order homogeneous differential equations of GBT.In this paper the non-homogeneous distortional differential equations of GBT are formulated using this novel semi-discretization process. Transforming these non-homogeneous distortional differential equations into the natural eigenmode space by using...... the distortional modal matrix found for the homogeneous system, we get the uncoupled set of differential equations including the distributed loads. This uncoupling is very important in GBT, since the shear stiffness contribution from St. Venant torsional shear stress as well as “Bredt's shear flow” cannot...

  20. Plasma induced material defects and threshold values for thermal loads in high temperature resistant alloys and in refractory metals for first wall application in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Kny, E.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1986-10-01

    Materials for the application in the first wall of fusion reactors of the tokamak type are subjected to pulsed heat fluxes which range from some 0.5 MW m -2 to 10 MW m -2 during normal plasma operation, and which can exceed 1000 MW m -2 during total plasma disruptions. The structural defects and material fatigue caused by this types of plasma wall interaction are investigated and the results are plotted in threshold loading curves. Additionally, the results are, as far as possible, compared with quantitative, theoretical calculations. These procedures allow a semiquantitative evaluation of the applicability of the mentioned metals in the first wall of fusion reactors. (orig.) [de

  1. Contribution to the understanding of the behaviour of reinforced concrete shear walls under seismic loading: contribution of experiment and modeling to the design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ile, N.

    2000-12-01

    This thesis deals with aspects of seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete shear walls (RCSW). Its objective is to introduce a useful modelling approach for addressing the non-linear response of a large variety of RCSW and to identify several aspects in which this numerical approach could be implemented into design applications. Firstly, the characteristics of the behaviour of RCSW under seismic loading, some design principles and different modelling approaches are discussed. As an important lack of knowledge in several fields was identified, it was considered that three types of shear walls deserve more attention: slightly reinforced slender walls; U-shaped walls and heavily reinforced squat shear walls. A local modelling approach is adopted and the material constitutive models are described in details. Secondly, the behaviour of the two mock-up, CAMUS I and II, tested on the shaking-table during the CAMUS programme, which are slightly reinforced and designed according to the French code PS92 is simulated using a 2-D finite element model (FEM). For comparison purposes, the case of the CAMUS III mock-up, designed according to EC8, is considered. We are then dealing with the case of U-shaped walls under dynamic and cyclic loading. The results obtained from numerical simulations, based on a 3-D shell FEM, are compared with those obtained from tests carried out in the frame of the ICONS programme. Finally, the numerical model is applied to the case of heavily reinforced squat shear walls (similar to those used in the nuclear power plant buildings) subjected to shear loading. A 2-D FEM is considered in order to simulate the behaviour of three different walls, which were tested pseudo-dynamically during the SAFE programme. The results from both experimental and numerical studies are compared and discussed. The most important factors affecting the behaviour of RCSW are highlighted. Different examples of possible contributions to design are presented. (author)

  2. Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential cracks under combined internal pressure, axial force and bending moment − Part II: Finite element validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuebing; Lei, Yuebao; Gao, Zengliang

    2014-01-01

    Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential internal/external surface and through-wall defects under combined positive/negative axial force, positive/negative global bending moment and internal pressure have been developed in Part I of this paper. In this Part II, elastic-perfectly plastic 3-D finite element (FE) analyses are performed for selected cases, covering a wide range of geometries and load combinations, to validate the developed limit load solutions. The results show that these limit load solutions can predict the FE data very well for the cases with shallow or deep and short cracks and are conservative. For the cases with very long and deep cracks, the predictions are reasonably accurate and more conservative. -- Highlights: • Elastic-perfectly plastic 3D finite element limiting analyses of cylinders. • Thin/thick-walled cylinders with circumferential surface defects. • Combined loading for pressure, end-force and global bending moment. • Totally 1458 cases analysed and tabulated normalised results provided. • Results used to validate the developed limit load solutions in Part I of this paper

  3. Effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Weon; Na, Man-Gyun; Park, Chi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load. This study evaluated the global deformation behavior and collapse moment of the elbows, which contained various types of local wall-thinning defects at their intrados or extrados, using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The analysis results showed that the global deformation behavior of locally wall-thinned elbows was largely governed by the mode of the bending and the elbow geometry rather than the wall-thinning parameters, except for elbows with considerably large and deep wall thinning that showed plastic instabilities induced by local buckling and plastic collapsing in the thinned area. The reduction in the collapse moment with wall-thinning depth was considerable when local buckling occurred in the thinned areas, whereas the effect of the thinning depth was small when ovalization occurred. The effects of the circumferential thinning angle and thinning length on the collapse moment of elbows were not major for shallow wall-thinning cases. For deeper wall-thinning cases, however, their effects were significant and the dependence of collapse moment on the axial thinning length was governed by the stress type applied to the wall-thinned area. Typically, the reduction in the collapse moment due to local wall thinning was clearer when the thinning defect was located at the intrados rather than the extrados, and it was apparent for elbows with larger bend radius

  4. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution with magnetite loaded multi-wall carbon nanotube: Kinetic, isotherm and mechanism analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, Lunhong; Zhang, Chunying; Liao, Fang; Wang, Yao; Li, Ming; Meng, Lanying; Jiang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► M-MWCNTs were synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal method and used as an efficient adsorbent for removing toxic dye from aqueous solution. ► The adsorption process was characterized by kinetics and isotherm analysis. ► FTIR analysis was employed to investigate the interactions between M-MWCNTs and dye. - Abstract: In this study, we have demonstrated the efficient removal of cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solution with the one-pot solvothermal synthesized magnetite-loaded multi-walled carbon nanotubes (M-MWCNTs). The as-prepared M-MWCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH on the adsorption of MB onto M-MWCNTs were systematically studied. It was shown that the MB adsorption was pH-dependent. Adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. Equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model, yielding maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 48.06 mg g −1 . FTIR analysis suggested that the adsorption mechanism was possibly attributed to the electrostatic attraction and π–π stacking interactions between MWCNTs and MB.

  5. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    and the transmission electron microscope for the base raw material, the creep and creep-fatigue exposed material. For the classification the investigation results were compared to the results of the other projects and no differences could be identified. For the description of the deformation and damage behavior under creep-fatigue loading with finite elements simulations a viscoplastic deformation model with an integrated damage model of Lemaitre was used. The material dependent model parameters were fitted under consideration of the basis characterization test results of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263. All basis characterization tests are simulated with finite elements to classify the parameter fittings. The verification of the fitted material models was carried out by simulations of the complex lab tests. From the comparison of the simulation and test results it is obvious that the deformation and damage behavior can be reproduced with the used material model in a good manner. With finite element simulations of complex thick-walled components (header, formed part) under realistic thermal and mechanic loading conditions could be shown that the viscoplastic material model fitted for the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 is able to predict the locations of the maximum loadings and the lifetime until the first cracks appear. This could be confirmed by dye penetrant testing on the one hand and destructive investigations of two fracture surfaces of the header on the other hand. Additionally the approaches of the European DIN EN 12952-3/4, the American ASME Section III Division 1 Subsection NH, the French RCC-MR RB 3262.12 and the British R5 recommendations Volume 2/3 are used to predict the lifetimes. It can be seen that the approaches of ASME and RCC-MR provide very conservative predictions and that the approaches of R5 and DIN EN 12952 provide non-conservative predictions. These results lead to the conclusion that no approach of the standards/recommendation is suitable for

  6. Evaluation of Extended Wall OSB Sheathing Connection under Combined Uplift and Shear Loading for 24-inch Heel Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kochkin; Andrew DeRenzis; Xiping Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the extended wall structural panel connection in resisting combined uplift and shear forces at the roof-to-wall interface with a focus on a truss heel height of 24 in. to address the expected increases in the depth of attic insulation used in Climate Zones 5 and higher. Five full-size roof-wall assemblies were...

  7. An Applied Method for Predicting the Load-Carrying Capacity in Compression of Thin-Wall Composite Structures with Impact Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, O.; Pavelko, I.; Varickis, S.; Vagele, A.

    2018-03-01

    The necessity for considering both strength criteria and postbuckling effects in calculating the load-carrying capacity in compression of thin-wall composite structures with impact damage is substantiated. An original applied method ensuring solution of these problems with an accuracy sufficient for practical design tasks is developed. The main advantage of the method is its applicability in terms of computing resources and the set of initial data required. The results of application of the method to solution of the problem of compression of fragments of thin-wall honeycomb panel damaged by impacts of various energies are presented. After a comparison of calculation results with experimental data, a working algorithm for calculating the reduction in the load-carrying capacity of a composite object with impact damage is adopted.

  8. Fatigue life assessment of thin-walled welded joints under non-proportional load-time histories by the shear stress rate integral approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolchoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue life tests under constant and variable amplitude loadings were performed on the tube-tube thin-walled welded specimens made of magnesium (AZ31 and AZ61 alloys. The tests included pure axial, pure torsional and combined in-phase and out-of-phase loadings with the load ratio  RR " ", " " 1  . For the tests with variable amplitude loads a Gaußdistributed loading spectrum with S L 4 5 10  cycles was used. Since magnesium welds show a fatigue life reduction under out-of-phase loads, a stress-based method, which takes this behavior into account, is proposed. The out-of-phase loading results in rotating shear stress vectors in the section planes, which are not orthogonal to the surface. This fact is used in order to provide an out-of-phase measure of the load. This measure is computed as an area covered by the shear stress vectors in all planes over a certain time interval, its computation involves the shear stress and the shear stress rate vectors in the individual planes. Fatigue life evaluation for the variable amplitudes loadings is performed using the Palmgren-Miner linear damage accumulation, whereas the total damage of every cycle is split up into two components: the amplitude component and the out-of-phase component. In order to compute the two components a modification of the rainflow counting method, which keeps track of the time intervals, where the cycles occur, must be used. The proposed method also takes into account different slopes of the pure axial and the pure torsional Wöhler-line by means of a Wöhler-line interpolation for combined loadings

  9. Several loadings and stresses of first wall of SiC with metal liner on conceptual design of moving ring reactor 'KARIN-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masahiro; Tachibana, Eizaburo; Watanabe, Kenji; Fujiie, Yoichi.

    1983-01-01

    On conceptual design of moving ring reactor ''KARIN-I'' (Output: 1850 MWe), the first wall of SiC with metal liner is considered by reason that SiC ceramics has specific features of excellent radiation damage resistance in fast neutron spectra and a very low residual radioactivity, and that the thin metal liner has good compatibility with liquid lithium and good vaccum-tight, however, a extent electromagnetic interaction. The electromagnetic force applied on the metal liner and several pressure losses of liquid lithum flow are estimated, and these forces correspond to the fluid mechanical loading on SiC first wall. Thermal loading by neutron flux is calculated on the first wall to obtain temperature distributions along the flow direction and toward the wall thickness. At the outlet of the burning section, the surface temperature of SiC rises to the value of 825 0 C on plasma side and on the metal liner, it rises to the value of 540 0 C. Finally, the stress analysis is performed. The thermal stress is about one order larger than the stress induced by the fluid mechanical loading. At the inlet of the burning section, the average tensile stress of 22.4kg/mm 2 is induced on the outer side of SiC wall, and on the inner side, the average compressive stress of -26.1kg/mm 2 is induced. At the outlet of the burning section, the tensile stress is found to oscillate between 25.5kg/mm 2 and 27.3kg/mm 2 on the outer side of SiC wall by frequency of 1 Hz, and on the inner side, the compressive stress also oscillates between -21.6kg/mm 2 and -29.0kg/mm 2 by the same frequency. These stresses are within the value of fracture stress, (72.5kg/mm 2 ). Difficult residual problems on the first wall are also discussed. (author)

  10. Damage and fatigue crack growth of Eurofer steel first wall mock-up under cyclic heat flux loads. Part 1: Electron beam irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, J.H., E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Höschen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pintsuk, G. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK2, Euratom Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • Clear evidence of microscopic damage and crack formation at the notch root in the early stage of the fatigue loading (50–100 load cycles). • Propagation of fatigue crack at the notch root in the course of subsequent cyclic heat-flux loading followed by saturation after roughly 600 load cycles. • No sign of damage on the notch-free surface up to 800 load cycles. • No obvious effect of the pulse time duration on the crack extension. • Slight change in the grain microstructure due to the formation of sub-grain boundaries by plastic deformation. - Abstract: Recently, the idea of bare steel first wall (FW) is drawing attention, where the surface of the steel is to be directly exposed to high heat flux loads. Hence, the thermo-mechanical impacts on the bare steel FW will be different from those of the tungsten-coated one. There are several previous works on the thermal fatigue tests of bare steel FW made of austenitic steel with regard to the ITER application. In the case of reduced-activation steel Eurofer97, a candidate structural material for the DEMO FW, there is no report on high heat flux tests yet. The aim of the present study is to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of the Eurofer-based bare steel FW under cyclic heat flux loads relevant to DEMO operation. To this end, we conducted a series of electron beam irradiation tests with heat flux load of 3.5 MW/m{sup 2} on water-cooled mock-ups with an engraved thin notch on the surface. It was found that the notch root region exhibited a marked development of damage and fatigue cracks whereas the notch-free surface manifested no sign of crack formation up to 800 load cycles. Results of extensive microscopic investigation are reported.

  11. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaohu [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Li, Xiaojun, E-mail: beerli@vip.sina.com [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  12. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaohu; Li, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  13. Performance of Screen Grid Insulating Concrete Form Walls under Combined In-Plane Vertical and Lateral Loads

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed; Haroun, Medhat; El Maghraby, Yosra; Fahmy, Ezzat; Abou Zeid, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    advantages over traditional methods of wall construction such as reduced construction time, noise reduction, strength enhancement, energy efficiency, and compatibility with any inside or outside surface finish. The focus of this study is the Screen Grid ICF

  14. Validation of nonlinear FEA models of a thin-walled elbow under extreme loading conditions for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watakabe, Tomoyoshi; Wakai, Takashi; Jin, Chuanrong; Usui, Yoshiya; Sakai, Shinkichi; Ooshika, Junji; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of confirming failure modes and safety margin, some studies on the ultimate strength of thin-walled piping components for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) under extreme loading conditions such as large earthquakes have been reported these several years. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been applied in these studies to simulate buckling and yielding with large deformation, whose accuracy is dependent on the element type, the mesh size, the elasto-plastic model and so on. It is important to check the validation of a finite element model for nonlinear analysis especially under extreme loading conditions. This paper presents static and dynamic analyses of a thin-walled elbow with large deformation under large seismic loading, and discusses the validation of the FEA models comparing with experimental results. The finite element analysis models in this study are generated by shell elements for a stainless steel pipe elbow of diameter-to-thickness ratio 59:1 similar to the main pipe of SFRs, which is used for shaking table tests. At first, a static analysis is carried out for an in-plane monotonic bending test, in order to confirm that the shell element is appropriate to the large deformation analysis and the material parameters are proper for the strain level in the experiments. And then, a dynamic in-plane bending test with the maximum acceleration of 11.7G is simulated by the nonlinear FEA with stiffness-proportional damping. The influence of mesh sizes on results is investigated, to determine proper mesh sizes and reduce the computational cost. Finally, comparing the results of the FEM analyses with those of experiments, it is concluded that the appropriately generated FEA models are effective and give accurate results for nonlinear analyses of the thin-walled elbow under large seismic loading. (author)

  15. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Jinzhi; Duan, Yuanfeng; Lu, Xilin; Peng, Jinqing

    2014-01-01

    BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV) modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedd...

  16. Experimental assessment and numerical modeling of the nonlinear behavior of the masonry shear walls under in-plane cyclic loading considering the brickwork-setting effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Karimi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the main purpose is nonlinear analysis of the cyclic behavior of the masonry shear walls including brickwork setting using finite element method. Three different brickwork-settings including running bond style, herringbone style and Zarbi style (herreh style were investigated. To this end, the walls (in dimension of 195×1500×1720 mm were tested in the laboratory and then were simulated using macro modeling method by Abaqus software, and their hysteretic curves was drawn. The concrete damaged plasticity criteria in the Abaqus software is a model used in this research.In this method, the main failure mechanisms of fracture are cracking in tension and crushing in compression. The macro modeling method was used for numerical assessment of the masonry walls. After numerical modeling and drawing hysteretic curves and contrasting them with laboratory results, it was proven that the concrete damaged plasticity model, which is behavioral model for simulating concrete material, can be used for modeling masonry materials under seismic loading. However, this model cannot be used to simulate pinching effect in hysteretic curve drawn from seismic loading. The envelope curve resulted from the numerical analysis of all three brickwork layouts had a good agreement with the results of the laboratory tests, but in Hysteretic curve of Herringbone style and Zarbi style the pinching effect did not match experimental results

  17. Study of failure criterion applicable to elastic-plastic finite element analyses of wall-thinned pipes subjected to multi-axial loading. Case for groove type flaw under combined internal pressure and bending loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kosuke; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a failure criterion applicable to large-strain finite element analysis (FEA) results was studied to predict the limit bending load M_c of the groove shaped wall-thinned pipes, under combined internal pressure and bending load, that experienced cracking. In our previous studies, Meshii and Ito (2012) considered cracking of pipes with groove shaped flaw (small axial length δ_z in Fig. 1) was due to the plastic instability at the wall-thinned section and proposed the Domain Collapse Criterion (DCC). The DCC could predict M_c of cracking for small δ_z by comparing the von Mises stress σ_M_i_s_e_s with the true tensile strength σ_B. Because the discrepancy in prediction of the M_c in the case of cracking was within 15%, it was considered that the predictability was could be improved further. Thus, in this work, attempt was made to improve the accuracy of M_c prediction with a perspective that multi-axial stress state might affect this plastic instability at the wall-thinned section. As a result of examination of the various failure criteria based on multi-axial stress, it was confirmed that the limit bending load of the groove flawed pipe that experienced cracking in experiment (Hereafter, it was expressed 'flawed pipe that experienced cracking') could be predicted within 5% accuracy by applying Hill's plastic instability onset criterion (Hill, 1952) to the outer surface of the crack penetration section. The accuracy of the predicted limit bending load was improved from DCC's within 15% to within 5%. (author)

  18. Sensitivity of Variables with Time for Degraded RC Shear Wall with Low Steel Ratio under Seismic Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Hee; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil

    2011-01-01

    Various factors lead to the degradation of reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall over time. The steel section loss, concrete spalling and strength of material have been considered for the structural analysis of degraded shear wall. When all variables with respect to degradation are considered for probabilistic evaluation of degraded shear wall, many of time and effort were demanded. Therefore, it is required to define important variables related to structural behavior for effectively conducting probabilistic seismic analysis of structures with age-related degradation. In this study, variables were defined by applying the function of time to consider degradation with time. Importance of variables with time on the seismic response was investigated by conducting sensitivity analysis

  19. Simulation and analysis of collapsing vapor-bubble clusters with special emphasis on potentially erosive impact loads at walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloblina, Daria; Schmidt, Steffen J.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2018-06-01

    Cavitation is a process where a liquid evaporates due to a pressure drop and re-condenses violently. Noise, material erosion and altered system dynamics characterize for such a process for which shock waves, rarefaction waves and vapor generation are typical phenomena. The current paper presents novel results for collapsing vapour-bubble clusters in a liquid environment close to a wall obtained by computational fluid mechanics (CFD) simulations. The driving pressure initially is 10 MPa in the liquid. Computations are carried out by using a fully compressible single-fluid flow model in combination with a conservative finite volume method (FVM). The investigated bubble clusters (referred to as "clouds") differ by their initial vapor volume fractions, initial stand-off distances to the wall and by initial bubble radii. The effects of collapse focusing due to bubble-bubble interaction are analysed by investigating the intensities and positions of individual bubble collapses, as well as by the resulting shock-induced pressure field at the wall. Stronger interaction of the bubbles leads to an intensification of the collapse strength for individual bubbles, collapse focusing towards the center of the cloud and enhanced re-evaporation. The obtained results reveal collapse features which are common for all cases, as well as case-specific differences during collapse-rebound cycles. Simultaneous measurements of maximum pressures at the wall and within the flow field and of the vapor volume evolution show that not only the primary collapse but also subsequent collapses are potentially relevant for erosion.

  20. The influence of engine speed and load on the heat transfer between gases and in-cylinder walls at fired and motored conditions of an IDI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanli, Ali; Ozsezen, Ahmet N.; Kilicaslan, Ibrahim; Canakci, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the heat transfer characteristics between gases and in-cylinder walls at fired and motored conditions in a diesel engine were investigated by using engine data obtained experimentally. For this investigation, a four-cylinder, indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine was tested under different engine speeds and loads. The heat transfer coefficient was calculated by using Woschni expression correlated for the IDI diesel engines, and also using Annand and Hohenberg expressions. The temperature of in-cylinder gases were determined from a basic model based on the first law of thermodynamics after measuring in-cylinder pressure experimentally. The results show that the heat transfer characteristics of the IDI diesel engine strongly depend on the engine speed and load as a function of crank angle at fired and motored conditions

  1. The influence of engine speed and load on the heat transfer between gases and in-cylinder walls at fired and motored conditions of an IDI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanli, Ali; Kilicaslan, Ibrahim [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Ozsezen, Ahmet N.; Canakci, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the heat transfer characteristics between gases and in-cylinder walls at fired and motored conditions in a diesel engine were investigated by using engine data obtained experimentally. For this investigation, a four-cylinder, indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine was tested under different engine speeds and loads. The heat transfer coefficient was calculated by using Woschni expression correlated for the IDI diesel engines, and also using Annand and Hohenberg expressions. The temperature of in-cylinder gases were determined from a basic model based on the first law of thermodynamics after measuring in-cylinder pressure experimentally. The results show that the heat transfer characteristics of the IDI diesel engine strongly depend on the engine speed and load as a function of crank angle at fired and motored conditions. (author)

  2. Thermo-sensitive liposomes loaded with doxorubicin and lysine modified single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor-targeting drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiali; Xie, Yingxia; Zhang, Yingjie; Huang, Heqing; Huang, Shengnan; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Zhi; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the thermo-sensitive liposomes loaded with doxorubicin and lysine-modified single-walled carbon nanotube drug delivery system, which was designed to enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the side effects of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method, the mean particle size was 232.0 ± 5.6 nm, and drug entrapment efficiency was 86.5 ± 3.7%. The drug release test showed that doxorubicin released more quickly at 42℃ than at 37℃. Compared with free doxorubicin, doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes could efficiently cross the cell membranes and afford higher anti-tumor efficacy on the human hepatic carcinoma cell line (SMMC-7721) cells in vitro. For in vivo experiments, the relative tumor volumes of the sarcomaia 180-bearing mice in thermo-sensitive liposomes group and doxorubicin group were significantly smaller than those of N.S. group. Meanwhile, the combination of near-infrared laser irradiation at 808 nm significantly enhanced the tumor growth inhibition both on SMMC-7721 cells and the sarcomaia 180-bearing mice. The quality of life such as body weight, mental state, food and water intake of sarcomaia 180 tumor-bearing mice treated with doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes were much higher than those treated with doxorubicin. In conclusion, doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes combined with near-infrared laser irradiation at 808 nm may potentially provide viable clinical strategies for targeting delivery of anti-cancer drugs. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Experimental evaluation of ability of Relap5, Drako, Flowmaster2TM and program using unsteady wall friction model to calculate water hammer loadings on pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkiewicz, Jerzy; Adamowski, Adam; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical loadings on pipe systems caused by water hammer (hydraulic transients) belong to the most important and most difficult to calculate design loadings in nuclear power plants. The most common procedure in Sweden is to calculate the water hammer loadings on pipe segments, according to the classical one-dimensional (1D) theory of liquid transient flow in a pipeline, and then transfer the results to strength analyses of pipeline structure. This procedure assumes that there is quasi-steady respond of the pipeline structure to pressure surges-no dynamic interaction between the fluid and the pipeline construction. The hydraulic loadings are calculated with 1D so-called 'network' programs. Commonly used in Sweden are Relap5, Drako and Flowmaster2-all using quasi-steady wall friction model. As a third party accredited inspection body Inspecta Nuclear AB reviews calculations of water hammer loadings. The presented work shall be seen as an attempt to illustrate ability of Relap5, Flowmaster2 and Drako programs to calculate the water hammer loadings. A special attention was paid to using of Relap5 for calculation of water hammer pressure surges and forces (including some aspects of influence of Courant number on the calculation results) and also the importance of considering the dynamic (or unsteady) friction models. The calculations are compared with experimental results. The experiments have been conducted at a test rig designed and constructed at the Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IMP PAN) in Gdansk, Poland. The analyses show quite small differences between pressures and forces calculated with Relap5, Flowmaster2 and Drako (the differences regard mainly damping of pressure waves). The comparison of calculated and measured pressures and also a force acting on a pre-defined pipe segment shows significant differences. It is shown that the differences can be reduced by using unsteady friction models in calculations

  4. Influence of a boatlanding and j-tubes on wave loads and wall thickness of the monopile support structure design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, M.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Support structures for offshore wind turbines play a significant part in the cost of offshore wind energy. With current access systems a conventional boat landing is not necessary. Secondary steel, such as a boat landing and J-tube, influences wave loads. A way of taking the secondary steel items

  5. Influence of stochastic geometric imperfections on the load-carrying behaviour of thin-walled structures using constrained random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, S.; Fina, M.; Wagner, W.

    2018-04-01

    Since structural engineering requires highly developed and optimized structures, the thickness dependency is one of the most controversially debated topics. This paper deals with stability analysis of lightweight thin structures combined with arbitrary geometrical imperfections. Generally known design guidelines only consider imperfections for simple shapes and loading, whereas for complex structures the lower-bound design philosophy still holds. Herein, uncertainties are considered with an empirical knockdown factor representing a lower bound of existing measurements. To fully understand and predict expected bearable loads, numerical investigations are essential, including geometrical imperfections. These are implemented into a stand-alone program code with a stochastic approach to compute random fields as geometric imperfections that are applied to nodes of the finite element mesh of selected structural examples. The stochastic approach uses the Karhunen-Loève expansion for the random field discretization. For this approach, the so-called correlation length l_c controls the random field in a powerful way. This parameter has a major influence on the buckling shape, and also on the stability load. First, the impact of the correlation length is studied for simple structures. Second, since most structures for engineering devices are more complex and combined structures, these are intensively discussed with the focus on constrained random fields for e.g. flange-web-intersections. Specific constraints for those random fields are pointed out with regard to the finite element model. Further, geometrical imperfections vanish where the structure is supported.

  6. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, char burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200-MW{sub e} lignite-fired boiler at different loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhengqi; Jing, Jianping; Liu, Guangkui; Chen, Zhichao; Liu, Chunlong [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-04-15

    We measured various operational parameters of a 200-MW{sub e}, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler under different loads. The parameters measured were gas temperature, gas species concentration, char burnout, component release rates (C, H and N), furnace temperature, heat flux, and boiler efficiency. Cold air experiments of a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. A double swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones that start in the secondary air region of the burner. With increasing secondary air flow, the air flow axial velocity increases, the maximum values for the radial velocity, tangential velocity, and turbulence intensity all increase, and there are slight increases in the air flow swirl intensity and the recirculation zone size. With increasing load gas, the temperature and CO concentration in the central region of burner decrease, while O{sub 2} concentration, NO{sub x} concentration, char burnout, and component release rates of C, H, and N increase. Pulverized-coal ignites farther into the burner, in the secondary air region. Gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, NO{sub x} concentration, char burnout and component release rates of C, H, and N all increase. Furthermore, CO concentration varies slightly and pulverized-coal ignites closer. In the side wall region, gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NO{sub x} concentration all increase, but CO concentration varies only slightly. In the bottom row burner region the furnace temperature and heat flux increase appreciably, but the increase become more obvious in the middle and top row burner regions and in the burnout region. Compared with a 120-MW{sub e} load, the mean NO{sub x} emission at the air preheater exits for 190-MW{sub e} load increases from 589.5 mg/m{sup 3} (O{sub 2} = 6%) to 794.6 mg/m{sup 3} (O{sub 2} = 6%), and the boiler efficiency increases from 90.73% to 92.45%. (author)

  7. Homogenized rigid body and spring-mass (HRBSM) model for the pushover analysis of out-of-plane loaded unreinforced and FRP reinforced walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to the discussion of a series of unreinforced and FRP retrofitted panels analyzed adopting the Rigid Body and Spring-Mass (HRBSM) model developed by the authors. To this scope, a total of four out of plane loaded masonry walls tested up to failure are considered. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are conducted replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage by means of which out of plane mechanisms are allowed. FRP retrofitting is modeled adopting two noded truss elements whose mechanical properties are selected in order to describe possible debonding phenomenon or tensile rupture of the strengthening. The outcome provided numerically are compared to the experimental results showing a satisfactory agreement in terms of global pressure-deflection curves and failure mechanisms.

  8. Triply coupled vibrational band gap in a periodic and nonsymmetrical axially loaded thin-walled Bernoulli-Euler beam including the warping effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dianlong; Fang Jianyu; Cai Li; Han Xiaoyun; Wen Jihong

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of triply coupled vibrations in a periodic, nonsymmetrical and axially loaded thin-walled Bernoulli-Euler beam composed of two kinds of materials is investigated with the transfer matrix method. The cross-section of the beam lacks symmetrical axes, and bending vibrations in the two perpendicular directions are coupled with torsional vibrations. Furthermore, the effect of warping stiffness is included. The band structures of the periodic beam, both including and excluding the warping effect, are obtained. The frequency response function of the finite periodic beam is simulated with the finite element method. These simulations show large vibration-based attenuation in the frequency range of the gap, as expected. By comparing the band structure of the beam with plane wave expansion method calculations that are available in the literature, one finds that including the warping effect leads to a more accurate simulation. The effects of warping stiffness and axial force on the band structure are also discussed.

  9. Enhancement of the thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane/polyvinyl chloride blend by loading single walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Hezma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of pure blend and nanocomposites based on polyurethane (PU and polyvinyl chloride (PVC doped with low different content of single walled-carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were studied. The nanocomposites at different concentration were prepared via casting technique. The interaction between PU/PVC and CNTs were examined via FT-IR studies. The changes in the structures of the nanocomposites were examined using X- Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the results indicated that the amorphous domains of nanocomposites increased with increasing SWCNTs content. Transmission electron microscope (TEM observation indicated that SWCNTs surface was wrapped with the polymer with the thermal properties of nanocomposites improved. The mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites was evaluated as a function of SWCNTs content. The main enhancement in tensile properties was observed, e.g., the tensile strength and elastic modulus increased compared with the pure blend, which may be attributed to the interaction and adhesion between CNTs and the polymer matrices due to the hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups (C=O of polymer blend chains and carboxylic acid (COOH groups of CNTs.

