Phenomenology of wall-bounded Newtonian turbulence.
L'vov, Victor S; Pomyalov, Anna; Procaccia, Itamar; Zilitinkevich, Sergej S
2006-01-01
We construct a simple analytic model for wall-bounded turbulence, containing only four adjustable parameters. Two of these parameters are responsible for the viscous dissipation of the components of the Reynolds stress tensor. The other two parameters control the nonlinear relaxation of these objects. The model offers an analytic description of the profiles of the mean velocity and the correlation functions of velocity fluctuations in the entire boundary region, from the viscous sublayer, through the buffer layer, and further into the log-law turbulent region. In particular, the model predicts a very simple distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy in the log-law region between the velocity components: the streamwise component contains a half of the total energy whereas the wall-normal and cross-stream components contain a quarter each. In addition, the model predicts a very simple relation between the von Kármán slope k and the turbulent velocity in the log-law region v+ (in wall units): v+=6k. These predictions are in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulation data and with recent laboratory experiments.
Coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence
Jiménez, Javier
2018-05-01
This article discusses the description of wall-bounded turbulence as a deterministic high-dimensional dynamical system of interacting coherent structures, defined as eddies with enough internal dynamics to behave relatively autonomously from any remaining incoherent part of the flow. The guiding principle is that randomness is not a property, but a methodological choice of what to ignore in the flow, and that a complete understanding of turbulence, including the possibility of control, requires that it be kept to a minimum. After briefly reviewing the underlying low-order statistics of flows at moderate Reynolds numbers, the article examines what two-point statistics imply for the decomposition of the flow into individual eddies. Intense eddies are examined next, including their temporal evolution, and shown to satisfy many of the properties required for coherence. In particular, it is shown that coherent structures larger than the Corrsin scale are a natural consequence of the shear. In wall-bounded turbulence, they can be classified into coherent dispersive waves and transient bursts. The former are found in the viscous layer near the wall and as very-large structures spanning the boundary layer thickness. Although they are shear-driven, these waves have enough internal structure to maintain a uniform advection velocity. Conversely, bursts exist at all scales, are characteristic of the logarithmic layer, and interact almost linearly with the shear. While the waves require a wall to determine their length scale, the bursts are essentially independent from it. The article concludes with a brief review of our present theoretical understanding of turbulent structures, and with a list of open problems and future perspectives.
Intermittency and scaling laws for wall bounded turbulence
Benzi, R.; Amati, G.; Casciola, C.M.; Toschi, F.; Piva, R.
1999-01-01
Well defined scaling laws clearly appear in wall bounded turbulence, very close to the wall, where a distinct violation of the refined Kolmogorov similarity hypothesis (RKSH) occurs together with the simultaneous persistence of scaling laws. A new form of RKSH for the wall region is here proposed in
Intermittency and scaling laws for wall bounded turbulence
Benzi, R.; Amati, G.; Casciola, C. M.; Toschi, F.; Piva, R.
1998-01-01
Well defined scaling laws clearly appear in wall bounded turbulence, even very close to the wall, where a distinct violation of the refined Kolmogorov similarity hypothesis (RKSH) occurs together with the simultaneous persistence of scaling laws. A new form of RKSH for the wall region is here proposed in terms of the structure functions of order two which, in physical terms, confirms the prevailing role of the momentum transfer towards the wall in the near wall dynamics.
Hierarchical order in wall-bounded shear turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbone, F.; Aubry, N.
1996-01-01
Since turbulence at realistic Reynolds numbers, such as those occurring in the atmosphere or in the ocean, involve a high number of modes that cannot be resolved computationally in the foreseeable future, there is a strong motivation for finding techniques which drastically decrease the number of such required modes, particularly under inhomogeneous conditions. The significance of this work is to show that wall-bounded shear turbulence, in its strongly inhomogeneous direction (normal to the wall), can be decomposed into one (or a few) space endash time mother mode(s), with each mother generating a whole family of modes by stretching symmetry. In other words, the generated modes are similar, dilated copies of their mother. In addition, we show that the nature of all previous modes strongly depends on the symmetry itself. These findings constitute the first scaling theory of inhomogeneous turbulence. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
The spanwise spectra in wall-bounded turbulence
Wang, Hong-Ping; Wang, Shi-Zhao; He, Guo-Wei
2018-06-01
The pre-multiplied spanwise energy spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations are investigated in this paper. Two distinct spectral peaks in the spanwise spectra are observed in low-Reynolds-number wall-bounded turbulence. The spectra are calculated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flows and zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer flows. These two peaks locate in the near-wall and outer regions and are referred to as the inner peak and the outer peak, respectively. This result implies that the streamwise velocity fluctuations can be separated into large and small scales in the spanwise direction even though the friction Reynolds number Re_τ can be as low as 1000. The properties of the inner and outer peaks in the spanwise spectra are analyzed. The locations of the inner peak are invariant over a range of Reynolds numbers. However, the locations of the outer peak are associated with the Reynolds number, which are much higher than those of the outer peak of the pre-multiplied streamwise energy spectra of the streamwise velocity.
Wall-based identification of coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence
Sanmiguel Vila, C.; Flores, O.
2018-04-01
During the last decades, a number of reduced order models based on coherent structures have been proposed to describe wall-bounded turbulence. Many of these models emphasize the importance of coherent wall-normal velocity eddies (ν-eddies), which drive the generation of the very long streamwise velocity structures observed in the logarithmic and outer region. In order to use these models to improve our ability to control wall-bounded turbulence in realistic applications, these ν-eddies need to be identified from the wall in a non-intrusive way. In this paper, the possibility of using the pressure signal at the wall to identify these ν-eddies is explored, analyzing the cross-correlation between the wall-normal velocity component and the pressure fluctuations at the wall in a DNS of a turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 939. The results show that the cross-correlation has a region of negative correlation upstream, and a region of positive correlation backwards. In the spanwise direction the correlation decays monotonously, except very close to the wall where a change of sign of the correlation coefficient is observed. Moreover, filtering the pressure fluctuations at the wall in space results in an increase of the region where the cross-correlation is strong, both for the positively and the negatively correlated regions. The use of a time filter for the pressure fluctuations at the wall yields different results, displacing the regions of strong correlation without changing much their sizes. The results suggest that space-filtering the pressure at the wall is a feasible way to identify ν-eddies of different sizes, which could be used to trigger turbulent control strategies.
A film-based wall shear stress sensor for wall-bounded turbulent flows
Amili, Omid; Soria, Julio
2011-07-01
In wall-bounded turbulent flows, determination of wall shear stress is an important task. The main objective of the present work is to develop a sensor which is capable of measuring surface shear stress over an extended region applicable to wall-bounded turbulent flows. This sensor, as a direct method for measuring wall shear stress, consists of mounting a thin flexible film on the solid surface. The sensor is made of a homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible material. The geometry and mechanical properties of the film are measured, and particles with the nominal size of 11 μm in diameter are embedded on the film's surface to act as markers. An optical technique is used to measure the film deformation caused by the flow. The film has typically deflection of less than 2% of the material thickness under maximum loading. The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted by changing the thickness of the layer or the shear modulus of the film's material. The paper reports the sensor fabrication, static and dynamic calibration procedure, and its application to a fully developed turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers in the range of 90,000-130,000 based on the bulk velocity and channel full height. The results are compared to alternative wall shear stress measurement methods.
Particles in wall-bounded turbulent flows deposition, re-suspension and agglomeration
Pozorski, Jacek
2017-01-01
The book presents an up-to-date review of turbulent two-phase flows with the dispersed phase, with an emphasis on the dynamics in the near-wall region. New insights to the flow physics are provided by direct numerical simuation and by fine experimental techniques. Also included are models of particle dynamics in wall-bounded turbulent flows, and a description of particle surface interactions including muti-layer deposition and re-suspension.
Spectral derivation of the classic laws of wall-bounded turbulent flows.
Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2017-08-01
We show that the classic laws of the mean-velocity profiles (MVPs) of wall-bounded turbulent flows-the 'law of the wall,' the 'defect law' and the 'log law'-can be predicated on a sufficient condition with no manifest ties to the MVPs, namely that viscosity and finite turbulent domains have a depressive effect on the spectrum of turbulent energy. We also show that this sufficient condition is consistent with empirical data on the spectrum and may be deemed a general property of the energetics of wall turbulence. Our findings shed new light on the physical origin of the classic laws and their immediate offshoot, Prandtl's theory of turbulent friction.
Mach Number effects on turbulent superstructures in wall bounded flows
Kaehler, Christian J.; Bross, Matthew; Scharnowski, Sven
2017-11-01
Planer and three-dimensional flow field measurements along a flat plat boundary layer in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel Munich (TWM) are examined with the aim to characterize the scaling, spatial organization, and topology of large scale turbulent superstructures in compressible flow. This facility is ideal for this investigation as the ratio of boundary layer thickness to test section spanwise extent ratio is around 1/25, ensuring minimal sidewall and corner effects on turbulent structures in the center of the test section. A major difficulty in the experimental investigation of large scale features is the mutual size of the superstructures which can extend over many boundary layer thicknesses. Using multiple PIV systems, it was possible to capture the full spatial extent of large-scale structures over a range of Mach numbers from Ma = 0.3 - 3. To calculate the average large-scale structure length and spacing, the acquired vector fields were analyzed by statistical multi-point methods that show large scale structures with a correlation length of around 10 boundary layer thicknesses over the range of Mach numbers investigated. Furthermore, the average spacing between high and low momentum structures is on the order of a boundary layer thicknesses. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 Turbulent Superstructures of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
Symmetry-preserving regularization of wall-bounded turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trias, F X; Gorobets, A; Oliva, A; Verstappen, R W C P
2011-01-01
The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations constitute an excellent mathematical modelization of turbulence. Unfortunately, attempts at performing direct simulations are limited to relatively low-Reynolds numbers because of the almost numberless small scales produced by the non-linear convective term. Alternatively, a dynamically less complex formulation is proposed here. Namely, regularizations of the Navier-Stokes equations that preserve the symmetry and conservation properties exactly. To do so, both convective and diffusive term are altered in the same vein. In this way, the convective production of small scales is effectively restrained whereas the modified diffusive term introduces an hyper-viscosity effect and consequently enhances the destruction of small scales. In practice, the only additional ingredient is a self-adjoint linear filter whose local filter length is determined from the requirement that vortex-stretching must stop at the smallest grid scale. To do so, a new criterion based on the invariants of the local strain tensor is proposed here. Altogether, the proposed method constitutes a parameter-free turbulence model.
Resolvent-based modeling of passive scalar dynamics in wall-bounded turbulence
Dawson, Scott; Saxton-Fox, Theresa; McKeon, Beverley
2017-11-01
The resolvent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations expresses the system state as the output of a linear (resolvent) operator acting upon a nonlinear forcing. Previous studies have demonstrated that a low-rank approximation of this linear operator predicts many known features of incompressible wall-bounded turbulence. In this work, this resolvent model for wall-bounded turbulence is extended to include a passive scalar field. This formulation allows for a number of additional simplifications that reduce model complexity. Firstly, it is shown that the effect of changing scalar diffusivity can be approximated through a transformation of spatial wavenumbers and temporal frequencies. Secondly, passive scalar dynamics may be studied through the low-rank approximation of a passive scalar resolvent operator, which is decoupled from velocity response modes. Thirdly, this passive scalar resolvent operator is amenable to approximation by semi-analytic methods. We investigate the extent to which this resulting hierarchy of models can describe and predict passive scalar dynamics and statistics in wall-bounded turbulence. The support of AFOSR under Grant Numbers FA9550-16-1-0232 and FA9550-16-1-0361 is gratefully acknowledged.
Benzi, Roberto; De Angelis, Elisabetta; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar
2005-11-04
Drag reduction by polymers in wall turbulence is bounded from above by a universal maximal drag reduction (MDR) velocity profile that is a log law, estimated experimentally by Virk as V+(y+) approximately 11.7logy+ - 17. Here V+(y+) and y+ are the mean streamwise velocity and the distance from the wall in "wall" units. In this Letter we propose that this MDR profile is an edge solution of the Navier-Stokes equations (with an effective viscosity profile) beyond which no turbulent solutions exist. This insight rationalizes the universality of the MDR and provides a maximum principle which allows an ab initio calculation of the parameters in this law without any viscoelastic experimental input.
Helium-filled soap bubbles tracing fidelity in wall-bounded turbulence
Faleiros, David Engler; Tuinstra, Marthijn; Sciacchitano, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio
2018-03-01
The use of helium-filled soap bubbles (HFSB) as flow tracers for particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to measure the properties of turbulent boundary layers is investigated in the velocity range from 30 to 50 m/s. The experiments correspond to momentum thickness-based Reynolds numbers of 3300 and 5100. A single bubble generator delivers nearly neutrally buoyant HFSB to seed the air flow developing over the flat plate. The HFSB motion analysis is performed by PTV using single-frame multi-exposure recordings. The measurements yield the local velocity and turbulence statistics. Planar two-component-PIV measurements with micron-sized droplets (DEHS) conducted under the same conditions provide reference data for the quantities of interest. In addition, the behavior of air-filled soap bubbles is studied where the effect of non-neutral buoyancy is more pronounced. The mean velocity profiles as well as the turbulent stresses obtained with HFSB are in good agreement with the flow statistics obtained with DEHS particles. The study illustrates that HFSB tracers can be used to determine the mean velocity and the turbulent fluctuations of turbulent boundary layers above a distance of approximately two bubble diameters from the wall. This work broadens the current range of application of HFSB from external aerodynamics of large-scale-PIV experiments towards wall-bounded turbulence.
Improvements on digital inline holographic PTV for 3D wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong
2017-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) provide the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present our latest developments on minimizing these challenges, which enables high-fidelity DIH-PTV implementation to larger sampling volumes with significantly higher particle seeding densities suitable for wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements. The improvements include: (1) adjustable window thresholding; (2) multi-pass 3D tracking; (3) automatic wall localization; and (4) continuity-based out-of-plane velocity component computation. The accuracy of the proposed DIH-PTV method is validated with conventional 2D PIV and double-view holographic PTV measurements in smooth-wall turbulent channel flow experiments. The capability of the technique in characterization of wall-bounded turbulence is further demonstrated through its application to flow measurements for smooth- and rough-wall turbulent channel flows. In these experiments, 3D velocity fields are measured within sampling volumes of 14.7 × 50.0 × 14.4 mm 3 (covering the entire depth of the channel) with a velocity resolution of <1.1 mm/vector. Overall, the presented DIH-PTV method and
Uncertainty Quantification of Turbulence Model Closure Coefficients for Transonic Wall-Bounded Flows
Schaefer, John; West, Thomas; Hosder, Serhat; Rumsey, Christopher; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Kleb, William
2015-01-01
The goal of this work was to quantify the uncertainty and sensitivity of commonly used turbulence models in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes codes due to uncertainty in the values of closure coefficients for transonic, wall-bounded flows and to rank the contribution of each coefficient to uncertainty in various output flow quantities of interest. Specifically, uncertainty quantification of turbulence model closure coefficients was performed for transonic flow over an axisymmetric bump at zero degrees angle of attack and the RAE 2822 transonic airfoil at a lift coefficient of 0.744. Three turbulence models were considered: the Spalart-Allmaras Model, Wilcox (2006) k-w Model, and the Menter Shear-Stress Trans- port Model. The FUN3D code developed by NASA Langley Research Center was used as the flow solver. The uncertainty quantification analysis employed stochastic expansions based on non-intrusive polynomial chaos as an efficient means of uncertainty propagation. Several integrated and point-quantities are considered as uncertain outputs for both CFD problems. All closure coefficients were treated as epistemic uncertain variables represented with intervals. Sobol indices were used to rank the relative contributions of each closure coefficient to the total uncertainty in the output quantities of interest. This study identified a number of closure coefficients for each turbulence model for which more information will reduce the amount of uncertainty in the output significantly for transonic, wall-bounded flows.
Inner-outer predictive wall model for wall-bounded turbulence in hypersonic flow
Martin, M. Pino; Helm, Clara M.
2017-11-01
The inner-outer predictive wall model of Mathis et al. is modified for hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The model is based on a modulation of the energized motions in the inner layer by large scale momentum fluctuations in the logarithmic layer. Using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of turbulent boundary layers with free stream Mach number 3 to 10, it is shown that the variation of the fluid properties in the compressible flows leads to large Reynolds number (Re) effects in the outer layer and facilitate the modulation observed in high Re incompressible flows. The modulation effect by the large scale increases with increasing free-stream Mach number. The model is extended to include spanwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations and is generalized through Morkovin scaling. Temperature fluctuations are modeled using an appropriate Reynolds Analogy. Density fluctuations are calculated using an equation of state and a scaling with Mach number. DNS data are used to obtain the universal signal and parameters. The model is tested by using the universal signal to reproduce the flow conditions of Mach 3 and Mach 7 turbulent boundary layer DNS data and comparing turbulence statistics between the modeled flow and the DNS data. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant FA9550-17-1-0104.
Large-eddy simulation of heavy particle dispersion in wall-bounded turbulent flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salvetti, M.V. [DICI, University of Pisa, I-56122 Pisa (Italy)
2015-03-10
Capabilities and accuracy issues in Lagrangian tracking of heavy particles in velocity fields obtained from large-eddy simulations (LES) of wall-bounded turbulent flows are reviewed. In particular, it is shown that, if no subgrid scale (SGS) model is added to the particle motion equations, particle preferential concentration and near-wall accumulation are significantly underestimated. Results obtained with SGS modeling for the particle motion equations based on approximate deconvolution are briefly recalled. Then, the error purely due to filtering in particle tracking in LES flow fields is singled out and analyzed. The statistical properties of filtering errors are characterized in turbulent channel flow both from an Eulerian and a Lagrangian viewpoint. Implications for stochastic SGS modeling in particle motion equations are briefly outlined.
Helical structure of longitudinal vortices embedded in turbulent wall-bounded flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Okulov, Valery
2009-01-01
Embedded vortices in turbulent wall-bounded flow over a flat plate, generated by a passive rectangular vane-type vortex generator with variable angle \\beta to the incoming flow in a low-Reynolds number flow (Re = 2600 based on the inlet grid mesh size L = 0:039 m and free stream velocity U....... This is important for flow control, since one thereby can determine the axial velocity induced by the helical vortex as well as the swirl redistributing the axial velocity component for a given device angle \\beta. This also simplifies theoretical studies, e.g. to understand and predict the stability of the vortex...
Hanratty, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)
Phase-space dynamics of opposition control in wall-bounded turbulent flows
Hwang, Yongyun; Ibrahim, Joseph; Yang, Qiang; Doohan, Patrick
2017-11-01
The phase-space dynamics of wall-bounded shear flow in the presence of opposition control is explored by examining the behaviours of a pair of nonlinear equilibrium solutions (exact coherent structures), edge state and life time of turbulence at low Reynolds numbers. While the control modifies statistics and phase-space location of the edge state and the lower-branch equilibrium solution very little, it is also found to regularise the periodic orbit on the edge state by reverting a period-doubling bifurcation. Only the upper-branch equilibrium solution and mean turbulent state are significantly modified by the control, and, in phase space, they gradually approach the edge state on increasing the control gain. It is found that this behaviour results in a significant reduction of the life time of turbulence, indicating that the opposition control significantly increases the probability that the turbulent solution trajectory passes through the edge state. Finally, it is shown that the opposition control increases the critical Reynolds number of the onset of the equilibrium solutions, indicating its capability of transition delay. This work is sponsored by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in the UK (EP/N019342/1).
