WorldWideScience

Sample records for wall conditioning system

  1. Monitoring of inner wall condition in mass-production plasma etching process using a load impedance monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Yuji; Kurita, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Naoya; Ando, Akira; Uesugi, Fumihiko

    2015-06-01

    This work describes the detection of changes in the inner wall condition of mass-production plasma etching equipment using a load impedance monitoring system. The system detects the change in the imaginary part of the load impedance from a 50-Ω transmission line when the inner wall condition changes following exposure to the atmosphere. The results demonstrate that the system can be used as a practical method for real-time and noninvasive monitoring of the wall condition of etching chambers. This method will contribute to improvements in production yield and overall equipment effectiveness, and the development of predictive maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing.

  2. ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE OF NANOCOMPOSITES FOR SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ENVELOPE WALLS TECHNICAL CONDITION OF NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raising of the problem. Enveloped concrete wall type structures of localizing safety systems for restaint and localization of radioactive decay products or in the case of special natural or man-made impacts on the power unit is one of the most important components to ensure the safety of nuclear power. The promising direction for the development of the NPP technical system monitoring is to use conductive nanocomposites as primary elements of information. The purpose of the article is to review the theoretical background and experience in the conductive nanocomposites creating for diagnostics of localizing nuclear safety systems. Conclusions. A promising area for the development of diagnostic systems of localizing nuclear safety systems is the use of electrically conductive nanocomposites (conductive concrete - bethels, plasters, paint coatings. A mechanism for conductive nanocomposites creating is the use of the filler metal and carbon nanoparticles. As binders is promising to use nanocomposites of the mineral binders (cement and water glass.

  3. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  4. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages....... The different systems are evaluated using 5 different types of existing walls....

  5. Numerical Study of the Thermally Conductive Finite Thickness Walls Impact on Heat Transfer Regime in a Closed System in Conditions of Radiant Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plane problem of thermogravitational convection in a closed rectangular cavity is numerically solved in conditions of radiant energy supply to the one of the boundaries. Differential heat transfer parameters (fields of temperatures and stream functions for the conjugate (only vertical walls, only horizontal, vertical and horizontal walls and the nonconjugate formulation are obtained. Temperature distributions in the Y direction in the cross section along the axis of symmetry showed that the presence of heat-conducting finite thickness walls leads to a redistribution of the energy which is accumulated by gas and enclosure structures.

  6. On domain wall boundary conditions for the XXZ spin Hamiltonian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne; Reshetikhin, Nicolai

    In this note, we derive the spectrum of the infinite quantum XXZ spin chain with domain wall boundary conditions. The eigenstates are constructed as limits of Bethe states for the finite XXZ spin chain with quantum sl(2) invariant boundary conditions.......In this note, we derive the spectrum of the infinite quantum XXZ spin chain with domain wall boundary conditions. The eigenstates are constructed as limits of Bethe states for the finite XXZ spin chain with quantum sl(2) invariant boundary conditions....

  7. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions. Monitoring of w...

  8. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    - Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions.

  9. Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing.; Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  10. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cavallo, James [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  11. Plant Wall Degradative Compounds and Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present invention relates to cell wall degradative systems, in particular to systems containing enzymes that bind to and/or depolymerize cellulose. These systems...

  12. Wall conditioning and particle control in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Larsson, D.; Brunsell, P.; Möller, A.; Tramontin, L.

    1997-02-01

    The Extrap T2 reversed field pinch experiment is operated with the former OHTE vacuum vessel, of dimensions R = 1.24 m and a = 0.18 m and with a complete graphite liner. It is shown that a rudimentary density control can be achieved by means of frequent helium glow discharge conditioning of the wall. The standard He-GDC is well characterized and reproducible. The trapping and release of hydrogen and impurities at the wall surfaces have been studied by mass spectrometry and surface analysis. The shot to shot particle exchange between wall and plasma can be approximately accounted for.

  13. Development of helium electron cyclotron wall conditioning on TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douai, D.; Goodman, T.; Isayama, A.; Fukumoto, M.; Wauters, T.; Sozzi, C.; Coda, S.; Blanchard, P.; Figini, L.; Garavaglia, S.; Miyata, Y.; Moro, A.; Ricci, D.; Silva, M.; Theiler, C.; Vartanian, S.; Verhaegh, K.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the TCV Team

    2018-02-01

    JT-60SA envisions electron cyclotron wall conditioning (ECWC), as wall conditioning method in the presence of the toroidal field to control fuel and impurity recycling and to improve plasma performance and reproducibility. This paper reports on Helium ECWC experiments on TCV in support of JT-60SA operation. Nearly sixty Helium conditioning discharges have been successfully produced in TCV, at a toroidal field B T  =  1.3 or 1.54 T, with gyrotrons at 82.7 GHz in X2 mode, mimicking ECWC operation in JT-60SA at the second harmonic of the EC wave. Discharge parameters were tuned in order to (i) minimize the time for the onset of ECWC plasmas, thus minimizing absorption of stray radiation by in-vessel components, (ii) improve discharge homogeneity by extending the discharge vertically and radially, and wall coverage, in particular of inboard surfaces where JT-60SA plasmas will be initiated, (iii) assess the efficiency of He-ECWC to deplete carbon walls from fuel. An optimized combination of vertical and radial magnetic fields, with amplitudes typically 0.1 to 0.6% of that of B T, has been determined, which resulted in lowest breakdown time, improved wall coverage and enhanced fuel removal. A standard ohmic D 2-plasma could be then sustained, whereas it would not have been possible without He-ECWC.

  14. Isotope exchange by Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauters, T., E-mail: t.wauters@fz-juelich.de [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Douai, D.; Kogut, D. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyssoivan, A. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Brezinsek, S. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Belonohy, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Blackman, T. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Crombé, K. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Drenik, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Graham, M. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Loarer, T. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lomas, P.L.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Oberkofler, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Philipps, V. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Plyusnin, V. [IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2015-08-15

    The isotopic exchange efficiencies of JET Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) discharges produced at ITER half and full field conditions are compared for JET carbon (C) and ITER like wall (ILW). Besides an improved isotope exchange rate on the ILW providing cleaner plasma faster, the main advantage compared to C-wall is a reduction of the ratio of retained discharge gas to removed fuel. Complementing experimental data with discharge modeling shows that long pulses with high (∼240 kW coupled) ICRF power maximizes the wall isotope removal per ICWC pulse. In the pressure range 1–7.5 × 10{sup −3} Pa, this removal reduces with increasing discharge pressure. As most of the wall-released isotopes are evacuated by vacuum pumps in the post discharge phase, duty cycle optimization studies for ICWC on JET-ILW need further consideration. The accessible reservoir by H{sub 2}-ICWC at ITER half field conditions on the JET-ILW preloaded by D{sub 2} tokamak operation is estimated to be 7.3 × 10{sup 22} hydrogenic atoms, and may be exchanged within 400 s of cumulated ICWC discharge time.

  15. Microclimate conditions in ventilated wet-walled greenhouses in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations of microclimatic conditions in enclosed north–south (N–S) oriented single-arched greenhouse polycarbonate structures, with a wet-wall providing evaporative cooling at the S end, were investigated and displayed online in near real-time. Temperature-controlled fans at the N end extracted air.

  16. Effects of wall condition on flow distributions in arterial modeling: comparison of rigid, dynamic, and compliant walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fan [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing (China); Hua, Lu; Gao, Li jian [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    Blood flow distributions were evaluated using various computational strategies. Three commonly used wall conditions in arterial modeling were employed, namely rigid, dynamic and compliant walls. The results show that the velocity distributions are similar under rigid and dynamic walls, developing into the Poiseuille flow, but they are blunt under compliant walls. The peak pressure under rigid walls is highest, but the model of dynamic walls has a good approximation of pressure against the model of compliant walls. The results indicate that a model of compliant walls appears to be a computationally and reasonably accurate approximation of blood velocity distributions compared with the analysis under rigid or dynamic walls. Introducing fluid-structure interaction into arterial modeling is necessary to ensure reliable results and information. However, a model of dynamic walls seems to be a computationally inexpensive yet reasonably accurate approximation for pressure.

  17. INTOR impurity control and first wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1983-04-01

    The highlights of the recent INTOR effort on examining the key issues of the impurity control/first wall system are summarized. The emphasis of the work was an integrated study of the edge-region physics, plasma-wall interaction, materials, engineering and magnetic considerations associated with the poloidal divertor and pump limiter. The development of limiter and divertor collector plate designs with an acceptable lifetime was a major part of the work.

  18. Conditioning of the vacuum vessel walls of tokamaks, a preliminary look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sink, D.A.

    1976-03-01

    The main features and operating characteristics of the primary vacuum system of many of the presently operating tokamak devices are presented. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to condition and clean the vessel walls in situ. For the devices discussed, a combination of a high-temperature bakeout and/or discharge cleaning is employed. In addition, discussions of the vacuum systems and wall conditioning methods anticipated for the next generation of tokamaks are presented. Since this report was written during a limited time period, it should be considered as preliminary and is not intended to be a general review. Much of the information that is presented was obtained by private communication and there is no bibliography. This study was initiated to aid in the design of TFTR. As presently envisioned, the TFTR vacuum system and methods for wall conditioning are consistent with what is presently practiced.

  19. Dynamic Response of Wall Backfill Retaining System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas Alampalli

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ full-scale test is conducted to measure the dynamic response of a long cantilever wall that retains backfill soil. The recorded modal parameters of this retaining wall exhibited significant similarity to those of a clamped cantilever plate (rather than those of a cantilever beam or plane-strain analysis. Such a three-dimensional (3-D response pattern is not accounted for by current analysis procedures. A simple 3-D finite element model is employed to further analyze the observed resonant configurations. The results indicate that such configurations play an important role in the seismic response of wall backfill soil systems of variable height, such as wing walls supporting highway approach ramps.

  20. Development of remaining wall thickness measurement system for boiler wall tube using gamma scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durongsak, K.; Yenjai, C.; Rassame, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the General Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP5) simulation of the measuring system for the remaining thickness of the wall tube using gamma scattering technique is performed to investigate the applicability of this technique and to find the optimum geometrical setup for the experimental setup. The numerical results show that the optimal geometry condition to provide the highest ratio between the gamma flux changes per thickness variation, namely, the measurement sensitivity, is the alignment of the source incidence angle of 30 degree and detector scattering angle of 30 degrees. Sequentially, the preliminary experiment of thickness measurement system for the tube using the gamma scattering technique is conducted based on the selected geometrical test setup by the simulation. It is found that the experimental results have generally a good agreement with the calculated results. Conclusively, it is suggested that the gamma scattering technique has a potential method to measure the remaining wall thickness in the boiler wall tube.

  1. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  2. Thermal effects of a wall solar collector-storage cell of energy, like conditioning system in residential air-conditioning; Efectos termicos de una pared colector-acumulador de energia solar, como sistema de acondicionamiento en la climatizacion habitacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivasplata, C.

    2008-07-01

    At UNJBG-CERT in Tacna, we count on a laboratory that in its architectonic development integrates a collector solar power accumulator all. It was built with granite. It is a part of an accumulation system of calorific energy as well as at the external surface is used as a collection plate of incidental solar energy, making possible with it a contribution of heat for convection, conduction and radiation. In this article, there are results of the behavior of the temperatures of the interior air in the laboratory in correlation with different temperature measurements in the external and internal surfaces of the wall. In the article. Also there are some theoretical and experimental comparative graphics between between external and internal temperatures and their fluctuation grade for 24-hour periods. (Author)

  3. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  4. Contiguous Pile Wall as a Deep Excavation Supporting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramasubbarao GODAVARTHI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing space for parking, public amenities, etc in multi-storey buildings at town centres has created a need to go deep excavations into ground. Deep excavations are supported by systems like conventional retaining walls, sheet pile walls, braced walls, diaphragm walls and pile walls. This article describes various excavation supporting systems that are in vogue essentially contiguous pile wall and its advantages. A detailed design methodology of an excavation supporting system is furnished in this study. A case study on the Contiguous pile wall retaining system for supporting a deep excavation at a town centre is presented.

  5. Discharge cleaning and wall conditioning in a Novillo Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, R; Camps, E; Contreras, G; Muhl, S

    2002-01-01

    Our Novillo Tokamak is a small toroidal device magnetically confined defined by the main design parameters: R sub o =0.23 m, a sub v =0.08 m, a sub p =0.06 m, B sub T =0.05-0.47 T, I sub p =1-12 kA, n sub e =1-2x10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 3 , T sub e =150 eV, T sub i =50 eV. For the initial discharge chamber cleaning we have often used vacuum baking up to 100 deg. C and then conditioning using Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC) in H sub 2 and He. In this work we report that vacuum baking is effective for obtaining a final total pressure of the order of 1.6x10 sup - sup 7 Torr. We have found that a single parameter, the performance parameter (PP), can be used to optimize the TDC method. This parameter represents the quantity of electron and ion energy incident on the chamber wall during the Taylor discharge, it is equal to (I sub p tau), where I sub p is the peak-to-peak plasma current and tau is the plasma current duration. In graphs of PP versus the gas pressure for different oscillator powers, the maximum val...

  6. Electromagnetic approaches to wall characterization, wall mitigation, and antenna design for through-the-wall radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thajudeen, Christopher

    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a topic of current interest due to its wide range of public safety, law enforcement, and defense applications. Among the various available technologies such as, acoustic, thermal, and optical imaging, which can be employed to sense and image targets of interest, electromagnetic (EM) imaging, in the microwave frequency bands, is the most widely utilized technology and has been at the forefront of research in recent years. The primary objectives for any Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging (TWRI) system are to obtain a layout of the building and/or inner rooms, detect if there are targets of interest including humans or weapons, determine if there are countermeasures being employed to further obscure the contents of a building or room of interest, and finally to classify the detected targets. Unlike conventional radar scenarios, the presence of walls, made of common construction materials such as brick, drywall, plywood, cinder block, and solid concrete, adversely affects the ability of any conventional imaging technique to properly image targets enclosed within building structures as the propagation through the wall can induce shadowing effects on targets of interest which may result in image degradation, errors in target localization, and even complete target masking. For many applications of TWR systems, the wall ringing signals are strong enough to mask the returns from targets not located a sufficient distance behind the wall, beyond the distance of the wall ringing, and thus without proper wall mitigation, target detection becomes extremely difficult. The results presented in this thesis focus on the development of wall parameter estimation, and intra-wall and wall-type characterization techniques for use in both the time and frequency domains as well as analysis of these techniques under various real world scenarios such as reduced system bandwidth scenarios, various wall backing scenarios, the case of inhomogeneous walls, presence

  7. Correlation between vortices and wall shear stress in a curved artery model under pulsatile flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    One of the most physiologically relevant factors within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. The wall shear stress affects endothelial cells via mechanotransduction and atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the shear stress is both oscillatory and multidirectional. Also, the combined effect of curvature and pulsatility in cardiovascular flows produces unsteady vortices. In this work, our goal is to assess the correlation between multiple vortex pairs and wall shear stress. To accomplish this, we use an in-house high-order flux reconstruction Navier-Stokes solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180° curved artery model. We use a physiologically relevant flow rate and generate results using both fully developed and uniform entrance conditions, the latter motivated by the fact that flow upstream to a curved artery may not be fully developed. Under these two inflow conditions, we characterize the evolution of various vortex pairs and their subsequent effect on several wall shear stress metrics. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  9. Monitoring of Double-Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double-stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double-stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double-stud assemblies were compared.

  10. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    - The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insulati...

  11. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insulation in...

  12. Improvement of Plasma Performance with Lithium Wall Conditioning in Aditya Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Chowdhuri, M.; Manchanda, R.; Ghosh, J.; B. Bhatt, S.; Ajai, Kumar; K. Das, B.; A. Jadeja, K.; A. Raijada, P.; Manoj, Kumar; Banerjee, S.; Nilam, Ramaiya; Aniruddh, Mali; Ketan, M. Patel; Vinay, Kumar; Vasu, P.; Bhattacharyay, R.; L. Tanna, R.; Y. Shankara, Joisa; K. Atrey, P.; V. S. Rao, C.; Chenna Reddy, D.; K. Chattopadhyay, P.; Jha, R.; C. Saxena, Y.; Aditya Team

    2013-02-01

    Lithiumization of the vacuum vessel wall of the Aditya tokamak using a lithium rod exposed to glow discharge cleaning plasma has been done to understand its effect on plasma performance. After the Li-coating, an increment of ~100 eV in plasma electron temperature has been observed in most of the discharges compared to discharges without Li coating, and the shot reproducibility is considerably improved. Detailed studies of impurity behaviour and hydrogen recycling are made in the Li coated discharges by observing spectral lines of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen in the visible region using optical fiber, an interference filter, and PMT based systems. A large reduction in O I signal (up to ~40% to 50%) and a 20% to 30% decrease of Hα signal indicate significant reduction of wall recycling. Furthermore, VUV emissions from O V and Fe XV monitored by a grazing incidence monochromator also show the reduction. Lower Fe XV emission indicates the declined impurity penetration to the core plasma in the Li coated discharges. Significant increase of the particle and energy confinement times and the reduction of Zeff of the plasma certainly indicate the improved plasma parameters in the Aditya tokamak after lithium wall conditioning.

  13. Magnetoresistance in magnetic domain wall systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, PAE

    The contribution to the magneto resistance (MR) was calculated for a single magnetic domain wall present in a small 2D impure ferromagnetic wire. On assuming low-temperatures and spin-independent impurity scattering the mechanism responsible for a positive contribution to MR is quantum interference.

  14. Seismic behavior and design of wall-EDD-frame systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren eLavan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Walls and frames have different deflection lines and, depending on the seismic mass they support, may often poses different natural periods. In many cases, wall-frame structures present an advantageous behavior. In these structures the walls and the frames are rigidly connected. Nevertheless, if the walls and the frames were not rigidly connected, an opportunity for an efficient passive control strategy would arise: Connecting the two systems by energy dissipation devices (EDDs to result in wall-EDD-frame systems. This, depending on the parameters of the system, is expected to lead to an efficient energy dissipation mechanism.This paper studies the seismic behavior of wall-EDD-frame systems in the context of retrofitting existing frame structures. The controlling non-dimensional parameters of such systems are first identified. This is followed by a rigorous and extensive parametric study that reveals the pros and cons of the new system versus wall-frame systems. The effect of the controlling parameters on the behavior of the new system are analyzed and discussed. Finally, tools are given for initial design of such retrofitting schemes. These enable both choosing the most appropriate retrofitting alternative and selecting initial values for its parameters.

  15. Optimal reservoir conditions for fluid extraction through permeable walls in the viscous limit

    CERN Document Server

    Herschlag, Gregory; Layton, Anita T

    2015-01-01

    In biological transport mechanisms such as insect respiration and renal filtration, fluid travels along a leaky channel allowing exchange with systems exterior the the channel. The channels in these systems may undergo peristaltic pumping which is thought to enhance the material exchange. To date, little analytic work has been done to study the effect of pumping on material extraction across the channel walls. In this paper, we examine a fluid extraction model in which fluid flowing through a leaky channel is exchanged with fluid in a reservoir. The channel walls are allowed to contract and expand uniformly, simulating a pumping mechanism. In order to efficiently determine solutions of the model, we derive a formal power series solution for the Stokes equations in a finite channel with uniformly contracting/expanding permeable walls. This flow has been well studied in the case of weakly permeable channel walls in which the normal velocity at the channel walls is proportional to the wall velocity. In contrast ...

  16. ITER first wall cooling system simulation with the ATHENA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hove, W.; Komen, E.; Bodart, A. [Belgatom SA, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the simulation of the first wall/shield blanket (FW/SB) cooling system of the ITER reactor by means of the ATHENA code for a number of operational transients and design basis accidents. The ATHENA model used in this study represents one FW/SB cooling system. The major components of the Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) and all 15 different types of FW/SB modules are simulated explicitly. In toroidal direction however, identical components are lumped together. The operational transients are analyzed to support the conceptual design of the FW/SB modules and the PHTS components and to identify the requirements on the control systems. The results show that the system does not experience unacceptable conditions and that the proposed control systems are feasible and effective. The design basis accident analyses are performed to show compliance with the safety criteria for these accidents. The resulting mass and energy releases are used in confinement codes to evaluate the radiological releases to the environment (not reported here). The analyses are part of NSRR-1. The code shortcomings observed in these analyses justify further refinement of the code models and correlations, in order to avoid over-conservative results. (author)

  17. Multifunctional outer wall systems; Multifunktionale Aussenwandsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahne, E.; Twerdy, C. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Pfluger, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-02-01

    Facades will have a multitude of functions in the future. All of them will be energy-oriented and overall energy balances considering production, utilization and destruction will become an important factor. For a detached house and multiple dwelling, examples of facade constructions and appliances are discussed. A `Solar Wall` facade provides preheating of combustion air in a combined heating/power station. Progressive facade elements are being investigated in so-called `Test Cells` for determining their heat transfer coefficient (k), their heat capacity (C) and their energy transport factor (g). PV modules are investigated in such cells in order to work out European Rules for the testing of PV-hybrid components. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fassaden werden in Zukunft eine Vielzahl von Funktionen zu erfuellen haben. Alle werden letztlich energieorientiert sein; gesamtheitliche Betrachtungen von der Produktion ueber die Nutzung bis zur Entsorgung werden eine wesentliche Rolle spielen. Fuer ein Ein- und Mehrfamilienhaus werden Beispiele fuer die Fassadenkonstruktion und Geraetschaften angefuehrt. In einem Fernheizkraftwerk dient eine `Solarwand` zur Vorwaermung der Verbrennungsluft. Fortschrittliche Fassaden-Elemente werden in sogenannten Testzellen untersucht hinsichtlich ihres Gesamtwaermedurchgangskoeffizienten, ihrer Waermekapazitaet und ihres Gesamtenergie-Durchlassgrads. PV-Module werden gegenwaertig in diesen Zellen untersucht, um Testregeln fuer PV-Hybridkomponenten fuer die Europaeische Union auszuarbeiten. (orig.)

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    Double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. In this project, Building Science Corporation monitored moisture conditions in double-stud walls from 2011 through 2014 at a new production house located in Devens, Massachusetts. The builder, Transformations, Inc., has been using double-stud walls insulated with 12 in. of open cell polyurethane spray foam (ocSPF); however, the company has been considering a change to netted and blown cellulose insulation for cost reasons. Cellulose is a common choice for double-stud walls because of its lower cost (in most markets). However, cellulose is an air-permeable insulation, unlike spray foams, which increases interior moisture risks. The team compared three double-stud assemblies: 12 in. of ocSPF, 12 in. of cellulose, and 5-½ in. of ocSPF at the exterior of a double-stud wall (to approximate conventional 2 × 6 wall construction and insulation levels, acting as a control wall). These assemblies were repeated on the north and south orientations, for a total of six assemblies.

  19. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  20. A fast Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP) solver for separating fluid-solid wall boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    We address the task of computing solutions for a separating fluid-solid wall boundary condition model. We present an embarrassingly parallel, easy to implement, fluid LCP solver.We are able to use greater domain sizes than previous works have shown, due to our new solver. The solver exploits matrix...

  1. Recent results on Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning in mid and large size tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douai, D.; Lyssoivan, A.; Philipps, V.; Rohde, V.; Wauters, T.; Blackman, T.; Bobkov, V.; Bremond, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Clairet, F.; De La Cal, E.; Coyne, T.; Gauthier, E.; Gerbaud, T.; Graham, M.; Jachmich, S.; Joffrin, E.; Koch, R.; Kreter, A.; Laengner, R.; Lamalle, P. U.; Lerche, E.; Lombard, G.; Maslov, M.; Mayoral, M. L.; Miller, A.; Monakhov, I.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Ongena, J.; Paul, M. K.; Pegourie, B.; Pitts, R.A.; Plyusnin, V.; Schüller, F. C.; Sergienko, G.; Shimada, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Suttrop, W.; Sozzi, C.; Tsalas, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Unterberg, B.; Van Eester, D.

    2011-01-01

    Wall conditioning techniques applicable in the presence of permanent toroidal magnetic field will be required for the operation of ITER, in particular for recovery from disruptions, vent and air leak, isotopic ratio control, recycling control and mitigation of the tritium inventory build-up. Ion

  2. Plasma and antenna coupling characterization in ICRF-wall conditioning experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Manash Kumar, E-mail: manashkr@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, Tripura 799 055 (India); Institut fuer Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik FZ Juelich, Euratom Association, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Lyssoivan, A.; Koch, R.; Wauters, T. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Euratom-Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Douai, D. [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Bobkov, V. [Max Planck Institute fur Plasma Physik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Ongena, J. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Euratom-Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Rohde, V. [Max Planck Institute fur Plasma Physik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Max Planck Institute fur Plasma Physik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gent University, EESA Department, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Graham, M.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I.; Nightingale, M. [CCFE/Euratom Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Plyusnin, V.V. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Associacao EURATOM-IST, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-02-15

    Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) discharges, in pulsed-mode operation, were carried out in the divertor tokamaks ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) and JET to simulate the scenario of ITER wall conditioning at half-field (AUG) and full-field (JET). ICWC-plasma and antenna coupling characterization results obtained during the Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF)-Wall Conditioning experiments performed in helium-hydrogen mixture in AUG and helium-deuterium mixtures in JET are presented here. Safe operational regimes for optimum ICWC in ITER could be explored for different magnetic fields. Satisfactory antenna coupling in the Mode Conversion scenario along with reproducible generation of ICRF plasmas and reliable wall conditioning were achieved by coupling RF power from one or two ICRF antennas at two (AUG, JET) different resonant frequencies. These results are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of 1-D TOMCAT code. Present study of ICWC indicates towards the beneficial effect of application of an additional (along with toroidal magnetic field) stationary vertical (B{sub V} Much-Less-Than B{sub T}) magnetic field on antenna coupling and plasma parameters. The results obtained from JET and AUG tokamaks, presented in this paper, emphasizes the proposed phenomenological schemes for further development of ICWC in superconducting tokamaks.

  3. Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids fluidized bed simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen [URS Corporation; Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Benyahia, Sofiane [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Wall boundary conditions for the solids phase have significant effects on numerical predictions of various gas-solids fluidized beds. Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the open literature for numerical modeling of gas-solids flow. In this study, a model for specularity coefficient used in Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions by Li and Benyahia (AIChE Journal, 2012, 58, 2058-2068) is implemented in the open-source CFD code-MFIX. The variable specularity coefficient model provides a physical way to calculate the specularity coefficient needed by the partial-slip boundary conditions for the solids phase. Through a series of 2-D numerical simulations of bubbling fluidized bed and circulating fluidized bed riser, the model predicts qualitatively consistent trends to the previous studies. Furthermore, a quantitative comparison is conducted between numerical results of variable and constant specularity coefficients to investigate the effect of spatial and temporal variations in specularity coefficient.

  4. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  5. Hydrodynamic conditions in front of a vertical wall with an overhanging horizontal cantilever slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisacik, Dogan; Ozyurt, Gulizar; Troch, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Transforming wave heights from offshore to the shoreline is the first step of any coastal engineering work. Wave breaking is analyzed to understand hydrodynamic conditions. For vertical breakwaters and sea walls, wave reflection is an important process that affects the determination of the wave height. Many of the design formulas presented in the literature depend on empirical studies based on the structures tested. In this study, the hydrodynamic conditions in front of a vertical wall with an overhanging horizontal cantilever slab with a foreshore slope of 1/20 are determined experimentally under regular wave conditions to assess the applicability of the formulas of Goda (2000) for predicting the nearshore wave height and breaker index equation (Goda, 2010). The selection of wave measurements used to determine the design wave height, the reflection coefficients, and wave breaking is also analyzed, and the reflection equations are derived from the dataset covering different breaker types. Small-scale tests show that the incident wave height is a good representative of the design wave height and that the values predicted by Goda are in good agreement with actual measurements. However, the predicted H max values are overestimated. In addition, the inception of the wave breaking point is postponed because of the reflection and/or turbulence left over from preceding waves, which is an effect of the vertical wall. At higher water levels, the effect of the vertical wall on the inception point becomes more significant.

  6. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  7. Influence of environment factors on humidity conditions of selected external wall solutions in a heated building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Contemporary single-family houses in Poland are often built during 3 quarters of a year (spring to autumn) are usually settled in a winter season. It is a special case when exploitation humidity coincides with technological one, causing unfavourable humidity conditions during the first years of exploitation. In consequence, thermal parameters of partitions differ from those assumed in the project. In construction stage the humidity state of a wall stabilizes as a result of water: associated with storage, entered technologically during wall construction and plastering, coming from rainfall. Thermo-insulation materials are built-in at dry state. During erection and exploitation of a building their thermal conductivity is changing depending on humidity conditions. According to building rules, construction humidity should be removed from a partition before the building transfer to usage, because it lowers the thermal partition insulation ability and increases air humidity of building interior. Walls are plastered and insulated in condition of simultaneous presence of atmospheric and technological humidity which cause special humidity condition during first years of exploitation. As a consequence, heating costs are substantially higher. In this article the results of simulation are shown performed with WUFI ®PRO 5 software, which was intended to define the time necessary for reaching the stabilised humidity in selected solutions of two-layer walls applied in a heated building. In the research performed, the partition orientation along geographic directions, short and long wave radiation, and environment humidity (air humidity, driving rain) coincidence with technological humidity in assumed wall solutions were taken into account.

  8. Manufactured residential utility wall system (ResCore), overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, C.; Lau, T.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self-contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the residential kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty and students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the US Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a ``layered`` manufacturing technique that allows each major component group--structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc.--to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  9. Manufactured Residential Utility Wall System (ResCore),

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, Clark; Lau, Tin Man [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  10. EVOLVE - an advanced first wall/blanket system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, H.; Majumdar, S.; Malang, S.; Mattas, R. F.; Mogahed, E.; Nelson, B.; Sawan, M.; Sze, D. K.

    1999-07-21

    A new concept for an advanced fusion first wall and blanket has been identified. The key feature of the concept is the use of the heat of vaporization of lithium (about 10 times higher than water) as the primary means for capturing and removing the fusion power. A reasonable range of boiling temperatures of this alkali metal is 1200 to 1400 C, corresponding with a saturation pressure of 0.035 to 0.2 MPa. Calculations indicate that a evaporative system with Li at {approximately}1200 C can remove a first wall surface heat flux of >2 MW/m2 with an accompanying neutron wall load of >10 MW/m2. Work to date shows that the system provides adequate tritium breeding and shielding, very high thermal conversion efficiency, and low system pressure. Tungsten is used as the structural material, and it is expected to operate at a surface wall load of 2 MW/m2 at temperatures above 1200 C.

  11. Cell Wall Amine Oxidases: New Players in Root Xylem Differentiation under Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip A. Ghuge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are aliphatic polycations present in all living organisms. A growing body of evidence reveals their involvement as regulators in a variety of physiological and pathological events. They are oxidatively deaminated by amine oxidases (AOs, including copper amine oxidases (CuAOs and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent polyamine oxidases (PAOs. The biologically-active hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a shared compound in all of the AO-catalyzed reactions, and it has been reported to play important roles in PA-mediated developmental and stress-induced processes. In particular, the AO-driven H2O2 biosynthesis in the cell wall is well known to be involved in plant wound healing and pathogen attack responses by both triggering peroxidase-mediated wall-stiffening events and signaling modulation of defense gene expression. Extensive investigation by a variety of methodological approaches revealed high levels of expression of cell wall-localized AOs in root xylem tissues and vascular parenchyma of different plant species. Here, the recent progresses in understanding the role of cell wall-localized AOs as mediators of root xylem differentiation during development and/or under stress conditions are reviewed. A number of experimental pieces of evidence supports the involvement of apoplastic H2O2 derived from PA oxidation in xylem tissue maturation under stress-simulated conditions.

  12. The slow control system of the HADES RPC wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A.; Blanco, A.; Castro, E.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J. A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Fouedjio, L.; Kolb, B. W.; Palka, M.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Zumbruch, P.

    2012-01-01

    The control and monitoring system for the new HADES RPC time of flight wall installed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Darmstadt, Germany), is described. The slow control system controls/monitors about 6000 variables from different physical devices via a distributed architecture, which uses intensively the 1-wire® bus. The software implementation is based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software tool kit providing low cost, reliability and adaptability without requiring large hardware resources.The control and monitoring system attends five different subsystems: front-end electronics, low voltage, high voltage, gases, and detector.

  13. Impact of wall conditioning and gas fuelling on the enhanced confinement modes in TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F.L. E-mail: tabares@ciemat.es; Tafalla, D.; Balbin, R.; Branas, B.; Estrada, T.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.A

    2003-03-01

    The TJ-II helical stellarator has been operated under full metallic first wall conditions until mid 2001. This scenario has proven fully compatible with the ECR production and heating of plasmas. Under those conditions, several modes with enhanced confinement have been found. In the last experimental campaigns, however, boronisation of the first wall of the TJ-II has been carried out. This has lead to strong changes in edge parameters and density control. Namely, a rise of the electron temperature at the limiter of a factor of {approx}3, and a strong (<4x) increase in the required fuelling rate for the same density respect to the metallic case have been observed. According to the observation in the metal case, these two facts would in principle prevent the transition to the enhanced particle confinement mode. However, the same features associated with such mode have been reproduced. Moreover, a simultaneous increase in the total energy content, not achieved in the former wall scenario, was found for some conditions. The implications of these findings to the present understanding of the enhanced modes in TJ-II are addressed.

  14. The Effect of Selected Conditions in a Thermoforming Process on Wall Thickness Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sasimowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of a study on the effect of selected conditions in a thermoforming process for thin polystyrene sheet by vacuum assisted drape forming on the wall thickness non-uniformity of finished parts. The investigation was performed using Statistica’s DOE module for three variables: temperatures in the external and internal zones of the heater as well as heating time of the plastic sheet. The results demonstrate that the wall thickness in the finished parts at the measuring points is primarily affected by the heating time and the temperature in the internal zone of the heater, while the temperature in the external zone only affects some regions of the finished part. The results demonstrate that a short heating time and hence a lower temperature of the plastic sheet lead to a more uniform deformation of both the bottom and the side walls of the finished part, and as a consequence, to smaller variations in the wall thickness. The shortening of the heating time is however limited by the necessity of accurate reproduction of the shape of the finished part.

  15. The CMS Condition Database system

    CERN Document Server

    Govi, Giacomo Maria; Ojeda-Sandonis, Miguel; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Sipos, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The Condition Database plays a key role in the CMS computing infrastructure. The complexity of the detector and the variety of the sub-systems involved are setting tight requirements for handling the Conditions. In the last two years the collaboration has put an effort in the re-design of the Condition Database system, with the aim to improve the scalability and the operability for the data taking starting in 2015. The re-design has focused in simplifying the architecture, using the lessons learned during the operation of the previous data-taking period. In the new system the relational features of the database schema are mainly exploited to handle the metadata ( Tag and Interval of Validity ), allowing for a limited and controlled set of queries. The bulk condition data ( Payloads ) are stored as unstructured binary data, allowing the storage in a single table with a common layout for all of the condition data types. In this presentation, we describe the full architecture of the system, including the serv...

  16. Permanent Magnetic System Design for the Wall-Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Shen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of the permanent magnetic system for a wall-climbing robot with permanent magnetic tracks. Based on the behaviour of gecko lizards, the architecture of the robot was designed and built, including the structure of the adhesion mechanism, the mechanical architecture and the anti-toppling mechanism. The permanent magnetic adhesion mechanism and the tracked locomotion mechanism were employed in this kind of wall-climbing robot. Through static and dynamic force analysis of the robot under different situations, design requirements for the adhesion mechanism were derived. Two different types of structures were put forward for the permanent magnetic units and are further discussed in this paper. These two types of structures are also analysed in detail. In addition, a finite-element method was used to verify the results of magnetic units. Finally, two wall-climbing robots, equipped with different magnetic systems described previously, are explained and their applications are discussed in this paper.

  17. Entropy Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Three-Dimensional Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators on unstructured grids are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite difference, finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.

  18. Entropy Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite volume, finite difference, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.

  19. Building America Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  20. Limiting conditions for decay in wood systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul I. Morris; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    Hygrothermal models can predict temperature and moisture conditions in wall components subjected to real weather data, but specific data and a fundamental understanding of how temperature and wood moisture content dictate the progression of decay under these conditions is required for modellers to predict consequences of decay on building performance. It is well...

  1. Flow Conditions in the Intracranial Aneurysm Lumen Are Associated with Inflammation and Degenerative Changes of the Aneurysm Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebral, J; Ollikainen, E; Chung, B J; Mut, F; Sippola, V; Jahromi, B R; Tulamo, R; Hernesniemi, J; Niemelä, M; Robertson, A; Frösen, J

    2017-01-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysm is a common disease that may cause devastating intracranial hemorrhage. Hemodynamics, wall remodeling, and wall inflammation have been associated with saccular intracranial aneurysm rupture. We investigated how saccular intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics is associated with wall remodeling and inflammation of the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Tissue samples resected during a saccular intracranial aneurysm operation (11 unruptured, 9 ruptured) were studied with histology and immunohistochemistry. Patient-specific computational models of hemodynamics were created from preoperative CT angiographies. More stable and less complex flows were associated with thick, hyperplastic saccular intracranial aneurysm walls, while slower flows with more diffuse inflow were associated with degenerated and decellularized saccular intracranial aneurysm walls. Wall degeneration (P = .041) and rupture were associated with increased inflammation (CD45+, P = .031). High wall shear stress (P = .018), higher vorticity (P = .046), higher viscous dissipation (P = .046), and high shear rate (P = .046) were associated with increased inflammation. Inflammation was also associated with lack of an intact endothelium (P = .034) and the presence of organized luminal thrombosis (P = .018), though overall organized thrombosis was associated with low minimum wall shear stress (P = .034) and not with the flow conditions associated with inflammation. Flow conditions in the saccular intracranial aneurysm are associated with wall remodeling. Inflammation, which is associated with degenerative wall remodeling and rupture, is related to high flow activity, including elevated wall shear stress. Endothelial injury may be a mechanism by which flow induces inflammation in the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Hemodynamic simulations might prove useful in identifying saccular intracranial aneurysms at risk of developing inflammation, a potential biomarker for rupture.

  2. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture......On a Danish housing estate moisture sensors were installed in dwellings, partly in exterior walls and partly in attics. At each location sensors were installed within the insulation at two positions, one facing the outer cold side and the other facing the inner warm side. The exterior walls...... conditions in walls nor attics provide a risk or concern of mould growth in the thermal insulation....

  3. Facile route to multi-walled carbon nanotubes under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Hyunchul; Jeong, Soo-Hwan [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A facile and practical route is demonstrated to prepare multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sonochemical method. By applying ultrasonic irradiation to the mixture of ferrocene and xylene with small amount of water, crystalline MWCNTs were selectively synthesized under ambient conditions, allowing MWCNTs with diameter of 25-40 nm to be obtained. A control experiment revealed that a small amount of water was essential for producing MWCNTs. The analysis of Raman spectra of MWCNTs showed that the intensity of the D-band relative to the G-band was 0.98, indicating relatively good crystallinity of these MWCNTs. This result was consistent with that of TEM observation.

  4. Assessment of hypervapotron heat sink performance using CFD under DEMO relevant first wall conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domalapally, Phani, E-mail: p_kumar.domalapally@cvrez.cz

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Performance of Hypervapotron heat sink was tested for First wall limiter application. • Two different materials were tested Eurofer 97 and CuCrZr at PWR conditions. • Simulations were performed to see the effect of the different inlet conditions and materials on the maximum temperature. • It was found that CuCrZr heat sink performance is far better than Eurofer heat sink at the same operating conditions. - Abstract: Among the proposed First Wall (FW) cooling concepts for European Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO), water cooled FW is one of the options. The heat flux load distribution on the FW of the DEMO reactor is not yet precisely defined. But if the heat loads on the FW are extrapolated from ITER conditions, the numbers are quite high and have to be handled none the less. The design of the FW itself is challenging as the thermal conductivity ratio of heat sink materials in ITER (CuCrZr) and in DEMO (Eurofer 97) is ∼10–12 and the operating conditions are of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) in DEMO instead of 70 °C and 4 MPa as in ITER. This paper analyzes the performance of Hypervapotron (HV) heat sink for FW limiter application under DEMO conditions. Where different materials, temperatures, heat fluxes and velocities are considered to predict the performance of the HV, to establish its limits in handling the heat loads before reaching the upper limits from temperature point of view. In order to assess the performance, numerical simulations are performed using commercial CFD code, which was previously validated in predicting the thermal hydraulic performance of HV geometry. Based on the results the potential usage of HV heat sink for DEMO will be assessed.

  5. Determinación de compuestos hidrocarbonados en la pared celular de P. maximum y L. leucocephala en silvopastoreo Determination of hydrocarbonated compounds in the cell wall from P. maximum and L. leucocephala under silvopastoral system conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la concentración de n-alcanos y alcoholes de cadena larga en la pared celular de Panicum maximum cv. Likoni y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, se realizó un estudio en una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y leucaena de 10 años de establecida, la cual ocupa un área de 1,6 ha. Se seleccionaron dichas especies por ser las más representativas en la composición florística. Las muestras se colectaron de enero a diciembre del 2005 y se secaron. La concentración de n-alcanos de cadena impar fue de 167,97 y 222,96 mg/kg de MS y 134,11 y 137,27 mg/kg de MS para guinea y leucaena, en el período poco lluvioso y en el lluvioso, respectivamente. A su vez la concentración de alcoholes de cadena par para la leucaena presentó un valor mayor(2 754,60 y 3 830,18 mg/kg de MS para el período poco lluvioso y lluvioso, respectivamente, que en la guinea (2 571,73-3 679,65 mg/kg de MS para cada período, respectivamente. Se concluye que la concentración de n-alcanos de cadena larga impar fue baja para P. maximum y L. leucocephala en ambos períodos del año; sin embargo, presentaron concentraciones elevadas de alcoholes de cadena larga par, que pudieran ser utilizados como marcadores naturales en las dos especies.With the objective of determining the concentration of n-alkanes and long-chain alcohols in the cell wall of Panicum maximum cv. Likoni and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, a study was conducted in an association of improved grasses and leucaena ten years after being established, which occupies an area of 1,6 ha. Such species were selected for being the most representative ones in the floristic composition. The samples were collected from January to December, 2005 and were dried. The concentration of odd-chain n-alkanes was 167,97 and 222,96 mg/kg DM and 134,11 and 137,27 mg/kg DM for Guinea grass and leucaena in the dry and rainy season, respectively. In turn, the concentration of even-chain alcohols for

  6. Design for Crack Detection System of Wall in Houses Based on SCM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu Tianye

    2013-01-01

      In order to understand the data of crack of wall in houses as much as possible and ensure the safety of life and property of residents, a kind of crack detection system of wall in houses based on SCM...

  7. System identification of timber masonry walls using shaking table test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Timir B.; Guerreiro, Luis; Bagchi, Ashutosh

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic study is important in order to design, repair and rehabilitation of structures. It has played an important role in the behavior characterization of structures; such as: bridges, dams, high rise buildings etc. There had been substantial development in this area over the last few decades, especially in the field of dynamic identification techniques of structural systems. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and Time Domain Decomposition are most commonly used methods to identify modal parameters; such as: natural frequency, modal damping and mode shape. The focus of the present research is to study the dynamic characteristics of typical timber masonry walls commonly used in Portugal. For that purpose, a multi-storey structural prototype of such wall has been tested on a seismic shake table at the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal (LNEC). Signal processing has been performed of the output response, which is collected from the shaking table experiment of the prototype using accelerometers. In the present work signal processing of the output response, based on the input response has been done in two ways: FDD and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI). In order to estimate the values of the modal parameters, algorithms for FDD are formulated and parametric functions for the SSI are computed. Finally, estimated values from both the methods are compared to measure the accuracy of both the techniques.