  10. Damage and fatigue crack growth of Eurofer steel first wall mock-up under cyclic heat flux loads. Part 2: Finite element analysis of damage evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jeong-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface heat flux load of 3.5 MW/m 2 produced substantial stresses and inelastic strains in the heat-loaded surface region, especially at the notch root. • The notch root exhibited a typical notch effect such as stress concentration and localized inelastic yield leading to a preferred damage development. • The predicted damage evolution feature agrees well with the experimental observation. • The smooth surface also experiences considerable stresses and inelastic strains. However, the stress intensity and the amount of inelastic deformation are not high enough to cause any serious damage. • The level of maximum inelastic strain is higher at the notch root than at the smooth surface. On the other hand, the amplitude of inelastic strain variation is comparable at both positions. • The amount of inelastic deformation is significantly affected by the length of pulse duration time indicating the important role of creep. - Abstract: In the preceding companion article (part 1), the experimental results of the high-heat-flux (3.5 MW/m 2 ) fatigue tests of a Eurofer bare steel first wall mock-up was presented. The aim was to investigate the damage evolution and crack initiation feature. The mock-up used there was a simplified model having only basic and generic structural feature of an actively cooled steel FW component for DEMO reactor. In that study, it was found that microscopic damage was formed at the notch root already in the early stage of the fatigue loading. On the contrary, the heat-loaded smooth surface exhibited no damage up to 800 load cycles. In this paper, the high-heat-flux fatigue behavior is investigated with a finite element analysis to provide a theoretical interpretation. The thermal fatigue test was simulated using the coupled damage-viscoplastic constitutive model developed by Aktaa. The stresses, inelastic deformation and damage evolution at the notch groove and at the smooth surface are compared. The different damage

  11. Crack opening displacement of circumferential through-wall cracked cylinders subjected to tension and in-plane bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon-Sik

    2003-01-01

    This study is concerned with crack opening displacements (CODs) of cylinders with a circumferential through-crack which is subjected to tension and in-plane bending loads. Most studies about crack opening behavior have performed on membrane and global bending stresses. Moreover, they cannot be valid for large-scale structures. For simplicity on evaluation for structural integrity, crack opening displacement has been often calculated by plate or pipe model considering almost stresses as a membrane component. However, it is important to investigate ones close to real crack opening behaviors under stress states for reliability on evaluation. The results must be directly related to evaluate leakage detection in reactor vessel and the primary piping system of FBR structures. From that purpose, a series of FEM analyses were performed, and hence the characteristics of COD under an in-plane bending stress were compared with those under a membrane stress. In addition, the plate model was indicated to be unreasonable for application on large-scale pipes by comparing the plate model with the pipe model. The results of this study are expected to be valid for leakage evaluation of high temperature structures especially. (author)

  12. Analysis of thin-walled cylindrical composite shell structures subject to axial and bending loads: Concept development, analytical modeling and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadev, Sthanu

    Continued research and development efforts devoted in recent years have generated novel avenues towards the advancement of efficient and effective, slender laminated fiber-reinforced composite members. Numerous studies have focused on the modeling and response characterization of composite structures with particular relevance to thin-walled cylindrical composite shells. This class of shell configurations is being actively explored to fully determine their mechanical efficacy as primary aerospace structural members. The proposed research is targeted towards formulating a composite shell theory based prognosis methodology that entails an elaborate analysis and investigation of thin-walled cylindrical shell type laminated composite configurations that are highly desirable in increasing number of mechanical and aerospace applications. The prime motivation to adopt this theory arises from its superior ability to generate simple yet viable closed-form analytical solution procedure to numerous geometrically intense, inherent curvature possessing composite structures. This analytical evaluative routine offers to acquire a first-hand insight on the primary mechanical characteristics that essentially govern the behavior of slender composite shells under typical static loading conditions. Current work exposes the robustness of this mathematical framework via demonstrating its potential towards the prediction of structural properties such as axial stiffness and bending stiffness respectively. Longitudinal ply-stress computations are investigated upon deriving the global stiffness matrix model for composite cylindrical tubes with circular cross-sections. Additionally, this work employs a finite element based numerical technique to substantiate the analytical results reported for cylindrically shaped circular composite tubes. Furthermore, this concept development is extended to the study of thin-walled, open cross-sectioned, curved laminated shells that are geometrically

  13. PDLLA honeycomb-like scaffolds with a high loading of superhydrophilic graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotubes promote osteoblast in vitro functions and guided in vivo bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Edmundo; Vasconcellos, Luana Marotta Reis de; Rodrigues, Bruno V M; Dos Santos, Danilo Martins; Campana-Filho, Sergio P; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Webster, Thomas J; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we developed honeycomb-like scaffolds by combining poly (d, l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) with a high amount of graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotube oxides (MWCNTO-GO, 50% w/w). From pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) powders, we produced MWCNTO-GO via oxygen plasma etching (OPE), which promoted their exfoliation and oxidation. Initially, we evaluated PDLLA and PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds for tensile strength tests, cell adhesion and cell viability (with osteoblast-like MG-63 cells), alkaline phosphatase (ALP, a marker of osteoblast differentiation) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In vivo tests were carried out using PDLLA and PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds as fillers for critical defects in the tibia of rats. MWCNTO-GO loading was responsible for decreasing the tensile strength and elongation-at-break of PDLLA scaffolds, although the high mechanical performance observed (~600MPa) assures their application in bone tissue regeneration. In vitro results showed that the scaffolds were not cytotoxic and allowed for osteoblast-like cell interactions and the formation of mineralized matrix nodules. Furthermore, MG-63 cells grown on PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO significantly enhanced osteoblast ALP activity compared to controls (cells alone), while the PDLLA group showed similar ALP activity when compared to controls and PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO. Most impressively, in vivo tests suggested that compared to PDLLA scaffolds, PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO had a superior influence on bone cell activity, promoting greater new bone formation. In summary, the results of this study highlighted that this novel scaffold (MWCNTO-GO, 50% w/w) is a promising alternative for bone tissue regeneration and, thus, should be further studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High loading of graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes into PDLLA: A route towards the design of osteoconductive, bactericidal and non-immunogenic 3D porous scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanin, Hudson; Rodrigues, Bruno Vinícius Manzolli; Ribeiro Neto, Wilson Alves; Bretas, Rosario Elida Suman; Da-Silva, Newton Soares; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Oliveira Lobo, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared a novel 3D porous biomaterial combining poly (DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes oxides (MWCNTO-GO) composite. PDLLA as control and a high loading of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO (50/50 w/w) bioscaffolds were prepared and functionalized. MWCNTs were exfoliated to form MWCNTO-GO by oxygen plasma etching. The later was also applied to enhance the scaffolds wettability, attaching oxygen-containing groups on their surfaces. This approach produced a porous architecture observed by scanning electron microscopy and semi-quantified by electrochemical analysis. The later also indicated a notable increase on the conductivity of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffold compared to MWCNTO-GO free PDLLA (about 5 orders of magnitudes at low frequencies). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. The PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds had significant cellular adhesion, did not present cytotoxicity effect, besides reduced bactericidal proliferation and produced mineralized tissues in SBF media. The metallic MWCNTO-GO powder held together by PDLLA polymer opens a whole new branch of applications, including bioelectroanalyses, drug delivery systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We produced a novel 3D porous material from PDLLA, graphene oxide and MWCNT oxide. • MWCNTO-GO loading (50/50 w/w) increased notably the conductivity of PDLLA scaffold. • MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds did not present cytotoxicity effect. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds presented bioactivity properties.

  15. High loading of graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes into PDLLA: A route towards the design of osteoconductive, bactericidal and non-immunogenic 3D porous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Hudson [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Laboratory of Energy Storage & Supply - ES& S, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, CEP: 12.244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno Vinícius Manzolli [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro Neto, Wilson Alves; Bretas, Rosario Elida Suman [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 – SP-310, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Da-Silva, Newton Soares [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Tissue, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, CEP: 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, Fernanda Roberta [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira Lobo, Anderson, E-mail: aolobo@pq.cnpq.br [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    We have prepared a novel 3D porous biomaterial combining poly (DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes oxides (MWCNTO-GO) composite. PDLLA as control and a high loading of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO (50/50 w/w) bioscaffolds were prepared and functionalized. MWCNTs were exfoliated to form MWCNTO-GO by oxygen plasma etching. The later was also applied to enhance the scaffolds wettability, attaching oxygen-containing groups on their surfaces. This approach produced a porous architecture observed by scanning electron microscopy and semi-quantified by electrochemical analysis. The later also indicated a notable increase on the conductivity of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffold compared to MWCNTO-GO free PDLLA (about 5 orders of magnitudes at low frequencies). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. The PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds had significant cellular adhesion, did not present cytotoxicity effect, besides reduced bactericidal proliferation and produced mineralized tissues in SBF media. The metallic MWCNTO-GO powder held together by PDLLA polymer opens a whole new branch of applications, including bioelectroanalyses, drug delivery systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We produced a novel 3D porous material from PDLLA, graphene oxide and MWCNT oxide. • MWCNTO-GO loading (50/50 w/w) increased notably the conductivity of PDLLA scaffold. • MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds did not present cytotoxicity effect. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds presented bioactivity properties.

  16. Cylinder wall insulation effects on the first- and second-law balances of a turbocharged diesel engine operating under transient load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giakoumis, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine. In an LHR engine, an increased level of temperatures inside the cylinder is achieved, resulting from the insulation applied to the walls. The steady-state, LHR engine operation has been studied so far by applying either first- or second-law balances. Only a few works, however, have treated this subject during the very important transient operation with the results limited to the engine speed response. To this aim an experimentally validated transient diesel engine simulation code has been expanded so as to include the second-law balance. Two common insulators for the engine in hand, i.e. silicon nitride and plasma spray zirconia are studied and their effect is compared to the nominal non-insulated operation from the first- and second-law perspective. It is revealed that after a step increase in load, the second-law values unlike the first-law ones are heavily impacted by the insulation scheme applied. Combustion and total engine irreversibilities decrease significantly (up to 23% for the cases examined) with increasing insulation. Unfortunately, this decrease is not transformed into an increase in the mechanical work but rather increases the potential for extra work recovery owing to the higher availability content of the exhaust gas

  17. Investigation of Mild Steel Thin-Wall Tubes in Unfilled and Foam-Filled Triangle, Square, and Hexagonal Cross Sections Under Compression Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Dipen Kumar; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.; Das, S.

    2018-02-01

    This study has examined proposed structures with mild steel-reinforced LM30 aluminum (Al) alloy having diversely unfilled and 10 wt.% SiCp composite foam-filled tubes for improving axial compression performance. This class of material has novel physical, mechanical, and electrical properties along with low density. In the present experiment, Al alloy foams were prepared by the melt route technique using metal hydride powder as a foaming agent. Crash energy phenomena for diverse unfilled and foam-filled in mild steel thin-wall tubes (triangular, square and hexagonal) were studied as well. Compression deformation investigation was conducted at strain rates of 0.001-0.1/s for evaluating specific energy absorption (SEA) under axial loading conditions. The results were examined to measure plateau stress, maximum densification strain, and deformation mechanism of the materials. Specific energy absorption and total energy absorption capacities of the unfilled and filled sections were determined from the compressive stress-strain curves, which were then compared with each other.

  18. Photothermal-triggered control of sub-cellular drug accumulation using doxorubicin-loaded single-walled carbon nanotubes for the effective killing of human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunok; Jin, Jun-O.; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are often the subject of investigation as effective photothermal therapy (PTT) agents owing to their unique strong optical absorption. Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded SWNTs (SWNTs-DOX) can be used as an efficient therapeutic agent for combined near infrared (NIR) cancer photothermal and chemotherapy. However, SWNTs-DOX-mediated induction of cancer cell death has not been fully investigated, particularly the reaction of DOX inside cancer cells by PTT. In this study, we examined how the SWNTs-DOX promoted effective MDA-MB-231 cell death compared to DOX and PTT alone. We successfully synthesized the SWNTs-DOX. The SWNTs-DOX exhibited a slow DOX release, which was accelerated by NIR irradiation. Furthermore, DOX released from the SWNTs-DOX accumulated inside the cells at high concentration and effectively localized into the MDA-MB-231 cell nucleus. A combination of SWNTs-DOX and PTT promoted an effective MDA-MB-231 cell death by mitochondrial disruption and ROS generation. Thus, SWNTs-DOX can be utilized as an excellent anticancer agent for early breast cancer treatment.

  19. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions; Lebensdauerbewertung dickwandiger Bauteile aus Nickelbasislegierungen unter betriebsnahen Beanspruchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-11-06

    and the transmission electron microscope for the base raw material, the creep and creep-fatigue exposed material. For the classification the investigation results were compared to the results of the other projects and no differences could be identified. For the description of the deformation and damage behavior under creep-fatigue loading with finite elements simulations a viscoplastic deformation model with an integrated damage model of Lemaitre was used. The material dependent model parameters were fitted under consideration of the basis characterization test results of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263. All basis characterization tests are simulated with finite elements to classify the parameter fittings. The verification of the fitted material models was carried out by simulations of the complex lab tests. From the comparison of the simulation and test results it is obvious that the deformation and damage behavior can be reproduced with the used material model in a good manner. With finite element simulations of complex thick-walled components (header, formed part) under realistic thermal and mechanic loading conditions could be shown that the viscoplastic material model fitted for the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 is able to predict the locations of the maximum loadings and the lifetime until the first cracks appear. This could be confirmed by dye penetrant testing on the one hand and destructive investigations of two fracture surfaces of the header on the other hand. Additionally the approaches of the European DIN EN 12952-3/4, the American ASME Section III Division 1 Subsection NH, the French RCC-MR RB 3262.12 and the British R5 recommendations Volume 2/3 are used to predict the lifetimes. It can be seen that the approaches of ASME and RCC-MR provide very conservative predictions and that the approaches of R5 and DIN EN 12952 provide non-conservative predictions. These results lead to the conclusion that no approach of the standards/recommendation is suitable for

  20. Docetaxel-loaded single-wall carbon nanohorns using anti-VEGF antibody as a targeting agent: characterization, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Nannan; Shu, Chang; Li, Ruixin; Ma, Xiaona; Li, Xuequan; Wang, Ran; Zhong, Wenying

    2015-05-01

    A novel antitumor drug delivery system, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded oxidized single-wall carbon nanohorns (oxSWNHs) with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a target agent was constructed. DTX was absorbed onto the oxSWNHs via the physical adsorption or π-π interaction. DSPE-PEG-COOH was non-covalently wrapped to the hydrophobic surface of oxSWNHs to improve its water solubility and biocompatibility. The mAb was bonded to the PEG through amide bond. The DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb (DDS) exhibited suitable particle size (191.2 ± 2.1 nm), good particle size distribution (PDI: 0.196), and negative zeta potential (-24.3 ± 0.85 mV). These features enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and reduced the drug molecule uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. The in vitro drug release followed non-Fickian diffusion ( n = 0.6857, R = 0.9924) with the cumulative release of DTX 59 ± 1.35 % at 72 h. Compared with free DTX, the DDS enhanced the cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell lines in vitro efficiently (IC50: 2.96 ± 0.6 μg/ml), and provided higher antitumor efficacy (TGI: 69.88 %) in vivo. The histological analysis indicated that the DDS had no significant side effect. Therefore, the new DDS is promising to attain higher pharmaceutical efficacy and lower side effects than free DTX for cancer therapy. The research demonstrated that DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb might have promising biomedical applications for future cancer therapy.

  1. Docetaxel-loaded single-wall carbon nanohorns using anti-VEGF antibody as a targeting agent: characterization, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Nannan; Shu, Chang; Li, Ruixin; Ma, Xiaona; Li, Xuequan; Wang, Ran; Zhong, Wenying, E-mail: wyzhong@cpu.edu.cn [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China)

    2015-05-15

    A novel antitumor drug delivery system, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded oxidized single-wall carbon nanohorns (oxSWNHs) with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a target agent was constructed. DTX was absorbed onto the oxSWNHs via the physical adsorption or π–π interaction. DSPE–PEG–COOH was non-covalently wrapped to the hydrophobic surface of oxSWNHs to improve its water solubility and biocompatibility. The mAb was bonded to the PEG through amide bond. The DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb (DDS) exhibited suitable particle size (191.2 ± 2.1 nm), good particle size distribution (PDI: 0.196), and negative zeta potential (−24.3 ± 0.85 mV). These features enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and reduced the drug molecule uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. The in vitro drug release followed non-Fickian diffusion (n = 0.6857, R = 0.9924) with the cumulative release of DTX 59 ± 1.35 % at 72 h. Compared with free DTX, the DDS enhanced the cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell lines in vitro efficiently (IC{sub 50}: 2.96 ± 0.6 μg/ml), and provided higher antitumor efficacy (TGI: 69.88 %) in vivo. The histological analysis indicated that the DDS had no significant side effect. Therefore, the new DDS is promising to attain higher pharmaceutical efficacy and lower side effects than free DTX for cancer therapy. The research demonstrated that DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb might have promising biomedical applications for future cancer therapy.

  2. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  3. First wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Junji.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite and C/C composite are used recently for the first wall of a thermonuclear device since materials with small atom number have great impurity allowable capacity for plasmas. Among them, those materials having high thermal conduction are generally anisotropic and have an upper limit for the thickness upon production. Then, anisotropic materials are used for a heat receiving plate, such that the surfaces of the heat receiving plate on the side of lower heat conductivity are brought into contact with each other, and the side of higher thermal conductivity is arranged in parallel with small radius direction and the toroidal direction of the thermonuclear device. As a result, the incident heat on an edge portion can be transferred rapidly to the heat receiving plate, which can suppress the temperature elevation at the surface to thereby reduce the amount of abrasion. Since the heat expansion coefficient of the anisotropic materials is great in the direction of the lower heat conductivity and small in the direction of the higher heat conductivity, the gradient of a thermal load distribution in the direction of the higher heat expansion coefficient is small, and occurrence of thermal stresses due to temperature difference is reduced, to improve the reliability. (N.H.)

  4. Optimization of wall thickness and lay-up for the shell-like composite structure loaded by non-uniform pressure field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, S.; Zhilyaev, I.; Oganesyan, P.; Axenov, V.

    2017-01-01

    The glass/carbon fiber composites are widely used in the design of various aircraft and rotorcraft components such as fairings and cowlings, which have predominantly a shell-like geometry and are made of quasi-isotropic laminates. The main requirements to such the composite parts are the specified mechanical stiffness to withstand the non-uniform air pressure at the different flight conditions and reduce a level of noise caused by the airflow-induced vibrations at the constrained weight of the part. The main objective of present study is the optimization of wall thickness and lay-up of composite shell-like cowling. The present approach assumes conversion of the CAD model of the cowling surface to finite element (FE) representation, then its wind tunnel testing simulation at the different orientation of airflow to find the most stressed mode of flight. Numerical solutions of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations supplemented by k-w turbulence model provide the spatial distributions of air pressure applied to the shell surface. At the formulation of optimization problem the global strain energy calculated within the optimized shell was assumed as the objective. A wall thickness of the shell had to change over its surface to minimize the objective at the constrained weight. We used a parameterization of the problem that assumes an initiation of auxiliary sphere with varied radius and coordinates of the center, which were the design variables. Curve that formed by the intersection of the shell with sphere defined boundary of area, which should be reinforced by local thickening the shell wall. To eliminate a local stress concentration this increment was defined as the smooth function defined on the shell surface. As a result of structural optimization we obtained the thickness of shell's wall distribution, which then was used to design the draping and lay-up of composite prepreg layers. The global strain energy in the optimized cowling was reduced in2

  5. In-pile testing of ITER first wall mock-ups at relevant thermal loading conditions in the LVR-15 nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kysela, Jan [Research Centre Rez, Hlavni 130, 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Entler, Slavomir, E-mail: slavomir.entler@cvrez.cz [Research Centre Rez, Hlavni 130, 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Vsolak, Rudolf; Klabik, Tomas [Research Centre Rez, Hlavni 130, 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Zlamal, Ondrej [CEZ, Duhova 2/1444, 140 53 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Bellin, Boris; Zacchia, Francesco [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Irradiated thermal fatigue testing of the ITER primary first wall mock-ups. • Cyclic heat flux of 0.5 MW/m{sup 2} in the neutron field of the nuclear reactor core. • 17,040 thermal cycles. • Radiation damage in the range of 0.41–1.17 dpa depending on the material. - Abstract: The TW3 in-pile rig enabled the thermal fatigue testing of ITER primary first wall mock-ups in the core of the nuclear reactor. This experiment investigated the neutron irradiation influence on the design performance under high heat flux testing. A thermal flux of 0.5 MW/m{sup 2} in the neutron field of the core of the LVR-15 nuclear reactor was applied. Within the scope of the tests with simultaneous neutron irradiation, the TW3 rig reached a record of 17,040 thermal cycles with the radiation damage in the range of 0.41–1.17 dpa depending on the material. Even after a high number of thermal cycles, while being irradiated by neutrons, no damage of the tested mock-ups was visually observed. Further testing and analysis will follow in the Forschungszentrum Juelich.

  6. Electrocatalytic glucose oxidation via hybrid nanomaterial catalyst of multi-wall TiO2 nanotubes supported Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles: Optimization of the loading level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yingying; Liu, Yicheng; Yang, Haihong; Li, Benqiang; An, Yarui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-wall TiO 2 nanotube supported Ni(OH) 2 nanoparticles, Ni(OH) 2 /TNTs, was prepared and investigated as anode electro-catalysts for glucose oxidation. • Ni(OH) 2 -24.2%/TNTs obtains the best catalytic activity. • Compared with Ni(OH) 2, the current density of Ni(OH) 2 -24.2%/TNTs increased 5.9 times in 0.1 M NaOH solution. - Abstract: The novel hybrid nanomaterial catalyst of multi-wall TiO 2 nanotube supported Ni(OH) 2 nanoparticles (Ni(OH) 2 /TNTs) was prepared through hydrothermal method and investigated as anode electro-catalysts for glucose oxidation. The nanostructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption (BET-BJH). The electrochemical performance was measured by a range of electrochemical measurements. Compared with Ni(OH) 2 , the current density of Ni(OH) 2 /TNTs modified GC electrode increased 5.9 times in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The results indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles exhibited good electro-catalytic activity and stability for glucose oxidation. Meanwhile, the hybrid nanomaterial of Ni(OH) 2 /TNTs may be a potential candidate catalyst for direct glucose fuel cell

  7. Experimental study of heat transfer to the N2O4 dissociating coolant in the circular tube with variable heat load on the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnya, V.N.; Kolykhan, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the experimental study of heat transfer to N 2 O 4 dissociating coolant with a sinusoidal law of heat flux density variation by length are presented. The heat transfer process has been studied at subcritical and supercritical parameters and different substance aggregation states. Maximum error of heat transfer coefficient determination don't exceed 15%. The esimation of the effect of variable heat load on heat transfer has been condUcted by comparison of experimental data on the Nusselt number change along the tube length with that calculated using conventional relations for the conditions of uniform heat release. It is shown that heat transfer is enhanced in the region of heat load qsub(c) growth while its intensity is decreased in the region of heat flux reduction. The quantitative effect of qsub(c) variation on heat transfer can be regarded for by the method of superpositions

  8. Microcapsules loaded with the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei BGP-1 produced by co-extrusion technology using alginate/shellac as wall material: Characterization and evaluation of drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marluci P; Tulini, Fabricio L; Ribas, Marcela M; Penning, Manfred; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S; Poncelet, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Microcapsules containing Lactobacillus paracasei BGP-1 were produced by co-extrusion technology using alginate and alginate-shellac blend as wall materials. Sunflower oil and coconut fat were used as vehicles to incorporate BGP-1 into the microcapsules. The microcapsules were evaluated with regard the particle size, morphology, water activity and survival of probiotics after 60days of storage at room temperature. Fluidized bed and lyophilization were used to dry the microcapsules and the effect of these processes on probiotic viability was also evaluated. Next, dried microcapsules were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal fluids to verify the survival of BGP-1. Microcapsules dried by fluidized bed had spherical shape and robust structures, whereas lyophilized microcapsules had porous and fragile structures. Dried microcapsules presented a medium size of 0.71-0.86mm and a w ranging from 0.14 to 0.36, depending on the drying process. When comparing the effects of drying processes on BGP-1 viability, the fluidized bed was less aggressive than lyophilization. The alginate-shellac blend combined with coconut fat as core effectively protected the encapsulated probiotic under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Thus, the production of microcapsules by co-extrusion followed by drying using the fluidized bed is a promising strategy for protection of probiotic cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical characterization and oxidative stability of fish oil-loaded electrosprayed capsules: Combined use of whey protein and carbohydrates as wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Pelayo, Andres; Yu, Sen

    2018-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in electrosprayed capsules using whey protein and carbohydrates (pullulan and dextran or glucose syrup) mixtures as glassy wall materials was studied. Capsules with fish oil emulsified by using only a rotor-stator emulsification exhibited higher oxidative stability...... than capsules where the oil was emulsified by high-pressure homogenization. Moreover, glucose syrup capsules (with a peroxide value, PV, of 19.7 ± 4.4 meq/kg oil and a content of 1-penten-3-ol of 751.0 ± 69.8 ng/g oil) were less oxidized than dextran capsules after 21 days of storage at 20 °C (PV of 24.......9 ± 0.4 meq/kg oil and 1-penten-3-ol of 1161.0 ± 222.0 ng/g oil). This finding may be attributed to differences in oxygen permeability between both types of capsules. These results indicated the potential of both combinations of whey protein, pullulan, and dextran or glucose syrup as shell materials...

  10. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  11. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  12. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  13. Contribution to the understanding of the behaviour of reinforced concrete shear walls under seismic loading: contribution of experiment and modeling to the design; Contribution a la comprehension du fonctionnement des voiles en beton arme sous sollicitation sismique: apport de l'experimentation et de la modelisation a la conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ile, N

    2000-12-01

    This thesis deals with aspects of seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete shear walls (RCSW). Its objective is to introduce a useful modelling approach for addressing the non-linear response of a large variety of RCSW and to identify several aspects in which this numerical approach could be implemented into design applications. Firstly, the characteristics of the behaviour of RCSW under seismic loading, some design principles and different modelling approaches are discussed. As an important lack of knowledge in several fields was identified, it was considered that three types of shear walls deserve more attention: slightly reinforced slender walls; U-shaped walls and heavily reinforced squat shear walls. A local modelling approach is adopted and the material constitutive models are described in details. Secondly, the behaviour of the two mock-up, CAMUS I and II, tested on the shaking-table during the CAMUS programme, which are slightly reinforced and designed according to the French code PS92 is simulated using a 2-D finite element model (FEM). For comparison purposes, the case of the CAMUS III mock-up, designed according to EC8, is considered. We are then dealing with the case of U-shaped walls under dynamic and cyclic loading. The results obtained from numerical simulations, based on a 3-D shell FEM, are compared with those obtained from tests carried out in the frame of the ICONS programme. Finally, the numerical model is applied to the case of heavily reinforced squat shear walls (similar to those used in the nuclear power plant buildings) subjected to shear loading. A 2-D FEM is considered in order to simulate the behaviour of three different walls, which were tested pseudo-dynamically during the SAFE programme. The results from both experimental and numerical studies are compared and discussed. The most important factors affecting the behaviour of RCSW are highlighted. Different examples of possible contributions to design are presented. (author)

  14. Contribution to the understanding of the behaviour of reinforced concrete shear walls under seismic loading: contribution of experiment and modeling to the design; Contribution a la comprehension du fonctionnement des voiles en beton arme sous sollicitation sismique: apport de l'experimentation et de la modelisation a la conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ile, N

    2000-12-01

    This thesis deals with aspects of seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete shear walls (RCSW). Its objective is to introduce a useful modelling approach for addressing the non-linear response of a large variety of RCSW and to identify several aspects in which this numerical approach could be implemented into design applications. Firstly, the characteristics of the behaviour of RCSW under seismic loading, some design principles and different modelling approaches are discussed. As an important lack of knowledge in several fields was identified, it was considered that three types of shear walls deserve more attention: slightly reinforced slender walls; U-shaped walls and heavily reinforced squat shear walls. A local modelling approach is adopted and the material constitutive models are described in details. Secondly, the behaviour of the two mock-up, CAMUS I and II, tested on the shaking-table during the CAMUS programme, which are slightly reinforced and designed according to the French code PS92 is simulated using a 2-D finite element model (FEM). For comparison purposes, the case of the CAMUS III mock-up, designed according to EC8, is considered. We are then dealing with the case of U-shaped walls under dynamic and cyclic loading. The results obtained from numerical simulations, based on a 3-D shell FEM, are compared with those obtained from tests carried out in the frame of the ICONS programme. Finally, the numerical model is applied to the case of heavily reinforced squat shear walls (similar to those used in the nuclear power plant buildings) subjected to shear loading. A 2-D FEM is considered in order to simulate the behaviour of three different walls, which were tested pseudo-dynamically during the SAFE programme. The results from both experimental and numerical studies are compared and discussed. The most important factors affecting the behaviour of RCSW are highlighted. Different examples of possible contributions to design are presented. (author)

  15. Wall Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  16. Seismic Performance of Precast Polystyrene RC Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Ari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast concrete structure such as precast wall is a concept that is growing rapidly these days. However, the earthquake resistance is believed to be one of its drawbacks. Additionally, the large weight of solid elements also increase the building weight significantly which consequently increase the earthquake base shear force as well. Therefore, investigation on the seismic performance of precast concrete wall has been carried out. Three RC wall specimens using wire mesh reinforcement and EPS (Extended Polystyrene System panel have been tested. This wall was designed as a structural wall that was capable in sustaining lateral loads (in-plane yet were lightweight to reduce the total weight of the building. Parameter observed was the ratio of height to width (aspect ratio of wall of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively with the aim to study the behaviour of brittle to ductile transition of the wall. Incremental static load tests were conducted until reaching peak load and then followed by displacement control until failure. Several data were measured at every stage of loading comprising lateral load-displacement behaviour, ultimate strength and collapse mechanism. The outcomes showed that precast concrete walls with a steel wire and EPS panel filler provided considerably good resistance against lateral load.

  17. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  18. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane earthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years

  19. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  20. Lateral resistance of plybamboo wall-panels

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Beltran, G.E.; Herwijnen, van, F.; Janssen, J.J.A.; Moonen, S.P.G.; Gutierrez, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical behavior of plybamboo (kind of plywood made out of bamboo) wall-panels subjected to lateral load. The wall-panels are part of a house design method proposed in the author's PhD thesis for prefabricated social housing in developing countries. Sixteen fullscaled wallpanels with or without window and door openings were tested and their theoretical capacities estimated. Design wind and seismic loads were determined according to the Internatio...