Effect of grid resolution on large eddy simulation of wall-bounded turbulence
Rezaeiravesh, S.; Liefvendahl, M.
2018-05-01
The effect of grid resolution on a large eddy simulation (LES) of a wall-bounded turbulent flow is investigated. A channel flow simulation campaign involving a systematic variation of the streamwise (Δx) and spanwise (Δz) grid resolution is used for this purpose. The main friction-velocity-based Reynolds number investigated is 300. Near the walls, the grid cell size is determined by the frictional scaling, Δx+ and Δz+, and strongly anisotropic cells, with first Δy+ ˜ 1, thus aiming for the wall-resolving LES. Results are compared to direct numerical simulations, and several quality measures are investigated, including the error in the predicted mean friction velocity and the error in cross-channel profiles of flow statistics. To reduce the total number of channel flow simulations, techniques from the framework of uncertainty quantification are employed. In particular, a generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE) is used to create metamodels for the errors over the allowed parameter ranges. The differing behavior of the different quality measures is demonstrated and analyzed. It is shown that friction velocity and profiles of the velocity and Reynolds stress tensor are most sensitive to Δz+, while the error in the turbulent kinetic energy is mostly influenced by Δx+. Recommendations for grid resolution requirements are given, together with the quantification of the resulting predictive accuracy. The sensitivity of the results to the subgrid-scale (SGS) model and varying Reynolds number is also investigated. All simulations are carried out with second-order accurate finite-volume-based solver OpenFOAM. It is shown that the choice of numerical scheme for the convective term significantly influences the error portraits. It is emphasized that the proposed methodology, involving the gPCE, can be applied to other modeling approaches, i.e., other numerical methods and the choice of SGS model.
Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective
Cheng, W.; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-01-01
The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can
Life stages of wall-bounded decay of Taylor-Couette turbulence
Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Zhu, Xiaojue; Arza, Vamsi Spandan; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2017-01-01
The decay of Taylor-Couette turbulence, i.e., the flow between two coaxial and independently rotating cylinders, is numerically studied by instantaneously stopping the forcing from an initially statistically stationary flow field at a Reynolds number of Re=3.5×104. The effect of wall friction is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segalini, A; Cimarelli, A; Rüedi, J-D; De Angelis, E; Talamelli, A
2011-01-01
The effort to describe velocity fluctuation distributions in wall-bounded turbulent flows has raised different questions concerning the accuracy of hot-wire measurement techniques close to the wall and more specifically the effect of spatial averaging resulting from the finite size of the wire. Here, an analytical model which describes the effect of the spatial filtering and misalignment of hot-wire probes on the main statistical moments in turbulent wall-bounded flows is presented. The model, which is based on the two-point velocity correlation function, shows that the filtering is directly related to the transverse Taylor micro-scale. By means of turbulent channel flow DNS data, the capacity of the model to accurately describe the probe response is established. At the same time, the filtering effect is appraised for different wire lengths and for a range of misalignment angles which can be expected from good experimental practice. Effects of the second-order terms in the model equations are also taken into account and discussed. In order to use the model in a practical situation, the Taylor micro-scale distribution at least should be provided. A simple scaling law based on classic turbulence theory is therefore introduced and finally employed to estimate the filtering effect for different wire lengths
Linear estimation of coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence at Re τ = 2000
Oehler, S.; Garcia–Gutiérrez, A.; Illingworth, S.
2018-04-01
The estimation problem for a fully-developed turbulent channel flow at Re τ = 2000 is considered. Specifically, a Kalman filter is designed using a Navier–Stokes-based linear model. The estimator uses time-resolved velocity measurements at a single wall-normal location (provided by DNS) to estimate the time-resolved velocity field at other wall-normal locations. The estimator is able to reproduce the largest scales with reasonable accuracy for a range of wavenumber pairs, measurement locations and estimation locations. Importantly, the linear model is also able to predict with reasonable accuracy the performance that will be achieved by the estimator when applied to the DNS. A more practical estimation scheme using the shear stress at the wall as measurement is also considered. The estimator is still able to estimate the largest scales with reasonable accuracy, although the estimator’s performance is reduced.
Effects of the finite particle size in turbulent wall-bounded flows of dense suspensions
Costa, Pedro; Picano, Francesco; Brandt, Luca; Breugem, Wim-Paul
2018-05-01
We use interface-resolved simulations to study finite-size effects in turbulent channel flow of neutrally-buoyant spheres. Two cases with particle sizes differing by a factor of 2, at the same solid volume fraction of 20% and bulk Reynolds number are considered. These are complemented with two reference single-phase flows: the unladen case, and the flow of a Newtonian fluid with the effective suspension viscosity of the same mixture in the laminar regime. As recently highlighted in Costa et al. (PRL 117, 134501), a particle-wall layer is responsible for deviations of the statistics from what is observed in the continuum limit where the suspension is modeled as a Newtonian fluid with an effective viscosity. Here we investigate the fluid and particle dynamics in this layer and in the bulk. In the particle-wall layer, the near wall inhomogeneity has an influence on the suspension micro-structure over a distance proportional to the particle size. In this layer, particles have a significant (apparent) slip velocity that is reflected in the distribution of wall shear stresses. This is characterized by extreme events (both much higher and much lower than the mean). Based on these observations we provide a scaling for the particle-to-fluid apparent slip velocity as a function of the flow parameters. We also extend the flow scaling laws in to second-order Eulerian statistics in the homogeneous suspension region away from the wall. Finite-size effects in the bulk of the channel become important for larger particles, while negligible for lower-order statistics and smaller particles. Finally, we study the particle dynamics along the wall-normal direction. Our results suggest that 1-point dispersion is dominated by particle-turbulence (and not particle-particle) interactions, while differences in 2-point dispersion and collisional dynamics are consistent with a picture of shear-driven interactions.
Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective
Cheng, W.; Samtaney, R.
2014-01-01
The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can not provide sufficient clues, in this study we present an insight into this debate from a large-eddy simulation (LES) viewpoint. The LES organically combines state-of-the-art models (the stretched-vortex model and inflow rescaling method) with a virtual-wall model derived under different scaling law assumptions (the log-law or the power-law by George and Castillo ["Zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer," Appl. Mech. Rev. 50, 689 (1997)]). Comparison of LES results for Reθ ranging from 105 to 1011 for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows are carried out for the mean streamwise velocity, its gradient and its scaled gradient. Our results provide strong evidence that for both sets of modeling assumption (log law or power law), the turbulence gravitates naturally towards the log-law scaling at extremely large Reynolds numbers.
Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective
Cheng, W.
2014-01-29
The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can not provide sufficient clues, in this study we present an insight into this debate from a large-eddy simulation (LES) viewpoint. The LES organically combines state-of-the-art models (the stretched-vortex model and inflow rescaling method) with a virtual-wall model derived under different scaling law assumptions (the log-law or the power-law by George and Castillo [“Zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer,” Appl. Mech. Rev.50, 689 (1997)]). Comparison of LES results for Re θ ranging from 105 to 1011 for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows are carried out for the mean streamwise velocity, its gradient and its scaled gradient. Our results provide strong evidence that for both sets of modeling assumption (log law or power law), the turbulence gravitates naturally towards the log-law scaling at extremely large Reynolds numbers.
Causal analysis of self-sustaining processes in the logarithmic layer of wall-bounded turbulence
Bae, H. J.; Encinar, M. P.; Lozano-Durán, A.
2018-04-01
Despite the large amount of information provided by direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows, their underlying dynamics remain elusive even in the most simple and canonical configurations. Most common approaches to investigate the turbulence phenomena do not provide a clear causal inference between events, which is essential to determine the dynamics of self-sustaining processes. In the present work, we examine the causal interactions between streaks, rolls and mean shear in the logarithmic layer of a minimal turbulent channel flow. Causality between structures is assessed in a non-intrusive manner by transfer entropy, i.e., how much the uncertainty of one structure is reduced by knowing the past states of the others. We choose to represent streaks by the first Fourier modes of the streamwise velocity, while rolls are defined by the wall-normal and spanwise velocity modes. The results show that the process is mainly unidirectional rather than cyclic, and that the log-layer motions are sustained by extracting energy from the mean shear which controls the dynamics and time-scales. The well-known lift-up effect is also identified, but shown to be of secondary importance in the causal network between shear, streaks and rolls.
Tang, Yifeng; Akhavan, Rayhaneh
2014-11-01
A nested-LES wall-modeling approach for high Reynolds number, wall-bounded turbulence is presented. In this approach, a coarse-grained LES is performed in the full-domain, along with a nested, fine-resolution LES in a minimal flow unit. The coupling between the two domains is achieved by renormalizing the instantaneous LES velocity fields to match the profiles of kinetic energies of components of the mean velocity and velocity fluctuations in both domains to those of the minimal flow unit in the near-wall region, and to those of the full-domain in the outer region. The method is of fixed computational cost, independent of Reτ , in homogenous flows, and is O (Reτ) in strongly non-homogenous flows. The method has been applied to equilibrium turbulent channel flows at 1000 shear-driven, 3D turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 2000 . In equilibrium channel flow, the friction coefficient and the one-point turbulence statistics are predicted in agreement with Dean's correlation and available DNS and experimental data. In shear-driven, 3D channel flow, the evolution of turbulence statistics is predicted in agreement with experimental data of Driver & Hebbar (1991) in shear-driven, 3D boundary layer flow.
Modelling and simulation of turbulence and heat transfer in wall-bounded flows
Popovac, M.
2006-01-01
At present it is widely accepted that there is no universal turbulence model, i.e. no turbulence model can give acceptably good predictions for all turbulent flows that are found in nature or engineering. Every turbulence model is based on certain assumptions, and hence it is aimed at certain type
Pradhan, Aniruddhe; Akhavan, Rayhaneh
2017-11-01
Effect of collision model, subgrid-scale model and grid resolution in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of wall-bounded turbulent flows with the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is investigated in turbulent channel flow. The Single Relaxation Time (SRT) collision model is found to be more accurate than Multi-Relaxation Time (MRT) collision model in well-resolved LES. Accurate LES requires grid resolutions of Δ+ LBM requires either grid-embedding in the near-wall region, with grid resolutions comparable to DNS, or a wall model. Results of LES with grid-embedding and wall models will be discussed.
Wang, Wenkang; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jinjun
2018-01-01
The identification and separation of multi-scale coherent structures is a critical task for the study of scale interaction in wall-bounded turbulence. Here, we propose a quasi-bivariate variational mode decomposition (QB-VMD) method to extract structures with various scales from instantaneous two-dimensional (2D) velocity field which has only one primary dimension. This method is developed from the one-dimensional VMD algorithm proposed by Dragomiretskiy and Zosso (IEEE Trans Signal Process 62:531-544, 2014) to cope with a quasi-2D scenario. It poses the feature of length-scale bandwidth constraint along the decomposed dimension, together with the central frequency re-balancing along the non-decomposed dimension. The feasibility of this method is tested on both a synthetic flow field and a turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number (Re_{τ } = 3458) measured by 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). Some other popular scale separation tools, including pseudo-bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (PB-EMD), bi-dimensional EMD (B-EMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), are also tested for comparison. Among all these methods, QB-VMD shows advantages in both scale characterization and energy recovery. More importantly, the mode mixing problem, which degrades the performance of EMD-based methods, is avoided or minimized in QB-VMD. Finally, QB-VMD analysis of the wall-parallel plane in the log layer (at y/δ = 0.12) of the studied turbulent boundary layer shows the coexistence of large- or very large-scale motions (LSMs or VLSMs) and inner-scaled structures, which can be fully decomposed in both physical and spectral domains.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nakhaei, Mohammadhadi; Lessani, B.
2016-01-01
and particles, and the scatter plotsof fluid-particle temperature differences are presented. In addition, the variations of different budgetterms for the turbulent kinetic energy equation and fluctuating temperature variance equation in thepresence of particles are reported. The fluid turbulent heat flux...... is reduced by the presence of particles,and in spite of the additional heat exchange between the carrier fluid and the particles, the total heattransfer rate stays always lower for particle-laden flows. To further clarify this issue, the total Nusseltnumber is split into a turbulence contribution...... and a particle contribution, and the effects of particles inertiaon fluid turbulent heat flux and fluid-particle heat transfer are examined in detail...
Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence
Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben Adriaan; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander Gerard; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2018-01-01
Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by
Spatiotemporal perspective on the decay of turbulence in wall-bounded flows.
Manneville, Paul
2009-02-01
By use of a reduced model focusing on the in-plane dependence of plane Couette flow, it is shown that the turbulent-->laminar relaxation process can be understood as a nucleation problem similar to that occurring at a thermodynamic first-order phase transition. The approach, apt to deal with the large extension of the system considered, challenges the current interpretation in terms of chaotic transients typical of temporal chaos. The study of the distribution of the sizes of laminar domains embedded in turbulent flow proves that an abrupt transition from sustained spatiotemporal chaos to laminar flow can take place at some given value of the Reynolds number Rlow, whether or not the local chaos lifetime, as envisioned within low-dimensional dynamical systems theory, diverges at finite R beyond Rlow.
Energy and angular momentum balance in wall-bounded quantum turbulence at very low temperatures.
Hosio, J J; Eltsov, V B; Heikkinen, P J; Hänninen, R; Krusius, M; L'vov, V S
2013-01-01
A superfluid in the absence of a viscous normal component should be the best realization of an ideal inviscid Euler fluid. As expressed by d'Alembert's famous paradox, an ideal fluid does not drag on bodies past which it flows, or in other words it does not exchange momentum with them. In addition, the flow of an ideal fluid does not dissipate kinetic energy. Here we study experimentally whether these properties apply to the flow of superfluid (3)He-B in a rotating cylinder at low temperatures. It is found that ideal behaviour is broken by quantum turbulence, which leads to substantial energy dissipation, as was also observed earlier. Remarkably, the angular momentum exchange between the superfluid and its container approaches nearly ideal behaviour, as the drag almost disappears in the zero-temperature limit. Here the mismatch between energy and angular momentum transfer results in a new physical situation, with severe implications on the flow dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alletto, Michael
2014-01-01
The present work deals with the simulation of turbulent particle-laden flows at high mass loadings. In order to achieve this goal, the fluid flow is described by means of the eddy-resolving concept known as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and the particles are described in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Special emphasis is placed on the interparticle collisions and the impact of solid particles on rough walls. Both mechanisms are shown to be crucial for the correct description of the particle dynamics in wall-bounded flows. In order to distinguish the present methodology from the variety of methods available in the literature to treat turbulent flows laden with solid particles, the thesis starts with an overview of different simulation techniques to calculate this class of flows. In this overview special care is taken to underline the parameter space, where the different simulation methods are valid. After that, the governing equations and the boundary conditions applied for the continuous phase of the Euler-Lagrange approach used in the present thesis are given. In the subsequent section the governing equations for the solid particles and their interaction with smooth and rough walls are discussed. Here a new wall roughness model for the particles which incorporates an amplitude parameter used in technical applications such as the mean roughness height or the root-mean-squared roughness is presented. After that, the coupling mechanisms between the phases and the algorithmic realization are discussed. Furthermore, a new agglomeration model capable to treat interparticle collisions with friction is presented. However, the agglomeration model is not evaluated in such a detail as the interparticle collisions and the particle-wall collisions. The reason is that it does not represent a central aspect of this thesis. The numerical methods for the continuous and the disperse phase are presented in the subsequent section. The efficient algorithm to detect the interparticle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alletto, Michael
2014-05-16
The present work deals with the simulation of turbulent particle-laden flows at high mass loadings. In order to achieve this goal, the fluid flow is described by means of the eddy-resolving concept known as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and the particles are described in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Special emphasis is placed on the interparticle collisions and the impact of solid particles on rough walls. Both mechanisms are shown to be crucial for the correct description of the particle dynamics in wall-bounded flows. In order to distinguish the present methodology from the variety of methods available in the literature to treat turbulent flows laden with solid particles, the thesis starts with an overview of different simulation techniques to calculate this class of flows. In this overview special care is taken to underline the parameter space, where the different simulation methods are valid. After that, the governing equations and the boundary conditions applied for the continuous phase of the Euler-Lagrange approach used in the present thesis are given. In the subsequent section the governing equations for the solid particles and their interaction with smooth and rough walls are discussed. Here a new wall roughness model for the particles which incorporates an amplitude parameter used in technical applications such as the mean roughness height or the root-mean-squared roughness is presented. After that, the coupling mechanisms between the phases and the algorithmic realization are discussed. Furthermore, a new agglomeration model capable to treat interparticle collisions with friction is presented. However, the agglomeration model is not evaluated in such a detail as the interparticle collisions and the particle-wall collisions. The reason is that it does not represent a central aspect of this thesis. The numerical methods for the continuous and the disperse phase are presented in the subsequent section. The efficient algorithm to detect the interparticle
Causal analysis of self-sustaining processes in the log-layer of wall-bounded turbulence
Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Bae, Hyunji Jane
2017-11-01
Despite the large amount of information provided by direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows, the underlying dynamics remain elusive even in the most simple and canonical configurations. Most standard methods used to investigate turbulence do not provide a clear causal inference between events, which is necessary to determine this dynamics, particularly in self-sustaning processes. In the present work, we examine the causal interactions between streaks and rolls in the logarithmic layer of minimal turbulent channel flow. Causality between structures is assessed in a non-intrusive manner by transfer entropy, i.e., how much the uncertainty of one structure is reduced by knowing the past states of the others. Streaks are represented by the first Fourier modes of the streamwise velocity, while rolls are defined by the wall-normal and spanwise velocities. The results show that the process is mainly unidirectional rather than cyclic, and that the log-layer motions are sustained by extracting energy from the mean shear, which controls the dynamics and time-scales. The well-known lift-up effect is shown to be not a key ingredient in the causal network between shear, streaks and rolls. Funded by ERC Coturb Madrid Summer Program.