  8. Fractal structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes in biologically relevant conditions: role of chirality vs. media conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iftheker A; Aich, Nirupam; Afrooz, A R M Nabiul; Flora, Joseph R V; Schierz, P Ariette; Ferguson, P Lee; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Saleh, Navid B

    2013-11-01

    Aggregate structure of covalently functionalized chiral specific semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was systematically studied employing static light scattering (SLS). Fractal dimensions (Df) of two specific chirality SWNTs-SG65 and SG76 with (6, 5) and (7, 6) chiral enrichments-were measured under four biological exposure media conditions, namely: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium, and 0.9% saline solution. The SWNTs exhibited chiral dependence on Df with SG65 showing more fractal or loosely bound aggregate structures, i.e., lower Df values (range of 2.24±0.03 to 2.64±0.05), compared to the SG76 sample (range of 2.58±0.13 to 2.90±0.08). All the Df values reported are highly reproducible, measured from multiple SLS runs and estimated with 'random block-effects' statistical analysis that yielded all p values to be fractal aggregates. Moreover, presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), used to mimic the in vitro cell culture condition, reduced the Df values, i.e., created more fractal structures. Steric hindrance to aggregation was identified as the key mechanism for creating the fractal structures. Also, increase in FBS concentration from 1% to 10% resulted in increasingly lower Df values. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. EFFECT OF CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AT BOTTOM WALL ON NATURAL CONVECTIONS IN A SQUARE CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASWATHA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulations were carried out for natural convection in a square cavity using finite volume based computational procedure with biased quadratic elements to investigate the influence of convective boundary conditions at bottom wall. Parametric study has been carried out for a wide range of Rayleigh number (Ra (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 108, Prandtl number (Pr (0.7 ≤ Pr ≤ 17 and heat transfer coefficient (h (0.1 ≤ h ≤ 104 W/m2 K. It is observed from the present study that the heat transfer is primarily due to conduction for Rayleigh number up to 104. Convection dominant heat transfer is observed at higher Ra values. The intensity of circulation increases with increase in Ra number. The average heat transfer rate at the bottom wall is found to be invariant for all values of heat transfer coefficient for Ra up to 104. The power law correlations between average Nusselt number and Rayleigh numbers are presented for convection dominated regimes.

  10. Wall catalytic recombination and boundary conditions in nonequilibrium hypersonic flows - With applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.

    1992-01-01

    The meaning of catalysis and its relation to aerodynamic heating in nonequilibrium hypersonic flows are discussed. The species equations are described and boundary conditions for them are derived for a multicomponent gas and for a binary gas. Slip effects are included for application of continuum methods to low-density flows. Measurement techniques for determining catalytic wall recombination rates are discussed. Among them are experiments carried out in arc jets as well as flow reactors. Diagnostic methods for determining the atom or molecule concentrations in the flow are included. Results are given for a number of materials of interest to the aerospace community, including glassy coatings such as the RCG coating of the Space Shuttle and for high temperature refractory metals such as coated niobium. Methods of calculating the heat flux to space vehicles in nonequilibrium flows are described. These methods are applied to the Space Shuttle, the planned Aeroassist Flight Experiment, and a hypersonic slender vehicle such as a transatmospheric vehicle.

  11. Condition of the ratchet effect of a magnetic domain wall motion under an asymmetric potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Hong-Guang; Zhang, Xiaozhong; Choi, Hyeok-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, Chun-Yeol

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the ratchet effect of magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in a straight ferromagnetic nanowire under ac magnetic field by means of micromagnetic simulation. A structure-stable DW ratchet effect along the ferromagnetic nanowire is observed utilizing an asymmetric potential produced by a nonuniform magnetostatic stray field from an array of a periodic non-contact trapezoidal stubs. A diode-like consecutive operation process for a transverse DW motion is examined with variation of the ac field frequency and amplitude, where the necessary conditions for the DW ratchet effect are systematically examined. We have also obtained the empirical relation between a DW velocity of the ratchet effect and the ac field frequency and amplitude.

  12. Hypoxic conditions and iron restriction affect the cell-wall proteome of Candida albicans grown under vagina-simulative conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosinska, Grazyna J.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Teixeira de Mattos, M. Joost; Dekker, Henk L.; de Koster, Chris G.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; Klis, Frans M.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins that are covalently linked to the skeletal polysaccharides of the cell wall of Candida albicans play a major role in the colonization of the vaginal mucosal surface, which may result in vaginitis. Here we report on the variability of the cell-wall proteome of C. albicans as a function of

  13. On Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Hermite Discretization of the Linearised Boltzmann Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Neeraj; Torrilhon, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    We define certain criteria, using the characteristic decomposition of the boundary conditions and energy estimates, which a set of stable boundary conditions for a linear initial boundary value problem, involving a symmetric hyperbolic system, must satisfy. We first use these stability criteria to show the instability of the Maxwell boundary conditions proposed by Grad (Commun Pure Appl Math 2(4):331-407, 1949). We then recognise a special block structure of the moment equations which arises due to the recursion relations and the orthogonality of the Hermite polynomials; the block structure will help us in formulating stable boundary conditions for an arbitrary order Hermite discretization of the Boltzmann equation. The formulation of stable boundary conditions relies upon an Onsager matrix which will be constructed such that the newly proposed boundary conditions stay close to the Maxwell boundary conditions at least in the lower order moments.

  14. Alcoholism: a systemic proinflammatory condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-10-28

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver.

  15. Modification of antioxidant systems in cell walls of maize roots by different nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović V; Vuletić, M.; Marković, K.; Željko, Vučinić; Kravić, N.

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses than cell walls grown on NO3-. Irrespective of N treatment, the activities of all studied enzymes and protein content were higher in cell walls of lateral compared to primary roots. Phenolic content of cell walls isolated from lateral roots was higher in NO3--grown than in mixed N grown plants. No significant differences could be observed in the isozyme patterns of cell wall peroxidases isolated from plants grown on different nutrient solution. Our results indicate that different N treatments modify the antioxidant systems of root cell walls. Treatment with NO3- resulted in an increase of constitutive phenolic content, while the combination of NO3-+NH4+ elevated the redox enzyme activities in root cell walls.

  16. Conceptual design of the INTOR first-wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.; Jung, J.; Abdou, M.A.; Bowers, D.; Trachsel, C.; Merrill, B.

    1981-10-01

    The design concept and performance characteristics of the first-wall design for the phase-1 INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) study is described. The reference design consists of a water-cooled stainless steel panel. The major uncertainty regarding the performance of the bare stainless steel wall relates to the response of a thin-melt layer predicted to form on limited regions during a plasma disruption. A more-complex backup design, which incorporates radiatively cooled graphite tiles on the inboard wall, is briefly described.

  17. Systems under Subhumid Tropical Conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    bilization in the stable SOM at the N demand side, N supply seems to be relatively well balanced by N demand. Some possible research directions related to N cycling and synchrony in agroforestry systems and other improved cropping systems are highlighted. Introduction available at all. In alley cropping systems, food.

  18. Exact Solution of the Six-Vertex Model with Domain Wall Boundary Conditions. Disordered Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Bleher, P M

    2005-01-01

    The six-vertex model, or the square ice model, with domain wall boundary conditions (DWBC) has been introduced and solved for finite $N$ by Korepin and Izergin. The solution is based on the Yang-Baxter equations and it represents the free energy in terms of an $N\\times N$ Hankel determinant. Paul Zinn-Justin observed that the Izergin-Korepin formula can be re-expressed in terms of the partition function of a random matrix model with a nonpolynomial interaction. We use this observation to obtain the large $N$ asymptotics of the six-vertex model with DWBC in the disordered phase. The solution is based on the Riemann-Hilbert approach and the Deift-Zhou nonlinear steepest descent method. As was noticed by Kuperberg, the problem of enumeration of alternating sign matrices (the ASM problem) is a special case of the the six-vertex model. We compare the obtained exact solution of the six-vertex model with known exact results for the 1, 2, and 3 enumerations of ASMs, and also with the exact solution on the so-called f...

  19. Catalyst size effects on the growth of single-walled nanotubes in neutral and plasma systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Eugene; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2009-09-16

    The results of large-scale ( approximately 10(9) atoms) numerical simulations of the growth of different-diameter vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes in plasma systems with different sheath widths and in neutral gases with the same operating parameters are reported. It is shown that the nanotube lengths and growth rates can be effectively controlled by varying the process conditions. The SWCNT growth rates in the plasma can be up to two orders of magnitude higher than in the equivalent neutral gas systems. Under specific process conditions, thin SWCNTs can grow much faster than their thicker counterparts despite the higher energies required for catalyst activation and nanotube nucleation. This selective growth of thin SWCNTs opens new avenues for the solution of the currently intractable problem of simultaneous control of the nanotube chirality and length during the growth stage.

  20. Ion-exchange properties of cell walls of Spinacia oleracea L. roots under different environmental salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meychik, N R; Nikolaeva, Yu I; Yermakov, I P

    2006-07-01

    Ion-exchange properties of the polymeric matrix of cell walls isolated from roots of 55-day-old Spinacia oleracea L. (Matador cv.) plants grown in nutrient solution in the presence of 0.5, 150, and 250 mM NaCl and from roots of Suaeda altissima L. Pall plants of the same age grown in the presence of 0.5 and 250 mM NaCl were studied. The ion-exchange capacity of the spinach cell walls was determined at pH values from 2 to 12 and different ionic strength of the solution (10 and 250 mM NaCl). In the structure of the root cell walls, four types of ionogenic groups were found: amine, two types of carboxyl (the first being galacturonic acid residue), and phenolic groups. The content of each type of group and their ionization constants were evaluated. The ion-exchange properties of spinach and the halophyte Suaeda altissima L. Pall were compared, and the qualitative composition of the ion-exchange groups in the cell walls of roots of these plants appeared to be the same and not depend on conditions of the root nutrition. The content of carboxyl groups of polygalacturonic acid changed in the cell walls of the glycophyte and halophyte depending on the salt concentration in the medium. These changes in the composition of functional groups of the cell wall polymers seemed to be a response of these plants to salt and were more pronounced in the halophyte. A sharp increase in the NaCl concentration in the medium caused a decrease in pH in the extracellular water space as a result of exchange reactions between sodium ions entering from the external solution and protons of carboxyl groups of the cell walls. The findings are discussed from the standpoint of involvement of root cell walls of different plant species in response to salinity.

  1. Two feedback system schemes for the collider and resistive wall instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, G.

    1993-10-01

    Two feedback systems proposed for the SSC Collider are studied from the point of view of the capability for controlling the resistive wall instability. The previous kick subtraction feedback scheme can damp the dipole mode resistive wall instability. However, the feedback system with digital filter processing cannot control this instability.

  2. Influence of Surrounding Soil Conditions and Joint Sealing on Seepage Resistance of a Sheet Pile Wall, Three Dimensional Numerical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Eugeniusz; Wyjadlowski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present 3D numerical calculations results of the seepage resistance of sheet pile (SP) wall with sealed joints. In the present work the leakage through SP wall was determined for one joint of full length. In the analysed example, the SP wall passed through one kind of soil but some conditions (permeability of joint and of surrounding soil) changed depending on the adopted assumptions. To find the distribution of the total head in the calculation area Laplace equation was used. To determine the velocity field Darcy's law was adopted. In the first step, the discharge flowing through the single joint of SP wall based on 3D numerical simulations was determined. In the next step, the joint resistance was estimated and the discharge was found analytically. The results obtained using these two methods were compared. And the conclusions are as follows: it seems possible to estimate the „joint permeability” coefficient using numerical methods, in some conditions the analytical results are far away from numerical ones, due to the nonlinear pressure distribution along the joint, it is necessary to collect in-situ data to confirm the usefulness and reliability of obtained solutions and to proposed more complete methods of determination of SP wall seepage resistance.

  3. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders.

  4. Retrofit wall system for insulation and lead encasement in older multi-family housing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R. L.

    1998-08-11

    This paper presents an approach to modernization or rehabilitation of buildings with uninsulated masonry walls that have lead-based paint hazards or deteriorated plaster walls. The approach provides a solution to lead contamination on the walls, increased energy efficiency and comfort improvements associated with better insulated building envelopes. The system sheaths or replaces damaged or contaminated walls with a tight, well-insulated, durable interior surface. The costs of this system are estimated to be less than those of other insulated wall systems. Modeling of the impact of this system shows significant improvement in energy performance. The energy savings over the life of this durable system contribute to significantly offset the often-times sizeable cost of lead hazard remediation.

  5. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  6. A silicate brick in external walls constructions of apartment houses: condition analysis, durability forecast and methods of its increasing (rus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chuykin A.Ye.; Samofeev N.S.; Babkov V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Practice shows, that constructive elements the most damaged by the environmental conditions are external walls of apartment houses and, accordingly, these constructive elements demand a complex estimation of their condition about decreasing of their operational characteristics which provide their bearing ability and heat-shielding properties, and development of ways of a prolongation of an operational resource.In the given work the structure of silicate brick is analyzed, questions of a techn...

  7. Sand cracks, horizontal fissures, and other conditions affecting the wall of the bovine claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, P R

    2001-03-01

    The wall of the bovine claw is created only by the dermis beneath the coronary band. Keratogenic tissues in this region are susceptible to nutritional changes or stress, which changes the characteristics of the horn produced. Horizontal grooves or fissures result that weaken the claw wall and are instrumental in generating many vertical fissures. The rate at which the claw grows can be used to calculate the date of a nutritional insult.

  8. Defecography of rectal wall prolapse conditions; Defecografia nelle malattie parietali del retto da prolasso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, A.; Muto, M.; De Rosa, A. [Azienda Sanitaria di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Neuroradiologia; Ginolfi, F.; Carbone, M.; Amodio, F.; Rossi, E. [Naples Univ. Federico 2. (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Tuccillo, M. [Azienda Sanitaria di Rilirvo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Naples (Italy). 2. Servizio di Radiologia

    1999-06-01

    Pelvic floor and rectal prolapse conditions have greatly benefited by new imaging and instrumental diagnostic approaches, and especially defecography, for both pathophysiological interpretation and differential diagnosis. The authors investigated the efficacy of defecography in the assessment of rectal prolapse, and in particular the role of videproctography in diagnosis such dynamic disorders. The dynamic changes of ampulla are well depicted by videoproctography, which showed anorectum normalization and spontaneous reduction of invagination after intussusception. Defecography exhibited good capabilities in showing rectal wall function abnormalities. Finally, some features of videoproctography such as low radiation dose, non-invasiveness and ease of execution, make the examination acceptable to patients with anorectal disorders and for the follow-up of rectal prolapse. [Italian] Le malattie del pavimento pelvico e dei prolassi del retto hanno tratto numerosi vantaggi da nuovi approcci di diagnostica per immagini e strumentali, specialmente dall'esame defecografico, sia nell'interpretazione fisiopatologica che nella diagnostica differenziale dei disordini anorettali. Scopo del lavoro: valutare l'efficacia della metodica defecografica nel riconoscimento delle malattie da prolasso del retto e in particolare il ruolo svolto dalla videoproctografia nella documentazione diagnostica e nel definire i principali elementi semeiologici riscontrabili in tali malattie in modo dinamico. Le fasi dinamiche della valutazione morfologica e posizionale dell'ampolla rettale sono ben evidenti nella viedeoproctografia, che documenta dopo l'intussuscezione la normalizzazione del complesso anorettale e la riduzione spontanea dell'invaginazione parietale. In questo studio si sottolineano le possibilita' diagnostiche della defecografia integrata da videoproctografia nel riconoscimento delle malattie parietali funzionali del retto e alcune peculiarita

  9. Experimental and Numerical Analyses of New Massive Wooden Shear-Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pozza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.

  10. Thermal performance evaluation of a massive brick wall under real weather conditions via the Conduction Transfer function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sassine

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The reliable estimation of buildings energy needs for cooling and heating is essential for any eventual thermal improvement of the envelope or the HVAC equipment. This paper presents an interesting method to evaluate the thermal performance of a massive wall by using the frequency-domain regression (FDR method to calculate CTF coefficients by means of the Fourier transform. The method is based on the EN ISO 13786 (2007 procedure by using the Taylor expansion for the elements of the heat matrix. Numerical results were validated through an experimental heating box with stochastic boundary conditions on one side of the wall representing real weather conditions and constant temperature profile on the other side representing the inside ambiance in real cases. Finally, a frequency analysis was performed in order to assess the validity and accuracy of the method used. The results show that development to the second order is sufficient to predict the thermal behavior of the studied massive wall in the range of frequencies encountered in the building applications (one hour time step. This method is useful for thermal transfer analysis in real weather conditions where the outside temperature is stochastic; it also allows the evaluation of the thermal performance of a wall through a frequency analysis.

  11. Power Efficiency of Systems Applied for Heating Building and Structure External Walls with Ventilated Air Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Fialko; A. S. Statsenko

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers power-efficient systems applied for heating building and structure external walls with ventilated air spaces and prescribes directions and problems pertaining to power-efficiency improvement of such systems.

  12. New model of chlorine-wall reaction for simulating chlorine concentration in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ian; Kastl, George; Sathasivan, Arumugam

    2017-11-15

    Accurate modelling of chlorine concentrations throughout a drinking water system needs sound mathematical descriptions of decay mechanisms in bulk water and at pipe walls. Wall-reaction rates along pipelines in three different systems were calculated from differences between field chlorine profiles and accurately modelled bulk decay. Lined pipes with sufficiently large diameters (>500 mm) and higher chlorine concentrations (>0.5 mg/L) had negligible wall-decay rates, compared with bulk-decay rates. Further downstream, wall-reaction rate consistently increased (peaking around 0.15 mg/dm 2 /h) as chlorine concentration decreased, until mass-transport to the wall was controlling wall reaction. These results contradict wall-reaction models, including those incorporated in the EPANET software, which assume wall decay is of either zero-order (constant decay rate) or first-order (wall-decay rate reduces with chlorine concentration). Instead, results are consistent with facilitation of the wall reaction by biofilm activity, rather than surficial chemical reactions. A new model of wall reaction combines the effect of biofilm activity moderated by chlorine concentration and mass-transport limitation. This wall reaction model, with an accurate bulk chlorine decay model, is essential for sufficiently accurate prediction of chlorine residuals towards the end of distribution systems and therefore control of microbial contamination. Implementing this model in EPANET-MSX (or similar) software enables the accurate chlorine modelling required for improving disinfection strategies in drinking water networks. New insight into the effect of chlorine on biofilm can also assist in controlling biofilm to maintain chlorine residuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Euler–Lagrange simulation of gas–solid pipe flow with smooth and rough wall boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulation of upward turbulent particle-laden pipe flow is performed with the intention to reveal the influence of surface roughness on the velocity statistics of the particle phase. A rough wall collision model, which models the surface as being sinusoidal, is proposed to account...... for the wall boundary condition ranging for smooth surfaces to very rough surfaces. This model accounts for the entire range of possible surface roughness found in pipes and industrial pneumatic equipment from smooth plastic pipes over machined steel pipes to cast iron surfaces. The model is based...... profiles as the mean motion changes from motion mainly in the axial direction for the smooth surface condition to bouncing motion between the pipe sides for the fully rough surface condition....

  14. Dynamics of Peregrine combs and Peregrine walls in an inhomogeneous Hirota and Maxwell-Bloch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Zi-Qi; Sun, Wen-Rong; Shi, Yu-Ying; Li, Min; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    Under investigation in this paper is an inhomogeneous Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch (IHMB) system which can describe the propagation of optical solitons in an erbium-doped optical fiber. The breather multiple births (BMBs) are derived with periodically varying group velocity dispersion (GVD) coefficients. Under large periodic modulations in the GVD coefficient of IHMB system, the Peregrine comb (PC) solution is produced, which can be viewed as the limiting case of the BMBs. When the amplitude of the modulation satisfies a special condition, the Peregrine wall (PW) that can be regarded as an intermediate state between rogue wave and PC is obtained. The effects of the third-order dispersion on the spatiotemporal characteristics of PCs and PWs are studied. Our results may be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in inhomogeneous erbium-doped optical fiber.

  15. Graphitization of single-wall nanotube bundles at extreme conditions: Collapse or coalescence route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colonna, F.; Fasolino, A.; Meijer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the reaction phase diagram and the transformation mechanism of (5,5) and (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotube bundles up to 20 GPa and 4000 K. We use Monte Carlo simulations, based on the state-of-the-art reactive potential LCBOPII, that incorporates both covalent and van der Waals

  16. Boundary Wall Shear Measurement with an Automated LDV-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarress, Darius; Jeon, David; Svitek, Pavel; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    Wall shear stress is one of the most important measurements in boundary layer flows. Getting wall shear measurements is generally quite difficult due to the need to measure very close to the wall, where poor optical access, particle seeding, and wall effects can bias the results. To simplify that process, a novel system was developed by Measurement Science Enterprise (MSE). The microPro consists of a 12 mm diameter miniLDV attached to a micro-translation stage assembled inside a sealed housing. The microPro automatically locates the wall and measures the mean flow speed profile from a point as close as 50 microns from the window. Accurate estimate of the mean wall shear is obtained from the calculation of the wall velocity gradient obtained from the velocity profile data. We measured wall shear stress on a boundary layer plate mounted in a water tunnel across a range of Reynolds numbers and compared the results against skin friction coefficient models. We also introduced bubbles into the boundary layer to measure the change in wall shear stress with changing void fraction. The measurements show good agreement with established data. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research (Grant ONR-N00014-11-1-0031) and MSE.

  17. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  18. Computational solution of the velocity and wall shear stress distribution inside a left carotid artery under pulsatile flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nurullah; Turmuş, Hakan

    2014-08-01

    Stroke is still one of the leading causes for death after heart diseases and cancer in all over the world. Strokes happen because an artery that carries blood uphill from the heart to the head is clogged. Most of the time, as with heart attacks, the problem is atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries, calcified buildup of fatty deposits on the vessel wall. In this study, the fluid dynamic simulations were done in a left carotid bifurcation under the pulsatile flow conditions computationally. Pulsatile flow waveform is given in the paper. In vivo geometry and boundary conditions were obtained from a patient who has stenosis located at external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) of his common carotid artery (CCA). The location of critical flow fields such as low wall shear stress (WSS), stagnation regions and separation regions were detected near the highly stenosed region and at branching region.

  19. Analysis of Wall-Thinning Effects Caused by Power Uprates in the Secondary System of a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hun; Hwang, Kyeongmo; Lee, Hyoseoung [KEPCO E and C, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seung-Jae [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Piping and equipment are degraded by flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in nuclear power plants. FAC causes numerous problems and nuclear utilities maintain programs to control FAC. The key parameters influencing FAC are hydrodynamic conditions, water chemistry, and effect of materials. Recently, a nuclear utility has planned slight power uprates in Korea. Operating conditions need to be changed in the secondary system according to power uprates. This study analyzed the effect of wall-thinning caused by power uprates. The change of operation data in the secondary cycle is reviewed, and wall-thinning rates are analyzed in the main lines. As a result, two phase (mixture of water and steam) lines have a greater impact than a water line under power uprate conditions. Also, the quality of steam is the most important factor for FAC in two phase lines.

  20. Effect of Thermal Bridges in Insulated Walls on Air-Conditioning Loads Using Whole Building Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Zedan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal bridges in building walls are usually caused by mortar joints between insulated building blocks and by the presence of concrete columns and beams within the building envelope. These bridges create an easy path for heat transmission and therefore increase air-conditioning loads. In this study, the effects of mortar joints only on cooling and heating loads in a typical two-story villa in Riyadh are investigated using whole building energy analysis. All loads found in the villa, which broadly include ventilation, transmission, solar and internal loads, are considered with schedules based on local lifestyles. The thermal bridging effect of mortar joints is simulated by reducing wall thermal resistance by a percentage that depends on the bridges to wall area ratio (TB area ratio or Amj/Atot and the nominal thermal insulation thickness (Lins. These percentage reductions are obtained from a correlation developed by using a rigorous 2D dynamic model of heat transmission through walls with mortar joints. The reduction in thermal resistance is achieved through minor reductions in insulation thickness, thereby keeping the thermal mass of the wall essentially unchanged. Results indicate that yearly and monthly cooling loads increase almost linearly with the thermal bridge to wall area ratio. The increase in the villa’s yearly loads varies from about 3% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to about 11% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. The monthly increase is not uniform over the year and reaches a maximum in August, where it ranges from 5% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to 15% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. In winter, results show that yearly heating loads are generally very small compared to cooling loads and that heating is only needed in December, January and February, starting from late night to late morning. Monthly heating loads increase with the thermal bridge area ratio; however, the variation is not as linear as observed in cooling loads. The present results highlight the importance of

  1. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  2. Development of platform to compare different wall heat transfer packages for system analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Won Woong; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Gil [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    System thermal hydraulic (STH) analysis code is used for analyzing and evaluating the safety of a designed nuclear system. The system thermal hydraulic analysis code typically solves mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for multiple phases with sets of selected empirical constitutive equations to close the problem. Several STH codes are utilized in academia, industry and regulators, such as MARS-KS, SPACE, RELAP5, COBRA-TF, TRACE, and so on. Each system thermal hydraulic code consists of different sets of governing equations and correlations. However, the packages and sets of correlations of each code are not compared quantitatively yet. Wall heat transfer mode transition maps of SPACE and MARS-KS have a little difference for the transition from wall nucleate heat transfer mode to wall film heat transfer mode. Both codes have the same heat transfer packages and correlations in most region except for wall film heat transfer mode. Most of heat transfer coefficients calculated for the range of selected variables of SPACE are the same with those of MARS-KS. For the intervals between 500K and 540K of wall temperature, MARS-KS selects the wall film heat transfer mode and Bromley correlation but SPACE select the wall nucleate heat transfer mode and Chen correlation. This is because the transition from nucleate boiling to film boiling of MARS-KS is earlier than SPACE. More detailed analysis of the heat transfer package and flow regime package will be followed in the near future.

  3. Preliminary Structural Design of Wall-Frame Systems for Optimum Torsional Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georgoussis, George K

    ... to any strength assignment, is incorrect. A strength allocation strategy, suitable for preliminary structural design of medium height wall-frame dual systems, is presented for allocating strength in such buildings and estimating the dependable rigidities...

  4. Solubilization of multi walled carbon nanotubes under a facile and mild condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Hossein; Mohajeri, Ali; Moradi, Leila; Rashidi, Alimorad

    2011-10-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with amino groups was prepared via chemical modification of carboxyl groups introduced on the carbon nanotube surfaces. Oxidation of MWCNTs was performed with ozone in aqueous phase and amidation of generated carboxylic groups, was occurred with amines in the presence of HATU as a coupling agent. Obtained functionalized MWCNTs are soluble in many common organic solvents. The functionalized MWCNTs were characterized in detail using FTIR-ATR, Raman CHN and SEM methods.

  5. Resistance of Concrete Masonry Walls With Membrane Catcher Systems Subjected to Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    are made. sandwich panel, prestressed concrete , composite, test, explosive load U U U UU 22 Paul Sheppard Reset 1 Resistance of...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2010-0090 RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS WITH MEMBRANE CATCHER SYSTEMS SUBJECTED TO BLAST LOADING...Include area code) 29-DEC-2010 Refereed Journal Article 01-OCT-2008 -- 31-DEC-2009 Resistance of Concrete Masonry Walls With Membrane Catcher Systems

  6. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  7. Study of tensile test behavior of austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes in cold worked condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, Clarice, E-mail: clarice.terui@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CINA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Industrial Nuclear da Marinha; Lima, Nelson B. de, E-mail: nblima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    These austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes are potential candidates to be used in fuel elements of nuclear power plants (as PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor). So, their metallurgical condition and mechanical properties, as the tensile strength and yield strength, normally are very restrict in demanding project and design requirements. Several full size tensile tests at room temperature and high temperature (315 deg C) were performed in these seamless tubes in cold-worked condition. The results of specified tensile and yield strengths were achieved but the elongation of the tube, in the geometry of the component, could not be measured at high temperature due to unconventional mode of rupture (helical mode without separation of parts). The average value of elongation was obtained from stress-strain curves of hot tensile tests and was around 5%. The results obtained in this research show that this behavior of the full size tensile test samples of thin-walled tube (wall thickness less than 0.5 mm) in high temperature (315°C) is due to the combination of the manufacturing process, the material (crystallographic structure and chemical composition) and the final geometry of the component. In other words, the strong crystallographic texture of material induced by tube drawing process in addition with the geometry of the component are responsible for the behavior in hot uniaxial tensile tests. (author)

  8. Silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine for carbon dioxide capture under the flue gas condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Sang; Park, Soo-Jin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) were prepared via a two-step process: (i) hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and (ii) impregnation of PEI. The adsorption properties of CO2 were investigated using CO2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at 298 K and thermogravimetric analysis under the flue gas condition (15% CO2/85% N2). The results obtained in this study indicate that CO2 adsorption increases after impregnation of PEI. The increase in CO2 capture was attributed to the affinity between CO2 and the amine groups. CO2 adsorption-desorption experiments, which were repeated five times, also showed that the prepared adsorbents have excellent regeneration properties.

  9. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  10. Extended Plate and Beam Wall System: Concept Investigation and Initial Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A new and innovative High-R wall design, referred to as the Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B), is under development. The EP&B system uniquely integrates foam sheathing insulation with wall framing such that wood structural panels are installed exterior of the foam sheathing, enabling the use of standard practices for installation of drainage plane, windows and doors, claddings, cavity insulation, and the standard exterior foam sheathing installation approach prone to damage of the foam during transportation of prefabricated wall panels. As part of the ongoing work, the EP&B wall system concept has undergone structural verification testing and has been positively vetted by a group of industry stakeholders. Having passed these initial milestone markers, the advanced wall system design has been analyzed to assess cost implications relative to other advanced wall systems, undergone design assessment to develop construction details, and has been evaluated to develop representative prescriptive requirements for the building code. This report summarizes the assessment steps conducted to-date and provides details of the concept development.

  11. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON LATERAL PRESSURE OF GRANULAR MEDIA WITHIN CLOSELY SPACED WALLS CONSIDERING DIFFERENT FILLING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksej Aniskin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an original experimental research on the lateral pressure acting on closely spaced rigid walls at different angles of granular particle orientation to the horizontal line. Filling was performed at three different predominant angles of grain orientation with respect to the horizontal line: 0°, 45°, and 90°. The aim of the study is to determine the nature of the influence of the particle orientation achieved by filling on the characteristics and distribution of the lateral pressure. In the experiments, a composite medium, i.e. a mixture of quartz sand and flat shell particles in a volume ratio of 2:1, was used. The results of the experiments showed a significant difference in the lateral pressure at different angles of particle orientation. It was found that at an angle of 90°, the average lateral pressure was 44.2% more than that at an angle of 0°.

  13. Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Majeski

    2010-01-15

    At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700oC. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 oC), tungsten is selfannealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment. The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium. Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands1 and fusion experiments2,3 to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 oC), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11- M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

  14. Mathematical Model of Non-stationary Heat Conduction in the Wall: Asymmetric Problem with the Boundary Conditions of Imperfect Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charvátová Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of a non-stationary heat conduction in the solid wall. It is focused on mathematical modelling of its asymmetric heating and cooling by imperfect heat transfer to both sides of the wall. It describes method used for deriving of the long time analytical solution describing temperature distribution in the heated (cooled wall by use Laplace transform and verification of its validity by numerical calculation with COMSOL Multiphysics software. In the tested example, the maximum difference between analytical and numerical solution was about 3.5 % considering the possible maximum and minimum temperatures in the wall under the given conditions.

  15. New Edge Localized Modes at Marginal Input Power with Dominant RF-heating and Lithium-wall Conditioning in EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.; Xu, G.; Guo, H.

    The EAST tokamak has achieved, for the rst time, the ELMy H-mode at a connement improvement factor HITER89P 1:7, with dominant RF heating and active wall conditioning by lithium evaporation and real-time injection of Li powder. During the H-mode phase, a new small-ELM regime has been observed...... of zonal flows. New observations have also been made on the type-III ELMs. Measurements from Mach probes have demonstrated a decreasing co-current rotation during type-III ELMs. These suggest that the type-III ELMs may transport substantial particles, energy and momentum out of the plasma. Each type...

  16. Maintenance and Durability of the Concrete External Layer of Curtain Walls in Prefabricated Technological Poznan Large Panel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiczak, Józef; Girus, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The issue of usability and durability of large-panel building constructed several decades ago is a subject of an in-depth analysis of many domestic and foreign investments. When considering the durability of specific large-panel system, one should consider, among others, the process of making external walls. The long-term and direct impact of weather conditions on the external layer of curtain walls is significant for the durability of large-panel buildings. For the needs of the presented paper, in 2016, the survey of cracks and a series of other tests of large-panel façade, residential building constructed in 1986, in Poland, in the PLP process system - Rataje was executed. Several hundred large-size, triple-layer curtain-wall slab with a 6-cm, concrete exterior cladding layer anchored using pins and hangers with the load-bearing layer, a 9-cm insulation layer made of mineral wool, and a 21-cm structural layer were surveyed. Significant deviations in thicknesses of particular wall layers were proven. Other significant damages and defects of external layers were found. At the second stage, many tests, both nondestructive and destructive, were conducted. They involved determining mechanical properties of an external layer. The concrete thickness was measured using with a type N Schmidt sclerometer and core samples were taken from this layer in order to mark concrete’s compressive strength. The range of carbonation (by phenolphthalein method) and the actual location and condition of reinforcement were estimated using a ferromagnetic device to determine the condition of the external layer. The diagnosis conducted in such a manner was the verification of necessary repair of the walls and their thermal efficiency improvement while ensuring safe conditions of their operation and modern functional and utility requirements. It should be also emphasized that the method of diagnosing the external walls presented in this paper may be popularized when evaluating such

  17. Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Roger; Brown, Kerry; Mathew, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models, is the second volume of the Engineering Asset Management Review Series. The manuscripts provide examples of implementations of asset information systems as well as some practical applications of condition data for diagnostics and prognostics. The increasing trend is towards prognostics rather than diagnostics, hence the need for assessment and decision models that promote the conversion of condition data into prognostic information to improve life-cycle planning for engineered assets. The research papers included here serve to support the on-going development of Condition Monitoring standards. This volume comprises selected papers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Congresses on Engineering Asset Management, which were convened under the auspices of ISEAM in collaboration with a number of organisations, including CIEAM Australia, Asset Management Council Australia, BINDT UK, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chin...

  18. Systemic sclerosis: patients' perceptions of their condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Helen L; Herrick, Ariane L; Griffin, Kerry; Gwilliam, Petra D H; Loukes, Jonathan; Fortune, Dónal G

    2003-10-15

    To examine patients' beliefs about systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to investigate the relationship between these beliefs, symptom report, and clinical and demographic variables. A total of 49 patients (7 male, 42 female) with SSc underwent clinical examination and completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire. This measure assesses beliefs about symptoms, chronicity or recurrence of the condition, consequences, personal and treatment control, illness coherence, perceived causes of the condition, and patients' emotional response to their condition. The symptoms patients most frequently associated with their SSc were stiff joints (79%), pain (75%), and fatigue (75%). The most commonly reported causes of SSc were stress (53%), altered immunity (49%), and chance or bad luck (46%). More than 96% of patients believed that their condition would be chronic and 78% believed that the condition had serious consequences on their lives. Patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc reported more significant consequences of the condition and less personal control of their SSc compared with patients with limited cutaneous disease. There were no significant differences in illness beliefs between patients with nonsevere and severe ischemia. Multiple regression analyses indicated that illness beliefs, in particular perceived consequences associated with the condition, accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in emotional response to the condition. The beliefs held and symptoms experienced by patients with SSc are not ruled by disease subtype, skin score, functional ability, or severity of digital ischemia. This suggests patients' beliefs and emotional response are associated with the meaning they ascribe to their condition rather than its severity.

  19. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid...

  20. Domain-wall lattices in the Te-W(211) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, M.; Lyuksyutov, I.; Bauer, E.

    1990-12-01

    The adsorbate-substrate system Te-W(211) is studied in the temperature and coverage range 100wall lattice. It is found that the structure at coverages intermediate between the limiting commensurate structures c(2×4)(Θ=1/4) and p(2×1)(Θ=1/2) can be described by a domain-wall lattice. The melting and disordering behavior of the system is extracted from a profile analysis of the diffraction features and discussed in terms of a simple theory of the domain-wall lattice in a uniaxial system with strong substrate potential and asymptotic power-law lateral interactions.

  1. Innovations in rocking wall-frame systems-theory and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, Mark; Tavousi, Shayan

    2017-09-01

    The need to improve the seismic performance of buildings has brought about innovative systems such as rocking wall-moment frame (RWMF) combinations. The behavior of RWMFs can best be visualized by the moment-frame (MF) restraining the wall in place, and the rigid rocking wall (RRW) providing additional damping and imposing uniform drift along the height of the frame. A novel method of analysis followed by the development of a new lateral resisting system is introduced. The proposed concepts lead to an efficient structural configuration with provisions for self-centering, reparability, performance control, damage tolerance and collapse prevention. Exact, unique, closed form formulae have been provided to assess the collapse prevention and self-centering capabilities of the system. The objective is to provide an informative account of RWMF behavior for preliminary design as well as educational purposes. All formulae have been verified by independent computer analysis. Parametric examples have been provided to verify the validity of the proposed solutions.

  2. Literature-filing system for vulvar conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, H K; Kamlapurker, M

    1997-08-01

    To develop a classification system for the retrieval of stored material on various vulvar conditions. The major subject areas of vulvar conditions and management were identified. They were further classified into categories and subcategories. A numbering system was chosen for coding. The information was formatted to allow retrieval from the Internet in a framework ready for label printing. The classification system developed provides guidelines that are useful in making retrieval of stored material on various vulvar conditions more efficient. It can be expanded and personalized to fit the practitioner's needs and can be obtained from the Internet in the following manner by opening Netscape and entering the location: http:/(/)www.med.umich.edu/obgyn/vulva/ vulvalit.html. The filing system was formatted to allow standard, 5266, file-folder-sized label sheets to be inserted into the printer, allowing access to pretyped labels. A total of 464 labels will be printed. This system for retrieving vulvar information will be useful to many people, including clinicians, educators and researchers. The information is easily obtained from the Internet and printed in label form. It aids in the development of a system for life-long learning.

  3. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  4. Study of heat transfer conditions at the wall of an ingot heated by electron gun; Etude des conditions d'echange thermique a la paroi d'un lingot chauffe par un canon a electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saturnin, A.; Triffart, B. [CEA Vallee du Rhone, Dept. de Technologie de l' Enrichissement (DCC/DTE/STS), 26 - Pierrelatte (France)

    2000-07-01

    A metal confined in a crucible is heated by an electron beam to produce metallic vapor. Only a small proportion of the electron beam energy is used to vaporize the metal. Another portion is lost because of backscattered electrons and thermal radiation of the ingot. The remaining energy is transmitted by convection and conduction to the water cooled crucible. The knowledge of this energy, and particularly its spatial distribution, is important. The magnitude of the heat flux can be analyzed to ensure component integrity. The spatial flux distribution provides information about the coolant system homogeneity, which is related to the position of the ingot in the crucible and the electron beam alignment. These data are useful for controlling operating conditions. In the present method, the heat flux at the crucible wall is identified by conventional measurements (thermocouples, flowmeter) and an inverse method. This approach makes it unnecessary to model complex mechanisms in the liquid metal pool, limiting the study to the heat transfers inside the crucible. Calculation of the flux at a given point of the crucible wall requires three essential data: coolant system temperature Te, crucible temperature Tmes at the measurement point Pmes and temperature sensitivity at this point to heat flux variations at the wall. This characteristic is also called the sensitivity coefficient. It is obtained by modeling heat transfers in the crucible (convective with coolant system, conductive in the crucible) with the boundary conditions Te = 0 K and {phi} 1 Wm{sup -2}. This approach is a simple application of the function specification method, which is a reference method in inverse problems. The problem is assumed to be linear and stationary because of the high thermal crucible conductivity and the measurement locations (close to the wall). If the sensitivity coefficient is known, the heat flux can be calculated by equation (1). Figure 2 shows an example of variations in Tmes and Te

  5. Evaluation of Strategies to Improve the Thermal Performance of Steel Frames in Curtain Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, metal curtain wall systems have been widely used in high-rise buildings due to many advantages, including being lightweight, rapid construction, and aesthetic features. Since the metal frame may lead to lower energy performance, thermal discomfort, and condensation risk due to the high thermal conductivity, its thermal performance can be important for the improvement of the overall thermal performance of the curtain wall system, as well as the energy efficiency of the building envelope. This study aims to evaluate variety of design strategies to improve the thermal performance of steel curtain wall frames. Five base cases and three further steps were selected for two different head profile shapes based on a state-of-the art technology review, and their thermal transmittances were calculated through simulations according to the ISO 12631 standard which is an international standard for calculating thermal transmittance of curtain wall system. Measured results that were obtained from hot-box tests were compared with the calculated results to validate the simulation method of this study. The shape of the head profile did not strongly influence the overall thermal transmittance, and the choice of strategies for the rabbet space was more important. More effective strategies could be decided according to the steps for variation development. This result can serve as a guideline for the design of high-performance curtain wall frames.

  6. Centering conditions for planar septic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii P. Volokitin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We find centering conditions for the following $O$-symmetric system of degree 7: $$displaylines{ dot x=y+ x (H_2 (x,y+H_6 (x,y,cr dot y=-x+ y (H_2 (x,y+H_6 (x,y, }$$ where $H_2 (x,y$ and $H_6 (x,y$ are homogeneous polynomials of degrees 2 and 6, respectively. In some cases, we can find commuting systems and first integrals for the original system. We also study the geometry of the central region.

  7. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  8. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbary, Lawrence D. [Dow Corning Corporation; Perkins, Laura L. [Dow Corning Corporation; Serino, Roland [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Preston, Bill [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Inc. CSE

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  9. Telemetric measurement system of beehive environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Sawicki, Aleksander

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a measurement system of beehive environmental conditions. The purpose of the device is to perform measurements of parameters such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, internal temperature, humidity and sound level. The measured values were transferred to the MySQL database, which is located on an external server, with the use of GPRS protocol. A website presents the measurement data in the form of tables and graphs. The study also shows exemplary results of environmental conditions measurements recorded in the beehive by hour cycle.

  10. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Efficiency improvement by application of horizontal magnetic fields for second- and fundamental harmonic EC wall conditioning in JT-60U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu Fukumoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available By application of a horizontal magnetic field, BH, with 0.3% against a toroidal magnetic field, BT, electron cyclotron wall conditioning (ECWC plasmas produced by 2nd-harmonic X-mode (X2-mode EC waves expand radially toward the inner wall, which is to be cleaned for plasma start-up, but BH shrinks the plasma vertically. Excessive BH, BH/BT> 1.1%, produces vertically limited pan-cake shaped plasmas, leading to a reduction of D2 removal efficiency. Efficiency of D2 removal by fundamental harmonic X-mode (X1-mode ECWC is higher than that by X2-mode one at BH/BT ∼ 0.3%. The amount of D2 gas removed by the X1-mode ECWC for 1s is one order of magnitude lower than that by Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC for 7min× 2 times after the plasma disruption with similar stored energies (3MJ. The X1-mode ECWC successfully produces the following tokamak plasma.

  12. Silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine for carbon dioxide capture under the flue gas condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min-Sang; Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr

    2015-03-15

    In this study, silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) were prepared via a two-step process: (i) hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and (ii) impregnation of PEI. The adsorption properties of CO{sub 2} were investigated using CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms at 298 K and thermogravimetric analysis under the flue gas condition (15% CO{sub 2}/85% N{sub 2}). The results obtained in this study indicate that CO{sub 2} adsorption increases after impregnation of PEI. The increase in CO{sub 2} capture was attributed to the affinity between CO{sub 2} and the amine groups. CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption experiments, which were repeated five times, also showed that the prepared adsorbents have excellent regeneration properties. - Graphical abstract: Fabrication and CO{sub 2} adsorption process of the S-MWCNTs impregnated with PEI. - Highlights: • Silica coated-MWCNT impregnated with PEI was synthesized. • Amine groups of PEI gave CO{sub 2} affinity sites on MWCNT surfaces. • The S-MWCNT/PEI(50) exhibited the highest CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity.