  1. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  2. First wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Makoto; Koizumi, Makoto; Nishihara, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The first wall of a thermonuclear device is constituted with inner wall tiles, e.g. made of graphite and metal substrates for fixing them. However, since the heat expansion coefficient is different between the metal substrates and intermediate metal members, thermal stresses are caused to deteriorate the endurance of the inner wall tiles. In view of the above, low melting metals are disposed at the portion of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates and, further, a heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates. Under the thermal load, for example, during operation of the thermonuclear device, the low melting metals at the portion of contact are melted into liquid metals to enhance the state of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrate to reduce the heat resistance and improve the heat conductivity. Even if there is a difference in the heat expansion coefficient between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates, neither sharing stresses not thermal stresses are caused. Further, since the heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates, the lateral unevenness of the temperature in the metal substrates can be eliminated. Thus, the durability of the inner wall tiles can be improved. (N.H.)

  3. Shielding wall for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Takaho.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns shielding walls opposing to plasmas of a thermonuclear device and it is an object thereof to conduct reactor operation with no troubles even if a portion of shielding wall tiles should be damaged. That is, the shielding wall tiles are constituted as a dual layer structure in which the lower base tiles are connected by means of bolts to first walls. Further, the upper surface tiles are bolt-connected to the layer base tiles. In this structure, the plasma thermal loads are directly received by the surface layer tiles and heat is conducted by means of conduction and radiation to the underlying base tiles and the first walls. Even upon occurrence of destruction accidents to the surface layer tiles caused by incident heat or electromagnetic force upon elimination of plasmas, since the underlying base tiles remain as they are, the first walls constituted with stainless steels, etc. are not directly exposed to the plasmas. Accordingly, the integrity of the first walls having cooling channels can be maintained and sputtering intrusion of atoms of high atom number into the plasmas can be prevented. (I.S.)

  4. Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Gantenbein, F.

    1989-01-01

    Reinforced concrete shear walls have an important contribution to building stiffness. So, it is necessary to know their behavior under seismic loads. The ultimate behavior study of shear walls subjected to dynamic loadings includes: - a description of the nonlinear global model based on cyclic static tests, - nonlinear time history calculations for various forcing functions. The comparison of linear and nonlinear results shows important margins related to the ductility when the bandwidth of the forcing function is narrow and centred on the wall natural frequency

  5. Inplane shear capacity of reinforced composite masonry block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.H.; Tseng, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe a test program performed to determine the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility of composite masonry walls subjected to earthquake type loadings. Specimens were simultaneously subjected to a range of compressive loads to simulate dead load; and inplane shear loads with full load reversal to simulate the earthquake cycling load. The influence of horizontal and vertical reinforcing steel percentages on the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility was also investigated. (orig./HP)

  6. Modeling of shear wall buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A K [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1984-05-01

    Many nuclear power plant buildings, for example, the auxiliary building, have reinforced concrete shear walls as the primary lateral load resisting system. Typically, these walls have low height to length ratio, often less than unity. Such walls exhibit marked shear lag phenomenon which would affect their bending stiffness and the overall stress distribution in the building. The deformation and the stress distribution in walls have been studied which is applicable to both the short and the tall buildings. The behavior of the wall is divided into two parts: the symmetric flange action and the antisymmetry web action. The latter has two parts: the web shear and the web bending. Appropriate stiffness equations have been derived for all the three actions. These actions can be synthesized to solve any nonlinear cross-section. Two specific problems, that of lateral and torsional loadings of a rectangular box, have been studied. It is found that in short buildings shear lag plays a very important role. Any beam type formulation which either ignores shear lag or includes it in an idealized form is likely to lead to erroneous results. On the other hand a rigidity type approach with some modifications to the standard procedures would yield nearly accurate answers.

  7. Seismic evaluation of reinforced masonry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.E.; Button, M.R.; Mayes, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Masonry walls in operating nuclear plants are in many cases found to be overstressed in terms of allowable stresses when evaluated using current seismic design criteria. However, experimental evidence exists indicating that reinforced masonry walls have a considerable margin between the load levels at which allowable stresses are exceeded and the load levels at which structural distress and loss of function occurs. This paper presents a methodology which allows the actual capacity of reinforced masonry walls under seismic loading to be quantified. The methodology is based on the use of non-linear dynamic analyses and incorporates observed hysteretic behavior for both in-plane and out-of-plane response. Experimental data is used to develop response parameters and to validate the results predicted by the models. Criteria have been concurrently developed to evaluate the deformations and material performance in the walls to ensure adequate margins of safety for the required function. An example of the application of these procedures is provided

  8. Influence of facing vertical stiffness on reinforced soil wall design

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Current design practices for reinforced soil walls typically ignore the influence of facing type and foundation compressibility on the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads in steel reinforced soil walls under operational conditions. In this paper, the effect of the facing vertical stiffness (due to elastomeric bearing pads placed in the horizontal joints between panels) on load capacity of steel reinforced soil walls is examined in a systematic manner using a numerical modelli...

  9. Application of flexi-wall in noise barriers renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Daee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on structural performance of an innovative noise barrier consisting of poly-block, light polyurethane foam (LPF and polyurea. This wall system (flexi-wall is intended to be employed as a vertical extension to existing noise barriers (sound walls in an accelerated construction method. To aid in the wall design, several mechanical tests were conducted on LPF specimens and two full-scale walls were then fabricated employing the same LPF material. The full-scale walls were subjected to lateral loading in order to establish their lateral resistance. A cyclic fatigue test was also performed on a full-scale flexi-wall in order to evaluate the performance of the wall under a repetitive loading condition. The results of the experiments indicated the suitability of flexi-wall in accelerated construction and confirmed that the structural performance of the wall system under lateral loading is satisfactory for the sound wall application. The experimental results were discussed and a preliminary design procedure for application of flexi-wall in sound wall applications was also developed.

  10. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  11. Thermal stress and creep fatigue limitations in first wall design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Harkness, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic performance of a lithium cooled cylindrical first wall module has been analyzed as a function of the incident neutron wall loading. Three criteria were established for the purpose of defining the maximum wall loading allowable for modules constructed of Type 316 stainless steel and a vanadium alloy. Of the three, the maximum structural temperature criterion of 750 0 C for vanadium resulted in the limiting wall loading value of 7 MW/m 2 . The second criterion limited thermal stress levels to the yield strength of the alloy. This led to the lowest wall loading value for the Type 316 stainless steel wall (1.7 MW/m 2 ). The third criterion required that the creep-fatigue characteristics of the module allow a lifetime of 10 MW-yr/m 2 . At wall temperatures of 600 0 C, this lifetime could be achieved in a stainless steel module for wall loadings less than 3.2 MW/m 2 , while the same lifetime could be achieved for much higher wall loadings in a vanadium module

  12. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1993-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  13. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  14. Comparison of critical circumferential through-wall-crack-lengths in welds between pieces of straight pipes to welds between straigth pipes and bends with and without internal pressure at force- and displacement-controlled bending load; Vergleich kritischer Umfangsdurchrisslaengen in Schweissnaehten zwischen Geradrohrstuecken mit Schweissnaehten an Rohrbogen-Geradrohrverbindungen mit und ohne Innendruck bei kraft- und wegkontrollierter Biegebelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbuch, R [Fachhochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Reutlingen (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau

    1998-11-01

    Methods for calculation of critical, circumferential through-wall crack lengths in pipes have been developed and verified by several research projects. In applications during the last few years it has been found that the force or displacement-controlled loads have to be considered separately, and this approach was integrated into the recent methods. Methods so far assumed cracks to be located in welds joining straight pipes. But this approach starts from an incomplete picture of reality, as with today`s technology, circumferential welds are less frequent in straight pipes and much more frequent in pipework of other geometry, as for instance in welds joining straight pipes and bends, or bends with longer legs, nozzles, or T-pieces. The non-linear FEM parameter study presented in the paper, covering cases with internal pressure of pipes and one-dimensional bending loads, is based on current geometries of pipework in the primary and secondary loops of industrial plants and compares the conditions induced by circumferential through-wall cracks in welds joining only straight pipes and in those joining bended and straight pipes. At the relevant, displacement-controlled bending loads due to hampered thermal expansion of the pipe system, the critical through-wall cracks lengths occurring in pipe-to-bend welds are of about the same size and importance as those in pipe-to-pipe welds. As for the case of force-controlled loads, the technical codes calculate more serious effects and require lower bending load limits. Within the range of admissible loads given in the codes, the critical through-wall crack lengths occurring in pipe-to-bend welds are similar in size to those in straight pipe welds. It is therefore a conservative or realistic approach to apply the values determined for critical through-wall crack lengths in pipe-to-pipe joints also to pipe-to-bend welds. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Verfahren zur Berechnung kritischer Umfangdurchrisslaengen in Rohrleitungen wurden in

  15. Structural behavior of load bearing brick walls of soil-cement with the addition of ground ceramic waste Comportamento estrutural de paredes estruturais de tijolos de solo-cimento com adição de resíduo cerâmico moído

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of three load bearing walls is presented and discussed in this paper. The walls were of soil-cement bricks made with three different material proportions, in which two of them had part of the cement amount replaced by crushed ceramic waste. The walls were 95.20 cm high, 75.32 cm wide and 12.56 cm thick and had their bricks layered with cement paste. The walls were tested under compression and their displacements were measured with 5 dial gages. The walls had satisfactory behaviour and their strengths were suitable as required by Brazilian popular houses. The differences between the brick strength and the wall strength were less than 20%. A finite element analysis (FEA was performed and the uniformity of the compressive stress distributions in the walls was evaluated. Finally, it was observed that the partial replacement of the cement by crushed ceramic waste is possible.Neste trabalho, apresenta-se resultados do estudo experimental de três paredes estruturais, construídas com tijolos de solo-cimento. Os tijolos foram fabricados com três diferentes proporções de materiais, nas quais duas delas tiveram parte do cimento substituído por resíduo cerâmico moído. As paredes apresentavam altura de 95,20 cm, largura de 75,32 cm e espessura de 12,56 cm e tiveram seus tijolos rejuntados com pasta de cimento, que foram ensaiadas sob compressão centrada e tiveram seus deslocamentos avaliados por cinco relógios medidores de deslocamento. Observou-se comportamento estrutural satisfatório e resistências compatíveis com as requeridas pelas paredes das casas populares brasileiras. Em todos os casos, as diferenças entre as tensões máximas nas paredes e as resistências dos tijolos, foram inferiores a 20%. Para concluir o estudo, realizou-se análise por meio do método dos elementos finitos (MEF com o intuito de avaliar a uniformidade na distribuição das tensões ao longo das paredes. Finalmente, observou-se que a substitui

  16. Inverse measurement of wall pressure field in flexible-wall wind tunnels using global wall deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth; Brown, Julian; Patil, Mayuresh; Devenport, William

    2018-02-01

    The Kevlar-wall anechoic wind tunnel offers great value to the aeroacoustics research community, affording the capability to make simultaneous aeroacoustic and aerodynamic measurements. While the aeroacoustic potential of the Kevlar-wall test section is already being leveraged, the aerodynamic capability of these test sections is still to be fully realized. The flexibility of the Kevlar walls suggests the possibility that the internal test section flow may be characterized by precisely measuring small deflections of the flexible walls. Treating the Kevlar fabric walls as tensioned membranes with known pre-tension and material properties, an inverse stress problem arises where the pressure distribution over the wall is sought as a function of the measured wall deflection. Experimental wall deformations produced by the wind loading of an airfoil model are measured using digital image correlation and subsequently projected onto polynomial basis functions which have been formulated to mitigate the impact of measurement noise based on a finite-element study. Inserting analytic derivatives of the basis functions into the equilibrium relations for a membrane, full-field pressure distributions across the Kevlar walls are computed. These inversely calculated pressures, after being validated against an independent measurement technique, can then be integrated along the length of the test section to give the sectional lift of the airfoil. Notably, these first-time results are achieved with a non-contact technique and in an anechoic environment.

  17. Degree of coupling in high-rise mixed shear walls structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple method of analysis is presented to determine the influence of single shear walls (SSW) on the degree of coupling DoC and on the peak shear demand PSD for beams of coupled shear walls (CSW) in mixed shear wall structures (MSW). Non-coupled lateral load resisting structures such as singular planar walls and ...

  18. Modeling Force Transfer around Openings in Wood-Frame Shear Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghao Li; Frank Lam; Borjen Yeh; Tom Skaggs; Doug Rammer; James Wacker

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented a modeling study on force transfer around openings (FTAO) in wood-frame shear walls detailed for FTAO. To understand the load transfer in the walls, this study used a finite-element model WALL2D, which is able to model individual wall components, including framing members, sheathing panels, oriented panel-frame nailed connections, framing...

  19. Degree of coupling in high-rise mixed shear walls structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assessment of the structural behaviour of coupled shear wall bents in mixed shear wall ... efficient lateral load resisting system against wind and earthquake effects. .... can be obtained from the second derivative of equation (11) which must be ...

  20. Damage Accumulation in Vertical Breakwaters due to Combined Impact Loading and Pulsating Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters used to protect for example an harbour from large waves usually consist of large concrete caissons placed on the seabed. The wave loads can be divided in two types, pulsating and impact loads. For some types of breakwaters especially the impact wave loads can be very large...

  1. The role of wall calcium in the extension of cell walls of soybean hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, S. S.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium crosslinks are load-bearing bonds in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) hypocotyl cell walls, but they are not the same load-bearing bonds that are broken during acid-mediated cell elongation. This conclusion is reached by studying the relationship between wall calcium, pH and the facilitated creep of frozen-thawed soybean hypocotyl sections. Supporting data include the following observations: 1) 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin 2) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) caused only limited facilitated creep as compared with acid, despite removal of comparable or larger amounts of wall calcium; 2) the pH-response curves for calcium removal and acid-facilitated creep were different; 3) reversible acid-extension occurred even after removal of almost all wall calcium with Quin 2; and 4) growth of abraded sections did not involve a proportional loss of wall calcium. Removal of wall calcium, however, increased the capacity of the walls to undergo acid-facilitated creep. These data indicate that breakage of calcium crosslinks is not a major mechanism of cell-wall loosening in soybean hypocotyl tissues.

  2. Side loading vault system and method for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meess, D.C.; Jones, B.J.; Mello, R.M.; Weiss, T.G. Jr.; Wright, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for the disposal of hazardous radioactive waste. It comprises: constructing a floor slab in the earth; constructing an elongated wall assembly over the floor slab having sidewalls and a front wall and a back wall at either end the side walls being longer than the front and back walls; providing an accessway in the front wall; constructing a ceiling slab over the wall assembly that is supported at least in part by the wall assembly to form a vault cell; inspecting the vault cell for structural defects, introducing hazardous radioactive waste through the accessway in the front wall and loading the cell with the waste from the back wall to the front wall in rows, each of which is substantially parallel to the back wall to minimize radiation exposure to workers loading the cell, and closing the accessway of the vault cell by constructing a removable wall structure within the accessway

  3. DISTORTION ANALYSIS OF TILL -WALLED BOX GIRDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    bridges, buildings, motor vehicles, ships and aircrafts. Due to thinness of the box walls, generalized loads applied to this structure give rise to warping and distortion of ..... Recommendation for Design of. Intermediate Diaphragms in Box. Girders, Transactions of Japanese. Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 14,1984, pp 121-126.

  4. Methodology for first wall design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Conner, D.L.; Goranson, P.L.; Lousteau, D.C.; Williamson, D.E.; Nelson, B.E.; Davis, F.C.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic parametric scoping tool has been developed for application to first wall (FW) design problems. Both thermal and disruption force effects are considered. For the high heat flux and high disruption load conditions expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) device, Vanadium alloy and dispersion-strengthened copper offer the best stress margins using a somewhat flattened plasma-facing configuration. Ferritic steels also appear to have an acceptable stress margin, whereas the conventional stainless steel 316 does not appear feasible. If a full semicircle shape FW is required, only the Vanadium and ferritic steel alloy have acceptable solutions

  5. Vertical Equilibrium of Sheet Pile Walls with Emphasis on Toe Capacity and Plugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Augustesen, Anders Hust; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    Constructions including retaining walls are normally established in areas where it is impossible to conduct an excavation with inclined sides. Due to large excavation depths and due to restrictions on the deformations of the wall, it is often necessary to anchor the wall. The limited space makes...... at the pile toe to fulfil vertical equilibrium. The paper describes a case study of sheet pile walls in Aalborg Clay, and the amount of loads transferred as point loads at the pile toe for free and anchored walls is estimated. A parametric study is made for the free wall with regards to the height...... and the roughness of the wall. Due to limitations of the calculation method, the study of the anchored wall only includes variation of the roughness. For the case study, it is found that the vertical equilibrium is fulfilled for the considered free wall. An anchored wall needs a plug forming at the pile toe...

  6. First wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Nobuharu.

    1992-01-01

    In a first wall of a thermonuclear device, armour tiles are metallurgically bonded to a support substrate only for the narrow area of the central portion thereof, while bonded by metallurgical bonding with cooling tubes of low mechanical toughness, separated from each other in other regions. Since the bonding area with the support substrate of great mechanical rigidity is limited to the narrow region at the central portion of the armour tiles, cracking are scarcely caused at the end portion of the bonding surface. In other regions, since cooling tubes of low mechanical rigidity are bonded metallurgically, they can be sufficiently withstand to high thermal load. That is, even if the armour tiles are deformed while undergoing thermal load from plasmas, since the cooling tubes absorb it, there is no worry of damaging the metallurgically bonded face. Since the cooling tubes are bonded directly to the armour tiles, they absorb the heat of the armour tiles efficiently. (N.H.)

  7. Heat transfer models for fusion blanket first walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion reactors, the ability to cool the first wall, i.e., the first material surface interfacing the plasma, appears to be a critical factor involved in establishing the wall load limit. In order to understand the thermal behavior of the first wall time-dependent, one-dimensional heat conduction models are reviewed with differing modes of heat extraction and cooling

  8. Parametric Evaluation of Racking Performance of Platform Timber Framed Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Dhonju, R..; D’Amico, B..; Kermani, A..; Porteous, J..; Zhang, B..

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative assessment of the racking performance of partially anchored timber framed walls, based on experimental tests. A total of 17 timber framed wall specimens, constructed from a combination of materials under different load configurations, were tested. The experimental study was designed toexamine the influence of a range of geometrical parameters, such as fastener size and spacings, wall length, arrangement of studs and horizontal members, as well as the effect ...

  9. Lateral resistance of piles near vertical MSE abutment walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Full scale lateral load tests were performed on eight piles located at various distances behind MSE walls. The objective of the testing was to determine the effect of spacing from the wall on the lateral resistance of the piles and on the force induc...

  10. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  11. Nonlinear analysis techniques of block masonry walls in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.A.; Harris, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Concrete masonry walls have been used extensively in nuclear power plants as non-load bearing partitions serving as pipe supports, fire walls, radiation shielding barriers, and similar heavy construction separations. When subjected to earthquake loads, these walls should maintain their structural integrity. However, some of the walls do not meet design requirements based on working stress allowables. Consequently, utilities have used non-linear analysis techniques, such as the arching theory and the energy balance technique, to qualify such walls. This paper presents a critical review of the applicability of non-linear analysis techniques for both unreinforced and reinforced block masonry walls under seismic loading. These techniques are critically assessed in light of the performance of walls from limited available test data. It is concluded that additional test data are needed to justify the use of nonlinear analysis techniques to qualify block walls in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  12. Failure Behavior of Elbows with Local Wall Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Keun; Park, Jai-Hak

    Wall thinning defect due to corrosion is one of major aging phenomena in carbon steel pipes in most plant industries, and it results in reducing load carrying capacity of the piping components. A failure test system was set up for real scale elbows containing various simulated wall thinning defects, and monotonic in-plane bending tests were performed under internal pressure to find out the failure behavior of them. The failure behavior of wall-thinned elbows was characterized by the circumferential angle of thinned region and the loading conditions to the piping system.

  13. Analysis, design, and constrution of a sacrificial shield wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkow; Shah, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    The sacrificial shield wall, a cylindrical enclosure around the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), is a major component of nuclear power plants of the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) type. A method developed for the analysis and design of such walls is described which eliminates shortcomings in methods used in current practice. The method treats the wall as a space frame of ring beams and columns and includes the skin plates as finite elements. Design loadings, load combinations, and acceptance criteria are presented. Results by this method are furnished and compared with results by an alternate method. Significant design features are described and a narrative of construction procedures is included. (Author)

  14. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  15. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  16. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

  17. Analysis of a Floodplain I-Wall Embedded in Horizontally Stratified Soil Layers During Flood Events Using Corps I-Wall Software Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    100, 300, 500 and 1,000 simulations. ........................... 255 Figure A1. Cantilever retaining wall . (a) Two layered soil site. (b...of flood elevation. In a safety or risk assessment of I- Walls , the rotational limit state or probability of rotational failure of the I- Wall about a...for the net loading is computed about the lower of the RHS or LHS ground surfaces for level ground, for a retaining wall design with differential

  18. Use of reinforced soil wall to support steam generator transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davie, J.R.; Wang, J.T.; Gladstone, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers Power Company had the two steam generators at its Palisades Nuclear Plant in Michigan replaced in November 1990. This replacement was accomplished through a 26-foot wide by 28-foot high opening cut into the wall of the containment building, about 45 feet above the original ground surface. Because this ground surface was at an approximately 3-H:1-V slope, leveling was required before replacement in order to provide access for the steam generators and adequate support for the heavy-duty gantry crane system used to transfer the generators. A 25-foot high reinforced soil wall was constructed to achieve the level surface. This paper describes the design and construction of the heavily loaded reinforced soil wall, including ground improvement measures required to obtain adequate wall stability. The performance of the wall under test loading will also be presented and discussed

  19. Behaviour of Masonry Walls under Horizontal Shear in Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadela, Marta; Bartoszek, Marek; Fedorowicz, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The paper discusses behaviour of masonry walls constructed with small-sized elements under the effects of mining activity. It presents some mechanisms of damage occurring in such structures, its forms in real life and the behaviour of large fragments of masonry walls subjected to specific loads in FEM computational models. It offers a constitutive material model, which enables numerical analyses and monitoring of the behaviour of numerical models as regards elastic-plastic performance of the material, with consideration of its degradation. Results from the numerical analyses are discussed for isolated fragments of the wall subjected to horizontal shear, with consideration of degradation, impact of imposed vertical load as well as the effect of weakening of the wall, which was achieved by introducing openings in it, on the performance and deformation of the wall.

  20. First wall thermal hydraulic models for fusion blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Subject to normal and off-normal reactor conditions, thermal hydraulic models of first walls, e.g., a thermal mass barrier, a tubular shield, and a radiating liner are reviewed. Under normal operation the plasma behaves as expected in a predicted way for transient and steady-state conditions. The most severe thermal loading on the first wall occurs when the plasma becomes unstable and dumps its energy on the wall in a very short period of time (milliseconds). Depending on the plasma dump time and area over which the energy is deposited may result in melting of the first wall surface, and if the temperature is high enough, vaporization

  1. Considerations on the design of through-wall anchors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricklefs, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Connections to existing buildings are often the most difficult planning challenge for the realization of construction measures in case of piping system replacements in nuclear power plants. This is due to restricted space or limited load reserves of the building structure. Usually the realization of support connections to the existing buildings is achieved by anchor bolts. But in critical cases the preferred alternative solution uses through-wall anchors. Up to now uniform assessment thresholds are not available, no technical guidelines or regulations for construction variants exist. Through-wall anchors allow significantly higher load capacities for tensile and shear loads but require enhanced planning and realization efforts.

  2. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  3. Control of cracking in R.C. Structures: Numerical simulation of a squat shear wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoni, C.; Belletti, B.; Lilliu, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the behavior of a squat shear wall subjected to monotonic shear loading is investigated. The study fits into the experimental program driven by CEOS.fr on modeling of the behavior of the tested mocks-ups (monotonic and cycling loading-under prevented or free shrinkage). The shear wall

  4. Interaction between drilled shaft and mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall : project summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Drilled shafts are being constructed within the reinforced zone of mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls (Figure 1). The drilled shafts may be subjected to horizontal loads and push against the front of the wall. Distress of MSE wall panels has b...

  5. Nanotechnology And Examination Of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Kutucu, Burcu

    2010-01-01

    The main subject of this study is the definition of nanotechnology, benefits of nanotechnology, nanotechnology applications in Turkey and world and the history of nanotechnology. Also single and multi walled carbon nanotubes and Van der Waals bands are examined in this study. At first a fixed end frame loaded with a load P is studied and governing equations solved in MATHEMATICA. Secontly the same procedure is repeated for a fixed and frame loaded with moment M is studied and governing equati...

  6. Evaluation of masonry wall design at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Con, V.N.; Subramonian, N.; Chokshi, N.

    1983-01-01

    The structural integrity of safety-related masonry walls in operating nuclear power plants may not be maintained when subjected to certain loads and load combinations. The paper presents some findings based upon the review of the design and analysis procedures used by the licensees in the reevaluation of safety-related masonry walls. The design criteria developed by the Structural Engineering Branch (SEB) of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) along with other standard codes such as the Uniform Building Code, ACI 531-79, ATC 3-06, and NCMA were used as guidance in evaluating the design criteria developed by the licensees. The paper deals with the following subject areas: loads and load combinations, allowable stresses, analytical procedures, and modification methods. The paper concludes that, in general, the masonry walls in nuclear power plants comply with the working stress design requirements. In some cases, certain nonlinear analysis methods were used. The applicability of these methods is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Nonlinear load-deflection behavior of abutment backwalls with varying height and soil density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We address the scaling of abutment wall lateral response with wall height and compaction condition through testing and analytical work. The : analytical work was undertaken to develop hyperbolic curves representing the load-deflection response of bac...

  8. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  9. Experiment and Simulation Study on the Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on comparative study on two amorphous silicon photovoltaic walls (a-Si PV walls, the temperature distribution and the instant power were tested; and with EnergyPlus software, similar models of the walls were built to simulate annual power generation and air conditioning load. On typical sunshine day, the corresponding position temperature of nonventilated PV wall was generally 0.5~1.5°C higher than that of ventilated one, while the power generation was 0.2%~0.4% lower, which was consistent with the simulation results with a difference of 0.41% in annual energy output. As simulation results, in summer, comparing the PV walls with normal wall, the heat per unit area of these two photovoltaic walls was 5.25 kWh/m2 (nonventilated and 0.67 kWh/m2 (ventilated higher, respectively. But in winter the heat loss of nonventilated one was smaller, while ventilated PV wall was similar to normal wall. To annual energy consumption of heating and cooling, the building with ventilated PV wall and normal wall was also similar but slightly better than nonventilated one. Therefore, it is inferred that, at low latitudes, such as Zhuhai, China, air gap ventilation is suitable, while the length to thickness ratio of the air gap needs to be taken into account.

  10. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  11. Wall Construction; Carpentry: 901892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in floor and wall layout, and in the diverse methods and construction of walls. Upon completion of this course the students should have acquired a knowledge of construction plans and structural foundations in addition to a basic knowledge of mathematics. The course consists of…

  12. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  13. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  14. Seismic behavior of semi-supported steel shear walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanpour, A.; Jönsson, J.; Moharrami, H.

    2012-01-01

    During the recent past decade semi-supported steel shear walls (SSSW) have been introduced as an alternative to the traditional type of steel plate shear walls. In this system the shear wall does not connect directly to the main columns of the building frame; instead it is connected to a pair...... of secondary columns that do not carry vertical gravity loads. In this paper, the interaction between the wall plate and the surrounding frame is investigated experimentally for typical SSSW systems in which the wall-frame has a bending-dominant behavior. Based on the possible storey failure mechanisms...... a simple method is proposed for design of the floor beams. A quasi static cyclic experimental study has been performed in order to investigate the collapse behavior of the wall-plate and surrounding frame. Furthermore the test setup has been developed in order to facilitate standardized cyclic tests...

  15. First Wall, Blanket, Shield Engineering Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of DOE has the overall objective of providing engineering data that will define performance parameters for nuclear systems in advanced fusion reactors. The program comprises testing and the development of computational tools in four areas: (1) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of first-wall component facsimiles with emphasis on surface heat loads; (2) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of blanket and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on bulk heating; (3) electromagnetic effects in first wall, blanket, and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on transient field penetration and eddy-current effects; (4) assembly, maintenance and repair with emphasis on remote-handling techniques. This paper will focus on elements 2 and 4 above and, in keeping with the conference participation from both fusion and fission programs, will emphasize potential interfaces between fusion technology and experience in the fission industry

  16. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  17. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  18. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  19. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  20. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  1. Reactor wall in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, Masanao.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To always monitor the life of armours in reactor walls and automatically shutdown the reactor if it should be operated in excess of the limit of use. Constitution: Monitoring material of lower melting point than armours (for example beryllium pellets) as one of the reactor wall constituents of a thermonuclear device are embedded in a region leaving the thickness corresponding to the allowable abrasion of the armour. In this structure, if the armours are abrased due to particle loads of a plasma and the abrasion exceeds a predetermined allowable level, the monitoring material is exposed to the plasma and melted and evaporated. Since this can be detected by impurity monitors disposed in the reactor, it is possible to recognize the limit for the working life of the armours. If the thermonuclear reactor should be operated accidentally exceeding the life of the armours, since a great amount of the monitoring materials have been evaporated, they flow into the plasma to increase the plasma radiation loss thereby automatically eliminate the plasma. (K.M.)