Katul, Gabriel G; Porporato, Amilcare; Nikora, Vladimir
2012-12-01
The existence of a "-1" power-law scaling at low wavenumbers in the longitudinal velocity spectrum of wall-bounded turbulence was explained by multiple mechanisms; however, experimental support has not been uniform across laboratory studies. This letter shows that Heisenberg's eddy viscosity approach can provide a theoretical framework that bridges these multiple mechanisms and explains the elusiveness of the "-1" power law in some experiments. Novel theoretical outcomes are conjectured about the role of intermittency and very-large scale motions in modifying the k⁻¹ scaling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Philip, Jimmy; Baidya, Rio; Hutchins, Nicholas; Monty, Jason P; Marusic, Ivan
2013-01-01
The effect of finite dimensions of ∨- and ×-probes is investigated for the measurement of mean and variances of streamwise and spanwise velocities in wall-turbulence. The probes are numerically simulated using a Direct Numerical Simulation database of channel flow at a friction Reynolds number (Re τ ) of 934 by varying the probe parameters, namely, the wire-lengths (l), the angle between the wires (θ) and the spacing between the wires (Δs). A single inclined wire is first studied to isolate the effect of l and θ. Analytical expressions for the variances of the streamwise and spanwise velocities are derived by applying a linear-box-type filter to the unfiltered velocity field for both ∨- and ×-probes (at θ = 45°, and arbitrary l and Δs). A similar expression for the streamwise variance in the case of a single inclined wire (for arbitrary l and θ) is also derived. These analytical expressions, supplemented with a model for the correlation over the wire-length, compare favourably with the numerical simulation results, and more importantly explain various trends that are observed in the variances with varying parameters. Close to the wall (where the errors are generally higher) the errors in spanwise variances of the ×-probes are much lower than the ∨-probes, owing to an ‘error-cancelling’ mechanism present in ×-probes due to the effect of l and Δs, as well as due to the procedure of recovering the velocities from two wires. The errors in the streamwise variances are comparable for both ∨- and ×-probes. On the other hand, mean velocities are measured with almost no error by the ∨-probe, whereas the ×-probe induces finite errors in mean velocities due to the fact that the two wires experience different mean velocities in ×-probes unlike ∨-probes. These results are explained using the corresponding analytical results, which also show that under the effect of a linear filter, measured variances depend only on the fluctuating velocities
Cao, Bochao; Xu, Hongyi
2018-05-01
Based on direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of the straight ducts, namely square and rectangular annular ducts, detailed analyses were conducted for the mean streamwise velocity, relevant velocity scales, and turbulence statistics. It is concluded that turbulent boundary layers (TBL) should be broadly classified into three types (Type-A, -B, and -C) in terms of their distribution patterns of the time-averaged local wall-shear stress (τ _w ) or the mean local frictional velocity (u_τ ) . With reference to the Type-A TBL analysis by von Karman in developing the law-of-the-wall using the time-averaged local frictional velocity (u_τ ) as scale, the current study extended the approach to the Type-B TBL and obtained the analytical expressions for streamwise velocity in the inner-layer using ensemble-averaged frictional velocity (\\bar{{u}}_τ ) as scale. These analytical formulae were formed by introducing the general damping and enhancing functions. Further, the research applied a near-wall DNS-guided integration to the governing equations of Type-B TBL and quantitatively proved the correctness and accuracy of the inner-layer analytical expressions for this type.
Andrade, João Rodrigo; Martins, Ramon Silva; Thompson, Roney Leon; Mompean, Gilmar; da Silveira Neto, Aristeu
2018-04-01
The present paper provides an analysis of the statistical uncertainties associated with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results and experimental data for turbulent channel and pipe flows, showing a new physically based quantification of these errors, to improve the determination of the statistical deviations between DNSs and experiments. The analysis is carried out using a recently proposed criterion by Thompson et al. ["A methodology to evaluate statistical errors in DNS data of plane channel flows," Comput. Fluids 130, 1-7 (2016)] for fully turbulent plane channel flows, where the mean velocity error is estimated by considering the Reynolds stress tensor, and using the balance of the mean force equation. It also presents how the residual error evolves in time for a DNS of a plane channel flow, and the influence of the Reynolds number on its convergence rate. The root mean square of the residual error is shown in order to capture a single quantitative value of the error associated with the dimensionless averaging time. The evolution in time of the error norm is compared with the final error provided by DNS data of similar Reynolds numbers available in the literature. A direct consequence of this approach is that it was possible to compare different numerical results and experimental data, providing an improved understanding of the convergence of the statistical quantities in turbulent wall-bounded flows.
Simulation of a Wall-Bounded Flow using a Hybrid LES/RAS Approach with Turbulence Recycling
Quinlan, Jesse R.; Mcdaniel, James; Baurle, Robert A.
2012-01-01
Simulations of a supersonic recessed-cavity flow are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/ Reynolds-averaged simulation approach utilizing an inflow turbulence recycling procedure and hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Calorically perfect air enters the three-dimensional domain at a free stream Mach number of 2.92. Simulations are performed to assess grid sensitivity of the solution, efficacy of the turbulence recycling, and effect of the shock sensor used with the hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Analysis of the turbulent boundary layer upstream of the rearward-facing step for each case indicates excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Mean velocity and pressure results are compared to Reynolds-averaged simulations and experimental data for each case, and these comparisons indicate good agreement on the finest grid. Simulations are repeated on a coarsened grid, and results indicate strong grid density sensitivity. The effect of turbulence recycling on the solution is illustrated by performing coarse grid simulations with and without inflow turbulence recycling. Two shock sensors, one of Ducros and one of Larsson, are assessed for use with the hybridized inviscid flux reconstruction scheme.
Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence
Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2018-04-01
Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.
Influence of strong perturbations on wall-bounded flows
Buxton, O. R. H.; Ewenz Rocher, M.; Rodríguez-López, E.
2018-01-01
Single-point hot-wire measurements are made downstream of a series of spanwise repeating obstacles that are used to generate an artificially thick turbulent boundary layer. The measurements are made in the near field, in which the turbulent boundary layer is beginning to develop from the wall-bounded wakes of the obstacles. The recent paper of Rodríguez-López et al. [E. Rodríguez-López et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 074401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.074401] broadly categorized the mechanisms by which canonical turbulent boundary layers eventually develop from wall-bounded wakes into two distinct mechanisms, the wall-driven and wake-driven mechanisms. In the present work we attempt to identify the geometric parameters of tripping arrays that trigger these two mechanisms by examining the spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the intermittent outer region of the flow. Using a definition reliant upon the magnitude of the velocity fluctuations, an intermittency function is devised that can discriminate between turbulent and nonturbulent flow. These results are presented along with the spectra in order to try to ascertain which aspects of a trip's geometry are more likely to favor the wall-driven or wake-driven mechanism. The geometrical aspects of the trips tested are the aspect ratio, the total blockage, and the blockage at the wall. The results indicate that the presence, or not, of perforations is the most significant factor in affecting the flow downstream. The bleed of fluid through the perforations reenergizes the mean recirculation and leads to a narrower intermittent region with a more regular turbulent-nonturbulent interface. The near-wall turbulent motions are found to recover quickly downstream of all of the trips with a wall blockage of 50%, but a clear influence of the outer fluctuations, generated by the tip vortices of the trips, is observed in the near-wall region for the high total blockage trips. The trip with 100% wall blockage is
Regeneration of near-wall turbulence structures
Hamilton, James M.; Kim, John J.; Waleffe, Fabian A.
1993-01-01
An examination of the regeneration mechanisms of near-wall turbulence and an attempt to investigate the critical Reynolds number conjecture of Waleffe & Kim is presented. The basis is an extension of the 'minimal channel' approach of Jimenez and Moin which emphasizes the near-wall region and further reduces the complexity of the turbulent flow. Reduction of the flow Reynolds number to the minimum value which will allow turbulence to be sustained has the effect of reducing the ratio of the largest scales to the smallest scales or, equivalently, of causing the near-wall region to fill more of the area between the channel walls. In addition, since each wall may have an active near-wall region, half of the channel is always somewhat redundant. If a plane Couette flow is instead chosen as the base flow, this redundancy is eliminated: the mean shear of a plane Couette flow has a single sign, and at low Reynolds numbers, the two wall regions share a single set of structures. A minimal flow with these modifications possesses, by construction, the strongest constraints which allow sustained turbulence, producing a greatly simplified flow in which the regeneration process can be examined.
Near wall turbulence: An experimental view
Stanislas, Michel
2017-10-01
The present paper draws upon the experience of the author to illustrate the potential of advanced optical metrology for understanding near-wall-turbulence physics. First the canonical flat plate boundary layer problem is addressed, initially very near to the wall and then in the outer region when the Reynolds number is high enough to generate an outer turbulence peak. The coherent structure organization is examined in detail with the help of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). Then the case of a turbulent boundary layer subjected to a mild adverse pressure gradient is considered. The results obtained show the great potential of a joint experimental-numerical approach. The conclusion is that the insight provided by today's optical metrology opens the way for significant improvements in turbulence modeling in upcoming years.
An NPARC Turbulence Module with Wall Functions
Zhu, J.; Shih, T.-H.
1997-01-01
The turbulence module recently developed for the NPARC code has been extended to include wall functions. The Van Driest transformation is used so that the wall functions can be applied to both incompressible and compressible flows. The module is equipped with three two-equation K-epsilon turbulence models: Chien, Shih-Lumley and CMOTR models. Details of the wall functions as well as their numerical implementation are reported. It is shown that the inappropriate artificial viscosity in the near-wall region has a big influence on the solution of the wall function approach. A simple way to eliminate this influence is proposed, which gives satisfactory results during the code validation. The module can be easily linked to the NPARC code for practical applications.
Composite asymptotic expansions and scaling wall turbulence.
Panton, Ronald L
2007-03-15
In this article, the assumptions and reasoning that yield composite asymptotic expansions for wall turbulence are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the scaling quantities that are used to render the variables non-dimensional and of order one. An asymptotic expansion is proposed for the streamwise Reynolds stress that accounts for the active and inactive turbulence by using different scalings. The idea is tested with the data from the channel flows and appears to have merit.
A statistical state dynamics approach to wall turbulence.
Farrell, B F; Gayme, D F; Ioannou, P J
2017-03-13
This paper reviews results obtained using statistical state dynamics (SSD) that demonstrate the benefits of adopting this perspective for understanding turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows. The SSD approach used in this work employs a second-order closure that retains only the interaction between the streamwise mean flow and the streamwise mean perturbation covariance. This closure restricts nonlinearity in the SSD to that explicitly retained in the streamwise constant mean flow together with nonlinear interactions between the mean flow and the perturbation covariance. This dynamical restriction, in which explicit perturbation-perturbation nonlinearity is removed from the perturbation equation, results in a simplified dynamics referred to as the restricted nonlinear (RNL) dynamics. RNL systems, in which a finite ensemble of realizations of the perturbation equation share the same mean flow, provide tractable approximations to the SSD, which is equivalent to an infinite ensemble RNL system. This infinite ensemble system, referred to as the stochastic structural stability theory system, introduces new analysis tools for studying turbulence. RNL systems provide computationally efficient means to approximate the SSD and produce self-sustaining turbulence exhibiting qualitative features similar to those observed in direct numerical simulations despite greatly simplified dynamics. The results presented show that RNL turbulence can be supported by as few as a single streamwise varying component interacting with the streamwise constant mean flow and that judicious selection of this truncated support or 'band-limiting' can be used to improve quantitative accuracy of RNL turbulence. These results suggest that the SSD approach provides new analytical and computational tools that allow new insights into wall turbulence.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains
Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.
In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the
Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains
Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.
2009-01-01
In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the
Understanding the sub-critical transition to turbulence in wall flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In contrast with free shear flows presenting velocity profiles with injection points which cascade to turbulence in a relatively mild way, wall bounded flows are deprived of (inertial) instability modes at low Reynolds numbers and become turbulent in a much wilder way, most often marked by the coexistence of laminar and ...
Speculation about near-wall turbulence scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurchenko, N F
2008-01-01
A strategy to control near-wall turbulence modifying scales of fluid motion is developed. The boundary-layer flow is shown to respond selectively to the scale of streamwise vortices initiated, e.g. with the spanwise regular temperature distribution over a model surface. It is used to generate sustainable streamwise vortices and thus to optimize integral flow characteristics.
Flow-induced separation in wall turbulence.
Nguyen, Quoc; Srinivasan, Chiranth; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V
2015-03-01
One of the defining characteristics of turbulence is its ability to promote mixing. We present here a case where the opposite happens-simulation results indicate that particles can separate near the wall of a turbulent channel flow, when they have sufficiently different Schmidt numbers without use of any other means. The physical mechanism of the separation is understood when the interplay between convection and diffusion, as expressed by their characteristic time scales, is considered, leading to the determination of the necessary conditions for a successful separation between particles. Practical applications of these results can be found when very small particles need to be separated or removed from a fluid.
Large-scale influences in near-wall turbulence.
Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan
2007-03-15
Hot-wire data acquired in a high Reynolds number facility are used to illustrate the need for adequate scale separation when considering the coherent structure in wall-bounded turbulence. It is found that a large-scale motion in the log region becomes increasingly comparable in energy to the near-wall cycle as the Reynolds number increases. Through decomposition of fluctuating velocity signals, it is shown that this large-scale motion has a distinct modulating influence on the small-scale energy (akin to amplitude modulation). Reassessment of DNS data, in light of these results, shows similar trends, with the rate and intensity of production due to the near-wall cycle subject to a modulating influence from the largest-scale motions.
Irregular wall roughness in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
Berghout, Pieter; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Stevens, Richard
2017-11-01
Many wall bounded flows in nature, engineering and transport are affected by surface roughness. Often, this has adverse effects, e.g. drag increase leading to higher energy costs. A major difficulty is the infinite number of roughness geometries, which makes it impossible to systematically investigate all possibilities. Here we present Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. We focus on the transitionally rough regime, in which both viscous and pressure forces contribute to the total wall stress. We investigate the effect of the mean roughness height and the effective slope on the roughness function, ΔU+ . Also, we present simulations of varying Ta (Re) numbers for a constant mean roughness height (kmean+). Alongside, we show the behavior of the large scale structures (e.g. plume ejection, Taylor rolls) and flow structures in the vicinity of the wall.
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
A Galilean and tensorial invariant k-epsilon model for near wall turbulence
Yang, Z.; Shih, T. H.
1993-01-01
A k-epsilon model is proposed for wall bounded turbulent flows. In this model, the eddy viscosity is characterized by a turbulent velocity scale and a turbulent time scale. The time scale is bounded from below by the Kolmogorov time scale. The dissipation rate equation is reformulated using this time scale and no singularity exists at the wall. A new parameter R = k/S(nu) is introduced to characterize the damping function in the eddy viscosity. This parameter is determined by local properties of both the mean and the turbulent flow fields and is free from any geometry parameter. The proposed model is then Galilean and tensorial invariant. The model constants used are the same as in the high Reynolds number Standard k-epsilon Model. Thus, the proposed model will also be suitable for flows far from the wall. Turbulent channel flows and turbulent boundary layer flows with and without pressure gradients are calculated. Comparisons with the data from direct numerical simulations and experiments show that the model predictions are excellent for turbulent channel flows and turbulent boundary layers with favorable pressure gradients, good for turbulent boundary layers with zero pressure gradients, and fair for turbulent boundary layer with adverse pressure gradients.
What are we learning from simulating wall turbulence?
Jiménez, Javier; Moser, Robert D
2007-03-15
The study of turbulence near walls has experienced a renaissance in the last decade, largely owing to the availability of high-quality numerical simulations. The viscous and buffer layers over smooth walls are essentially independent of the outer flow, and there is a family of numerically exact nonlinear structures that account for about half of the energy production and dissipation. The rest can be modelled by their unsteady bursting. Many characteristics of the wall layer, such as the dimensions of the dominant structures, are well predicted by those models, which were essentially completed in the 1990s after the increase in computer power made the kinematic simulations of the late 1980s cheap enough to undertake dynamic experiments.Today, we are at the early stages of simulating the logarithmic (or overlap) layer, and a number of details regarding its global properties are becoming clear. For instance, a finite Reynolds number correction to the logarithmic law has been validated in turbulent channels. This has allowed upper and lower limits of the overlap region to be clarified, with both upper and lower bounds occurring at much larger distances from the wall than commonly assumed. A kinematic picture of the various cascades present in this part of the flow is also beginning to emerge. Dynamical understanding can be expected in the next decade.
Hidden imperfect synchronization of wall turbulence.
Tardu, Sedat F
2010-03-01
Instantaneous amplitude and phase concept emerging from analytical signal formulation is applied to the wavelet coefficients of streamwise velocity fluctuations in the buffer layer of a near wall turbulent flow. Experiments and direct numerical simulations show both the existence of long periods of inert zones wherein the local phase is constant. These regions are separated by random phase jumps. The local amplitude is globally highly intermittent, but not in the phase locked regions wherein it varies smoothly. These behaviors are reminiscent of phase synchronization phenomena observed in stochastic chaotic systems. The lengths of the constant phase inert (laminar) zones reveal a type I intermittency behavior, in concordance with saddle-node bifurcation, and the periodic orbits of saddle nature recently identified in Couette turbulence. The imperfect synchronization is related to the footprint of coherent Reynolds shear stress producing eddies convecting in the low buffer.
A unified wall function for compressible turbulence modelling
Ong, K. C.; Chan, A.
2018-05-01
Turbulence modelling near the wall often requires a high mesh density clustered around the wall and the first cells adjacent to the wall to be placed in the viscous sublayer. As a result, the numerical stability is constrained by the smallest cell size and hence requires high computational overhead. In the present study, a unified wall function is developed which is valid for viscous sublayer, buffer sublayer and inertial sublayer, as well as including effects of compressibility, heat transfer and pressure gradient. The resulting wall function applies to compressible turbulence modelling for both isothermal and adiabatic wall boundary conditions with the non-zero pressure gradient. Two simple wall function algorithms are implemented for practical computation of isothermal and adiabatic wall boundary conditions. The numerical results show that the wall function evaluates the wall shear stress and turbulent quantities of wall adjacent cells at wide range of non-dimensional wall distance and alleviate the number and size of cells required.
Low dimensional modeling of wall turbulence
Aubry, Nadine
2015-11-01
In this talk we will review the original low dimensional dynamical model of the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer [Aubry, Holmes, Lumley and Stone, Journal of Fluid Dynamics 192, 1988] and discuss its impact on the field of fluid dynamics. We will also invite a few researchers who would like to make brief comments on the influence Lumley had on their research paths. In collaboration with Philip Holmes, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
Kolmogorov Behavior of Near-Wall Turbulence and Its Application in Turbulence Modeling
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.
1992-01-01
The near-wall behavior of turbulence is re-examined in a way different from that proposed by Hanjalic and Launder and followers. It is shown that at a certain distance from the wall, all energetic large eddies will reduce to Kolmogorov eddies (the smallest eddies in turbulence). All the important wall parameters, such as friction velocity, viscous length scale, and mean strain rate at the wall, are characterized by Kolmogorov microscales. According to this Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence, the turbulence quantities, such as turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, etc. at the location where the large eddies become Kolmogorov eddies, can be estimated by using both direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and asymptotic analysis of near-wall turbulence. This information will provide useful boundary conditions for the turbulent transport equations. As an example, the concept is incorporated in the standard k-epsilon model which is then applied to channel and boundary flows. Using appropriate boundary conditions (based on Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence), there is no need for any wall-modification to the k-epsilon equations (including model constants). Results compare very well with the DNS and experimental data.
Turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehme, K.