  13. An adjoint view on flux consistency and strong wall boundary conditions to the Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stück, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    Inconsistent discrete expressions in the boundary treatment of Navier-Stokes solvers and in the definition of force objective functionals can lead to discrete-adjoint boundary treatments that are not a valid representation of the boundary conditions to the corresponding adjoint partial differential equations. The underlying problem is studied for an elementary 1D advection-diffusion problem first using a node-centred finite-volume discretisation. The defect of the boundary operators in the inconsistently defined discrete-adjoint problem leads to oscillations and becomes evident with the additional insight of the continuous-adjoint approach. A homogenisation of the discretisations for the primal boundary treatment and the force objective functional yields second-order functional accuracy and eliminates the defect in the discrete-adjoint boundary treatment. Subsequently, the issue is studied for aerodynamic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes problems in conjunction with a standard finite-volume discretisation on median-dual grids and a strong implementation of noslip walls, found in many unstructured general-purpose flow solvers. Going out from a base-line discretisation of force objective functionals which is independent of the boundary treatment in the flow solver, two improved flux-consistent schemes are presented; based on either body wall-defined or farfield-defined control-volumes they resolve the dual inconsistency. The behaviour of the schemes is investigated on a sequence of grids in 2D and 3D.

  14. Universal Signal Conditioning System for Amperometric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTEA, D. G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the research for developing whole-cell biochips has been presented using both bioluminescent and electrochemical methods. The research was on integrating an electrode cell with both electrochemical and bioluminescent detection using a single VLSI chip. The authors have investigated the signal conditioning system that can work with any kind of amperometric and bioluminescent sensor. During this research the authors focused on the analog front-end unit. The work includes investigating the electronic model for simulation for an electrochemical cell and conceiving a fully integrated 8X8 electrochemical sensor array. The authors are focusing on signal conditioning system and its functionality. The main concern for the authors was to maintain the complexity and the number of electronic devices as low as possible.

  15. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Investigations of a Wall Radiant Cooling System Based on Plastic Capillary Tubes in Thin Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Densely occupied spaces such as classrooms can very often have problems with overheating. It can be difficult to cool such spaces by means of a ventilation system without creating draughts and causing discomfort for occupants. The use of a wall radiant cooling system is a suitable option for spaces...

  16. Sensitivity to initial conditions in stochastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, K.; Balakrishnan, V.; Nicolis, G.

    1993-01-01

    The time evolution of the mean deviation of initially close trajectories in a stochastic dynamical system is investigated. It is shown both for additive and linearly coupled multiplicative noise that the mean deviation loses its dependence on initial conditions for long times. For shorter times a power law is found for certain types of additive noise processes, in sharp contrast to the exponential separation of initially nearby trajectories in deterministic chaotic systems. Exponential time evolution is obtained for linearly coupled multiplicative noise after an initial transient during which more complex regimes, including a superexponential stage, can take place.

  17. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  18. Knowledge based systems for condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.R.; Burt, G.M.; Moyes, A.

    1997-12-31

    A key issue in the operation of power system plant is deriving maximum financial benefit while staying within technical, contractual and regulatory constraints. Moreover, the capital investment required for much power system plant necessitates high levels of plant availability to make a reasonable rate-of-return. Thus, the minimisation of operational costs resulting from unplanned plant outages, unnecessary maintenance and under-utilisation of plant capabilities has become a core objective of power system plant operation. Rationalisation of power system control functions has resulted in the use of centralised control rooms from which large and complex power systems are operated. Extensive measurement, monitoring and control systems have been developed which provide operators with data from which power system plant behaviour can be evaluated. However, in the event of a serious operational incident, significant amounts of data are generated. Under such circumstances it has been found that operators are inhibited in assessing the situation, and hence the effectiveness of the subsequent operational response can be reduced. The role of knowledge based systems (KBSs) in condition monitoring is to support operational decision making through the provision of timely and focused information. (Author)

  19. Leaching of Terbutryn and Its Photodegradation Products from Artificial Walls under Natural Weather Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Minelgaite, Greta; Schluesener, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Terbutryn is a commonly used biocide in construction materials. Especially polymer-resin-based renders and paints, used in external thermal insulation composite systems, are very susceptible to microbial deterioration. Previous studies have shown that biocides leach out of the material when conta...

  20. PECULIARITIES OF DESIGN OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS TO ASSURE THERMAL INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golunov Sergej Anatolevich

    2012-10-01

    The results of laboratory tests (given the adjustments for permissible tolerances may be regarded as the principal criteria in the assessment of applicability of a curtain wall system in the course of a major building repair project or a new construction to assure the required reliability and durability.

  1. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  2. Preliminary Results Of Hydrodynamic Responses To Ship Movements And Weather Conditions Along The Coastal Walls Of Shallow Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Cagatay, Namık; Ozeren, Sinan; Sarı, Erol; Eris, Kadir; Vardar, Denizhan; Arslan, Tugce; Basegmez, Koray

    2016-04-01

    Water-level variations in coastal areas and shallow channels take place under the influence of more complex factors, compared to those in deeper areas. Atmospheric pressure, wind, and wave interactions with bottom morphological characteristics are some important natural features while human-induced factors are usually maritime traffic and manoeuvres the ships. While weather conditions cause long-term changes in water level, water level interactions in near shore areas, can occur very quickly depending on the ship manoeuvres and squat characteristics, and these rapid changes can lead to unpredictable water level lowering. Such rapid changes may cause various dangerous incidents and ship accidents, particularly in areas where rapid water oscillations occur. Improper calculations of propulsion power or orientation of the ship body, especially in the areas where geological and morphological characteristics permit fast water movements, are the most important additional causes of accidents due to sudden water level decreases. For an example, even though a 200-m-long vessel can complete its 35° rotation in a circular area with radius of 250 m, if it is calm and sufficiently deep, this diameter increases 5 times at the shallow waters also depending on the hydrodynamic flow conditions. In 2005, "Gerardus Mercator" has bumped into the inside bottom wall of the channel with a low speed (4 knots) turn of when she had just made a 200° turn. Seven years later the cruise ship "Costa Concordia" struck a rock, before she drifted and grounded, in the calm seas of the coast of Isola del Giglio in Italy, due to a combined effects of waves generated by side waves of ship manoeuvres, atmospheric pressure and squat specifications as well. The waves reflected from the seawalls complicate the navigation problems which should be examined in detail. Thus, three prototype models with various angular seawall features were prepared, simple in shape with perpendicular and sloped seawalls with

  3. Experimental Studies of New Joint System for Thin-Walled Steel Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Roşca; I. P. Ciongradi; M. Budescu

    2006-01-01

    The results and conclusions regarding the experimental test of the joint assembly of thin walled steel profile with and without strengthening elements (stiffeners) are presented. The entire test series have been performed using the 5 mm thick KB600 thin-walled profiles and 3.5 mm thick KB450. In the paper will be presented the analysis of the joints connecting the KB600-5.5 steel profiles. The KONTIBEAM system is primarily made of two galvanized sheet profiles so denominated as KB, which are ...

  4. A HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF COUPLED SHEAR WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BERRAIS

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear dynamic analysis techniques are rapidly being developed and have been recognized as indispensable tools. However, their use in the design office requires special experience. Consequently they are not generally accepted as analysis/design tools. Additionally, uncertainties are associated with the determination of the earthquake forces, the stiffness and strength of the structure; the selection of the mathematical models; and the form of the earthquake. In this paper a hybrid system for the non-linear dynamic analysis/design of coupled shear walls is briefly described. The system combines expert system technology with finite element method to carry out the dynamic analysis of coupled walls under earthquake forces. The system has been implemented using Quintec-Prolog, Quintec-Flex and FORTRAN 77, and runs on a SUN SPARC station under Unix system.

  5. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K. K. Upadhyayula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9×108 and 2×108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  6. Concrete Open-Wall Systems Wrapped with FRP under Torsional Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino P. Berardi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The static behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams plated with layers of fiber-reinforced composite material (FRP is widely investigated in current literature, which deals with both its numerical modeling as well as experiments. Scientific interest in this topic is explained by the increasing widespread use of composite materials in retrofitting techniques, as well as the consolidation and upgrading of existing reinforced concrete elements to new service conditions. The effectiveness of these techniques is typically influenced by the debonding of the FRP at the interface with concrete, where the transfer of stresses occurs from one element (RC member to the other (FRP strengthening. In fact, the activation of the well-known premature failure modes can be regarded as a consequence of high peak values of the interfacial interactions. Until now, typical applications of FRP structural plating have included cases of flexural or shear-flexural strengthening. Within this context, the present study aims at extending the investigation to the case of wall-systems with open cross-section under torsional loads. It includes the results of some numerical analyses carried out by means of a finite element approximation.

  7. Seismic Failure Mechanism of Reinforced Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall System Based on Structural Vulnerability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Ye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of structural vulnerability analyses are conducted on a reinforced cold-formed steel (RCFS shear wall system and a traditional cold-formed steel (CFS shear wall system subjected to earthquake hazard based on forms in order to investigate their failure mechanisms. The RCFS shear wall adopts rigid beam-column joints and continuous concrete-filled CFS tube end studs rather than coupled-C section end studs that are used in traditional CFS shear walls, to achieve the rigid connections in both beam-column joints and column bases. The results show that: the RCFS and traditional CFS shear wall systems both exhibit the maximum vulnerability index associated with the failure mode in the first story. Therefore, the first story is likely to be a weakness of the CFS shear wall system. Once the wall is damaged, the traditional CFS shear wall system would collapse because the shear wall is the only lateral-resisting component. However, the collapse resistance of the RCFS shear wall system is effectively enhanced by the second defense, which is provided by a framework integrated by rigid beam-column joints and fixed column bases. The predicted collapse mode with maximum vulnerability index that was obtained by structural vulnerability analysis agrees well with the experimental result, and the structural vulnerability method is thereby verified to be reasonable to identify the weaknesses of framed structures and predict their collapse modes. Additionally, the quantitative vulnerability index indicates that the RCFS shear wall system exhibits better robustness compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the “strong frame weak wallboard” and the “strong column weak beam” are proposed in this study as conceptional designations for the RCFS shear wall systems.

  8. Linearizability conditions of quasi-cubic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the linearizability problem of the two-dimensional complex quasi-cubic system $\\dot{z}=z+(zw^{d}(a_{30}z^{3}+a_{21}z^{2}w+a_{12}zw^2+a_{03}w^{3},~\\dot{w}=-w-(zw^{d}(b_{30}w^{3}+b_{21}w^{2}z+b_{12}wz^2+b_{03}z^{3}$, where $z, w, a_{ij}, b_{ij}\\in \\mathbb{C}$ and $d$ is a real number. We find a transformation to change the quasi-cubic system into an equivalent quintic system and then obtain the necessary and sufficient linearizability conditions by the Darboux linearization method or by proving the existence of linearizing transformations.

  9. LHCb Conditions Database Operation Assistance Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Shapoval, Illya

    2012-01-01

    The Conditions Database of the LHCb experiment (CondDB) provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data for all LHCb data processing applications (simulation, high level trigger, reconstruction, analysis) in a heterogeneous computing environment ranging from user laptops to the HLT farm and the Grid. These different use cases impose front-end support for multiple database technologies (Oracle and SQLite are used). Sophisticated distribution tools are required to ensure timely and robust delivery of updates to all environments. The content of the database has to be managed to ensure that updates are internally consistent and externally compatible with multiple versions of the physics application software. In this paper we describe three systems that we have developed to address these issues: - an extension to the automatic content validation done by the “Oracle Streams” replication technology, to trap cases when the replication was unsuccessful; - an automated distribution process for the S...

  10. Condition monitoring system of wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdusamad, Khaled B.

    The development and implementation of the condition monitoring systems (CMS) play a significant role in overcoming the number of failures in the wind turbine generators that result from the harsh operation conditions, such as over temperature, particularly when turbines are deployed offshore. In order to increase the reliability of the wind energy industry, monitoring the operation conditions of wind generators is essential to detect the immediate faults rapidly and perform appropriate preventative maintenance. CMS helps to avoid failures, decrease the potential shutdowns while running, reduce the maintenance and operation costs and maintain wind turbines protected. The knowledge of wind turbine generators' faults, such as stator and rotor inter-turn faults, is indispensable to perform the condition monitoring accurately, and assist with maintenance decision making. Many techniques are utilized to avoid the occurrence of failures in wind turbine generators. The majority of the previous techniques that are applied to monitor the wind generator conditions are based on electrical and mechanical concepts and theories. An advanced CMS can be implemented by using a variety of different techniques and methods to confirm the validity of the obtained electrical and mechanical condition monitoring algorithms. This thesis is focused on applying CMS on wind generators due to high temperature by contributing the statistical, thermal, mathematical, and reliability analyses, and mechanical concepts with the electrical methodology, instead of analyzing the electrical signal and frequencies trends only. The newly developed algorithms can be compared with previous condition monitoring methods, which use the electrical approach in order to establish their advantages and limitations. For example, the hazard reliability techniques of wind generators based on CMS are applied to develop a proper maintenance strategy, which aims to extend the system life-time and reduce the potential

  11. Do diabetes mellitus and systemic hypertension predispose to left ventricular free wall rupture in acute myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, T; Hildebrant, P; Køber, L

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age <65 years and a history of coronary artery disease offers some protection from protection.......Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age

  12. System for monitoring microclimate conditions in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dušan B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring microclimate parameters in different kind of environments has significant contribution to many areas of human activity and production processes. One of them is vegetable production in greenhouses where measurement of its microclimate parameters may influence the decision on taking appropriate action and protect crops. It is also important to preserve optimal condition in greenhouses to facilitate the process of transpiration, plant mineral nutrition and prevent of a variety physiological damage caused by a deficit of some specific nutrients. Systems for monitoring have wide application in the last years thanks to development of modern computer technology. In this paper model of the monitoring system based on smart transducer concept was introduced. Within the system components are based on MSP430 ultra low power micro controllers. They are using wireless communication to exchange data within the system that was structured according to smart transducer concept. User applications from the network could access to system interface using HTTP protocol where web server could be running on the computer or it could be an embedded web server running on micro controller based device.

  13. Optimum Design of Gravity Retaining Walls Using Charged System Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the optimum design retaining walls, as one of the familiar types of the retaining walls which may be constructed of stone masonry, unreinforced concrete, or reinforced concrete. The material cost is one of the major factors in the construction of gravity retaining walls therefore, minimizing the weight or volume of these systems can reduce the cost. To obtain an optimal seismic design of such structures, this paper proposes a method based on a novel meta-heuristic algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the Coulomb's and Gauss’s laws of electrostatics in physics, and it is called charged system search (CSS. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this algorithm, an example is utilized. Comparing the results of the retaining wall designs obtained by the other methods illustrates a good performance of the CSS. In this paper, we used the Mononobe-Okabe method which is one of the pseudostatic approaches to determine the dynamic earth pressure.

  14. Evaluating Ureteral Wall Injuries with Endoscopic Grading System and Analysis of the Predisposing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakan, Tolga; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Demirbas, Arif; Hascicek, Ahmet Metin; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Yucel, Mehmet Ozgur; Resorlu, Berkan

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the predictive factors for intraoperative ureteral wall injury due to semirigid ureteroscopy (URS) used in the treatment of ureteral calculi. The data of 437 patients who had URS due to ureteral stones were prospectively analyzed. The ureteral wall injuries that occurred during URS were reviewed endoscopically at the end of surgery and divided into two groups as low grade (grades 0 and 1) and high grade (grades 2, 3, and 4) according to classification of ureteral wall injuries. Those two groups were compared for patient and stone characteristics and perioperative findings. Ureteral wall injury was seen in 133 (30.4%) patients after surgery. According to the endoscopic classification of the lesions after URS, grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 injury were seen in 69.5%, 16.4%, 11.2%, and 2.7% of the patients, respectively. There were no grade 4 injuries in our series. Two groups showed statistically significant differences for the location (prox- vs distal and mid-ureter) and size of the stone (9.9 mm vs 14.03 mm), presence of preoperatively urinary tract infection (UTI) (12% vs 50.8%), needed balloon dilatation (9.8% vs 36.1%), duration of surgery (33.6 min vs 43.3 min), and surgical success rate (90% vs 76%) (p = 0.01, for all). Stone size, location, duration of surgery, and presence of preoperative infection were determined as independent prognostic factors for mucosal injury. The ureteral wall injury grading system may be used for standardized reporting of ureteral lesions after ureteroscopy. Big, proximal ureteral stone, longer operation time, and presence of UTI are the risk factors for ureteral wall injury during URS.

  15. Optimal conditions for decorating outer surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes with RecA proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, Shusuke; Umemura, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we estimated the optimal reaction conditions for decorating the outer surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with RecA proteins by comparison with hybrids of RecA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). To react SWNTs with RecA proteins, we first prepared ssDNA-SWNT hybrids. The heights of the ssDNA-SWNT hybrids increased as the amount of RecA used in the reaction increased, as determined from atomic force microscopy images. We further confirmed the increasing adsorption of RecA proteins onto ssDNA on SWNT surfaces by agarose gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the combination of RecA proteins and ssDNA-SWNT hybrids forms RecA-ssDNA-SWNT hybrids. We also successfully controlled the amount of RecA adsorbed on the ssDNA-SWNT hybrids. Our results thus indicate the optimized reaction conditions for decorating the outer surface of SWNTs with RecA proteins, which is the key to the development of novel biosensors and nanomaterial-based bioelectronics.

  16. An Inquiry into the Life Cycle of Systems of Inner Walls: Comparison of Masonry and Drywall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Condeixa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment is a methodology that investigates impacts linked to a product or service during its entire life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment studies investigate processes and sub-processes in a fragmented way to ascertain their inputs, outputs and emissions and get an overview of the generating sources of their environmental loads. The lifecycle concept involves all direct and indirect processes of the studied object. This article aims to model the material flows in the masonry and drywall systems and internal walls in a Brazilian scenario, and calculate the climate change impacts generated by the transport of the component materials of the systems. Internal walls of a residential dwelling in Rio de Janeiro are analyzed from a qualitative inventory of all life cycles with an analysis of material flows, based on technical and academic literature. All Life Cycle Impact Assessment of the systems is carried out with international data from the database, and using the IPCC2013 method for climate change impacts. This study disregards the refurbishment and possible extensions within the use phase. Thus, the inventory identifies weaknesses of the systems while the impact assessment validates the results. This study allows us a complete understanding about the inner walls systems in the Brazilian scenario, evidencing its main weaknesses and subsidizes decision-making for the industry and for planning of the new buildings.

  17. Effect of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction in the context of intravineyard ripeness variation under winemaking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking. The vin......Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking...... at the berry cell wall polymer level and occurred within the experimental vineyard block. Furthemore, all enzyme treatments reduced cell wall variation via depectination. Interestingly, cell wall esterification levels were unaffected by enzyme treatments. This study provides clear evidence that enzymes can...... positively influence the consistency of winemaking and provides a foundation for further research into the relationship between grape berry cell wall architecture and enzyme formulations....

  18. Survey of Condition Indicators for Condition Monitoring Systems (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-29

    higher than normal and the gear meshing characteristic frequency is submerged in the high noise floor. In this case, FM0 was elevated to the point...main frame damage.  Yaw system/yaw breaks excessive wear and tear.  Door frame damage, cracks at welds top and bottom, steps.  Foundation bolt

  19. Estimations of C'' and COD for Non-Idealized Circumferential Through-Wall Crack in Cylinders under Creep Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surh, Han Bum; Won, Min Gu; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Nam Su [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Science and Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Doo Ho; Shin, Andong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    On actual crack growth behavior of cylinders, internal surface crack develops through the wall thickness and may partially penetrate the wall thickness at its deepest point. So, the through-wall crack is formed with different crack lengths on inner and outer surface of cylinders during penetration process. These transition cracks are typically referred to as non-idealized through-wall crack (TWC). Therefore, to assess crack growth or leak rate more accurately, estimation of fracture mechanics parameter for non-idealized TWC in cylinders is necessary. In this context, some numerical works have been conducted to derive elastic and plastic fracture mechanics parameters such as stress intensity factor, J-integral and COD under elastic or plastic material behavior. In this study, estimations of C'' and COD for non-idealized circumferential TWC in cylinders under creep condition were addressed through elastic-creep finite element(FE) analyses.

  20. Development of ZL400 Mine Cooling Unit Using Semi-Hermetic Screw Compressor and Its Application on Local Air Conditioning in Underground Long-Wall Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxiang; Ji, Jianhu; Zhang, Xijun; Yan, Hongyuan; Dong, Haomin; Liu, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    Aiming at heat injuries occurring in the process of deep coal mining in China, a ZL400 mine-cooling unit employing semi-hermetic screw compressor with a cooling capacity of 400 kW is developed. This paper introduced its operating principle, structural characteristics and technical indexes. By using the self-built testing platform, some parameters for indication of its operation conditions were tested on the ground. The results show that the aforementioned cooling unit is stable in operation: cooling capacity of the unit was 420 kW underground-test conditions, while its COP (coefficient of performance) reached 3.4. To address the issue of heat injuries existing in No. 16305 U-shaped long-wall ventilation face of Jining No. 3 coal mine, a local air conditioning system was developed with ZL400 cooling unit as the system's core. The paper presented an analysis of characteristics of the air current flowing in the air-mixing and cooling mode of ZL400 cooling unit used in air intake way. Through i-d patterns we described the process of the airflow treatment, such as cooling, mixing and heating, etc. The cooling system decreased dry bulb temperature on working face by 3°C on average and 3.8°C at most, while lowered the web bulb temperature by 3.6°C on average and 4.8°C at most. At the same time, it reduced relative humidity by 5% on average and 8.6% at most. The field application of the ZL400 cooling unit had gain certain effects in air conditioning and provided support for the solution of mine heat injuries in China in terms of technology and equipment.

  1. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWalker{trademark} and Blastrac{reg_sign} shot blast cleaning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools.

  2. Arranging insulation for better thermal resistance in concrete and maonry wall systems

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, B; P. Engelmann; Kossecka, E.; Kosny, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how the spatial arrangement of thermal insulation influences the overall thermal resistance of concrete and masonry wall systems. Multi-dimensional finite difference modeling was used for this purpose. Concrete masonry units (CMUs) are commercially produced in various geometries and with different weight concretes. Although insulation inserts can increase a CMUs thermal performance, thermal bridging through the solid webbing of the CMUs can greatly reduce the effective...

  3. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable

  4. Test techniques: A survey paper on cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Robert A.; Dress, David A.; Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to get good experimental data in wind tunnels is often compromised by things seemingly beyond our control. Inadequate Reynolds number, wall interference, and support interference are three of the major problems in wind tunnel testing. Techniques for solving these problems are available. Cryogenic wind tunnels solve the problem of low Reynolds number. Adaptive wall test sections can go a long way toward eliminating wall interference. A magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) completely eliminates support interference. Cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and MSBS are surveyed. A brief historical overview is given and the present state of development and application in each area is described.

  5. A protection system for the JET ITER-like wall based on imaging diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, G; Devaux, S; Alves, D; Balboa, I; Balorin, C; Balshaw, N; Beldishevski, M; Carvalho, P; Clever, M; Cramp, S; de Pablos, J-L; de la Cal, E; Falie, D; Garcia-Sanchez, P; Felton, R; Gervaise, V; Goodyear, A; Horton, A; Jachmich, S; Huber, A; Jouve, M; Kinna, D; Kruezi, U; Manzanares, A; Martin, V; McCullen, P; Moncada, V; Obrejan, K; Patel, K; Lomas, P J; Neto, A; Rimini, F; Ruset, C; Schweer, B; Sergienko, G; Sieglin, B; Soleto, A; Stamp, M; Stephen, A; Thomas, P D; Valcárcel, D F; Williams, J; Wilson, J; Zastrow, K-D

    2012-10-01

    The new JET ITER-like wall (made of beryllium and tungsten) is more fragile than the former carbon fiber composite wall and requires active protection to prevent excessive heat loads on the plasma facing components (PFC). Analog CCD cameras operating in the near infrared wavelength are used to measure surface temperature of the PFCs. Region of interest (ROI) analysis is performed in real time and the maximum temperature measured in each ROI is sent to the vessel thermal map. The protection of the ITER-like wall system started in October 2011 and has already successfully led to a safe landing of the plasma when hot spots were observed on the Be main chamber PFCs. Divertor protection is more of a challenge due to dust deposits that often generate false hot spots. In this contribution we describe the camera, data capture and real time processing systems. We discuss the calibration strategy for the temperature measurements with cross validation with thermal IR cameras and bi-color pyrometers. Most importantly, we demonstrate that a protection system based on CCD cameras can work and show examples of hot spot detections that stop the plasma pulse. The limits of such a design and the associated constraints on the operations are also presented.

  6. A protection system for the JET ITER-like wall based on imaging diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoux, G.; Balboa, I.; Balshaw, N.; Beldishevski, M.; Cramp, S.; Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Horton, A.; Kinna, D.; McCullen, P.; Obrejan, K.; Patel, K.; Lomas, P. J.; Rimini, F.; Stamp, M.; Stephen, A.; Thomas, P. D.; Williams, J.; Wilson, J.; Zastrow, K.-D. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-15

    The new JET ITER-like wall (made of beryllium and tungsten) is more fragile than the former carbon fiber composite wall and requires active protection to prevent excessive heat loads on the plasma facing components (PFC). Analog CCD cameras operating in the near infrared wavelength are used to measure surface temperature of the PFCs. Region of interest (ROI) analysis is performed in real time and the maximum temperature measured in each ROI is sent to the vessel thermal map. The protection of the ITER-like wall system started in October 2011 and has already successfully led to a safe landing of the plasma when hot spots were observed on the Be main chamber PFCs. Divertor protection is more of a challenge due to dust deposits that often generate false hot spots. In this contribution we describe the camera, data capture and real time processing systems. We discuss the calibration strategy for the temperature measurements with cross validation with thermal IR cameras and bi-color pyrometers. Most importantly, we demonstrate that a protection system based on CCD cameras can work and show examples of hot spot detections that stop the plasma pulse. The limits of such a design and the associated constraints on the operations are also presented.

  7. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhenghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the load bearing wall. Comprehensive simulations of the fire tests were carried out using an advanced CFD fire simulation software Simtec (Simulation of Thermal Engineering Complex [1, 2], which is now released by Simtec Soft Sweden, with the turbulent flow, turbulent combustion, thermal radiation, soot formation, convective heat transfer, the fully coupled three dimensional heat transfer inside solid materials, the ‘burn-out' of the surface protection layer and the pyrolysis of the insulation layer, etc, all computed. The simulation is compared with experimental measurement for validation. The simulation well captured the burning and fire spread of the external insulation wall.

  8. A flow cytometry-based submicron-sized bacterial detection system using a movable virtual wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyoungseon; Jeon, Chang Su; Hwang, Inseong; Ko, Juhui; Lee, Saram; Choo, Jaebum; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong

    2014-07-07

    Detection of pathogenic bacteria requires a sensitive, accurate, rapid, and portable device. Given that lethal microbes are of various sizes, bacterial sensors based on DC (direct current) impedance on chips should be equipped with channels with commensurate cross sections. When it comes to counting and interrogation of individual bacteria on a microfluidic chip, very narrow channels are required, which are neither easy nor cost-effective to fabricate. Here, we report a flow cytometry-based submicron-sized bacterial detection system using a movable virtual wall made of a non-conducting fluid. We show that the effective dimension of a microfluidic channel can be adjusted by varying the respective flow rates of a sample solution as well as the liquid wall therein. Using such a virtual wall, we have successfully controlled the channel width and detected submicron-sized Francisella tularensis, a lethal, tularemia-causing bacterium. Since the system is capable of monitoring changes in DC impedance and fluorescence simultaneously, we were also able to discriminate between different types of bacterial mixtures containing F. tularensis and E. coli BL21 that have different gamuts of size distributions. The proposed flow cytometry-based system represents a promising way to detect bacteria including, but not limited to, submicron-sized pathogenic microbes.

  9. Comparative study of comminuted posterior acetabular wall fracture treated with the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntong; Zhao, Xue; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Chuncai; Xu, Shuogui; Xie, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Posterior wall fractures are one of the most common acetabular fractures. However, only 30% of these fractures involve a single large fragment, and comminuted acetabular posterior wall fractures pose a particular surgical challenge. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between patients who received fixation for comminuted posterior wall fracture using the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System (ATMFS) and patients who underwent fixation with conventional screws and buttress plates (Plates group). Between April 2003 and May 2007, 196 consecutive patients who sustained a comminuted posterior wall fracture of acetabulum were treated with ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plates. Operative time, fluoroscopy time, blood loss, and any intra-operative complications were recorded. Plain AP and lateral radiographs were obtained at all visits (Matta's criteria). Modified Merle d' Aubigne-Postel score, and Mos SF-36 score were compared between groups. Fifty patients were included in the analysis with 26 in the ATMFS group and 24 in the Plates group. The mean follow-up time was 57.5 months, ranging from 31 to 69 months. All patients had fully healed fractures at the final follow-up. There was no difference in clinical outcomes or radiological evaluations between groups. Patients with comminuted posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum treated with the ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plate techniques achieve a good surgical result. Both techniques are safe, reliable, and practical. Use of the ATMFS technique may reduce blood loss and improve rigid support to marginal bone impaction. The use ATMFS may need additional support when fractures involve the superior roof. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Activity of Co-N multi walled carbon nanotubes electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in acid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmieri, Luigi; Monteverde Videla, Alessandro H. A.; Specchia, Stefania

    2015-03-01

    Two catalysts are synthesized by wet impregnation of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with a complex formed between Co(II) ions and the nitrogen-containing molecule 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ), followed by one or two identical heat treatments in N2 atmosphere at 800 °C for 3 h. Catalysts are fully characterized by FESEM, EDX, BET, XRD, FTIR, TGA, XPS analyses, and electrochemical techniques. The electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of the catalysts in acid conditions is assessed by means of a rotating disk electrode (RDE) apparatus and a specific type of cell equipped with a gas diffusion working electrode (GDE). In both testing approaches, the catalyst heat-treated twice (Co-N/MWCNT-2) exhibits higher electroactivity than the catalyst heat-treated once (Co-N/MWCNT-1). Chronoamperometries both in RDE and GDE cell are also performed, showing less electroactivity decay and better current performance for the catalyst heat-treated twice.

  11. Effects of vertical wall and tetrapod weights on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters under irregular wave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kil Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubble mound breakwaters protect the coastal line against severe erosion caused by wave action. This study examined the performance of different sizes and properties (i.e. height of vertical wall and tetrapod size of rubble mound breakwaters on reducing the overtopping discharge. The physical model used in this study was derived based on an actual rubble mound in Busan Yacht Harbor. This research attempts to fill the gap in practical knowledge on the combined effect of the armor roughness and vertical wall on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters. The main governing parameters used in this study were the vertical wall height, variation of the tetrapod weights, initial water level elevation, and the volume of overtopping under constant wave properties. The experimental results showed that the roughness factor differed according to the tetrapod size. Furthermore, the overtopping discharge with no vertical wall was similar to that with relatively short vertical walls (γν = 1. Therefore, the experimental results highlight the importance of the height of the vertical wall in reducing overtopping discharge. Moreover, a large tetrapod size may allow coastal engineers to choose a shorter vertical wall to save cost, while obtaining better performance.

  12. Effects of vertical wall and tetrapod weights on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters under irregular wave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Kil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubble mound breakwaters protect the coastal line against severe erosion caused by wave action. This study examined the performance of different sizes and properties (i.e. height of vertical wall and tetrapod size of rubble mound breakwaters on reducing the overtopping discharge. The physical model used in this study was derived based on an actual rubble mound in Busan Yacht Harbor. This research attempts to fill the gap in practical knowledge on the combined effect of the armor roughness and vertical wall on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters. The main governing parameters used in this study were the vertical wall height, variation of the tetrapod weights, initial water level elevation, and the volume of overtopping under constant wave properties. The experimental results showed that the roughness factor differed according to the tetrapod size. Furthermore, the overtopping discharge with no vertical wall was similar to that with relatively short vertical walls ( 1 γv = 1. Therefore, the experimental results highlight the importance of the height of the vertical wall in reducing overtopping discharge. Moreover, a large tetrapod size may allow coastal engineers to choose a shorter vertical wall to save cost, while obtaining better performance.

  13. Perterbative O(asa) matching in static heavy and domain-wall light quark system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa,T.

    2008-07-14

    We discuss the perturbative O(a{sub s}a) matching in the static heavy and domain-wall light quark system. The gluon action is the Iwasaki action and the link smearing is performed in the static heavy action. The chiral symmetry of the light quark realized by using the domain-wall fermion formulation does not prohibit the mixing of the operators at O(a). The application of O(a) improvement to the actual data shows that the B meson decay constant f{sub B}, the matrix elements M{sub B} and the B parameter B{sub B} have non-negligible effects, while the effect on the SU(3) breaking ratio {zeta} is small.

  14. Energy loss of the electron system in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavicca, Daniel F; Chudow, Joel D; Prober, Daniel E; Purewal, Meninder S; Kim, Philip

    2010-11-10

    We characterize the energy loss of the nonequilibrium electron system in individual metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperature. Using Johnson noise thermometry, we demonstrate that, for a nanotube with Ohmic contacts, the dc resistance at finite bias current directly reflects the average electron temperature. This enables a straightforward determination of the thermal conductance associated with cooling of the nanotube electron system. In analyzing the temperature- and length-dependence of the thermal conductance, we consider contributions from acoustic phonon emission, optical phonon emission, and hot electron outdiffusion.

  15. The Effect of a Thin-Wall Casting Mould Cavity Filling Conditions on the Casting Surface Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trytek A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of metallographic examination of faults occurring in the course of founding thin-walled cast-iron castings in furan resin sand molds. A non-conformance of the scab type was Observed on surface of the casting as well as sand buckles and cold shots. Studied the chemical composition by means of a scanning electron microscope in a region of casting defects: microanalysis point and microanalysis surface. Around the observed defects discloses high concentration of oxides of iron, manganese and silicon. A computer simulation of the casting process has been carried out with the objective to establish the cause of occurrence of cold shots on casting surface. The simulation was carried out with the use of NovaFlow & Solid program. We analyzed the flowing metal in the mold cavity. The main reason for the occurrence of casting defects on the surface of the casting was gating system, which caused turbulent flow of metal with a distinctive splash stream of liquid alloy.

  16. Refrigerant saving automotive air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muso, M.; Kitahara, Y. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Based on the phaseout schedule of harmful fleons controlled in the Montreal Protocl, as the first step to alter them into harmless ones, the reduction of fleon consumption was attempted for automotive air-conditioning systems. As saving measures against refrigerant, the following methods were pursued: (1) the volume reduction of air conditioner elements, such as the use of thin pipes, (2) the improvement of liquid and gas secession to reduce a refrigerant weight in a receiver-drier, (3) the reduction of refrigerant leakage from flexible hoses or compressor seals, and (4) more precise determination of a suitable refrigerant weight, such as the adoption of narrower weight tolerance. The low-permeable flexible hose with an inner thin nylon tube was developed, and a suitable refrigerant weight was determined from a register discharge air temperature, and furthermore, the tolerance was narrowed from {plus minus} 0.1kg to {plus minus} 0.05kg. As a result, required refrigerant was successfully reduced by 31-35%. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Georeferenced Scanning System to Estimate the Leaf Wall Area in Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del-Moral-Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA. Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution, as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.

  18. Lie point symmetries for a magneto couple stress fluid in a porous channel with expanding or contracting walls and slip boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea El Shennawy Abo Elkhair

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an incompressible couple stress fluid flow with magnetic field in a porous channel with expanding or contracting walls and slip boundary condition is considered. Lie group analysis and group invariant solutions are obtained, the governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are solved analytically, also this equations are solved by using Adomian method. The graphs for the axial and the normal velocity components and the pressure distribution for different values of the physical and geometric parameters are plotted and discussed. Finally, the comparison between the analytic and Adomian methods is discussed. It is found that for no-slip case ϕ=0 the fluid adheres to the walls and axial velocity is maximum at the center of the channel, also by increasing the slip parameter the velocity at the channel walls increases. However, it decreases at center of the channel by increasing slip parameter.

  19. Effects of catalyst support and chemical vapor deposition condition on synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanocoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: suda@ee.tut.ac.jp; Iida, Tetsuo; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Harigai, Toru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Ue, Hitoshi [Fuji Research Laboratory, Tokai Carbon Co., Ltd., Oyama, Shizuoka 410-1431 (Japan); Umeda, Yoshito [Toho Gas Co., Ltd., Tokai, Aichi 476-8501 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanocoil (MWCNC) is a carbon nanotube (CNT) with helical shape. We have synthesized MWCNCs and MWCNTs hybrid by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). MWCNCs are considered to be a potential material in nanodevices, such as electromagnetic wave absorbers and field emitters. It is very important to take into account the purity of MWCNCs. In this study, we aimed to improve the composition ratio of MWCNCs to MWCNTs by changing catalyst preparation and CVD conditions. As a catalyst, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/zeolite was prepared by dissolving Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} fine powder and Y-type zeolite (catalyst support material) in ethanol with an Fe density of 0.5wt.% and with a zeolite density of 3.5wt.%. The catalyst-coated Si substrate was transferred immediately onto a hotplate and was heated at 80°C for 5 min. Similarly, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co/zeolite/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co/zeolite, and Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared. The effect of the difference of the composite catalysts on synthesis of MWCNCs was considered. The CVD reactor was heated in a tubular furnace to 660-790°C in a nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 1000 ml/min. Subsequently, acetylene was mixed with nitrogen at a flow rate ratio of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} = 0.02-0.1. The reaction was kept under these conditions for 10 min. MWCNTs and MWCNCs were well grown by the catalysts of Co/zeolite and Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The composition ratio of MWCNCs to MWCNTs was increased by using a combination of zeolite and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The highest composition ratio of MWCNCs to MWCNTs was 12%.

  20. Arabidopsis Regenerating Protoplast: A Powerful Model System for Combining the Proteomics of Cell Wall Proteins and the Visualization of Cell Wall Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ryusuke Yokoyama; Hiroaki Kuki; Takeshi Kuroha; Kazuhiko Nishitani

    2016-01-01

    The development of a range of sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall has identified many of the cell wall proteins. However, it remains difficult to elucidate the precise biological role of each protein and the cell wall dynamics driven by their actions. The plant protoplast provides an excellent means not only for characterizing cell wall proteins, but also for visualizing the dynamics of cell wall regeneration, during which cell wall proteins are secreted. It therefore offers a uni...

  1. Inspector's manual for mechanically stabilized earth walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The scope of the project is to develop a condition rating system, creation of an inspector's manual to reference during : inspection or address any training for inspectors at the district level. The research project will develop a MSE wall : conditio...

  2. Innovative Seismic Response-Controlled System with Shear Wall and Concentrated Dampers in Lower Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Tani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new structural control system using damper-installed shear walls in lower stories with reduced stiffness is proposed for vibration control of high-rise RC buildings. That system has some design variables, i.e., height of shear wall, degree of stiffness reduction at lower stories, and quantity of dampers. In this paper, some parametric studies on the shear-beam model with a stiff beam against two kinds of ground motion, a pulse-type sinusoidal wave and a resonant sinusoidal wave, are conducted to clarify the vibration characteristics of the proposed structural control system. It is shown that the optimal combination of design parameters depends on the input ground motion. It is also shown that it is possible to prevent from increasing the response under the one-cycle sinusoidal input resonant to the lowest mode and reduce the steady-state response under the harmonic input with the resonant fundamental period by reducing the stiffness in the lower structure and increasing the damper deformation.

  3. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station—The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Iren Kittang Jost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8–14 days on single cells (plant protoplasts. Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station.

  4. Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) systems are novel imaging systems that have the potential to simultaneously quantify and characterize the optical and mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. This article presents the construction of bladder wall phantoms for use in ARF-OCE systems. Mechanical, acoustic, and optical properties are reported and compared to published values for the urinary bladder. The phantom consisted of 0.2000 +/- 0.0089 and 6.0000 +/- 0.2830 microm polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., Warrington, PA, Catalog Nos. 07304 and 07312), 7.5 +/- 1.5 microm copolymer microspheres composed of acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride, (Expancel, Duluth, GA, Catalog No. 461 DU 20), and bovine serum albumin within a gelatin matrix. Young's modulus was measured by successive compression of the phantom and obtaining the slope of the resulting force-displacement data. Acoustic measurements were performed using the transmission method. The phantoms were submerged in a water bath and placed between transmitting and receiving 13 mm diameter unfocused transducers operating at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. A MATLAB algorithm to extract the optical scattering coefficient from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the phantom was used. The phantoms possess a Young's modulus of 17.12 +/- 2.72 kPa, a mass density of 1.05 +/- 0.02 g/cm3, an acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 +/- 0.08 dB/cm/MHz, a speed of sound of 1591 +/- 8.76 m/s, and an optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 +/- 0.23 mm(-1). Ultrasound and OCT images of the bladder wall phantom are presented. A material that mimics the mechanical, optical, and acoustic properties of healthy bladder wall has been developed. This tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantom was developed as a control tool to investigate the feasibility of using ARF-OCE to detect the mechanical and optical changes that may be indicative of the onset or development of cancer in the urinary bladder

  5. Monte Carlo calculations on the magnetization profile and domain wall structure in bulk systems and nanoconstricitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serena, P. A. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Costa-Kraemer, J. L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm suitable to study systems described by an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian is presented. This technique has been tested successfully with 3D and 2D systems, illustrating how magnetic properties depend on the dimensionality and the coordination number. We have found that magnetic properties of constrictions differ from those appearing in bulk. In particular, spin fluctuations are considerable larger than those calculated for bulk materials. In addition, domain walls are strongly modified when a constriction is present, with a decrease of the domain-wall width. This decrease is explained in terms of previous theoretical works. [Spanish] Se presenta un algoritmo de Monte Carlo para estudiar sistemas discritos por un hamiltoniano anisotropico de Heisenburg. Esta tecnica ha sido probada exitosamente con sistemas de dos y tres dimensiones, ilustrado con las propiedades magneticas dependen de la dimensionalidad y el numero de coordinacion. Hemos encontrado que las propiedades magneticas de constricciones difieren de aquellas del bulto. En particular, las fluctuaciones de espin son considerablemente mayores. Ademas, las paredes de dominio son fuertemente modificadas cuando una construccion esta presente, originando un decrecimiento del ancho de la pared de dominio. Damos cuenta de este decrecimiento en terminos de un trabajo teorico previo.

  6. Justification of the estimation technique for the technical condition of the tank with inadmissible imperfections in the wall shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepur, Petr; Tarasenko, Alexander; Gruchenkova, Alesya

    2017-10-01

    The paper has its focus on the problem of estimating the stress-strain state of the vertical steel tanks with the inadmissible geometric imperfections in the wall shape. In the paper, the authors refer to an actual tank to demonstrate that the use of certain design schemes can lead to the raw errors and, accordingly, to the unreliable results. Obviously, these design schemes cannot be based on when choosing the real repair technologies. For that reason, authors performed the calculations of the tank removed out of service for the repair, basing on the developed finite-element model of the VST-5000 tank with a conical roof. The proposed approach was developed for the analysis of the SSS (stress-strain state) of a tank having geometric imperfections of the wall shape. Based on the work results, the following was proposed: to amend the Annex A methodology “Method for calculating the stress-strain state of the tank wall during repair by lifting the tank and replacing the wall metal structures” by inserting the requirement to compulsory consider the actual stiffness of the VST entire structure and its roof when calculating the structure stress-strain state.

  7. CFD-aerosol modeling of the effects of wall composition and inlet conditions on carbon nanotube catalyst particle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David P; Nasibulin, Albert G; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2008-08-01

    The evolution of iron catalyst particles during aerosol (floating catalyst) Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) from CO is computed using a multi species Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model incorporating a lognormal aerosol method of moments (MOM) to describe their dynamics and a combined chemical kinetics and equilibrium model for catalytic production of CO2. The influence of the presence of iron at the reactor walls, the fed particle size, number concentration and polydispersity and the effect of the catalytic production of CO2 at the reactor wall are studied in terms of particle size, concentration and polydispersity and reagent concentration during CNT synthesis. It is found that iron catalyst particle dynamics are essentially insensitive to wall iron concentrations and, for a wide range of particle sizes and concentrations, it is found that the catalyst particles are stable up to a critical CNT window in which CNT nucleation and growth occurs. Concentrations of catalyst particles significantly above 1 x 10(14) #/m3, however, lead to poor control over catalyst particle size and polydispersity at the CNT nucleation front which, in turn, leads to poor control over CNT diameter. The location of the growth window is shown to be directly associated with the availability of catalytically produced CO2 diffusing from the reactor walls to the reactor core. These results help to explain the large variations in CNT diameter and chirality and the inefficient use of catalyst material in other floating catalyst CNT processes based on in-situ catalyst particle synthesis.