  2. Plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, Rainer

    1978-01-01

    The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed

  3. Efficiency analysis and assessment of interlocking PVC sheet piling walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of PVC sheet piling in marine environments offers a number of unique advantages that include weight saving, corrosion resistance and environmentally safe material. In this study, one of the widely used classical methods as well as a finite element analysis are used to analyze such sheet piling walls. The analysis focuses on the effect of some important parameters on the wall global behavior, bending moments, stresses and deflections. The parameters include wall cross-section, wall height, embedment depth, number and spacing of anchor rods, and type of soil and loading conditions. Furthermore, the effect of the shape of the wall cross-section and the location of the interlocking joints has been studied by using plane frame and arch-like models. Results indicate that the finite element modeling is an effective tool for numerical approximation of soil-structure interaction problems. The required theoretical embedment depth is nearly 30 % of the clear wall height. Also, the modulus of subgrade reaction has a minor effect on both cantilever wall and one anchor sheet-pile wall. Finally, lateral (horizontal) action shows that deep sections tend to behave like an arch under radial loading which might increase normal stresses at some critical sections

  4. Studies on first wall and plasma wall interaction in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes studies on first wall and plasma wall interaction in JT-60. Main results are as follows; (1) To select JT-60 first wall material, various RandD were done in FY1975 ∼ 1976. Mo was selected as first wall materials of limiters and divertor plates because of its reliability under a high heat flux condition. (2) Development of low-Z material has been done to reduce impurity problem of Mo first wall. As a result, titanium carbide (TiC) was selected as a coating material on the Mo. High heat load testing has been done for TiC coated Mo limiter same as JT-60. This material can survive under the condition of 1 kW/cm 2 x 10 s, expected in JT-60 limiter design. (3) To reduce high heat load on the divertor plate, separatrix swing is proposed. Optimum frequency of the sweeping is evaluated to be 2 Hz in JT-60. For a discharge with heating power of 30 MW and duration time of 10 s, in addition to the separatrix swing, remote radiative cooling in the divertor region is necessary. Moreover, calculations of erosion thickness have been done for stainless steel, Mo, graphite, TiC and silicon caibide under high heat flux during plasma disruption. (4) In divertor experiments in JT-60, divertor functions on particle, heat load and impurity controls have been demonstrated. In elctron density of 6 x 10 19 m -3 , particle fueling rate of 20 MW NB heating (3 Pa m 3 /s) can be exhausted by divertor pumping system. Effectiveness of remote radiative cooling is demonstrated under the condition of 20 MW NB heating power. Also, separatrix swing is demonstrated to reduce heat load on the divertor plate. Total radiation in main plasma is 5 ∼ 10% of total absorbed power. (author) 120 refs

  5. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  6. Fusion: first wall problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, R.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the relevant elementary atomic processes which are expected to be of significance to the first wall of a fusion reactor are reviewed. Up to the present, most investigations have been performed at relatively high ion energies, typically E greater than 5 keV, and even in this range the available data are very poor. If the plasma wall interaction takes place at energies of E greater than 1 keV the impurity introduction and first wall erosion which will take place predominantly by sputtering, will be large and may severely limit the burning time of the plasma. The wall bombardment and surface erosion will presumably not decrease substantially by introducing a divertor. The erosion can only be kept low if the energy of the bombarding ions and neutrals can be kept below the threshold for sputtering of 1 to 10 eV. 93 refs

  7. Thermal simulation of different construction types in six climatic regions on heating and cooling loads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available reduces its heating and cooling loads the most. 3. Applying both roof and ceiling insulation should always be avoided. 4. Building insulation is an effective intervention in all climatic regions. 5. Slightly increasing the thermal mass of a wall... were designed to evaluate the following: ? Case A ? base case ? Case B ? insulated walls ? Case C ? insulated walls and insulated ceiling ? Case D ? insulated walls, insulated ceiling and roof ? Case E ? increased thermal mass wall and insulated...

  8. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.

  10. Orbital wall fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Toshitaka; Ishio, Ken-ichirou; Yoshinami, Hiroyoshi; Kuriyama, Jun-ichi; Hirota, Yoshiharu.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 59 cases of mild facial fractures (simple orbital wall fractures, 34 cases, other facial fractures, 25 cases) with the clinical suspects of orbital wall fractures were evaluated both by conventional views (Waters' and Caldwell views) and coronal CT scans. Conventional views were obtained, as an average, after 4 days and CT after 7 days of injuries. Both the medial wall and the floor were evaluated at two sites, i.e., anterior and posterior. The ethmoid-maxillary plate was also included in the study. The degree of fractures was classified as, no fractures, fractures of discontinuity, dislocation and fragmentation. The coronal CT images in bone window condition was used as reference and the findings were compared between conventional views and CT. The correct diagnosis was obtained as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 78%, posterior, 73%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 72%, posterior, 72%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (64%). The false positive diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior only, 13%), medial orbital wall (anterior only, 7%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (11%). The false negative diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 9%, posterior, 10%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 21%, posterior, 28%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (21%). The results were compared with those of others in the past. (author)

  11. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  12. KETERASINGAN DALAM FILM WALL-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadya Putra Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society nowadays technological advances at first create efficiency in human life. Further development of the technology thus drown human in a routine and automation of work created. The State is to be one of the causes of man separated from fellow or the outside world and eventually experiencing alienation. The movie as a mass media function to obtain the movie and entertainment can be informative or educative function is contained, even persuasive. The purpose of this research was conducted to find out the alienation in the movie Wall E. The concepts used to analyze the movie Wall E this is communication, movie, and alienation. The concept of alienation of human alienation from covering its own products of human alienation from its activities, the human alienation from nature of his humanity and human alienation from each other. Paradigm used is a critical paradigm with type a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The method used is the analysis of semiotics Roland Barthes to interpretation the scope of social alienation and fellow humans in the movie.This writing research results found that alienation of humans with other humans influenced the development of the technology and how the human it self represented of technology, not from our fellow human beings. Masyarakat modern saat ini kemajuan teknologi pada awalnya membuat efisiensi dalam kehidupan manusia. Perkembangan selanjutnya teknologi justru menenggelamkan manusia dalam suatu rutinitas dan otomatisasi kerja yang diciptakan. Keadaan itulah yang menjadi salah satu penyebab manusia terpisah dari sesama atau dunia luar dan akhirnya mengalami keterasingan. Film sebagai media massa berfungsi untuk memperoleh hiburan dan dalam film dapat terkandung fungsi informatif maupun edukatif, bahkan persuasif. Tujuan Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Keterasingan dalam film Wall E. Konsep-konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis film Wall E ini adalah komunikasi, film, dan

  13. Reinforced concrete wall under hydrogen detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarenheimo, A.

    2000-11-01

    The structural integrity of a reinforced concrete wall in the BWR reactor building under hydrogen detonation conditions has been analysed. Of particular interest is whether the containment integrity can be jeopardised by an external hydrogen detonation. The load carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete wall was studied. The detonation pressure loads were estimated with computerised hand calculations assuming a direct initiation of detonation and applying the strong explosion theory. The results can be considered as rough and conservative estimates for the first shock pressure impact induced by a reflecting detonation wave. Structural integrity may be endangered due to slow pressurisation or dynamic impulse loads associated with local detonations. The static pressure following the passage of a shock front may be relatively high, thus this static or slowly decreasing pressure after a detonation may damage the structure severely. The mitigating effects of the opening of a door on pressure history and structural response were also studied. The non-linear behaviour of the wall was studied under detonations corresponding a detonable hydrogen mass of 0.5 kg and 1.428 kg. Non-linear finite element analyses of the reinforced concrete structure were carried out by the ABAQUS/Explicit program. The reinforcement and its non-linear material behaviour and the tensile cracking of concrete were modelled. Reinforcement was defined as layers of uniformly spaced reinforcing bars in shell elements. In these studies the surrounding structures of the non-linearly modelled reinforced concrete wall were modelled using idealised boundary conditions. Especially concrete cracking and yielding of the reinforcement was monitored during the numerical simulation. (au)

  14. Investigation on Wall Panel Sandwiched With Lightweight Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikandhan, K. N.; Harshavardhan, B. S.; Prabakar, J.; Saibabu, S.

    2017-08-01

    The rapid population growth and urbanization have made a massive demand for the shelter and construction materials. Masonry walls are the major component in the housing sector and it has brittle characteristics and exhibit poor performance against the uncertain loads. Further, the structure requires heavier sections for carrying the dead weight of masonry walls. The present investigations are carried out to develop a simple, lightweight and cost effective technology for replacing the existing wall systems. The lightweight concrete is developed for the construction of sandwich wall panel. The EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) beads of 3 mm diameter size are mixed with concrete and developed a lightweight concrete with a density 9 kN/m3. The lightweight sandwich panel is cast with a lightweight concrete inner core and ferrocement outer skins. This lightweight wall panel is tested for in-plane compression loading. A nonlinear finite element analysis with damaged plasticity model is carried out with both material and geometrical nonlinearities. The experimental and analytical results were compared. The finite element study predicted the ultimate load carrying capacity of the sandwich panel with reasonable accuracy. The present study showed that the lightweight concrete is well suitable for the lightweight sandwich wall panels.

  15. Leakage tests of wall segments of reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkalla, S.H.; Simmonds, S.H.; MacGregor, J.G.

    1979-10-01

    Two prestressed concrete wall segments simulating portions of containment walls were loaded by axial tensile forces to cause cracking of the concrete. At each load increment air pressure was applied in steps up to 21 psi to one side of the segment and the rate of leakage of air through the cracked concrete section was measured. A theoretical equation for the flow of air through concrete cracks is developed and the results from one leakage test are used to determine the dimensionless constant required for this equation. (author)

  16. Mechanical response of wall-patterned GaAs surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourhis, E.; Patriarche, G.

    2005-01-01

    Wall-patterned GaAs surfaces have been elaborated by photolithography and dry etching. Different surfaces were produced in order to change the aspect ratio of the walls formed at the substrate surface. The mechanical behaviour of individual walls was investigated by nanoindentation and the responses were compared to that of a standard bulk reference (flat surface). Deviation from the bulk response is detected in a load range of 1-25 mN depending on the aspect ratio of the walls. A central plastic zone criterion is proposed in view of transmission electron microscopy images of indented walls and allows the prediction of the response deviation of a given wall if its width is known. The mechanical response of the different types of walls is further investigated in terms of stiffness, total penetration of indenter and apparent hardness, and is scanned in relation to the proximity of a wall side. Overall results show that contact stiffness remains almost unaffected by aspect ratio, while penetration drastically increases because of the free sides of the wall as compared to a flat surface (bulk substrate). The application of substrate patterning for optoelectronic devices is discussed in the perspective of eliminating residual dislocations appearing in mismatched structures

  17. Mechanochemical Polarization of Contiguous Cell Walls Shapes Plant Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Mateusz; Grones, Peter; Sintorn, Ida-Maria; Vain, Thomas; Milani, Pascale; Krupinski, Pawel; Zagórska-Marek, Beata; Viotti, Corrado; Jönsson, Henrik; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Hamant, Olivier; Robert, Stéphanie

    2017-11-06

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is thought to be limiting for growth, because it acts as a continuous load-bearing layer, resisting tension. Leaf epidermis contains jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells whose shape has been proposed to be a result of subcellular variations in expansion rate that induce local buckling events. Paradoxically, such local compressive buckling should not occur given the tensile stresses across the epidermis. Using computational modeling, we show that the simplest scenario to explain pavement cell shapes within an epidermis under tension must involve mechanical wall heterogeneities across and along the anticlinal pavement cell walls between adjacent cells. Combining genetics, atomic force microscopy, and immunolabeling, we demonstrate that contiguous cell walls indeed exhibit hybrid mechanochemical properties. Such biochemical wall heterogeneities precede wall bending. Altogether, this provides a possible mechanism for the generation of complex plant cell shapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Loading capacities and failure modes of various reinforced concrete slabs subjected to high-speed loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Imamura, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Okamoto, S.; Kasai, Y.; Tsubota, H.; Yoshimura, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify experimentally and analytically the loading capacities, deformations and failure modes of various types of reinforced concrete structures subjected to loads applied at various loading rates. Flat slabs, slabs with beams and cylindrical walls were tested under static, low-speed and high-speed loading. Analysis was applied to estimate the test results by the finite element method using a layered shell element. The analysis closely simulated the experimental results until punching shear failure occurred. (author)

  19. Kinetic wall from Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolphin, D.

    1985-05-01

    An unusual solar mass wall is described. At the turn of a handle it can change from a solar energy collector to a heat-blocker. An appropriate name for it might be the rotating prism wall. An example of the moving wall is at work in an adobe test home in Sede Boqer. Behind a large south-facing window stand four large adobe columns that are triangular in plan. One face of each of them is painted black to absorb sunlight, a second is covered with panels of polystyrene insulation, and a third is painted to match the room decor. These columns can rotate. On winter nights, the insulated side faces the glass, keeping heat losses down. The same scheme works in summer to keep heat out of the house. Small windows provide ventilation.

  20. Analysis of prestressed concrete wall segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koziak, B.D.P.; Murray, D.W.

    1979-06-01

    An iterative numerical technique for analysing the biaxial response of reinforced and prestressed concrete wall segments subject to combinations of prestressing, creep, temperature and live loads is presented. Two concrete constitutive relations are available for this analysis. The first is a uniaxially bilinear model with a tension cut-off. The second is a nonlinear biaxial relation incorporating equivalent uniaxial strains to remove the Poissons's ratio effect under biaxial loading. Predictions from both the bilinear and nonlinear model are compared with observations from experimental wall segments tested in tension. The nonlinear model results are shown to be close to those of the test segments, while the bilinear results are good up to cracking. Further comparisons are made between the nonlinear analysis using constant membrane force-moment ratios, constant membrane force-curvature ratios, and a nonlinear finite difference analysis of a test containment structure. Neither nonlinear analysis could predict the reponse of every wall segment within the structure, but the constant membrane force-moment analysis provided lower bound results. (author)

  1. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  2. Model Tests on the Retaining Walls Constructed from Geobags Filled with Construction Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geobag retaining wall using construction waste is a new flexible supporting structure, and the usage of construction waste to fill geobags can facilitate the construction recycling. In this paper, model tests were performed on geobag retaining wall using construction waste. The investigation was concentrated on the slope top settlement, the distribution characteristics of the earth pressures on retaining walls and horizontal wall displacements, and slope failure modes. The results indicated that the ultimate loads that the slope tops with retaining walls could bear were 87.5%~125% higher than that of the slope top without retaining walls. The ultimate loading of strengthened slopes with different slope ratios from 1 : 0.75 to 1 : 0.25 could be reduced by 11.8% to 29.4%. The horizontal displacements of the retaining walls constructed from geobags were distributed in a drum shape, with the greatest horizontal displacements occurring about 1/3~1/2 of the wall height away from the bottom of the wall. As the slope ratio increased, the failure of the slope soil supported by geobag retaining wall using construction waste changed from sliding to sliding-toppling (dominated by sliding and then to toppling-sliding (dominated by toppling. The range of 1/3~1/2 of wall height is the weak part of the retaining walls, which should be strengthened with certain measures during the process of design and construction.

  3. Building a Lego wall: Sequential action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amy; Wing, Alan M; Rotshtein, Pia

    2017-05-01

    The present study draws together two distinct lines of enquiry into the selection and control of sequential action: motor sequence production and action selection in everyday tasks. Participants were asked to build 2 different Lego walls. The walls were designed to have hierarchical structures with shared and dissociated colors and spatial components. Participants built 1 wall at a time, under low and high load cognitive states. Selection times for correctly completed trials were measured using 3-dimensional motion tracking. The paradigm enabled precise measurement of the timing of actions, while using real objects to create an end product. The experiment demonstrated that action selection was slowed at decision boundary points, relative to boundaries where no between-wall decision was required. Decision points also affected selection time prior to the actual selection window. Dual-task conditions increased selection errors. Errors mostly occurred at boundaries between chunks and especially when these required decisions. The data support hierarchical control of sequenced behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. eWALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Mihaylov, Mihail; Anggorojati, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    challenge with impact in multiple sectors. In this paper we present an innovative ICT solution, named eWALL, that aims to address these challenges by means of an advanced ICT infrastructure and home sensing environment; thus differentiating from existing eHealth and eCare solutions. The system of e...

  5. Abdominal wall surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as liposuction , which is another way to remove fat. But, abdominal wall surgery is sometimes combined with liposuction. ... from the middle and lower sections of your abdomen to make it firmer ... removes excess fat and skin (love handles) from the sides of ...

  6. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...

  7. Endometriosis Abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Carriquiry, L.

    2003-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall is a rare entity wi ch frequently appears after gynecological surgery. Case history includes three cases of parietal endometriosis wi ch were treated in Maciel Hospital of Montevideo. The report refers to etiological diagnostic aspects and highlights the importance of total resection in order to achieve definitive healing

  8. Comparison of theoretical and test results on shear wall seismic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantenbein, F.; Wang, F.; Dalbera, J.

    1991-01-01

    As reinforced concrete shear walls are important resisting components of buildings in nuclear power facilities, it is important to study their ultimate behavior under dynamic loading. An experimental and analytical work has been undertaken on shear walls with and without openings, in order to develop and validate their model. This paper is related to the walls without openings. While pretest calculations have already been reported (Wang and al. 1989) and the test results are given in Gantenbein and al. 1991, this paper is mainly related to the comparison of test and calculation results on the wall initial stiffness and the time history of the wall motion

  9. Materials for heat flux components of the first wall in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1985-08-01

    Materials of the First Wall in near-fusion plasma machines are subjected to a complex load system resulting from the plasma-wall interaction. The materials for their part also influence the plasma. Suitable materials must be available in order to ensure that the wall components achieve a sufficiently long dwell time and that their effects on the plasma remain small and controllable. The present report discusses relations between the plasma-wall interaction, the reactions of the materials and testing and examination methods for specific problems in developing and selecting suitable materials for highly stressed components on the First Wall of fusion reactors. (orig.)

  10. Computer-controlled wall servicing robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefkowitz, S. [Pentek, Inc., Corapolis, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    After four years of cooperative research, Pentek has unveiled a new robot with the capability to automatically deliver a variety of cleaning, painting, inspection, and surveillance devices to large vertical surfaces. The completely computer-controlled robot can position a working tool on a 50-foot tall by 50-foot wide vertical surface with a repeatability of 1/16 inch. The working end can literally {open_quotes}fly{close_quotes} across the face of a wall at speed of 60 per minute, and can handle working loads of 350 pounds. The robot was originally developed to decontaminate the walls of reactor fueling cavities at commercial nuclear power plants during fuel outages. If these cavities are left to dry after reactor refueling, contamination present in the residue could later become airborne and move throughout the containment building. Decontaminating the cavity during the refueling outage reduces the need for restrictive personal protective equipment during plant operations to limit the dose rates.

  11. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  12. Force-displacement response of unreinforced masonry walls for seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL contributes to the improvement of the design and assessment methods for unreinforced masonry (URM) wall structures built with modern hollow core clay bricks. First, an experimental campaign on the lateral nonlinear in-plane response of URM walls is presented; secondly, an existing dataset on URM walls is extended and reanalysed. A newly developed mechanical model which describes the full force-displacement response of URM walls is described. Two series of URM walls tested under lateral in-plane loading are presented. Throughout the quasi-cyclic tests of all URM walls, the deformations were recorded using a digital photogrammetric measurement system which tracked the displacement field of the walls. Based on these findings, a new mechanical model is proposed which describes the nonlinear force-displacement response of flexural dominated URM walls up to near collapse

  13. An innovation wall model based on interlayer ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jinmei; Lian Zhiwei; Hou Zhijian

    2008-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of the external wall are important to the energy consumption of the air conditioning system. Great attention should also be paid to the energy loss of the air exhaust. An innovation wall model based on interlayer ventilation is presented in this paper. The interlayer ventilation wall combines the wall and air exhaust of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC). The results of the experiment show that the energy loss of the exhaust air can be fully recovered by the interlayer ventilation wall. The cooling load can be reduced greatly because the temperature difference between the internal surface of the interlayer ventilation wall and the indoor air is very small. Clearly, the small temperature difference can enhance thermal comfort. In order to popularize the interlayer ventilation wall, technical and economical analysis is presented in this paper. Based on the buildings in the Shanghai area and a standard air conditioning system, a 4 years payback period for interlayer ventilation wall implementation was found according to the analysis

  14. Fundamental Characterization of Spanwise Loading and Trailed Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    forming tip vortex and its relation to the wing loading and/or the tip loading. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Wake characterization, vortex formation , vortex...Configuration The test was conducted in the 7 × 10-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center (operating in its hard - wall mode) for a range of wind speeds up

  15. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  16. A film-based wall shear stress sensor for wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amili, Omid; Soria, Julio

    2011-07-01

    In wall-bounded turbulent flows, determination of wall shear stress is an important task. The main objective of the present work is to develop a sensor which is capable of measuring surface shear stress over an extended region applicable to wall-bounded turbulent flows. This sensor, as a direct method for measuring wall shear stress, consists of mounting a thin flexible film on the solid surface. The sensor is made of a homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible material. The geometry and mechanical properties of the film are measured, and particles with the nominal size of 11 μm in diameter are embedded on the film's surface to act as markers. An optical technique is used to measure the film deformation caused by the flow. The film has typically deflection of less than 2% of the material thickness under maximum loading. The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted by changing the thickness of the layer or the shear modulus of the film's material. The paper reports the sensor fabrication, static and dynamic calibration procedure, and its application to a fully developed turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers in the range of 90,000-130,000 based on the bulk velocity and channel full height. The results are compared to alternative wall shear stress measurement methods.

  17. Plasma-wall interaction in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, F.; Chazalon, M.; Moons, F.; Vieider, G.; Harrison, M.F.A.; Hotston, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    NET is conceived as an experimental reactor with the aim of demonstrating reactor-relevant plasma performance and reliable operation of the device as well as developing and testing components for a demonstration reactor. For power and particle exhaust both a single-null and a double-null poloidal divertor configuration are under consideration. An intense modelling effort is undertaken to predict the heat load and erosion characteristics for these configurations. Under burn conditions, the divertor will operate in the high-recycling regime. The resulting heat loads on the divertor plates are predicted to be somewhat more demanding in the case of a single-null divertor. If one excludes working under conditions where a large part of the power is exhausted by radiation from the plasma edge, refractory metals (W, Mo) have to be used for the plasma-facing surface of the divertor plates, the radial heat and particle transport in the scrape-off layer must be large and the plasma density at the edge of the discharge must be high (n s ≅ 5x10 19 m -3 ). Erosion of a bare stainless steel first wall, under normal working conditions, appears to be within acceptable limits, but the use of graphite armouring is considered in order to avoid wall damage due to localized loads of highly energetic particles and to protect against disruption. Such a solution would also be consistent with the anticipated requirements during start-up. For both the first wall and the divertor plates various concepts are under consideration. Using replaceable tiles as plasma-facing components throughout appears attractive. (orig./GG)

  18. Wind tunnels with adapted walls for reducing wall interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, U.

    1979-01-01

    The basic principle of adaptable wind tunnel walls is explained. First results of an investigation carried out at the Aero-Space Institute of Berlin Technical University are presented for two dimensional flexible walls and a NACA 0012 airfoil. With five examples exhibiting very different flow conditions it is demonstrated that it is possible to reduce wall interference and to avoid blockage at transonic speeds by wall adaptation.

  19. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  20. Geotechnical LFRD calculations of settlement and bearing capacity of GDOT shallow bridge foundations and retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    The AASHTO codes for Load Resistance Factored Design (LRFD) regarding shallow bridge foundations : and walls have been implemented into a set of spreadsheet algorithms to facilitate the calculations of bearing : capacity and footing settlements on na...

  1. Nonlinear Modeling of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Wall Strengthened using Ferrocement Sandwich Structure

    KAUST Repository

    M., Abdel-Mooty; M., El-Kashef; E., Fahmy; M., Abou-Zeid; M., Haroun

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block are used mainly as non-load-bearing walls that provide heat insulation. This results in considerable saving in cooling energy particularly in hot desert environment with large variation of daily and seasonal

  2. An approximate method for lateral stability analysis of wall-frame ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Initially the stability differential equation of this equivalent sandwich beam is ... buckling loads of coupled shear-wall structures using continuous medium ... In this study, an approximate method based on continuum system model and transfer.

  3. Surface heat loads during major disruptions in INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal energy contained in the INTOR plasma is assumed to be about 200 MJ. In a major plasma disruption this energy is dumped into parts of the first wall in a time short compared to the energy confinement time. To estimate the surface heat load due to this energy dump, two major parameters are not sufficiently well known at present: the disruption time and the affected first wall surface area. To get a certain idea of the heat loads to be expected, we have employed the model of conserved flux tubes which are successively scraped-off at the first wall. The results reveal that even for a homogeneous deposition in the toroidal direction the heat load is too high for some parts of the first wall. Since, however, the presumptions are very uncertain to date, experiments will have to be set up to study the energy deposition during disruptions. (author)

  4. On Young's modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    load transfer in nanocomposites. In the present work, CNT/Al ... calculations. The theoretical modulus of the graphene sheet is supposed to be 1060 GPa (Harris 2004). The reason why multi-walled nanotubes have a modulus > 1060 GPa (that of graphene sheet) is currently not understood. However, in the present paper, ...

  5. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  6. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  7. Structure of thermonuclear reactor wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro.

    1991-01-01

    In a thermonuclear reactor wall, there has been a worry that the brazing material is melted by high temperature heat and particle load, to peel off the joined portion and the protecting material is destroyed by temperature elevation, to expose the heat sink material. Then, in the reactor core structures of a thermonuclear reactor, such as a divertor plate comprising a protecting material made of carbon material and the heat sink material joined by brazing, a plate material made of a so-called refractory metal having a high atomic number such as tungsten, molybdenum or the alloy thereof is embedded or attached to an accurate position of the protecting material. This can prevent the brazing portion from destruction by escaping electrons generated upon occurrence of abnormality in the thermonuclear reactor, and peeling or destroy of the protecting material and the heat sink material. Sufficient characteristics of plasmas can always be maintained by disposing a material having a small atomic number, for example, carbon material, to the position facing to the plasmas. (N.H.)

  8. Data fusion of ultrasound and GPR signals for analysis of historic walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, A; Gosalbez, J; Safont, G; Vergara, L

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an application of ultrasounds and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for analysis of historic walls. The objectives are to characterize the deformation of a historic wall under different levels of load weights and to obtain an enhanced image of the wall. A new method that fuses data from ultrasound and GPR traces is proposed which is based on order statistics digital filters. Application results are presented for non destructive testing (NDT) of two replicates of historic ashlars' masonry walls: the first one homogeneous and the second one containing controlled defects such as cracks and nooks. The walls are measured separately using ultrasounds and GPR at different load steps. Time and frequency parameters extracted from the signals and different B-Scans for each of the NDT techniques are obtained. After this, a new fused representation is obtained, which results demonstrate the improvement of characterization and defect detection in historic walls using data fusion.

  9. Material options for a commercial fusion reactor first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of various materials for use as first walls in high-power-density commercial fusion reactors. Operating limits for each material were obtained based on a number of criteria, including maximum allowable structural temperatures, critical heat flux, ultimate tensile strength, and design-allowable stress. The results with water as a coolant indicate that a modified alloy similar to HT-9 may be a suitable candidate for low- and medium-power-density reactor first walls with neutron loads of up to 6 MW/m 2 . A vanadium or copper alloy must be used for high-power-density reactors. The neutron wall load limit for vanadium alloys is about 14 MW 2 , provided a suitable coating material is chosen. The extremely limited data base for radiation effects hinders any quantitative assessment of the limits for copper alloys

  10. Wall insulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostek, P.T.

    1987-08-11

    In a channel specially designed to fasten semi-rigid mineral fibre insulation to masonry walls, it is known to be constructed from 20 gauge galvanized steel or other suitable material. The channel is designed to have pre-punched holes along its length for fastening of the channel to the drywall screw. The unique feature of the channel is the teeth running along its length which are pressed into the surface of the butted together sections of the insulation providing a strong grip between the two adjacent pieces of insulation. Of prime importance to the success of this system is the recent technological advancements of the mineral fibre itself which allow the teeth of the channel to engage the insulation fully and hold without mechanical support, rather than be repelled or pushed back by the inherent nature of the insulation material. After the insulation is secured to the masonry wall by concrete nail fastening systems, the drywall is screwed to the channel.

  11. A three-bar model for ratcheting of fusion reactor first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, J.; Majumdar, S.

    1994-12-01

    First wall structures of fusion reactors are subjected to cyclic bending stresses caused by inhomogeneous temperature distribution during plasma burn cycles and by electromagnetically induced impact loads during plasma disruptions. Such a combination of loading can potentially lead to ratcheting or incremental accumulation of plastic strain with cycles. An elastic-plastic three-bar model is developed to investigate the ratcheting behavior of the first wall

  12. Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

    OpenAIRE

    C. J. W. Habets; D. J. Peters; J. G. de Gijt; A. V. Metrikine; S. N. Jonkman

    2016-01-01

    Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of this method for anchored sheet pile quay walls that were not purposely designed for seismic loads. A research methodology is developed in which pseudo-static, permanent-di...

  13. Shadows on the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Diana.

    1984-01-01

    Canadian antinuclear groups, because of their shifting stances and fluid overlapping membership, are compared with shadows on a wall. They can be roughly classified as environmental, pacifist, concerned with energy, religious, or dedicated to nuclear responsibility. The author considers that such groups, despite their arguably unrealistic attitudes, have raised public awareness of the ethical, practical and financial aspects of power development in Canada and the world

  14. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  15. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  16. Light shining through walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  17. Light shining through walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  18. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  19. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  20. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Yongbo; Dong, Hongying; Zhou, Zhongyi; Qiao, Qiyun

    2014-01-01

    Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA) and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied. PMID:28788170

  1. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Yongbo; Dong, Hongying; Zhou, Zhongyi; Qiao, Qiyun

    2014-08-19

    Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA) and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied.

  2. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlin Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete brick (RCB is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied.

  3. Experimental testing of anchoring devices for bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have presented a new plastic design method of wood-framed shear walls at ultimate limit state. This method allows the designer to calculate the load-carrying capacity of shear walls partially anchored, where the leading stud is not anchored against the uplift.The anchorage system of shear walls is provided from anchor bolts and hold downs. Anchor bolts provide horizontal shear continuity between the bottom rail and the foundation. Hold downs are directly connected from ...

  4. Effects of Geofoam Panels on Static Behavior of Cantilever Retaining Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Navid Hasanpouri Notash; Rouzbeh Dabiri

    2018-01-01

    Geofoam is one of the geosynthetic products that can be used in geotechnical applications. According to researches, expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam placed directly against a rigid retaining wall has been proposed as a strategy to reduce static loads on the wall. This study employed a finite difference analysis using a 2-D FLAC computer program by considering yielding and nonyielding states for retaining walls to explore the effectiveness of geofoam panels in improving the static performanc...

  5. Numerical simulations of tests masonry walls from ceramic block using a detailed finite element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Salajka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an analysis of the behaviour of brick ceramic walls. The behaviour of the walls was analysed experimentally in order to obtain their bearing capacity under static loading and their seismic resistance. Simultaneously, numerical simulations of the experiments were carried out in order to obtain additional information on the behaviour of masonry walls made of ceramic blocks. The results of the geometrically and materially nonlinear computations were compared to the results of the performed tests.

  6. Multi-level nonlinear modeling verification scheme of RC high-rise wall buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Alwaeli, W.; Mwafy, A.; Pilakoutas, K.; Guadagnini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete (RC) high-rise wall buildings are designed and detailed to respond well beyond the elastic range under the expected earthquake ground motions. However, despite their considerable section depth, in terms of analysis, RC walls are still often treated as linear elements, ignoring the effect of deformation compatibility. Due to the limited number of available comprehensive experimental studies on RC structural wall systems subjected to cycling loading, few...

  7. Cyclic behavior of low rise concrete shear walls containing recycled coarse and fine aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Qiyun; Cao, Wanlin; Qian, Zhiwei; Li, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wenwen; Liu, Wenchao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the cyclic behaviors of low rise concrete shear walls using recycled coarse or fine aggregates were investigated. Eight low rise Recycled Aggregates Concrete (RAC) shear wall specimens were designed and tested under a cyclic loading. The following parameters were varied:

  8. The contribution of CASIEL infill walls to the shear resistance of steel frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'Andu, B.M.; Martens, D.R.W; Vermeltfoort, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    In Europe, calcium silicate element (CASIEL) walls are increasingly employed as partitions and external claddings in buildings. The CASIEL infills and the frames mutually interact through frame-wall interfaces. This interaction has a significant influence on the load transmission paths of building

  9. Investigating Wind-Driven Rain Intrusion in Walls with the CARWASh

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Wind-driven rain provides the primary external moisture load for exterior walls.Water absorption by the cladding, runoff, and penetration through the cladding or at details determine how a wall system performs. In this paper we describe a new laboratory facility that can create controlled outdoor and indoor conditions and use it to investigate the water...