1978-04-01
The turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle was investigated experimentally by means of hotwires und Pitot-tubes. The aim of this investigation was to get experimental information on the transport properties of turbulent flow especially on the momentum transport. Detailed data were measured of the distributions of the time-mean velocity, the turbulence intensities and, hence the kinetic of turbulence, of the shear stresses in the directions normal and parallel to the walls, and of the wall shear stresses. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of the rods equal to the wall-to-diameter ratio was 1.15, the Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 1.23.10 5 . On the basis of the measurements the eddy viscosities normal and parallel to the walls were calculated. The eddy viscosities observed showed a considerable deviation from the data known up-to-now and from the assumptions introduced in the codes. (orig.) [de
Progress in wall turbulence 2 understanding and modelling
Jimenez, Javier; Marusic, Ivan
2016-01-01
This is the proceedings of the ERCOFTAC Workshop on Progress in Wall Turbulence: Understanding and Modelling, that was held in Lille, France from June 18 to 20, 2014. The workshop brought together world specialists of near wall turbulence and stimulated exchanges between them around up-to-date theories, experiments, simulations and numerical models. This book contains a coherent collection of recent results on near wall turbulence including theory, new experiments, DNS, and modeling with RANS, LES.The fact that both physical understanding and modeling by different approaches are addressed by the best specialists in a single workshop is original.
On Developments of k-τ and k-ω Models for Near-Wall Turbulence of Engineering Duct Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rokni, Masoud; Sundén, Bengt
2009-01-01
-epsilon model namely, the lack of natural boundary conditions. Based on idea of Kolmogorov time-scale a boundary condition at the wall is also proposed. A bounded k-omega model for near wall turbulence is also presented and comparison with other well established two-equation models (k-epsilon model and Wilcox k...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayaraju, S.T.; Sathiah, P.; Roelofs, F.; Dehbi, A.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Near-wall modeling uncertainties in the RANS particle transport and deposition are addressed in a turbulent duct flow. • Discrete Random Walk (DRW) model and Continuous Random Walk (CRW) model performances are tested. • Several near-wall anisotropic model accuracy is assessed. • Numerous sensitivity studies are performed to recommend a robust, well-validated near-wall model for accurate particle deposition predictions. - Abstract: Dust accumulation in the primary system of a (V)HTR is identified as one of the foremost concerns during a potential accident. Several numerical efforts have focused on the use of RANS methodology to better understand the complex phenomena of fluid–particle interaction at various flow conditions. In the present work, several uncertainties relating to the near-wall modeling of particle transport and deposition are addressed for the RANS approach. The validation analyses are performed in a fully developed turbulent duct flow setup. A standard k − ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment is used for modeling the turbulence. For the Lagrangian phase, the performance of a continuous random walk (CRW) model and a discrete random walk (DRW) model for the particle transport and deposition are assessed. For wall bounded flows, it is generally seen that accounting for near wall anisotropy is important to accurately predict particle deposition. The various near-wall correlations available in the literature are either derived from the DNS data or from the experimental data. A thorough investigation into various near-wall correlations and their applicability for accurate particle deposition predictions are assessed. The main outcome of the present work is a well validated turbulence model with optimal near-wall modeling which provides realistic particle deposition predictions
Cell wall bound anionic peroxidases from asparagus byproducts.
Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; López, Sergio; Vazquez-Castilla, Sara; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Guillen-Bejarano, Rafael
2014-10-08
Asparagus byproducts are a good source of cationic soluble peroxidases (CAP) useful for the bioremediation of phenol-contaminated wastewaters. In this study, cell wall bound peroxidases (POD) from the same byproducts have been purified and characterized. The covalent forms of POD represent >90% of the total cell wall bound POD. Isoelectric focusing showed that whereas the covalent fraction is constituted primarily by anionic isoenzymes, the ionic fraction is a mixture of anionic, neutral, and cationic isoenzymes. Covalently bound peroxidases were purified by means of ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. In vitro detoxification studies showed that although CAP are more effective for the removal of 4-CP and 2,4-DCP, anionic asparagus peroxidase (AAP) is a better option for the removal of hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main phenol present in olive mill wastewaters.
Off-wall boundary conditions for turbulent flows obtained from buffer-layer minimal flow units
Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo; Pierce, Brian; Wallace, James
2012-11-01
There is strong evidence that the transport processes in the buffer region of wall-bounded turbulence are common across various flow configurations, even in the embryonic turbulence in transition (Park et al., Phys. Fl. 24). We use this premise to develop off-wall boundary conditions for turbulent simulations. Boundary conditions are constructed from DNS databases using periodic minimal flow units and reduced order modeling. The DNS data was taken from a channel at Reτ = 400 and a zero-pressure gradient transitional boundary layer (Sayadi et al., submitted to J . FluidMech .) . Both types of boundary conditions were first tested on a DNS of the core of the channel flow with the aim of extending their application to LES and to spatially evolving flows. 2012 CTR Summer Program.
Turbulence near the wall in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nedospasov, A.V.
1989-01-01
Causes of plasma turbulence in the shadow of poloidal limiter of tokamak are discussed. Current to limiter along the magnetic field plays the determining role. In this case the plasma on the external surrounding of torr is unstable relatively to channeled perturbations. Conditions of strong and weak recycling in limiter are considered. It is shown that in case of strong recycling, the amplitude and scale of turbulence pulsations and turbulent temperature conductivity of the plasma can be determined by low temperature of electrons near the limiter surface
Self-similarity in the inertial region of wall turbulence.
Klewicki, J; Philip, J; Marusic, I; Chauhan, K; Morrill-Winter, C
2014-12-01
The inverse of the von Kármán constant κ is the leading coefficient in the equation describing the logarithmic mean velocity profile in wall bounded turbulent flows. Klewicki [J. Fluid Mech. 718, 596 (2013)] connects the asymptotic value of κ with an emerging condition of dynamic self-similarity on an interior inertial domain that contains a geometrically self-similar hierarchy of scaling layers. A number of properties associated with the asymptotic value of κ are revealed. This is accomplished using a framework that retains connection to invariance properties admitted by the mean statement of dynamics. The development leads toward, but terminates short of, analytically determining a value for κ. It is shown that if adjacent layers on the hierarchy (or their adjacent positions) adhere to the same self-similarity that is analytically shown to exist between any given layer and its position, then κ≡Φ(-2)=0.381966..., where Φ=(1+√5)/2 is the golden ratio. A number of measures, derived specifically from an analysis of the mean momentum equation, are subsequently used to empirically explore the veracity and implications of κ=Φ(-2). Consistent with the differential transformations underlying an invariant form admitted by the governing mean equation, it is demonstrated that the value of κ arises from two geometric features associated with the inertial turbulent motions responsible for momentum transport. One nominally pertains to the shape of the relevant motions as quantified by their area coverage in any given wall-parallel plane, and the other pertains to the changing size of these motions in the wall-normal direction. In accord with self-similar mean dynamics, these two features remain invariant across the inertial domain. Data from direct numerical simulations and higher Reynolds number experiments are presented and discussed relative to the self-similar geometric structure indicated by the analysis, and in particular the special form of self
Temperature fluctuations in fully-developed turbulent channel flow with heated upper wall
Bahri, Carla; Mueller, Michael; Hultmark, Marcus
2013-11-01
The interactions and scaling differences between the velocity field and temperature field in a wall-bounded turbulent flow are investigated. In particular, a fully developed turbulent channel flow perturbed by a step change in the wall temperature is considered with a focus on the details of the developing thermal boundary layer. For this specific study, temperature acts as a passive scalar, having no dynamical effect on the flow. A combination of experimental investigation and direct numerical simulation (DNS) is presented. Velocity and temperature data are acquired with high accuracy where, the flow is allowed to reach a fully-developed state before encountering a heated upper wall at constant temperature. The experimental data is compared with DNS data where simulations of the same configuration are conducted.
New time scale based k-epsilon model for near-wall turbulence
Yang, Z.; Shih, T. H.
1993-01-01
A k-epsilon model is proposed for wall bonded turbulent flows. In this model, the eddy viscosity is characterized by a turbulent velocity scale and a turbulent time scale. The time scale is bounded from below by the Kolmogorov time scale. The dissipation equation is reformulated using this time scale and no singularity exists at the wall. The damping function used in the eddy viscosity is chosen to be a function of R(sub y) = (k(sup 1/2)y)/v instead of y(+). Hence, the model could be used for flows with separation. The model constants used are the same as in the high Reynolds number standard k-epsilon model. Thus, the proposed model will be also suitable for flows far from the wall. Turbulent channel flows at different Reynolds numbers and turbulent boundary layer flows with and without pressure gradient are calculated. Results show that the model predictions are in good agreement with direct numerical simulation and experimental data.
Reynold-Number Effects on Near-Wall Turbulence
Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moser, R. D.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The Reynolds stress budget in a full developed turbulent channel flow for three Reynolds numbers (Re = 180,395,590) are used to investigate the near wall scaling of various turbulence quantities. We find that as the Reynolds number increases, the extent of the region where the production of the kinetic energy is equal to the dissipation increases. At the highest Reynolds number the region of equilibrium extends from y+ - 120 to y+ = 240. As the Reynolds number increases, we find that wall scaling collapses the budgets for the streamwise fluctuating component, but the budgets for the other two components show Reynolds number dependency.
Impact of turbulence anisotropy near walls in room airflow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schälin, A.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
2004-01-01
The inﬂuence of diﬀerent turbulence models used in computational ﬂuid dynamics predictions is studied in connection with room air movement. The turbulence models used are the high Re-number k–e model and the high Re- number Reynolds stress model (RSM). The three-dimensional wall jet is selected...... in a three- dimensional wall jet by the k–e turbulence model. Furthermore, it is shown that the growth rate can be predicted to a certain extent by the RSM with wall reﬂection terms. The ﬂow in a deep room can be strongly inﬂuenced by details as the growth rate of a three-dimensional wall jet. Predictions...... for the work. The growth rate parallel to the wall in a three-dimensional wall jet is large compared with the growth rate perpendicular to the wall, and it is large compared with the growth rate in a free circular jet. It is shown that it is not possible to predict the high growth rate parallel with a surface...
Turbulent flow velocity distribution at rough walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumann, W.
1978-08-01
Following extensive measurements of the velocity profile in a plate channel with artificial roughness geometries specific investigations were carried out to verify the results obtained. The wall geometry used was formed by high transverse square ribs having a large pitch. The measuring position relative to the ribs was varied as a parameter thus providing a statement on the local influence of roughness ribs on the values measured. As a fundamental result it was found that the gradient of the logarithmic rough wall velocity profiles, which differs widely from the value 2.5, depends but slightly on the measuring position relative to the ribs. The gradients of the smooth wall velocity profiles deviate from 2.5 near the ribs, only. This fact can be explained by the smooth wall shear stress varying with the pitch of the ribs. (orig.) 891 GL [de
Wilczek, Michael; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles
2015-01-01
Motivated by the need to characterize the spatio-temporal structure of turbulence in wall-bounded flows, we study wavenumber–frequency spectra of the streamwise velocity component based on large-eddy simulation (LES) data. The LES data are used to measure spectra as a function of the two
Velocity distribution in a turbulent flow near a rough wall
Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.
2017-11-01
Velocity distribution in the zone of developed wall turbulence, regardless of the conditions on the wall, is described by the well-known Prandtl logarithmic profile. In this distribution, the constant, that determines the value of the velocity, is determined by the nature of the interaction of the flow with the wall and depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the dynamic velocity, and the parameters of the wall roughness.In extreme cases depending on the ratio between the thickness of the viscous sublayer and the size of the roughness the constant takes on a value that does not depend on viscosity, or leads to a ratio for a smooth wall.It is essential that this logarithmic profile is the result not only of the Prandtl theory, but can be derived from general considerations of the theory of dimensions, and also follows from the condition of local equilibrium of generation and dissipation of turbulent energy in the wall area. This allows us to consider the profile as a universal law of velocity distribution in the wall area of a turbulent flow.The profile approximation up to the maximum speed line with subsequent integration makes possible to obtain the resistance law for channels of simple shape. For channels of complex shape with rough walls, the universal profile can be used to formulate the boundary condition when applied to the calculation of turbulence models.This paper presents an empirical model for determining the constant of the universal logarithmic profile. The zone of roughness is described by a set of parameters and is considered as a porous structure with variable porosity.
Interaction of flexible surface hairs with near-wall turbulence.
Brücker, Ch
2011-05-11
The interaction of near-wall turbulence with hairy surfaces is investigated in a turbulent boundary layer flow along a flat plate in an oil channel at Re = 1.2 × 10⁶. The plate is covered locally with a dense carpet of elastomeric micro-hairs (length L = 1 mm, length in viscous units L( + ) = 30) which are arranged in a regular grid (60 × 30 hairs with a streamwise spacing Δx( + )≈15 and a spanwise spacing Δy( + )≈30). Instead of the micro-structures used in previous studies for sensory applications, the surface hairs are considerably larger and much more densely distributed with a spacing of S/D wall-normal directions. Near-wall high-frequency disturbances excited by the passage of turbulent sweeps are dampened over their course along the carpet. The cooperative action of the hairs leads to an energy transfer from small-scale motion to larger scales, thus increasing the coherence of the motion pattern in streamwise and spanwise directions. As a consequence of the specific arrangement of the micro-hairs in streamwise columns a reduced spanwise meandering and stabilization of the streamwise velocity streaks is achieved by promoting varicose waves and inhibiting sinusoidal waves. Streak stabilization is known to be a major contributor to turbulent drag reduction. Thus it is concluded that hairy surfaces may be of benefit for turbulent drag reduction as hypothesized by Bartenwerfer and Bechert (1991 Z. Flugwiss. Weltraumforsch. 15 19-26).
Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abutment
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Experimental investigation of the 3D turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld around a 45° wing-wall abutment, resting on a rough rigid bed, is reported. The experiment was conducted ... The shear stresses acting on the bed around the abutment are estimated from the Reynolds stresses and velocity gradients. The data presented in this study ...
Neural network modeling for near wall turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milano, Michele; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2002-01-01
A neural network methodology is developed in order to reconstruct the near wall field in a turbulent flow by exploiting flow fields provided by direct numerical simulations. The results obtained from the neural network methodology are compared with the results obtained from prediction and reconstruction using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Using the property that the POD is equivalent to a specific linear neural network, a nonlinear neural network extension is presented. It is shown that for a relatively small additional computational cost nonlinear neural networks provide us with improved reconstruction and prediction capabilities for the near wall velocity fields. Based on these results advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are discussed with an outlook toward the development of near wall models for turbulence modeling and control
2016-02-26
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0108 Wall turbulence with designer properties Beverley Mckeon CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 02/26/2016... Wall turbulence with designer properties: Identification, characterization & manipulation of energy pathways 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identification, characterization and manipulation of energy pathways in wall turbulence . The objectives were pursued separately and collaboratively by the
Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow - An alternative view
Bernard, P. S.; Speziale, C. G.
1992-01-01
The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if a residual vortex stretching term is maintained in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are presented for a k-epsilon model modified to account for net vortex stretching.
Quantifying near-wall coherent structures in turbulent convection
Gunasegarane, G. S.; A Puthenveettil, Baburaj; K Agrawal, Yogesh; Schmeling, Daniel; Bosbach, Johannes; Arakeri, Jaywant; IIT Madras-DLR-IISc Collaboration
2011-11-01
We present planforms of line plumes formed on horizontal surfaces in turbulent convection, along with the length of near- wall line plumes measured from these planforms, in a six decade range of Rayleigh numbers (105 < Ra <1011) and at three Prandtl numbers (Pr = 0 . 7 , 6 , 602). Using geometric constraints on the relations for the mean plume spacings, we obtain expressions for the total length of these near-wall plumes in turbulent convection. The plume length per unit area (Lp / A), made dimensionless by the near-wall length scale in turbulent convection (Zw) remains a constant for a given fluid. The Nusselt number is shown to be directly proportional to Lp H / A for a given fluid layer of height H. Increase in Pr has a weak influence in decreasing Lp / A . These expressions match the measurements, thereby showing that the assumption of laminar natural convection boundary layers in turbulent convection is consistent with the observed total length of line plumes. We then show that similar relationships are obtained based on the assumption that the line plumes are the outcome of the instability of laminar natural convection boundary layers on the horizontal surfaces.
Physics and control of wall turbulence for drag reduction.
Kim, John
2011-04-13
Turbulence physics responsible for high skin-friction drag in turbulent boundary layers is first reviewed. A self-sustaining process of near-wall turbulence structures is then discussed from the perspective of controlling this process for the purpose of skin-friction drag reduction. After recognizing that key parts of this self-sustaining process are linear, a linear systems approach to boundary-layer control is discussed. It is shown that singular-value decomposition analysis of the linear system allows us to examine different approaches to boundary-layer control without carrying out the expensive nonlinear simulations. Results from the linear analysis are consistent with those observed in full nonlinear simulations, thus demonstrating the validity of the linear analysis. Finally, fundamental performance limit expected of optimal control input is discussed.
Interaction of flexible surface hairs with near-wall turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruecker, Ch
2011-01-01
The interaction of near-wall turbulence with hairy surfaces is investigated in a turbulent boundary layer flow along a flat plate in an oil channel at Re = 1.2 x 10 6 . The plate is covered locally with a dense carpet of elastomeric micro-hairs (length L = 1 mm, length in viscous units L + = 30) which are arranged in a regular grid (60 x 30 hairs with a streamwise spacing Δx + ∼15 and a spanwise spacing Δy + ∼30). Instead of the micro-structures used in previous studies for sensory applications, the surface hairs are considerably larger and much more densely distributed with a spacing of S/D < 5 such that they interact with each other by flow coupling. The non-fluctuating mean part of the flow forces a substantial pre-bending in the streamwise direction (reconfiguration). As a consequence, the hairs align with the streamwise direction, thus imposing anisotropic damping characteristics with regard to flow fluctuations in streamwise and spanwise or wall-normal directions. Near-wall high-frequency disturbances excited by the passage of turbulent sweeps are dampened over their course along the carpet. The cooperative action of the hairs leads to an energy transfer from small-scale motion to larger scales, thus increasing the coherence of the motion pattern in streamwise and spanwise directions. As a consequence of the specific arrangement of the micro-hairs in streamwise columns a reduced spanwise meandering and stabilization of the streamwise velocity streaks is achieved by promoting varicose waves and inhibiting sinusoidal waves. Streak stabilization is known to be a major contributor to turbulent drag reduction. Thus it is concluded that hairy surfaces may be of benefit for turbulent drag reduction as hypothesized by Bartenwerfer and Bechert (1991 Z. Flugwiss. Weltraumforsch. 15 19-26).
The effect of wall geometry in particle-laden turbulent flow
Abdehkakha, Hoora; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2016-11-01
Particle-laden turbulent flow plays a significant role in various industrial applications, as turbulence alters the exchange of momentum and energy between particles and fluid flow. In wall-bounded flows, inhomogeneity in turbulent properties is the primary cause of turbophoresis that leads the particles toward the walls. Conversely, shear-induced lift force on the particles can become important if large scale vortical structures are present. The objective of this study is to understand the effects of geometry on fluid flows and consequently on particles transport and concentration. Direct numerical simulations combined with point particle Lagrangian tracking are performed for several geometries such as a pipe, channel, square duct, and squircle (rounded-corners duct). In non-circular ducts, anisotropic and inhomogeneous Reynolds stresses are the most influential phenomena that produce the secondary flows. It has been shown that these motions can have a significant impact on transporting momentum, vorticity, and energy from the core of the duct to the corners. The main focus of the present study is to explore the effects of near the wall structures and secondary flows on turbophoresis, lift, and particle concentration.