  8. Designing cellular manufacturing system under risk conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus we propose a mixed integer programming approach to decision making and incorporate subcontracting risk . To control the risk of sub-contracting (cost) , the two popular percentile measures of risk are applied: value-at-risk and conditional value-at-risk. This model is capable of optimizing production cost of parts and ...

  9. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  10. Fault isolatability conditions for linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...

  11. Arabidopsis Regenerating Protoplast: A Powerful Model System for Combining the Proteomics of Cell Wall Proteins and the Visualization of Cell Wall Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Yokoyama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a range of sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall has identified many of the cell wall proteins. However, it remains difficult to elucidate the precise biological role of each protein and the cell wall dynamics driven by their actions. The plant protoplast provides an excellent means not only for characterizing cell wall proteins, but also for visualizing the dynamics of cell wall regeneration, during which cell wall proteins are secreted. It therefore offers a unique opportunity to investigate the de novo construction process of the cell wall. This review deals with sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall through the use of protoplasts, a methodology that will provide the basis for further exploration of cell wall proteins and cell wall dynamics.

  12. Analysis of Pipe Wall-thinning Caused by Water Chemistry Change in Secondary System of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hun; Hwang, Kyeongmo [KEPCO E and C, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seung-Jae [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Pipe wall-thinning by flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) is a significant and costly damage of secondary system piping in nuclear power plants (NPPs). All NPPs have their management programs to ensure pipe integrity from wall-thinning. This study analyzed the pipe wall-thinning caused by changing the amine, which is used for adjusting the water chemistry in the secondary system of NPPs. The pH change was analyzed according to the addition of amine. Then, the wear rate calculated in two different amines was compared at the steam cycle in NPPs. As a result, increasing the pH at operating temperature (Hot pH) can reduce the rate of FAC damage significantly. Wall-thinning is affected by amine characteristics depending on temperature and quality of water.

  13. Forced Transverse Vibration of a Closed Double Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube System Containing a Fluid with Effect of Compressive Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nasirshoaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Rayleigh beam theory, the forced transverse vibrations of a closed double single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT system containing a fluid with a Pasternak layer in-between are investigated. It is assumed that the two single-walled carbon nanotubes of the system are continuously joined by a Pasternak layer and both sides of SWCNTs containing a fluid are closed. The dynamic responses of the system caused by arbitrarily distributed continuous loads are obtained. The effect of compressive axial load on the forced vibrations of the double single-walled carbon nanotube system is discussed for one case of particular excitation loading. The properties of the forced transverse vibrations of the system are found to be significantly dependent on the compressive axial load. The steady-state vibration amplitudes of the SWCNT decrease with increasing of length of SWCNT. Vibrations caused by the harmonic exciting forces are discussed, and conditions of resonance and dynamic vibration absorption are formulated. The SWCNT-type dynamic absorber is a new concept of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which can be applied to suppress excessive vibrations of corresponding SWCNT systems.

  14. Continuous on-line measurements of respiratory system, lung and chest wall mechanics during mechanic ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kárason, S; Søndergaard, S; Lundin, S; Stenqvist, O

    2001-08-01

    We present a concept of on-line, manoeuvre-free monitoring of respiratory mechanics during dynamic conditions, displaying calculated alveolar pressure/volume curves continuously and separating lung and chest wall mechanics. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Ten ventilator-treated patients with acute lung injury. Different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and tidal volumes, low flow inflation. Previously validated methods were used to present a single-value dynostatic compliance for the whole breath and a dynostatic volume-dependent initial, middle and final compliance within the breath. A high individual variation of respiratory mechanics was observed. Reproducibility of repeated measurements was satisfactory (coefficients of variations for dynostatic volume-dependent compliance: mechanics during ongoing ventilator treatment.

  15. Evaluation of the Lateral Performance of Roof Truss-to-Wall Connections in Light-Frame Wood Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew DeRenzis; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2012-01-01

    This testing program was designed to benchmark the performance of traditional roof systems and incrementally improved roof-to-wall systems with the goal of developing connection solutions that are optimized for performance and constructability. Nine full-size roof systems were constructed and tested with various levels and types of heel detailing to measure the lateral...

  16. Measurements on the SOLARIX wall heating system; Messung SOLARIX-Wandheizsystem - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesch, P.

    2009-12-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the SOLARIX wall-integrated heating system. The system features transparent heat insulation elements that are mounted on the east, south and west-facing sides of a building, as well as a photovoltaic installation on the balcony and terrace balustrades. The project's aims and the goals set for it are quoted. Also, problems encountered during the project are listed and changes made to the original project are discussed. Finally, 4 buildings were realised, three of which were built in a conventional manner to 'Minergie' low energy consumption standards. The construction of the transparent heat-insulating elements is described. Measurements made and results obtained are presented and discussed.

  17. The removal of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes using an aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Malcolm S Y; Whitcher, T J; Yeoh, K H; Chua, C L; Woon, K L; Show, P L; Lin, Y K; Ling, T C

    2014-05-01

    Here we report our findings on the removal of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes using an aqueous two-phase system. The aqueous two-phase system contained as received carbon nanotubes, polyethylene glycol, dextran, N-methylpyrrolidone, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and water which phase separated into top and bottom phases. The top phase was dominated by polyethylene glycol whereas the bottom phase was dominated by dextran. The dextran-rich phase contained more semiconducting species while metallic species was more abundant in the polyethylene glycol rich-phase. It was found via Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that cetyltrimethylammonium bromide only present in the dextran-rich phase. A selectivity mechanism is tentatively proposed and discussed.

  18. Control system and method for a universal power conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Park, Sung Yeul; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2014-09-02

    A new current loop control system method is proposed for a single-phase grid-tie power conditioning system that can be used under a standalone or a grid-tie mode. This type of inverter utilizes an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filter as the interface in between inverter and the utility grid. The first set of inductor-capacitor (LC) can be used in the standalone mode, and the complete LCL can be used for the grid-tie mode. A new admittance compensation technique is proposed for the controller design to avoid low stability margin while maintaining sufficient gain at the fundamental frequency. The proposed current loop controller system and admittance compensation technique have been simulated and tested. Simulation results indicate that without the admittance path compensation, the current loop controller output duty cycle is largely offset by an undesired admittance path. At the initial simulation cycle, the power flow may be erratically fed back to the inverter causing catastrophic failure. With admittance path compensation, the output power shows a steady-state offset that matches the design value. Experimental results show that the inverter is capable of both a standalone and a grid-tie connection mode using the LCL filter configuration.

  19. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  20. Retaining Walls Made of Precast Cylindrical Valuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ungureanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retaining walls are large category of engineering structures of multiple uses, having an essential safety ensuring role. The structural systems are varied because the situations and requirements derived from both site conditions and other criteria are varied. The paper enlarges upon retaining walls systems that use an outstanding amount of precast units and multiple cylindrical vault type structural systems supported by abutments [1], [2]. The paper proposes extending the structural system to retaining walls and develops certain specific issues. Some considerations regarding structural design are made.

  1. Hybrid space heating/cooling system with Trombe wall, underground venting, and assisted heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, J.W.; James, L.C.; Stevens, S.; Autry, A.N.; Nussbaum, M.; MacQueen, S.V.

    1983-06-22

    Our goal was to design and monitor a hybrid solar system/ground loop which automatically assists the standard, thermostatically controlled home heating/cooling system. The input from the homeowner was limited to normal thermostat operations. During the course of the project it was determined that to effectively gather data and control the various component interactions, a micro-computer based control system would also allow the HVAC system to be optimized by simple changes to software. This flexibility in an untested concept helped us to achieve optimum system performance. Control ranged from direct solar heating and direct ground loop cooling modes, to assistance of the heat pump by both solar space and ground loop. Sensors were strategically placed to provide data on response of the Trombe wall (surface, 4 in. deep, 8 in. deep), and the ground loop (inlet, 3/4 length, outlet). Micro-computer hardware and computer programs were developed to make cost effective decisions between the various modes of operation. Although recent advances in micro-computer hardware make similar control systems more readily achievable utilizing standard components, attention to the decision making criteria will always be required.

  2. In-plane cyclic behaviour of unfired clay and earth brick walls in both unstrengthened and strengthened conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hračov, Stanislav; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Garofano, A.; Urushadze, Shota

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 8 (2016), s. 3293-3308 ISSN 1359-5997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-41574P EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244123 - NIKER Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : seismic strengthening * retrofitting * earth brick walls * experimental tests * energy dissipation * earthquake engineering Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 2.607, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1617/s11527-015-0720-5

  3. Numerical assessment of functionally graded tungsten/EUROFER coating system for first wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, D.D., E-mail: dandna.qu@partner.kit.edu; Basuki, W.W.; Aktaa, J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings with W/EUROFER functional graded (FG) interlayers on EUROFER substrates are investigated by means of finite element (FE) simulations as first wall (FW) application. • The FE simulations consider elasto-perfectly plastic and elasto-viscoplastic material models and the fabrication phase and operation phase. • The effects of FG-interlayers thicknesses on mitigating the residual stress and inelastic strain are studied. • Allowable number of cycles is calculated based on creep damage accumulation. - Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels, e.g. EUROFER, are to be used as structural material for the first wall (FW) of future fusion power plants. The interaction between the plasma and the FW, especially physical sputtering, will limit the FW lifetime under normal operation. Therefore, a tungsten coating should be selected to protect the FW due to its low sputtering yield, low activation, high melting point and high thermal conductivity. However, the mismatch of thermo-physical properties between W and EUROFER induces large residual thermal stresses and even failure of components. Functionally graded material (FGM) is considered as an appropriate solution to mitigate the high residual stresses. In this work, W coatings on EUROFER substrates with W/EUROFER FG-layer (the coating system) are investigated by means of finite element (FE) simulations considering elasto-perfectly plastic and elasto-viscoplastic material models. For determining optimal parameters of the coating system the vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) fabrication process and the operation phase of the fusion reactor are simulated. Based on the FE results creep assessment of the coating system is performed demonstrating the gain in lifetime to be expected when using a FG-layer and investigating its dependence on the thickness of the FG-layer.

  4. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  5. Carbon Single-Wall Nanatube Growth in a Volumetrically Confined Arc Discharge System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, K.J.; Alleman, J.L.; Jones, K.M.; Dillon, A.C.; Heben, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes hold significant promise for a vast number of materials applications due to their unique mechanical, electrical, and gas storage properties. Although carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) have been synthesized since 1993 by the arc discharge method, and numerous other synthesis methods have since been developed, no method has yet produced 100% pure carbon nanotubes. Instead, a significant amount of impurities—various carbon structures and metal catalysts—are present in the raw soot. While arc discharge was the first method for SWNT synthesis, it also produces more impure raw soot in comparison to the more recently developed laser vaporization, which has produced the purest raw soot to date but is much slower. Geometry and thermal gradient are appreciably different between traditional arc discharge systems and laser vaporization systems. We report that, by incorporating some characteristics inherent to a laser vaporization system into an arc discharge system, improvement in the yield of SWNT raw soot may be achieved. This is accomplished by confining the arc within a 50 mm diameter quartz tube, similar to laser vaporization. We find through transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy that SWNTs are made in significant numbers in this confined arc discharge system, comparable to laser vaporization synthesized material. Further study is, however, required to prove reproducibility and attain an exact value for the purity of the produced raw soot.

  6. GeoWall: Stereo Projection Systems Designed for Earth Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P.; Kirkby, K. C.; Van Keken, P.; Leigh, J.; Reynolds, S. J.; Davis, B.; Burdick, R.; Schumann, L.

    2001-12-01

    Within the past year, advances in projection technology and consumer-grade computer game technology have reduced the cost of stereo projection systems to a level that allows this technology to be used in the classroom. Stereo projection systems have remarkable potential for any educational discipline that deals with complex spatial relationships (engineering, physics, astronomy, etc.), but the implications for earth science education are particularly rich. The ability to visualize and interpret spatial relationships is a critical skill that many earth science students find difficult to master. Stereo projection can serve as a bridge to increase students' perception of maps, images and aerial views, or allow students to interactively manipulate three-dimensional, time-dependent visualizations of research data sets and mathematical models that move well beyond traditional education materials. The GeoWall Project is an initiative to build low-cost, high-quality stereo projection systems at a number of research and education institutions. By standardizing the technical design of these systems, materials developed by one institution can be used by any of the other member institutions. This allows institutions to easily adopt materials that they could not produce in-house and fosters a community capable of generating curriculum materials that take advantage of stereo projection technology. Although not universally applicable across earth science education, stereo projection systems have the potential to transform the way that we teach many earth science concepts.

  7. Systems Level Engineering of Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis to Improve Biofuel Feedstock Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Samuel

    2013-09-27

    Our new regulatory model of cell wall biosynthesis proposes original network architecture with several newly incorporated components. The mapped set of protein-DNA interactions will serve as a foundation for 1) understanding the regulation of a complex and integral plant component and 2) the manipulation of crop species for biofuel and biotechnology purposes. This study revealed interesting and novel aspects of grass growth and development and further enforce the importance of a grass model system. By functionally characterizing a suite of genes, we have begun to improve the sparse model for transcription regulation of biomass accumulation in grasses. In the process, we have advanced methodology and brachy molecular genetic tools that will serve as valuable community resource.

  8. Open and closed shear-walls in high-rise structural systems: Static and dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Lacidogna, Giuseppe; Nitti, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a General Algorithm is applied to the analysis of high-rise structures. This algorithm is to be used as a calculation tool in preliminary design; it allows to define the interaction between closed and open, straight or curved shear-walls, and the forces exchanged in structures subject to mainly horizontal loads. The analysis can be performed in both static and dynamic regimes, the mode shapes and the natural frequencies being assessed. This general formulation allows analyses of high-rise structures by taking into account the torsional rigidity and the warping deformations of the elements composing the building without gross simplifications. In thisway it is possible to model the structure as a single equivalent cantilever, thus minimising the degrees of freedom of the system, and consequently the calculation time. Finally, potentials of the method proposed are demonstrated by a numerical example which emphasizes the link between global displacements and stresses in the elements composing the structure.

  9. Dynamics and scaling properties for a one-dimensional impact system with two periodically vibrating walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livorati, André L. P.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a system composed of a particle suffering impacts between two heavy periodically vibrating walls. An original, nonlinear area preserving mapping is obtained. The control parameters of amplitude of perturbation and frequency of oscillation play an important role in the phase space, shaping the portion of chaotic seas, position of invariant curves and the amount of KAM islands. The study of the behavior of the root mean square velocity was made via analytical description and numerical simulations. We proposed scaling arguments to describe its dynamics and our results show remarkably good agreement between the theory and the simulations concerning a scaling invariance with respect to the control parameters. Also, an analysis of the diffusion coefficient confirms the validity of the scaling invariance, giving robustness to our modeling.

  10. Wall shear stress effects of different endodontic irrigation techniques and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Narisa; Khan, Sara; Eid, Ashraf A; Niu, Li-na; Gosier, Johnny; Susin, Lisiane F; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-07-01

    This study examined débridement efficacy as a result of wall shear stresses created by different irrigant delivery/agitation techniques in an inaccessible recess of a curved root canal model. A reusable, curved canal cavity containing a simulated canal fin was milled into mirrored titanium blocks. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) paste was used as debris and loaded into the canal fin. The titanium blocks were bolted together to provide a fluid-tight seal. Sodium hypochlorite was delivered at a previously-determined flow rate of 1 mL/min that produced either negligible or no irrigant extrusion pressure into the periapex for all the techniques examined. Nine irrigation delivery/agitation techniques were examined: NaviTip passive irrigation control, Max-i-Probe(®) side-vented needle passive irrigation, manual dynamic agitation (MDA) using non-fitting and well-fitting gutta-percha points, EndoActivator™ sonic agitation with medium and large points, VPro™ EndoSafe™ irrigation system, VPro™ StreamClean™ continuous ultrasonic irrigation and EndoVac apical negative pressure irrigation. Débridement efficacies were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's multiple comparisons tests (α=0.05). EndoVac was the only technique that removed more than 99% calcium hydroxide debris from the canal fin at the predefined flow rate. This group was significantly different (psystem to significantly clean more debris from a mechanically inaccessible recess of the model curved root canal may be caused by robust bubble formation during irrigant delivery, creating higher wall shear stresses by a two-phase air-liquid flow phenomenon that is well known in other industrial débridement systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conditioning of MWPCs for the LHCb Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    Mair, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    We report on the conditioning of the Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) for the LHCb muon system. The MWPCs destined for the inner regions of the muon stations have demanding requirements in terms of rate capability (>100kHz/cm$^2$) and ageing properties. Conditioning of the chambers is therefore of utmost importance. After construction, all chambers undergo a conditioning procedure in two steps, resulting in successful cleaning of anode and cathode surfaces. Conditioned chambers show excellent behaviour under working conditions.

  12. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.J. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Blowes, D.W. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]|[Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research, Ontario (Canada); Placek, C.J. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)]|[Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO{sub 4}-P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified.

  13. Reply to "Domain-growth kinetics of systems with soft walls''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Præstgaard, Eigil

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of computer-simulation results for three different models with soft domain walls it is argued that the zero-temperature domain-growth kinetics falls in a separate universality class characterized by a kinetic growth exponent n≃0.25. However, for finite temperatures there is a distinct...... crossover to Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn kinetics n=0.50, thus suggesting that the soft-wall and hard-wall universality classes become identical at finite temperatures....

  14. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Girard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a custom acoustic emission (AE monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node integrated into a wireless sensor network (WSN customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  15. Monitoring of High-Power Microwave Tube Systems Using the Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshi, N

    2002-01-01

    .... This report details the next step in transitioning the laboratory MTBIT system into a system that is compatible with condition-based maintenance systems employing the Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS) used by the Fleet...

  16. Partial domain wall partition functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on an (n × N) lattice, n ≤ N, that satisfy a variation on domain wall boundary conditions that we define and call partial domain wall boundary conditions...

  17. Comparison of particle-wall interaction boundary conditions in the prediction of cyclone collection efficiency in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde Ramirez, M.; Coury, J.R.; Goncalves, J.A.S., E-mail: jasgon@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have appeared attempting to predict cyclone pressure drop and collection efficiency. While these studies have been able to predict pressure drop well, they have been only moderately successful in predicting collection efficiency. Part of the reason for this failure has been attributed to the relatively simple wall boundary conditions implemented in the commercially available CFD software, which are not capable of accurately describing the complex particle-wall interaction present in a cyclone. According, researches have proposed a number of different boundary conditions in order to improve the model performance. This work implemented the critical velocity boundary condition through a user defined function (UDF) in the Fluent software and compared its predictions both with experimental data and with the predictions obtained when using Fluent's built-in boundary conditions. Experimental data was obtained from eight laboratory scale cyclones with varying geometric ratios. The CFD simulations were made using the software Fluent 6.3.26. (author)

  18. Exchange of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) at the Atmosphere-Soil Interface under Ambient Conditions: a Coated-Wall Flow Tube Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Li, G.; Kuhn, U.; Meusel, H.; Poeschl, U.; Shao, M.; Cheng, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a large fraction of organic carbon in the atmosphere and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Deep insight into the VOCs-related tropospheric chemistry requires a profound understanding of sources and sinks of different VOCs species. Multiphase processes on the surface of soil and airborne soil-derived particles have been suggested as an important mechanism for the production/removal of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. In this work, we investigated the exchange of 13 species of VOCs at the atmosphere-soil interface using a coated-wall flow tube system coupled to a PTR-MS, under ambient conditions at an urban background site in Beijing. The results show that most of the species tend to be absorbed/adsorbed and further retained or converted into other products by soil (net influx into soil) while formic acid can most probably be produced by soil either due to chemical transformation of other absorbed/adsorbed species or emission from soil itself (net efflux from soil). For the species showing noticeable uptake, their uptake coefficients display a gradually decrease along the measurement time, suggesting a progressive saturation of the soil surface. The uptake of several species (e.g., methanol, acetic acid and formaldehyde), however, don't exhibit marked dependence on time. Correlation studies show a dependence of uptake on temperature or relative humidity for several species: the uptake of methanol, acetic acid and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) decreases with increasing temperature; and the uptake of isoprene, acetaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone/methacrolein (MVK+MACR) increases with increasing relative humidity. Based on our results, mineral soil serves as a sink rather than a source for most VOC species.

  19. Friction effect of stator in a multi-walled CNT-based rotation transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ni; Cai, Kun; Shi, Jiao; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The rotation transmission system (RTS) made from co-axial multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) has the function of regulating the input rotation from a nanomotor. The mechanism for the regulation is that the friction among the tubes during rotation governs the rotation of the rotors in the nanosystem. By integrating a rotary nanomotor and a nanobearing into an MWNT-based RTS, it is discovered that the stator (outer tube) provides relatively greater friction on the rotors by penetrating the motor tube, which has a higher stable rotational frequency. And the output rotation of the rotors in the system depends significantly on the temperature of the system, as the rotor tubes are slightly longer than the motor tube. Briefly, at low temperatures, say 8 K, the rotors rotate synchronously with the motor. However, at high temperatures, the rotors rotate slower than the motor with a bigger difference between their rotational frequencies. Hence, the output rotational frequencies can be adjusted by changing the temperature as well as the input rotational frequency.

  20. Development of a real-time system for ITER first wall heat load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Himank; de Vries, Peter; Gribov, Yuri; Pitts, Richard; Snipes, Joseph; Zabeo, Luca

    2017-10-01

    The steady state heat flux on the ITER first wall (FW) panels are limited by the heat removal capacity of the water cooling system. In case of off-normal events (e.g. plasma displacement during H-L transitions), the heat loads are predicted to exceed the design limits (2-4.7 MW/m2). Intense heat loads are predicted on the FW, even well before the burning plasma phase. Thus, a real-time (RT) FW heat load control system is mandatory from early plasma operation of the ITER tokamak. A heat load estimator based on the RT equilibrium reconstruction has been developed for the plasma control system (PCS). A scheme, estimating the energy state for prescribed gaps defined as the distance between the last closed flux surface (LCFS)/separatrix and the FW is presented. The RT energy state is determined by the product of a weighted function of gap distance and the power crossing the plasma boundary. In addition, a heat load estimator assuming a simplified FW geometry and parallel heat transport model in the scrape-off layer (SOL), benchmarked against a full 3-D magnetic field line tracer is also presented.

  1. Energy simulation in the variable refrigerant flow air-conditioning system under cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.P.; Wu, J.Y.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shiochi, S. [Daikin Air-conditioning and Enviromental Lab. Ltd, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    As a high-efficiency air-conditioning scheme, the variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is finding its way in office buildings. However, there is no well-known energy simulation software available so far which can be used for the energy analysis of VRF. Based on the generic dynamic building energy simulation environment, EnergyPlus, a new VRF module is developed and the energy usage of the VRF system is investigated. This paper compares the energy consumption of the VRF system with that of two conventional air-conditioning systems, namely, variable air volume (VAV) system as well as fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system. A generic office building is used to accommodate the different types of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The work focuses on the energy consumption of the VRF system in the office buildings and helps the designer's evaluation and decision-making on the HVAC systems in the early stages of building design. Simulation results show that the energy-saving potentials of the VRF system are expected to achieve 22.2% and 11.7%, compared with the VAV system and the FPFA system, respectively. Energy-usage breakdown for the end-users in various systems is also presented. (author)

  2. Wall Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-14

    Sydney, Australia. December 6, 1990. Lumley, J. L. A dynamical-systems-theory approach to the wall region. Environmental Engineering Laboratory, CSIRO...Nonlinear Science. Holmes, P. Editor in Chief, Nonlinear Scinece Today. Holmes, P. Reviewer for Physica D, J. Sound Vib., J. Phys., Q. Appl. Math, Phys...Spring, 1994; Organizing committee member. Holmes, P. Editorial Board Member: Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis; Journal of Nonlinear Scinece

  3. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  4. The role of the hemicelluloses in the nanobiology of wood cell walls : a systems theoretic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    The hemicelluloses have not received adequate attention in studies of wood cell walls because the complexity of their structures does not admit easy interpretation within the paradigms of polymer science. Two-phase composite models of the cell wall have led many to view their primary function as one of coupling cellulose and lignin to enhance the mechanical properties...

  5. Gypsum plasterboard walls: inspection, pathological characterization and statistical survey using an expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaião, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert system to support the inspection and diagnosis of partition walls or wall coverings mounted using the Drywall (DW construction method. This system includes a classification of anomalies in DW and their probable causes. This inspection system was used in a field work that included the observation of 121 DWs. This paper includes a statistical analysis of the anomalies observed during these inspections and their probable causes. The correlation between anomalies and causes in the sample is also thoroughly analyzed. Anomalies are also evaluated for area affected, size, repair urgency and aesthetic value of the affected area. The conclusions of the statistical analysis allowed the creation of an inventory of preventive measures to be implemented in the design, execution and use phases in order to lessen the magnitude or eradicate the occurrence of anomalies in DW. These measures could directly help improve the quality of construction.

    Este trabajo presenta un sistema experto de apoyo a la inspección y diagnóstico de tabiques o revestimientos de yeso laminado. Dicho sistema, que permite la clasificación de las anomalías del yeso laminado y sus causas probables, se empleó en un trabajo de campo en el que se estudiaron 121 elementos construidos con este material. El trabajo incluye el análisis estadístico de las anomalías detectadas durante las inspecciones y sus motivos probables. También se analizó en detalle la correlación entre las anomalías y sus causas, evaluándose aquellas en función de la superficie afectada, la urgencia de las reparaciones y el valor estético de la zona implicada. Las conclusiones del análisis estadístico permitieron la elaboración de un inventario de medidas preventivas que deberían implantarse en las fases de proyecto, ejecución y utilización de estos elementos a fin de erradicar la aparición de anomalías en el yeso laminado o reducir su frecuencia. Dichas

  6. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  7. Performance of a generic non-axisymmetric end wall in a single stage, rotating turbine at on and off-design conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snedden, Glen C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Snedden1_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 37049 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Snedden1_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Copyright © 2010 by ASME... Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea and Air GT2010 June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow, UK GT2010-22006 THE PERFORMANCE OF A GENERIC NON-AXISYMMETRIC END WALL IN A SINGLE STAGE, ROTATING TURBINE AT ON AND OFF-DESIGN CONDITIONS Glen...

  8. Omental infarction and its mimics: imaging features of acute abdominal conditions presenting with fat stranding greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonerini, Michele; Calcagni, Francesca; Lorenzi, Silvia; Scalise, Paola; Grigolini, Alessandro; Bemi, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    The segmental omental infarction is a rare self-limited disorder presenting with aspecific clinical symptoms that may mimic several acute abdominal conditions. Therefore, a correct noninvasive diagnosis is important because treatment approaches range from monitoring to surgery. As omental infarction results in an important fat stranding that is much greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening, it suggests a narrower differential diagnosis: appendicitis, diverticulitis, epiploic appendagitis, and mesenteric panniculitis. In this pictorial essay, we point out the importance of imaging in identifying this typical sign allowing alternate diagnoses such as segmental omental infarction that can be conservatively managed.

  9. Set up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardo Naticchia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel robot device for high quality multi-colour interior wall painting carried by a robot arm is developed and successfully tested. Thanks to the new 1:6 scaled down laboratory and its six degree of freedom robot arm on an hexapod for horizontal moves, we tested the opportunity to introduce also in the building sector miniature robots that can change the ergonomics standardly adopted by construction workers. It is analyzed how and why switching from full size to miniature robots is convenient in construction. In addition, a new system adding further features to robotized painting has been conceived. Our new multi-colour spraying end-tool was developed and fixed on the robot arm, in order to be able to reproduce coloured artworks. Finally, a methodology to reproduce colours from digital format of artworks is presented, showing how accurate and efficient is this new robotized spraying device.

  10. Set Up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardo Naticchia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel robot device for high quality multi-colour interior wall painting carried by a robot arm is developed and successfully tested. Thanks to the new 1:6 scaled down laboratory and its six degree of freedom robot arm on an hexapod for horizontal moves, we tested the opportunity to introduce also in the building sector miniature robots that can change the ergonomics standardly adopted by construction workers. It is analyzed how and why switching from full size to miniature robots is convenient in construction. In addition, a new system adding further features to robotized painting has been conceived. Our new multi-colour spraying end-tool was developed and fixed on the robot arm, in order to be able to reproduce coloured artworks. Finally, a methodology to reproduce colours from digital format of artworks is presented, showing how accurate and efficient is this new robotized spraying device.

  11. Application of flexi-wall in noise barriers renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Daee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on structural performance of an innovative noise barrier consisting of poly-block, light polyurethane foam (LPF and polyurea. This wall system (flexi-wall is intended to be employed as a vertical extension to existing noise barriers (sound walls in an accelerated construction method. To aid in the wall design, several mechanical tests were conducted on LPF specimens and two full-scale walls were then fabricated employing the same LPF material. The full-scale walls were subjected to lateral loading in order to establish their lateral resistance. A cyclic fatigue test was also performed on a full-scale flexi-wall in order to evaluate the performance of the wall under a repetitive loading condition. The results of the experiments indicated the suitability of flexi-wall in accelerated construction and confirmed that the structural performance of the wall system under lateral loading is satisfactory for the sound wall application. The experimental results were discussed and a preliminary design procedure for application of flexi-wall in sound wall applications was also developed.

  12. Bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along pipe wall in chlorinated drinking water distribution system of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Ren, Hongxing; Ye, Xianbei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lou, Liping; Cheng, Dongqing; He, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Shangde; Fu, Liusong; Hu, Baolan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms in the pipe wall may lead to water quality deterioration and biological instability in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In this study, bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along the pipe wall in a chlorinated DWDS of East China was investigated. Three pipes of large diameter (300, 600, and 600 mm) were sampled in this DWDS, including a ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP) with pipe age of 11 years and two gray cast iron pipes (GCIP) with pipe ages of 17 and 19 years, and biofilms in the upper, middle, and lower parts of each pipe wall were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture-based method were used to quantify bacteria. 454 pyrosequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that the biofilm density and total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) contents increased gradually from the top to the bottom along the pipe wall. Microorganisms were concentrated in the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, together accounting for more than 80 % of the total biomass in the biofilms. The bacterial communities in biofilms were significantly different in different areas of the pipe wall and had no strong interaction. Compared with the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, the bacterial community in the middle of the pipe wall was distributed evenly and had the highest diversity. The 16S rRNA genes of various possible pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica, were detected in the biofilms, and the abundances of these possible pathogens were highest in the middle of the pipe wall among three areas. The detachment of the biofilms is the main reason for the deterioration of the water quality in DWDSs. The results of this study suggest that the biofilms in the middle of the pipe wall have highly potential risk for drinking water safety, which provides new ideas for the study of the microbial ecology in

  13. Analogue modelling of thrust systems : Passive vs. active hanging wall strain accommodation and sharp vs. smooth fault-ramp geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosas, F.M.; Duarte, J.C.; Almeida, P.; Schellart, W. P.; van Riel, N.A.W.; Terrinha, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present new analogue modelling results of crustal thrust-systems in which a deformable (brittle) hanging wall is assumed to endure passive internal deformation during thrusting, i.e. exclusively as a consequence of having to adapt its shape to the variable geometry of a rigid footwall. Building

  14. The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisicchia, Paola; Noone, David; Lioliou, Efthimia

    2007-01-01

    Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show...

  15. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Analyses of a Robotic System for Automated Exterior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 6,677,000 apartment housing units in South Korea. Exterior wall painting for such multi-dwelling apartment housings in South Korea represents a typical area to which construction automation technology can be applied for improvement in safety, productivity, quality, and cost over the conventional method. The conventional exterior wall painting is costly and labor-intensive, and it especially exposes workers to significant health and safety risks. The primary objective of this study is to design a conceptual model of an exterior wall painting robot which is applicable to apartment housing construction and maintenance, and to conduct its technical?economical feasibility analyses. In this study, a design concept using a high ladder truck is proposed as the best alternative for automation of the exterior wall painting. Conclusions made in this study show that the proposed exterior wall painting robot is technically and economically feasible, and can greatly enhance safety, productivity, and quality compared to the conventional method. Finally, it is expected that the conceptual model of the exterior wall painting robot would be efficiently used in various applications in exterior wall finishing and maintenance of other architectural and civil structures such as commercial buildings, towers, and high-rise storage tanks.

  16. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  17. Multi-Bunch effect of resistive wall in the beam delivery system of the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mutzner, Raphael; Pieloni, Tatiana; Rivkin, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Wake fields in the CLIC Beam Delivery System (BDS) can cause severe single or multi-bunch effects leading to luminosity loss. The main contributors in the BDS are geometric and resistive wall wake fields of the collimators and resistive wall wakes of the beam pipe. The present master thesis focuses only on the multi-bunch effects from resistive wall. Using particle tracking with wake fields through the BDS, we have established the aperture radius, above which the effect of the wake fields becomes negligible. Simulations were later extended to include a realistic aperture model along the BDS as well as the collimators. We examine the two cases of 3 TeV and 500 GeV in this work, for stainless steel and copper pipes.

  18. Culture of bovine ovarian follicle wall sections maintained the highly estrogenic profile under basal and chemically defined conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, R.B. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Salles, L.P. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva, I. Oliveira e; Gulart, L.V.M. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Souza, D.K. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade de Ceilândia, Universidade de Brasília, Ceilândia, DF (Brazil); Torres, F.A.G. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Bocca, A.L. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva, A.A.M. Rosa e [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-08-16

    Follicle cultures reproduce in vitro the functional features observed in vivo. In a search for an ideal model, we cultured bovine antral follicle wall sections (FWS) in a serum-free defined medium (DM) known to induce 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) production, and in a nondefined medium (NDM) containing serum. Follicles were sectioned and cultured in NDM or DM for 24 or 48 h. Morphological features were determined by light microscopy. Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor were determined by RT-PCR; progesterone (P{sub 4}) and E{sub 2} concentrations in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. DM, but not NDM, maintained an FWS morphology in vitro that was similar to fresh tissue. DM also induced an increase in the expression of all steroidogenic enzymes, except FSH receptor, but NDM did not. In both DM and NDM, there was a gradual increase in P{sub 4} throughout the culture period; however, P{sub 4} concentration was significantly higher in NDM. In both media, E{sub 2} concentration was increased at 24 h, followed by a decrease at 48 h. The E{sub 2}:P{sub 4} ratio was higher in DM than in NDM. These results suggest that DM maintains morphological structure, upregulates the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes, and maintains steroid production with a high E{sub 2}:P{sub 4} ratio in FWS cultures.

  19. DESIGN a solar hybrid air conditioning compressor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaji Assadi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop and integrate solar hybrid system into conventional air conditioning system which provides the same cooling load with considerably less electricity demand. Solar evacuated tube and DC compressor are used for compressing the refrigerant in an air conditioning system, thus effectively reducing the air conditioning electricity consumption by up to 45%. For the flow through type selected geometry of the designed evacuated U-tube collector, a three dimensional simulation and analysis of the thermal performance was done, using the solar ray-tracing model provided by the ANSYS-FLUENT software.

  20. Design of energy efficient ventilation and air-conditioning systems

    CERN Document Server

    Seppänen, Olli; Bertilsson, Thore; Maripuu, Mari-Liis; Lamy, Hervé; Vanden Borre, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This guidebook covers numerous system components of ventilation and air-conditioning systems and shows how they can be improved by applying the latest technology products. Special attention is paid to details, which are often overlooked in the daily design practice, resulting in poor performance of high quality products once they are installed in the building system.

  1. Utilization of melting techniques for borehole wall stabilization. [Applied to geothermal well production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altseimer, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A research program on the Subterrene concept based on excavation by melting has been completed. Theoretical and experimental studies were made for a broad range of applications. Most recently, a study of Subterrene deep geothermal well production systems predicted that, compared to rotary-drilled wells, significant cost savings are possible, e.g., 2 and 4 million dollars for 10-km-deep wells and geothermal gradients of 25 and 40 K/km, respectively. It was also concluded that for most wells the rate of penetration of the melting bits should be increased several times over that attained in the Subterrene tests. Subterrene melting penetration tests showed that borehole glass liners can be formed in a wide variety of materials and structural characterization tests showed that tuff glass cylinders can be many times stronger in compression than the parent material. Also, the tests showed that the rock-glass liner permeability decreases rapidly with confining pressure. New melting devices are conceivable that could line rotary-drilled boreholes with rock glass or other materials with resultant improvements in well costs. With emphasis on borehole liners, an overview of Subterrene program results, data on rock-glass liners, and suggestions on how molten materials might be applied to the borehole wall as part of a rotary drilling operation are presented.

  2. Intensive care unit without walls: seeking patient safety by improving the efficiency of the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, F; Abella, A

    2014-10-01

    The term "ICU without walls" refers to innovative management in Intensive Care, based on two key elements: (1) collaboration of all medical and nursing staff involved in patient care during hospitalization and (2) technological support for severity early detection protocols by identifying patients at risk of deterioration throughout the hospital, based on the assessment of vital signs and/or laboratory test values, with the clear aim of improving critical patient safety in the hospitalization process. At present, it can be affirmed that there is important work to be done in the detection of severity and early intervention in patients at risk of organ dysfunction. Such work must be adapted to the circumstances of each center and should include training in the detection of severity, multidisciplinary work in the complete patient clinical process, and the use of technological systems allowing intervention on the basis of monitored laboratory and physiological parameters, with effective and efficient use of the information generated. Not only must information be generated, but also efficient management of such information must also be achieved. It is necessary to improve our activity through innovation in management procedures that facilitate the work of the intensivist, in collaboration with other specialists, throughout the hospital environment. Innovation is furthermore required in the efficient management of the information generated in hospitals, through intelligent and directed usage of the new available technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Abdominal wall hernias-A local manifestation of systemically impaired quality of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Mortensen, Joachim H; Lorentzen, Lea; Ågren, Magnus S; Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Jorgensen, Lars N; Karsdal, Morten A

    2016-07-01

    Throughout life, inguinal hernia develops in approximately every fourth man, some of whom develop multiple hernias. If patients at risk of developing multiple hernias could be identified by a serologic biomarker, treatment might be able to be tailored and improved. Evidence suggests that abdominal wall hernia formation is associated with altered collagen metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers for type IV and V collagen turnover in patients with multiple hernias and control subjects without hernia. Venous blood was collected from 88 men (mean age, 62 years) with a history of more than 3 hernia repairs and 86, age-matched men without hernias. Biomarkers for synthesis of collagen type IV (P4NP) and type V (P5CP) as well as breakdown (C4M and C5M) were measured in serum by validated, solid-phase, competitive assays. Collagen turnover was indicated by the ratio between the biomarker for synthesis and breakdown. Type IV collagen turnover was 1.4-fold increased in patients with multiple hernias compared to control subjects (P hernias exhibit increased turnover of type IV collagen and a decreased turnover of type V collagen, demonstrating systemically altered collagen turnover. Biomarkers for type V collagen turnover may be used to identify patients at risk for or with multiple hernias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Concrete Masonry Unit Walls Retrofitted with Elastomeric Systems for Blast Loads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, C. F; Slawson, T. R; Cummins, T. K; Davis, J. L

    2004-01-01

    Concrete masonry units (CMU), commonly referred to as concrete blocks, are the most common construction material utilized throughout the United States and the world for exterior walls of conventional structures...

  5. Energy flux through the horizon in the black hole-domain wall systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Dejan E-mail: dejans@umich.edu

    2004-09-01

    We study various configurations in which a domain wall (or cosmic string), described by the Nambu-Goto action, is embedded in a background space-time of a black hole in (3+1) and higher dimensional models. We calculate energy fluxes through the black hole horizon. In the simplest case, when a static domain wall enters the horizon of a static black hole perpendicularly, the energy flux is zero. In more complicated situations, where parameters which describe the domain wall surface are time and position dependent, the flux is non-vanishing is principle. These results are of importance in various conventional cosmological models which accommodate the existence of domain walls and strings and also in brane world scenarios. (author)

  6. A RADIANT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING SOLAR-DRIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. ABDALLA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Every air-conditioning system needs some fresh air to provide adequate ventilation air required to remove moisture, gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, disease organisms, and heat from occupied spaces. However, natural ventilation is difficult to control because urban areas outside air is often polluted and cannot be supplied to inner spaces before being filtered. Besides the high electrical demand of refrigerant compression units used by most air-conditioning systems, and fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system draw a significant amount of electrical energy in comparison with electrical energy used by the building thermal conditioning systems. Part of this electricity heats the cooled air; thereby add to the internal thermal cooling peak load. In addition, refrigerant compression has both direct and indirect negative effects on the environment on both local and global scales. In seeking for innovative air-conditioning systems that maintain and improve indoor air quality under potentially more demanding performance criteria without increasing environmental impact, this paper presents radiant air-conditioning system which uses a solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooler. The paper describes the proposed solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooling system and the method used for investigating its performance in providing cold water for a radiant air-conditioning system in Khartoum (Central Sudan. The results of the investigation show that the system can operate in humid as well as dry climates and that employing such a system reduces air-conditioning peak electrical demands as compared to vapour compression systems.

  7. Network reconstruction and systems analysis of plant cell wall deconstruction by Neurospora crassa

    OpenAIRE

    Samal, Areejit; Craig, James P; Coradetti, Samuel T.; Benz, J. Philipp; Eddy, James A.; Nathan D Price; Glass, N. Louise

    2017-01-01

    Background Plant biomass degradation by fungal-derived enzymes is rapidly expanding in economic importance as a clean and efficient source for biofuels. The ability to rationally engineer filamentous fungi would facilitate biotechnological applications for degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, incomplete knowledge of biomolecular networks responsible for plant cell wall deconstruction impedes experimental efforts in this direction. Results To expand this knowledge base, a d...

  8. Dynamic behavior of radiant cooling system based on capillary tubes in walls made of high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    using cooling water for the radiant cooling system with a temperature only about 4K lower than the temperature of the room air. The relatively high speed reaction of the designed system is a result of the slim construction of the sandwich wall elements made of high performance concrete. (C) 2015...... the small amount of fresh air required by standards to provide a healthy indoor environment.This paper reports on experimental analyses evaluating the dynamic behavior of a test room equipped with a radiant cooling system composed of plastic capillary tubes integrated into the inner layer of sandwich wall...... elements made of high performance concrete. The influence of the radiant cooling system on the indoor climate of the test room in terms of the air, surface and operative temperatures and velocities was investigated.The results show that the temperature of the room air can be kept in a comfortable range...

  9. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  10. Methods Of Body Condition Scoring System: An Important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods Of Body Condition Scoring System: An Important Management Decision Support Tool For Resource-Poor Smallholder Dairy Farmers In Tanzania. ... Therefore, body condition scoring procedures may be recommended to dairy extension agents, dairy producers, and indigenous cattle keepers, country wide for a ...

  11. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Mitigation of Open Phase Conditions (OPC) in Electrical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler, W.; Lorange, J.

    2015-07-01

    In NPPs the Electrical System is an auxiliary system, which has to supply other systems important for safety and/or operation like fluid systems, HVAC etc. A few events referring the interruption of phases (Open Phase Conditions) during the last years have nevertheless pointed out the crucial importance of the “health” of this auxiliary “Electrical System” for the safety of the plant [1],[2]. Indeed undetected Open Phase Conditions (OPC) leading to unavailability of the plant power supply occurred worldwide in different power plants. (Author)

  13. Use of germicidal ultraviolet radiations in air conditionning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrecht, J.; Kohler, N.

    1989-02-01

    Hygienical risks appear in air conditionning plants in humid parts, at the interface between clean and unclean zones and in heat recovery systems. Ultraviolet radiations with a wavelength of 254 etam disactivate germs in a purely physical way. They can be successfully used in air conditionning systems: in air ducts, over doors and in transition spaces, in humidifiers and cooling towers and as direct irradiation in clean rooms. The efficiency can be proven by calculations or experimentally.