  10. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  11. Experimental and theoretical analysis of shear wall failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantenbein, F.; Queval, J.C.; Dalbera, J.

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen walls with and without openings have been tested under seismic loading up to collapse and the test results have already been reported. A global model has been developed for the description of the hysteretic behaviour; it is based on the use of secant stiffness up to the steel yielding and on a slip model after yielding. Applications of this model to the walls with and without openings will be shown and the calculated top displacement will be compared with the measured one. The input load level leading to the failure is calculated with this non-linear model and the results are compared with the experimental values. The safety margin, which is defined as the ratio of the experimental load level leading to the failure to that obtained by linear calculation, will be given as a function of the mean excitation frequency

  12. Seismic Performance of Composite Shear Walls Constructed Using Recycled Aggregate Concrete and Different Expandable Polystyrene Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The seismic performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC composite shear walls with different expandable polystyrene (EPS configurations was investigated. Six concrete shear walls were designed and tested under cyclic loading to evaluate the effect of fine RAC in designing earthquake-resistant structures. Three of the six specimens were used to construct mid-rise walls with a shear-span ratio of 1.5, and the other three specimens were used to construct low-rise walls with a shear-span ratio of 0.8. The mid-rise and low-rise shear walls consisted of an ordinary recycled concrete shear wall, a composite wall with fine aggregate concrete (FAC protective layer (EPS modules as the external insulation layer, and a composite wall with sandwiched EPS modules as the insulation layer. Several parameters obtained from the experimental results were compared and analyzed, including the load-bearing capacity, stiffness, ductility, energy dissipation, and failure characteristics of the specimens. The calculation formula of load-bearing capacity was obtained by considering the effect of FAC on composite shear walls as the protective layer. The damage process of the specimen was simulated using the ABAQUS Software, and the results agreed quite well with those obtained from the experiments. The results show that the seismic resistance behavior of the EPS module composite for shear walls performed better than ordinary recycled concrete for shear walls. Shear walls with sandwiched EPS modules had a better seismic performance than those with EPS modules lying outside. Although the FAC protective layer slightly improved the seismic performance of the structure, it undoubtedly slowed down the speed of crack formation and the stiffness degradation of the walls.

  13. Regulation of cell wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Plant cell walls differ in their amount and composition among various cell types and even in different microdomains of the wall of a given cell. Plants must have evolved regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis, targeted secretion, and assembly of wall components to achieve the heterogeneity in cell walls. A number of factors, including hormones, the cytoskeleton, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, phosphoinositides, and sugar nucleotide supply, have been implicated in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis or deposition. In the past two years, there have been important discoveries in transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. Several transcription factors in the NAC and MYB families have been shown to be the key switches for activation of secondary wall biosynthesis. These studies suggest a transcriptional network comprised of a hierarchy of transcription factors is involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. Further investigation and integration of the regulatory players participating in the making of cell walls will certainly lead to our understanding of how wall amounts and composition are controlled in a given cell type. This may eventually allow custom design of plant cell walls on the basis of our needs.

  14. In vivo hypertensive arterial wall uptake of radiolabeled liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodis, H.N.; Amartey, J.K.; Crawford, D.W.; Wickham, E.; Blankenhorn, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Using five sham-operated and seven aortic coarctation-induced hypertensive New Zealand White rabbits intravenously injected with neutral small unilamellar vesicles loaded with [111In]nitrilotriacetic acid, we demonstrated in vivo that the normal aortic arterial wall participates in liposome uptake and that this uptake is increased in the hypertensive aortic wall by approximately threefold (p less than or equal to 0.0001). Among the three regions examined, aortic arch, thoracic aorta, and lower abdominal aorta, the difference in uptake between the normotensive and hypertensive arterial walls was significantly different, p less than or equal to 0.05, p less than or equal to 0.0001, and p less than 0.05, respectively. The uptake by the different regions of the hypertensive arterial wall is consistent with the pathological changes present in these areas. Furthermore, the extent of liposome uptake by the aortic wall is strongly correlated with the height of the blood pressure (r = 0.85, p = 0.001, n = 11). We conclude that neutral small unilamellar liposomes can be used to carry agents into the arterial wall in vivo in the study of hypertensive vascular disease and could be especially useful for the delivery of pharmacologically or biologically active agents that would otherwise be inactivated within the circulation or are impermeable to the arterial wall

  15. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bödeker, Dietrich [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Moore, Guy D., E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: guymoore@ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can 'run away,' that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ∼ 10{sup 14}. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ∼ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  16. Tension tests of concrete containment wall elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.M.; Julien, J.T.; Russel, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    Tension tests of concrete containment wall elements were conducted as part of a three-phase research program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The objective of the EPRI experimental/analytical program is twofold. The first objective is to provide the utility industry with a test-verified analytical method for making realistic estimates of actual capacities of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments under internal over-pressurization from postulated degraded core accidents. The second objective is to determine qualitative and quantitative leak rate characteristics of typical containment cross-sections with and without penetrations. This paper covers the experimental portion to the EPRI program. The testing program for Phase 1 included eight large-scale specimens representing elements from the wall of a containment. Each specimen was 60-in (1525-mm) square, 24-in (610-mm) thick, and had full-size reinforcing bars. Six specimens were representative of prototypical reinforced concrete containment designs. The remaining two specimens represented prototypical prestressed containment designs. Various reinforcement configurations and loading arrangements resulted in data that permit comparisons of the effects of controlled variables on cracking and subsequent concrete/reinforcement/liner interaction in containment elements. Subtle differences, due to variations in reinforcement patterns and load applications among the eight specimens, are being used to benchmark the codes being developed in the analytical portion of the EPRI program. Phases 2 and 3 of the test program will examine leak rate characteristics and failure mechanisms at penetrations and structural discontinuities. (orig.)

  17. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  18. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...... of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened concrete tension member...

  19. Enhanced wall pumping in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberg, J.; Harbour, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The enhanced wall pumping phenomenon in JET is observed for hydrogen or deuterium plasmas which are moved from the outer (larger major radius) limiter position either to the inner wall or to the top/bottom wall of the vacuum vessel. This phenomenon is analysed by employing a particle recycling model which combines plasma particle transport with particle re-emission from and retention within material surfaces. The model calculates the important experimentally observable quantities, such as particle fluxes, global particle confinement time, plasma density and density profile. Good qualitative agreement is found and, within the uncertainties, the agreement is quantitative if the wall pumping is assumed to be caused by two simultaneously occurring effects: (1) Neutral particle screening at the inner wall and the top/bottom wall is larger than that at the outer limiter because of different magnetic topologies at different poloidal positions; and (2) although most of the particles (≥ 90%) impacting on the wall can be promptly re-emitted, a small fraction (≤ 10%) of them must be retained in the wall for a period of time which is similar to or larger than the global plasma particle confinement time. However, the wall particle retention time need not be different from that of the outer limiter, i.e. pumping can occur when there is no difference between the material properties of the limiter and those of the wall. (author). 45 refs, 18 figs

  20. Analysis and design of column reinforced masonry and concrete walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, J.M.; Roy, S.B.; Fang, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental frequencies, maximum moments and maximum shear forces are determined as a function of the governing parameters, for several different boundary conditions. The quantities are obtained for uniform panels, for walls with openings typical of doorways and other penetrations, and for panels having a region of degraded stiffness. In addition to the internal forces and moment due to out-of-plane action, the stresses due to in-plane loading are also found. From the results curves are constructed which allow for easy computation of flexural frequency, and bending moments and shears due to dynamic loads normal to the wall. Furthermore, based on the studies of panels with geometric or material discontinuities, corrections to results for uniform panels are found which can be used if openings or weakened areas exist in the wall. Several conclusions are presented concerning effects on behavior due to varied column location, critical stiffness ratio for columns to be effective, and the effect of openings on overall behavior. A number of design recommendations are presented. While the motivation for the study came from the need to design masonry walls, the analysis results are applicable to solid concrete walls reinforced by vertical columns. (orig./HP)

  1. Capturing strain localization behind a geosynthetic-reinforced soil wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Timothy Y.; Borja, Ronaldo I.; Duvernay, Blaise G.; Meehan, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the results of finite element (FE) analyses of shear strain localization that occurred in cohesionless soils supported by a geosynthetic-reinforced retaining wall. The innovative aspects of the analyses include capturing of the localized deformation and the accompanying collapse mechanism using a recently developed embedded strong discontinuity model. The case study analysed, reported in previous publications, consists of a 3.5-m tall, full-scale reinforced wall model deforming in plane strain and loaded by surcharge at the surface to failure. Results of the analysis suggest strain localization developing from the toe of the wall and propagating upward to the ground surface, forming a curved failure surface. This is in agreement with a well-documented failure mechanism experienced by the physical wall model showing internal failure surfaces developing behind the wall as a result of the surface loading. Important features of the analyses include mesh sensitivity studies and a comparison of the localization properties predicted by different pre-localization constitutive models, including a family of three-invariant elastoplastic constitutive models appropriate for frictional/dilatant materials. Results of the analysis demonstrate the potential of the enhanced FE method for capturing a collapse mechanism characterized by the presence of a failure, or slip, surface through earthen materials.

  2. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  3. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  4. Radiometric measurements of wall temperatures in the 800 K to 1150 K range for a quartz radiant heating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, L.G.; Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Shahien, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many industrial applications require heat transfer to a load in an inert environment, which can be achieved by using gas-fired radiant tubes. A radiant tube consists of a flame confined in a cylindrical metal or ceramic chamber. The flame heats the tube wall, which in turn radiates to the load. One important characteristic of radiant heating tubes is wall temperature uniformity. Numerical models of radiant tubes have been used to predict wall temperatures, but there is a lack of experimental data for validation. Recently, Namazian et al., Singh and Gorski, and Peters et al. have measured wall temperature profiles of radiant tubes using thermocouples. 13 refs., 3 figs

  5. Characteristics of wall pressure over wall with permeable coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Woo Seog; Shin, Seungyeol; Lee, Seungbae [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluctuating wall pressures were measured using an array of 16 piezoelectric transducers beneath a turbulent boundary layer. The coating used in this experiment was an open cell, urethane type foam with a porosity of approximately 50 ppi. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The boundary layer on the flat plate was measured by using a hot wire probe, and the CPM method was used to determine the skin friction coefficient. The wall pressure autospectra and streamwise wavenumber frequency spectra were compared to assess the attenuation of the wall pressure field by the coating. The coating is shown to attenuate the convective wall pressure energy. However, the relatively rough surface of the coating in this investigation resulted in a higher mean wall shear stress, thicker boundary layer, and higher low frequency wall pressure spectral levels compared to a smooth wall.

  6. Thermal dynamic simulation of wall for building energy efficiency under varied climate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejin; Zhang, Yujin; Hong, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at different kind of walls in five cities of different zoning for thermal design, using thermal instantaneous response factors method, the author develops software to calculation air conditioning cooling load temperature, thermal response factors, and periodic response factors. On the basis of the data, the author gives the net work analysis about the influence of dynamic thermal of wall on air-conditioning load and thermal environment in building of different zoning for thermal design regional, and put forward the strategy how to design thermal insulation and heat preservation wall base on dynamic thermal characteristic of wall under different zoning for thermal design regional. And then provide the theory basis and the technical references for the further study on the heat preservation with the insulation are in the service of energy saving wall design. All-year thermal dynamic load simulating and energy consumption analysis for new energy-saving building is very important in building environment. This software will provide the referable scientific foundation for all-year new thermal dynamic load simulation, energy consumption analysis, building environment systems control, carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy -saving walls building. Based on which, we will not only expediently design system of building energy, but also analyze building energy consumption and carry through scientific energy management. The study will provide the referable scientific foundation for carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy saving walls building.

  7. The use of joint reinforcement in qualifying masonry walls in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.G.; Becica, I.J.; Chokshi, N.C.; Con, V.N.; Hamid, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Wire joint reinforcement has been traditionally used in block masonry walls for crack control and to provide continuity for multiple wythe walls. In a number of nuclear power plants, vertically unreinforced masonry walls that failed to meet the code allowable stresses for unreinforced masonry were qualified using joint reinforcement as a structural steel to carry lateral loads in the horizontal direction. It is the objective of this paper to examine the adequacy of this approach for seismic load application. A state-of-the-art review of available test data and code design provisions will be presented. It is concluded that the use of joint reinforcement to resist tensile stresses due to seismic loading is questionable because of the lack of test data available and especially the characterization of the cyclic behavior of joint reinforced masonry walls. Further research in this area is recommended

  8. Plasma Chamber and First Wall of the Ignitor Experiment^*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiaro, A.; Coppi, B.; Bianchi, A.; Lucca, F.

    2005-10-01

    The new designs of the Plasma Chamber (PC) and of the First Wall (FW) system are based on updated scenarios for vertical plasma disruption (VDE) as well as estimates for the maximum thermal wall loadings at ignition. The PC wall thickness has been optimized to reduce the deformation during the worst disruption event without sacrificing the dimensions of the plasma column. A non linear dynamic analysis of the PC has been performed on a 360^o model of it, taking into account possible toroidal asymmetries of the halo current. Radial EM loads obtained by scaling JET measurements have been also considered. The low-cycle fatigue analysis confirms that the PC is able to meet a lifetime of few thousand cycles for the most extreme combinations of magnetic fields and plasma currents. The FW, made of Molybdenum (TZM) tiles covering the entire inner surface of the PC, has been designed to withstand thermal and EM loads, both under normal operating conditions and in case of disruption. Detailed elasto-plastic structural analyses of the most (EM) loaded tile-carriers show that these are compatible with the adopted fabrication requirements. ^*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. DOE.

  9. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltakci, M. Y.; Ozturk, M.; Arslan, M. H.

    2010-09-01

    The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls) in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools). This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application) and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam). Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  10. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Kaltakci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools. This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam. Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  11. First wall fusion blanket temperature variation - slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The first wall of a fusion blanket is approximated by a slab, with the surface facing the plasma subjected to an applied heat flux, while the rear surface is convectively cooled. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the early phases of heating as well as for large times are established. Analytical solutions for the temperature variation with time and space are derived. Numerical calculations for an aluminum and stainless steel slab are performed for a wall loading of 1 MW(th)/m 2 . Both helium and water cooling are considered. (Auth.)

  12. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  13. Ultimate limit state design of sheet pile walls by finite elements and nonlinear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Sven

    2005-01-01

    The design of sheet pile walls by lower bound limit analysis is considered. The design problem involves the determination of the necessary yield moment of the wall, the wall depth and the anchor force such that the structure is able to sustain the given loads. This problem is formulated...... as a nonlinear programming problem where the yield moment of the wall is minimized subject to equilibrium and yield conditions. The finite element discretization used enables exact fulfillment of these conditions and thus, according to the lower bound theorem, the solutions are safe....

  14. Heat transfer characteristics of building walls using phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Pasek, A. D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Pratomo, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    Minimizing energy consumption in air conditioning system can be done with reducing the cooling load in a room. Heat from solar radiation which passes through the wall increases the cooling load. Utilization of phase change material on walls is expected to decrease the heat rate by storing energy when the phase change process takes place. The stored energy is released when the ambient temperature is low. Temperature differences at noon and evening can be utilized as discharging and charging cycles. This study examines the characteristics of heat transfer in walls using phase change material (PCM) in the form of encapsulation and using the sleeve as well. Heat transfer of bricks containing encapsulated PCM, tested the storage and released the heat on the walls of the building models were evaluated in this study. Experiments of heat transfer on brick consist of time that is needed for heat transfer and thermal conductivity test as well. Experiments were conducted on a wall coated by PCM which was exposed on a day and night cycle to analyze the heat storage and heat release. PCM used in these experiments was coconut oil. The measured parameter is the temperature at some points in the brick, walls and ambient temperature as well. The results showed that the use of encapsulation on an empty brick can increase the time for thermal heat transfer. Thermal conductivity values of a brick containing encapsulated PCM was lower than hollow bricks, where each value was 1.3 W/m.K and 1.6 W/m.K. While the process of heat absorption takes place from 7:00 am to 06:00 pm, and the release of heat runs from 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. The use of this PCM layer can reduce the surface temperature of the walls of an average of 2°C and slows the heat into the room.

  15. Diurnal thermal analysis of microencapsulated PCM-concrete composite walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Alexander M.; Sant, Gaurav; Pilon, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transient heat conduction across microencapsulated PCM-concrete walls was simulated. • Equivalent homogeneous wall with effective thermal properties was rigorously derived. • Adding PCM to the wall increases daily energy savings and delays peak thermal load. • Energy savings is maximum when PCM melting temperature equals indoor temperature. • Energy savings are limited in extreme climates but time delay can be large. - Abstract: This paper examines the benefits of adding microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) to concrete used in building envelopes to reduce energy consumption and costs. First, it establishes that the time-dependent thermal behavior of microencapsulated PCM-concrete composite walls can be accurately predicted by an equivalent homogeneous wall with appropriate effective thermal properties. The results demonstrate that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete resulted in a reduction and a time-shift in the maximum heat flux through the composite wall subjected to diurnal sinusoidal outdoor temperature and solar radiation heat flux. The effects of the PCM volume fraction, latent heat of fusion, phase change temperature and temperature window, and outdoor temperature were evaluated. Several design rules were established including (i) increasing the PCM volume fraction and/or enthalpy of phase change increased the energy flux reduction and the time delay, (ii) the energy flux reduction was maximized when the PCM phase change temperature was close to the desired indoor temperature, (iii) the optimum phase change temperature to maximize the time delay increased with increasing average outdoor temperature, (iv) in extremely hot or cold climates, the thermal load could be delayed even though the reduction in daily energy flux was small, and (v) the choice of phase change temperature window had little effect on the energy flux reduction and on the time delay. This analysis can serve as a framework to design PCM composite walls

  16. Radiation shielding wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yoshitaka; Oka, Shinji; Kan, Toshihiko; Misato, Takeshi.

    1990-01-01

    A space between a pair of vertical steel plates laterally disposed in parallel at an optional distance has a structure of a plurality of vertically extending tranks partitioned laterally by vertically placed steel plates. Then, cements are grouted to the tranks. Strip-like steel plates each having a thickness greater than the gap between the each of the vertically placed steel plates and the cement are bonded each at the surface for each of the vertically placed steel plates opposing to the cements. A protrusion of a strip width having radiation shielding performance substantially identical with that by the thickness of the cement is disposed in the strip-like steel plates. With such a constitution, a safety radiation shielding wall structure with no worry of radiation intrusion to gaps, if formed, between the steel plates and the grouted cements due to shrinkage of the cements. (I.N.)

  17. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  18. Seismic performance of geosynthetic-soil retaining wall structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnani, Saman

    Vertical inclusions of expanded polystyrene (EPS) placed behind rigid retaining walls were investigated as geofoam seismic buffers to reduce earthquake-induced loads. A numerical model was developed using the program FLAC and the model validated against 1-g shaking table test results of EPS geofoam seismic buffer models. Two constitutive models for the component materials were examined: elastic-perfectly plastic with Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) failure criterion and non-linear hysteresis damping model with equivalent linear method (ELM) approach. It was judged that the M-C model was sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. The mechanical property of interest to attenuate dynamic loads using a seismic buffer was the buffer stiffness defined as K = E/t (E = buffer elastic modulus, t = buffer thickness). For the range of parameters investigated in this study, K ≤50 MN/m3 was observed to be the practical range for the optimal design of these systems. Parametric numerical analyses were performed to generate design charts that can be used for the preliminary design of these systems. A new high capacity shaking table facility was constructed at RMC that can be used to study the seismic performance of earth structures. Reduced-scale models of geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) walls were built on this shaking table and then subjected to simulated earthquake loading conditions. In some shaking table tests, combined use of EPS geofoam and horizontal geosynthetic reinforcement layers was investigated. Numerical models were developed using program FLAC together with ELM and M-C constitutive models. Physical and numerical results were compared against predicted values using analysis methods found in the journal literature and in current North American design guidelines. The comparison shows that current Mononobe-Okabe (M-O) based analysis methods could not consistently satisfactorily predict measured reinforcement connection load distributions at all elevations under both static

  19. An experimental investigation of the seismic behavior of semi-supported steel shear walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanpour, Alireza; Jönsson, Jeppe; Moharrami, H.

    2010-01-01

    . These half scale models represent an intermediate storey in a multi-storey steel frame. Hysteresis loops traced from the load deflection curves of these tests have an “S” shape and dissipate energy well. The system has an acceptable level of ductility, which enables its use as a lateral earthquake load......A semi-supported steel shear wall (SSSW) has been developed in the recent decade, the steel wall is connected to secondary columns that do not carry vertical loads and are used to enable the plate to enter into the post buckling region and develop a tension field. Theoretical research...

  20. Study of surfaces and surface layers on high temperature materials after short-time thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1985-11-01

    Being part of the plasma-wall interaction during TOKAMAK operation, erosion- and redeposition processes of First Wall materials substantially influence plasma parameters as well as the properties of the First Wall. An important redeposition process of eroded material is the formation of thin films by atomic condensation. Examinations of First Wall components after TOKAMAK operation lead to the assumption that these thin metallic films tend to agglomerate to small particles under subsequent heat load. In laboratory experiments it is shown that thin metallic films on various substrates can agglomerate under short time high heat fluxes and also under longer lasting lower thermal loads, thus verifying the ''agglomeration hypothesis''. (orig.) [de

  1. Domain wall networks on solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  2. Hard wall - soft wall - vorticity scattering in shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.; Singh, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytically exact solution, for the problem of lowMach number incident vorticity scattering at a hard-soft wall transition, is obtained in the form of Fourier integrals by using theWiener-Hopf method. Harmonic vortical perturbations of inviscid linear shear flow are scattered at the wall

  3. Hard wall - soft wall - vorticity scattering in shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.; Singh, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytically exact solution, for the problem of low Mach number incident vorticity scattering at a hard-soft wall transition, is obtained in the form of Fourier integrals by using the Wiener-Hopf method. Harmonic vortical perturbations of inviscid linear shear flow are scattered at the wall

  4. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  5. The tubular separate first wall for ITER EDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzuto, A.; Riccardi, B.; Salpietro, E.

    1994-01-01

    The first wall is one of the most loaded plasma-facing components, the heat flux is such that the thermal stresses are the most important design concern. In addition, the First Wall shall resist the eddy current induced plasma disruption, the high pressure of the coolant without leaking ( -6 Torr-lit/sec.) and it should maintain its properties under fast neutron flux (dose up to 3 MW/m 2 ). The tubular solution is the most suitable one to cope with the thermal stresses, the use of double wall reduces the risk of leaks inside the vacuum vessel by avoiding the growth of a crack through both walls: the soft brazing in between walls stops the growth of a crack from one tube to the other. The eddy currents induced in the tubes are low and the Halo current flowing poloidally in the tubes exert a radial pressure which is supported by the blanket box via ad hoc supporting points provided in between first wall and blanket. Conclusions from the thermo-hydraulic analysis and the electromagnetic analysis will be presented including dynamic analysis. Also results of preliminary technological tests on coatings will be discussed

  6. Development of pipe wall thinning prediction software 'FALSET'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Morita, Ryo; Inada, Fumio; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pipe wall thinning in power plants has been managed for maintaining plant integrity and safety with great importance. The target thinning phenomena are Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and Liquid Droplet Impingement Erosion (LDI). At present, the management is based on thinning rate and residual lifetime evaluation using pipe wall thickness measurement results. For the future, more safety and improvement in the management is required, and in this sense, prediction method of wall thinning is willing to be introduced. Therefore, prediction model of FAC and LDI have been constructed in CRIEPI, and to utilize these models to actual plant piping management easily, prediction software 'FALSET' is developed. FALSET has equipped with essential function for pipe wall thinning management in power plants, as follows; (1) Information and condition input of plant piping system and its component, (2) Wall thinning rate evaluation with CRIEPI's FAC/LDI prediction model, (3) Loading of wall thickness measurement data files and graphics of data trend, (4) Residual lifetime evaluation considering both measured and predicted thinning rate, (5) Statistical process and graphics of thinning rate and residual lifetime for multi-piping systems. With further verification and improvement of each function, there will be a perspective for this FALSET to be utilized as a management tool in power plants. (author)

  7. Fail-safe first wall for preclusion of little leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, Masanao; Nakahira, Masataka; Tada, Eisuke; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1994-05-01

    Leakages although excluded by design measures would occur most probably in highly stressed areas, weldments and locations without possibility to classify the state by in-service inspection. In a water-cooled first wall, allowable leak rate of water is generally very small, and therefore, locating of the leak portion under highly activated environment will be very difficult and be time-consuming. The double-wall concept is promising for the ITER first wall, because it can be made fail-safe by the application of the leak-before-break and the multiple load path concepts, and because it has a potential capability to solve the little leak problem. When the fail safe strength is well defined, subcritical crack growth in the damaged wall can be permitted. This will enable to detect stable leakage of coolant without deteriorating plasma operation. The paper deals with the little leak problem and presents method for evaluating small leak rate of a liquid coolant from crack-like defects. The fail-safe first wall with the double-wall concept is also proposed for preclusion of little leakage and its fail-safety is discussed. (author)

  8. Study on Seismic Behavior of Recycled Concrete Energy-efficient Homes Structure Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point is to study the seismic behavior of the lattice type recycled concrete energy saving wall under low-cyclic loading,to provide the basis for the seismic performance of application of recycled concrete lattice wall in energy-saving residential structure. Design two walls with the same structure measures, include Lattice type recycled concrete wall and natural concrete wall, they are tested under low-cycle repetitive loading, compared failure mode and seismic performance in different reinforcement conditions of side column. The bearing capacity and ductility of recycled aggregate concrete are better than natural aggregate concrete, The stiffness degradation curves and the skeleton curves of the walls are basically the same, both of them have better seismic energy dissipation capacity. Lattice type concrete wall is good at seismic performance, recycled aggregate concrete is good at plastic deformation ability, it is advantageous to seismic energy dissipation of wall, it can be applied in energy efficient residential structure wall.

  9. Seismic capacities of masonry walls at the big rock point nuclear generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, D.A.; Bunon, H.; Jenkins, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation to determine the ability of selected concrete block walls in the vicinity of essential equipment to withstand seismic excitation was conducted. The seismic input to the walls was developed in accordance with the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) site-specific response spectra for the site. Time-history inputs to the walls were determined from the response of the turbine building complex. Analyses were performed to determine the capacities of the walls to withstand both in-plane and transverse seismic loads. Transverse load capacities were determined from time-history analyses of nonlinear two-dimensional analytical models of the walls. Separate inputs were used at the tops and bottoms of the walls to reflect the amplification through the building. The walls were unreinforced vertically with one exception, and have unsupported heights as high as 20'-8''. Also, cantilever walls as high as 11'-2'' were included in the evaluation. Factors of safety based on stability of the walls were determined for the transverse response, and on code allowable stresses (Reference 1) for the in-plane response

  10. An experimental study on compressive behavior of rubble stone walls retrofitted with BFRP grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Jia, Bin; Li, Wenjing; Liu, Xiao; Yang, Dan; Deng, Chuanli

    2018-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the compressive behavior of rubble stone walls retrofitted with BFRP grids. The experimental program consisted of four rubble stone walls: one unretrofitted rubble stone wall (reference wall) and three BFRP grids retrofitted rubble stone walls. The main purpose of the tests was to gain a better understanding of the compressive behavior of rubble stone walls retrofitted with different amount of BFRP grids. The experimental results showed that the reference wall failed with out-of-plane collapse due to poor connection between rubble stone blocks and the three BFRP grids retrofitted walls failed with BFRP grids rupture followed by out-of-plane collapse. The measured compressive strength of the BFRP grids retrofitted walls is about 1.4 to 2.5 times of that of the reference wall. Besides, the rubble stone wall retrofitted with the maximum amount of BFRP grids showed the minimum vertical and out-of-plane displacements under the same load.

  11. Location and optimization analysis of capillary tube network embedded in active tuning building wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Fuxin; Yu, Yuebin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a building wall with a thermal tuning function is further investigated. This design turns the building wall from a passive thermal system to an active system. A capillary tube network is installed inside the wall to manipulate the thermodynamics and realize more flexibility and potentials of the wall. This novel building wall structure performs efficiently in terms of building load reduction and supplementary heating and cooling, and the structure is convenient for applying low grade or natural energy with a wider temperature range. The capillary tube network's location inside the wall greatly impacts the thermal and energy performance of the building wall. The effects of three locations including external, middle and internal side are analyzed. The results indicate that the internal wall surface temperature can be neutralized from the ambient environment when the embedded tubes are fed with thermal water. The wall can work with a wide range of water temperature and the optimal location of the tube network is relatively constant in different modes. Power benefit with the wall changes from 2 W to 39 W when the outdoor air temperature changes, higher in summer than in winter. - Highlights: • A building wall with a tuning function is proposed using a capillary pipe network. • Low-grade thermal water can be used to actively manipulate the thermal mass. • Location of the capillary network is investigated to maximize the performance. • The innovation can potentially lower down the grade of energy use in buildings.

  12. The "Brick Wall" Graphic Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    A brick wall provides a fitting description of what happens when teachers try to teach a concept for which students are unprepared. When students are unsuccessful academically, their foundational knowledge may be missing, incomplete, or incorrect. As a result, students "hit a brick wall," and their academic progress stops because they do…

  13. Control of Wall Mounting Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pedersen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for designing controllers for trajectory tracking with actuator constraints. In particular, we consider a joystick-controlled wall mounting robot called WallMo. In contrast to previous works, a model-free approach is taken to the control problem, where the path...

  14. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  15. Gas from the wall socket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, B.

    1997-01-01

    A Dutch public utility (Obragas) introduces a new way to supply gas for their household clients in Helmond, Netherlands: the gas wall socket. The use of gas wall sockets must prevent the decrease of the market share for natural gas compared to the market share of electricity for households

  16. Diplopia and Orbital Wall Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  17. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  18. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  19. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  20. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  1. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  2. Dry wall Kras 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the modesty of hiska, they show a simple understanding of corbelling technique. One could say they are all examples of human landscape cultivation. Although there is no evident common line when comparing all types of hiska, the cunning eye may observe one shared feature: the positioning of the entrance. More or less all the documented shelters have south or south-western facing entrances. The burja is a cold northerly wind; from the south (Adriatic Sea the winds are warmer. When resting, the setting sun is taken as a sign of the ending of the working day and a reward for the whole day’s efforts. Entrances are the only openings to these structures, and they should serve as well as possible - to watch over the crops, to wait when hunting, to enjoy the calm of evening light, to breathe the sea wind.The syntax of the architectural language of layering stone and shaping the pattern of the landscape remain an inventive realisation of spatial ideas from the past until today. Not only ideas of shaping space - these ideas are basic interventions in the natural habitat which contribute to survival. Culture and an awareness of its values are the origins of local development and reasonable heritage preservation. The next step are tutorial days with workshops on how to build dry stone structures, walls and other stone architecture, as the DSWA organisation in the UK is doing.