Localized modelling and feedback control of linear instabilities in 2-D wall bounded shear flows
Tol, Henry; Kotsonis, Marios; de Visser, Coen
2016-11-01
A new approach is presented for control of instabilities in 2-D wall bounded shear flows described by the linearized Navier-Stokes equations (LNSE). The control design accounts both for spatially localized actuators/sensors and the dominant perturbation dynamics in an optimal control framework. An inflow disturbance model is proposed for streamwise instabilities that drive laminar-turbulent transition. The perturbation modes that contribute to the transition process can be selected and are included in the control design. A reduced order model is derived from the LNSE that captures the input-output behavior and the dominant perturbation dynamics. This model is used to design an optimal controller for suppressing the instability growth. A 2-D channel flow and a 2-D boundary layer flow over a flat plate are considered as application cases. Disturbances are generated upstream of the control domain and the resulting flow perturbations are estimated/controlled using wall shear measurements and localized unsteady blowing and suction at the wall. It will be shown that the controller is able to cancel the perturbations and is robust to unmodelled disturbances.
Two-dimensional turbulent flows on a bounded domain
Kramer, W.
2006-01-01
Large-scale flows in the oceans and the atmosphere reveal strong similarities with purely two-dimensional flows. One of the most typical features is the cascade of energy from smaller flow scales towards larger scales. This is opposed to three-dimensional turbulence where larger flow structures
Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; McKeon, Beverley
2017-03-13
Phase relations between specific scales in a turbulent boundary layer are studied here by highlighting the associated nonlinear scale interactions in the flow. This is achieved through an experimental technique that allows for targeted forcing of the flow through the use of a dynamic wall perturbation. Two distinct large-scale modes with well-defined spatial and temporal wavenumbers were simultaneously forced in the boundary layer, and the resulting nonlinear response from their direct interactions was isolated from the turbulence signal for the study. This approach advances the traditional studies of large- and small-scale interactions in wall turbulence by focusing on the direct interactions between scales with triadic wavenumber consistency. The results are discussed in the context of modelling high Reynolds number wall turbulence.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Direct Numerical Simulation and Theories of Wall Turbulence with a Range of Pressure Gradients
Coleman, G. N.; Garbaruk, A.; Spalart, P. R.
2014-01-01
A new Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Couette-Poiseuille flow at a higher Reynolds number is presented and compared with DNS of other wall-bounded flows. It is analyzed in terms of testing semi-theoretical proposals for universal behavior of the velocity, mixing length, or eddy viscosity in pressure gradients, and in terms of assessing the accuracy of two turbulence models. These models are used in two modes, the traditional one with only a dependence on the wall-normal coordinate y, and a newer one in which a lateral dependence on z is added. For pure Couette flow and the Couette-Poiseuille case considered here, this z-dependence allows some models to generate steady streamwise vortices, which generally improves the agreement with DNS and experiment. On the other hand, it complicates the comparison between DNS and models.
Turbulence Intensity and the Friction Factor for Smooth- and Rough-Wall Pipe Flow
Nils T. Basse
2017-01-01
Turbulence intensity profiles are compared for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow measurements made in the Princeton Superpipe. The profile development in the transition from hydraulically smooth to fully rough flow displays a propagating sequence from the pipe wall towards the pipe axis. The scaling of turbulence intensity with Reynolds number shows that the smooth- and rough wall level deviates with increasing Reynolds number. We quantify the correspondence between turbulence intensity and th...
Rigorous upper bounds for transport due to passive advection by inhomogeneous turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Smith, R.A.
1987-05-01
A variational procedure, due originally to Howard and explored by Busse and others for self-consistent turbulence problems, is employed to determine rigorous upper bounds for the advection of a passive scalar through an inhomogeneous turbulent slab with arbitrary generalized Reynolds number R and Kubo number K. In the basic version of the method, the steady-state energy balance is used as a constraint; the resulting bound, though rigorous, is independent of K. A pedagogical reference model (one dimension, K = ∞) is described in detail; the bound compares favorably with the exact solution. The direct-interaction approximation is also worked out for this model; it is somewhat more accurate than the bound, but requires considerably more labor to solve. For the basic bound, a general formalism is presented for several dimensions, finite correlation length, and reasonably general boundary conditions. Part of the general method, in which a Green's function technique is employed, applies to self-consistent as well as to passive problems, and thereby generalizes previous results in the fluid literature. The formalism is extended for the first time to include time-dependent constraints, and a bound is deduced which explicitly depends on K and has the correct physical scalings in all regimes of R and K. Two applications from the theory of turbulent plasmas ae described: flux in velocity space, and test particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields. For the velocity space problem the simplest bound reproduces Dupree's original scaling for the strong turbulence diffusion coefficient. For the case of stochastic magnetic fields, the scaling of the bounds is described for the magnetic diffusion coefficient as well as for the particle diffusion coefficient in the so-called collisionless, fluid, and double-streaming regimes
Dogan, Eda; Hearst, R Jason; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2017-03-13
A turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence is investigated in order to ascertain the scale interactions that dominate the near-wall region. The results are discussed in relation to a canonical high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer because previous studies have reported considerable similarities between these two flows. Measurements were acquired simultaneously from four hot wires mounted to a rake which was traversed through the boundary layer. Particular focus is given to two main features of both canonical high Reynolds number boundary layers and boundary layers subjected to free-stream turbulence: (i) the footprint of the large scales in the logarithmic region on the near-wall small scales, specifically the modulating interaction between these scales, and (ii) the phase difference in amplitude modulation. The potential for a turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence to 'simulate' high Reynolds number wall-turbulence interactions is discussed. The results of this study have encouraging implications for future investigations of the fundamental scale interactions that take place in high Reynolds number flows as it demonstrates that these can be achieved at typical laboratory scales.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow: An alternative view
Bernard, Peter S.; Speziale, Charles G.
1990-01-01
The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if vortex stretching is accounted for in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are present for a k-epsilon model modified to account for vortex stretching. The calculations indicate an initial exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate for elapsed times that are as large as those considered in any of the previously conducted physical or numerical experiments on homogeneous shear flow. However, vortex stretching eventually takes over and forces a production-equals-dissipation equilibrium with bounded energy states. The validity of this result is further supported by an independent theoretical argument. It is concluded that the generally accepted structural equilibrium for homogeneous shear flow with unbounded component energies is in need of re-examination.
On the skin friction coefficient in viscoelastic wall-bounded flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Housiadas, Kostas D.; Beris, Antony N.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We decompose the skin friction coefficient to its individual contributions. ► The contributions are evaluated using simulation results in turbulent channel flow. ► We present a fitting curve for the drag reduction. ► A new formula for the skin friction coefficient is also developed. ► The results agree well with experimental data from the literature. -- Abstract: Analysis of the skin friction coefficient for wall bounded viscoelastic flows is performed by utilizing available direct numerical simulation (DNS) results for viscoelastic turbulent channel flow. The Oldroyd-B, FENE-P and Giesekus constitutive models are used. First, we analyze the friction coefficient in viscous, viscoelastic and inertial stress contributions, as these arise from suitable momentum balances, for the flow in channels and pipes. Following Fukagata et al. (Phys. Fluids, 14, p. L73, 2002) and Yu et al. (Int. J. Heat. Fluid Flow, 25, p. 961, 2004) these three contributions are evaluated averaging available numerical results, and presented for selected values of flow and rheological parameters. Second, based on DNS results, we develop a universal function for the relative drag reduction as a function of the friction Weissenberg number. This leads to a closed-form approximate expression for the inverse of the square root of the skin friction coefficient for viscoelastic turbulent pipe flow as a function of the friction Reynolds number involving two primary material parameters, and a secondary one which also depends on the flow. The primary parameters are the zero shear-rate elasticity number, El 0 , and the limiting value for the drag reduction at high Weissenberg number, LDR, while the secondary one is the relative wall viscosity, μ w . The predictions reproduce both types A and B of drag reduction, as first introduced by Virk (Nature, 253, p. 109, 1975), corresponding to partially and fully extended polymer molecules, respectively. Comparison of the results for the
An analytical wall-function for turbulent flows and heat transfer over rough walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suga, K.; Craft, T.J.; Iacovides, H.
2006-01-01
This paper reports the development of a refined wall-function strategy for the modelling of turbulent forced convection heat transfer over smooth and rough surfaces. In order to include the effects of fine-grain surface roughness, the present study extends a more fundamental work by Craft et al. [Craft, T.J., Gerasimov, A.V., Iacovides, H., Launder, B.E., 2002. Progress in the generalisation of wall-function treatment. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23, 148-160] on the development of advanced wall-functions of general applicability. The presently proposed model is validated through comparisons with data available for internal flows through channels and for external flows over flat and curved plates with both smooth and rough surfaces. Then, its further validation in separating flows over a sand dune and a sand-roughened ramp is discussed. The validation results suggest that the presently proposed form can be successfully applied to a wide range of attached and separated turbulent flows with heat transfer over smooth and fine-grain rough surfaces
Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction
Sridhar, A.
2017-03-28
A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise
Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re{sub r} = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in
Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo
2014-01-01
Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re r = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in the
Turbulent boundary layer over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls
Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Hamed, Ali M.; Castillo, Luciano
2015-11-01
In this work, an experimental investigation of the developing and developed flow over two- and three-dimensional large-scale wavy walls was performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry in a refractive-index-matching flume. The 2D wall is described by a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/ λx = 0.05. The 3D wall is defined with an additional wave superimposed on the 2D wall in the spanwise direction with a/ λy = 0.1. The flow was characterized at Reynolds numbers of 4000 and 40000, based on the bulk velocity and the flume half height. Instantaneous velocity fields and time-averaged turbulence quantities reveal strong coupling between large-scale topography and the turbulence dynamics near the wall. Turbulence statistics show the presence of a well-structured shear layer that enhances the turbulence for the 2D wavy wall, whereas the 3D wall exhibits different flow dynamics and significantly lower turbulence levels, particularly for which shows about 30% reduction. The likelihood of recirculation bubbles, levels and spatial distribution of turbulence, and the rate of the turbulent kinetic energy production are shown to be severely affected when a single spanwise mode is superimposed on the 2D wall. POD analysis was also performed to further understand distinctive features of the flow structures due to surface topography.
Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces
Wang, Chi R.
2005-01-01
This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one
LES of turbulent flow in a concentric annulus with rotating outer wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadžiabdić, M.; Hanjalić, K.; Mullyadzhanov, R.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • High rotation up to N = 2 dampens progressively the turbulence near the rotating outer wall. • At 2 2.8, while tending to laminarize, the flow exhibits distinct Taylor-Couette vortical rolls. -- Abstract: Fully-developed turbulent flow in a concentric annulus, r 1 /r 2 = 0.5, Re h = 12,500, with the outer wall rotating at a range of rotation rates N = U θ,wall /U b from 0.5 up to 4 is studied by large-eddy simulations. The focus is on the effects of moderate to very high rotation rates on the mean flow, turbulence statistics and eddy structure. For N up to ∼2, an increase in the rotation rate dampens progressively the turbulence near the rotating outer wall, while affecting only mildly the inner-wall region. At higher rotation rates this trend is reversed: for N = 2.8 close to the inner wall turbulence is dramatically reduced while the outer wall region remains turbulent with discernible helical vortices as the dominant turbulent structure. The turbulence parameters and eddy structures differ significantly for N = 2 and 2.8. This switch is attributed to the centrifuged turbulence (generated near the inner wall) prevailing over the axial inertial force as well as over the counteracting laminarizing effects of the rotating outer wall. At still higher rotation, N = 4, the flow gets laminarized but with distinct spiralling vortices akin to the Taylor–Couette rolls found between the two counter-rotating cylinders without axial flow, which is the limiting case when N approaches to infinity. The ratio of the centrifugal to axial inertial forces, Ta/Re 2 ∝ N 2 (where Ta is the Taylor number) is considered as a possible criterion for defining the conditions for the above regime change
Introduction: Scaling and structure in high Reynolds number wall-bounded flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKeon, B.J.; Sreenivasan, K.R.
2007-05-01
The papers discussed in this report are dealing with the following aspects: Fundamental scaling relations for canonical flows and asymptotic approach to infinite Reynolds numbers; large and very large scales in near-wall turbulences; the influence of roughness and finite Reynolds number effects; comparison between internal and external flows and the universality of the near-wall region; qualitative and quantitative models of the turbulent boundary layer; the neutrally stable atmospheric surface layer as a model for a canonical zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer (author)
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D., E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: membiela@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: sanchez@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-03-01
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D.
2015-01-01
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D. [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-03-27
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groshev, A.I.; Anisimov, V.V.; Kashcheev, V.M.; Khudasko, V.V.; Yur'ev, Yu.S.
1987-01-01
The effect of wall material on convective heat transfer of turbulent gas flow in an annular tube with account of longitudinal diffusion both in the wall and in the liquid is studied numerically. The conjugated problem is solved for P r =0.7 (Re=10 4 -10 6 ). Based on numerical calculations it is stated that thermal conductivity of the wall and gas essentially affects the degree of preliminary heating of liquid in the range of a non-heated section
Structure of wall-bounded flows at transcritical conditions
Ma, Peter C.; Yang, Xiang I. A.; Ihme, Matthias
2018-03-01
At transcritical conditions, the transition of a fluid from a liquidlike state to a gaslike state occurs continuously, which is associated with significant changes in fluid properties. Therefore, boiling in its conventional sense does not exist and the phase transition at transcritical conditions is known as "pseudoboiling." In this work, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a channel flow at transcritical conditions are conducted in which the bottom and top walls are kept at temperatures below and above the pseudoboiling temperature, respectively. Over this temperature range, the density changes by a factor of 18 between both walls. Using the DNS data, the usefulness of the semilocal scaling and the Townsend attached-eddy hypothesis are examined in the context of flows at transcritical conditions—both models have received much empirical support from previous studies. It is found that while the semilocal scaling works reasonably well near the bottom cooled wall, where the fluid density changes only moderately, the same scaling has only limited success near the top wall. In addition, it is shown that the streamwise velocity structure function follows a logarithmic scaling and the streamwise energy spectrum exhibits an inverse wave-number scaling, thus providing support to the attached-eddy model at transcritical conditions.
Proteomic Analysis to Identify Tightly-Bound Cell Wall Protein in Rice Calli
Cho, Won Kyong; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Rim, Yeonggil; Chen, Xiong Yan; Jo, Yeonhwa; Kim, Suwha; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Zee-Yong; Lucas, William J.; Kim, Jae-Yean
2015-01-01
Rice is a model plant widely used for basic and applied research programs. Plant cell wall proteins play key roles in a broad range of biological processes. However, presently, knowledge on the rice cell wall proteome is rudimentary in nature. In the present study, the tightly-bound cell wall proteome of rice callus cultured cells using sequential extraction protocols was developed using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods, leading to the identification of 1568 candidate proteins. Ba...
Wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layer
Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin
2017-11-01
The wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations (u) are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer at Reτ = 1000 . We identify the structures of u, which are extended close to the wall. Their height (ly) ranges from the near-wall region to the edge of turbulent boundary layer. They are geometrically self-similar in a sense that the length and width of the structures are proportional to the distance from the wall. The population density of the attached structures shows that the tall attached structures (290 wall. The wall-attached structures of u identified in the present work are a proper candidate for Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis and these structures exist in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and supported by the Supercomputing Center (KISTI).
Pipe Flow and Wall Turbulence Using a Modified Navier-Stokes Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jirkovsky, L.; Muriel, A.
2012-01-01
We use a derived incompressible modified Navier-Stokes equation to model pipe flow and wall turbulence. We reproduce the observed flattened paraboloid velocity profiles of turbulence that cannot be obtained directly using standard incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The solutions found are in harmony with multi-valued velocity fields as a definition of turbulence. Repeating the procedure for the flow of turbulent fluid between two parallel flat plates we find similar flattened velocity profiles. We extend the analysis to the turbulent flow along a single wall and compare the results with experimental data and the established controversial von Karman logarithmic law of the wall. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Characteristics of turbulent velocity and temperature in a wall channel of a heated rod bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krauss, T.; Meyer, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)
1995-09-01
Turbulent air flow in a wall sub-channel of a heated 37-rod bundle (P/D = 1.12, W/D = 1.06) was investigated. measurements were performed with hot-wire probe with X-wires and a temperature wire. The mean velocity, the mean fluid temperature, the wall shear stress and wall temperature, the turbulent quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy, the Reynolds-stresses and the turbulent heat fluxes were measured and are discussed with respect to data from isothermal flow in a wall channel and heated flow in a central channel of the same rod bundle. Also, data on the power spectral densities of the velocity and temperature fluctuations are presented. These data show the existence of large scale periodic fluctuations are responsible for the high intersubchannel heat and momentum exchange.
A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence
Kibbey, Timothy P.
2014-01-01
A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.
A Wall Boundary Condition for the Simulation of a Turbulent Non-Newtonian Domestic Slurry in Pipes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhruv Mehta
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The concentration (using a lesser amount of water of domestic slurry promotes resource recovery (nutrients and biomass while saving water. This article is aimed at developing numerical methods to support engineering processes such as the design and implementation of sewerage for concentrated domestic slurry. The current industrial standard for computational fluid dynamics-based analyses of turbulent flows is Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS modelling. This is assisted by the wall function approach proposed by Launder and Spalding, which permits the use of under-refined grids near wall boundaries while simulating a wall-bounded flow. Most RANS models combined with wall functions have been successfully validated for turbulent flows of Newtonian fluids. However, our experiments suggest that concentrated domestic slurry shows a Herschel–Bulkley-type non-Newtonian behaviour. Attempts have been made to derive wall functions and turbulence closures for non-Newtonian fluids; however, the resulting laws or equations are either inconsistent across experiments or lack relevant experimental support. Pertinent to this study, laws or equations reported in literature are restricted to a class of non-Newtonian fluids called power law fluids, which, as compared to Herschel–Bulkley fluids, yield at any amount of applied stress. An equivalent law for Herschel–Bulkley fluids that require a minimum-yield stress to flow is yet to be reported in literature. This article presents a theoretically derived (with necessary approximations law of the wall for Herschel–Bulkley fluids and implements it in a RANS solver using a specified shear approach. This results in a more accurate prediction of the wall shear stress experienced by a circular pipe with a turbulent Herschel–Bulkley fluid flowing through it. The numerical results are compared against data from our experiments and those reported in literature for a range of Reynolds numbers and rheological
Liu, J.; Wu, S. P.
2017-04-01
Wall function boundary conditions including the effects of compressibility and heat transfer are improved for compressible turbulent boundary flows. Generalized wall function formulation at zero-pressure gradient is proposed based on coupled velocity and temperature profiles in the entire near-wall region. The parameters in the generalized wall function are well revised. The proposed boundary conditions are integrated into Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code that includes the shear stress transport turbulence model. Numerical results are presented for a compressible boundary layer over a flat plate at zero-pressure gradient. Compared with experimental data, the computational results show that the generalized wall function reduces the first grid spacing in the directed normal to the wall and proves the feasibility and effectivity of the generalized wall function method.