  14. Quadratic measurement and conditional state preparation in an optomechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator....

  15. The Conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Bosonic Quantum Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Palma, Giacomo; Trevisan, Dario

    2018-01-01

    We prove the conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Gaussian quantum systems. This fundamental inequality determines the minimum quantum conditional von Neumann entropy of the output of the beam-splitter or of the squeezing among all the input states where the two inputs are conditionally...... achieved by a suitable sequence of quantum Gaussian input states. Our proof of the conditional Entropy Power Inequality is based on a new Stam inequality for the quantum conditional Fisher information and on the determination of the universal asymptotic behaviour of the quantum conditional entropy under...... the heat semigroup evolution. The beam-splitter and the squeezing are the central elements of quantum optics, and can model the attenuation, the amplification and the noise of electromagnetic signals. This conditional Entropy Power Inequality will have a strong impact in quantum information and quantum...

  16. The Conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Bosonic Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; Trevisan, Dario

    2018-01-01

    We prove the conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Gaussian quantum systems. This fundamental inequality determines the minimum quantum conditional von Neumann entropy of the output of the beam-splitter or of the squeezing among all the input states where the two inputs are conditionally independent given the memory and have given quantum conditional entropies. We also prove that, for any couple of values of the quantum conditional entropies of the two inputs, the minimum of the quantum conditional entropy of the output given by the conditional Entropy Power Inequality is asymptotically achieved by a suitable sequence of quantum Gaussian input states. Our proof of the conditional Entropy Power Inequality is based on a new Stam inequality for the quantum conditional Fisher information and on the determination of the universal asymptotic behaviour of the quantum conditional entropy under the heat semigroup evolution. The beam-splitter and the squeezing are the central elements of quantum optics, and can model the attenuation, the amplification and the noise of electromagnetic signals. This conditional Entropy Power Inequality will have a strong impact in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Among its many possible applications there is the proof of a new uncertainty relation for the conditional Wehrl entropy.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF CLIMATE CONDITIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova L.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific work is devoted to the analysis and development of the automated control system of the climatic conditions of the minites. The analysis of existing automated control systems is carried out, in particular attention is paid to the systems of climate control of greenhouses. The technical means of the control system are determined. As a platform, Arduino®Uno is selected.

  18. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  19. Paradoxical adverse culture conditions do not hamper the growth of human multipotent vascular wall-mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eCiavarella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with multilineage potential and anti-inflammatory property can be isolated from different human tissues, representing promising candidates in regenerative medicine. Despite the common criteria of characterization, many factors contribute to MSC heterogeneity (i.e. tissue origin, coexistence of cell subsets at different stage of differentiation, epigenetic and no standard methods have been approved to characterize MSCs in cell culture.Aim: The present study aimed to test whether MSCs resist adverse chemical and physical culture conditions, surviving MSC subpopulations are endowed with the stemness abilities; to characterize MMP expression in AAA-MSCs under the adverse experimental conditions. Methods and results: MSCs enzymatically isolated from human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA-MSCs were exposed to media acidification, hypoxia, starving, drying and hypothermia through the following strategies: 1 low-density seeding in closed flasks; 2 exposure to a chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride; 3 exposure to a dry environment with growing medium deprivation and culture at 4°C. None of these conditions affected MSC viability and stemness profile, as evidenced by NANOG, OCT-4 and Sox-2 mRNA expression in surviving cells. A significant MMP-9 decrease, especially when AAA-MSCs were exposed to hypothermia, was associated with stress resistant stem cells.Conclusions: AAA-MSCs survive to extremely adverse culture conditions, keeping their morphology and stemness features. Besides MMP-9 role in pathological tissue remodeling, this protease may be related to MSC survival. Future studies on MSCs derived from other tissues will be necessary to refine our culture protocol, which can represent an empirical method to demonstrate MSC stemness,, with potential implications for their clinical use.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Conditions on Residual Wall Thickness and Cooling and Surface Characteristics of Water-Assisted Injection Molded Hollow Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungpil Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, water-assisted injection molding was employed in the automobile industry to manufacture three-dimensional hollow tube-type products with functionalities. However, process optimization is difficult in the case of water-assisted injection molding because of the various rheological interactions between the injected water and the polymer. In this study, the boiling phenomenon that occurs because of the high melt temperature when injecting water and the molding characteristics of the hollow section during the water-assisted injection process were analyzed by a water-assisted injection molding analysis. In addition, the changes in the residual wall thickness accompanying changes in the process conditions were compared with the analysis results by considering water-assisted injection molding based on gas-assisted injection molding. Furthermore, by comparing the cooling characteristics and inner wall surface qualities corresponding to the formation of the hollow section by gas and water injections, a water-assisted injection molding technique was proposed for manufacturing hollow products with functionality.

  1. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping

    2002-01-01

    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  2. Tangit-system to seal wall penetrations; Tangit-System zur Abdichtung von Wanddurchfuehrungen. Neuverlegung und Instandsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wack, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    To connect a house to the municipal gas, water, electricity and heat supply, openings in the outside wall of a building are required to connect the corresponding pipes to the building. These connection lines in the openings of the brickwork must be positioned and sealed for later use in the building. The Tangit-System (Tangit Sealing Hose M 4082 and Tangit Expansion Resin M 3000) guarantees a permanent seal. The sealing hose consists of a flexible water-impervious outer casing that is filled with expandable polymer granules. If water comes into contact with the sealing hose in the event of a leak, the polymer granules expand and instantly seal the leak through their inherent volume expansion properties. When installing the house service connections the sealing hose is initially wrapped around the exterior of the service line. The house service connections are subsequently taken through the opening in the brickwork and positioned using Tangit Expansion Resin M 3000. The Tangit-System can be used in the field of new installation and repair. In the field of district heating first projects have been started in the beginning of 2003. First results are expected at the end of 2003. (orig.) [German] Fuer das Abdichten und Befestigen von Versorgungsleitungen bei der Wanddurchfuehrung wie sie fuer den Hausanschluss von Wasser, Gas, Strom, Telekommunikation oder Waermeversorgung benoetigt werden, existiert ein Abdichtungssystem, das sowohl bei der Instandsetzung von undicht gewordenen Anschluessen als auch bei der Neuverlegung angewendet werden kann. Der Autor beschreibt Funktionsweise und Einsatzmoeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  3. Boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems of partial differentials equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaily, Amr G; Epstein, Marcelo

    2013-07-01

    An easy-to-apply algorithm is proposed to determine the correct set(s) of boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations. The proposed approach is based on the idea of the incoming/outgoing characteristics and is validated by considering two problems. The first one is the well-known Euler system of equations in gas dynamics and it proved to yield set(s) of boundary conditions consistent with the literature. The second test case corresponds to the system of equations governing the flow of viscoelastic liquids.

  4. Air Conditioning Systems from a 2nd Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Marletta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper exergy analysis is used to assess the performance of the three most common air conditioning plant schemes: all-air, dual-duct and fan-coil systems. The results are presented in terms of flow diagrams to provide a clear picture of the exergy flow across the systems. The most relevant outcomes are that the air cooling and dehumidification is the process most responsible for the exergy loss and that the exergy efficiency of the overall systems is rather low; thus the quest for more appropriate technologies. Solar-assisted air-conditioning is also discussed, outlining the possibilities and the constraints.

  5. The near infrared imaging system for the real-time protection of the JET ITER-like wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, A.; Kinna, D.; Huber, V.; Arnoux, G.; Balboa, I.; Balorin, C.; Carman, P.; Carvalho, P.; Collins, S.; Conway, N.; McCullen, P.; Jachmich, S.; Jouve, M.; Linsmeier, Ch; Lomanowski, B.; Lomas, P. J.; Lowry, C. G.; Maggi, C. F.; Matthews, G. F.; May-Smith, T.; Meigs, A.; Mertens, Ph; Nunes, I.; Price, M.; Puglia, P.; Riccardo, V.; Rimini, F. G.; Sergienko, G.; Tsalas, M.; Zastrow, K.-D.; contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and operation of the near infrared (NIR) imaging diagnostic system of the JET ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) plasma experiment and its integration into the existing JET protection architecture. The imaging system comprises four wide-angle views, four tangential divertor views, and two top views of the divertor covering 66% of the first wall and up to 43% of the divertor. The operation temperature ranges which must be observed by the NIR protection cameras are, for the materials used on JET: Be 700 °C–1400 °C W coating 700 °C–1370 °C W bulk 700 °C–1400 °C. The Real-Time Protection system operates routinely since 2011 and successfully demonstrated its capability to avoid the overheating of the main chamber beryllium wall as well as of the divertor W and W-coated carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles. During this period, less than 0.5% of the terminated discharges were aborted by a malfunction of the system. About 2%–3% of the discharges were terminated due to the detection of actual hot spots.

  6. Gas temperature measurements in a microwave plasma by optical emission spectroscopy under single-wall carbon nanotube growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, R K [Cummins Inc, 1900 McKinley Ave, MC 50180, Columbus, IN 47201 (United States); Anderson, T N; Lucht, R P; Fisher, T S; Gore, J P [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: rajesh.garg@cummins.com

    2008-05-07

    Plasma gas temperatures were measured via in situ optical emission spectroscopy in a microwave CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2} plasma under carbon nanotube (CNT) growth conditions. Gas temperature is an important parameter in controlling and optimizing CNT growth. The temperature has a significant impact on chemical kinetic rates, species concentrations and CNT growth rates on the substrate. H{sub 2} rotational temperatures were determined from the Q-branch spectrum of the d{sup 3}{pi}{sub u}(0){yields}a{sup 3}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(0) transition. N{sub 2} rotational and vibrational temperatures were measured by fitting rovibrational bands from the N{sub 2} emission spectrum of the C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u} {yields} B {sup 3}{pi}{sub g} transition. The N{sub 2} rotational temperature, which is assumed to be approximately equal to the translational gas temperature, increases with an increase in input microwave plasma power and substrate temperature. The measured H{sub 2} rotational temperatures were not in agreement with the measured N{sub 2} rotational temperatures under the CNT growth conditions in this study. The measured N{sub 2} rotational temperatures compared with the H{sub 2} rotational temperatures suggest the partial equilibration of upper excited state due to higher, 10 Torr, operating pressure. Methane addition in the hydrogen plasma increases the gas temperature slightly for methane concentrations higher than 10% in the feed gas.

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (Ni-MWCNT) Repair Patches for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brienne; Caraccio, Anne; Tate, LaNetra; Jackson, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy and nickel-coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (Ni-MWCNT)/epoxy systems were fabricated into carbon fiber composite repair patches via vacuum resin infusion. Two 4 ply patches were manufactured with fiber orientations of [90/ 90/ 4590] and [0/90/ +45/ -45]. Prior to resin infusion, the MWCNT/Epoxy system and NiMWCNT/ epoxy systems were optimized for dispersion quality. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to determine the presence ofcarbon nanotubes and assess dispersion quality. Decomposition temperatures were determined via thermogravametric analysis (TGA). SEM and TGA were also used to evaluate the composite repair patches.

  8. Slow-Release Drug Deliver System with Polylactic Acid Hydrogels in Prevention of Tracheal Wall Fibroplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinrang Li

    2012-02-01

    Conclusions: Both MMC/PLA and DSP/PLA hydrogels can inhibit fibroplasia of the tracheal wall and it can be coated in a Poly L-lactide-co and ndash;glycolide (PLGA scaffold for treating laryngeal-tracheal stenosis in future. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 1-7

  9. Application of Solar Energy to Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M, Nash J; J, Harstad A

    1976-11-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/ Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  10. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  11. Novel impacts of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in plants: promotion of nodulation and nitrogenase activity in the rhizobium-legume system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaodong; Zhang, Zhongming; Wang, Xiuping; Li, Li; Cai, Kai; Han, Heyou

    2017-07-20

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis system is critical for nitrogen-cycle balance in agriculture. However, the potential effects of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) on this system remain largely unknown. Herein, we studied the effects of four carbon-based materials (activated carbon (AC), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO)) on the rhizobium-legume symbiosis system consisting of Lotus japonicus and Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099. Under non-symbiotic conditions, the bacterial growth and root development of plants were both clearly inhibited by SWCNTs and GO, while the elongation of plant stems was enhanced by MWCNTs to a certain degree. More importantly, only MWCNTs could increase the number of nodules and enhance the activity of nitrogenase in the rhizobium-plant interaction. Further analyses showed that the average number of nodules in plants treated with 100 μg mL-1 MWCNTs was significantly increased by 39% at 14 days post inoculation (dpi) and by 41% at 28 dpi. Meanwhile, the biological nitrogen fixation of the nodules was promoted by more than 10% under 100 μg mL-1 MWCNT treatment, which enhanced the above- and below-ground fresh biomass by 14% and 25% respectively at 28 dpi. Transmission electron microscopy images further indicated that MWCNTs penetrated the cell wall, and pierced through the cell membrane to be transmitted into the cytoplasm. In addition, gene expression analysis showed that the promotion of nodulation by MWCNTs was correlated with the up-regulation of certain genes involved in this signaling pathway. In particular, the expression of NIN, a crucial gene regulating the development of nodules, was significantly elevated 2-fold by MWCNTs at an early stage of nodulation. These findings are expected to facilitate the understanding and future utilization of MWCNTs in agriculture.

  12. Measurement of Wall-thinning Defect in Pipeline for Circulation System of Nuclear Power Plant using Shearography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chan Geun; Kim, Snag Chae; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jung, Hyun Chul; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Shearography was developed by Leendertz based on the concept to derive derivative for deformation after configuring proper optical interferometry. Where defect exists at rigid object, external force will create stress concentration. Rigid body deformation does not involve change in strain rate, and shearography method will be highly suitable to measure the defect in object, and it has less influence from disturbance. In this paper, shearography is used to measure wall-thinning defect according to internal temperature change in pipeline for circulation system of nuclear power plant. 2.5 inch pipeline specimen is prepared, and wall-thinning depth is 50% and 75%, respectively. Using pipeline circulation system, internal temperature of pipeline specimen to 50 ∼ 200 is changed 50, and blower is used to quench the specimen for measuring defect shape. With the experiment results, 50%,75% of the depth of the defect is possible to measure the size and shape. Thus, the actual circulatory system can be measured by applying the wall thinning defects.

  13. Exergy characteristics of a ceiling-type residential air conditioning system operating under different climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Arif [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ceyhan Engineering Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkmenistan)

    2016-11-15

    In this study an energy and exergy analysis of a Ceiling-type residential air conditioning (CTRAC) system operating under different climatic conditions have been investigated for provinces within the different geographic regions of Turkey. Primarily, the hourly cooling load capacities of a sample building (Q{sub evap}) during the months of April, May, June, July, August and September were determined. The hourly total heat gain of the sample building was determined using the Hourly analysis program (HAP). The Coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficiency (η) and exergy destruction (Ex{sub dest}) values for the whole system and for each component were obtained. The results showed that lower atmospheric temperature (T{sub atm}) influenced the performance of the system and each of its components.

  14. Fin condition of fish kept in aquacultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Klíma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish fins seem to be a suitable indicator of welfare state. In natural conditions there is no worsenig of fin condition. Damaged fins occur in aquacultural systems only. They are characterized by shortening size, frayed rays, disturbing of fin tissue, lesions and necrosis creation. Possible causes are aggressive behaviour of fish, inapropriately chosen size of stocking density, feeding management, diet composition, rearing system, water quality, thoughtless manipulation with fish and bacterial infections. Mostly, dorsal and pectoral fins are damaged in salmonids (not in percids. For evaluation there are all fins except adipose fin used. Lenght of fins is measured and the visual aspect is assessed. Mostly used method is “Relative fin length”. Adjustment of rearing conditions, feeding ratio increasing, propriate diet composition (amino acids and minerals, rearing fish in duoculture, preventive baths in chloramine–T, prefering of ground canals and fishponds can conduce to improving of fin condition. Bad fish condition worsens swimming and it can rule the saleability of fish. Aquacultural systems do not allow natural fish farming. That is why it is necessary to assess welfare of kept fish. The fin appearance informs about condition of rearing environment.

  15. Increased enzyme production under liquid culture conditions in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae by disruption of the genes encoding cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Ken; Yoshimi, Akira; Zhang, Silai; Sano, Motoaki; Nakayama, Mayumi; Gomi, Katsuya; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Under liquid culture conditions, the hyphae of filamentous fungi aggregate to form pellets, which reduces cell density and fermentation productivity. Previously, we found that loss of α-1,3-glucan in the cell wall of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans increased hyphal dispersion. Therefore, here we constructed a mutant of the industrial fungus A. oryzae in which the three genes encoding α-1,3-glucan synthase were disrupted (tripleΔ). Although the hyphae of the tripleΔ mutant were not fully dispersed, the mutant strain did form smaller pellets than the wild-type strain. We next examined enzyme productivity under liquid culture conditions by transforming the cutinase-encoding gene cutL1 into A. oryzae wild-type and the tripleΔ mutant (i.e. wild-type-cutL1, tripleΔ-cutL1). A. oryzae tripleΔ-cutL1 formed smaller hyphal pellets and showed both greater biomass and increased CutL1 productivity compared with wild-type-cutL1, which might be attributable to a decrease in the number of tripleΔ-cutL1 cells under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Muscular condition monitoring system using fiber bragg grating sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Young; Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have advantages such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity, corrosion resistance and multiplexing capability. For these reasons, they are widely used in various condition monitoring systems (CMS). This study investigated a muscular condition monitoring system using fiber optic sensors (FOS). Generally, sensors for monitoring the condition of the human body are based on electro-magnetic devices. However, such an electrical system has several weaknesses, including the potential for electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors overcome these weaknesses, along with simplifying the devices and increasing user convenience. To measure the level of muscle contraction and relaxation, which indicates the muscle condition, a belt-shaped FBG sensor module that makes it possible to monitor the movement of muscles in the radial and circumferential directions was fabricated in this study. In addition, a uniaxial tensile test was carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of this FBG sensor module. Based on the experimental results, a relationship was observed between the tensile stress and Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensors, which revealed the possibility of fabricating a muscular condition monitoring system based on FBG sensors.

  17. Investigation of molybdenum-44.5%rhenium as cell wall material in an AMTEC based space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Ruhkamp, Joe D.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Howell, Edwin I.; Williams, Melvin K.; McDougal, James R.; Booher, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of radioisotope space power systems based on AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal to Electrical Conversion) technology is presently being developed. The future application of this technology, as the electrical power system for outer planet deep space missions, is ultimately dependent on it being robust enough to withstand the mission's operational environments (high temperatures, dynamic loadings, long mission durations etc). One of the critical material selections centers on the cell wall whose physical and chemical properties must provide it with sufficient strength and material compatibility to successfully complete the mission. Niobium-1%zirconium has been selected as the baseline cell wall material with a molybdenum/rhenium alloy being the cell wall backup material. While these refractory materials have been commercially available for a number of years, several of their physical and mechanical properties have not been completely characterized especially within the expected operating parameters of an AMTEC based space power system. Additional characterization of the selected refractory alloys was initiated by fabricating mechanical test specimens out of ~0.5 mm (0.020'') thick sheets of material. Test specimens were heat treated at 1073K and 1198K for up to 150 hours under an argon cover gas containing small concentrations of oxygen. Room temperature and high temperature (1073K/1198K) mechanical tests were performed to determine the effect of time, temperature, and atmosphere on the mechanical properties of the refractory alloys. In addition, since the fabrication of AMTEC cell walls requires the welding of sheet material into a cylindrical shape, preliminary electron beam welding studies were performed. Comparison of the various test results obtained on Mo-44.5%Re and Nb-1%Zr samples are discussed. .

  18. Effects of grounding on distribution system harmonic resonance conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S.; Cokkinides, G.J.; Chakravarthi, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    Typical electric power systems may exhibit resonance conditions at relatively low frequencies. The resonant frequency depends on (1) the point of excitation, and (2) the power system parameters. It has been observed, experimentally, that the soil resistivity, grounding, and electric load play an important role in determining the resonance characteristics. This paper presents an analytic model which predicts the impact of soil resistivity, grounding, and electric load on power system resonance characteristics. A parametric study is reported which illustrates the significance of these parameters and provides a quantitative evaluation of their effects. The model is also compared with experimental data obtained at an actual 12 kV power distribution system.

  19. Conditional gene expression systems in the transgenic rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schönig Kai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turning gene expression on and off at will is one of the most powerful tools for the study of gene function in vivo. While several conditional systems were successful in invertebrates, in mice the Cre/loxP recombination system and the tet-controlled transcription activation system are predominant. Both expression systems allow for spatial and temporal control of gene activities, and, in the case of tet regulation, even for the reversible activation/inactivation of gene expression. Although the rat is the principal experimental model in biomedical research, in particular in studies of neuroscience, conditional rat transgenic systems are exceptionally rare in this species. Results We addressed this lack of technology, and established and thoroughly characterized CreERT2 and tTA transgenic rats with forebrain-specific transgene expression, controlled by the CaMKII alpha promoter. In addition, we developed new universal rat reporter lines for both transcription control systems and established inducible and efficient reporter gene expression in forebrain neurons. Conclusions We demonstrate that conditional genetic manipulations in the rat brain are both feasible and practicable and outline advantages and limitations of the Tet and Cre/loxP system in the rat brain.

  20. Small photovoltaic setup for the air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiukiewicz, Maciej

    2017-10-01

    The increasing interest in air conditioning systems for residential applications in Poland will certainly increase the demand for electricity during the summer period. Due to this fact a growing interest in solutions that help to lower the electricity consumption in this sector is observed. The problem of increased energy demand for air conditioning purposes can be solved by transfer the consumption of electricity from the grid system to renewable energy sources (RES). The greatest demand for cooling occurs during the biggest sunlight. This is the basis for the analysis of technical power system based on photovoltaic cells (PV) to power the split type air conditioner. The object of the study was the commercial residential airconditioning inverter units with a capacity of 2.5kW. A network electricity production system for their own use with the possibility of buffering energy in batteries (OFF-GRID system). Currently, on the Polish market, there are no developed complete solutions dedicated to air conditioning systems based on PV. In Poland, solar energy is mainly used for heat production in solar collectors. The proposed solution will help to increase the popularity of PV systems in the Polish market as an alternative to other RES. The basic conclusion is that the amount of PV energy generated was sufficient to cover the daily energy requirement of the air conditioner.

  1. Small photovoltaic setup for the air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masiukiewicz Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in air conditioning systems for residential applications in Poland will certainly increase the demand for electricity during the summer period. Due to this fact a growing interest in solutions that help to lower the electricity consumption in this sector is observed. The problem of increased energy demand for air conditioning purposes can be solved by transfer the consumption of electricity from the grid system to renewable energy sources (RES. The greatest demand for cooling occurs during the biggest sunlight. This is the basis for the analysis of technical power system based on photovoltaic cells (PV to power the split type air conditioner. The object of the study was the commercial residential airconditioning inverter units with a capacity of 2.5kW. A network electricity production system for their own use with the possibility of buffering energy in batteries (OFF-GRID system. Currently, on the Polish market, there are no developed complete solutions dedicated to air conditioning systems based on PV. In Poland, solar energy is mainly used for heat production in solar collectors. The proposed solution will help to increase the popularity of PV systems in the Polish market as an alternative to other RES. The basic conclusion is that the amount of PV energy generated was sufficient to cover the daily energy requirement of the air conditioner.

  2. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM ACCURACY UNDER SIMULATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MERKISZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The instrument landing system (ILS is the most popular landing aid in the world. It is a distance-angled support system for landing in reduced visibility, while its task is the safe conduct of the aircraft from the prescribed course landing on the approach path. The aim of this study is to analyse the correctness of the ILS in simulated conditions. The study was conducted using a CKAS MotionSim5 flight simulator in the Simulation Research Laboratory of the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology. With the advancement of technical equipment, it was possible to check the operation of the system in various weather conditions. Studies have shown that the impact of fog, rain and snow on the correct operation of the system is marginal. Significant influence has been observed, however, during landing in strong winds.

  3. Integration of a capacitive pressure sensing system into the outer catheter wall for coronary artery FFR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Frank; Kuisma, Heikki; Gao, Feng; Saarilahti, Jaakko; Gomes Martins, David; Kärkkäinen, Anu; Marrinan, Brendan; Pintal, Sebastian

    2017-05-01

    The deadliest disease in the world is coronary artery disease (CAD), which is related to a narrowing (stenosis) of blood vessels due to fatty deposits, plaque, on the arterial walls. The level of stenosis in the coronary arteries can be assessed by Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) measurements. This involves determining the ratio between the maximum achievable blood flow in a diseased coronary artery and the theoretical maximum flow in a normal coronary artery. The blood flow is represented by a pressure drop, thus a pressure wire or pressure sensor integrated in a catheter can be used to calculate the ratio between the coronary pressure distal to the stenosis and the normal coronary pressure. A 2 Fr (0.67mm) outer diameter catheter was used, which required a high level of microelectronics miniaturisation to fit a pressure sensing system into the outer wall. The catheter has an eccentric guidewire lumen with a diameter of 0.43mm, which implies that the thickest catheter wall section provides less than 210 microns height for flex assembly integration consisting of two dies, a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor and an ASIC. In order to achieve this a very thin circuit flex was used, and the two chips were thinned down to 75 microns and flip chip mounted face down on the flex. Many challenges were involved in obtaining a flex layout that could wrap into a small tube without getting the dies damaged, while still maintaining enough flexibility for the catheter to navigate the arterial system.

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ESTIMATION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEM CONDITION IN DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mironov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an estimation of a complicated mechanical system condition in dynamics with due account of material degradation and accumulation of micro-damages. An element of continuous medium has been simulated and described with the help of a discrete element. The paper contains description of a model for determination of mechanical system longevity in accordance with number of cycles and operational period.

  5. Classical Conditioning with Pulsed Integrated Neural Networks: Circuits and System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we investigate on-chip learning for pulsed, integrated neural networks. We discuss the implementational problems the technology imposes on learning systems and we find that abiologically inspired approach using simple circuit structures is most likely to bring success. We develop a ...... chip to solve simple classical conditioning tasks, thus verifying the design methodologies put forward in the paper....

  6. Groundwater detection monitoring system design under conditions of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    Landfills represent a wide-spread and significant threat to groundwater quality. In this thesis a methodology was developed for the design of optimal groundwater moni-toring system design at landfill sites under conditions of uncertainty. First a decision analysis approach was presented for optimal

  7. Evaluation of the fracture resistance of remaining thin-walled roots restored with different post systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Luis Gustavo Nunes Dias; Vinholi, Gustavo Helder; Coelho, Tulio Kalife; Rodrigues Neto, Dimas João; Cerutti Kopplin, Daiane; Silva, Anísio Lima

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was evaluating the fracture strength of bovine roots weakened experimentally, restored with two different techniques: internal reinforcement of root canal walls with composite resin and a cast metal post and core or anatomic post (glass fiber post associated with composite resin). Thirty bovine lower central incisive were selected and transversally sectioned, remaining 14 mm of root in order to approximate to the human maxillary central incisive.  A sequence of standa...

  8. Monitoring and analysis of an absorption air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez de Vinaspre, M.; Bourouis, M.; Coronas, A. [Centro de Innovacion Tecnologica en Revalorizacion Energetica y Refrigeracion, Tarragona (Spain); Garcia, A.; Soto, V.; Pinazo, J.M. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Valencia (Spain)

    2004-09-01

    In the last few years, high-energy consumption due to air-conditioning has led to a growing interest in the efficient use of energy in buildings. Although simulation programs have always been the main tools for analyzing energy in buildings, the reliability of their results is often compromised by a lack of certainty to reflect real conditions. The aim of this work is to monitorize and analyze the thermal behavior of an absorption-based air-conditioning installation of a university building in Tarragona, Spain. The existing monitoring system of the installation has been improved by implementing additional sensors and flow meters. The data has been stored during summer 2002 and used to assess the energy balance of the air-conditioning installation and the operational regime of the absorption chiller. [Author].

  9. Hydraulic and heat transfer study of SiO{sub 2}/water nanofluids in horizontal tubes with imposed wall temperature boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrouillat, Sebastien, E-mail: sebastien.ferrouillat@ujf-grenoble.f [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI, BP 53X, 38041 Grenoble cedex (France); Bontemps, Andre [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI, BP 53X, 38041 Grenoble cedex (France); Ribeiro, Joao-Paulo; Gruss, Jean-Antoine; Soriano, Olivier [CEA/LITEN/DTS/LETH, 17, Avenue des martyrs, 38052 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2011-04-15

    The convective heat transfer of SiO{sub 2}/water colloidal suspensions (5-34 wt.%) is investigated experimentally in a flow loop with a horizontal tube test section whose wall temperature is imposed. Experiments were performed at different inlet temperatures (20, 50, 70 {sup o}C) in cooling and/or heating conditions at various flow rates (200 < Re < 10,000). The Reynolds and Nusselt numbers were deduced by using thermal conductivity and viscosity values measured with the same temperature conditions as those in the tests. Results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient values are increased from 10% to 60% compared to those of pure water. They also show that the general trend of standard correlations is respected. The problem of suspension stability at the highest temperatures is discussed. In order to evaluate the benefits provided by the enhanced properties of the nanofluids studied, an energetic performance evaluation criterion (PEC) is defined. This PEC decreases as the nanoparticle concentration is increased. This process is also discussed in this paper.

  10. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  11. Economic analysis of condition monitoring systems for offshore wind turbine sub-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Allan; MacMillan, David; Thöns, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The use of condition monitoring systems on offshore wind turbines has increased dramatically in recent times. However, their use is mostly restricted to vibration based monitoring systems for the gearbox, generator and drive train. A survey of commercially available condition monitoring systems a...

  12. Detection of heat abduction on the walls by artificial neural network and selection of materials with decision support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Tekkanat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today energy conservation is a very important issue in the world and Turkey. The aim of this study is to minimize the heat abduction, thus to save energy by utilizing the factors to prevent the heat abduction on the walls of buildings. First of all, a back-propagation network model with artificial neural network model was used for the factors that can cause heat loss on the walls. Whether the walls have insulation were considered. After that, Decision Support Systems were used for heat insulation to select the appropriate materials. A Decision Support Model with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was recommended to meet the needs of a customer best and to make better decisions for the selection of the materials. The method was used by construction firms for their decision processes for the best materials and the results were evaluated. After the evaluations were done, the factors that cause heat loss were considered and it became clear which factors were more important for the prevention of heat loss.

  13. Optimal control problems for impulsive systems with integral boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the optimal control problem is considered when the state of the system is described by the impulsive differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Applying the Banach contraction principle the existence and uniqueness of the solution is proved for the corresponding boundary problem by the fixed admissible control. The first and second variation of the functional is calculated. Various necessary conditions of optimality of the first and second order are obtained by the help of the variation of the controls.

  14. Analysis of the response of a reinforced concrete shear wall structure during earthquakes using the transfer matrix method of multibody systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although reinforced concrete shear wall structures are widely used in high-rise buildings, the methods used to analyze the seismic response of such a structure during an earthquake generally have low calculation efficiencies. In this article, the transfer matrix method of multibody systems is first established as a mechanical model of a regular reinforced concrete shear wall structure with both bifurcated and closed transfer paths to analyze the seismic responses of structures. By separating the shear wall legs, establishing a state vector relationship between the two endpoints of the coupling beams, and combining all state vectors of the inputs or outputs of each shear wall leg, the total transfer between shear wall legs is realized, and the overall transfer equation and overall transfer matrix of a shear wall structure are obtained. Applying the transfer matrix method of multibody systems, a 15-story shear wall structure is used as an engineering example to analyze seismic responses for frequent and rare earthquakes using MATLAB software. The findings show that the transfer matrix method of multibody systems provides similar results to ANSYS but that the transfer matrix method of multibody systems greatly increases calculation efficiency while maintaining accuracy.

  15. Wire system aging assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, P.F. [Institutt for energiteknikk (Norway); Nordlund, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report describes a method for wire system condition monitoring, developed at the Halden Reactor Project, which is based on Frequency Domain Reflectometry. This method resulted in the development of a system called LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis), which can be used on-line to detect any local or global changes in the cable electrical parameters as a consequence of insulation faults or degradation. LIRA is composed of a signal generator, a signal analyser and a simulator that can be used to simulate several failure/degradation scenarios and assess the accuracy and sensitivity of the LIRA system. Chapter 5 of this report describes an complementary approach based on positron measurement techniques, used widely in defect physics due to the high sensitivity to micro defects, in particular open volume defects. This report describes in details these methodologies, the results of field experiments and the proposed future work. (au)

  16. Requirement of the CroRS Two-Component System for Resistance to Cell Wall-Targeting Antimicrobials in Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Stephanie L.; Little, Jaime L.; Hoff, Jessica S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis. Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis. Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin. As in E. faecalis, exposure to bacitracin and vancomycin stimulates signaling through the CroRS system in E. faecium. Moreover, the CroRS system is critical in E. faecium for enhanced beta-lactam resistance mediated by overexpression of Pbp5. Expression of a Pbp5 variant that confers enhanced beta-lactam resistance cannot overcome the requirement for CroRS function. Thus, the CroRS system is a conserved signaling system that responds to cell wall stress to promote intrinsic resistance to important cell wall-targeting antibiotics in clinically relevant enterococci. PMID:28223383

  17. Requirement of the CroRS Two-Component System for Resistance to Cell Wall-Targeting Antimicrobials in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Stephanie L; Little, Jaime L; Hoff, Jessica S; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin. As in E. faecalis , exposure to bacitracin and vancomycin stimulates signaling through the CroRS system in E. faecium Moreover, the CroRS system is critical in E. faecium for enhanced beta-lactam resistance mediated by overexpression of Pbp5. Expression of a Pbp5 variant that confers enhanced beta-lactam resistance cannot overcome the requirement for CroRS function. Thus, the CroRS system is a conserved signaling system that responds to cell wall stress to promote intrinsic resistance to important cell wall-targeting antibiotics in clinically relevant enterococci. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. A global condition monitoring system for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik

    The cost of energy generated from wind power plants (particular if located offshore) is challenging societies in terms of desiring cheaper and more environmentally friendly generated electrical energy. The high cost reduction targets can be aided by broad application of condition monitoring syste...... type and brand. In total, operational data from 39 turbines were available for this research project......., which bear the potential to support plant owners reducing turbine downtime and lowering costs. In this research a global condition monitoring system is proposed, which provides a platform to take advantage of the different information sources available to operators. One of the most common sources....... Higher prediction accuracy and thus earlier anomaly detection in case of turbine performance deviations is achieved. Another information sourcepotentially available to operators is vibration measurements from the wind turbine drive train. With respect to the condition of gearbox bearings, a recently...

  19. Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-06-17

    This report describes work on Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System under US Department of Energy Contract DE-FC36-06GO16010. The project lead was the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). Partners included Owens Corning and Johns Manville. Cost share for this project was provided by NYSERDA (the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority), Owens Corning, Johns Manville, Owens Illinois, and the US natural gas industry through GTI’s SMP and UTD programs. The overreaching focus of this project was to study and develop rapid refining approaches for segmented glass manufacturing processes using high-intensity melters such as the submerged combustion melter. The objectives of this project were to 1) test and evaluate the most promising approaches to rapidly condition the homogeneous glass produced from the submerged combustion melter, and 2) to design a pilot-scale NGMS system for fiberglass recycle.

  20. A two-layered suspension (particle-fluid) model for non-Newtonian fluid flow in a catheterized arterial stenosis with slip condition at the wall of stenosed artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponalagusamy, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary concern of the present investigation is to study blood flow in a porous catheterized artery with an axially asymmetric and radially symmetric stenosis (constriction). In the present study, blood is characterized as a two-fluid system containing a cell-rich zone of suspension of blood cells described to be a particle-fluid suspension (Jeffrey fluid) and a cell-free plasma (Newtonian fluid) layer near the wall. The systematic expressions for flow characteristics such as fluid phase and particle phase velocities, flow rate, wall shear stress, resistive force, and frictional forces on walls of arterial stenosis and catheter are derived. It is recorded that the wall shear stress, flow resistance, and frictional forces are found to be increased with catheter size, red cell concentration, and slip parameter. When blood obeys the law of constitutive equation of a Jeffrey fluid, the flowing blood experiences lesser wall shear stress, flow resistance and frictional forces as compared to the case of blood being categorized as a Newtonian fluid. The increase in Darcy number, blood rheology as Jeffrey fluid, and the presence of peripheral plasma layer near the wall serves to reduce substantially the values of the flow characteristics (wall shear stress, flow resistance and frictional forces).

  1. Sufficient conditions for a flexible manufacturing system to be deadlocked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Deering

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have been interested in scheduling algorithms to avoid deadlock in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS. FMS are discrete event systems characterized by the availability of resources to produce a set of products. Raw parts, which belong to various product types, enter the system at discrete times and are processed concurrently while sharing a limited number of resources. In such systems, a situation may occur in which parts become permanently block. This is called deadlock. This paper presents the sufficient conditions for deadlock to exist in a FMS; it models a FMS using digraphs to calculate slack, knot, order and space; it identifies three types of circuits that are fundamental in determining if a FMS is in deadlock.

  2. ANN Based Tool Condition Monitoring System for CNC Milling Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Mota-Valtierra G.C.; Franco-Gasca L.A.; Herrera-Ruiz G.; Macias-Bobadilla G.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the companies have as objective to manufacture high-quality products, then by optimizing costs, reducing and controlling the variations in its production processes it is possible. Within manufacturing industries a very important issue is the tool condition monitoring, since the tool state will determine the quality of products. Besides, a good monitoring system will protect the machinery from severe damages. For determining the state of the cutting tools in a milling machine, there is...

  3. Experimental Study on Thermal Performance of Externally Insulated Walls of Intermittent Air-Conditioned Rooms in Summer in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Now requirements for the thermal performance of building walls are based on the assumption that heat flux transfers in one direction through the wall. However, in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region of China, the direction of heat flow in the wall not only changes with the seasons, but also changes in the same period of using. In this paper, dynamic thermal process of externally insulated walls in different air-conditioner’s running state in summer in Chongqing, China, was tested. The distribution characteristics of the outdoor and indoor air temperature and the surface and inner temperatures of the wall were analyzed and demonstrated. Based on the unsteady-state heat transfer theory, the study calculated and analyzed the distribution characteristics of the direction of the heat flux in the thermal process. Also the characteristics of insulation and heat preservation for walls under different air-conditioner’s running state were analyzed. It is shown that, in any air-conditioner’s running state, the direction of the heat flux through the wall is obviously dynamically changing. There is obvious difference in the thermal performance needs of the wall; that is, it has strong demand for thermal insulation in daytime and strong demand for heat dissipation during night time in summer.

  4. Conditional Inference and Logic for Intelligent Systems: A Theory of Measure-Free Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    example, in expert systems since th strengh of the production rule "if b then a" is usually quantified by the conditional probability P(aIb). A...when 1i is chosen to be a Dempster-Shafer belief function (see Somb6, 1990, p. 405-406, or Pearl, 1990, p. 371-373). For example, let R be the power ...general case). A belief function Bel on the power set of 92, denoted as .9(92), can be defined as follows. Let m : .f(K2) -4 [0, 1] be such that Ii m(O)=O

  5. A computational model of conditioning inspired by Drosophila olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Heinrich, Ralf; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning. Experimental studies demonstrated that volume signaling (e.g. by the gaseous transmitter nitric oxide) contributes to memory formation in vertebrates and invertebrates including insects. Based on the existing knowledge of odor encoding in Drosophila, the role of retrograde signaling in memory function, and the integration of synaptic and non-synaptic neural signaling, a neural system is implemented as Simulated fly. Simulated fly navigates in a two-dimensional environment in which it receives odors and electric shocks as sensory stimuli. The model suggests some experimental research on retrograde signaling to investigate neural mechanisms of conditioning in insects and other animals. Moreover, it illustrates a simple strategy to implement higher cognitive capabilities in machines including robots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional Characterization and Localization of a Bacillus subtilis Sortase and Its Substrate and Use of This Sortase System To Covalently Anchor a Heterologous Protein to the B. subtilis Cell Wall for Surface Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Pei Xiong; Wang, Christopher L. C.

    2012-01-01

    Sortases catalyze the covalent anchoring of proteins to the cell surface on Gram-positive bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis suggests the presence of structural genes encoding sortases and their substrates in the Bacillus subtilis genome. In this study, a β-lactamase reporter was fused to the cell wall anchoring domain from a putative sortase substrate, YhcR. Covalent anchoring of this fusion protein to the cell wall was confirmed by using the eight-protease-deficient B. subtilis strain WB800 as the host. Inactivation of yhcS abolished the cell wall anchoring reaction. The amounts of fusion protein anchored to the cell wall were proportional to the levels of YhcS. These data demonstrate that YhcS and YhcR are the sortase and sortase substrate, respectively, in B. subtilis. Furthermore, yhcS is not essential for the survival of B. subtilis under the cultivation condition tested. YhcR fusions were distributed helically in the lateral cell wall. Interestingly, when viewed with an epifluorescence microscope, YhcS also appeared to form short helical arcs. This is the first report to illustrate such distribution of sortases in a rod-shaped bacterium. Models for the spatial distribution of both the sortase and its substrate are discussed. The amount of the reporters displayed on the surface was unambiguously quantified via a unique strategy. Under optimal conditions with the overproduction of YhcS, 47,300 YhcR fusions could be displayed per cell. Displayed reporters were biologically functional and surface accessible. Characterization of the sortase-substrate system allowed the successful development of a YhcR-based covalent surface display system. This system may have various biotechnological applications. PMID:22020651

  7. Toxicity assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Cucurbita pepo L. under well-watered and water-stressed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Mehrnaz

    2017-08-01

    The rapid increase in the production and application of various types of nanomaterials increases the possibility of their presence in total environment, which subsequently raises concerns about their potential threats to the first trophic level of organisms, specifically under varying environmental constraints. In this work, seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. were cultured in MS basal medium exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at different concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000μgmL-1) under two levels of water potential, well-watered (0MPa) and water stress (-1.5MPa) induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) for 14 days. Seeds exposed to MWCNTs showed reduction in germination percentage, root and shoot length, biomass accumulation and vigor index in a dose-dependent manner. However, seedlings germinated in MWCNTs-fortified media had significantly lower germination and growth attributes than those of control under water stress conditions. This happened due to increased oxidative injury indices including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, as well as electrolyte leakage index (ELI) of tissues. The impaired morpho-physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of MWCNTs under both PEG-induced stress and non-stress growing conditions were consequence of changes in the activation of various cellular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (POD). Taken together, our findings reveal that MWCNTs played negative role on seed germination and subsequent growth of C. pepo L. seedlings under both levels of water potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1997-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lang, Maik [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  10. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  11. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  12. Contaminant Interactions and Biological Effects of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Benthic Estuarine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Ashley Nicole

    The fate, bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have not been extensively studied to date. Pristine SWNT are highly hydrophobic and have been shown to strongly associate with natural particulate matter in aquatic environments. In light of this, I have focused my research to examine the influence of sediment and food exposure routes on bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of structurally diverse SWNT in several ecologically-important marine invertebrate species. No significant mortality was observed in any organism at concentrations up to 1000 mg/kg. Evidence of biouptake after ingestion was observed for pristine semiconducting SWNT using NIRF spectroscopy and for oxidized 14C-SWNT using liquid scintillation counting. After a 24 hour depuration period, the pristine semiconducting SWNT were eliminated from organisms to below the method detection limit (5 microg/mL), and the 14C-SWNT body burden was decreased by an order of magnitude to a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of toxicity or bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates. Overall, the SWNT were not bioavailable and appear to associate with the sediment. In addition to investigating the toxicity and bioaccumulation of SWNT as an independent toxicant, it is important to consider how they will interact with other contaminants in the environment (i.e., increase or decrease toxicity and bioaccumulation of co-contaminants, alter the environmental transport of co-contaminants, induce degradation of co-contaminants, etc.). I wanted to investigate the effects of SWNT on a complex mixture of contaminants already present in a natural system. New Bedford Harbor (NBH) sediment, which is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was amended with pristine SWNT to determine if the presence of SWNT would mitigate the toxicity and bioaccumulation of the PCBs in deposit-feeding invertebrates. A dilution series of the NBH sediment was created using uncontaminated Long

  13. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  14. Highly efficient siRNA delivery system into human and murine cells using single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, M. S.; Andrade, V. A.; Gomes, E. R. M.; Aguiar, C. J.; Moraes, E. R.; Soares, J. S.; Silva, E. E.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ladeira, L. O.; Jorio, A.; Lima, P.; Leite, M. Fatima; Resende, R. R.; Guatimosim, S.