  3. Plasma-Wall Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J; Chen, J L [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Guo, H Y [Tri Alpha Energy (United States); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); McCracken, G M [Culham Science Centre, UKAEA, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    The problem of impurities in fusion plasmas has been recognized since the beginning of the fusion programme. Early experiments in glass vacuum vessels released gas from the wall to such an extent that the radiation from the impurities prevented the plasma from being heated above about 50 eV. The radiative power loss is principally due to line radiation from partially stripped ions, which is particularly a problem during the plasma startup phase. Another problem is fuel dilution, which arises because impurity atoms produce many electrons and, for a given plasma pressure, these electrons take the place of fuel particles. Impurities can also lead to disruptions, as a result of edge cooling and consequent current profile modification. The fractional impurity level which radiates 10% of the total thermonuclear power for a 10 keV plasma is 50% for helium, 7% for carbon, and less than 0.1% for molybdenum. Clearly, impurities of low atomic number are a much less serious problem than those of high atomic number. (author)

  4. Chamber science and technology key question No.1: liquid walls in MFE and IFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Morley, N.

    1999-01-01

    For some time now people have thought of liquid walls as an attractive solution to the technology problems of high power density plasma configurations for MFE, and as (nearly) essential for the pulsed wall-loading conditions in IFE. A flowing, renewable surface could be eroded, evaporated and even be broken apart with no permanent adverse effects on a structure requiring frequent maintenance and replacement. Alpha particle energy could be removed without conduction through a solid wall and the associated thermal stress and creep failure modes, and the energy could be extracted at high temperatures for efficient energy conversion. If a liquid wall of sufficient depth could be formed, radiation damage and waste disposal issues for solid structures could be significantly ameliorated. All these benefits are indeed possible, if only liquid walls could be made to work. As we will see, there are many issues associated with the successful and attractive implementation of liquid walls

  5. Determination of the Airborne Sound Insulation of a Straw Bale Partition Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslík, Jiří; Fabian, Radek; Hrubá, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a scientific project focused on determining of the Airborne Sound Insulation of a peripheral non-load bearing wall made of straw bales expressed by Weighted Sound Reduction Index. Weighted Sound Reduction Index was determined by measuring in the certified acoustic laboratory at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Brno University of Technology. The measured structure of the straw wall was modified in combinations with various materials, so the results include a wide range of possible compositions of the wall. The key modification was application of plaster on both sides of the straw bale wall. This construction as is frequently done in actual straw houses. The additional measurements were performed on the straw wall with several variants of additional wall of slab materials. The airborne sound insulation value has been also measured in separate stages of the construction. Thus it is possible to compare and determinate the effect of the single layers on the airborne sound insulation.

  6. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  7. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  8. Gas leakage rate through reinforced concrete shear walls: Numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ting; Hutchinson, Tara C.

    2005-01-01

    Unlined reinforced concrete shear walls are often used as 'tertiary boundaries' in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to house dangerous gases. An unanticipated event, such as an earthquake, may cause gases stored inside the walls to disperse into the environment resulting in excess pollution. To address this concern, in this paper, a methodology to numerically predict the gas leakage rate through these shear walls under lateral loading conditions is proposed. This methodology involves finite element and flow rate analysis. Strain distributions are obtained from the finite element analysis, and then used to simulate the crack characteristics on the concrete specimen. The flow rate through the damaged concrete specimen is then estimated using flow rate formulas available from the literature. Results from an experimental specimen are used to evaluate the methodology, and particularly its robustness in the flow rate estimation

  9. Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making in the Design of Innovative Lock Walls for Barge Impact; Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, James

    2001-01-01

    .... This research project consists of two phases: Phase 1, which culminates with this report, investigated the use of multiple-criteria decision-making in the design process of lock approach walls to consider barge impact and earthquake loads...

  10. Results of strategic calculations for optimizing the first wall life in a tokamak fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daenner, W.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the FWLTB computer program has reached a stage where prediction of the first wall lifetime is possible. Because of the large number of free parameters strategic calculations were found to be the most appropriate way to arrive at load design conditions which allow optimum life expectancy. In this paper a revised set of life criteria is presented this being followed by the results of parameter studies in which single parameters were varied while the remaining ones were kept fixed at a reference value. These results are used as a guide during the subsequent strategic calculations. In a first strategy we aimed at finding the maximum lifetime for the case that the reactor is operated at a neutron wall loading of 10 MW/m 2 . We found that operation over a period of more than one year is possible if the first wall is designed in a very tiny geometry and cooled by a low-pressure coolant. In a second strategy the aim was to find the design conditions for the case that the first wall is cooled by a high-pressure coolant. It is shown that liquid-lithium cooling is manageable up to high wall loadings, but the lifetime is restricted to about 6 MWa/m 2 . Helium cooling allows a higher lifetime, but the design conditions are such that only modest wall loadings can be permitted. (orig.)

  11. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  12. Safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects under pressure and bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jian; Zhou Changyu; Xue Jilin; Dai Qiao; He Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    The safety assessment of pipes with local wall thinning defects is highly important in engineering. Most attention has been paid on the safety assessment of pipe with single local wall thinning defect, while the studies about multiple local wall thinning defects are not nearly enough. However, the interaction of multiple local wall thinning defects in some conditions is great, and may have a great impact on the safety assessment. In the present standard API 579/ASME FFS, the safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects is given, while as well as the influence of load condition, the influences of arrangement and relative depth of defects are ignored, which may influence the safety assessment considerably. In this paper, the influence of the interaction between multiple local wall thinning defects on the remaining strength of pipes at different arrangements and depths of defects under different load conditions (pressure, tension-bending moment and compression-bending moment) are studied. A quantified index is defined to describe the interaction between defects quantitatively. For different arrangements and relative depths of defects, based on a limit value 0.05 of the quantified index of the interaction between defects, a relatively systematic safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects under different load conditions has been proposed.

  13. Development of real time monitoring for ITER first wall erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, Ian.; Pallaras, Luke; Thomson, Laura; Wang, Michael; Riley, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This project aims to contribute to the current research on the first wall erosion diagnostic for the ITER fusion reactor. The plasma-facing first wall tiles of the ITER tokamak reactor are exposed to an expected neutron flux of O. 7 8 M W/m2 and a thermal load of O. 5M W/m 2 during operation. Instabilities in the magnetically confined plasma, such as edge-Iocalised modes, cause the plasma to come into direct contact with the first wall. The resulting thermal loads can vaporise and ablate the tile material. Moreover, a flux of high-energy neutrons produced during the fusion process results in a range of radiation effects. Therefore, a diagnostic is necessary to monitor the extent and rate of damage caused to the first wall. We have considered and critically assessed the viability of six alternative diagnostic methods, encompassing both established and novel concepts. From these, a design featuring embedded conducting elements was selected as the strongest candidate, as by monitoring electrical signals it has the potential to detect both bulk erosion and radiation damage.

  14. Model tests on dynamic performance of RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshio; Shibata, Akenori; Inoue, Norio; Muroi, Kazuo.

    1991-01-01

    For the inelastic dynamic response analysis of a reactor building subjected to earthquakes, it is essentially important to properly evaluate its restoring force characteristics under dynamic loading condition and its damping performance. Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main structural members of a reactor building, and dominate its seismic behavior. In order to obtain the basic information on the dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance of shear walls, the dynamic test using a large shaking table, static displacement control test and the pseudo-dynamic test on the models of a shear wall were conducted. In the dynamic test, four specimens were tested on a large shaking table. In the static test, four specimens were tested, and in the pseudo-dynamic test, three specimens were tested. These tests are outlined. The results of these tests were compared, placing emphasis on the restoring force characteristics and damping performance of the RC wall models. The strength was higher in the dynamic test models than in the static test models mainly due to the effect of loading rate. (K.I.)

  15. A numerical study of external building walls containing phase change materials (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo-Barrientos, M.A.; Belmonte, J.F.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, D.; Molina, A.E.; Almendros-Ibáñez, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been receiving increased attention, due to their capacity to store large amounts of thermal energy in narrow temperature ranges. This property makes them ideal for passive heat storage in the envelopes of buildings. To study the influence of PCMs in external building walls, a one-dimensional transient heat transfer model has been developed and solved numerically using a finite difference technique. Different external building wall configurations were analyzed for a typical building wall by varying the location of the PCM layer, the orientation of the wall, the ambient conditions and the phase transition temperature of the PCM. The integration of a PCM layer into a building wall diminished the amplitude of the instantaneous heat flux through the wall when the melting temperature of the PCM was properly selected according to the season and wall orientation. Conversely, the results of the work show that there is no significant reduction in the total heat lost during winter regardless of the wall orientation or PCM transition temperature. Higher differences were observed in the heat gained during the summer period, due to the elevated solar radiation fluxes. The high thermal inertia of the wall implies that the inclusion of a PCM layer increases the thermal load during the day while decreasing the thermal load during the night. - Highlights: ► A comparative simulation of a building wall with and without PCMs has been conducted. ► PCM is selected according with the season, the wall orientation and the melting temperature. ► PCM in a building wall help to diminish the internal air temperature swings and to regulate the heat transfer.

  16. Implementing Green Walls in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael B; Martin, Michael D; Sajady, Mollika A

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies in applied pedagogical design have shown that, at all educational levels, direct exposure to the natural environment can enhance learning by improving student attention and behaviors. Implementing green walls-a "vertical garden," or "living wall" interior wall that typically includes greenery, a growing medium (soil or substrate) and a water delivery system-provides environmental health benefits, but also provides a practical application within classrooms for minimizing directed attention fatigue in students by connecting them to "outdoor nature" within the indoor environment. Hands-on "project-based" learning is another pedagogical strategy that has proved to be effective across the spectrum of educational levels and across subject areas. Green walls have the potential to inspire critical thinking through a combination of project-based learning strategies and environmental education. The authors have outlined a curriculum involving the implementation of an indoor living wall system within a classroom-learning environment, incorporating project-based learning modules that interact with the wall. In conjunction with the passive health benefits of a green wall, project-based curriculum models can connect students interactively with indoor nature and have the potential to inspire real-world thinking related to science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics fields within the indoor learning environment. Through a combination of these passive and interactive modes, students are connected to nature in the indoor environment regardless of weather conditions outdoors. Future research direction could include post-construction studies of the effectiveness of project-based curricula related to living walls, and the long-term impacts of implementing green walls in classrooms on school achievement and student behaviors.

  17. Building thermal loads: A case study for David Hellen Petta public secondary school

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This chapter assesses the impact of appropriate passive interventions on building thermal loads. The passive interventions investigated are ceiling insulation, wall insulation, attic ventilation, natural ventilation and roof absorptance and also...

  18. A simplified technique for shakedown load determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, H.F.; Younan, M.Y.A.; Megahed, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a simple technique is presented to determine the limit shakedown load of a structure or a component using the finite element method. Through the proposed technique, the limit shakedown load is determined without performing time consuming cyclic loading simulations or iterative elastic techniques. Instead, it is determined by performing only two analyses namely, an elastic analysis and an elastic-plastic analysis. By extracting the results of the two analyses, the limit shakedown load of the structure is determined through the calculation of the residual stresses. The technique is applied and verified using two bench mark shakedown problems namely: the two-bar structure subjected to constant axial force and cyclic thermal loading, and the Bree cylinder subjected to constant internal pressure and cyclic high heat fluxes across its wall. The results of the proposed technique showed very good correlation with the, analytically determined, Bree diagrams of both structures. Moreover, the outcomes of the proposed technique showed very good results in comparison to full cyclic loading elasto-plastic finite element simulations of both structures. (authors)

  19. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Double wall steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padden, T.R.; Uber, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Double-walled steam generator tubing for the steam generators of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor prevents sliding between the surfaces due to a mechanical interlock. Forces resulting from differential thermal expansion between the outer tube and the inner tube are insufficient in magnitude to cause shearing of base metal. The interlock is formed by jointly drawing the tubing, with the inside wall of the outer tube being already formed with grooves. The drawing causes the outer wall of the inner tube to form corrugations locking with the grooves. (author)

  1. Laguna Verde annulus pressurization loads evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, M. A.; Cruz, M. A.; Cardenas, J. B.; Vargas, A.; Cruz, H. J.; Mercado, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    Annulus pressurization, jet impingement, pipe whip restraint and jet thrust are phenomena related to postulated pipe ruptures. A postulated pipe rupture at the weld between recirculation, or feedwater piping and a reactor nozzle safe end, will lead to a high flow rate of flashing water/steam mixture into the annulus between the reactor pressure vessel and the biological shield wall. The total effect of the vessel and pipe inventory blowdown from the break being postulated must be accounted for in the evaluation. A recirculation line break will give rise to an angular dependent short term pressure differential around the vessel, followed by a longer term pressure buildup in the annulus. A recirculation line postulated rupture may not produce worst case conditions and reference to time intervals for only the recirculation break should be treated superficially. A postulated rupture of the feedwater piping may produce the extreme case for determining: 1) the shield wall and reactor vessel to pedestal interactions, 2) loading on the reactor vessel internals, or 3) responses for the balance of piping attached to the vessel. Recently it was identified a potential issue regarding the criteria used to determine which cases were evaluated for Annulus Pressurization (A P) loads for new loads plants. The original A P loads methodology in the late 1970 and early 1980 years separated the mass/energy release calculation from the structural response calculation based on the implicit assumption that the maximum overall mass/energy release will result in maximizing the structural response and corresponding stresses on the reactor pressure vessel, internals, and containment structures. This process did not consider the dynamic response in the primary and secondary safety related structures, components and equipment. Consequently, the A P loads used as input for design adequacy evaluations of Nuclear Steam Supply System safety related components for new loads plants might have

  2. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  3. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  4. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  5. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  6. Fluids in micropores. V. Effects of thermal motion in the walls of a slit-micropore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diestler, D.J.; Schoen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Previous articles in this series have concerned the prototypal slit-pore with rigid walls, in which a Lennard-Jones (12,6) monatomic film is constrained between two plane-parallel walls comprising like atoms fixed in the face-centered-cubic (fcc) (100) configuration. The behavior of molecularly thin films in the rigid-wall prototype is governed by the template effect, whereby solid films can form epitaxially when the walls are properly aligned in the lateral directions. In this article the influence of thermal motion of the wall atoms on the template effect is investigated. The walls are treated as Einstein solids, the atoms moving independently in harmonic potentials centered on rigidly fixed equilibrium positions in the fcc (100) configuration. The force constant f c is a measure of the stiffness of the walls, the rigid-wall limit being f c =∞. Formal thermodynamic and statistical mechanical analyses of the system are carried out. The results of grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations indicate that for values of f c characteristic of a soft (e.g., noble-gas) crystal dynamic coupling between wall and film has a substantial influence on such equilibrium properties as normal stress (load) and interfacial tensions. In general, the softer the walls (i.e., the smaller the value of f c ), the weaker the template effect and hence the softer and more disordered the confined film. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  8. Optimizing load transfer in multiwall nanotubes through interwall coupling: Theory and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, E.M.; Letertre, A.; McCarthy, M.A.; Curtin, W.A.; Xia, Z.

    2010-01-01

    An analytical model is developed to determine the length scales over which load is transferred from outer to inner walls of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a function of the amount of bonding between walls. The model predicts that the characteristic length for load transfer scales as l∼t√(E/μ-bar), where t is the CNT wall spacing, E is the effective wall Young's modulus, and μ-bar is the average interwall shear modulus due to interwall coupling. Molecular dynamics simulations for MWCNTs with up to six walls, and with interwall coupling achieved by interwall sp 3 bonding at various densities, provide data against which the model is tested. For interwall bonding having a uniform axial distribution, the analytic and simulation models agree well, showing that continuum mechanics concepts apply down to the atomic scale in this problem. The simulation models show, however, that load transfer is sensitive to natural statistical fluctuations in the spatial distribution of the interwall bonding between pairs of walls, and such fluctuations generally increase the net load transfer length needed to fully load an MWCNT. Optimal load transfer is achieved when bonding is uniformly distributed axially, and all interwall regions have the same shear stiffness, implying a linear decrease in the number of interwall bonds with distance from the outer wall. Optimal load transfer into an n-wall MWCNT is shown to occur over a length of ∼1.5nl. The model can be used to design MWCNTs for structural materials, and to interpret load transfer characteristics deduced from experiments on individual MWCNTs.

  9. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  10. Restrained shrinkage of masonry walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Rots, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    State of the art computational rnechanics, in combination with experimental programmes have a lot to offer in providing insight, characterization of total behaviour and predictive ability of structural masonry. Here numerical research towards rationalizing masonry wall movement joint positioning and

  11. Thermal Insulating Concrete Wall Panel Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes. PMID:25177718

  12. Plasma surface engineering in first wall of tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Xu Zengyu; Zhang Fu; Zhang Nianman

    2001-01-01

    The boronization, siliconization and lithium coating of the inner wall of HL-1M are introduced, the hydrogen recycling and the influence to impurities controlled and core radiation energy loss are discussed. Experiments prove that these wall treatments are very useful for the plasma confinement, a 4 s reproducible long pulse discharge is obtained for siliconized wall, but the plasma pulse length only achieves 2.1 s and its reproducibility is very poor for boronized wall. Lithium coating is the best method of the wall treatments for lowering hydrogen recycling and decreasing the impurities level. For the applications of HL-2A and the future fusion device, a series of B, Ti, Si-doped graphite and B 4 C-C/C composites have been developed, some experimental results about chemical sputtering, tritium retention and recycling, as well as high heat loads are reviewed. Meanwhile, SiC, TiC and B 4 C coating, and B 4 C-C, SiC-C, B 4 C-Cu, Mo-Cu and W-Cu functionally graded materials are also introduced

  13. Parametric Investigation of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thickness for External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kaynakli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have estimated the optimum thickness of thermal insulation materials used in building walls for different climate conditions. The economic parameters (inflation rate, discount rate, lifetime and energy costs, the heating/cooling loads of the building, the wall structure and the properties of the insulation material all affect the optimum insulation thickness. This study focused on the investigation of these parameters that affect the optimum thermal insulation thickness for building walls. To determine the optimum thickness and payback period, an economic model based on life-cycle cost analysis was used. As a result, the optimum thermal insulation thickness increased with increasing the heating and cooling energy requirements, the lifetime of the building, the inflation rate, energy costs and thermal conductivity of insulation. However, the thickness decreased with increasing the discount rate, the insulation material cost, the total wall resistance, the coefficient of performance (COP of the cooling system and the solar radiation incident on a wall. In addition, the effects of these parameters on the total life-cycle cost, payback periods and energy savings were also investigated.

  14. Thermomechanical effects in a laser IFE first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, James P.; Martin, Carl J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser fusion chamber walls will experience large, pulsed heat loads at frequencies of several hertz. The heating, consisting of X-rays, neutrons, and ions, occurs over a few microseconds and is deposited volumetrically over the first few microns of the wall. For a reasonable chamber radius, the heating will be such that the surface temperature is a significant fraction of the melt temperature of the wall, and significant plasticity can be expected in ductile wall materials. This paper presents results for the transient temperatures and stresses in a tungsten-coated steel first wall for a laser fusion device. Failure analyses are carried out using both fatigue and fracture mechanics methodologies. The simulations predict that surface cracks are expected in the tungsten, but the cracks will arrest before reaching the substrate if the crack spacing is sufficiently small. In addition, the thermal and stress fields are compared for a laser fusion device with several simulation experiments. It is shown that the simulations can reproduce the peak surface temperatures, but the corresponding spatial distributions of the stress and temperature will be shallower than the reactor case

  15. Soft impact testing of a wall-floor-wall reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsä, Ari, E-mail: ari.vepsa@vtt.fi; Calonius, Kim; Saarenheimo, Arja; Aatola, Seppo; Halonen, Matti

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A wall-floor-wall reinforced concrete structure was built. • The structure was subjected to three almost identical soft impact tests. • Response was measured with accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges. • Modal tests was also carried out with the same structure in different conditions. • The results are meant to be used for validation of computational methods and models. - Abstract: Assessing the safety of the reactor building of a nuclear power plant against the crash of an airplane calls for valid computational tools such as finite element models and material constitutive models. Validation of such tools and models in turn calls for reliable and relevant experimental data. The problem is that such data is scarcely available. One of the aspects of such a crash is vibrations that are generated by the impact. These vibrations tend to propagate from the impact point to the internal parts of the building. If strong enough, these vibrations may cause malfunction of the safety-critical equipment inside the building. To enable validation of computational models for this type of behaviour, we have conducted a series of three tests with a wall-floor-wall reinforced concrete structure under soft impact loading. The response of the structure was measured with accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges. In addition to impact tests, the structure was subjected to modal tests under different conditions. The tests yielded a wealth of useful data for validation of computational models and better understanding about shock induced vibration physics especially in reinforced concrete structures.

  16. Gravity and domain wall problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, B.; Senjanovic, G.

    1992-11-01

    It is well known that the spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries may lead to conflict with big-bang cosmology. This is due to formation of domain walls which give unacceptable contribution to the energy density of the universe. On the other hand, it is expected that gravity breaks global symmetries explicitly. In this work we propose that this could provide a natural solution to the domain-wall problem. (author). 17 refs

  17. Duct having oscillatory side wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2018-04-03

    A pump system includes a particulate consolidator pump that has a pump outlet. A duct is coupled to the pump outlet. The duct has a wall that is coupled with an oscillator. The oscillator is operable to oscillate the wall at a controlled frequency. The controlled frequency is selected with respect to breaking static bridging of particulate in the duct due, at least in part, to consolidation of the particulate from a downstream check valve.

  18. Dressed Domain Walls and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisa, Luca; Pujolas, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    The cutoff version of the AdS/CFT correspondence states that the Randall Sundrum scenario is dual to a Conformal Field Theory (CFT) coupled to gravity in four dimensions. The gravitational field produced by relativistic Domain Walls can be exactly solved in both sides of the correspondence, and thus provides one further check of it. We show in the two sides that for the most symmetric case, the wall motion does not lead to particle production of the CFT fields. Still, there are nontrivial effects. Due to the trace anomaly, the CFT effectively renormalizes the Domain Wall tension. On the five dimensional side, the wall is a codimension 2 brane localized on the Randall-Sundrum brane, which pulls the wall in a uniform acceleration. This is perceived from the brane as a Domain Wall with a tension slightly larger than its bare value. In both cases, the deviation from General Relativity appears at nonlinear level in the source, and the leading corrections match to the numerical factors.

  19. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  20. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  1. First wall and blanket stresses induced by cyclic fusion core operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Kostoff, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of cyclic thermal loads and stresses for the complete range of operating conditions. Two critical components were examined; the solid wall adjacent to the fusion plasma (first wall) and the fuel elements in the high power density region of the blanket. Simple closed form expressions were derived for temperature increases and thermal stresses that may be evaluated conveniently and rapidly and the values compared for different systems

  2. SprayWall, Cured-In-Placed Method for Manhole Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Manholes and other underground structures commonly account for 25-30 % of infiltration and up to 70% of inflow in sanitary sewer collection systems. These will cause sewer overflow and endanger the nearby environment. SprayWall is a spray-applied, cured-in-place method of construction and is primarily used in manholes. It uses urethane material that provides excellent corrosion resistance. SprayWall is structural and can withstand ground water loads on a long-term basis.

  3. Altered Cell Wall Plasticity Can Restrict Plant Growth under Ammonium Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórska, Anna; Burian, Maria; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Ostaszewska-Bugajska, Monika; Zebrowski, Jacek; Solecka, Danuta; Szal, Bożena

    2017-01-01

    Plants mainly utilize inorganic forms of nitrogen (N), such as nitrate (NO 3 - ) and ammonium (NH 4 + ). However, the composition of the N source is important, because excess of NH 4 + promotes morphological disorders. Plants cultured on NH 4 + as the sole N source exhibit serious growth inhibition, commonly referred to as "ammonium toxicity syndrome." NH 4 + -mediated suppression of growth may be attributable to both repression of cell elongation and reduction of cell division. The precondition for cell enlargement is the expansion of the cell wall, which requires the loosening of the cell wall polymers. Therefore, to understand how NH 4 + nutrition may trigger growth retardation in plants, properties of their cell walls were analyzed. We found that Arabidopsis thaliana using NH 4 + as the sole N source has smaller cells with relatively thicker cell walls. Moreover, cellulose, which is the main load-bearing polysaccharide revealed a denser assembly of microfibrils. Consequently, the leaf blade tissue showed elevated tensile strength and indicated higher cell wall stiffness. These changes might be related to changes in polysaccharide and ion content of cell walls. Further, NH 4 + toxicity was associated with altered activities of cell wall modifying proteins. The lower activity and/or expression of pectin hydrolyzing enzymes and expansins might limit cell wall expansion. Additionally, the higher activity of cell wall peroxidases can lead to higher cross-linking of cell wall polymers. Overall, the NH 4 + -mediated inhibition of growth is related to a more rigid cell wall structure, which limits expansion of cells. The changes in cell wall composition were also indicated by decreased expression of Feronia , a receptor-like kinase involved in the control of cell wall extension.

  4. Seismic Behaviour of Composite Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boita, Ioana-Emanuela; Dan, Daniel; Stoian, Valeriu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper is presented an experimental study conducted at the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania. This study provides results from a comprehensive experimental investigation on the behaviour of composite steel fibre reinforced concrete shear walls (CSFRCW) with partially or totally encased profiles. Two experimental composite steel fibre reinforced concrete walls (CSFRCW) and, as a reference specimen, a typical reinforced concrete shear wall (RCW), (without structural reinforcement), were fabricated and tested under constant vertical load and quasi-static reversed cyclic lateral loads, in displacement control. The tests were performed until failure. The tested specimens were designed as 1:3 scale steel-concrete composite elements, representing a three storeys and one bay element from the base of a lateral resisting system made by shear walls. Configuration/arrangement of steel profiles in cross section were varied within the specimens. The main objective of this research consisted in identifying innovative solutions for composite steel-concrete shear walls with enhanced performance, as steel fibre reinforced concrete which was used in order to replace traditional reinforced concrete. A first conclusion was that replacing traditional reinforcement with steel fibre changes the failure mode of the elements, as from a flexural mode, in case of element RCW, to a shear failure mode for CSFRCW. The maximum lateral force had almost similar values but test results indicated an improvement in cracking response, and a decrease in ductility. The addition of steel fibres in the concrete mixture can lead to an increase of the initial cracking force, and can change the sudden opening of a crack in a more stable process.

  5. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  6. Implementing Green Walls in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. McCullough

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies in applied pedagogical design have shown that, at all educational levels, direct exposure to the natural environment can enhance learning by improving student attention and behaviors. Implementing green walls—a “vertical garden,” or “living wall” interior wall that typically includes greenery, a growing medium (soil or substrate and a water delivery system—provides environmental health benefits, but also provides a practical application within classrooms for minimizing directed attention fatigue in students by connecting them to “outdoor nature” within the indoor environment. Hands-on “project-based” learning is another pedagogical strategy that has proved to be effective across the spectrum of educational levels and across subject areas. Green walls have the potential to inspire critical thinking through a combination of project-based learning strategies and environmental education. The authors have outlined a curriculum involving the implementation of an indoor living wall system within a classroom-learning environment, incorporating project-based learning modules that interact with the wall. In conjunction with the passive health benefits of a green wall, project-based curriculum models can connect students interactively with indoor nature and have the potential to inspire real-world thinking related to science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics fields within the indoor learning environment. Through a combination of these passive and interactive modes, students are connected to nature in the indoor environment regardless of weather conditions outdoors. Future research direction could include post-construction studies of the effectiveness of project-based curricula related to living walls, and the long-term impacts of implementing green walls in classrooms on school achievement and student behaviors.

  7. Thermo-hydraulic and structural analysis for finger-based concept of ITER blanket first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Ahn, Hee-Jae

    2011-01-01

    The blanket first wall is one of the main plasma facing components in ITER tokamak. The finger-typed first wall was proposed through the current design progress by ITER organization. In this concept, each first wall module is composed of a beam and twenty fingers. The main function of the first wall is to remove efficiently the high heat flux loading from the fusion plasma during its operation. Therefore, the thermal and structural performance should be investigated for the proposed finger-based design concept of first wall. The various case studies were performed for a unit finger model considering different loading conditions. The finite element model was made for a half of a module using symmetric boundary conditions to reduce the computational effort. The thermo-hydraulic analysis was performed to obtain the pressure drop and temperature profiles. Then the structural analysis was carried out using the maximum temperature distribution obtained in thermo-hydraulic analysis. Finally, the transient thermo-hydraulic analysis was performed for the generic first wall module to obtain the temperature evolution history considering cyclic heat flux loading with nuclear heating. After that, the thermo-mechanical analysis was performed at the time step when the maximum temperature gradient was occurred. Also, the stress analysis was performed for the component with a finger and a beam to check the residual stress of the component after thermal shrinkage assembly.

  8. Nonlinear Modeling of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Wall Strengthened using Ferrocement Sandwich Structure

    KAUST Repository

    M., Abdel-Mooty

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block are used mainly as non-load-bearing walls that provide heat insulation. This results in considerable saving in cooling energy particularly in hot desert environment with large variation of daily and seasonal temperatures. However, due to the relatively low strength there use load bearing walls is limited to single storey and low-rise construction. A system to enhance the strength of the AAC masonry wall in resisting both inplane vertical and combined vertical and lateral loads using ferrocement technology is proposed in this research. The proposed system significantly enhances the load carrying capacity and stiffness of the AAC wall without affecting its insulation characteristics. Ferrocement is made of cement mortar reinforced with closely spaced wire mesh. Full scale wall specimens with height of 2100mm and width of 1820mm were tested with different configuration of ferrocement. A finite elementmodel is developed and verified against the experimentalwork. The results of the finite element model correlates well with the experimental results.

  9. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  10. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  11. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n, determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n and stray flux losses (PSL1,n in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1 and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1. Using so obtained total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, which can be expressed in the form PLLdh=PEC1,n*h2 + PSL1,n*h, the corresponding rate additional load losses values PEC1,n and PSL1,n are derived. At the end, for given load with predefined high harmonics content, (Ih/I1n, relative to rated current, the total additional load losses value ΣPLLdh > PLLd1, is found. In such a way all harmonics up to hmax are taken into account.

  12. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Hosseinpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates.