Near Wall measurement in Turbulent Flow over Rough Wall using microscopic HPIV
Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Katz, Joseph
2009-11-01
Using holographic PIV, 3D velocity measurements are being performed in a turbulent rough wall channel flow. Our objective is to examine the contribution of coherent structures to the flow dynamics, momentum and energy fluxes in the roughness sublayer. The 0.45mm high, pyramid-shaped roughness is uniformly distributed on the top and bottom surfaces of a 5X20cm rectangular channel flow, where the Reτ is 3400. To facilitate recording of holograms through a rough plate, the working fluid is a concentrated solution of NaI in water, whose optical refractive index is matched with that of the acrylic rough plates. The test section is illuminated by a collimated laser beam from the top, and the sample volume extends from the bottom wall up to 7 roughness heights. After passing through the sample volume, the in-line hologram is magnified and recorded on a 4864X3248 pixels camera at a resolution of 0.74μm/pixel. The flow is locally seeded with 2μm particles. Reconstruction, spatial filtering and particle tracking provide the 3D velocity field. This approach has been successfully implemented recently, as preliminary data demonstrate.
Bai, H. L.; Kevin, Hutchins, N.; Monty, J. P.
2018-05-01
Turbulence modifications over a rough wall with spanwise-varying roughness are investigated at a moderate Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 2000 (or Reθ ≈ 6400), using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hotwire anemometry. The rough wall is comprised of spanwise-alternating longitudinal sandpaper strips of two different roughness heights. The ratio of high- and low-roughness heights is 8, and the ratio of high- and low-roughness strip width is 0.5. PIV measurements are conducted in a wall-parallel plane located in the logarithmic region, while hotwire measurements are made throughout the entire boundary layer in a cross-stream plane. In a time-average sense, large-scale counter-rotating roll-modes are observed in the cross-stream plane over the rough wall, with downwash and upwash common-flows displayed over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Meanwhile, elevated and reduced streamwise velocities occur over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Significant modifications in the distributions of mean vorticities and Reynolds stresses are observed, exhibiting features of spatial preference. Furthermore, spatial correlations and conditional average analyses are performed to examine the alterations of turbulence structures over the rough wall, revealing that the time-invariant structures observed are resultant from the time-average process of instantaneous turbulent events that occur mostly and preferentially in space.
Elliptic blending model : A new near-wall Reynolds-stress turbulence closure
Manceau, R.; Hanjali?, K.
2001-01-01
A new approach to modeling the effects of a solid wall in one-point second-moment (Reynolds-stress) turbulence closures is presented. The model is based on the relaxation of an inhomogeneous (near-wall) formulation of the pressure–strain tensor towards the chosen conventional homogeneous
Assessment of turbulent flow effects on the vessel wall using four-dimensional flow MRI.
Ziegler, Magnus; Lantz, Jonas; Ebbers, Tino; Dyverfeldt, Petter
2017-06-01
To explore the use of MR-estimated turbulence quantities for the assessment of turbulent flow effects on the vessel wall. Numerical velocity data for two patient-derived models was obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for two physiological flow rates. The four-dimensional (4D) Flow MRI measurements were simulated at three different spatial resolutions and used to investigate the estimation of turbulent wall shear stress (tWSS) using the intravoxel standard deviation (IVSD) of velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) estimated near the vessel wall. Accurate estimation of tWSS using the IVSD is limited by the spatial resolution achievable with 4D Flow MRI. TKE, estimated near the wall, has a strong linear relationship to the tWSS (mean R 2 = 0.84). Near-wall TKE estimates from MR simulations have good agreement to CFD-derived ground truth (mean R 2 = 0.90). Maps of near-wall TKE have strong visual correspondence to tWSS. Near-wall estimation of TKE permits assessment of relative maps of tWSS, but direct estimation of tWSS is challenging due to limitations in spatial resolution. Assessment of tWSS and near-wall TKE may open new avenues for analysis of different pathologies. Magn Reson Med 77:2310-2319, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Two-phase wall function for modeling of turbulent boundary layer in subcooled boiling flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bostjan Koncar; Borut Mavko; Yassin A Hassan
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The heat transfer and phase-change mechanisms in the subcooled flow boiling are governed mainly by local multidimensional mechanisms near the heated wall, where bubbles are generated. The structure of such 'wall boiling flow' is inherently non-homogeneous and is further influenced by the two-phase flow turbulence, phase-change effects in the bulk, interfacial forces and bubble interactions (collisions, coalescence, break-up). In this work the effect of two-phase flow turbulence on the development of subcooled boiling flow is considered. Recently, the modeling of two-phase flow turbulence has been extensively investigated. A notable progress has been made towards deriving reliable models for description of turbulent behaviour of continuous (liquid) and dispersed phase (bubbles) in the bulk flow. However, there is a lack of investigation considering the modeling of two-phase flow boundary layer. In most Eulerian two-fluid models standard single-phase wall functions are used for description of turbulent boundary layer of continuous phase. That might be a good approximation at adiabatic flows, but their use for boundary layers with high concentration of dispersed phase is questionable. In this work, the turbulent boundary layer near the heated wall will be modeled with the so-called 'two-phase' wall function, which is based on the assumption of additional turbulence due to bubble-induced stirring in the boundary layer. In the two-phase turbulent boundary layer the wall function coefficients strongly depend on the void fraction. Moreover, in the turbulent boundary layer with nucleating bubbles, the bubble size variation also has a significant impact on the liquid phase. As a basis, the wall function of Troshko and Hassan (2001), developed for adiabatic bubbly flows will be used. The simulations will be performed by a general-purpose CFD code CFX-4.4 using additional models provided by authors. The results will be compared to the boiling
Can large-scale oblique undulations on a solid wall reduce the turbulent drag?
Ghebali, Sacha; Chernyshenko, Sergei I.; Leschziner, Michael A.
2017-10-01
Direct numerical simulations of fully developed turbulent channel flows with wavy walls are undertaken. The wavy walls, skewed with respect to the mean flow direction, are introduced as a means of emulating a Spatial Stokes Layer (SSL) induced by in-plane wall motion. The transverse shear strain above the wavy wall is shown to be similar to that of a SSL, thereby affecting the turbulent flow and leading to a reduction in the turbulent skin-friction drag. However, some important differences with respect to the SSL case are brought to light too. In particular, the phase variations of the turbulent properties are accentuated and, unlike in the SSL case, there is a region of increased turbulence production over a portion of the wall, above the leeward side of the wave, thus giving rise to a local increase in dissipation. The pressure- and friction-drag levels are carefully quantified for various flow configurations, exhibiting a combined maximum overall-drag reduction of about 0.6%. The friction-drag reduction is shown to behave approximately quadratically for small wave slopes and then linearly for higher slopes, whilst the pressure-drag penalty increases quadratically. The transverse shear-strain layer is shown to be approximately Reynolds-number independent when the wave geometry is scaled in wall units.
On a turbulent wall model to predict hemolysis numerically in medical devices
Lee, Seunghun; Chang, Minwook; Kang, Seongwon; Hur, Nahmkeon; Kim, Wonjung
2017-11-01
Analyzing degradation of red blood cells is very important for medical devices with blood flows. The blood shear stress has been recognized as the most dominant factor for hemolysis in medical devices. Compared to laminar flows, turbulent flows have higher shear stress values in the regions near the wall. In case of predicting hemolysis numerically, this phenomenon can require a very fine mesh and large computational resources. In order to resolve this issue, the purpose of this study is to develop a turbulent wall model to predict the hemolysis more efficiently. In order to decrease the numerical error of hemolysis prediction in a coarse grid resolution, we divided the computational domain into two regions and applied different approaches to each region. In the near-wall region with a steep velocity gradient, an analytic approach using modeled velocity profile is applied to reduce a numerical error to allow a coarse grid resolution. We adopt the Van Driest law as a model for the mean velocity profile. In a region far from the wall, a regular numerical discretization is applied. The proposed turbulent wall model is evaluated for a few turbulent flows inside a cannula and centrifugal pumps. The results present that the proposed turbulent wall model for hemolysis improves the computational efficiency significantly for engineering applications. Corresponding author.
Logarithmic scaling for fluctuations of a scalar concentration in wall turbulence.
Mouri, Hideaki; Morinaga, Takeshi; Yagi, Toshimasa; Mori, Kazuyasu
2017-12-01
Within wall turbulence, there is a sublayer where the mean velocity and the variance of velocity fluctuations vary logarithmically with the height from the wall. This logarithmic scaling is also known for the mean concentration of a passive scalar. By using heat as such a scalar in a laboratory experiment of a turbulent boundary layer, the existence of the logarithmic scaling is shown here for the variance of fluctuations of the scalar concentration. It is reproduced by a model of energy-containing eddies that are attached to the wall.
Deposition of micron liquid droplets on wall in impinging turbulent air jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Tianshu; Nink, Jacob; Merati, Parviz [Western Michigan University, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Tian, Tian; Li, Yong [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan Automotive Laboratory, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shieh, Tom [Toyota Technical Center, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, Inc, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2010-06-15
The fluid mechanics of the deposition of micron liquid (olive oil) droplets on a glass wall in an impinging turbulent air jet is studied experimentally. The spatial patterns of droplets deposited on a wall are measured by using luminescent oil visualization technique, and the statistical data of deposited droplets are obtained through microscopic imagery. Two distinct rings of droplets deposited on a wall are found, and the mechanisms of the formation of the inner and outer rings are investigated based on global diagnostics of velocity and skin friction fields. In particular, the intriguing effects of turbulence, including large-scale coherent vortices and small-scale random turbulence, on micron droplet deposition on a wall and coalescence in the air are explored. (orig.)
Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction
Sridhar, A.; Pullin, D. I.; Cheng, W.
2017-01-01
A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hetsroni, G.; Mosyak, A.; Rozenblit, R.; Yarin, L.P.
1998-01-01
The present work deals with an experimental study of a temperature field on the wall in turbulent flow. The measurements of the local, instantaneous and average temperature of the wall were carried out by the hot-foil infrared technique. The detailed data on the average and fluctuation temperature distributions are presented. It is shown that temperature fluctuations, as normalized by the difference between the temperatures of the undisturbed fluid and the wall, do not change
Shear localization and effective wall friction in a wall bounded granular flow
Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick
2017-06-01
In this work, granular flow rheology is investigated by means of discrete numerical simulations of a torsional, cylindrical shear cell. Firstly, we focus on azimuthal velocity profiles and study the effect of (i) the confining pressure, (ii) the particle-wall friction coefficient, (iii) the rotating velocity of the bottom wall and (iv) the cell diameter. For small cell diameters, azimuthal velocity profiles are nearly auto-similar, i.e. they are almost linear with the radial coordinate. Different strain localization regimes are observed : shear can be localized at the bottom, at the top of the shear cell, or it can be even quite distributed. This behavior originates from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the system. Then we study the effective friction at the cylindrical wall, and point out the strong link between wall friction, slip and fluctuations of forces and velocities. Even if the system is globally below the sliding threshold, force fluctuations trigger slip events, leading to a nonzero wall slip velocity and an effective wall friction coefficient different from the particle-wall one. A scaling law was found linking slip velocity, granular temperature in the main flow direction and effective friction. Our results suggest that fluctuations are an important ingredient for theories aiming to capture the interface rheology of granular materials.
Numerical modeling of normal turbulent plane jet impingement on solid wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, C.Y.; Maxwell, W.H.C.
1984-10-01
Attention is given to a numerical turbulence model for the impingement of a well developed normal plane jet on a solid wall, by means of which it is possible to express different jet impingement geometries in terms of different boundary conditions. Examples of these jets include those issuing from VTOL aircraft, chemical combustors, etc. The two-equation, turbulent kinetic energy-turbulent dissipation rate model is combined with the continuity equation and the transport equation of vorticity, using an iterative finite difference technique in the computations. Peak levels of turbulent kinetic energy occur not only in the impingement zone, but also in the intermingling zone between the edges of the free jet and the wall jet. 20 references.
Statistical properties of wall shear stress fluctuations in turbulent channel flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keirsbulck, L.; Labraga, L.; Gad-el-Hak, M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Accurate measurements of instantaneous wall shear stress are conducted. ► LDA is used to measure near-wall streamwise velocity. ► Electrochemical probe is used to measure wall shear stress. ► Frequency response and non-uniform correction methods were used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall-statistics database. ► Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is investigated. - Abstract: Instantaneous velocity and wall shear stress measurements are conducted in a turbulent channel flow in the Kármán number range of Re τ = 74–400. A one-dimensional LDA system is used to measure the streamwise velocity fluctuations, and an electrochemical technique is utilized to measure the instantaneous wall shear stress. For the latter, frequency response and nonuniform correction methods are used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall statistics database. The Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is carefully investigated. The corrected relative wall shear stress fluctuations fit well with the best DNS data available and meet the need for clarification of the small discrepancy observed in the literature between the experimental and numerical results of such quantities. Higher-order statistics of the wall shear stress, spectra, and the turbulence kinetic energy budget at the wall are also investigated. The present paper shows that the electrochemical technique is a powerful experimental method for hydrodynamic studies involving highly unsteady flows. The study brings with it important consequences, especially in the context of the current debate regarding the appropriate scaling as well as the validation of new predictive models of near-wall turbulence.
Skewness and flatness factors of the longitudinal velocity derivative in wall-bounded flows
Djenidi, Lyazid; Antonia, Robert A.; Talluru, Murali K.; Abe, Hiroyuki
2017-06-01
Hot-wire measurements are carried out in turbulent boundary layers over smooth and rough walls in order the assess the behavior of the skewness (S ) and flatness (F ) factors of the longitudinal velocity derivative as y , the distance from the wall, increases. The measurements are complemented by direct numerical simulations of a smooth wall turbulent channel flow. It is observed that, as the distance to the wall increases, S and F vary significantly before approaching a constant in the outer layer of the boundary layer. Further, S and F exhibit a nontrivial dependence on the Taylor microscale Reynolds number (Reλ). For example, in the region below about 0.2 δ (δ is the boundary layer thickness) where Reλ varies significantly, S and F strongly vary with Reλ and can be multivalued at a given Reλ. In the outer region, between 0.3 δ and 0.6 δ , S , F , and Reλ remain approximately constant. The channel flow direct numerical simulation data for S and F exhibit a similar behavior. These results point to the ambiguity that can arise when assessing the Reλ dependence of S and F in wall shear flows. In particular, the multivaluedness of S and F can lead to erroneous conclusions if y /δ is known only poorly, as is the case for the atmospheric shear layer (ASL). If the laboratory turbulent boundary layer is considered an adequate surrogate to the neutral ASL, then the behavior of S and F in the ASL is expected to be similar to that reported here.
Upper and Lower Bound Limit Loads for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Used for Aerosol Cans
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen John Hardy
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The elastic compensation method proposed by Mackenzie and Boyle is used to estimate the upper and lower bound limit (collapse loads for one-piece aluminium aerosol cans, which are thin-walled pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure loading. Elastic-plastic finite element predictions for yield and collapse pressures are found using axisymmetric models. However, it is shown that predictions for the elastic-plastic buckling of the vessel base require the use of a full three-dimensional model with a small unsymmetrical imperfection introduced. The finite element predictions for the internal pressure to cause complete failure via collapse fall within the upper and lower bounds. Hence the method, which involves only elastic analyses, can be used in place of complex elastic-plastic finite element analyses when upper and lower bound estimates are adequate for design purposes. Similarly, the lower bound value underpredicts the pressure at which first yield occurs.
Evidence against the involvement of ionically bound cell wall proteins in pea epicotyl growth
Melan, M. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.
1988-01-01
Ionically bound cell wall proteins were extracted from 7 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls with 3 molar LiCl. Polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against the cell wall proteins. Growth assays showed that treatment of growing region segments (5-7 millimeters) of peas with either dialyzed serum, serum globulin fraction, affinity purified immunoglobulin, or papain-cleaved antibody fragments had no effect on growth. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed antibody binding to cell walls and penetration of the antibodies into the tissues. Western blot analysis, immunoassay results, and affinity chromatography utilizing Sepharose-bound antibodies confirmed recognition of the protein preparation by the antibodies. Experiments employing in vitro extension as a screening measure indicated no effect upon extension by antibodies, by 50 millimolar LiCl perfusion of the apoplast or by 3 molar LiCl extraction. Addition of cell wall protein to protease pretreated segments did not restore extension nor did addition of cell wall protein to untreated segments increase extension. It is concluded that, although evidence suggests that protein is responsible for the process of extension, the class(es) of proteins which are extracted from pea cell walls with 3 molar LiCl are probably not involved in this process.
Effects of spatially varying slip length on friction drag reduction in wall turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Yosuke; Frohnapfel, Bettina; Kasagi, Nobuhide
2011-01-01
A series of direct numerical simulation has been made of turbulent flow over hydrophobic surfaces, which are characterized by streamwise periodic micro-grooves. By assuming that the size of micro-grooves is much smaller than the typical length-scale of near-wall turbulent structures, the dynamical boundary condition is expressed by a mobility tensor, which relates the slip velocity and the surface shear stress. Based on the derived mathematical relationship between the friction drag and different dynamical contributions, it is shown how the turbulence contribution can be extracted and analyzed.
PECASE - Multi-Scale Experiments and Modeling in Wall Turbulence
2014-12-23
transition to turbulence in pipe flow have been characterized by the creation of puffs and slugs [Wygnanski and Champagne , 1973]. Puffs have been identified...Fluid Mech., 568:55–76, 2006. I. J. Wygnanski and F. H. Champagne . On transition in a pipe. Part 1: The origin of puffs and slugs and the flow in a
Wall-pressure fluctuations beneath a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer
Mahesh, Krishnan; Kumar, Praveen
2016-11-01
Wall-pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent boundary layer are important in applications dealing with structural deformation and acoustics. Simulations are performed for flat plate and axisymmetric, spatially evolving zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers at inflow Reynolds number of 1400 and 2200 based on momentum thickness. The simulations generate their own inflow using the recycle-rescale method. The results for mean velocity and second-order statistics show excellent agreement with the data available in literature. The spectral characteristics of wall-pressure fluctuations and their relation to flow structure will be discussed. This work is supported by ONR.
Experimental investigation of the turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehme, K.