    2010-09-01

    Development of RNA interference (RNAi) technology utilizing short interfering RNA sequences (siRNA) has focused on creating methods for delivering siRNAs to cells and for enhancing siRNA stability in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a novel approach for siRNA cellular delivery using siRNA coiling into carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The CNT-siRNA delivery system successfully demonstrates nonspecific toxicity and transfection efficiency greater than 95%. This approach offers the potential for siRNA delivery into different types of cells, including hard-to-transfect cells, such as neuronal cells and cardiomyocytes. We also tested the CNT-siRNA system in a non-metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (SKHep1). In all types of cells used in this work the CNT-siRNA delivery system showed high efficiency and apparent no side effects for various in vitro applications.

  15. Highly efficient siRNA delivery system into human and murine cells using single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeira, M S; Andrade, V A; Gomes, E R M; Aguiar, C J; Moraes, E R; Fatima Leite, M; Guatimosim, S [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Soares, J S; Silva, E E; Lacerda, R G; Ladeira, L O; Jorio, A; Resende, R R [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Lima, P, E-mail: rrresende@hotmail.com, E-mail: guatimosim@icb.ufmg.br [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Federal University of Sao Joao Del Rei, Sao Joao Del Rei, MG, 36307-352 (Brazil)

    2010-09-24

    Development of RNA interference (RNAi) technology utilizing short interfering RNA sequences (siRNA) has focused on creating methods for delivering siRNAs to cells and for enhancing siRNA stability in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a novel approach for siRNA cellular delivery using siRNA coiling into carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The CNT-siRNA delivery system successfully demonstrates nonspecific toxicity and transfection efficiency greater than 95%. This approach offers the potential for siRNA delivery into different types of cells, including hard-to-transfect cells, such as neuronal cells and cardiomyocytes. We also tested the CNT-siRNA system in a non-metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (SKHep1). In all types of cells used in this work the CNT-siRNA delivery system showed high efficiency and apparent no side effects for various in vitro applications.

  16. Modelling operations and security of cloud systems using Z-notation and Chinese Wall security policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Srijita; Sengupta, Anirban; Mazumdar, Chandan

    2016-11-01

    Enterprises are increasingly using cloud computing for hosting their applications. Availability of fast Internet and cheap bandwidth are causing greater number of people to use cloud-based services. This has the advantage of lower cost and minimum maintenance. However, ensuring security of user data and proper management of cloud infrastructure remain major areas of concern. Existing techniques are either too complex, or fail to properly represent the actual cloud scenario. This article presents a formal cloud model using the constructs of Z-notation. Principles of the Chinese Wall security policy have been applied to design secure cloud-specific operations. The proposed methodology will enable users to safely host their services, as well as process sensitive data, on cloud.

  17. Purified cell wall from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus gasseri activates systemic inflammation and, at higher doses, produces lethality in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhui; Hicks, Caitlin; Li, Yan; Su, Junwu; Shiloach, Joseph; Kaufman, Jeanne B; Fitz, Yvonne; Eichacker, Peter Q; Cui, Xizhong

    2014-07-02

    One proposed benefit of probiotic therapy is that probiotic bacterial cell-wall binding to intestinal cell pathogen-recognition receptors activates protective innate immunity. However, in critically ill patients, intestinal epithelium disruption by shock or other insults may compromise this compartmentalized response and cause systemic bacteria and cell-wall translocation. The effects of intravascular introduction of probiotic bacterial cell wall are unclear. We investigated 24-hour infusions of purified cell wall from Lactobacillus gasseri ATC33323 (L. gasseri), a probiotic bacterium, in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 49). Increasing cell-wall doses (0 (control), 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg over 24 hours) produced dose-ordered decreases in survival measured after 168 hours (11 survivors/11 total (100%), seven of seven (100%), seven of seven (100%), six of eight (75%), five of eight (63%), and one of nine (11%), respectively, P gasseri cell wall was equally or more lethal than Staphylococcus aureus cell wall, which was previously studied (100% to 88% survival with the same increasing doses). During challenge, compared with controls, L. gasseri cell wall produced increases in blood IL-1β, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, migratory inhibitory protein-1α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and nitric oxide, and decreases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets that were greater with higher versus lower doses (P ≤ 0.05). Medium-dose cell wall (40 and 80 mg/kg combined) progressively decreased blood pressure and increased heart rate, and all doses increased lactate, hepatic transaminases, and creatinine phosphokinase (P ≤ 0.05). Although L. gasseri, like other probiotic bacteria, is considered safe, its cell wall can stimulate the maladaptive inflammatory response associated with pathogenic bacteria. Such effects deserve study, especially regarding critically ill patients.

  18. Through-the-wall localization of a moving target by two independent ultra wideband (UWB) radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Dušan; Svecová, Mária; Rovňáková, Jana

    2013-09-09

    In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB) radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  19. Through-the-Wall Localization of a Moving Target by Two Independent Ultra Wideband (UWB Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rovňáková

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  20. A Wearable and Wireless Gas-Sensing System Using Flexible Polymer/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chern Chiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated flexible gas sensor was developed based on a polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite film by using Bluetooth wireless communication/interface technology. Polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite films were deposited over a polyimide flexible substrate for building a gas sensor array by using a drop-casting method. Sensor response was acquired through interdigitated electrodes and multi-channel sensor boards, which were linked to a Bluetooth wireless transceiver. Additionally, a double-spiral-shaped heater was built into the backside of the gas sensor array as a thermostat to protect it from the influence of ambient temperature. Multi-channel sensing responses were read on a display screen via a smartphone application (app. The advantages of this system include light weight, low cost, highly integrated sensors, wireless telecommunication, and real-time functioning. Thus, it is a promising candidate for deployment in a wearable gas-sensing system used to study air pollution.

  1. Free convection in parallelogram-shaped enclosures with isothermal active walls: viscous shear stress in active systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baieri, A; Zarco-Pernia, E; Laraqi, N [Laboratoire de Thermique Interfaces Environnement, LTIE-GTE EA 4415, Universite Paris Ouest, 50 Rue de Sevres, F-92410 Ville d' Avray (France); Garcia de Maria, J-M, E-mail: abairi@u-paris10.fr, E-mail: e.zarcopernia@yahoo.fr, E-mail: nlaraqi@u-paris10.fr, E-mail: juanmario.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, E-28012 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-01

    Thermocouples are often used for thermoregulation of active thermal systems. When the junctions of these sensors are under a natural convection flow, it is necessary to take into account the viscous stress that can affect the measurement of temperature and therefore the regulation set points. The main objective of this work is to study the viscous shear stress taking place close to the active hot wall in closed air-filled cavities of parallelogrammic shape. The influence of shear stress is examined for different inclination angles of the cavity and large Rayleigh numbers which are usual in thermal applications. The local stress distributions are presented for the steady state for all the geometric configurations considered. The Nusselt number at the hot wall as well as the temperature and stream function distributions in the cavities are also included. The findings obtained from the numerical simulation using the finite volume method are validated by thermal measurements on an experimental cavity. This study confirms the need to properly choose the location of thermocouples in the reference cell used for controlling the active system. (paper)

  2. Absorption and adsorption chillers applied to air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyńska, Agnieszka; Szaflik, Władysław

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

  3. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  4. Photoplethysmography system for blood pulsation detection in unloaded artery conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovskis, A.; Marcinkevics, Z.; Rubenis, O.; Rubins, U.; Lusa, V.

    2012-06-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an optical method of blood pulsation recording and has been extensively studied for decades. Recently PPG is widely used in the medical equipment for patient monitoring and in laboratories for research and physiological studies. In spite of the technological progress in the field of medical equipment, there are no generally accepted standards for clinical PPG measurements up to date. One of the most important factors affecting PPG waveform is the contact pressure between tissue and PPG probe. The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a system for software-assisted PPG signal acquisition from the unloaded artery. Novel PPG waveform derived Optimal Pressure Parameter (OPP) has been proposed as the reliable indicator of unloaded artery condition. We affirm that PPG measurements provided in balanced transmural arterial pressure conditions might serve as a reference for the unification of contact manner optical plethysmography methods. It is a step forward towards the standardization of the PPG methodology, and showed that the maximal value of the OPP, obtained in the particular experimental trial, indicates the optimal PPG probe contact pressure at that moment. Our developed system has been validated in the experimental series and showed the possibility of determining the correct PPG contact pressure value with high repeatability. It is concluded that this system can provide the necessary feedback to perform reliable PPG signal acquisition from the unloaded conduit artery.

  5. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  6. Power conditioning of fuel cell systems in portable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brey, J.J.; Bordallo, C.R. [Hynergreen Technologies S.A. Avenida de la Buhaira, 2. 41018 SEVILLE (Spain); Carrasco, J.M.; Galvan, E.; Jimenez, A. [School of Engineering, University of Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n. 41092 SEVILLE (Spain); Moreno, E. [Instalaciones Inabensa S.A., c/Manuel Velasco Pando no. 7, 41007, SEVILLE (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    Fuel cells are emerging as main power source for portable applications. These devices need power management circuit to connect varying output fuel cell voltage to desired regulated voltage load with high efficiency. Maintaining high efficiency of the converter over a wide loading range can improve stored fuel longevity. The purpose of this paper is to report a general review of most used topologies in fuel cell power conditioning applied to portable systems. Finally, a 100 W DC-DC converter for a particular fuel cell portable application will be presented. This converter was designed to fulfill several specifications of input and output voltage. (author)

  7. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...... and flat, “ambiguous walls” combine softness, tectonics and three-dimensionality. The paper considers a selection of luminious surfaces and reflects on the extent of their ambiguous qualities. Initial ideas for new directions for the wall will be essayed through the discussion....

  8. Nutritional risk index is predictor of postoperative complications in operations of digestive system or abdominal wall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Rubia Daniela; Cutchma, Gislaine; Chieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Campos, Antônio Carlos Ligocki

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition can be considered the most common disease in hospitals due to its high prevalence. To investigate the methods of evaluation of the nutritional status that better correlate with postoperative complications and the length of hospital stay in patients submitted to gastrointestinal or abdominal wall surgeries. This is a retrospective evaluation of 215 nutritional assessment records. All were submitted to traditional anthropometry (weight, height, BMI, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumference), subjective global assessment, serum albumin and lymphocyte count. Nutritional risk index was also calculated. A total of 125 patients were included. Malnutrition was diagnosed by mid-arm muscle circumference, nutritional risk index and subjective global assessment in 46%, 88% and 66%, respectively. Severe malnutrition was found in 17,6% if considered subjective global assessment and in 42% by the nutritional risk index. Oncologic patients had a worst nutritional status according to this index (5,42 less units). There was a negative correlation between occurrence the noninfectious postoperative complications with the nutritional risk index (p=0,0016). Similarly, lower serum albumin levels were associated with higher non infectious complications (p=0,0015). The length of hospital stay was, in average, 14,24 days less in patients without complications as compared with non infectious postoperative complications (pNutritional risk index and serum albumin are the parameters with the best capacity to predict the occurrence of non infectious postoperative complications and the length of hospital stay was higher to this patients.

  9. Evaluation of Forest Health Conditions using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable

  10. Medical Signal-Conditioning and Data-Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jeffrey; Jacobus, charles; Booth, Scott; Suarez, Michael; Smith, Derek; Hartnagle, Jeffrey; LePrell, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    A general-purpose portable, wearable electronic signal-conditioning and data-interface system is being developed for medical applications. The system can acquire multiple physiological signals (e.g., electrocardiographic, electroencephalographic, and electromyographic signals) from sensors on the wearer s body, digitize those signals that are received in analog form, preprocess the resulting data, and transmit the data to one or more remote location(s) via a radiocommunication link and/or the Internet. The system includes a computer running data-object-oriented software that can be programmed to configure the system to accept almost any analog or digital input signals from medical devices. The computing hardware and software implement a general-purpose data-routing-and-encapsulation architecture that supports tagging of input data and routing the data in a standardized way through the Internet and other modern packet-switching networks to one or more computer(s) for review by physicians. The architecture supports multiple-site buffering of data for redundancy and reliability, and supports both real-time and slower-than-real-time collection, routing, and viewing of signal data. Routing and viewing stations support insertion of automated analysis routines to aid in encoding, analysis, viewing, and diagnosis.

  11. ANN Based Tool Condition Monitoring System for CNC Milling Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota-Valtierra G.C.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the companies have as objective to manufacture high-quality products, then by optimizing costs, reducing and controlling the variations in its production processes it is possible. Within manufacturing industries a very important issue is the tool condition monitoring, since the tool state will determine the quality of products. Besides, a good monitoring system will protect the machinery from severe damages. For determining the state of the cutting tools in a milling machine, there is a great variety of models in the industrial market, however these systems are not available to all companies because of their high costs and the requirements of modifying the machining tool in order to attach the system sensors. This paper presents an intelligent classification system which determines the status of cutt ers in a Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine. This tool state is mainly detected through the analysis of the cutting forces drawn from the spindle motors currents. This monitoring system does not need sensors so it is no necessary to modify the machine. The correct classification is made by advanced digital signal processing techniques. Just after acquiring a signal, a FIR digital filter is applied to the data to eliminate the undesired noisy components and to extract the embedded force components. A Wavelet Transformation is applied to the filtered signal in order to compress the data amount and to optimize the classifier structure. Then a multilayer perceptron- type neural network is responsible for carrying out the classification of the signal. Achieving a reliability of 95%, the system is capable of detecting breakage and a worn cutter.

  12. RESEARCH OF EFFICIENCY OF WALL-MOUNTED BOILERS WITH SEALED CHAMBERS USED AS FLAT HEATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khavanov Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    the heating system analysis and to define the area of application of various systems of heat supply. The principal decision based on the basis of the above analysis is the decision to install an independent or a centralized system of heat supply.

  13. Nanostructured surfactant-based systems for the removal of polymers from wall paintings: a small-angle neutron scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Michele; Berti, Debora; Teixeira, José; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

    2012-10-30

    Nanostructured soft matter systems represent effective and long-lasting solutions with respect to traditional and often obsolete methodologies for the conservation of works of art. In particular, complex fluids such as micelles and microemulsions are the most performing media for the removal of organic materials from porous supports, like wall paintings or stones. In this Article, we report on the characterization of two systems, EAPC and XYL, which have shown good to optimal performances in the removal of organic polymers from wall paintings. EAPC is a five-components fluid composed of water, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), 1-pentanol (PeOH), propylene carbonate (PC), and ethyl acetate (EA), while XYL is a "classical" o/w microemulsion, where p-xylene droplets are stabilized in water by SDS and PeOH. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation is used to infer a detailed picture of the structure of these complex fluids, with a particular focus on the partition of the components between the bulk phase and the nanocompartments. We found that, differently from XYL, the EAPC system is neither a microemulsion nor a simple micellar solution, with the cosolvents partitioned between the dispersing phase and the disperse droplets. These different structural features play a key role in defining the cleaning effectiveness and specifically the kinetics of interaction between the nanofluid and the polymeric coating to be removed, which is of paramount importance for the application in the field. Both of these nanofluids are effective in polymer removal, but EAPC is considerably more efficient and versatile. The composition and the structure at the nanoscale determine the capability of removing a broad range of different polymer coatings from porous materials. A representative case study is here described, addressing a particularly challenging conservative issue, which is the removal of a multilayered aged coating that was irreversibly damaging the pictorial

  14. Simulation of CHF Condition using an Electroplating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohk, Seung-Min; Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Heat transfer is enhanced when the bubbles are generated on the heated surface at the nucleate boiling regime since vigorous mixing of the liquid occurs near the heated surface due to the buoyancy force of the bubbles. As this phenomenon intensified, vapor film can be formed on the heated surface and it impairs heat transfer disturbing the heat exchange between the surface and the bulk liquid. And thus, the heat flux has the certain maximum value. This maximum value, Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is generally exhibits in the pool boiling condition in non-film boiling mode. Actually, the higher heat flux could be generated at the film boiling mode with extremely high surface temperature, which may unendurable for the system structure. CHF phenomena is simulated by hydrogen gas using electroplating system in mass transfer experiment. Vapor behavior on mass transfer experiment was visualized, and it was similar to that of on the heat transfer. CHF value was simulated by hydrogen gas with isovolumetric concept. Thus, virtual heat flux was estimated by mass flux, which is a non-heating process. Difference of gas density from heat transfer and mass transfer systems were considered and revised for the simulated heat flux. Despite of the simple parametric analysis, estimated CHF value of this study was 6.6 times smaller than Zuber's.

  15. Energy Analysis for Air Conditioning System Using Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nasution

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption and to ensure thermal comfort are two important considerations for the designing an air conditioning system. An alternative approach to reduce energy consumption proposed in this study is to use a variable speed compressor. The control strategy will be proposed using the fuzzy logic controller (FLC. FLC was developed to imitate the performance of human expert operators by encoding their knowledge in the form of linguistic rules. The system is installed on a thermal environmental room with a data acquisition system to monitor the temperature of the room, coefficient of performance (COP, energy consumption and energy saving. The measurements taken during the two hour experimental periods at 5-minutes interval times for temperature setpoints of 20oC, 22oC and 24oC with internal heat loads 0, 500, 700 and 1000 W. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique can save energy in comparison with On/Off and proportional-integral-derivative (PID control.

  16. Bistability in a self-assembling system confined by elastic walls: Exact results in a one-dimensional lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Almarza, N. G. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-01-07

    The impact of confinement on self-assembly of particles interacting with short-range attraction and long-range repulsion potential is studied for thermodynamic states corresponding to local ordering of clusters or layers in the bulk. Exact and asymptotic expressions for the local density and for the effective potential between the confining surfaces are obtained for a one-dimensional lattice model introduced by J. Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 144903 (2013)]. The simple asymptotic formulas are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with exact results for slits containing at least 5 layers. We observe that the incommensurability of the system size and the average distance between the clusters or layers in the bulk leads to structural deformations that are different for different values of the chemical potential μ. The change of the type of defects is reflected in the dependence of density on μ that has a shape characteristic for phase transitions. Our results may help to avoid misinterpretation of the change of the type of defects as a phase transition in simulations of inhomogeneous systems. Finally, we show that a system confined by soft elastic walls may exhibit bistability such that two system sizes that differ approximately by the average distance between the clusters or layers are almost equally probable. This may happen when the equilibrium separation between the soft boundaries of an empty slit corresponds to the largest stress in the confined self-assembling system.

  17. Evaluation of a platelet lysate bilayered system for periodontal regeneration in a rat intrabony three-wall periodontal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Cai, Xinjie; Plachokova, Adelina S; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John; Gomes, Manuela E; Walboomers, X Frank

    2017-08-17

    With currently available therapies, full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues after periodontitis cannot be achieved. In this study, a combined compartmentalized system was tested, composed of (a) a platelet lysate (PL)-based construct, which was placed along the root aiming to regenerate the root cementum and periodontal ligament, and (b) a calcium phosphate cement composite incorporated with hyaluronic acid microspheres loaded with PL, aiming to promote the regeneration of alveolar bone. This bilayered system was assessed in a 3-wall periodontal defect in Wistar rats. The periodontal healing and the inflammatory response of the materials were scored for a period up to 6 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, histomorphometrical measurements were performed to assess the epithelial downgrowth, the formation of alveolar bone, and the formation of new connective tissue attachment. Our data showed that the stabilization of platelet-origin proteins on the root surface increased the overall periodontal healing score and restricted the formation of long epithelial junctions. Nevertheless, the faster degradation of the cement component with incorporated hyaluronic acid microspheres compromised the stability of the system, which hampered the periodontal regeneration. Overall, in this work, we proved the positive therapeutic effect of the immobilization of a PL-based construct over the root surface in a combined compartmentalized system to assist predictable healing of functional periodontium. Therefore, after optimization of the hard tissue analogue, the system should be further elaborated in (pre)clinical validation studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Modelling of the batch biosorption system: study on exchange of protons with cell wall-bound mineral ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The interchange of the protons with the cell wall-bound calcium and magnesium ions at the interface of solution/bacterial cell surface in the biosorption system at various concentrations of protons has been studied in the present work. A mathematical model for establishing the correlation between concentration of protons and active sites was developed and optimized. The sporadic limited residence time reactor was used to titrate the calcium and magnesium ions at the individual data point. The accuracy of the proposed mathematical model was estimated using error functions such as nonlinear regression, adjusted nonlinear regression coefficient, the chi-square test, P-test and F-test. The values of the chi-square test (0.042-0.017), P-test (proton concentrations. The zeta potential of the bacterium surface at various concentrations of protons was observed to validate the denaturation of active sites.

  19. Amperometric Detection of Sub-ppm Formaldehyde Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Hydroxylamines: A Referenced Chemiresistive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Shinsuke; Labuta, Jan; Nakanishi, Takashi; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2017-10-27

    We report amperometric detection of formaldehyde (HCHO) using hydroxylamine hydrochloride and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with HCHO to emit HCl vapor, which injects a hole carrier into semiconducting SWCNTs. The increase of conductivity in SWCNTs is easily monitored using an ohmmeter. The debundling of SWCNTs with a metallo-supramolecular polymer (MSP) increased the active surface area in the SWCNTs network, leading to excellent sensitivity to HCHO with a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.016 ppm. The response of sensor is reversible, and the sensor is reusable. The selectivity to HCHO is 10 5 -10 6 times higher than interferences with other volatiles such as water, methanol, and toluene. Moreover, false-positive responses caused by a significant variation of humidity and/or temperature are successfully discriminated from true-positive responses by using two sensors, one with and the other without hydroxylamine hydrochloride, in a referenced system.

  20. Prototype solar heated hot water systems and double-walled heat exchangers. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A collection of quarterly and monthly reports from Elcam, Inc., covering progress made from January 1, 1978, through September 30, 1978, is presented. Elcam, is developing two solar-heated hot water prototype systems and two heat exchangers. This effort consists of development, manufacture, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and system evaluation.

  1. Distributed System Resource Racing Conditions Automated Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Jasaitis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most applications today are designed to be networked. It is natural that such applications operate on some data. Such applications are multi threaded by nature and it is a common situation when few clients are using the same application at the same time. So it is possible that those users operate with the same data. It is possible that in such an operation some data might be treated incorrectly or some client instance may operate on outdated data. In order to avoid such situations proper consistent testing should be performed. Therefore it is complicated to perform such testing manually. Automated tool which would help to solve this problem is wanted. In this paper we are presenting an automated testing method that is able to detect problems related to resource racing conditions in a distributed system.

  2. Production and exploitation of thermoelectric air conditioning systems for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnik, Vladimir [Conditioner Ltd, Gagarin (Russian Federation); Skipidarov, Sergey [SCTB NORD, Moskau (Russian Federation); Rapp, Axel [Quick-Ohm Kupper und Co. GmbH, Wuppertal-Cronenberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the paper more than 10-year experience of thermoelectric devices batch manufacturing is described for the field of their obvious advantages. This field of application includes thermoelectric air conditioning systems which have shown their competitive advantage when used in vehicles of elevated vibration where compressor equipment application is difficult because of leakage of refrigerant. Energy characteristics of air conditioners for tractors, excavators, tanks, locomotive driver's cabins and cranes are described. Thermoelectric (TE) air conditioners mechanical test data as well as operation experience in vehicles are presented. It is shown that consumption of tellurium, which is a strategic component for thermoelectric materials manufacturing, may be lowered to 40 grams per 1 kW of cooling. (orig.)

  3. PV systems integrated in the exterior walls of two high-rise buildings. Integration options during modernisation of buildings; Photovoltaikfassaden an zwei Wohnhochhaeusern. Integrationsmoeglichkeiten bei der Modernisierung im Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolf, F. [rolf und hotz architekten, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The large houses with may flats were built in a very economic way. All the windows for light and ventilation are orientated towards the balconies. There are large coherent outside walls. To get a framework for the outside walls a ventilated facade of sheets with a regular pattern of joints was carried out. The system described above made us suggest to our client a facade of solar panels for the walls to the south. In principle the same construction could be used for the two types of facade. The solar panels, consisting of one sheet of safety-glass laminated with solar cells combined with the construction used on the other walls, were accepted by the authorities involved. A flexible structure of aluminium in coordination with the solar panels was carried out, which absorbs all thermal changes and transmits the static pressure to the concrete wall through suitable plugs und screws. 192 solar panels 'SF 140' of the 'Solar Fabrik Freiburg' were installed per building. They yield 18 800 MWH per year which are fed into the city net. 12.8 tons of CO{sub 2} are saved per year. 13% of the electricity demand required for one of the houses with 44 apartments is met by the installation. The production of electricity is by about 25% smaller when the solar panels directed to the south are installed vertically compared to a construction with a 30-degree-angle of inclination. The synergy effects of the solar panel facade as protection against the influences of changing weather conditions combined with the demonstration of new applications of solar panel systems in renovating buildings are advantages, which more than compensate for the disadvantage of smaller yields of electricity. (orig.)

  4. Research on Heat Exchange Process in Aircraft Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichindaev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Using of heat-exchanger-condenser in the air conditioning system of the airplane Tu-204 (Boeing, Airbus, Superjet 100, MS-21, etc.) for cooling the compressed air by the cold air with negative temperature exiting the turbine results in a number of operational problems. Mainly it’s frosting of the heat exchange surface, which is the cause of live-section channels frosting, resistance increasing and airflow in the system decreasing. The purpose of this work is to analyse the known freeze-up-fighting methods for heat-exchanger-condenser, description of the features of anti-icing protection and offering solutions to this problem. For the problem of optimizing the design of heat exchangers in this work used generalized criterion that describes the ratio of thermal resistances of cold and hot sections, which include: the ratio of the initial values of heat transfer agents flow state; heat exchange surface finning coefficients; factors which describes the ratio of operating parameters and finning area. By controlling the ratio of the thermal resistances can be obtained the desired temperature of the heat exchange surface, which would prevent freezing. The work presents the results of a numerical study of the effect of different combinations of regime and geometrical factors changes on reduction of the heat-exchanger-condenser freezing surface area, including using of variable ratio of thermal resistances.

  5. Noise simulation system for determining imaging conditions in digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, R.; Ichikawa, K.; Matsubara, K.; Kawashima, H.

    2012-03-01

    Reduction of exposure dose and improvement in image quality can be expected to result from advances in the performance of imaging detectors. We propose a computerized method for determining optimized imaging conditions by use of simulated images. This study was performed to develop a prototype system for image noise and to ensure consistency between the resulting images and actual images. An RQA5 X-ray spectrum was used for determination of input-output characteristics of a flat-panel detector (FPD). The number of incident quantum to the detector per pixel (counts/pixel) was calculated according to the pixel size of the detector and the quantum number in RQA5 determined in IEC6220-1. The relationship among tube current-time product (mAs), exposure dose (C/kg) at the detector surface, the number of incident quanta (counts/pixel), and pixel values measured on the images was addressed, and a conversion function was then created. The images obtained by the FPD was converted into a map of incident quantum numbers and input into random-value generator to simulate image noise. In addition, graphic user interface was developed to observe images with changing image noise and exposure dose levels, which have trade-off relationship. Simulation images provided at different noise levels were compared with actual images obtained by the FPD system. The results indicated that image noise was simulated properly both in objective and subjective evaluation. The present system could allow us to determine necessary dose from image quality and also to estimate image quality from any exposure dose.

  6. Acalculous Diffuse Gallbladder Wall Thickening in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Haeng; No, Young Eun; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Joon Woo; Park, Jae Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gallbladder (GB) wall thickening can be found in various conditions unrelated to intrinsic GB disease. We investigated the predisposing etiologies and the outcome of acalculous GB wall thickening in children. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 67 children with acalculous GB wall thickening who had visited our institute from June 2010 to June 2013. GB wall thickening was defined as a GB wall diameter >3.5 mm on abdominal ultrasound examination or computed tomography. Underlying diseas...

  7. Hybrid system of unbonded post-tensioned CLT panels and light-frame wood shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ho; T. Dao; S. Aaleti; J. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer

    2016-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a relatively new type of massive timber system that has shown to possess excellent mechanical properties and structural behavior in building construction. When post-tensioned with high-strength tendons, CLT panels perform well under cyclic loadings because of two key characteristics: their rocking behavior and self-centering capacity....

  8. Efficient siRNA delivery system using carboxilated single-wall carbon nanotubes in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagoe, Ioana Berindan; Braicu, Cornelia; Matea, Cristian; Bele, Constantin; Florin, Graur; Gabriel, Katona; Veronica, Chedea; Irimie, Alexandru

    2012-08-01

    Several functionalized carbon nanotubes have been designed and tested for the purpose of nucleic acid delivery. In this study, the capacity of SWNTC-COOH for siRNA deliverey were investigated delivery in parallel with an efficient commercial system. Hep2G cells were reverse-transfected with 50 nM siRNA (p53 siRNA, TNF-alphasiRNA, VEGFsiRNA) using the siPORT NeoFX (Ambion) transfection agent in paralel with SWNTC-COOH, functionalised with siRNA. The highest level of gene inhibition was observed in the cases treated with p53 siRNA gene; in the case of transfection with siPort, the NeoFX value was 33.8%, while in the case of SWNTC-COOH as delivery system for p53 siRNA was 37.5%. The gene silencing capacity for VEGF was 53.7%, respectively for TNF-alpha 56.7% for siPORT NeoFX delivery systems versus 47.7% (VEGF) and 46.5% (TNF-alpha) for SWNTC-COOH delivery system. SWNTC-COOH we have been showed to have to be an efficient carrier system. The results from the inhibition of gene expresion for both transfection systems were confirmed at protein level. Overall, the lowest mRNA expression was confirmed at protein level, especially in the case of p53 siRNA and TNF-alpha siRNA transfection. Less efficient reduction protein expressions were observed in the case of VEGF siRNA, for both transfection systems at 24 h; only at 48 h, there was a statistically significant reduction of VEGF protein expression. SWCNT-COOH determined an efficient delivery of siRNA. SWNTC-COOH, combined with suitable tumor markers like p53 siRNA, TNFalpha siRNA or VEGF siRNA can be used for the efficient delivery of siRNA.

  9. New Solutions for Solar Absorption Refrigeration Systems and Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The mission of the research includes the following objectives: the development of new circuit decisions for the alternate refrigerating systems based on the use of an open absorptive circuit and on the use of solar energy for absorbent solution regeneration; an assessment of the energy and environmental characteristics of the developed systems; obtaining of the experimental data for an assessment of the principal capabilities of the proposed new solar air-conditioning systems. The multistage principle of the creation of drying and cooling contours with the increase of concentration of absorbent on cooler steps is offered. The absorber with internal steam cooling allowing the improvement of the scheme of the alternate refrigerating system is developed. On the basis of the obtained experimental data the analysis of the main opportunities of the developed solar air-conditioning systems was made which showed that the created systems: provide the required comfortable parameters indoors without engaging of traditional refrigerating technics; allow to use only one - or two-stage option of refrigerating system for application in the conditions of Ukraine and of Europe. In comparison with traditional vapor-compression systems, the developed solar systems provide the considerable decrease in energy consumption (to 30%, their use leads to the decrease of exhaustion of natural resources, influences less global climate change.

  10. Morphopatological and histochemical highlights in normal and varicose vein wall

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Condor; Caius Solovan; Liliana Vasile

    2016-01-01

    The nutrition of the venous wall appears to be an important factor in the vascularfibrillar trophicity and in the dynamic of the extracellular matrix formation for the normal veins and, for the chronic venous ulcers of legs, on period of healing. Sequential biopsies were taken at various levels of venous wall of external and internal saphena in 16 cases presenting a chronic condition of legs venous system (35-58 years old patients, both sexes). 8 vein fragments with normal macroscopic appeara...

  11. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  12. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  13. Set Up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Berardo Naticchia; Alberto Giretti; Alessandro Carbonari

    2007-01-01

    It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel rob...

  14. Wall Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  15. Numerical study on lateral wall displacement of deep excavation supported by IPS earth retention system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugen Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the 3D behavior characteristics of an excavation supported by an innovative prestressed support (IPS earth retention system. A numerical simulation was conducted in order to provide insight into the IPS system behavior by using the FLAC3D package. Prior to the parametric study, validation work was conducted by means of a comparison of the deformation between the field test data and numerical analysis results, and strong agreement was obtained. The reasonable excavation location, layered excavation thickness, and blocked excavation sequence are presented according to variable parameter analysis. In view of the previous findings, certain measurements are proposed in order to control the foundation pit deformation. The results indicate that prestress compensation has a significant effect on the IPS system behavior, while an optimized excavation sequence slightly improves its behavior. With the conclusion proposed based on the numerical results, the aim is to provide reference data for optimization design and the construction sequence.

  16. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rodriguez-Furlán

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor in plants (SYP, have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR. Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance (SAR in response to bacterial pathogen infection and induced systemic resistance (ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors

  17. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Phillip D.; Knierim, Katherine J.; Breaker, Brian K.; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-11-23

    Plateau-Boston Mountains boundary, beyond which further extensive municipal or commercial development appears unlikely under current economic and resource-need conditions. A small part of the Ozark system groundwater budget is currently drafted for use, leaving an apparently large component available for further development and use—particularly in the northern Springfield Plateau and Salem Plateau; however, the effects of increased pumping on groundwater’s role in maintaining ecosystems and ecosystem services are not quantitatively well understood, and the close relation between groundwater and surface water highlights the importance of further quantitative assessment.

  18. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  19. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiwang Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  20. Optimal Time to Invest Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongma Moon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model to determine the optimal investment time for energy storage systems (ESSs in a price arbitrage trade application under conditions of uncertainty over future profits. The adoption of ESSs can generate profits from price arbitrage trade, which are uncertain because the future marginal prices of electricity will change depending on supply and demand. In addition, since the investment is optional, an investor can delay adopting an ESS until it becomes profitable, and can decide the optimal time. Thus, when we evaluate this investment, we need to incorporate the investor’s option which is not captured by traditional evaluation methods. In order to incorporate these aspects, we applied real option theory to our proposed model, which provides an optimal investment threshold. Our results concerning the optimal time to invest show that if future profits that are expected to be obtained from arbitrage trade become more uncertain, an investor needs to wait longer to invest. Also, improvement in efficiency of ESSs can reduce the uncertainty of arbitrage profit and, consequently, the reduced uncertainty enables earlier ESS investment, even for the same power capacity. Besides, when a higher rate of profits is expected and ESS costs are higher, an investor needs to wait longer. Also, by comparing a widely used net present value model to our real option model, we show that the net present value method underestimates the value for ESS investment and misleads the investor to make an investment earlier.

  1. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  2. Prioritizing Road Treatments using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) to Improve Watershed Conditions in the Wall Creek Watershed, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, K. T.; Black, T.; Clifton, C.; Luce, C.; McCune, S.; Nelson, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wall Creek, tributary to the North Fork John Day River in eastern Oregon, was identified as a priority watershed by the Umatilla National Forest for restoration in 2002. Most streams in this 518 km2 multi-ownership watershed are designated critical habitat for threatened steelhead. Eight streams are listed on the Oregon 303(d) list for elevated temperatures and excess sedimentation. Over 1000 km of public and private roads in the watershed present a major source of potential water quality and habitat impairment. We conducted a watershed-wide inventory of roads using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) in 2009 to quantify sediment contributions from roads to streams. GRAIP is a field and GIS-based model developed by the Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Utah State University that georeferences and quantifies road hydrologic connectivity, sediment production and delivery, mass wasting, and risk of diversion and plugging at stream crossings. Field survey and modeling produced data for 6,473 drainage locations on 726 km of road (most of the publically owned roads) quantifying the location and mass of sediment produced and delivered to streams. Findings indicate a relatively small subset of roads deliver the majority of road-produced fine sediment; 12 percent of the road length delivers 90 percent of the total fine sediment to streams. Overall fine sediment production in the watershed is relatively low (with an estimated background erosion rate of 518,000 kg/yr for the watershed) and sediment produced and delivered from the road system appears to be a modest addition. Road surfaces produce approximately 81,455 kg of fine sediment per year, with 20,976 kg/year delivered to the stream network. Fifty-nine gullies were observed, 41 of which received road runoff. Sixteen road-related landslides were also observed. The excavated volume of these features totals 3,922,000 kg which is equivalent to 175 years of fine sediment delivery at

  3. Effect of cladding systems on moisture performance of wood-framed walls in a mixed-humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Craig Drumheller; Charles G. Carll

    2010-01-01

    A 22-month field investigation of nine different north-and south-oriented wood-framed wall assemblies was conducted to determine the moisture performance of various wall construction types, most of which incorporated absorptive cladding. The study was conducted on the campus of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center, in Upper Marlboro, MD, 20...

  4. Primary chest wall lymphoma: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Kumar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary chest wall lymphoma is a rare but curable condition. This paper reports a case of a 52-year-old female patient who presented with a primary chest wall diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  5. Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-Effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costeux, Stephane [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Bunker, Shanon [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The objective of this project was to explore and potentially develop high performing insulation with increased R/inch and low impact on climate change that would help design highly insulating building envelope systems with more durable performance and lower overall system cost than envelopes with equivalent performance made with materials available today. The proposed technical approach relied on insulation foams with nanoscale pores (about 100 nm in size) in which heat transfer will be decreased. Through the development of new foaming methods, of new polymer formulations and new analytical techniques, and by advancing the understanding of how cells nucleate, expand and stabilize at the nanoscale, Dow successfully invented and developed methods to produce foams with 100 nm cells and 80% porosity by batch foaming at the laboratory scale. Measurements of the gas conductivity on small nanofoam specimen confirmed quantitatively the benefit of nanoscale cells (Knudsen effect) to increase insulation value, which was the key technical hypotheses of the program. In order to bring this technology closer to a viable semi-continuous/continuous process, the project team modified an existing continuous extrusion foaming process as well as designed and built a custom system to produce 6" x 6" foam panels. Dow demonstrated for the first time that nanofoams can be produced in a both processes. However, due to technical delays, foam characteristics achieved so far fall short of the 100 nm target set for optimal insulation foams. In parallel with the technology development, effort was directed to the determination of most promising applications for nanocellular insulation foam. Voice of Customer (VOC) exercise confirmed that demand for high-R value product will rise due to building code increased requirements in the near future, but that acceptance for novel products by building industry may be slow. Partnerships with green builders, initial launches in smaller markets (e.g. EIFS

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antitumor drug-loaded aptamer targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hou, Lin; Jiao, Xiaojing; Yandan, Ji; Zhu, Xiali; Hongji, Li; Chen, Xiaozhe; Ren, Junxiao; Xia, Yadan; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-01-01

    A multifunctional tumor-targeting drug delivery system employing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as drug carriers, AS1411 as targeting ligand and doxorubicine (DOX) as a model chemotherapy drug was constructed. Firstly, SWCNT were modified with F68 (4.0 mg/ml) by ultrasonic dispersing technology due to the action of hydrophobic force and Van der Waals force, endowing SWCNT water dispersions and biocompatibility. Meanwhile, DOX could be easily absorbed on the surface of SWCNT by the π-π stacking, electrostatic adsorption and hydrophobic interactions. Finally, AS1411 was attached to the surface of DOX-SWCNT by the π-π stacking and electrostatic adsorption to obtain a tumor-targeting delivery system. Cellular uptake, anti-tumor effect in vitro and in vivo, cell cycle and apoptosis and biodistribution of AS1411-DOX-SWCNT were investigated, compared with the DOX solution. This AS1411-mediated DOX-loaded SWCNT (AS1411-DOX-SWCNT) delivery system not only retained both optical properties of SWCNT and cytotoxicity of DOX but also could accumulate in tumors, which facilitated combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy. AS1411-DOX-SWCNT could effectively promote DOX cellular uptake and then increase intracellular accumulation as a targeting delivery system. AS1411-DOX-SWCNT by NIR laser excited could trigger S phase arrest and the late stage apoptotic on PC3 cancer cells. The investigation in vivo further confirmed that this system possessed higher tumor targeting capacity and antitumor efficacy than DOX, especially with NIR laser irradiation.

  7. Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness...... and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios...... of small structures. ABS was used as material and different combinations of injection velocity, pressure and mold temperature were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical CMM machine. On the basis of the experimental investigation the efficacy of the embedded induction...

  8. A comparison RSM and ANN surface roughness models in thin-wall machining of Ti6Al4V using vegetable oils under MQL-condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohruni, Amrifan Saladin; Yanis, Muhammad; Sharif, Safian; Yani, Irsyadi; Yuliwati, Erna; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Shayfull, Zamree

    2017-09-01

    Thin-wall components as usually applied in the structural parts of aeronautical industry require significant challenges in machining. Unacceptable surface roughness can occur during machining of thin-wall. Titanium product such Ti6Al4V is mostly applied to get the appropriate surface texture in thin wall designed requirements. In this study, the comparison of the accuracy between Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in the prediction of surface roughness was conducted. Furthermore, the machining tests were carried out under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) using AlCrN-coated carbide tools. The use of Coconut oil as cutting fluids was also chosen in order to evaluate its performance when involved in end milling. This selection of cutting fluids is based on the better performance of oxidative stability than that of other vegetable based cutting fluids. The cutting speed, feed rate, radial and axial depth of cut were used as independent variables, while surface roughness is evaluated as the dependent variable or output. The results showed that the feed rate is the most significant factors in increasing the surface roughness value followed by the radial depth of cut and lastly the axial depth of cut. In contrary, the surface becomes smoother with increasing the cutting speed. From a comparison of both methods, the ANN model delivered a better accuracy than the RSM model.

  9. Investigating Wind-Driven Rain Intrusion in Walls with the CARWASh

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Wind-driven rain provides the primary external moisture load for exterior walls.Water absorption by the cladding, runoff, and penetration through the cladding or at details determine how a wall system performs. In this paper we describe a new laboratory facility that can create controlled outdoor and indoor conditions and use it to investigate the water...

  10. Experimental investigation of the Trombe wall. Final report, October 1977-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casperson, R.L.; Hocevar, C.J.

    1979-05-15

    A variable geometry test facility was constructed and an experimental program conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of the Trombe wall, passive solar heating system. The principal objective met in the research project was the determination of representative values of wall gap thermocirculation parameters for various wall geometries. Velocity and temperature profiles in the wall gap were obtained for 2, 4, and 6-inch gap widths. Maximum values for the Grashof number under measured flow conditions ranged approximately from 6 x 10/sup 5/ for the 2-inch gap to 1.5 x 10/sup 7/ for the 6-inch gap, indicating laminar flow and possibly the initiation of transitional flow regimes at the higher Grashof numbers. Turbulent flow behavior was not exhibited within the relatively broad range of test conditions studied in this research, conditions typical of one-story Trombe walls employing practical geometries. A second objective accomplished in this research was the characterization of the Trombe wall thermal efficiency for a variety of operating conditions and wall geometries. Using data collected under essentially clear-sky conditions, collector efficiency curves similar to those commonly used to describe the performance of flat-plate solar collectors were developed for the Trombe wall. The efficiency plots were determined for 2, 4, and 6-inch gap widths using linear regression fits. These regression fits were sufficiently good to validate the applicability of this approach in describing Trombe wall performance.