  13. Experimental report of precast prestressed concrete shear wall. Precast prestressed concrete taishinheki no jikken hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, K.; Komura, M.; Sakata, H.; Senoo, M. (Fudo Building Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-30

    The present report outlines the multi-story precast prestressed concrete earthquake-proof wall (PC shear wall system). The PC shear wall is a precast wall which internally contains the columns and beams as a unit. Therefore, the present system integrates the walls, columns and beams without beam-framing installation for the intermediate stories. It can simplify the concreting in site and ease the construction of building. For the system development, experiment was made on the deformation, sliding, yield strength and destruction state of the shear wall. Used were four types of test unit which are different in both reinforcement and connection methods. The test force was given by a hydraulically drawing jack. In the experiment, the four types were compared in destruction state, relation between load and deformation, yield strength, and strain of main column reinforcing bars and wall connection reinforcing bars. PC shear wall system-based design was studied from the experimental result. The shear wall in which there occurred both bending and shearing deformations was modeled by changing to a brace unit. Divided into bending deformation and shearing deformation, the deformation was calculated, which concluded that the shearing deformation dominates in the present system. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Dynamics of strings between walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke

    2009-01-01

    Configurations of vortex strings stretched between or ending on domain walls were previously found to be 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions. Among zero modes of string positions, the center of mass of strings in each region between two adjacent domain walls is shown to be non-normalizable whereas the rests are normalizable. We study dynamics of vortex strings stretched between separated domain walls by using two methods, the moduli space (geodesic) approximation of full 1/4 BPS states and the charged particle approximation for string end points in the wall effective action. In the first method we explicitly obtain the effective Lagrangian in the strong coupling limit, which is written in terms of hypergeometric functions, and find the 90 deg. scattering for head-on collision. In the second method the domain wall effective action is assumed to be U(1) N gauge theory, and we find a good agreement between two methods for well-separated strings.

  15. Isolation of the Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut, Hervé; Albenne, Cécile; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a method allowing the purification of the cell wall for studying both polysaccharides and proteins. The plant primary cell wall is mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95 % in mass) and of proteins (5-10 %). At the end of growth, specialized cells may synthesize a lignified secondary wall composed of polysaccharides (about 65 %) and lignin (about 35 %). Due to its composition, the cell wall is the cellular compartment having the highest density and this property is used for its purification. It plays critical roles during plant development and in response to environmental constraints. It is largely used in the food and textile industries as well as for the production of bioenergy. All these characteristics and uses explain why its study as a true cell compartment is of high interest. The proposed method of purification can be used for large amount of material but can also be downscaled to 500 mg of fresh material. Tools for checking the quality of the cell wall preparation, such as protein analysis and microscopy observation, are also provided.

  16. Behaviour of Viscoelastic - Viscoplastic Spheres and Cylinders - Partly Plastic Vessel Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. Saabye

    1985-01-01

    The material model consists of a viscoelastic Burgers element and an additional viscoplastic Bingham element when the effective stress exceeds the yield stress. For partly plastic vessel walls, expressions are derived for the stress and strain state in pressurised or relaxation loaded thick......-walled cylinders in plane strain and spheres. For the spherical problem, the material compressibility is accounted for. The influence of the different material parameters on the behaviour of the vessels is evaluated. It is shown that the magnitude of the Maxwell viscosity is of major importance for the long......-term behaviour of thick-walled partly plastic vessels....

  17. Behaviour of Viscoelastic - Viscoplastic Spheres and Cylinders - Fully Plastic Vessel Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. Saabye

    1985-01-01

    The material model consists of a viscoelastic Burgers element and an additional viscoplastic Bingham element when the effective stress exceeds the yield stress. For fully plastic vessel walls, exact closed-form expressions arc derived for the stress and strain state in pressurised or relaxation...... loaded thick-walled cylinders in plane strain and spheres. For the spherical problem, the material compressibility is accounted for. The influence of the different material parameters on the behaviour of the vessels is evaluated. It is shown that the magnitude of the Maxwell viscosity is of major...... importance for the long-term behaviour of thick-walled fully plastic vessels....

  18. Shahr-I Sokhta and its Masonry Walls from Structural and Seismicity Standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumi Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shahr-I Sokhta, Burned City, located in the south of Zabol, Sistan where founded circa 3200 BCE and some part of the city was burnt. Marvelous finds such as the world's earliest known artificial eyeball, the first animation in the world, the oldest known backgammon, with its dice and so forth all in this city. Their expertise was merely not in handicrafts. In this work provided evidences which Burned City’s walls are highly resistance against seismic loads and has engineering aspects, a wall was simulated by a finite element software and seismically considerations was approve the walls minimal deformation even after circa five thousand years.

  19. Experimental testing of hold down devices for timber frame shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar [1] have presented a new plastic design method for wood-framed shear walls at ultimate limit state. This method allows the designer to calculate the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where the leading stud is not anchored against uplift. The anchorage system of shear walls is provided by anchor bolts in the bottom rail and hold downs at the leading stud. Anchor bolts provide horizontal shear continuity between the bottom rail and the foundation. ...

  20. Review of melting and evaporation of fusion-reactor first walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Makowitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    The most severe thermal loading on the first wall will occur when the plasma becomes unstable resulting in a hard plasma disruption or at the end of a discharge when the plasma is dumped on the wall in a very short period of time. Hard plasma disruptions are of particular concern in future fusion reactors where the thermal energy of the plasma may reach values on the order of 300 MJ. Sufficiently high heating rates can occur to melt the first wall surface, and the temperature can increase resulting in vaporization. Thermal models are reviewed which treat these problems

  1. Experimental and Numerical Analyses of New Massive Wooden Shear-Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pozza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed; Hendam, Ahmed; Fahmy, Ezzat; Abou Zeid, Mohamed; Haroun, Medhat

    2012-01-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  3. The forced sound transmission of finite single leaf walls using a variational technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    The single wall is the simplest element of concern in building acoustics, but there still remain some open questions regarding the sound insulation of this simple case. The two main reasons for this are the effects on the excitation and sound radiation of the wall when it has a finite size, and the fact that the wave field in the wall is consisting of two types of waves, namely forced waves due to the exciting acoustic field, and free bending waves due to reflections in the boundary. The aim of the present paper is to derive simple analytical formulas for the forced part of the airborne sound insulation of a single homogeneous wall of finite size, using a variational technique based on the integral-differential equation of the fluid loaded wall. The so derived formulas are valid in the entire audible frequency range. The results are compared with full numerical calculations, measurements and alternative theory, with reasonable agreement.

  4. The forced sound transmission of finite single leaf walls using a variational technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The single wall is the simplest element of concern in building acoustics, but there still remain some open questions regarding the sound insulation of this simple case. The two main reasons for this are the effects on the excitation and sound radiation of the wall when it has a finite size......, and the fact that the wave field in the wall is consisting of two types of waves, namely forced waves due to the exciting acoustic field, and free bending waves due to reflections in the boundary. The aim of the present paper is to derive simple analytical formulas for the forced part of the airborne sound...... insulation of a single homogeneous wall of finite size, using a variational technique based on the integral-differential equation of the fluid loaded wall. The so derived formulas are valid in the entire audible frequency range. The results are compared with full numerical calculations, measurements...

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  6. Resistance to fire of walls constituted by hollow blocks: Experiments and thermal modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Nahhas, F.; Ami Saada, R.; Bonnet, G.; Delmotte, P.

    2007-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical behavior of masonry walls is investigated from both experimental and theoretical points of view. Fire tests have been performed in order to evaluate the thermo-mechanical resistance of masonry wall submitted to a vertical load (13 ton/m) and exposed to temperatures ranging from 20 to 1200 o C. As a result we measure the temperature evolution inside the wall and evaluate the vertical and lateral displacements of this wall during heating for a period of 6 h. These results are affected significantly by phase-change phenomena which appeared as a plateau around o C in temperature-time curves. A theoretical model was then developed to describe the experimental results taking in to account convection, conduction and radiation phenomena inside the wall. In addition, liquid water migration using an enthalpic method is considered

  7. Overview of the JET results with the ITER-like wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanelli, F.; Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Following the completion in May 2011 of the shutdown for the installation of the beryllium wall and the tungsten divertor, the first set of JET campaigns have addressed the investigation of the retention properties and the development of operational scenarios with the new plasma-facing materials...... that the fuel retention rate with the new wall is substantially reduced with respect to the C wall. The re-establishment of the baseline H-mode and hybrid scenarios compatible with the new wall has required an optimization of the control of metallic impurity sources and heat loads. Stable type-I ELMy H......-mode regimes with H98,y2 close to 1 and βN ∼ 1.6 have been achieved using gas injection. ELM frequency is a key factor for the control of the metallic impurity accumulation. Pedestal temperatures tend to be lower with the new wall, leading to reduced confinement, but nitrogen seeding restores high pedestal...

  8. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  9. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  10. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function......, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study...... was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...

  11. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmier, David K.

    1985-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurement of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  12. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  13. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  14. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  15. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  16. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa, Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  17. The strong effect of gaps on the required shaping of the ITER first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Divertor tokamaks such as ITER also need limiters, namely for startup, rampdown, as well as protection of the main wall from normal and off-normal loads during the diverted phase. In future fusion devices the volume within the magnetic coils will be at a premium and it will be important to make the limiters as thin as possible. A continuous, or almost continuous, wall-limiter can be made thinner than a set of well spaced discrete limiters. The need to be able to remove and replace the components of a wall-limiter requires that its individual panels in fact be discrete but the gaps between the panels should be made as small as possible relative to the panel width to maximize the wall coverage and to minimize the extent of exposed panel edges. The modularity of a wall-limiter leads inevitably to misalignments. The gaps and misalignments reduce the power-handling capability of a modular wall-limiter relative to an ideal wall-limiter, i.e. one without any gaps or misalignments. It is shown that even small gaps and radial misalignments between the individual panels of a modular wall-limiter can require so much shaping, i.e. chamfering, of the panels in order to protect the panel edges that the peak deposited power flux density on the panel face considerably exceeds that for an ideal wall-limiter, typically by an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, compared with a set of discrete limiters which are separated by gaps larger than the limiter toroidal size, a modular, small-gap wall-limiter can still be thinner and can have lower peak deposited power flux densities (MW m -2 ), for a given total power load (MW).

  18. Chest Wall tumor: combined management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Bhaskar, N.

    1997-01-01

    Cancer is relatively rare disease among children and adolescents. The incidence of solid tumors other than CNS is less than 2/100,000. Tumors of the chest wall can arise either from the somatic tissue or ribs. These are rare, so either institutional reviews or multi institutional studies should determine optimal therapeutic management. Of the bony chest wall, Ewing's sarcoma or the family of tumor (peripheral neuro epithelioma, Askin tumor), are the most common. These lesions are lytic and have associated large extra pleural component. This large extra pleural component often necessitates major chest wall resection (3 or more ribs), and when lower ribs are involved, this entails resection of portion of diaphragm. Despite this resection, survival in the early 1970 was 10-20%. Since 1970 multi agent chemotherapy has increased survival rates. of importance, however, is these regimens have caused significant reduction of these extra pleural components so that major chest wall resections have become a rarity. With improved survival and decreased morbidity preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery is now the accepted modality of treatment. Another major advantage of this regimen is that potential radiation therapy may be obviated. The most common chest wall lesion is rhabdomyosarcoma. In the IRS study of 1620 RMS patients, in 141 (9%) the primary lesion was in the chest wall. these are primarily alveolar histology. when lesions were superficial, wide local excision with supplemental radiation therapy was associated with low morbidity and good overall survival. however, a majority have significant intra- thoracic components. in these circumstances the resectability rate is less than 30% and the survival poor. Other lesions include non rhabdomyosarcomas, eosinophilic granuloma, chondrosarcoma, and osteomyelitis. The management of these lesions varies according to extent, histology, and patient characteristics

  19. Improving Thermal Insulation Properties for Prefabricated Wall Components Made Of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with Open Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramski, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Porous concrete is commonly used in civil engineering due to its good thermal insulation properties in comparison with normal concrete and high compression strength in comparison with other building materials. Reducing of the concrete density can be obviously obtained by using lightweight aggregate (e.g. pumice). The concrete density can be further minimized by using specially graded coarse aggregate and little-to-no fine aggregates. In this way a large number of air voids arise. The aggregate particles are coated by a cement paste and bonded together with it just in contact points. Such an extremely porous concrete, called ‘lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure’ (LAC), is used in some German plants to produce prefabricated wall components. They are used mainly in hall buildings, e.g. supermarkets. The need of improving thermal insulation properties was an inspiration for the prefabrication plant managers, engineers and a scientific staff of the Technical University of Kaiserslautern / Germany to realise an interesting project. Its aim was to reduce the heat transfer coefficient for the wall components. Three different wall structure types were designed and compared in full-scale laboratory tests with originally produced wall components in terms of load-carrying capacity and stiffness. The load was applied perpendicularly to the wall plane. As the components are not originally used for load-bearing walls, but for curtain walls only, the wind load is the main load for them. The wall components were tested in horizontal position and the load was applied vertically. Totally twelve wall components 8.00 × 2.00 × 0.25m (three for every series) were produced in the prefabrication plant and tested in the University of Kaiserslautern laboratory. The designed and tested components differed from each other in the amount of expanded polystyrene (EPS), which was placed in the plant inside the wall structure. The minimal amount of it was designed in the

  20. Shielding walls against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Hot-cell shielding walls consist of building blocks made of lead according to DIN 25407 part 1, and of special elements according to DIN 25407 part 2. Alpha-gamma cells can be built using elements for protective contamination boxes according to DIN 25480 part 1. This standards document intends to provide planning engineers, manufacturers, future users and the competent authorities and experts with a basis for the design of hot cells with lead shielding walls and the design of hot-cell equipment. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Experimental Study of Multi-Walled Composite Shell Fragments under Thermal Force Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Tairova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled composite shells are a relatively new prospective type of load carrying structures for rocket and space engineering. These CFRP structures are produced by injection and infusion methods and have several advantages in comparison with common structures such as stringer-frame, grid and sandwich structures with a light core. In particular, those have more structural parameters, which enable one to control mechanical properties of the structure, and this is important in designing the load carrying structures of different purpose.Presently, there are few national and foreign publications on experimental investigations of mechanical properties of multi-walled shells. That is why the objective of the paper is to conduct the experimental study of deformation and failure processes of a multi-walled panel both under steady-state heating and under unsteady-state one.The paper presents the results of two tests: (1 the study of deformation and failure modes under compression and complete heating up to a specified temperature and (2 validation of working capability of multi-walled samples under single-side heating and compression simulating a start and flight version of the “ Proton” launch vehicle.Experimental results have shown that average elastic properties of multi-walled samples slightly depend on temperature for the studied range (from room temperature up to 195C while strength properties considerably decrease with increasing temperature, and this is typical for CFRP structures under compression. However, under unsteady-state short-term heating the structure has a strength that exceeds the minimal necessary strength of load carrying structures of the “Proton” launch vehicle (the samples satisfy simulated start conditions of the “Proton” launch vehicle. This is because of a low heat conductivity of the multi-walled core: an unheated sheet holds a low temperature and high load carrying capacity.Obtained results can be used in

  2. ICRF specific plasma wall interactions in JET with the ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobkov, Vl., E-mail: bobkov@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Arnoux, G. [Culham Science Centre, Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J.W. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Association EURATOM-FZJ (Germany); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Clever, M. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Association EURATOM-FZJ (Germany); Czarnecka, A. [Association EURATOM-IPPLM, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Braun, F.; Dux, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Huber, A. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Association EURATOM-FZJ (Germany); Jacquet, P. [Culham Science Centre, Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Klepper, C. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Euratom-Belgian State, TEC Partners, Brussels (Belgium); Maggi, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Marcotte, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Maslov, M.; Matthews, G.; Mayoral, M.L. [Culham Science Centre, Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); McCormick, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Meigs, A. [Culham Science Centre, Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-15

    A variety of plasma wall interactions (PWIs) during operation of the so-called A2 ICRF antennas is observed in JET with the ITER-like wall. Amongst effects of the PWIs, the W content increase is the most significant, especially at low plasma densities. No increase of W source from the main divertor and entrance of the outer divertor during ICRF compared to NBI phases was found by means of spectroscopic and WI (400.9 nm) imaging diagnostics. In contrary, the W flux there is higher during NBI. Charge exchange neutrals of hydrogen isotopes could be excluded as considerable contributors to the W source. The high W content in ICRF heated limiter discharges suggests the possibility of other W sources than the divertor alone. Dependencies of PWIs to individual ICRF antennas during q{sub 95}-scans, and intensification of those for the −90° phasing, indicate a link between the PWIs and the antenna near-fields. The PWIs include heat loads and Be sputtering pattern on antenna limiters. Indications of some PWIs at the outer divertor entrance are observed which do not result in higher W flux compared to the NBI phases, but are characterized by small antenna-specific (up to 25% with respect to ohmic phases) bipolar variations of WI emission. The first TOPICA calculations show a particularity of the A2 antennas compared to the ITER antenna, due to the presence of long antenna limiters in the RF image current loop and thus high near-fields across the most part of the JET outer wall.

  3. Damage Detection of Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Using Mathematical Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Naderpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring is a procedure to provide accurate and immediate information on the condition and efficiency of structures. There is variety of damage factors and the unpredictability of future damage, is a necessity for the use of structural health monitoring. Structural health monitoring and damage detection in early stages is one of the most interesting topics that had been paid attention because the majority of damages can be repaired and reformed by initial evaluation ,thus the spread of damage to the structures, building collapse and rising of costs can be avoided .Detection of concrete shear wall damages are designed to withstand the lateral load on the structure is critical .Because failures and  malfunctions of shear walls can lead to serious damage or even progressive dilapidation of concrete structures .Change in stiffness and frequency can clearly show the damage occurrence. Mathematical transformation is also a tool to detect damage. In this article, with non- linear time history analysis, the finite element model of structures with concrete shear walls subject to four earthquakes have extracted and using Fourier and wavelet transform, the presence of shear walls is detected at the time of damage.

  4. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  5. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  6. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  7. ELM induced divertor heat loads on TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marki, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Horacek, J.; Tskhakaya, D.; TCV Team

    2009-06-01

    Results are presented for heat loads at the TCV outer divertor target during ELMing H-mode using a fast IR camera. Benefitting from a recent surface cleaning of the entire first wall graphite armour, a comparison of the transient thermal response of freshly cleaned and untreated tile surfaces (coated with thick co-deposited layers) has been performed. The latter routinely exhibit temperature transients exceeding those of the clean ones by a factor ˜3, even if co-deposition throughout the first days of operation following the cleaning process leads to the steady regrowth of thin layers. Filaments are occasionally observed during the ELM heat flux rise phase, showing a spatial structure consistent with energy release at discrete toroidal locations in the outer midplane vicinity and with individual filaments carrying ˜1% of the total ELM energy. The temporal waveform of the ELM heat load is found to be in good agreement with the collisionless free streaming particle model.

  8. ELM induced divertor heat loads on TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marki, J., E-mail: janos.marki@epfl.c [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pitts, R.A. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Horacek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EUROATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Tskhakaya, D. [Association EURATOM-OAW, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    Results are presented for heat loads at the TCV outer divertor target during ELMing H-mode using a fast IR camera. Benefitting from a recent surface cleaning of the entire first wall graphite armour, a comparison of the transient thermal response of freshly cleaned and untreated tile surfaces (coated with thick co-deposited layers) has been performed. The latter routinely exhibit temperature transients exceeding those of the clean ones by a factor approx3, even if co-deposition throughout the first days of operation following the cleaning process leads to the steady regrowth of thin layers. Filaments are occasionally observed during the ELM heat flux rise phase, showing a spatial structure consistent with energy release at discrete toroidal locations in the outer midplane vicinity and with individual filaments carrying approx1% of the total ELM energy. The temporal waveform of the ELM heat load is found to be in good agreement with the collisionless free streaming particle model.

  9. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The typical approach on recent projects has been the hardening of safety-related buildings and/or protection of redundant safety-related equipment through separation. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. Conservatively calculated loads resulting from these are in some cases quite severe. The reactor auxiliary system building (Soft Shell Hardcore design) allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioactivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. This investigation determines the feasibility of two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model. (Auth.)

  10. Solar Walls for concrete renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Olsen, Lars

    1996-01-01

    This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results of the mea...

  11. Wave Forces on Crown Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan; Burcharth, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results from a large parametric laboratory study including more than 200 long-duration model tests. The study addresses both the wave forces imposed on the breakwater crown wall as well as the performance of the structure in reducing the wave overtopping. The testing...

  12. Fandom and the fourth wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kathryn Ballinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the Teen Wolf fandom as an example to examine the ways social media has created a more complicated, nuanced relationship with fans. The collapse of the fourth wall between fans and The Powers That Be can have both positive and negative impacts, depending on the willingness of participants to maintain mutual respect and engage in meaningful dialogue.

  13. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  14. Imaging of chest wall infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Jelassi, Helmi; Chaabane, Skander; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Miled-Mrad, Khaoula

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of infections can affect the chest wall including pyogenic, tuberculous, fungal, and some other unusual infections. These potentially life-threatening disorders are frequent especially among immunocompromised patients but often misdiagnosed by physical examination and radiographs. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and imaging features of these different chest wall infections according to the different imaging modalities with emphasis on ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The outcome of chest wall infection depends on early diagnosis, severity of the immunosuppression, offending organism, and extent of infection. Because clinical findings and laboratory tests may be not contributive in immunocompromised patients, imaging plays an important role in the early detection and precise assessment of the disease. US, CT, and MRI are all useful: bone destruction is more accurately detected with CT whereas soft tissue involvement are better visualized with US and MRI. CT and US are also used to guide percutaneous biopsy and drainage procedures. MR images are helpful in pre-operative planning of extensive chest wall infections. (orig.)

  15. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  16. The Influence of Wall Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the thermal bridge effects that occur in wall binders in masonry buildings. The effects are analyzed using a numerical calculation programme.The results are compared to the values given in the danish standard, DS418....

  17. Chapter 3 Cell Wall Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Roger Pettersen; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2012-01-01

    Wood is best defined as a three-dimensional biopolymer composite composed of an interconnected network of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin with minor amounts of extractives, and inorganics. The major chemical component of a living tree is water, but on a dry weight basis, all wood cell walls consist mainly of sugar-based polymers (carbohydrates, 65-75%) that are...

  18. The stability of cassette walls in compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutay, Pierre-Arnaud

    Much research into the behaviour of cold formed steel columns in the last decade has focused on channel sections undergoing local, distortional and overall buckling. Light gauge steel cassette sections are a particular form of channel section which offers an alternative form of load-bearing wall assembly for use in low-rise steel framed construction. Cassette wall sections possess wide and slender flanges so that, by including intermediate stiffeners in these wide flanges, a significant increase in the ultimate load capacity may be achieved. However, the introduction of intermediate stiffeners also increases the number of buckling modes (stiffener buckling) and, therefore complicates the behaviour and increases the risk of interactive buckling between these modes. The work undertaken in this thesis aims to clarify the behaviour of wide flanges in compression with and without intermediate stiffeners. In this research, the distortional mode of web and narrow flange buckling was inhibited by connecting the narrow flanges of the cassettes together at suitable intervals. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT), which allows the individual buckling modes to be considered individually and in predetermined combinations, provides a particularly good tool with which to analyse and understand the buckling behaviour of cassette sections with and without intermediate stiffeners. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT) is used throughout this work to determine the elastic buckling stress of the sections studied (simply supported stiffened plates, as well as cassette sections). Since the economic design of cold-formed steel sections requires the consideration of post- buckling behaviour, elastic buckling values are not directly comparable with design code values which are usually based on the concept of effective width. Therefore, finite element analysis with both material and geometric nonlinearity has also been carried out in order to obtain the ultimate strength in the critical mode or mode

  19. Effect of transient heating loads on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, Igor B.; Porezanov, Nicolay P.; Nikolaev, Georgyi N.; Kurbatova, Liudmila A.; Podkovyrov, Vyacheslav L.; Muzichenko, Anatoliy D.; Zhitlukhin, Anatoliy M.; Khimchenko, Leonid N.; Gervash, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the effect of transient plasma loads on beryllium erosion and surface microstructure. • Beryllium targets were irradiated by plasma streams with energy of 0.5–1 MJ/m 2 at ∼250 °C. • Under plasma loads 0.5–1 MJ/m 2 cracking of beryllium surface is rather slight. • Under 0.5 MJ/m 2 the mass loss of Be is no more than 0.2 g/m 2 shot and decreasing with shots number. • Under 1 MJ/m 2 maximum mass loss of beryllium was 3.7 g/m 2 shot and decreasing with shots number. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a plasma facing material for ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of ITER first wall. The results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are presented. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to upto 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams with pulse duration of 0.5 ms at ∼250 °C and average heat loads of 0.5 and 1 MJ/m 2 . Experiments were performed at 250 °C. The evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology as well as beryllium mass loss are investigated under erosion process

  20. Granular packings with moving side walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, James W.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The effects of movement of the side walls of a confined granular packing are studied by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamical evolution of the stress is studied as a function of wall movement both in the direction of gravity as well as opposite to it. For all wall velocities explored, the stress in the final state of the system after wall movement is fundamentally different from the original state obtained by pouring particles into the container and letting them settle under the influence of gravity. The original packing possesses a hydrostaticlike region at the top of the container which crosses over to a depth-independent stress. As the walls are moved in the direction opposite to gravity, the saturation stress first reaches a minimum value independent of the wall velocity, then increases to a steady-state value dependent on the wall velocity. After wall movement ceases and the packing reaches equilibrium, the stress profile fits the classic Janssen form for high wall velocities, while some deviations remain for low wall velocities. The wall movement greatly increases the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. Varying the wall velocity has only small effects on the particle structure of the final packing so long as the walls travel a similar distance.

  1. Nonlinear analysis of composite thin-walled helicopter blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfon, J. P.; Rand, O.

    Nonlinear theoretical modeling of laminated thin-walled composite helicopter rotor blades is presented. The derivation is based on nonlinear geometry with a detailed treatment of the body loads in the axial direction which are induced by the rotation. While the in-plane warping is neglected, a three-dimensional generic out-of-plane warping distribution is included. The formulation may also handle varying thicknesses and mass distribution along the cross-sectional walls. The problem is solved by successive iterations in which a system of equations is constructed and solved for each cross-section. In this method, the differential equations in the spanwise directions are formulated and solved using a finite-differences scheme which allows simple adaptation of the spanwise discretization mesh during iterations.

  2. Cellular growth in plants requires regulation of cell wall biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2017-02-01

    Cell and organ morphogenesis in plants are regulated by the chemical structure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, the cell wall. The two primary load bearing components in the plant cell wall, the pectin matrix and the cellulose/xyloglucan network, are constantly remodelled to generate the morphological changes required during plant development. This remodelling is regulated by a plethora of loosening and stiffening agents such as pectin methyl-esterases, calcium ions, expansins, and glucanases. The tight spatio-temporal regulation of the activities of these agents is a sine qua non condition for proper morphogenesis at cell and tissue levels. The pectin matrix and the cellulose-xyloglucan network operate in concert and their behaviour is mutually dependent on their chemical, structural and mechanical modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of boiler load on water tubes burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, S.A.M.; Habib, M.A.; Badr, H.M.; Mansour, R. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The influence of boiler loads on water tube burnout was investigated. The in-service boiler had 2 burners at different levels located in the front of the burner's wall. Homogenous-flow and separated-flow models were designed to simulate the water circulation and combustion processes inside the boiler tubes. Heat flux calculations were derived by solving the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations and species concentration as well as by solving turbulence, reaction rate, and radiation model equations. Results of the study showed that heat flux during full loads ranged from close to 0 to 270 kW/m2. The right side screen wall of the burner exhibited higher heat flux values in the middle region of the wall where large areas were subjected to heat flux close to a maximum of 270 kW/m2. Results also included reductions in heat flux values at partial loads. Maximum values were reduced from 270 kW/m2 ato 230 kW/m2 at 75 per cent capacity and 200 kW/m2 at 60 per cent capacity. The rate of steam generation increased from 0.1 kg/s to 0.153 kg/s when the distance from the burner wall increased from 2 meters to 12 meters. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Ultimate shearing strength of aseismatic walls with many small holes for reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizaki, Seiji; Ezaki, Tetsuro; Korenaga, Takeyoshi; Sotomura, Kentaro.

    1984-01-01

    The aseismatic walls for reactor buildings have complicated forms, and are characterized by large wall thickness and high reinforcement ratio as compared with ordinary aseismatic walls. The forms are mainly box, cylinder or irregular polygonal prism and their combination. The design of the walls with many small holes has been performed on the basis of the reinforced concrete structure calculation standard of the Architectural Institute of Japan, following the case with large opening. When there are many small holes, the arrangement of reinforcement for the openings becomes complex, and the construction is difficult. It is necessary to rationalize the design and to simplify the reinforcement work. Under the background like this, the experiment to examine the shearing property in bending of the aseismatic walls with many small holes for reactor buildings was carried out, and horizontal loading test was performed on 43 specimens. The method of calculating the ultimate shearing strength of a wall without opening was proposed, and the method of applying it to a wall with many small holes is shown. The experimental method and the results, the examination of the experimental results, and the ultimate shearing strength of the aseismatic walls are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Immobile defects in ferroelastic walls: Wall nucleation at defect sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; Salje, E. K. H.; Ding, X.; Sun, J.

    2018-02-01

    Randomly distributed, static defects are enriched in ferroelastic domain walls. The relative concentration of defects in walls, Nd, follows a power law distribution as a function of the total defect concentration C: N d ˜ C α with α = 0.4 . The enrichment Nd/C ranges from ˜50 times when C = 10 ppm to ˜3 times when C = 1000 ppm. The resulting enrichment is due to nucleation at defect sites as observed in large scale MD simulations. The dynamics of domain nucleation and switching is dependent on the defect concentration. Their energy distribution follows the power law with exponents during yield between ɛ ˜ 1.82 and 2.0 when the defect concentration increases. The power law exponent is ɛ ≈ 2.7 in the plastic regime, independent of the defect concentration.

  6. Impact load time histories for viscoelastic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Generation of the impact load time history at the contact point between a viscoelastic missile and its targets is presented. In the past, in the case of aircraft striking containment shell structure, the impact load history was determined on the basis of actual measurements by subjecting a rigid wall to aircraft crash. The effects of elastic deformation of the target upon the impact load time history is formulated in this paper. The missile is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination using viscoelastic models. These models can readily be processed taking into account the elastic as well as inelastic deformations of the missiles. The target is assumed to be either linearly elastic or rigid. In the case of the linearly elastic target, the normal mode theory is used to express the time-dependent displacements of the target which is simulated by lumped masses, elastic properties and dashpots in discrete parts. In the case of Maxwell viscoelastic model, the time-dependent displacements of the missile and the target are given in terms of the unknown impact load time history. This leads to an integral equation which may be solved by Laplace transformation. The normal mode theory is provided. Examples are given for bricks with viscoelastic materials as missiles against a rigid target. (Auth.)