1977-04-01
An experimental investigation was performed to establish reliable information on the transport properties of turbulent flow through subchannels of rod bundles. Detailed data were measured of the distributions of the time-mean velocity, the turbulence intensities in all directions and, thus, the kinetic energy of turbulence, of the shear stresses in the directions normal and parallel to the walls, and of the wall shear stresses for a wall subchannel of a rod bundle of four rods in parallel. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of the rods equal to the wall-to-diameter ratio was 1.07, the Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 8.7 x 10 4 . On the basis of the data measured the eddy viscosities in the directions normal and parallel to the walls were calculated. Thus, detailed data of the eddy viscosities in direction parallel to the walls in rod bundels were obtained for the first time. The experimental results were compared with predictions by the VELASCO-code. There are considerable differences between calculated and measured data of the time-mean velocity and the wall shear stresses. Attempts to adjust the VELASCO-code against the measurements were not successful. The reasons of the discrepancies are discussed. (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Bruno Correa Molinari
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The cell walls of grasses such as wheat, maize, rice and sugar cane, contain large amounts of ferulate that is ester-linked to the cell wall polysaccharide glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX. This ferulate is considered to limit the digestibility of polysaccharide in grass biomass as it forms covalent linkages between polysaccharide and lignin components. Candidate genes within a grass-specific clade of the BAHD acyl-coA transferase superfamily have been identified as being responsible for the ester linkage of ferulate to GAX. Manipulation of these BAHD genes may therefore be a biotechnological target for increasing efficiency of conversion of grass biomass into biofuel. Here, we describe the expression of these candidate genes and amounts of bound ferulate from various tissues and developmental stages of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. BAHD candidate transcripts and significant amounts of bound ferulate were present in every tissue and developmental stage. We hypothesise that BAHD candidate genes similar to the recently described rice OsPMT gene (PMT sub-clade are principally responsible for the bound coumaric acid (pCA, and that other BAHD candidates (non-PMT sub-clade are responsible for bound ferulic acid (FA. There were some similarities with between the ratio of expression non-PMT / PMT genes and the ratio of bound FA / pCA between tissue types, compatible with this hypothesis. However, much further work to modify BAHD genes in grasses and to characterise the heterologously expressed proteins is required to demonstrate their function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patil, Sunil; Tafti, Danesh
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Large eddy simulation. ► Wall layer modeling. ► Synthetic inlet turbulence. ► Swirl flows. - Abstract: Large eddy simulations of complex high Reynolds number flows are carried out with the near wall region being modeled with a zonal two layer model. A novel formulation for solving the turbulent boundary layer equation for the effective tangential velocity in a generalized co-ordinate system is presented and applied in the near wall zonal treatment. This formulation reduces the computational time in the inner layer significantly compared to the conventional two layer formulations present in the literature and is most suitable for complex geometries involving body fitted structured and unstructured meshes. The cost effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed wall model, used with the synthetic eddy method (SEM) to generate inlet turbulence, is investigated in turbulent channel flow, flow over a backward facing step, and confined swirling flows at moderately high Reynolds numbers. Predictions are compared with available DNS, experimental LDV data, as well as wall resolved LES. In all cases, there is at least an order of magnitude reduction in computational cost with no significant loss in prediction accuracy.
Near-Wall Turbulence Modelling of Rotating and Curved Shear Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pettersson, Bjoern Anders
1997-12-31
This thesis deals with verification and refinement of turbulence models within the framework of the Reynolds-averaged approach. It pays special attention to modelling the near-wall region, where the turbulence is strongly non-homogeneous and anisotropic. It also studies in detail the effects associated with an imposed rotation of the reference frame or streamline curvature. The objective with near-wall turbulence closure modelling is to formulate a set of equations governing single point turbulence statistics, which can be solved in the region of the flow which extends to the wall. This is in contrast to the commonly adopted wall-function approach in which the wall-boundary conditions are replaced by matching conditions in the logarithmic region. The near-wall models allow more flexibility by not requiring any such universal behaviour. Assessment of the novel elliptic relaxation approach to model the proximity of a solid boundary reveals an encouraging potential used in conjunction with second-moment and eddy-viscosity closures. The most natural level of closure modelling to predict flows affected by streamline curvatures or an imposed rotation of the reference frame is at the second-moment closure (SMC) level. Although SMCs naturally accounts for the effects of system rotation, the usual application of a scalar dissipation rate equation is shown to require ad hoc corrections in some cases in order to give good results. The elliptic relaxation approach is also used in conjunction with non-linear pressure-strain models and very encouraging results are obtained for rotating flows. Rotational induced secondary motions are vital to predicting the effects of system rotation. Some severe weaknesses of non-linear pressure-strain models are also indicated. Finally, a modelling methodology for anisotropic dissipation in nearly homogeneous turbulence are proposed. 84 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.
Manipulation of near-wall turbulence by surface slip and permeability
Gómez-de-Segura, G.; Fairhall, C. T.; MacDonald, M.; Chung, D.; García-Mayoral, R.
2018-04-01
We study the effect on near-wall turbulence of tangential slip and wall-normal transpiration, typically produced by textured surfaces and other surface manipulations. For this, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with different virtual origins for the different velocity components. The different origins result in a relative wall-normal displacement of the near-wall, quasi-streamwise vortices with respect to the mean flow, which in turn produces a change in drag. The objective of this work is to extend the existing understanding on how these virtual origins affect the flow. In the literature, the virtual origins for the tangential velocities are typically characterised by slip boundary conditions, while the wall-normal velocity is assumed to be zero at the boundary plane. Here we explore different techniques to define and implement the three virtual origins, with special emphasis on the wall-normal one. We investigate impedance conditions relating the wall-normal velocity to the pressure, and linear relations between the velocity components and their wall-normal gradients, as is typically done to impose slip conditions. These models are first tested to represent a smooth wall below the boundary plane, with all virtual origins equal, and later for different tangential and wall-normal origins. Our results confirm that the change in drag is determined by the offset between the origins perceived by mean flow and the quasi-streamwise vortices or, more generally, the near-wall turbulent cycle. The origin for the latter, however, is not set by the spanwise virtual origin alone, as previously proposed, but by a combination of the spanwise and wall-normal origins, and mainly determined by the shallowest of the two. These observations allow us to extend the existing expression to predict the change in drag, accounting for the wall-normal effect when the transpiration is not negligible.
A study of transient flow turbulence generation during flame/wall interactions in explosions
Hargrave, G. K.; Jarvis, S.; Williams, T. C.
2002-07-01
Experimental data are presented for the turbulent velocity field generated during flame/solid wall interactions in explosions. The presence of turbulence in a flammable gas mixture can wrinkle a flame front, increasing the flame surface area and enhancing the burning rate. In congested process plant, any flame propagating through an accidental release of flammable mixture will encounter obstructions in the form of walls, pipe-work or storage vessels. The interaction between the gas movement and the obstacle creates turbulence by vortex shedding and local wake/recirculation, whereby the flame can be wrapped in on itself, increasing the surface area available for combustion. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to characterize the turbulent flow field in the wake of the obstacles placed in the path of propagating flames. This allowed the quantification of the interaction of the propagating flame and the generated turbulent flow field. Due to the accelerating nature of the explosion flow field, the wake flows develop `transient' turbulent fields and PIV provided data to define the spatial and temporal variation of the velocity field ahead of the propagating flame, providing an understanding of the direct interaction between flow and flame.
Computation of wall bounded flows with heat transfer in the framework of SRS approaches
Gritskevich, M. S.; Garbaruk, A. V.; Menter, F. R.
2014-12-01
A detailed assessment of Scale Adaptive Simulation (SAS) and Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) is performed for prediction of heat transfer for several wall bounded flow. For that purpose a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, a backward facing step, and a thermal mixing in a T-Junction test cases are considered. The results, obtained with the use of ANSYS-FLUENT, show that both approaches are capable to predict both mean and RMS velocity and temperature with sufficient accuracy.
Regeneration cycle and the covariant Lyapunov vectors in a minimal wall turbulence.
Inubushi, Masanobu; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Michio
2015-08-01
Considering a wall turbulence as a chaotic dynamical system, we study regeneration cycles in a minimal wall turbulence from the viewpoint of orbital instability by employing the covariant Lyapunov analysis developed by [F. Ginelli et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 130601 (2007)]. We divide the regeneration cycle into two phases and characterize them with the local Lyapunov exponents and the covariant Lyapunov vectors of the Navier-Stokes turbulence. In particular, we show numerically that phase (i) is dominated by instabilities related to the sinuous mode and the streamwise vorticity, and there is no instability in phase (ii). Furthermore, we discuss a mechanism of the regeneration cycle, making use of an energy budget analysis.
An analytical wall-function for recirculating and impinging turbulent heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suga, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Kuwata, Y.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Improvement of the analytical wall-function is proposed. ► Strain parameter dependency is introduced to the prescribed eddy viscosity profile of the analytical wall-function. ► The model performance is evaluated in turbulent pipe, channel, back-step, abrupt expansion pipe and plane impinging flows. ► Generally improved heat transfer is obtained in all the test cases with the standard k-e model. -- Abstract: The performance of the analytical wall-function (AWF) of Craft et al. [Craft, T.J., Gerasimov, A.V., Iacovides, H., Launder, B.E., 2002, Progress in the generalisation of wall-function treatments. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23, 148–160.] is improved for predicting turbulent heat transfer in recirculating and impinging flows. Since constant parameters of the eddy viscosity formula were used to derive the AWF, the prediction accuracy of the original AWF tends to deteriorate in complex flows where those parameters need changing according to the local turbulence. To overcome such shortcomings, the present study introduces a functional behaviour on the strain parameter into the coefficient of the eddy viscosity of the AWF. The presently modified version of the AWF is validated in turbulent heat transfer of pipe flows, channel flows, back-step flows, pipe flows with abrupt expansion and plane impinging slot jets. The results confirm that the present modification successfully improves the performance of the original AWF for all the flows and heat transfer tested
Disentangling the origins of torque enhancement through wall roughness in Taylor-Couette turbulence
Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2017-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are performed to analyse the global transport properties of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow with inner rough wall up to Taylor number Ta = 1010. The dimensionless torque Nuω shows an effective scaling of Nuω ∝ Ta0.42±0.01, which is steeper than the ultimate regime
Langevin equation of a fluid particle in wall-induced turbulence
Brouwers, J.J.H.
2010-01-01
We derive the Langevin equation describing the stochastic process of fluid particle motion in wall-inducedturbulence (turbulent flow in pipes, channels, and boundary layers including the atmospheric surface layer).The analysis is based on the asymptotic behavior at a large Reynolds number. We use
Scaling and interaction of self-similar modes in models of high Reynolds number wall turbulence.
Sharma, A S; Moarref, R; McKeon, B J
2017-03-13
Previous work has established the usefulness of the resolvent operator that maps the terms nonlinear in the turbulent fluctuations to the fluctuations themselves. Further work has described the self-similarity of the resolvent arising from that of the mean velocity profile. The orthogonal modes provided by the resolvent analysis describe the wall-normal coherence of the motions and inherit that self-similarity. In this contribution, we present the implications of this similarity for the nonlinear interaction between modes with different scales and wall-normal locations. By considering the nonlinear interactions between modes, it is shown that much of the turbulence scaling behaviour in the logarithmic region can be determined from a single arbitrarily chosen reference plane. Thus, the geometric scaling of the modes is impressed upon the nonlinear interaction between modes. Implications of these observations on the self-sustaining mechanisms of wall turbulence, modelling and simulation are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Dissipation equals production in the log layer of wall-induced turbulence
Brouwers, J.J.H.
2007-01-01
Asymptotic analysis is presented of the energy balance equations derived from statistically averagedNavier-Stokes equations pertinent to wall-induced turbulence. Attention is focused on the inertialsublayer, the region outside the viscous sublayer, and the buffer layer where the log-law for meanflow
A Reynolds stress model for near-wall turbulence
Durbin, P. A.
1993-01-01
The paper formulates a tensorially consistent near-wall second-order closure model. Redistributive terms in the Reynolds stress equations are modeled by an elliptic relaxation equation in order to represent strongly nonhomogeneous effects produced by the presence of walls; this replaces the quasi-homogeneous algebraic models that are usually employed, and avoids the need for ad hoc damping functions. The model is solved for channel flow and boundary layers with zero and adverse pressure gradients. Good predictions of Reynolds stress components, mean flow, skin friction, and displacement thickness are obtained in various comparisons to experimental and direct numerical simulation data. The model is also applied to a boundary layer flowing along a wall with a 90-deg, constant-radius, convex bend.
Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component.
Eltsov, Vladimir; Hänninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti
2014-03-25
In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid (3)He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures.
Cell wall-bound silicon optimizes ammonium uptake and metabolism in rice cells.
Sheng, Huachun; Ma, Jie; Pu, Junbao; Wang, Lijun
2018-05-16
Turgor-driven plant cell growth depends on cell wall structure and mechanics. Strengthening of cell walls on the basis of an association and interaction with silicon (Si) could lead to improved nutrient uptake and optimized growth and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the structural basis and physiological mechanisms of nutrient uptake and metabolism optimization under Si assistance remain obscure. Single-cell level biophysical measurements, including in situ non-invasive micro-testing (NMT) of NH4+ ion fluxes, atomic force microscopy (AFM) of cell walls, and electrolyte leakage and membrane potential, as well as whole-cell proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), were performed. The altered cell wall structure increases the uptake rate of the main nutrient NH4+ in Si-accumulating cells, whereas the rate is only half in Si-deprived counterparts. Rigid cell walls enhanced by a wall-bound form of Si as the structural basis stabilize cell membranes. This, in turn, optimizes nutrient uptake of the cells in the same growth phase without any requirement for up-regulation of transmembrane ammonium transporters. Optimization of cellular nutrient acquisition strategies can substantially improve performance in terms of growth, metabolism and stress resistance.
Mathematical model for logarithmic scaling of velocity fluctuations in wall turbulence.
Mouri, Hideaki
2015-12-01
For wall turbulence, moments of velocity fluctuations are known to be logarithmic functions of the height from the wall. This logarithmic scaling is due to the existence of a characteristic velocity and to the nonexistence of any characteristic height in the range of the scaling. By using the mathematics of random variables, we obtain its necessary and sufficient conditions. They are compared with characteristics of a phenomenological model of eddies attached to the wall and also with those of the logarithmic scaling of the mean velocity.
Stochastic modelling of conjugate heat transfer in near-wall turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozorski, Jacek; Minier, Jean-Pierre
2006-01-01
The paper addresses the conjugate heat transfer in turbulent flows with temperature assumed to be a passive scalar. The Lagrangian approach is applied and the heat transfer is modelled with the use of stochastic particles. The intensity of thermal fluctuations in near-wall turbulence is determined from the scalar probability density function (PDF) with externally provided dynamical statistics. A stochastic model for the temperature field in the wall material is proposed and boundary conditions for stochastic particles at the solid-fluid interface are formulated. The heated channel flow with finite-thickness walls is considered as a validation case. Computation results for the mean temperature profiles and the variance of thermal fluctuations are presented and compared with available DNS data
Stochastic modelling of conjugate heat transfer in near-wall turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pozorski, Jacek [Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: jp@imp.gda.pl; Minier, Jean-Pierre [Research and Development Division, Electricite de France, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France)
2006-10-15
The paper addresses the conjugate heat transfer in turbulent flows with temperature assumed to be a passive scalar. The Lagrangian approach is applied and the heat transfer is modelled with the use of stochastic particles. The intensity of thermal fluctuations in near-wall turbulence is determined from the scalar probability density function (PDF) with externally provided dynamical statistics. A stochastic model for the temperature field in the wall material is proposed and boundary conditions for stochastic particles at the solid-fluid interface are formulated. The heated channel flow with finite-thickness walls is considered as a validation case. Computation results for the mean temperature profiles and the variance of thermal fluctuations are presented and compared with available DNS data.
Sudden Relaminarization and Lifetimes in Forced Isotropic Turbulence.
Linkmann, Moritz F; Morozov, Alexander
2015-09-25
We demonstrate an unexpected connection between isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence forced at large scales at moderate Reynolds numbers and observe sudden transitions from a chaotic dynamics to a spatially simple flow, analogous to the laminar state in wall bounded shear flows. We find that the survival probabilities of turbulence are exponential and the typical lifetimes increase superexponentially with the Reynolds number. Our results suggest that both isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows qualitatively share the same phase-space dynamics.
Guo, Zhouchao; Lu, Tao; Liu, Bo
2017-04-01
Turbulent penetration can occur when hot and cold fluids mix in a horizontal T-junction pipe at nuclear plants. Caused by the unstable turbulent penetration, temperature fluctuations with large amplitude and high frequency can lead to time-varying wall thermal stress and even thermal fatigue on the inner wall. Numerous cases, however, exist where inner wall temperatures cannot be measured and only outer wall temperature measurements are feasible. Therefore, it is one of the popular research areas in nuclear science and engineering to estimate temperature fluctuations on the inner wall from measurements of outer wall temperatures without damaging the structure of the pipe. In this study, both the one-dimensional (1D) and the two-dimensional (2D) inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) were solved to estimate the temperature fluctuations on the inner wall. First, numerical models of both the 1D and the 2D direct heat conduction problem (DHCP) were structured in MATLAB, based on the finite difference method with an implicit scheme. Second, both the 1D IHCP and the 2D IHCP were solved by the steepest descent method (SDM), and the DHCP results of temperatures on the outer wall were used to estimate the temperature fluctuations on the inner wall. Third, we compared the temperature fluctuations on the inner wall estimated by the 1D IHCP with those estimated by the 2D IHCP in four cases: (1) when the maximum disturbance of temperature of fluid inside the pipe was 3°C, (2) when the maximum disturbance of temperature of fluid inside the pipe was 30°C, (3) when the maximum disturbance of temperature of fluid inside the pipe was 160°C, and (4) when the fluid temperatures inside the pipe were random from 50°C to 210°C.
Application of low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} turbulence models to the study of turbulent wall jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kechiche, Jamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, route de Ouardanine, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, 60, rue Joliot-Curie, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 13453 cedex 13, Marseille (France)
2004-02-01
In this work, we use closure models called ''low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} models'', which are self-adapting ones using different damping functions, in order to explore the computed behavior of a turbulent plane two-dimensional wall jets. In this study, the jet may be either isothermal or submitted to various wall boundary conditions (uniform temperature or a uniform heat flux) in forced convection regime. A finite difference method, using a staggered grid, is employed to solve the coupled governing equations with the inlet and the boundary conditions. The predictions of the various low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} models with standard or modified C{sub {mu}} adopted in this work were presented and compared with measurements and numerical results found in the literature. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jian-Hua, Liu; Nan, Jiang
2008-01-01
We experimentally investigate the frequency response of near-wall coherent structures to localized periodic blowing and suction through a spanwise slot in a turbulent boundary layer by changing the frequency of periodic disturbance at similar velocities of free stream. The effects of blowing and suction disturbance on energy redistribution, turbulent intensity u' rms + , over y + and waveforms of phase-averaged velocity during sweeping process are respectively discussed under three frequencies of periodic blowing and suction in near-wall region of turbulent boundary layer, compared with those in a standard turbulent boundary layer. The most effective disturbance frequency is figured out in this system. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Direct numerical simulation of an isothermal reacting turbulent wall-jet
Pouransari, Zeinab; Brethouwer, Geert; Johansson, Arne V.