  11. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions; Lebensdauerbewertung dickwandiger Bauteile aus Nickelbasislegierungen unter betriebsnahen Beanspruchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-11-06

    and the transmission electron microscope for the base raw material, the creep and creep-fatigue exposed material. For the classification the investigation results were compared to the results of the other projects and no differences could be identified. For the description of the deformation and damage behavior under creep-fatigue loading with finite elements simulations a viscoplastic deformation model with an integrated damage model of Lemaitre was used. The material dependent model parameters were fitted under consideration of the basis characterization test results of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263. All basis characterization tests are simulated with finite elements to classify the parameter fittings. The verification of the fitted material models was carried out by simulations of the complex lab tests. From the comparison of the simulation and test results it is obvious that the deformation and damage behavior can be reproduced with the used material model in a good manner. With finite element simulations of complex thick-walled components (header, formed part) under realistic thermal and mechanic loading conditions could be shown that the viscoplastic material model fitted for the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 is able to predict the locations of the maximum loadings and the lifetime until the first cracks appear. This could be confirmed by dye penetrant testing on the one hand and destructive investigations of two fracture surfaces of the header on the other hand. Additionally the approaches of the European DIN EN 12952-3/4, the American ASME Section III Division 1 Subsection NH, the French RCC-MR RB 3262.12 and the British R5 recommendations Volume 2/3 are used to predict the lifetimes. It can be seen that the approaches of ASME and RCC-MR provide very conservative predictions and that the approaches of R5 and DIN EN 12952 provide non-conservative predictions. These results lead to the conclusion that no approach of the standards/recommendation is suitable for

  12. Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from air-conditioning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ping-Hua; Chen, Shou-Yi; Scholz, Holger C; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Gu, Quan; Kämpfer, Peter; Foster, Jeffrey T; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Chen, Cha; Yang, Zhi-Chong

    2013-10-01

    Four strains (08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960) were isolated from water of air-conditioning systems of various cooling towers in Guangzhou city, China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative coccobacilli without flagella, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, showing no reduction of nitrate, no hydrolysis of urea and no production of H2S. Growth was characteristically enhanced in the presence of l-cysteine, which was consistent with the properties of members of the genus Francisella. The quinone system was composed of ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-9. The polar lipid profile consisted of the predominant lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified phospholipids (PL2, PL3), an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid (GL2). The polyamine pattern consisted of the major compounds spermidine, cadaverine and spermine. The major cellular fatty acids were C10 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1 3-OH. A draft whole-genome sequence of the proposed type strain 08HL01032(T) was generated. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed affiliation to the genus Francisella, with 95 % sequence identity to the closest relatives in the database, the type strains of Francisella philomiragia and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Full-length deduced amino acid sequences of various housekeeping genes, recA, gyrB, groEL, dnaK, rpoA, rpoB, rpoD, rpoH, fopA and sdhA, exhibited similarities of 67-92 % to strains of other species of the genus Francisella. Strains 08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960 exhibited highly similar pan-genome PCR profiles. Both the phenotypic and molecular data support the conclusion that the four strains belong to the genus Francisella but exhibit considerable divergence from all recognized Francisella species. Therefore, we propose the name Francisella guangzhouensis sp

  13. Improvement of open and semi-open core wall system in tall buildings by closing of the core section in the last story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyroddin, A.; Abdollahzadeh, D.; Mastali, M.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing number of tall buildings in urban population caused development of tall building structures. One of the main lateral load resistant systems is core wall system in high-rise buildings. Core wall system has two important behavioral aspects where the first aspect is related to reduce the lateral displacement by the core bending resistance and the second is governed by increasing of the torsional resistance and core warping of buildings. In this study, the effects of closed section core in the last story have been considered on the behavior of models. Regarding this, all analyses were performed by ETABS 9.2.v software (Wilson and Habibullah). Considering (a) drift and rotation of the core over height of buildings, (b) total and warping stress in the core body, (c) shear in beams due to warping stress, (d) effect of closing last story on period of models in various modes, (e) relative displacement between walls in the core system and (f) site effects in far and near field of fault by UBC97 spectra on base shear coefficient showed that the bimoment in open core is negative in the last quarter of building and it is similar to wall-frame structures. Furthermore, analytical results revealed that closed section core in the last story improves behavior of the last quarter of structure height, since closing of core section in the last story does not have significant effect on reducing base shear value in near and far field of active faults.

  14. Sphingomonas frigidaeris sp. nov., isolated from an air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunho; Jeon, Che Ok

    2017-10-01

    A strictly aerobic Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain KER25-10T, was isolated from a laboratory air conditioning system in South Korea. Cells were yellow-pigmented, non-motile rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. The strain grew at pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and 10-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 65.1 mol%. Strain KER25-10T contained ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω6c, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were sphingoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Only spermidine was detected as the polyamine. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences indicated that strain KER25-10T formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the genus Sphingomonas of the family Sphingomonadaceae and the strain was most closely related to Sphingomonas kyeonggiense THG-DT81T with a 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain KER25-10T clearly represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas frigidaeris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KER25-10T (=KACC 19285T=JCM 32053T).

  15. Development and Ecological-Energy Comparative Analysis оf Vapor Compression and Solar Absorption Schemes of Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mission of the research included the following objectives: the development of new circuit decisions for the alternate refrigerating systems based on the use of an open absorptive circuit and on the use of solar energy for absorbent solution regeneration; an assessment of the energy and envi-ronmental characteristics of the developed systems; obtaining of the experimental data for an assess-ment of the principal capabilities of the proposed new solar air-conditioning systems. New principles for design of heat and mass transfer equipment in the version with a movable packing of heat exchange elements (fluidized bed packing "gas - liquid - solid body" placed in the packed bed were developed, which allows self-cleaning of the working surfaces and walls of the heat and mass transfer equipment HMT. This new solution, when working with outdoor air and solutions of absorbents, seems to be a fundamentally important condition for maintaining the working capacity of solar absorption systems. The new schemes of absorber with internal steam cooling allowing the improve-ment of the new scheme of the alternate refrigerating system were developed. Comparative analysis based on the methodology of the "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA showed that new, developed solar systems provide the considerable decrease in energy consumption, their use leads to the decrease of exhaustion of natural resources, influences less global climate change.

  16. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  17. Sensitivity of dual-wall structures under hypervelocity impact to multi-layer thermal insulation thickness and placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental study in which Al dual-wall structures were tested, under various high-speed impact conditions, with a view to the effect of multilayer insulation thickness and location on perforation resistance. Attention is given to comparisons of the damage sustained by dual-wall systems with multilayer insulation blankets of various thicknesses and at various locations within the dual-wall system, under comparable impact loading conditions. The placement of the insulation has a significant effect on the ballistic limit of the dual-wall structures considered, while reducing insulation thickness by as much as a third did not.

  18. Characterization of storage cell wall polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds and the formation of aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, T T; Rodrigues, N R; Serra, G E; Panegassi, V R; Buckeridge, M S

    1996-05-17

    Cell wall storage polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds of Dimorphandra mollis, Schizolobium parahybum (galactomannans), Copaifera langsdorffii, Hymenaea courbaril (xyloglucans) and the galactan from cotyledons of the Mediterranean species Lupinus angustifolius were extracted and their apparent molecular masses were determined by high-performance size exclusion chromatography analysis. They were, to a large degree, polydisperse, showing molecular masses that varied from 100,000 to 2,000,000. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1500, 4000, 6000 and 8000), sodium citrate and dextran (73,000, 60,000-90,000, 505,000 and 2,000,000) were used for investigating phase formation with the seed polysaccharides. Galactomannans and xyloglucans demonstrated phase formation with sodium citrate concentrations lower than 30%, as well as dextrans and polyethylene glycol, and formed gels in the presence of high concentrations of sodium citrate (above 30%). Galactan did not promote phase formation with any of the reagents used. On the basis of the results obtained, the possibility of using legume seed polysaccharides for the partitioning and purification of polysaccharide enzymes in aqueous two-phase systems is suggested.

  19. Tunable chemistry and morphology of multi-wall carbon nanotubes as a route to non-toxic, theranostic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncel, Sławomir; Müller, Karin H; Skepper, Jeremy N; Walczak, Krzysztof Z; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2011-10-01

    Nanomedicine is one of the most promising areas of exploitation for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). These 'needle-like' nanovehicles are capable of carrying drug molecules via exo- and endohedral functionalisation and are steerable by an external magnetic field due to the presence of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in the nanotube core (up to 7.3wt.%). These properties make them promising candidates for drug targeting or MRI contrast agents. Particularly, oxidised and nitrogen-doped MWNTs exhibiting enhanced chemical reactivity compared to their unmodified precursors/analogues could be exploited in this field. Here, we assessed the toxicity and intracellular localisation of two different, chemically modified and unmodified nanotubes towards human macrophage cells using a range of toxicity and imaging techniques. Oxidised and N-doped MWNTs were not significantly toxic to HMMs in contrast to unmodified MWNTs. All types of MWNTs entered the cell via active phagocytosis/endocytosis, but also passively by 'self-injection' through the plasma membrane, and were ultimately found in the cytoplasm and possibly also the nucleus. The attained results carry hope to utilise functionalised nanotube vectors as non-cytotoxic controllable drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Collective coordinate models of domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized systems under the spin hall effect and longitudinal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, S. Ali, E-mail: ali.nasseri@isi.it [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Politecnico di Torino - Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Moretti, Simone; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca - Cardenal Plá y Deniel, 22, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Serpico, Claudio [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); University of Naples Federico II - Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Durin, Gianfranco [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) - Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Recent studies on heterostructures of ultrathin ferromagnets sandwiched between a heavy metal layer and an oxide have highlighted the importance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and broken inversion symmetry in domain wall (DW) motion. Specifically, chiral DWs are stabilized in these systems due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). SOC can also lead to enhanced current induced DW motion, with the Spin Hall effect (SHE) suggested as the dominant mechanism for this observation. The efficiency of SHE driven DW motion depends on the internal magnetic structure of the DW, which could be controlled using externally applied longitudinal in-plane fields. In this work, micromagnetic simulations and collective coordinate models are used to study current-driven DW motion under longitudinal in-plane fields in perpendicularly magnetized samples with strong DMI. Several extended collective coordinate models are developed to reproduce the micromagnetic results. While these extended models show improvements over traditional models of this kind, there are still discrepancies between them and micromagnetic simulations which require further work. - Highlights: • Moving DWs in PMA material maintain their structure under longitudinal in-plane fields. • As a result of longitudinal fields, magnetization in the domains becomes canted. • A critical longitudinal field was identified and correlated with the DMI strength. • A canted collective coordinate model was developed for DW motion under in-plane fields.

  1. From 20th century metabolic wall charts to 21st century systems biology: database of mammalian metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Callan C; Grady, Cameron R; Pisitkun, Trairak; Parulekar, Jaya; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The organization of the mammalian genome into gene subsets corresponding to specific functional classes has provided key tools for systems biology research. Here, we have created a web-accessible resource called the Mammalian Metabolic Enzyme Database ( https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/MetabolicEnzymeDatabase.html) keyed to the biochemical reactions represented on iconic metabolic pathway wall charts created in the previous century. Overall, we have mapped 1,647 genes to these pathways, representing ~7 percent of the protein-coding genome. To illustrate the use of the database, we apply it to the area of kidney physiology. In so doing, we have created an additional database ( Database of Metabolic Enzymes in Kidney Tubule Segments: https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/), mapping mRNA abundance measurements (mined from RNA-Seq studies) for all metabolic enzymes to each of 14 renal tubule segments. We carry out bioinformatics analysis of the enzyme expression pattern among renal tubule segments and mine various data sources to identify vasopressin-regulated metabolic enzymes in the renal collecting duct. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. A composite reactor with wetted-wall column for mineral carbonation study in three-phase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Yao, Xizhi; Zhao, Liang; Teng, H. Henry

    2016-11-01

    Despite the availability of various reactors designed to study gas-liquid reactions, no appropriate devices are available to accurately investigate triple-phased mineral carbonation reactions involving CO2 gas, aqueous solutions (containing divalent cations), and carbonate minerals. This report presents a composite reactor that combines a modified conventional wetted-wall column, a pH control module, and an attachment to monitor precipitation reactions. Our test and calibration experiments show that the absorption column behaved largely in agreement with theoretical predictions and previous observations. Experimental confirmation of CO2 absorption in NaOH and ethanolamine supported the effectiveness of the column for gas-liquid interaction. A test run in the CO2-NH3-MgCl2 system carried out for real time investigation of the relevant carbonation reactions shows that the reactor's performance closely followed the expected reaction path reflected in pH change, the occurrence of precipitation, and the rate of NH3 addition, indicating the appropriateness of the composite device in studying triple-phase carbonation process.

  3. Nontrivial Solution of Fractional Differential System Involving Riemann-Stieltjes Integral Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge-Feng Yang

    2012-01-01

    differential system involving the Riemann-Stieltjes integral condition, by using the Leray-Schauder nonlinear alternative and the Banach contraction mapping principle, some sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of a nontrivial solution of a system are obtained.

  4. Palaeoceanographic Variability of the Benguela Upwelling System Depending on the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) - Indicated by Organic-Walled Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, M.

    2003-12-01

    The causes and effects of the intensification of growth of the northern Hemisphere ice caps at around 3.2 and 2.74 Ma BP are still unclear. Possible causes are changes in the global ocean circulation and the global carbon cycle, which might have resulted from tectonic processes, solar insolation changes, or the interaction between both processes. The Benguela upwelling area forms a key area within the global ocean system. Here, warm and saline Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlantic Ocean and are transported to the north. Variability of this inflow may thus result in changes in deep-water production in the North Atlantic, thereby influencing the global thermohaline circulation. Furthermore, the Benguela area is characterized by extremely high bioproductivity in surface waters as a result of year-round upwelling. Variations in the upwelling intensity might lead to changes in atmospheric ¤CO2. To study the changes in the circulation and the upwelling intensity, within this region organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from two high-resolution cores (ODP 1084 and1082) covering the time interval from 3.3 to 2.5 Ma BP were investigated. Due to their sensitiveness to ecological parameters, organic-walled dinoflagellates reflect oceanographic characteristics keenly. The analyses discover clear distribution differences of individual species, especially of those that are sensible or resistant against aerobic decay. The sensible species, (Protoperidinium and Echinidinium), have their highest abundance from 2.76 to 2.73 Ma BP, a time interval in which the resistant species show no significant changes in their abundance. This implies that during this time interval the oxygen was reduced in the deep- and porewater suggesting that the global ocean deepwater circulation was weakened. Comparing these results with the known intensification of the NHG at around 2.74 Ma BP leads to the speculation that the increasing of ice caps in the northern hemisphere is highly associated with

  5. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically monitored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific operational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC. The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with existing methods for the same dataset.

  6. Systems and method for lagrangian monitoring of flooding conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-12-17

    A traffic monitoring system and method for mapping traffic speed and density while preserving privacy. The system can include fixed stations that make up a network and mobile probes that are associated with vehicles. The system and method do not gather, store, or transmit any unique or identifying information, and thereby preserves the privacy of members of traffic. The system and method provide real-time traffic density and speed mapping. The system and method can further be integrated with a complementary flood monitoring system and method.

  7. Mobile geographic information system (GIS) solution for pavement condition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    This report discusses the design and implementation of a software-based solution that will improve the data collection processes during the Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) conducted by the State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida Department of Tr...

  8. Mobile geographic information system solution for pavement condition surveys [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida : Department of Transportation (FDOT) performs : annual Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) of : the Departments extensive pavement network. : This work is performed by single-person crews in : inertial...

  9. An Assessment of Performance and Condition Monitoring Requirements of Foreign Marine Diesel Propulsion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the requirements and recommended practices for diesel engine diagnostic, performance and condition monitoring systems for medium and slow speed diesel propulsion systems...

  10. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  11. Carbon nanotube conditioning part 1—effect of interwall interaction on the electronic band gap of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, M.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.; Barrera, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    Ab initio density functional theory simulations were used to calculate the electronic structure and the total energy of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). The relaxed configurations studied were uncapped, infinitely-long zigzag@zigzag double-walled carbon nanotubes. The lowest energy configuration was found to correspond to an interwall distance of 0.35 nm, except for the configurations with inner tube chiral indices (5,0), (6,0) and (7,0). The largest binding energies were found to correspond to a 0.35 nm interwall distance for all the DWCNT configurations studied, and increasing with DWCNT average diameter. In terms of the effect of the interwall interaction on the electronic band gap of DWCNTs, four regions of band gap were obtained which were termed: zero band gap, narrow band gap, small band gap, and medium band gap regions. These regions offer the possibility to first tune the electronic band gap to a region with a desired range, and further tune that choice within the region itself by varying the interwall distance. It was also found that zigzag@zigzag DWCNTs with outer tube leading chiral index n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k + 2 (k being an integer) follow, as a general trend, an inversely proportional relation of the electronic band gap with respect to the average diameter.

  12. A Conditions Data Management System for HEP Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycock, P. J. [CERN; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Formica, A. [Saclay; Govi, G. [Fermilab; Pfeiffer, A. [CERN; Roe, S. [CERN; Sipos, R. [Eotvos U.

    2017-01-01

    Conditions data infrastructure for both ATLAS and CMS have to deal with the management of several Terabytes of data. Distributed computing access to this data requires particular care and attention to manage request-rates of up to several tens of kHz. Thanks to the large overlap in use cases and requirements, ATLAS and CMS have worked towards a common solution for conditions data management with the aim of using this design for data-taking in Run 3. In the meantime other experiments, including NA62, have expressed an interest in this cross- experiment initiative. For experiments with a smaller payload volume and complexity, there is particular interest in simplifying the payload storage. The conditions data management model is implemented in a small set of relational database tables. A prototype access toolkit consisting of an intermediate web server has been implemented, using standard technologies available in the Java community. Access is provided through a set of REST services for which the API has been described in a generic way using standard Open API specications, implemented in Swagger. Such a solution allows the automatic generation of client code and server stubs and further allows changes in the backend technology transparently. An important advantage of using a REST API for conditions access is the possibility of caching identical URLs, addressing one of the biggest challenges that large distributed computing solutions impose on conditions data access, avoiding direct DB access by means of standard web proxy solutions.

  13. Investigation of Displacement Behavior and Deformation Capacity of I-Shaped Steel- Concrete Shear Wall due to Cyclic Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmer; Kim, Doo Kie; Cui, Jin Tao [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Gook [R and D Center, JACE Korea Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The steel-concrete (SC) composite shear walls have been increasingly used in construction industry. Regarding geometry, I-shaped wall units are frequently considered to be used as structural members of safety class structures. SC shear walls are found to be quite efficient replacement of conventional RC walls. These wall systems are able to withstand high in-plane lateral forces at low displacement levels, used for better seismic resistance and reduce overall buckling of concrete by extra steel confinement. This study focuses on the global structural behavior of walls when steel and concrete are brought in place to act as a unit. The study investigates the load-displacement behavior and deformation capacity of composite SC shear wall through cyclic test and finite element analysis. Including the dynamic test results, details of modeling of structural components, contact conditions between steel and concrete, associated boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for cyclic loading are explained in this paper

  14. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  15. EFFECTIVE USE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS IN POLISH CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Niechaj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems form two groups: grid-connected ones and stand-alone ones. The first group can be divided into: centralised systems with large power (PV farms, and decentralised systems with low-power (especially prosumer ones. The second group includes systems with electric buffer sources (especially with electrochemical batteries, and those without electric buffer sources (possibly with non-electric buffer sources. Due to significant decline in price of PV modules, both of these groups are becoming increasingly common in Poland, especially grid-connected ones. Additional factor for prosumer systems is economic and legal support in a form of exemption from fees for connection to grid, lack of additional required licenses for such connection, and possible support in a form of guaranteed sale prices to grid (feed-in tariffs of electrical energy generated in system. However, in case of systems not covered by economic benefits, increasing, or even ensuring, their cost-effectiveness, requires the number of ventures regarding areas of proper installation and operation rules of PV generator from installer/user/owner of system, as well as selection of suitable tariff and rational restructuring of energy demands. Detailed analysis and conclusions of these ventures, especially for prosumer systems, is discussed in paper.

  16. Systemic conditions among dental patients in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 199 (19.3%) patients on medications, anti-microbial drugs were the most commonly used (7.0%). Over 56% of the subjects had a medical condition. Drug allergy (26.6%), respiratory diseases (8.2%), arthritis (5.0%) and cardiovascular diseases (5.0%) were most frequently reported. The high frequency of medical ...

  17. Personal warning system for vessels under bad weather conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many services provide weather forecasts, including severe weather alerts for the marine. It proves that many ships neglect the warnings because they expect to be able to handle the bad weather conditions. In order to identify possible unsafe situations the Coast Guard needs to observe marine vessel

  18. Conditions of Flexibility: Securing a More Responsive Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This report is the culmination of the "Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future" series of reports which have considered flexible learning from a range of perspectives. The report proposes fifteen conditions of flexibility to inject new thinking and new practices into an emerging new age. Flexible provision has the potential to…

  19. Conditional anomaly detection methods for patient-management alert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Michal; Cooper, Gregory; Seybert, Amy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Saul, Melissa; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2008-07-01

    Anomaly detection methods can be very useful in identifying unusual or interesting patterns in data. A recently proposed conditional anomaly detection framework extends anomaly detection to the problem of identifying anomalous patterns on a subset of attributes in the data. The anomaly always depends (is conditioned) on the value of remaining attributes. The work presented in this paper focuses on instance-based methods for detecting conditional anomalies. The methods rely on the distance metric to identify examples in the dataset that are most critical for detecting the anomaly. We investigate various metrics and metric learning methods to optimize the performance of the instance-based anomaly detection methods. We show the benefits of the instance-based methods on two real-world detection problems: detection of unusual admission decisions for patients with the community-acquired pneumonia and detection of unusual orders of an HPF4 test that is used to confirm Heparin induced thrombocytopenia - a life-threatening condition caused by the Heparin therapy.

  20. Conditional anomaly detection methods for patient–management alert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Michal; Cooper, Gregory; Seybert, Amy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Saul, Melissa; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2010-01-01

    Anomaly detection methods can be very useful in identifying unusual or interesting patterns in data. A recently proposed conditional anomaly detection framework extends anomaly detection to the problem of identifying anomalous patterns on a subset of attributes in the data. The anomaly always depends (is conditioned) on the value of remaining attributes. The work presented in this paper focuses on instance–based methods for detecting conditional anomalies. The methods rely on the distance metric to identify examples in the dataset that are most critical for detecting the anomaly. We investigate various metrics and metric learning methods to optimize the performance of the instance–based anomaly detection methods. We show the benefits of the instance–based methods on two real–world detection problems: detection of unusual admission decisions for patients with the community–acquired pneumonia and detection of unusual orders of an HPF4 test that is used to confirm Heparin induced thrombocytopenia — a life–threatening condition caused by the Heparin therapy. PMID:25392850

  1. Working conditions and stress in the English education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravalier, J M; Walsh, J

    2018-02-17

    The UK education sector has among the highest level of stress sickness absence of all occupations. However, investigations of psychosocial working conditions which contribute to stress, including behaviour of students and parents, has not been conducted. To investigate the psychosocial working conditions and prevalence of negative parental and student behaviour in a large sample of school teachers and college lecturers based in England. In addition, to assess the influence of working conditions, student behaviour and parental behaviour on perceived stress. A cross-sectional survey of teachers in England. Respondents completed the Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), Student Behaviour Scale and a two-item measure of parental behaviour. Differences in these measures across different teaching roles were assessed using analysis of variance. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of MSIT, student and parental behaviour on PSS outcomes. Compared to UK benchmark scoring, psychosocial working conditions were at a poor level, with primary teachers in particular exposed to negative parental behaviours, and secondary teachers to poor student behaviour. Demands were consistently associated with perceived stress outcomes across job roles, although management support and relationships with peers also played a part. Demands faced by teachers in England played an important part in the experience of stress. Interventions to reduce these demands, and the high frequencies of negative pupil and parental behaviours, should be considered.

  2. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  3. Microprocessor supervised stability control system for the united power system of Middle Volga in fault conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdnikov, V.I.; Birgel, E.R.; Kovalev, V.D.; Kuznestov, A.N.

    1994-12-31

    The development of the 500 kV UPS of Middle Volga, the complication of its configuration and operating conditions particularly in connection with concentration of the generating power at Balakovo NPS have aggravated the problem of stability of the Middle Volga UPS when high power is transmitted along the 500 kV transient system. In this case the necessity for improving control actions` dosage accuracy has also appeared. This work discusses solution to the above mentioned issue. (author) 3 figs.

  4. Thermal performance of marketed SDHW systems under laboratory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua

    A test facility for solar domestic hot water systems, SDHW systems was established at the Technical University of Denmark in 1992. During the period 1992-2012 21 marketed SDHW systems, 16 systems from Danish manufacturers and 5 systems from manufacturers from abroad, have been tested in the test ...... comfort, avoiding simple errors, using the low flow principle and heat stores with a high degree of thermal stratification and by using components with good thermal characteristics....... to the models were fitted in such a way, that the calculated thermal performance is in good agreement with the measured thermal performance, both for a typical winter period and for a typical summer period. In this way it is possible to use the simulation models to calculate the yearly thermal performance...

  5. Ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter for linear time-dependent PDEs with noisy boundary conditions: Application to heat transfer in building walls

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco

    2017-11-26

    In this work, we present the ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter (EnMKF), a sequential algorithm analogous to our previously proposed approach [1,2], for estimating the state and parameters of linear parabolic partial differential equations in initial-boundary value problems when the boundary data are noisy. We apply EnMKF to infer the thermal properties of building walls and to estimate the corresponding heat flux from real and synthetic data. Compared with a modified Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that is not marginalized, EnMKF reduces the bias error, avoids the collapse of the ensemble without needing to add inflation, and converges to the mean field posterior using $50\\\\%$ or less of the ensemble size required by EnKF. According to our results, the marginalization technique in EnMKF is key to performance improvement with smaller ensembles at any fixed time.

  6. Design, development, and demonstration of a fully LabVIEW controlled in situ electrochemical Fourier transform infrared setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrochemical interface of nanoparticulate electrocatalysts under reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselberger, Markus; Ashton, Sean J; Wiberg, Gustav K H; Arenz, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction of an in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of nanoparticulate catalysts in situ under controlled mass transport conditions. The presented setup allows the electrochemical interface to be probed in combination with the simultaneous determination of reaction rates. At the same time, the high level of automation allows it to be used as a standard tool in electrocatalysis research. The performance of the setup was demonstrated by probing the oxygen reduction reaction on a platinum black catalyst in sulfuric electrolyte.

  7. A Conditions Data Management System for HEP Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Conditions data infrastructure for both ATLAS and CMS have to deal with the management of several Terabytes of data. Distributed computing access to this data requires particular care and attention to manage request-rates of up to several tens of kHz. Thanks to the large overlap in use cases and requirements, ATLAS and CMS have worked towards a common solution for conditions data management with the aim of using this design for data-taking in Run 3. In the meantime other experiments, including NA62, have expressed an interest in this cross-experiment initiative. For experiments with a smaller payload volume and complexity, there is particular interest in simplifying the payload storage. The conditions data management model is implemented in a small set of relational database tables. A prototype access toolkit consisting of an intermediate web server has been implemented, using standard technologies available in the Java community. Access is provided through a set of REST services for which the API has been de...

  8. Building elements and systems using vacuum insulated panels in external walling; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a research project concerning vacuum-insulated building elements and systems. The advantages of the thin vacuum insulation panels (VIP) are listed and compared with the increasingly thick layers of conventional insulation required for low energy consumption buildings that meet so-called 'passive house' standard. The aims of the research project are discussed which addressed the particular requirements placed on the materials and their protection against external damage. The monitoring of vacuum state using RFID chips is discussed. Various protective elements are examined. Also, facade constructions and the avoidance of thermal short circuits are discussed. Illustrated examples of applications are presented and developments in this fast-moving area are commented on.

  9. Expert system for determining welding condition for a pressure vessel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Morita, Hideki; Yamauchi, Yoshihisa; Nagasawa, Isao; Tsuji, Shuichi

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the outline of the expert system for producing a Welding Procedure Specification for a pressure vessel which was developed with the grant from the Ministry of International Trade...

  10. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  11. Crop and Irrigation Management Systems under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro García-Caparrós

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Ruscus aculeatus, known as “butcher’s broom”, Maytenus senegalensis, known as “confetti tree”, and Juncus acutus, known as “spiny rush” were grown in pots with a mixture of sphagnum peat-moss and Perlite in order to determine the effect and evolution over time of three water use systems on plant growth, water saving and nutrient uptake. These were an open system (irrigated with standard nutrient solution and two closed systems (blended-water (drainage water blended with water of low electrical conductivity (EC and sequential reuse of drainage (sequential-reuse water, over a period of 8 weeks. Irrigation with blended- and sequential-reuse-water increased the biomass of all three species at the end of the experiment, compared to the open system. Overall, sequential-reuse-water treatment maximised biomass production. The application of blended- and sequential-reuse-water allowed savings of 17% of water in comparison to the open system. Regarding Cl, NO3− and H2PO4− loads, there was a removal of 5%, 32% and 32%; respectively in the blended-water treatment and 15%, 17% and 17% in the sequential-reuse water treatment compared to the open system. For the cation loads (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in these water treatments there was a removal of 10%, 32%, 7% and 18% respectively in the blended-water treatment, and 17%, 22%, 17% and 18% respectively in the sequential-reuse treatment, compared to the open system.

  12. Multi-source driven capillary plane radiation air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juanjuan; Qu, Mofeng; Wang, Huasheng; Ni, Shiyao

    2017-08-01

    A new absorption refrigeration system, which is driven by solar energy, biomass energy and geothermal energy simultaneously, was designed with capillaries as its radiation surface. Likewise, variations of water temperature in the capillaries with the change in both time and its flow rate were experimentally researched as well as how COP of the system varies with the surrounding temperature. The following conclusions have been obtained: Common refrigeration demand can be met by the system after its operation in 1 hour; with the increase in water flow rate in the capillaries, its temperature, which drops down after an increase, gets its peak value at the flow rate of 4.5-5.5 L/min; COP of the system decreases with the rise of surrounding temperature, thus it's better to keep it from direct sunlight. With the utilization of natural energy and the structure of capillaries, the system's advantages in simple structure, low cost, environment-friendly working process and nice performance lead to promising application prospects, especially in residence refrigeration in countryside.

  13. Optimization of conditions for gene delivery system based on PEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Cheraghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PEI based nanoparticle (NP due to dual capabilities of proton sponge and DNA binding is known as powerful tool for nucleic acid delivery to cells. However, serious cytotoxicity and complicated conditions, which govern NPs properties and its interactions with cells practically, hindered achievement to high transfection efficiency. Here, we have tried to optimize the properties of PEI/ firefly luciferase plasmid complexes and cellular condition to improve transfection efficiency. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, firefly luciferase, as a robust gene reporter, was complexed with PEI to prepare NPs with different size and charge. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were evaluated using agarose gel retardation and dynamic light scattering.  MCF7 and BT474 cells at different confluency were also transfected with prepared nanoparticles at various concentrations for short and long times. Results: The branched PEI can instantaneously bind to DNA and form cationic NPs. The results demonstrated the production of nanoparticles with size about 100-500 nm dependent on N/P ratio. Moreover, increase of nanoparticles concentration on the cell surface drastically improved the transfection rate, so at a concentration of 30 ng/ìl, the highest transfection efficiency was achieved. On the other side, at confluency between 40-60%, the maximum efficiency was obtained. The result demonstrated that N/P ratio of 12 could establish an optimized ratio between transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PEI/plasmid nanoparticles. The increase of NPs N/P ratio led to significant cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Obtained results verified the optimum conditions for PEI based gene delivery in different cell lines.

  14. TOURISM AVL SYSTEM - TOURISTIC SUPPORT GUIDENCE ON THE MOBILITY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel STANCIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of tourism markets and technological development, unprecedented in the last decade, require repositioning of stakeholders that are directly interested in the development of tourism and travel industry. The focus is more stringent on the information services - communication and orientation – targeting with addressability to the tourists. This becomes as imperative to strengthen common standards for basic tourist information and exchange format using a hardware-software platform independent with GPS and GIS operating systems embedded. Applications such as AVL integrate web components with geographic data embedded into GIS system and tourist information stored in databases managed by tour operators. Based on this concept, Tourism AVL platform develops a series of applications that collect and analyse spatial data and also offers tourist-oriented services that focus touristic attractions recommended by the system based on explicit queries and trip options made by tourists.

  15. Form of Government and Political System: Conditions of Impossibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Iancu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful constitutions manage to predetermine in juridical frame the political life of a country, by imposing a durable core equilibrium, i.e., a specific political system. The integrative function of the constitution derives from a reflexive political decision, at the constitution-making moment, for a specific form. The current theoretical difficulty in characterizing with precision the political system established by the Constitution of 1991 reflects the syncopated constitutional conflicts of recent years. The instability can be traced back to the continued absence of the preconditions for a genuine constitutional foundation. The initial indecision has been reinforced by later influences, including the EU accession process.

  16. Estimating Health Condition of the Wind Turbine Drivetrain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition Monitoring (CM has been considered as an effective method to enhance the reliability of wind turbines and implement cost-effective maintenance. Thus, adopting an efficient approach for condition monitoring of wind turbines is desirable. This paper presents a data-driven model-based CM approach for wind turbines based on the online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM algorithm. A physical kinetic energy correction model is employed to normalize the temperature change to the value at the rated power output to eliminate the effect of variable speed operation of the turbines. The residual signal, obtained by comparing the predicted values and practical measurements, is processed by the physical correction model and then assessed with a Bonferroni interval method for fault diagnosis. Models have been validated using supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA data acquired from an operational wind farm, which contains various types of temperature data of the gearbox. The results show that the proposed method can detect more efficiently both the long-term aging characteristics and the short-term faults of the gearbox.

  17. Analysis of pitch system data for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; van de Pieterman, René P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    at a constant pitch velocity, but the 10 min maximum values are only approximately proportional, because the maximum values occur during acceleration and not simultaneously. These findings are important to consider, if using the pitch motor current or torque as an indicator for the pitch system health...

  18. Gradation of microcapsule wall porosity by deposition of polymer mixtures (Eudragit RL and Eudragit RS). Phase separation of polymer mixtures and effects of external media and conditions on release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donbrow, M; Hoffman, A; Benita, S

    1995-01-01

    With the aim of increasing flexibility in controlling release from microcapsules, mixtures of wall polymers varying in porosity were investigated by phase separation. Eudragit RL and RS (polymethylmethacrylate linear backbone polymers) mixtures differing in polar substituent content and porosity were used as the wall material and were deposited using a non-solvent addition method. Release rates increased with polar group content of the mixtures, using theophylline, potassium dichromate or sodium chloride as model core materials. Theophylline release rate had the same relationship to polar group content as found earlier for urea permeation of cast mixed-polymer films. Release was generally accelerated in these systems when the external medium contained sodium lauryl sulphate as a wetting agent but not consistently, decreasing unexpectedly for RL-theophylline microcapsules. Localized dissolution of core substance was visible microscopically during release from single microcapsules. The release rate was sensitive to agitation intensity only at low wall to core ratios. Temperature change revealed only a single release mechanism for sodium chloride by Arrhenius equation treatment. Buffer ions penetrated coatings readily, changing theophylline release rates and providing clear evidence of diffusion via a pore-capillary mechanism.

  19. Outcomes of Project Wall Talk: An HIV/AIDS Peer Education Program Implemented within the Texas State Prison System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael W.; Harzke, Amy Jo; Scott, Deborah P.; McCann, Kelly; Kelley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We report select outcomes from an evaluation of Project Wall Talk, a community-based, peer-led HIV prevention education program implemented in 36 Texas State prison units. Peer educators completed questionnaires prior to receipt of a 40-hour intensive training (N = 590) and at 9-month follow-up (N = 257). Students (N = 2506) completed…

  20. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... can occur simultaneously, whereas faults belonging to different fault sets appear disjoint in time. The proposed fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme consists of three steps. A fault detection (FD) step is followed by a fault set isolation (FSI) step. Here the fault set is isolated wherein...... the faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step....

  1. Exact Analytical Solution of the Peristaltic Nanofluids Flow in an Asymmetric Channel with Flexible Walls and Slip Condition: Application to the Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Ebaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cancer treatment, magnetic nanoparticles are injected into the blood vessel nearest to the cancer’s tissues. The dynamic of these nanoparticles occurs under the action of the peristaltic waves generated on the flexible walls of the blood vessel. Studying such nanofluid flow under this action is therefore useful in treating tissues of the cancer. In this paper, the mathematical model describing the slip peristaltic flow of nanofluid was analytically investigated. Exact expressions were deduced for the temperature distribution and nano-particle concentration. In addition, the effects of the slip, thermophoresis, and Brownian motion parameters on the temperature and nano-particle concentration profiles were discussed and further compared with other approximate results in the literatures. In particular, these results have been obtained at the same values of the physical examined parameters that was considered in Akbar et al., “Peristaltic flow of a nanofluid with slip effects,” 2012. The results reveal that remarkable differences are detected between the exact current results and those approximately obtained in the literatures for behaviour of the temperature profile and nano-particles concentration. Accordingly, the current analysis and results are considered as optimal and therefore may be taken as a base for any future comparisons.

  2. Astronomical and Meteorological Conditions of a Solar System Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    Acquisition and processing of as much solar energy for heating and electricity generation in Poland and in the world is a very important objective in the policy of alternative energy sources. The main problem with the reception of solar energy by solar collectors is vary energy supply at different times of day and year and low flux density of radiation. The term of solar radiation one mean transmission or emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The radiation emitted from the surface of the sun spreads out in all directions in space, reaches the Earth’s surface in only partly, especially the solar collectors. The most important parameters characterizing solar radiation are daily, monthly and annual sum of solar radiation. Its express the amount of solar energy which falls on a unit area at a given time. Number of hours of sunshine during the day are dependent on two key factors. The first one is the time from the sunrise to sunset, which strongly depends on the date and latitude. The second factor is the weather (clouds), influences solar radiation, radiation in touch with clouds is absorbed and dissipated. This publication shows the impact on the energy yield of the flat collector installation and astronomical conditions (angle of inclination and declination of solar), and climate. The calculations of determining the astronomical conditions of the place where the installation is located ware analyzed. The solar installation is located in Rzeszow (Poland) and the plate collector placed on the roof of building. Based on specific methodology for selected days the calculation of the elevation angle of the Sun, hourly angle, the sun azimuth and angle of incidence of the radiation on any plane were set. The results are shown in diagrams. The effect of cloud cover on the acquisition of solar energy by the collector is also shown.

  3. Development of a Versatile Laser-Ultrasonic System and Application to the Online Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentricity of Seamless Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert V. Kolarik II

    2002-10-23

    A system for the online, non-contact measurement of wall thickness in steel seamless mechanical tubing has been developed and demonstrated at a tubing production line at the Timken Company in Canton, Ohio. The system utilizes laser-generation of ultrasound and laser-detection of time of flight with interferometry, laser-doppler velocimetry and pyrometry, all with fiber coupling. Accuracy (<1% error) and precision (1.5%) are at targeted levels. Cost and energy savings have exceeded estimates. The system has shown good reliability in measuring over 200,000 tubes in its first six months of deployment.

  4. Parametric Analysis of a Rotary Type Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujahid Rafique

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Now days, air conditioning systems are a must for almost every commercial and residential building to achieve comfortable indoor conditions. The increasing energy demand, and increasing oil prices and pollution levels raise the need for alternative air conditioning systems which can efficiently utilize renewable energy resources. The liquid desiccant-based air conditioning method is pollution free and thermal energy-based cooling techniques can use low grade thermal energy resources like solar energy, waste heat, etc. These systems have an additional advantage of cleaning bacteria and fungi from the air. In this paper, a newly proposed rotary liquid desiccant air conditioning system has been investigated theoretically. Most direct contact liquid desiccant cooling systems have the problem of desiccant carryover which can be eliminated using the proposed system. The effects of various key parameters and climatic conditions on the performance of the system have been evaluated. The results showed that if the key parameters of the system are controlled effectively, the proposed cooling system has the ability to achieve the desired supply air conditions. The system can achieve high coefficient of performance (COP under different conditions. The dehumidifier has a sensible heat ratio (SHR in the range of 0.3–0.6 for different design, climatic, and operating conditions. The system can remove latent load efficiently in applications which require good humidity control.

  5. Improvements in absorption systems for solar air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Bourne, J.R.; Ben-Dror, J.; Kimchi, Y.; Vardi, I.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical evaluation is described of two design improvements made in a lithium bromide absorption chiller which increase its efficiency and operating range in solar applications. One is the addition of a solution preheater which allows for a considerable reduction in generator size and cost, and improves performance at part load. The other is the addition of an auxiliary generator which enables the chiller to operate at nominal capacity or higher at all times, while utilizing to a maximum the solar radiation available at the time, however small. This is an effective solution to the problem of back-up required in all solar powered systems. The evaluation has been performed by computer simulation and results are presented for the performance of the unit with different configurations of the above systems.

  6. Moving Object Detection in Heterogeneous Conditions in Embedded Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Alessandro; Quer, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a system for moving object exposure, focusing on pedestrian detection, in external, unfriendly, and heterogeneous environments. The system manipulates and accurately merges information coming from subsequent video frames, making small computational efforts in each single frame. Its main characterizing feature is to combine several well-known movement detection and tracking techniques, and to orchestrate them in a smart way to obtain good results in diversified scenarios. It uses dynamically adjusted thresholds to characterize different regions of interest, and it also adopts techniques to efficiently track movements, and detect and correct false positives. Accuracy and reliability mainly depend on the overall receipt, i.e., on how the software system is designed and implemented, on how the different algorithmic phases communicate information and collaborate with each other, and on how concurrency is organized. The application is specifically designed to work with inexpensive hardware devices, such as off-the-shelf video cameras and small embedded computational units, eventually forming an intelligent urban grid. As a matter of fact, the major contribution of the paper is the presentation of a tool for real-time applications in embedded devices with finite computational (time and memory) resources. We run experimental results on several video sequences (both home-made and publicly available), showing the robustness and accuracy of the overall detection strategy. Comparisons with state-of-the-art strategies show that our application has similar tracking accuracy but much higher frame-per-second rates.

  7. Moving Object Detection in Heterogeneous Conditions in Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Garbo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for moving object exposure, focusing on pedestrian detection, in external, unfriendly, and heterogeneous environments. The system manipulates and accurately merges information coming from subsequent video frames, making small computational efforts in each single frame. Its main characterizing feature is to combine several well-known movement detection and tracking techniques, and to orchestrate them in a smart way to obtain good results in diversified scenarios. It uses dynamically adjusted thresholds to characterize different regions of interest, and it also adopts techniques to efficiently track movements, and detect and correct false positives. Accuracy and reliability mainly depend on the overall receipt, i.e., on how the software system is designed and implemented, on how the different algorithmic phases communicate information and collaborate with each other, and on how concurrency is organized. The application is specifically designed to work with inexpensive hardware devices, such as off-the-shelf video cameras and small embedded computational units, eventually forming an intelligent urban grid. As a matter of fact, the major contribution of the paper is the presentation of a tool for real-time applications in embedded devices with finite computational (time and memory resources. We run experimental results on several video sequences (both home-made and publicly available, showing the robustness and accuracy of the overall detection strategy. Comparisons with state-of-the-art strategies show that our application has similar tracking accuracy but much higher frame-per-second rates.

  8. Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Bouwman, Jildau; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Postmus, Jarne; Canelas, Andre B.; Mensonides, Femke I. C.; Orij, Rick; Tuzun, Isil; van den Brink, Joost; Smits, Gertien J.; van Gulik, Walter M.; Brul, Stanley; de Winde, Johannes H.; de Mattos, M. J. Teixeira; Kettner, Carsten; Nielsen, Jens; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay

  9. Through-the-wall radar imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness G

    2011-01-01

    Wall Attenuation and Dispersion, A. Hussein Muqaibel, M.A. Alsunaidi, Nuruddeen M. Iya, and A. Safaai-JaziAntenna Elements, Arrays, and Systems for Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging, A. Hoorfar and A. FathyBeamforming for Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging, G. Alli and D. DiFilippoImage and Localization of Behind-the-Wall Targets Using Collocated and Distributed Apertures, Y.D. Zhang and A. HuntConventional and Emerging Waveforms for Detection and Imaging of Targets behind Walls, F. Ahmad and R.M. NarayananInverse Scattering Approaches in Through-the-Wall Imaging, K. Sarabandi, M. Thiel, M. Dehmollai

  10. The Financial Stress Index: Identification of Systemic Risk Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Oet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a financial stress measure for the United States, the Cleveland Financial Stress Index (CFSI. The index is based on publicly available data describing a six-market partition of the financial system comprising credit, funding, real estate, securitization, foreign exchange, and equity markets. This paper improves upon existing stress measures by objectively selecting between several index weighting methodologies across a variety of monitoring frequencies through comparison against a volatility-based benchmark series. The resulting measure facilitates the decomposition of stress to identify disruptions in specific markets and provides insight into historical stress regimes.