  7. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  8. Status of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchymenko, A

    1983-08-01

    A summary is presented of the status of load management, defined as any activity by an electric utility to affect the size and characteristics of its load. Load management is currently viewed by electric utilities as an important tool for marketing electricity in a competitive fuel situation. A major aim of the National Energy Program is to reduce Canada's dependence on oil by 1990 to 10% of the energy used by all markets. As a result, electricity may play a greater role in the supply of primary energy. Research in load management has been directed mostly towards the residential market, especially direct control of domestic hot water heaters and air conditioners. Studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. to determine user's receptiveness to direct control of loads and thermal energy storage systems indicate that these load management techniques are in most cases not acceptable to customers, who prefer voluntary reduction in demand. The potential exists in the industrial market to use load management to assist in electrifying many of the fossil fuel-fired processes at competitive energy prices. Some of the more important applications include an industrial heat pump to heat liquids to 120{degree}C, induction heating for melting and heat treating of metals, and mechanical vapor recompression equipment to produce proces steam. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Application of concrete filled steel bearing wall to inner concrete structure fro PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hisashi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Inoue, Kunio; Fukihara, Masaaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    'Concrete filled steel bearing wall', applied to the inner concrete structure for PWR nuclear power plant, was developed for rationalization of construction procedure at site. It was concluded through preliminary studies that this new type of wall, where concrete is placed between steel plates, is best suited for the strength members of the above structure, due to the high strength and ductility of surface steel plates and the confinement effect of filled concrete. To verify the behavior from the elastic range to the inelastic range, the ultimate strength and the failure mechanism, and to clarify experimentally the structural integrity of the inner concrete structure, which was composed of a concrete filled steel bearing wall, against seismic lateral loads, horizontal loading tests using a 1/10th scale model of the inner concrete structure for PWR nuclear power plant were conducted. As a result of the tests, the inner concrete structure composed of a concrete filled steel bearing wall appeared to have a larger load carrying capacity and a higher ductility as compared with that composed of a reinforced concrete wall. (author)

  10. Research on the improvement design for the attachment of supports to AP1000 module wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cheng; Liu Jianwei; Shan Ying

    2013-01-01

    Background: Modularization is one of the main characteristics for AP1000 nuclear power plant building. The steel-concrete-steel module wall is used instead of reinforced concrete structure wall. Usually, lots of Overlay Plate Embedments will be installed on the module wall to connect and fasten other structures, such as pipes, equipment and operation platforms. As for many supports taking less design loads, the safety margin is too big when using OLP embedment. Purpose: An improvement design will make sense that the supports with less design loads can be welded directly to the module wall instead of embedments. Methods: A finite element analysis based on nuclear-related concrete code is carried out. Results: Through analysis, the equations for the allowable design loads of supports to be welded directly to module wall are provided in this paper. Conclusions: The improvement design is proved feasible. In this way, the strength for steel face plate and studs will be utilized fully and this method will facilitate and simplify the design and construction with considerable engineering application value. (authors)

  11. Case study: highly loaded MSE bridge supporting structure, Syncrude NMAPS conveyor overpasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherger, B.; Brockbank, B. [Reinforced Earth Company Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mimura, W. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    A crusher and conveyor system was constructed at the Mildred Lake Oil Sands Mine near Fort McMurray, Alberta in order to facilitate ore delivery from Syncrude's North Mine. As part of this North Mine Auxiliary Production System (NMAPS), Syncrude Canada and their consultant Cosyn Technology identified the need for 3 overpasses over conveyors in the North Mine in order to provide unrestricted crossing over the operating conveyor system for the heavy hauler trucks and light vehicle mine traffic. The overpasses were designed to support the dead load of the granular fill and the live load of two loaded heavy hauler trucks, with a design load for each loaded hauler of 670 900 kg. This paper reviewed various aspects of the design from planning, structure selection, and overall stability and bearing capacity considerations. The different designs in the 3 new overpasses accommodated foundation and loading requirements. The designs ranged from the use of precast one-piece reinforced concrete arches, Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) bridge abutment technology, and a combination of the two. The MSE retaining walls directly supported the bridge superstructure without the use of piles or other deep structural foundations. The design was challenging because of the significant vertical stresses transferred onto the wall. All 3 overpasses also used MSE walls for the supporting end wing walls. The main focus of this paper was on the heavily loaded MSE walls supporting the bridge abutment style overpasses. This structure has illustrated the capability of properly designed MSE wall structures with steel soil reinforcement and reinforced precast concrete face panels to successfully carry bridge footing pressure loadings up to 545 kPa. It was concluded that this case has good potential for use in future bridge projects in both the industrial and highway sectors. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Design of squat shear walls using continuous strut-and-tie resistant models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.H. de C; Silva, R.E. da

    1993-01-01

    A new approach is presented for designing squat shear walls, subjected to seismic loading. In this approach, the strut-and-tie resistant models, proposed by Schlaich et al., are generalized in order to analyze continuous fields of compression and tension stresses. The application of the presented methodology is illustrated through numerical examples. (author)

  13. On the mechanical role of de novo synthesized elastin in the urinary bladder wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Silvia; Schmidt, David E.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    The urinary bladder wall (UBW), which is composed of smooth muscle, collagen, and elastin, undergoes profound remodeling in response to changes in mechanical loading resulting from various pathologies. In our laboratory, we have observed the production of fibrillar elastin in the extracellular

  14. Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Beurskens, M.N.A.; Coda, S.; Hakola, A.; Martin, P.; Adamek, J.; Agostini, M.; Aguiam, D.; Ahn, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akers, R.; Albanese, R.; Aledda, R.; Alessi, E.; Allan, S.; Alves, D.; Ambrosino, R.; Amicucci, L.; Anand, H.; Anastassiou, G.; Andrèbe, Y.; Angioni, C.; Apruzzese, G.; Ariola, M.; Arnichand, H.; Arter, W.; Baciero, A.; Barnes, M.; Barrera, L.; Behn, R.; Bencze, A.; Bernardo, J.; Bernert, M.; Bettini, P.; Bilková, P.; Bin, W.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bizarro, J. P.S.; Blanchard, P.; Blanken, T.; Bluteau, M.; Bobkov, V.; Bogar, O.; Böhm, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Bottereau, C.; Bouquey, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Brémond, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Brida, D.; Brochard, F.; Buchanan, J.; Bufferand, H.; Buratti, P.; Cahyna, P.; Calabrò, G.; Camenen, Y.; Caniello, R.; Cannas, B.; Canton, A.; Cardinali, A.; Carnevale, D.; Carr, M.; Carralero, D.; Carvalho, P.; Casali, L.; Castaldo, C.; Castejón, F.; Castro, R.; Causa, F.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavedon, M.; Cecconello, M.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cesario, R.; Challis, C.D.; Chapman, I.T.; Chapman, S.; Chernyshova, M.; Choi, D.; Cianfarani, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Citrin, J.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I.; Coelho, R.; Coenen, J. W.; Colas, L.; Conway, G.; Corre, Y.; Costea, S.; Crisanti, F.; Cruz, N.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; De Angeli, M.; De Masi, G.; De Temmerman, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Decker, J.; Delogu, R. S.; Dendy, R.; Denner, P.; Di Troia, C.; Dimitrova, M.; D'Inca, R.; Dorić, V.; Douai, D.; Drenik, A.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunne, M.; Duval, B. P.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Erdös, B.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Faitsch, M.; Fanni, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Felici, F.; Ferreira, J.; Février, O.; Ficker, O.; Fietz, S.; Figini, L.; Figueiredo, A.; Fil, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fitzgerald, M.; Fontana, M.; Ford, O.; Frassinetti, L.; Fridström, R.; Frigione, D.; Fuchert, G.; Fuchs, C.; Furno Palumbo, M.; Futatani, S.; Gabellieri, L.; Gałazka, K.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Galeani, S.; Gallart, D.; Gallo, A.; Galperti, C.; Gao, Y.; Garavaglia, S.; Garcia, J.; Garcia-Carrasco, A.; Garcia-Lopez, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gardarein, J. L.; Garzotti, L.; Gaspar, J.; Gauthier, E.; Geelen, P.; Geiger, B.; Ghendrih, P.; Ghezzi, F.; Giacomelli, L.; Giannone, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Giroud, C.; Gleason González, C.; Gobbin, M.; Goodman, T. P.; Gorini, G.; Gospodarczyk, M.; Granucci, G.; Gruber, M.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hacek, P.; Hacquin, S.; Hall, S.; Ham, C.; Happel, T.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Hauer, V.; Havlickova, E.; Hellsten, T.; Helou, W.; Henderson, S.; Hennequin, P.; Heyn, M.; Hnat, B.; Hölzl, M.; Hogeweij, D.; Honoré, C.; Hopf, C.; Horáček, J.; Hornung, G.; Horváth, L.; Huang, Z.; Huber, A.; Igitkhanov, J.; Igochine, V.; Imrisek, M.; Innocente, P.; Ionita-Schrittwieser, C.; Isliker, H.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Jacquet, P.; Jakubowski, M.; Jardin, A.; Jaulmes, F.; Jenko, F.; Jensen, T.; Jeppe Miki Busk, O.; Jessen, M.; Joffrin, E.; Jones, O.; Jonsson, T.; Kallenbach, A.; Kallinikos, N.; Kálvin, S.; Kappatou, A.; Karhunen, J.; Karpushov, A.; Kasilov, S.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kendl, A.; Kernbichler, W.; Kim, D.; Kirk, A.; Kjer, S.; Klimek, I.; Kocsis, G.; Kogut, D.; Komm, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Koslowski, H. R.; Koubiti, M.; Kovacic, J.; Kovarik, K.; Krawczyk, N.; Krbec, J.; Krieger, K.; Krivska, A.; Kube, R.; Kudlacek, O.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Labit, B.; Laggner, F. M.; Laguardia, L.; Lahtinen, A.; Lalousis, P.; Lang, P.; Lauber, P.; Lazányi, N.; Lazaros, A.; Le, H.B.; Lebschy, A.; Leddy, J.; Lefévre, L.; Lehnen, M.; Leipold, F.; Lessig, A.; Leyland, M.; Li, L.; Liang, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Liu, Y.Q.; Loarer, T.; Loarte, A.; Loewenhoff, T.; Lomanowski, B.; Loschiavo, V. P.; Lunt, T.; Lupelli, I.; Lux, H.; Lyssoivan, A.; Madsen, J.; Maget, P.; Maggi, C.; Maggiora, R.; Magnussen, M. L.; Mailloux, J.; Maljaars, B.; Malygin, A.; Mantica, P.; Mantsinen, M.; Maraschek, M.; Marchand, B.; Marconato, N.; Marini, C.; Marinucci, M.; Markovic, T.; Marocco, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, Y.; Martin Solis, J. R.; Martitsch, A.; Mastrostefano, S.; Mattei, M.; Matthews, G.; Mavridis, M.; Mayoral, M. L.; Mazon, D.; McCarthy, P.; McAdams, R.; McArdle, G.; McCarthy, P.; McClements, K.; McDermott, R.; McMillan, B.; Meisl, G.; Merle, A.; Meyer, O.; Milanesio, D.; Militello, F.; Miron, I. G.; Mitosinkova, K.; Mlynar, J.; Mlynek, A.; Molina, D.; Molina, P.; Monakhov, I.; Morales, J.; Moreau, D.; Morel, P.; Moret, J. M.; Moro, A.; Moulton, D.; Müller, H. W.; Nabais, F.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Nemes-Czopf, A.; Nespoli, F.; Neu, R.; Nielsen, A. H.; Nielsen, S. K.; Nikolaeva, V.; Nimb, S.; Nocente, M.; Nouailletas, R.; Nowak, S.; Oberkofler, M.; Oberparleiter, M.; Ochoukov, R.; Odstrčil, T.; Olsen, J.; Omotani, J.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Orain, F.; Osterman, N.; Paccagnella, R.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Panjan, M.; Papp, G.; Papřok, R.; Parail, V.; Parra, F. I.; Pau, A.; Pautasso, G.; Pehkonen, S. P.; Pereira, A.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Peterka, M.; Petersson, P.; Petrzilka, V.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Pironti, A.; Pisano, F.; Pisokas, T.; Pitts, R.; Ploumistakis, I.; Plyusnin, V.; Pokol, G.; Poljak, D.; Pölöskei, P.; Popovic, Z.; Pór, G.; Porte, L.; Potzel, S.; Predebon, I.; Preynas, M.; Primc, G.; Pucella, G.; Puiatti, M. E.; Pütterich, T.; Rack, M.; Ramogida, G.; Rapson, C.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Rasmussen, J.; Rattá, G. A.; Ratynskaia, S.; Ravera, G.; Réfy, D.; Reich, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Reimold, F.; Reinke, M.; Reiser, D.; Resnik, M.; Reux, C.; Ripamonti, D.; Rittich, D.; Riva, G.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Rohde, V.; Rosato, J.; Ryter, F.; Saarelma, S.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Salewski, M.; Salmi, A.; Samaddar, D.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Santos, J.; Sauter, O.; Scannell, R.; Scheffer, M.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, B.; Schneider, P.; Schneller, M.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Seidl, J.; Sertoli, M.; Šesnić, S.; Shabbir, A.; Shalpegin, A.; Shanahan, B.; Sharapov, S.; Sheikh, U.; Sias, G.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Silva, A.; Silva Fuglister, M.; Simpson, J.; Snicker, A.; Sommariva, C.; Sozzi, C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spizzo, G.; Spolaore, M.; Stange, T.; Stejner Pedersen, M.; Stepanov, I.; Stober, J.; Strand, P.; Šušnjara, A.; Suttrop, W.; Szepesi, T.; Tál, B.; Tala, T.; Tamain, P.; Tardini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Teplukhina, A.; Terranova, D.; Testa, D.; Theiler, C.; Thornton, A.; Tolias, P.; Tophj, L.; Treutterer, W.; Trevisan, G. L.; Tripsky, M.; Tsironis, C.; Tsui, C.; Tudisco, O.; Uccello, A.; Urban, J.; Valisa, M.; Vallejos, P.; Valovic, M.; Van Den Brand, H.; Vanovac, B.; Varoutis, S.; Vartanian, S.; Vega, J.; Verdoolaege, G.; Verhaegh, K.; Vermare, L.; Vianello, N.; Vicente, J.; Viezzer, E.; Vignitchouk, L.; Vijvers, W.A.J.; Villone, F.; Viola, B.; Vlahos, L.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Vondráček, P.; Vu, N. M.T.; Wagner, D.; Walkden, N.; Wang, N.; Wauters, T.; Weiland, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Westerhof, E.; Wiesenberger, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wodniak, I.; Wolfrum, E.; Yadykin, D.; Zagórski, R.; Zammuto, I.; Zanca, P.; Zaplotnik, R.; Zestanakis, P.; Zhang, W.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine

  15. Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Beurskens, M.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine ...

  16. The effect of fibronectin on structural and biological properties of single walled carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farokhi, Mehdi [National cell bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atyabi, Fatemeh [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanoechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omidvar, Ramin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National cell bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghizadeh, Majid, E-mail: sadeghma@modares.ac.ir [Department Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the cytocompatibility of single walled carbon nanotube by loading fibronectin. • Enhancing the hydrophilicity and nanosurface roughness of single walled carbon nanotube after loading fibronectin. • Fibronectin makes the surface properties of single walled carbon nanotube more suitable for cell proliferation and growth. - Abstract: Despite the attractive properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), cytoxicity and hydrophobicity are two main considerable features which limit their application in biomedical fields. It was well established that treating CNTs with extracellular matrix components could reduce these unfavourable characteristics. In an attempt to address these issues, fibronectin (FN) with different concentrations was loaded on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) substrate. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were preformed in order to characterize FN loaded SWCNTs substrates. According to XPS and AFM results, FN could interact with SWCNTs and for this, the hydrophilicity of SWCNTs was improved. Additionally, SWCNT modified with FN showed less cytotoxicity compared with neat SWCNT. Finally, FN was shown to act as an interesting extracellular component for enhancing the biological properties of SWCNT.

  17. The effect of fibronectin on structural and biological properties of single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Omidvar, Ramin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the cytocompatibility of single walled carbon nanotube by loading fibronectin. • Enhancing the hydrophilicity and nanosurface roughness of single walled carbon nanotube after loading fibronectin. • Fibronectin makes the surface properties of single walled carbon nanotube more suitable for cell proliferation and growth. - Abstract: Despite the attractive properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), cytoxicity and hydrophobicity are two main considerable features which limit their application in biomedical fields. It was well established that treating CNTs with extracellular matrix components could reduce these unfavourable characteristics. In an attempt to address these issues, fibronectin (FN) with different concentrations was loaded on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) substrate. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were preformed in order to characterize FN loaded SWCNTs substrates. According to XPS and AFM results, FN could interact with SWCNTs and for this, the hydrophilicity of SWCNTs was improved. Additionally, SWCNT modified with FN showed less cytotoxicity compared with neat SWCNT. Finally, FN was shown to act as an interesting extracellular component for enhancing the biological properties of SWCNT

  18. Full-scale shear wall tests for force transfer around openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Skaggs; Borjen Yeh; Frank Lam; Douglas Rammer; James Wacker

    2010-01-01

    Wood structural panel sheathed shear walls and diaphragms are the primary lateral-load resisting elements in wood-frame construction. The historical performance of light-frame structures in North America are very good due, in part, to model building codes that are designed to preserve life safety, as well as the inherent redundancy of wood-frame construction using wood...

  19. The shear resistance of steel frames infilled with CASIEL wall panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'Andu, B.M.; Vermeltfoort, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, calcium silicate element (CASIEL) walls are increasingly employed as partitions and intemal claddings in buildings. When surrounded by frames, the interaction between the CASIEL infills and the frames has a significant influence on the load transmission paths of building structures. In

  20. Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, C.J.W.; Peters, D.J.; de Gijt, J.G.; Metrikine, A.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to

  1. Automatic fatigue monitoring based on real loads. Live demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergholz, Steffen; Rudolph, Juergen; Bruckmueller, Florian; Heinz, Benedikt; Jouan, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    The fatigue assessment of power plant components based on local fatigue monitoring approaches is an essential part of the integrity concept and modern lifetime management. An integral approach like the AREVA Fatigue Concept (AFC) basically consists of two essential modules: realistic determination of occurring operational thermal loads by means of a high end fatigue monitoring system and related highly qualified fatigue assessment methods and tools. The fatigue monitoring system delivers continuously realistic load data at the fatigue relevant locations. Consequently, realistic operational load sequences are available as input data for all ensuing fatigue analyses. This way, realistic load data are available and qualified fatigue usage factors can be determined. The mode of operation of the fatigue monitoring system will be explained in the framework of a live demonstration by means of the FAMOSi (i = integrated) demonstration wall. The workflow starts with the continuous online measurement of outer wall temperatures transients on a pipe. Visualization is implemented within the FAMOSi viewer software. In a second step, inner wall temperatures are directly calculated. In a third step, the resulting linearly elastic stress history will be calculated as the basis for subsequent code conforming fatigue assessment. Subsequently, the related advanced fatigue assessment methods of the three staged AFC-approach are addressed.

  2. Relevance of NET first wall concept for DEMO DN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiltie, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Design studies for the Next European Torus (NET) have produced a design concept for the first wall. This concept features poloidal water cooling, double contained in a welded steel structure which is protected by radiatively cooled tiles. In this appendix the relevance of this concept to a DEMO is examined with particular emphasis given to the ability of the cooling tube arrangement to remove the heat. A suggested modification to the arrangement of coolant tubes is suggested so that the design can operate at the higher loadings of a DEMO. (author)

  3. Evaluation of fracture mode for local wall-thinned pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Irwan; Suzuki, Tomohisa; Sato, Yasumoto; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    In this study, by referring to our burst pressure tests results, firstly, the effects of flaw length δ z and pipe size (mean radius R) on burst pressure p f were investigated by using Finite Element Method (FEM). Then, fracture mode evaluation was made by using history data of strain ratio ε z /ε θ along with load increment. Furthermore, the effect of flaw depth t 1 on fracture mode was studied and finally, the evaluation method of fracture mode for local wall-thinned pipes was introduced. (author)

  4. Differential pressures on building walls during tornados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.C.K.

    1975-01-01

    In the United States, containment structures and some auxiliary structures (control building, auxiliary building, spent fuel building, etc.) in nuclear power plants are required to be designed to withstand the effects of the design basis tornado. In addition to velocity pressures and missile impact a tornado also gives rise to a rapid change in atmospheric pressure, which can, in cases of closed or partially vented structures, produce direct differential pressure loading. In this paper a digital computer program is described which applies a tornado-induced, time-dependent atmospheric pressure change to a building and calculates the differential pressure histories across the interior and exterior walls of the building. Laws for quasi-steady, one-dimensional motion of an ideal compressible gas are used to calculate the pressures due to the flow of air through ports, doors and windows in the building. Numerical examples show that for each assumed atmospheric pressure change history a vent area to compartment volume ratio may be specified as the criterion for a building to be considered fully vented. (orig.) [de

  5. Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2010-01-01

    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

  6. Radial force on the vacuum chamber wall during thermal quench in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V. D., E-mail: pustovitov-vd@nrcki.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The radial force balance during a thermal quench in tokamaks is analyzed. As a rule, the duration τ{sub tp} of such events is much shorter than the resistive time τ{sub w} of the vacuum chamber wall. Therefore, the perturbations of the magnetic field B produced by the evolving plasma cannot penetrate the wall, which makes different the magnetic pressures on its inner and outer sides. The goal of this work is the analytical estimation of the resulting integral radial force on the wall. The plasma is considered axially symmetric; for the description of radial forces on the wall, the results of V.D. Shafranov’s classical work [J. Nucl. Energy C 5, 251 (1963)] are used. Developed for tokamaks, the standard equilibrium theory considers three interacting systems: plasma, poloidal field coils, and toroidal field coils. Here, the wall is additionally incorporated with currents driven by ∂B/∂t≠0 accompanying the fast loss of the plasma thermal energy. It is shown that they essentially affect the force redistribution, thereby leading to large loads on the wall. The estimates prove that these loads have to be accounted for in the disruptive scenarios in large tokamaks.

  7. BEHAVIOUR OF UNREINFORCED EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE (EPS-LWC WALL PANEL ENHANCED WITH STEEL FIBRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHANA MAMAT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used steel fibre as reinforcement while enhancing the EPS-LWC strength. In line with architectural demand and ventilation requirement, opening within wall panel was also taken into account. Experimental tests were conducted for reinforced and unreinforced EPS-LWC wall panel. Two samples with size of 1500 mm (height x 1000 mm (length x 75 mm (thickness for each group of wall panel were prepared. Samples in each group had opening size of 600 mm (height x 400 mm (length located at 350 mm and 550 mm from upper end respectively. EPS-LWC wall panel had fcu of 20.87 N/mm2 and a density of 1900 kg/m3. The loading capacity, displacement profiles and crack pattern of each sample was analyzed and discussed. Unreinforced EPS-LWC enhanced with steel fibre resist almost similar loading as reinforced EPS-LWC wall panel. The presence of steel fibre as the only reinforcement creates higher lateral displacement. Wall panel experience shear failure at the side of opening. The number of micro cracks reduces significantly due to presence of steel fibre.

  8. The mechanical performance of the fusion reactor first wall. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daenner, W.; Raeder, J.

    1977-03-01

    While the first part of this report was concerned with the steady-state mechanical analysis of the fusion reactor first wall, this part deals with the analysis based upon pulsed load conditions. In a first section we elaborate various solutions of the non-stationary heat conduction problem in plane geometry capable of describing the temperature response of the wall due to characteristic plasma pulse sequences. these solutions are input to a quasi-steady-state stress and strain analysis. Finally, the results of this analysis are set in relation to the fatigue properties of the wall material. A further section presents a description of a computer program which uses the mathematical procedure described. The results of some test runs are followed by those of detailed parameter studies. In the course of these calculations the influences of a number of design and operational quantities of a fusion reactor were investigated. It turned out that the choice of wall thickness and wall loading are of predominant importance for the first wall fatigue life. (orig.) [de

  9. A preliminary study on the local impact behavior of Steel-plate Concrete walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kap-sun; Moon, Il-hwan; Choi, Hyung-jin; Nam, Deok-woo

    2017-01-01

    International regulations for nuclear power plants strictly prescribe the design requirements for local impact loads, such as aircraft engine impact, and internal and external missile impact. However, the local impact characteristics of Steel-plate Concrete (SC) walls are not easy to evaluate precisely because the dynamic impact behavior of SC walls which include external steel plate, internal concrete, tie-bars, and studs, is so complex. In this study, dynamic impact characteristics of SC walls subjected to local missile impact load are investigated via actual high-speed impact test and numerical simulation. Three velocity checkout tests and four SC wall tests were performed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) site in the USA. Initial and residual velocity of the missile, strain and acceleration of the back plate, local failure mode (penetration, bulging, splitting and perforation) and deformation size, etc. were measured to study the local behavior of the specimen using high speed cameras and various other instrumentation devices. In addition, a more advanced and applicable numerical simulation method using the finite element (FE) method is proposed and verified by the experimental results. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the local failure evaluation formula for SC walls recently proposed, and future research directions for the development of a refined design method for SC walls are reviewed.

  10. Investigation into the behaviour of concrete anchored diaphragm walls under earthquake condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, H. R.; Rahaii, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    Diaphragm walls are frequently used in civil Engineering projects. Considering the variety and important volume of consumed materials (concrete, anchors and soil), one of the important factors for design and construction of these walls, are their behaviour under different executive, and loading conditions. In this paper, various models of concrete diaphragms with different number of anchors and soil parameters under static and dynamic loading have been investigated using finite element method with nonlinear models. Results including the internal forces in diaphragm walls, variation of forces in the anchors, shape of the sliding surface and variation of pressure in soil are obtained and compared. An experimental tool with suitable measurement systems for determining the pressure and internal forces was designed and realised. Also with similitude and dimensional analyses, diaphragms with different number of anchors were built and set on the shaking table test and experimented under different accelograms. Finally results of nonlinear dynamic analysis were compared with experimental results

  11. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  12. An Omni-Directional Wall-Climbing Microrobot with Magnetic Wheels Directly Integrated with Electromagnetic Micromotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Tang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an omni-directional wall-climbing microrobot with magnetic wheels. The integral design with an actuator and adhesive is realized by integrating stators and rotors of an MEMS-based electromagnetic micromotor with a magnetic wheel. The omni-directional wall-climbing mechanism is designed by a set of steering gears and three standard magnetic wheels. The required torque and magnetic force for microrobot movement are derived by its static analysis. The size of the magnetic wheel is optimized, with consideration of its own design constraints, by ANSOFT and Pro/Engineer simulation so as to reduce unnecessary torque consumption under the same designed load. Related experiments demonstrate that the microrobot (diameter: 26mm; height: 16.4; mass: 7.2g; load capacity: 3g we have developed has a good wall-climbing ability and flexible mobility, and it can perform visual detection in a ferromagnetic environment.

  13. The Solar Dynamic Buffer Zone (SDBZ) curtain wall: Validation and design of a solar air collector curtain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Russell Corey

    research. This research shows a SDBZ curtain wall has the potential to act as a significant solar collector. By coupling a simple method with an existing cladding system, the SDBZ curtain wall can reduce a building's heating load by at least 5--10%.

  14. Brick walls on the brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medved, A J M

    2002-01-01

    The so-called 'brick-wall model' is a semiclassical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior study invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that cannot be adequately justified

  15. Domain walls at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A. de; Marques, G.C.; Silva, A.J. da; Ventura, I.

    1983-08-01

    It is suggested that the phase transition of lambda phi 4 theory as a function of temperature coincides with the spontaneous appearance of domain walls. Based on one-loop calculations, T sub(c) = 4M/√ lambda is estimated as the temperature for these domains to because energetically favored, to be compared with T sub(c) = 4.9M/√ lambda from effective potential calculations (which are performed directly in the broken phase). Domain walls, as well as other Types of fluctuations, disorder the system above T sub(c), leading to =0. The critical exponent for the specific heat above T sub(c) is computed; and α=2/3 + 0 (√ lambda) is obtained. (Author) [pt

  16. Fast wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1990-01-01

    A protruding molten metal reservoir is disposed to a sealing vessel embedded in the armour tile of fast walls, and molten metal of low melting point such as tin, lead or alloy thereof is filled in the sealing vessel. The volume of the molten metal reservoir is determined such that the surface level of the molten metal is kept within the molten metal reservoir even when the sealed low melting point metal is solidified at room temperature. When the temperature is lowered during plasma interruption period and the sealed low melting molten metal is solidified to reduce the volume, most of the molten metal reservoir regioin constitutes a vacuum gap. However, the inner wall of the sealing vessel other than the molten metal reservior region can be kept into contact with the sealed metal. Accordingly, the temperature and the sublimation loss of the armour tile can be kept low even upon plasma heat application. (I.N.)

  17. R(and)D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET ITER-like Wall Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Maier, H.; Rubel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ITER-like Wall Project was initiated at JET, with the goal of testing the reference material combination chosen for ITER: beryllium (Be) in the main chamber (wall and limiters) and tungsten (W) in the divertor. The major aims are to study the tritium retention, material mixing, melt layer behavior and to optimize plasma operation scenarios with a full metal wall. The project requires major design and engineering efforts in R(and)D: (i) bulk W tile, (ii) W coatings on carbon fibre composites (CFC) (iii) Be coatings on Inconel, (iv) Be marker tiles. For the W divertor, two R(and)D tasks were initiated: (1) development of a conceptual design for a bulk W tile as the main outer divertor target plate, and (2) W coating selection from 14 different samples produced by various techniques for the other divertor plates and neutral beam shine. The bulk W tile must withstand power loads of 7 MW/m 2 for 10 s. JET divertor plates are not actively cooled, therefore, heat capacity of the tiles is an important design parameter. In addition to power handling, mechanical structural stability under electromagnetic forces and compatibility with remote handling are the key requirements in the design. The design has been completed. The test-tile survived 100 pulses at 7 MW/m 2 for 10 s in the electron beam facility, JUDITH. The W coatings with different thickness, thin ( 2 and 200 pulses at 10 MW/m 2 for 5 s. In all tested samples cracks developed perpendicularly to the fiber bundles in CFC because of contraction of the coating in the cooling phase. Coatings were also exposed to 1000 ELM-like loading pulses. The thin coatings showed fatigue leading to delamination, whereas for thick coatings better resistance in ELM-like loading. As a result of R(and)D a full W divertor was decided: bulk metal at the outer divertor and W coating at other areas. Be-related R(and)D activities are in two areas. Production of 8-9 μm layers on inner wall cladding Inconel tiles ensures the full coating of

  18. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  19. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  20. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...