  11. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  12. A Systematic Method of Assessing the Durability of Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacasse, Michael A.; Morelli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , a limit-states design approach is described that forms the basis of a performance assessment method for wood-frame wall assemblies. The approach is based on the requirements set out in ISO 13823. The approach, developed for the Moisture Management of Exterior Wall Systems (MEWS) project, is described......The long-term performance in respect to moisture management within any wall assembly depends on the hygrothermal response of the wall. Critical factors in estimating the longevity of wood-frame structures include limiting the temperature range, wood moisture content, and time of exposure...... to conditions suitable for the onset, growth, and propagation of mold and rot to occur. The intent in constructing highly insulted wood-frame walls is evidently to reduce energy usage in buildings, but the energy savings as might accrue necessarily cannot be achieved if these walls fail prematurely due...

  13. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Poulsen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2 and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step

  14. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Sarah S; Knudsen, Kristina B; Jackson, Petra; Weydahl, Ingrid E K; Saber, Anne T; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step towards designing

  15. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Kristina B.; Jackson, Petra; Weydahl, Ingrid E. K.; Saber, Anne T.; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step towards designing

  16. Conditions for monogamy of quantum correlations in multipartite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in

    2016-09-07

    Highlights: • Monogamy of quantum correlations. • Monogamous quantum correlation measures remain so on raising of power. • Non-monogamous quantum correlations remain so on lowering of power. • Monogamy of a convex quantum correlation measure for an arbitrary multipartite pure quantum state leads to its monogamy for the mixed states. • A new monogamy inequality for quantum correlations, stronger than the standard one. - Abstract: Monogamy of quantum correlations is a vibrant area of research because of its potential applications in several areas in quantum information ranging from quantum cryptography to co-operative phenomena in many-body physics. In this paper, we investigate conditions under which monogamy is preserved for functions of quantum correlation measures. We prove that a monogamous measure remains monogamous on raising its power, and a non-monogamous measure remains non-monogamous on lowering its power. We also prove that monogamy of a convex quantum correlation measure for arbitrary multipartite pure quantum state leads to its monogamy for mixed states in the same Hilbert space. Monogamy of squared negativity for mixed states and that of entanglement of formation follow as corollaries of our results.

  17. Conditional gene expression in Chlamydia trachomatis using the tet system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Wickstrum

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is maintained through a complex bi-phasic developmental cycle that incorporates numerous processes that are poorly understood. This is reflective of the previous paucity of genetic tools available. The recent advent of a method for transforming Chlamydia has enabled the development of essential molecular tools to better study these medically important bacteria. Critical for the study of Chlamydia biology and pathogenesis, is a system for tightly controlled inducible gene expression. To accomplish this, a new shuttle vector was generated with gene expression controlled by the Tetracycline repressor and anhydryotetracycline. Evaluation of GFP expression by this system demonstrated tightly controlled gene regulation with rapid protein expression upon induction and restoration of transcription repression following inducer removal. Additionally, induction of expression could be detected relatively early during the developmental cycle and concomitant with conversion into the metabolically active form of Chlamydia. Uniform and strong GFP induction was observed during middle stages of the developmental cycle. Interestingly, variable induced GFP expression by individual organisms within shared inclusions during later stages of development suggesting metabolic diversity is affecting induction and/or expression. These observations support the strong potential of this molecular tool to enable numerous experimental analyses for a better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of Chlamydia.

  18. Power Conditioning System Modelling for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA LeRC is currently developing a Fortran based model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle that would be used for piloted and cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. The proposed vehicle design will use either a Brayton or K-Rankine power conversion cycle to drive a turbine coupled with a rotary alternator. Two thruster types are also being studied, ion and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD). In support of this NEP model, Rocketdyne developed a power management and distribution (PMAD) subroutine that provides parametric outputs for selected alternator operating voltages and frequencies, thruster types, system power levels, and electronics coldplate temperatures. The end-to-end PMAD model described is based on the direct use of the alternator voltage and frequency for transmitting power to either ion or MPD thrusters. This low frequency transmission approach was compared with dc and high frequency ac designs, and determined to have the lowest mass, highest efficiency, highest reliability and lowest development costs. While its power quality is not as good as that provided by a high frequency system, it was considered adequate for both ion and MPD engine applications. The low frequency architecture will be used as the reference in future NEP PMAD studies.

  19. Solar energy contribution to the energy demand for air conditioning system in an office building under Tripoli climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah Mohamed H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of solar assisted air conditioning in an office building under Tripoli weather conditions is investigated in this paper. A single-effect lithium bromide absorption cycle powered by means of flat-plate solar collectors was modeled in order to predict the potential of the solar energy share. The cooling load profile was generated by using an detailed hourly based program and Typical meteorological year for Tripoli. System performance and solar energy fraction were calculated by varying two major parameters (collector’s slope angle and collector area. The maximum solar fraction of 48% was obtained by means of 1400 m2 of collector surface area. Analysis of results showed that, besides the collector surface area, the main factors affecting the solar fraction were the local weather conditions (intensity of incident solar radiation and the time of day when the plant was operated.

  20. Wireless microwave acoustic sensor system for condition monitoring in power plant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio [Univ. of Maine, Orno, ME (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This project successfully demonstrated novel wireless microwave acoustic temperature and pressure sensors that can be embedded into equipment and structures located in fossil fuel power plant environments to monitor the condition of components such as steam headers, re-heat lines, water walls, burner tubes, and power turbines. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology researched and developed through a collaborative partnership between the University of Maine and Environetix Technologies Corporation can provide a revolutionary impact in the power industry since it is anticipated that the wireless sensors will deliver reliable real-time sensing information in harsh power plant conditions that involve temperatures up to 1100oC and pressures up to 750 psi. The work involved the research and development of novel high temperature harsh environment thin film electrodes, piezoelectric smart microwave acoustic sensing elements, sensor encapsulation materials that were engineered to function over long times up to 1100oC, and a radio-frequency (RF) wireless interrogation electronics unit that are located both inside and outside the high temperature harsh environment. The UMaine / Environetix team have interacted with diverse power plant facilities, and identified as a testbed a local power generation facility, which burns municipal solid waste (MSW), the Penobscot Energy Recovery Company (PERC), Orrington, Maine. In this facility Environetix / UMaine successfully implemented and tested multiple wireless temperature sensor systems within the harsh-environment of the economizer chamber and at the boiler tubes, transferring the developed technology to the power plant environment to perform real-time sensor monitoring experiments under typical operating conditions, as initially targeted in the project. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology developed under this project for power plant applications offers several significant advantages including wireless

  1. Thorium Chemistry in Oxo-Tellurium System under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bin; Kegler, Philip; Bosbach, Dirk; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2017-03-06

    Through the use of a high-temperature/high-pressure synthesis method, four thorium oxo-tellurium compounds with different tellurium valence states were isolated. The novel inorganic phases illustrate the intrinsic complexity of the actinide tellurium chemistry under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. Th2Te3O11 is the first instance of a mixed-valent oxo-tellurium compound, and at the same time, Te exhibits three different coordination environments (TeIVO3, TeIVO4, and TeVIO6) within a single structure. These three types of Te polyhedra are further fused together, resulting in a [Te3O11]8- fragment. Na4Th2(TeVI3O15) and K2Th(TeVIO4)3 are the first alkaline thorium tellurates described in the literature. Both compounds are constructed from ThO9 tricapped trigonal prisms and TeVIO6 octahedra. Na4Th2(TeVI3O15) is a three-dimensional framework based on Th2O15 and Te2O10 dimers, while K2Th(TeVIO4)3 contains tungsten oxide bronze like Te layers linked by ThO9 polyhedra. The structure of β-Th(TeIVO3)(SO4) is built from infinite thorium chains cross-linked by TeIVO32- and SO42- anions. Close structural analysis suggests that β-Th(TeIVO3)(SO4) is highly related to the structure of α-Th(SeO4)2. Additionally, the Raman spectra are recorded and the characteristic peaks are assigned based on a comparison of reported tellurites or tellurates.

  2. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of computer analysis concerning the application of the thermoelement legs material on the basis of Bi2Te3 have shown the possibility of coefficient of performance increase by a factor of 1,6—1,7 as compared with conventional thermoelectric systems.

  3. A robot conditioned reflex system modeled after the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Reduction of a theory of cerebellar function to computer software for the control of a mechanical manipulator. This reduction is achieved by considering the cerebellum, along with the higher-level brain centers which control it, as a type of finite-state machine with input entering the cerebellum via mossy fibers from the periphery and output from the cerebellum occurring via Purkinje cells. It is hypothesized that the cerebellum learns by an error-correction system similar to Perceptron training algorithms. An electromechanical model of the cerebellum is then developed for the control of a mechanical arm. The problem of modeling the granular layer which selects the set of parallel fibers which are active at any instant of time is considered, and a relevance matrix is constructed to model the relative degree of influence which mossy fibers from the various joints have on the sets of granule cells unique to each joint.

  4. The system of equations for mixed BVP with one Dirichlet boundary condition and three Neumann boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Nur Syaza Mohd; Mohamed, Nurul Akmal

    2017-05-01

    Boundary Element Method (BEM) is a numerical way to approximate the solutions of a Boundary Value Problem (BVP). The potential problem which involves the Laplace's equation on the square shape domain will be considered where the boundary is divided into four sets of linear boundary elements. We study the derivation system of equation for mixed BVP with one Dirichlet Boundary Condition (BC) is prescribed on one element of the boundary and Neumann BC on the other three elements. The mixed BVP will be reduced to a Boundary Integral Equation (BIE) by using a direct method which involves Green's second identity representation formula. Then, linear interpolation is used where the boundary will be discretized into some linear elements. As the result, we then obtain the system of linear equations. In conclusion, the specific element in the mixed BVP will have the specific prescribe value depends on the type of boundary condition. For Dirichlet BC, it has only one value at each node but for the Neumann BC, there will be different values at the corner nodes due to outward normal. Therefore, the assembly process for the system of equations related to the mixed BVP may not be as straight forward as Dirichlet BVP and Neumann BVP. For the future research, we will consider the different shape domains for mixed BVP with different prescribed boundary conditions.

  5. Conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing as preoperative predictors of pain following chest wall surgery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosen, Kasper; Vase, Lene; Pilegaard, Hans K; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2014-01-01

    Variability in patients' postoperative pain experience and response to treatment challenges effective pain management. Variability in pain reflects individual differences in inhibitory pain modulation and psychological sensitivity, which in turn may be clinically relevant for the disposition to acquire pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing on postoperative pain and pain persistency. Preoperatively, 42 healthy males undergoing funnel chest surgery completed the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory before undergoing a sequential conditioned pain modulation paradigm. Subsequently, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was introduced and patients were instructed to reference the conditioning pain while answering. Ratings of movement-evoked pain and consumption of morphine equivalents were obtained during postoperative days 2-5. Pain was reevaluated at six months postoperatively. Patients reporting persistent pain at six months follow-up (n = 15) were not significantly different from pain-free patients (n = 16) concerning preoperative conditioned pain modulation response (Z = 1.0, P = 0.3) or level of catastrophizing (Z = 0.4, P = 1.0). In the acute postoperative phase, situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain, independently of anxiety and depression (β = 1.0, P = 0.007) whereas conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption (β = -0.005, P = 0.001). Preoperative conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing were not associated with the development of persistent postoperative pain following funnel chest repair. Secondary outcome analyses indicated that conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption and situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain intensity in the acute postoperative phase. These findings may have important

  6. Conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing as preoperative predictors of pain following chest wall surgery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Grosen

    Full Text Available Variability in patients' postoperative pain experience and response to treatment challenges effective pain management. Variability in pain reflects individual differences in inhibitory pain modulation and psychological sensitivity, which in turn may be clinically relevant for the disposition to acquire pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing on postoperative pain and pain persistency.Preoperatively, 42 healthy males undergoing funnel chest surgery completed the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory before undergoing a sequential conditioned pain modulation paradigm. Subsequently, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was introduced and patients were instructed to reference the conditioning pain while answering. Ratings of movement-evoked pain and consumption of morphine equivalents were obtained during postoperative days 2-5. Pain was reevaluated at six months postoperatively.Patients reporting persistent pain at six months follow-up (n = 15 were not significantly different from pain-free patients (n = 16 concerning preoperative conditioned pain modulation response (Z = 1.0, P = 0.3 or level of catastrophizing (Z = 0.4, P = 1.0. In the acute postoperative phase, situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain, independently of anxiety and depression (β = 1.0, P = 0.007 whereas conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption (β = -0.005, P = 0.001.Preoperative conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing were not associated with the development of persistent postoperative pain following funnel chest repair. Secondary outcome analyses indicated that conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption and situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain intensity in the acute postoperative phase. These findings may have

  7. Aerofoil testing in a self-streamlining flexible walled wind tunnel. Ph.D. Thesis - Jul. 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark Charles

    1988-01-01

    Two-dimensional self-streamlining flexible walled test sections eliminate, as far as experimentally possible, the top and bottom wall interference effects in transonic airfoil testing. The test section sidewalls are rigid, while the impervious top and bottom walls are flexible and contoured to streamline shapes by a system of jacks, without reference to the airfoil model. The concept of wall contouring to eliminate or minimize test section boundary interference in 2-D testing was first demonstrated by NPL in England during the early 40's. The transonic streamlining strategy proposed, developed and used by NPL has been compared with several modern strategies. The NPL strategy has proved to be surprisingly good at providing a wall interference-free test environment, giving model performance indistinguishable from that obtained using the modern strategies over a wide range of test conditions. In all previous investigations the achievement of wall streamlining in flexible walled test sections has been limited to test sections up to those resulting in the model's shock just extending to a streamlined wall. This work however, has also successfully demonstrated the feasibility of 2-D wall streamlining at test conditions where both model shocks have reached and penetrated through their respective flexible walls. Appropriate streamlining procedures have been established and are uncomplicated, enabling flexible walled test sections to cope easily with these high transonic flows.

  8. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-08-30

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and -35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to -15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to -25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear.

  9. Skin condition measurement by using multispectral imaging system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Geunho; Kim, Sungchul; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2017-02-01

    There are a number of commercially available low level light therapy (LLLT) devices in a market, and face whitening or wrinkle reduction is one of targets in LLLT. The facial improvement could be known simply by visual observation of face, but it cannot provide either quantitative data or recognize a subtle change. Clinical diagnostic instruments such as mexameter can provide a quantitative data, but it costs too high for home users. Therefore, we designed a low cost multi-spectral imaging device by adding additional LEDs (470nm, 640nm, white LED, 905nm) to a commercial USB microscope which has two LEDs (395nm, 940nm) as light sources. Among various LLLT skin treatments, we focused on getting melanin and wrinkle information. For melanin index measurements, multi-spectral images of nevus were acquired and melanin index values from color image (conventional method) and from multi-spectral images were compared. The results showed that multi-spectral analysis of melanin index can visualize nevus with a different depth and concentration. A cross section of wrinkle on skin resembles a wedge which can be a source of high frequency components when the skin image is Fourier transformed into a spatial frequency domain map. In that case, the entropy value of the spatial frequency map can represent the frequency distribution which is related with the amount and thickness of wrinkle. Entropy values from multi-spectral images can potentially separate the percentage of thin and shallow wrinkle from thick and deep wrinkle. From the results, we found that this low cost multi-spectral imaging system could be beneficial for home users of LLLT by providing the treatment efficacy in a quantitative way.

  10. Amperometric detection of carbohydrates and thiols by using a glassy carbon electrode coated with Co oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes catalytic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Susanna; Brunetti, Barbara; Mannino, Saverio

    2008-07-15

    A glassy carbon electrode coated with cobalt oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) system was used for the detection of carbohydrates and thiols. The modification of the glassy carbon electrode increased the anodic current response of these organic compounds and decreased their overvoltage. The amperometric responses were extremely stable with no loss of sensitivity over many days of storage. Such attractive performance characteristics indicate great promise for using this new catalytic system for monitoring in fast and simple way compounds of great interest for food industry, biotechnology and clinical diagnostics.

  11. Structural Conditions for Collaboration and Learning in Innovation Networks: Using an Innovation System Performance Lens to Analyse Agricultural Knowledge Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Roep, D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate how the structural conditions of eight different European agricultural innovation systems can facilitate or hinder collaboration and social learning in multidisciplinary innovation networks. Methodology: We have adapted the Innovation System Failure Matrix to investigate the

  12. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  13. A note on a nonresonance condition at zero for first-order planar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Garrione

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Landesman-Lazer type nonresonance condition at zero for planar systems and discuss its rotational interpretation. We then show an application concerning multiplicity of T-periodic solutions to unforced Hamiltonian systems like $$ Ju'=\

  14. Conditioned Pain Modulation and Situational Pain Catastrophizing as Preoperative Predictors of Pain following Chest Wall Surgery: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper Grosen; Lene Vase; Pilegaard, Hans K.; Mogens Pfeiffer-Jensen; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variability in patients' postoperative pain experience and response to treatment challenges effective pain management. Variability in pain reflects individual differences in inhibitory pain modulation and psychological sensitivity, which in turn may be clinically relevant for the disposition to acquire pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing on postoperative pain and pain persistency. METHODS: P...

  15. Cell wall proteomics of crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuko eKomatsu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall proteins play key roles in cell structure and metabolism, cell enlargement, signal transduction, responses to environmental stress, and many other physiological events. Agricultural crops are often used for investigating stress tolerance because cultivars with differing degrees of tolerance are available. Abiotic and biotic stress factors markedly influence the geographical distribution and yields of many crop species. Crop cell wall proteomics is of particular importance for improving crop productivity, particularly under unfavorable environmental conditions. To better understand the mechanisms underlying stress response in crops, cell wall proteomic analyses are being increasingly utilized. In this review, the methods of purification and purity assays of cell wall protein fractions from crops are described, and the results of protein identification using gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques are presented. Furthermore, protein composition of the cell walls of rice, wheat, maize and soybean are compared, and the role of cell wall proteins in crops under flooding and drought stress is discussed. This review will be useful for clarifying the role of the cell wall of crops in response to environmental stresses.

  16. Operating conditions of batteries in off-grid renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svoboda, V.; Wenzl, H.; Kaiser, R.

    2007-01-01

    Operating conditions in off-grid renewable energy systems (RES) vary significantly in different applications and locations. To describe RES and the operating conditions of their components it is useful to define categories of similar operating conditions. Categories can also be used for lifetime...... for batteries. Categories are defined in such a way that batteries belonging to the same category are subjected to similar operating conditions and a similar combination of stress factors. The results provide a comprehensive overview of battery operating conditions in existing off-grid renewable energy systems...

  17. Random countable alphabet conformal iterated function systems satisfying the transversality condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with with countable (finite and infinite alike) alphabet random conformal iterated function systems with overlaps, we formulate appropriate transversality conditions and then prove the relevant, in such a context, the Moran-Bowen formula which determines the Hausdorff dimension of random limit sets in dynamical terms. We also provide large classes of examples of such random systems satisfying the transversality condition.

  18. Energy efficient PCM-based variable air volume air conditioning system for modern buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameshwaran, R.; Harikrishnan, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India); Kalaiselvam, S. [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India)

    2010-08-15

    This work aims at achieving enhanced energy conservation for space conditioning with the application of a new combined variable air volume (VAV)-based chilled water air conditioning (A/C) system and thermal energy storage (TES) system. The phase change material (PCM) used in this system exhibited good charging and discharging characteristics that directly helped in conserving the overall energy spent on cooling and ventilation. The present system was experimentally investigated for summer and winter climatic conditions under demand controlled ventilation (DCV) and DCV combined with the economizer cycle ventilation (ECV) to substantiate its energy savings capability. Based on the results, in the DCV and combined DCV-ECV modes, this system achieved 28% and 47% of per day average energy conservative potential, respectively, while compared to the conventional chilled water-based A/C system. Similarly, the VAV-TES system yielded an on-peak total energy savings of 38% and 42%, respectively, for the same operating conditions. (author)

  19. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun

    2016-06-14

    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  20. Control Strategies to Conserve Energy in All-Air Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-14

    York, ASHRAE, Inc. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers. "Standards for Natural and Mechanical Ventilation ...or REPoRT a P61mO0 COVERED 1 Control Strategies to Conserve Energy in All-Air Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning THESIS 14Systems o ~~~sGOG...Morrison, William James (M. S., Civil Engineering) Control Strategies to Conserve Energy in All-Air Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems Report

  1. Uniqueness of Maximum Likelihood Estimators for a Backup System in a Condition-Based Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihong Duan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A parameter estimation problem for a backup system in a condition-based maintenance is considered. We model a backup system by a hidden, three-state continuous time Markov process. Data are obtained through condition monitoring at discrete time points. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters are obtained using the EM algorithm. We establish conditions under which there is no more than one limitation in the parameter space for any sequence derived by the EM algorithm.

  2. Evaluation of base material and welded joints designated for membrane wall components made from low-alloy steels in large boilermaker conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, Janusz; Zielinski, Adam [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland); Pasternak, Jerzy [Boiler Engineering Company RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Supercritical operating parameters of lower emission power units require novel creep resisting steels. Therefore, this paper constains selected information, results of collectors made from the new low-alloy bainitic creep-resistant steels as 7CrWVNb9-6(P23) and 7CrMoVTiB10-10(P24) performed in large boilermaker conditions. The research and implementation process includes: - evaluation, comparison of requested properties of base material and welded joints as tensile strength, impact strength and technological properties, - destructive examinations with evaluation of welded joints and HAZ structure and hardness distribution, - evaluation of creep resistance properties and structure stability after heat treatments and again process of base material, HAZ and welded joints, - influence of manufacturing process in large boilermaker conditions and after simulated operation. A new creep-resistant steels to be used, in order to comply with the operational requirements, as to assure the appropriate reliability and safety of the boiler equipment in operation process. (orig.)

  3. Performance enhancement study of mobile air conditioning system using microchannel heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Zhaogang; Zhao, Yu.; Chen, Jiangping [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800, Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-03-15

    In the present paper, two retrofitted compact and high efficient microchannel heat exchangers were proposed. The new microchannel heat exchangers have advantages in compactness (17.2% and 15.1% volume reduction for evaporator and condenser, respectively), weight (2.8% and 14.9% lighter for evaporator and condenser, respectively), heat transfer characteristics compared with the currently used heat exchangers in mobile air conditioning (MAC) industry. One enhanced and one baseline R134a MAC systems were established including the new microchannel heat exchangers and the traditional MAC heat exchangers, respectively. The system performances have been experimentally carried out under variable ambient conditions in psychrometric calorimeter test bench. The optimal system refrigerant charge amounts for both systems were tested and the results showed that the enhanced system with more compact heat exchangers could reduce system charge amount and the minimum effective charge amount was less than that of the baseline system. The enhanced system could supply more cooling capacity to car compartment under all test conditions because of higher performance heat exchangers. The coefficient of performance (COP) of the enhanced system was slightly lower than that of the baseline system under idle conditions but higher under all the other test conditions. Cooling capacity and COP of the enhanced system was increased by about 5% and 8% under high vehicle speed condition. (author)

  4. Thermal insulating concrete wall panel design for sustainable built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah; Lau, Denvid

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes.

  5. Thermal Insulating Concrete Wall Panel Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes.

  6. Thermal Insulating Concrete Wall Panel Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes. PMID:25177718

  7. Observation of a new turbulence-driven limit-cycle state in H-modes with lower hybrid current drive and lithium-wall conditioning in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    The first high confinement H-mode plasma has been obtained in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with about 1 MW lower hybrid current drive after wall conditioning by lithium evaporation and real-time injection of Li powder. Following the L–H transition, a small-amplitude, low...... correlated with each other, with nearly no phase differences poloidally and toroidally, and finite phase difference radially, thus providing strong evidence for zonal flows. The growth, saturation and disappearance of the zonal flows are strongly correlated with those of the high-frequency turbulence....... And the measurements demonstrate that the energy gain of zonal flows is of the same order as the energy loss of turbulence. This strongly suggests the interactions between zonal flows and high-frequency turbulences at the pedestal during the limit-cycle state....

  8. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion...... of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...

  9. Multiobjective Optimal Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol Separation Systems Using Liquid–Liquid Extraction-Assisted Divided Wall Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Sánchez-Ramírez, Eduardo; Quiroz-Ramírez, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    , hybrid flowsheets, obtained with the combination of liquid–liquid extraction and distillation, were proposed as a more convenient alternative. Divided wall columns (DWCs), as one of the most promising intensified distillation alternatives, were here explored in combination with liquid–liquid extraction....... A multiple-objective function, taking into account the economy, the environmental impact, and the process controllability, was defined to screen the alternatives. Among all the configurations considered, liquid–liquid extraction combined with a DWC equipped with two reboilers and a side rectifier, reached 22...

  10. Influence of changes in initial conditions for the simulation of dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotyrba, Martin [Department of Informatics and Computers, University of Ostrava, 30 dubna 22, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a paradigm popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions field widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In this paperinfluence of changes in initial conditions will be presented for the simulation of Lorenz system.

  11. Biofilm structures (EPS and bacterial communities) in drinking water distribution systems are conditioned by hydraulics and influence discolouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, K; Osborn, A M; Boxall, J B

    2017-09-01

    High-quality drinking water from treatment works is degraded during transport to customer taps through the Drinking Water Distribution System (DWDS). Interactions occurring at the pipe wall-water interface are central to this degradation and are often dominated by complex microbial biofilms that are not well understood. This study uses novel application of confocal microscopy techniques to quantify the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and cells of DWDS biofilms together with concurrent evaluation of the bacterial community. An internationally unique, full-scale, experimental DWDS facility was used to investigate the impact of three different hydraulic patterns upon biofilms and subsequently assess their response to increases in shear stress, linking biofilms to water quality impacts such as discolouration. Greater flow variation during growth was associated with increased cell quantity but was inversely related to EPS-to-cell volume ratios and bacterial diversity. Discolouration was caused and EPS was mobilised during flushing of all conditions. Ultimately, biofilms developed under low-varied flow conditions had lowest amounts of biomass, the greatest EPS volumes per cell and the lowest discolouration response. This research shows that the interactions between hydraulics and biofilm physical and community structures are complex but critical to managing biofilms within ageing DWDS infrastructure to limit water quality degradation and protect public health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  13. Improvement of wall condensation modeling with suction wall functions for containment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, Jan, E-mail: j.lehmkuhl@fz-juelich.de [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Kelm, Stephan, E-mail: s.kelm@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Bucci, Matteo [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, Paris (France); Allelein, Hans-Josef [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of wall functions for single phase condensation models for large scale application. • Identification of modeling errors related to standard log-law due to buoyancy and wall normal mass transfer (suction). • Modeling of wall normal mass transfer by literature formulation (Sucec, 1999) and in-house approach (FIBULA). • Validation against isothermal Favre experimental data. • Comparison against reference fine grid solution for condensing conditions. - Abstract: To simulate wall condensation on containment scale with CFD methods at reasonable computational cost, a single phase approach has to be applied and wall functions have to be used. However, standard wall functions were derived for flows without heat and mass transfer and their fundamental simplifications are not appropriate to deal with condensation. This paper discusses the limitations of standard wall functions and proposes two wall functions for the momentum equation dealing with mass transfer normal to the sheared wall (suction). The first proposed suction wall function is an algebraic modification based on the standard wall function concept. The second proposed wall function is an in-house developed suction wall function with the potential to cover also heat and mass transfer effects by storing the complex solutions of the RANS-Equations in a lookup table. The wall function approaches are compared to experimental results for boundary layer flows with suction and to the reference results obtained using a refined grid in order to resolve the condensing boundary layer.

  14. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  15. An intelligent condition monitoring system for on-line classification of machine tool wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Pan; Hope, A.D.; Javed, M. [Systems Engineering Faculty, Southampton Institute (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The development of intelligent tool condition monitoring systems is a necessary requirement for successful automation of manufacturing processes. This presentation introduces a tool wear monitoring system for milling operations. The system utilizes power, force, acoustic emission and vibration sensors to monitor tool condition comprehensively. Features relevant to tool wear are drawn from time and frequency domain signals and a fuzzy pattern recognition technique is applied to combine the multisensor information and provide reliable classification results of tool wear states. (orig.) 10 refs.

  16. Study on the design schemes of the air-conditioning system in a gymnasium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujin; Wu, Xinwei; Zhang, Jing; Pan, Zhixin

    2017-08-01

    In view of designing the air conditioning project for a gymnasium successfully, the cooling and heating source schemes are fully studied by analyzing the surrounding environment and energy conditions of the project, as well as the analysis of the initial investment and operating costs, which indicates the air source heat pump air conditioning system is the best choice for the project. The indoor air conditioning schemes are also studied systematically and the optimization of air conditioning schemes is carried out in each area. The principle of operating conditions for the whole year is followed and the quality of indoor air and energy-saving are ensured by the optimized design schemes, which provide references for the air conditioning system design in the same kinds of building.

  17. Morphopatological and histochemical highlights in normal and varicose vein wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Condor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutrition of the venous wall appears to be an important factor in the vascularfibrillar trophicity and in the dynamic of the extracellular matrix formation for the normal veins and, for the chronic venous ulcers of legs, on period of healing. Sequential biopsies were taken at various levels of venous wall of external and internal saphena in 16 cases presenting a chronic condition of legs venous system (35-58 years old patients, both sexes. 8 vein fragments with normal macroscopic appearance were also taken, in necropsy. These samples were analyzed using regular morphological methods and some histochemical reactions to reveal the glycogen, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans substrates. There were been used the Gomori silver impregnation and orcein to expose some specific substrates like reticulin or elastin. Other staining methods, like Gomori trichrome, were used to differentiate the specific structures of the vein wall, were used to differentiate the specific structures of the vein wall. A rich vascularization of normal and dilated vein wall could be remarked.Angiogenesis in vein wall and vasa vasorum changes as well as alcianophilic of vascular intima seem to be reactive and protective factors, depending on the applied therapeutic modalities. The veins are weak structures whose integrity depends on the thickness of the media and the support of neighboring structures.

  18. Mapping hidden wall structures by quantitative IR thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosina, Elisabetta; Grinzato, Ermanno G.; Robison, Elwin C.

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of an historic monument can be substantially improved by locating hidden structures, openings and the wall bonding beneath the plaster. When restoring buildings, the physical connection between the walls must be known in order to predict the risk areas for structural weakness. IR Thermography produces remarkable results, especially by means of the quantitative approach. The temperature pattern detected by thermography and analyzed in space and time maps the hidden structure of the wall. Thick walls exposed to the weather represent a challenge in detecting hidden structures by means of thermography. Frequently output is very poor because testing conditions are not optimized. Hence, appropriate testing requires careful analysis of the wall system before and after taking the thermograms. Otherwise, false alarms render the images useless. This paper describes a general procedure applied to see the hidden wall structure. It works in three steps: a) a mathematical simulation of the real test by a dedicated software, implementing the 3D thermal problem; b) a transient thermographic test, delivering a suitable heating flux on the surface for the proper time; c) processing test data, including a thermogram sequence and air temperature analysis. Here, are reported tests achieved on a XV-XVIIth century Palace at Cremona (Italy; in the Westcott House in Springfield (OH).

  19. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2 for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experiments under various operating conditions of inlet air temperature, air flow rates for the gas cooler side and evaporator side, and electric compressor revolution respectively. As a result, cooling performances of the tested air-conditioning system for the EDC driving mode (electricity driven compressor were better than those for the BDC driving mode (belt driven compressor. The cooling capacity and cooling COP of the tested air-conditioning system for both driving modes were over 5.0 kW and 2.0, respectively. The observed cooling performance of the tested air-conditioning system may be sufficient for the cabin cooling of hybrid electric vehicles.

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - Research and development of solar beam power generation and utilization systems and ancillary technologies (Research and development of building material integrated modules - glass curtain walls); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (kenzai ittaigata module no kenkyu kaihatsu (glass curtain wall))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Photovoltaic power generation modules capable of being utilized as curtain walls are fabricated in poly-crystalline type, and evaluations are being made on their durability as building materials and power generation facility. A large demonstration test facility installed in Chofu City, Tokyo was used to have measured the power generation characteristics (IV curve), insolation, outdoor and in-the-wall temperature and humidity, and observed the device insulation performance and appearance. The test device consisted of two units, whose one unit was installed as a vertical wall and another as a slanted wall, without having been connected to the electric power supply system. From the data obtained from the modules whose surface area was 34.49 m{sup 2}, development was done on a technology to estimate power generation amount from the modules, and analysis was performed on the correlation between the heat insulating structure and the module temperatures. After 30 months since the installation, the module temperature rises higher by more than 50 degrees C at the maximum than the outdoor temperature, but no anomalies were recognized in the functions. However, while the developed power generation amount estimating system is capable of making estimation with accuracy of 1.4%, the seasonal variation in the estimation error was found too great. The system requires improvements. (NEDO)

  1. Enhanced biocompatibility of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by surface modification: Future perspectives for drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, C. M. S.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was carried out by introducing mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and nitric acid by ultrasonication process. The pristine and surface modified MWCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. FT-IR spectra revealed that the presence of carboxylic acid functional groups on the surface of MWCNTs. The integrated intensity ratio of pristine and surface modified MWCNTs was calculated by Raman spectroscopic analysis. XRD patterns examines the crystallinity of the surface modified MWCNTs. SEM analysis investigates the change in morphology of the surface modified MWCNTs compared with that of pristine, which is due to the attachment of the carboxylic acid functional groups. Surface modified MWCNTs acts as precursors for further functionalization with various biomolecules, which improves the biocompatibility and initiates the implementation of MWCNTs in the field of nanomedicine and targeted drug delivery.

  2. Material and structural mechanical modelling and reliability of thin-walled bellows at cryogenic temperatures. Application to LHC compensation system

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric; Skoczen, Blazej

    The present thesis is dedicated to the behaviour of austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The plastic strain induced martensitic transformation and ductile damage are taken into account in an elastic-plastic material modelling. The kinetic law of →’ transformation and the evolution laws of kinematic/isotropic mixed hardening are established. Damage issue is analysed by different ways: mesoscopic isotropic or orthotropic model and a microscopic approach. The material parameters are measured from 316L fine gauge sheet at three levels of temperature: 293 K, 77 K and 4.2 K. The model is applied to thin-walled corrugated shell, used in the LHC interconnections. The influence of the material properties on the stability is studied by a modal analysis. The reliability of the components, defined by the Weibull distribution law, is analysed from fatigue tests. The impact on reliability of geometrical imperfections and thermo-mechanical loads is also analysed.

  3. Performance analysis of a liquid desiccant and membrane contactor hybrid air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergero, Stefano; Chiari, Anna [DIPARC, Faculty of Architecture, University of Genoa, Stradone S. Agostino 37, 16123 Genova (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The present study examines the performances of a hybrid air-conditioning system in which a vapour-compression inverse cycle is integrated with an air dehumidification system working with hygroscopic solution and hydrophobic membrane. This model may be a valid alternative to traditional summertime air-conditioning system, in which the air is cooled to below its dew-point temperature and subsequently reheated. The proposed hybrid system involves simultaneously cooling and dehumidifying the air conveyed to the conditioned ambient in an air-solution membrane contactor. An LiCl solution is cooled by means of a vapour-compression inverse cycle using the refrigerant KLEA 407C. The solution is regenerated in another membrane contactor by exploiting the heat rejected by the condenser. A SIMULINK calculation programme was designed in order to simulate the system under examination in steady-state conditions. The performances of the system were analysed on varying a few significant operating parameters, and were compared with those of a traditional direct-expansion air-conditioning plant in typical summertime conditions. The results of the simulations revealed significant energy savings, which, in particular operating conditions, may exceed 50%. (author)

  4. Selective Internal Heat Distribution in Modified Trombe Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Jerzy; Kogut, Janusz; Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda

    2017-12-01

    At present, the requirements for thermal insulation of the external walls in buildings are being increased. There is a need to reduce energy consumption for heating rooms during the winter season. This may be achieved by increasing the thermal resistance of the outer partitions, using solutions that utilize either recuperation or solar radiation. The most popular systems include either solar collectors, or heat pump links or ground exchangers. Trombe walls (TW) are a very promising passive heating system, which requires little or no effort to operate, and may be very convenient in different climate conditions. A typical TW consists of a masonry wall painted a dark, heat absorbing paint colour and faced with a single or double layer of glass. The principle of operation is based on the photothermal conversion of solar radiation. There are various modifications of TW. They may improve the energy efficiency in relation to the climate conditions in which they operate. The hybrid solutions are also known. The efficiency of walls is related to the use of proper materials. In TW, the compromise should be sought between the thermal resistance and the ability to distribute heat from the absorbed energy of solar radiation. The paper presents an overview of the most commonly used solutions and discusses its own concept dedicated to the climate conditions of Central Europe.

  5. [An Exploration of Working Conditions and Flexible System for Hospital Nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-I; Yu, Chien; Yu, Chin-Cheh

    2016-04-01

    The lack of sufficient numbers of professional nurses in the healthcare system in Taiwan is an issue that affects the sustainability of this system and that relates closely to working conditions. The present study explores the expectations that nurses hold with regard to working conditions and the operation of a flexible system in hospitals. A literature review and focus-group interviews were used to develop the questionnaire Working Conditions and Flexible System. A total of 1,150 copies of this questionnaire were distributed to practicing nurses using stratified random sampling, with 1,146 valid copies returned for a valid recovery rate of 99.65%. The results show that the expectations of participants concerning working conditions and a flexible system focus on the 6 factors of task, numerical, divisional, temporal, wages, and leading flexibility. The total mean was 4.35 (SD=0.42). The means for the 6 types of flexibility were all greater than 4.0. Participants deemed flexibility to be of high importance. The demographic variables hospital, work location, age, education level, work position, work unit, and total work years all affected the 6 types of flexibility significantly. The present study supports that the retention of nurses is significantly associated with working conditions and the operation of a flexible system. Administrators and mangers must create positive working conditions and a flexible system in order to enhance the retention and career development of nurses.

  6. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  7. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  8. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  9. Immunological and inflammatory processes in systemic autoimmune disease may not only cause pericardium inflammation, but may also cause mitral valve deterioration and left ventricular wall thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Atsushi; Funabashi, Nobusada; Ozawa, Koya; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-07-15

    Systemic autoimmune disease (SAD) frequently affects the pericardium, and pathology is characterized by both immunological and inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that these processes simultaneously influence mitral-valve (MV) deterioration and left-ventricular (LV) wall thickening in SAD subjects. 101 SAD subjects were selected (76 female; 53±17years; systemic-lupus-erythematosus, 26%; vasculitis, 20%; scleroderma, 14%; polymyositis/dermatomyositis complex, 10%; mixed connective tissue disease, 11% and rheumatoid-arthritis, 2%). MV anterior-mitral-leaflet (AML) length, AML thickness index, AML doming height and LV mass index (LVMI) were measured using transthoracic-echocardiography (TTE) and the presence of MV calcification, MV sub-valvular thickening and pericardial effusion (PE) were estimated. AML thickness index was calculated as the ratio of AML thickness to aortic posterior wall thickness. The correlation between LVMI and ECG V1S+V5R voltage was used to assess the etiology of LV wall thickening. 19 subjects (19%) had significant PE. PE subjects had a significantly greater AML thickness index (1.55±0.48 vs. 1.14±0.32, P<0.001), AML doming height (1.26±1.54mm vs. 0.03±0.91mm, P<0.001), more frequent MV sub-valvular thickening (26% vs. 5%, P=0.003) and greater LVMI (104.7±34.6g/m2 vs. 80.6±21.0g/m2, P=0.002). Significant correlation was observed between LVMI and ECG V1S+V5R voltage in 79 subjects without PE (R=0.39, P<0.001). However, in 18 subjects with PE, no such correlation was observed (R=0.30, P=0.23). MV, MV sub-valvular deterioration and increased LVMI, unrelated to high voltage ECG criteria, were frequently detected in SAD subjects with PE. Immunological and inflammatory processes in SAD may not only cause pericardium inflammation, but may also cause MV deterioration and LV wall thickening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the air condition system in busses spread allergic fungi into driver space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiak, Małgorzata; Kozajda, Anna; Jeżak, Karolina; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether the air-conditioning system in buses constitutes an additional source of indoor air contamination with fungi, and whether or not the fungi concentration depends on the period from the last disinfection of the system, combined with replacement of the cabin dust particle filter. The air samples to fungi analysis using impact method were taken in 30 buses (20 with an air-conditioning system, ACS; 10 with a ventilation system, VS) in two series: 1 and 22 weeks after cabin filter replacement and disinfection of the air-conditioning system. During one test in each bus were taken two samples: before the air-conditioning or ventilation system switched on and 6 min after operating of these systems. The atmospheric air was the external background (EB). After 1 week of use of the system, the fungi concentrations before starting of the ACS and VS system were 527.8 and 1053.0 cfu/m 3 , respectively, and after 22 weeks the concentrations were 351.9 and 1069.6 cfu/m 3 , respectively. While in the sample after 6 min of ACS and VS system operating, the fungi concentration after 1 week of use was 127.6 and 233.7 cfu/m 3 , respectively, and after 22 weeks it was 113.3 and 324.9 cfu/m 3 , respectively. Results do not provide strong evidence that air-conditioning system is an additional source of indoor air contamination with fungi. A longer operation of the system promoted increase of fungi concentration in air-conditioned buses only.

  11. A necessary and sufficient condition for the diagonalization of multi-dimensional quasilinear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xing Kong

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author obtains a necessary and sufficient condition on the diagonalization of multi-dimensional quasilinear systems of first order, and gives some physical applications.

  12. Description of atmospheric conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antici'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordiera, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusota, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Tapia, I. Fajardo; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; VargasCardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Silva, M. Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides

  13. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured motor vehicle air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  14. New Fast Beam Conditions Monitoring (BCM1F) system for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083575; Dabrowski, A.E.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.M.; Karacheban, O.; Przyborowski, D.; Leonard, J.L.; Penno, M.; Pozniak, K.T.; Miraglia, M.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Ryjov, V.; Lokhovitskiy, A.; Stickland, D.; Walsh, R.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) project is composed of several systems providing the experiment protection from adverse beam conditions while also measuring the online luminosity and beam background. Although the readout bandwidth of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitoring system (BCM1F - one of the faster monitoring systems of the CMS BRIL), was sufficient for the initial LHC conditions, the foreseen enhancement of the beams parameters after the LHC Long Shutdown-1 (LS1) imposed the upgrade of the system. This paper presents the new BCM1F, which is designed to provide real-time fast diagnosis of beam conditions and instantaneous luminosity with readout able to resolve the 25 ns sub-bunch structure.

  15. Necessary conditions for reaction-diffusion system with delay preserving positivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirui Feng

    2016-08-01

    We show that this system with delay preserves positivity if and only if its diffusion matrix $A$ and convection matrix $\\gamma_{i}$ are diagonal with non-negative elements and nonlinear delay term $f$ satisfies the normal tangential condition.

  16. Temperature and humidity independent control (THIC) of air-conditioning system

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the main components of the Temperature and Humidity Independent Control (THIC) of air-conditioning systems, including dehumidification devices, high-temperature cooling devices and indoor terminal devices.

  17. Domain walls riding the wave.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the

  18. Expansion of Submucosal Bladder Wall Tissue In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Reinfeldt Engberg; Clara Ibel Chamorro; Agneta Nordenskjöld; Magdalena Fossum

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop autologous tissue engineering of the whole wall in the urinary excretory system, we studied the regenerative capacity of the muscular bladder wall. Smooth muscle cell expansion on minced detrusor muscle in vitro and in vivo with or without urothelial tissue was studied. Porcine minced detrusor muscle and urothelium were cultured in vitro under standard culture conditions for evaluation of the explant technique and in collagen for tissue sectioning and histology. Autografts...

  19. 77 FR 47707 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary of Deficiency Definitions; Notice #0;#0;Federal... DEVELOPMENT Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary... February 23, 2011. In addition, this notice makes changes to the Dictionary of Deficiency Definitions...

  20. Thermal Conditions in a Simulated Office Environment with Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2013-01-01

    The thermal conditions in a two person office room were measured with four air conditioning systems: chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...