2011-08-01
In the present investigation, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study a binary irreversible and isothermal reaction in a plane turbulent wall-jet. The flow is compressible and a single-step global reaction between an oxidizer and a fuel species is solved. The inlet based Reynolds, Schmidt, and Mach numbers of the wall-jet are Re = 2000, Sc = 0.72, and M = 0.5, respectively, and a constant coflow velocity is applied above the jet. At the inlet, fuel and oxidizer enter the domain separately in a non-premixed manner. The turbulent structures of the velocity field show the common streaky patterns near the wall, while a somewhat patchy or spotty pattern is observed for the scalars and the reaction rate fluctuations in the near-wall region. The reaction mainly occurs in the upper shear layer in thin highly convoluted reaction zones, but it also takes place close to the wall. Analysis of turbulence and reaction statistics confirms the observations in the instantaneous snapshots, regarding the intermittent character of the reaction rate near the wall. A detailed study of the probability density functions of the reacting scalars and comparison to that of the passive scalar throughout the domain reveals the significance of the reaction influence as well as the wall effects on the scalar distributions. The higher order moments of both the velocities and the scalar concentrations are analyzed and show a satisfactory agreement with experiments. The simulations show that the reaction can both enhance and reduce the dissipation of fuel scalar, since there are two competing effects; on the one hand, the reaction causes sharper scalar gradients and thus a higher dissipation rate, on the other hand, the reaction consumes the fuel scalar thereby reducing the scalar dissipation.
Statistical analysis of the velocity and scalar fields in reacting turbulent wall-jets
Pouransari, Z.; Biferale, L.; Johansson, A. V.
2015-02-01
The concept of local isotropy in a chemically reacting turbulent wall-jet flow is addressed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Different DNS databases with isothermal and exothermic reactions are examined. The chemical reaction and heat release effects on the turbulent velocity, passive scalar, and reactive species fields are studied using their probability density functions (PDFs) and higher order moments for velocities and scalar fields, as well as their gradients. With the aid of the anisotropy invariant maps for the Reynolds stress tensor, the heat release effects on the anisotropy level at different wall-normal locations are evaluated and found to be most accentuated in the near-wall region. It is observed that the small-scale anisotropies are persistent both in the near-wall region and inside the jet flame. Two exothermic cases with different Damköhler numbers are examined and the comparison revealed that the Damköhler number effects are most dominant in the near-wall region, where the wall cooling effects are influential. In addition, with the aid of PDFs conditioned on the mixture fraction, the significance of the reactive scalar characteristics in the reaction zone is illustrated. We argue that the combined effects of strong intermittency and strong persistency of anisotropy at the small scales in the entire domain can affect mixing and ultimately the combustion characteristics of the reacting flow.
The effect of wall temperature distribution on streaks in compressible turbulent boundary layer
Zhang, Zhao; Tao, Yang; Xiong, Neng; Qian, Fengxue
2018-05-01
The thermal boundary condition at wall is very important for the compressible flow due to the coupling of the energy equation, and a lot of research works about it were carried out in past decades. In most of these works, the wall was assumed as adiabatic or uniform isothermal surface; the flow over a thermal wall with some special temperature distribution was seldom studied. Lagha studied the effect of uniform isothermal wall on the streaks, and pointed out that higher the wall temperature is, the longer the streak (POF, 2011, 23, 015106). So, we designed streamwise stripes of wall temperature distribution on the compressible turbulent boundary layer at Mach 3.0 to learn the effect on the streaks by means of direct numerical simulation in this paper. The mean wall temperature is equal to the adiabatic case approximately, and the width of the temperature stripes is in the same order as the width of the streaks. The streak patterns in near-wall region with different temperature stripes are shown in the paper. Moreover, we find that there is a reduction of friction velocity with the wall temperature stripes when compared with the adiabatic case.
Turbulent transport and shear at the E x B velocity in wall plasma of the TF-2 tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budaev, V.P.
1999-01-01
Turbulence of near-the-wall plasma and potentialities of affecting the turbulence and periphery transport of the TF-2 tokamak by inducing radial electric fields and ergodization of periphery magnetic structure have been investigated, the results are presented. Essential role of the E x B velocity shear in suppression of the turbulence and turbulent transport in periphery has been pointed out. Decrease in transport losses stemming from effect of radial electric fields is brought about suppression of turbulence amplitude, decrease in correlations and decrease in the width of the wave numbers spectrum. Profiles of plasma density, electron temperature, turbulence level, electric fields over entire periphery of discharge change as a result. Ergodization of magnetic structure also results in the change of properties of periphery turbulence and turbulent transport [ru
Exponential attractors for a Cahn-Hilliard model in bounded domains with permeable walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ciprian G. Gal
2006-11-01
Full Text Available In a previous article [7], we proposed a model of phase separation in a binary mixture confined to a bounded region which may be contained within porous walls. The boundary conditions were derived from a mass conservation law and variational methods. In the present paper, we study the problem further. Using a Faedo-Galerkin method, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of a global solution to our problem, under more general assumptions than those in [7]. We then study its asymptotic behavior and prove the existence of an exponential attractor (and thus of a global attractor with finite dimension.
Analysis of the coherent and turbulent stresses of a numerically simulated rough wall pipe
Chan, L.; MacDonald, M.; Chung, D.; Hutchins, N.; Ooi, A.
2017-04-01
A turbulent rough wall flow in a pipe is simulated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) where the roughness elements consist of explicitly gridded three-dimensional sinusoids. Two groups of simulations were conducted where the roughness semi-amplitude h+ and the roughness wavelength λ+ are systematically varied. The triple decomposition is applied to the velocity to separate the coherent and turbulent components. The coherent or dispersive component arises due to the roughness and depends on the topological features of the surface. The turbulent stress on the other hand, scales with the friction Reynolds number. For the case with the largest roughness wavelength, large secondary flows are observed which are similar to that of duct flows. The occurrence of these large secondary flows is due to the spanwise heterogeneity of the roughness which has a spacing approximately equal to the boundary layer thickness δ.
Conjugate heat transfer for turbulent flow in a thick walled plain pipe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Canli Eyub
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Laminar and turbulent flow have their own characteristics in respect of heat transfer in pipes. While conjugate heat transfer is a major concern for a thick walled pipe with laminar flow inside it, there are limited studies about a turbulent flow in a thick walled plain pipe considering the conjugate heat transfer. In order to conduct such a work by means of in-house developed code, it was desired to make a preliminary investigation with commercially available CFD codes. ANSYS CFD was selected as the tool since it has a positive reputation in the literature for reliability. Defined heat transfer problem was solved with SIMPLE and Coupled Schemes for pressure velocity coupling and results are presented accordingly.
Reynolds number invariance of the structure inclination angle in wall turbulence.
Marusic, Ivan; Heuer, Weston D C
2007-09-14
Cross correlations of the fluctuating wall-shear stress and the streamwise velocity in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers are reported over 3 orders of magnitude change in Reynolds number. These results are obtained using hot-film and hot-wire anemometry in a wind tunnel facility, and sonic anemometers and a purpose-built wall-shear stress sensor in the near-neutral atmospheric surface layer on the salt flats of Utah's western desert. The direct measurement of fluctuating wall-shear stress in the atmospheric surface layer has not been available before. Structure inclination angles are inferred from the cross correlation results and are found to be invariant over the large range of Reynolds number. The findings justify the prior use of low Reynolds number experiments for obtaining structure angles for near-wall models in the large-eddy simulation of atmospheric surface layer flows.
Physically-consistent wall boundary conditions for the k-ω turbulence model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Dixen, Martin; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl
2010-01-01
A model solving Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-v turbulence closure, is used to simulate steady channel flow on both hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Novel experimental data are used as model validation, with k measured directly from all three components of the fluc......A model solving Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-v turbulence closure, is used to simulate steady channel flow on both hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Novel experimental data are used as model validation, with k measured directly from all three components...... of the fluctuating velocity signal. Both conventional k = 0 and dk/dy = 0 wall boundary conditions are considered. Results indicate that either condition can provide accurate solutions, for the bulk of the flow, over both smooth and rough beds. It is argued that the zero-gradient condition is more consistent...... with the near wall physics, however, as it allows direct integration through a viscous sublayer near smooth walls, while avoiding a viscous sublayer near rough walls. This is in contrast to the conventional k = 0 wall boundary condition, which forces resolution of a viscous sublayer in all circumstances...
Klewicki, J C; Chini, G P; Gibson, J F
2017-03-13
Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.
2017-01-01
Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier–Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number’. PMID:28167585
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattori, Hirofumi; Yamada, Shohei; Tanaka, Masahiro; Houra, Tomoya; Nagano, Yasutaka
2013-01-01
Highlights: • We study the turbulent boundary layer with heat transfer by DNS. • Turbulent boundary layers with suddenly changing wall thermal conditions are observed. • The detailed turbulent statistics and structures in turbulent thermal boundary layer are discussed. • Turbulence models in LES and RANS are evaluated using DNS results. • LES and RANS are almost in good agreement with DNS results. -- Abstract: The objectives of this study are to investigate a thermal field in a turbulent boundary layer with suddenly changing wall thermal conditions by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS), and to evaluate predictions of a turbulence model in such a thermal field, in which DNS of spatially developing boundary layers with heat transfer can be conducted using the generation of turbulent inflow data as a method. In this study, two types of wall thermal condition are investigated using DNS and predicted by large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equation simulation (RANS). In the first case, the velocity boundary layer only develops in the entrance of simulation, and the flat plate is heated from the halfway point, i.e., the adiabatic wall condition is adopted in the entrance, and the entrance region of thermal field in turbulence is simulated. Then, the thermal boundary layer develops along a constant temperature wall followed by adiabatic wall. In the second case, velocity and thermal boundary layers simultaneously develop, and the wall thermal condition is changed from a constant temperature to an adiabatic wall in the downstream region. DNS results clearly show the statistics and structure of turbulent heat transfer in a constant temperature wall followed by an adiabatic wall. In the first case, the entrance region of thermal field in turbulence can be also observed. Thus, both the development and the entrance regions in thermal fields can be explored, and the effects upstream of the thermal field on the adiabatic region are
Measurements of wall shear stress in a planar turbulent Couette flow with porous walls
Beuther, Paul
2013-11-01
Measurements of drag on a moving web in a multi-span festoon show a stronger than expected dependency on the porosity of the web. The experiments suggest a wall shear stress 3-4 times larger than non-porous webs or historical Couette flow data for solid walls. Previous DNS studies by Jimenez et al. (JFM Vol 442) of boundary layers with passive porous surfaces predict a much smaller increase in wall shear stress for a porous wall of only 40%. Other DNS studies by Quadrio et al. (JFM Vol 576) of porous walls with periodic transpiration do show a large increase in drag under certain periodic conditions of modest amplitude. Although those results are aligned in magnitude with this study, the exact reason for the observed high drag for porous webs in this present study is not understood because there was no external disturbance applied to the web. It can be hypothesized that natural flutter of the web results in a similar mechanism shown in the periodic DNS study, but when the natural flutter was reduced by increasing web tension, there was only a small decrease of the drag. A key difference in this study is that because of the multiple parallel spans in a festoon, any transpiration in one layer must act in the opposite manner on the adjacent span.
Large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer and their imprint on wall shear stress
Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
2015-11-01
Experiments were performed on a turbulent boundary layer developing on a flat plate model under zero pressure gradient flow. A MEMS differential capacitive shear stress sensor with a 1 mm × 1 mm floating element was used to capture the fluctuating wall shear stress simultaneously with streamwise velocity measurements from a hot-wire anemometer traversed in the wall normal direction. Near the wall, the peak in the cross correlation corresponds to an organized motion inclined 45° from the wall. In the outer region, the peak diminishes in value, but is still significant at a distance greater than half the boundary layer thickness, and corresponds to a structure inclined 14° from the wall. High coherence between the two signals was found for the low-frequency content, reinforcing the belief that large scale structures have a vital impact on wall shear stress. Thus, estimation of the wall shear stress from the low-frequency velocity signal will be performed, and is expected to be statistically significant in the outer boundary layer. Additionally, conditionally averaged mean velocity profiles will be presented to assess the effects of high and low shear stress. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Numerical investigation of the effects of large particles on wall-turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Y.; Banerjee, S.
1997-01-01
Particle-laden turbulent flows, at average volume fraction less than 4x10 -4 , in open channels are numerically simulated by using a pseudospectral method. The motion of particles, that are large compared with the dissipative length scale, is coupled to the fluid motion by a method that generates a open-quotes virtualclose quotes no-slip boundary on the particle surface by imposition of an external force field on the grid-points enclosed by the particle. Cases for both moving and stationary particles, lying on the wall, are simulated. The investigations focus on particle-turbulence interaction. It is found that particles increase turbulence intensities and Reynolds stress. By examining higher order turbulence statistics and doing a quadrant analysis of the Reynolds stress, it is found that the ejection-sweep cycle is affected emdash primarily through suppression of sweeps by the smaller particles and enhancement of sweep activity by the larger particles. An assessment of the impact of these findings on scalar transfer is made, as enhancement of wall heat/mass transfer rates is a motivation of the overall work on this subject. In the cases considered, comparison of the calculations with an existing experiment was possible, and shows good agreement. At present, due to limitations in available computational resources, this method cannot be used when the particle diameter is smaller than the smallest turbulence scale (e.g. the Kolmogorov length scale) and the volume fraction is of the same order as studied in this paper, i.e. between 10 -3 and 10 -4 . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Experimental study of a turbulent boundary layer on a rough wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trijoulet, Alexandre
1999-01-01
This research thesis reports the definition and results of an experimental study of a two-dimensional incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a rough wall in presence of pressure gradients. This study is motivated by problems met on pump blades by EDF. The author first reports a detailed bibliographical study on the current knowledge regarding the structure of turbulent boundary layers on smooth and rough walls, while more particularly focusing on the notion of wall law. Based on an analysis of Navier-Stokes equations, the author discusses the elaboration of a local partial similitude between two-dimensional flows obtained in wind tunnel and three-dimensional flows in presence of a uniform rotation for flows present within pumps. Thus, the author reproduces the main characteristics of boundary layers on pump walls in a simplified experimental arrangement in which detailed and reliable measurements are possible. In the next part, the author addresses the case of helical-centrifugal pumps. Based on calculation performed by other authors, the above-mentioned similitude parameters are assessed. Results are used to define experimental arrangements suitable for this study. An experimental installation is then presented, as well as the data processing scheme. Experimental results are presented and discussed for flows without pressure gradient, slowed down or accelerated on different surface conditions [fr
Scalar and joint velocity-scalar PDF modelling of near-wall turbulent heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozorski, Jacek; Waclawczyk, Marta; Minier, Jean-Pierre
2004-01-01
The temperature field in a heated turbulent flow is considered as a dynamically passive scalar. The probability density function (PDF) method with down to the wall integration is explored and new modelling proposals are put forward, including the explicit account for the molecular transport terms. Two variants of the approach are considered: first, the scalar PDF method with the use of externally-provided turbulence statistics; and second, the joint (stand-alone) velocity-scalar PDF method where a near-wall model for dynamical variables is coupled with a model for temperature. The closure proposals are formulated in the Lagrangian setting and resulting stochastic evolution equations are solved with a Monte Carlo method. The near-wall region of a heated channel flow is taken as a validation case; the second-order thermal statistics are of a particular interest. The PDF computation results agree reasonably with available DNS data. The sensitivity of results to the molecular Prandtl number and to the thermal wall boundary condition is accounted for
Wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulations of turbulent heat transfer in a T-junction
Georgiou, Michail; Papalexandris, Miltiadis V.
2017-11-01
In this talk we report on wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulations of turbulent heat transfer between a cold crossflow and a hot incoming jet in a T-junction. Due to their high efficiency in mixing and heat transfer, T-junctions are encountered in numerous industrial applications. Our study is motivated by the need to assess phenomena related to thermal fatigue that are often encountered at their walls. We first describe the important features of the flow with emphasis on the shear layers that are formed at the entry of the jet and the recirculation regions. We also show results for first- and second-order statistics of the flow and compare our predictions with previous experimental data. Lastly, we present results from the spectral analysis of the temperature signal that we performed in order to assess the oscillating mechanisms that dominate the flow and the risk of thermal fatigue at the walls of the T-junction.
Reynolds stress analysis of EMHD-controlled wall turbulence. Part I. Streamwise forcing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, C.H.; Karniadakis, G.E.
1997-01-01
In this work we investigate numerically turbulent flow of low electrical conductivity fluid subject to electro-magnetic (EMHD) forcing. The configuration is similar to the one considered in the experimental work of Henoch and Stace [Phys. Fluids 7, 1371 (1995)] but in a channel geometry. The lower wall of the channel is covered with alternating streamwise electrodes and magnets to create a Lorentz force in the positive streamwise direction. Two cases are considered in detail corresponding to interaction parameter values of 0.4 (case 1) and 0.1 (case 2). The effect of switching off and on the electrodes is also studied for the two cases. At the Reynolds number considered (Re τ ∼200), a drag increase was obtained for all cases, in agreement with the experiments of Henoch and Stace. A Reynolds stress analysis was performed based on a new decomposition of the gradients normal to the wall of the Reynolds stress -u'v'. It was found that the vortex stretching term w'w 2 ' and the spanwise variation of the stress component u'w' are responsible for the drag increase. More specifically, the term ∂(u'w')/∂x 3 is associated with secondary vortical motions in the near-wall and becomes large and positive for large shear stress in regions where fluid is moving toward the wall. In contrast, negative values are associated with regions of lower shear where fluid is being lifted away from the wall. Unlike the unperturbed flow, in the controlled flow high speed near-wall streamwise jets are present (case 1) even in the time-averaged fields. Other changes in turbulence structure are quantified using streak spacing, vortex lines, vorticity quadrant analysis, and plots of the rms value of the vorticity angle. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Probability density function of a puff dispersing from the wall of a turbulent channel
Nguyen, Quoc; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios
2015-11-01
Study of dispersion of passive contaminants in turbulence has proved to be helpful in understanding fundamental heat and mass transfer phenomena. Many simulation and experimental works have been carried out to locate and track motions of scalar markers in a flow. One method is to combine Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Lagrangian Scalar Tracking (LST) to record locations of markers. While this has proved to be useful, high computational cost remains a concern. In this study, we develop a model that could reproduce results obtained by DNS and LST for turbulent flow. Puffs of markers with different Schmidt numbers were released into a flow field at a frictional Reynolds number of 150. The point of release was at the channel wall, so that both diffusion and convection contribute to the puff dispersion pattern, defining different stages of dispersion. Based on outputs from DNS and LST, we seek the most suitable and feasible probability density function (PDF) that represents distribution of markers in the flow field. The PDF would play a significant role in predicting heat and mass transfer in wall turbulence, and would prove to be helpful where DNS and LST are not always available.
Extremely high wall-shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer
Pan, Chong; Kwon, Yongseok
2018-04-01
The present work studies the fluctuating characteristics of the streamwise wall-shear stress in a DNS of a turbulent boundary layer at Re τ =1500 from a structural view. The two-dimensional field of the fluctuating friction velocity u‧ τ (x,z) is decomposed into the large- and small-scale components via a recently proposed scale separation algorithm, Quasi-bivariate Variational Mode Decomposition (QB-VMD). Both components are found to be dominated by streak-like structures, which can be regarded as the wall signature of the inner-layer streaks and the outer-layer LSMs, respectively. Extreme positive/negative wall-shear stress fluctuation events are detected in the large-scale component. The former’s occurrence frequency is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the latter; therefore, they contribute a significant portion of the long tail of the wall-shear stress distribution. Both two-point correlations and conditional averages show that these extreme positive wall-shear stress events are embedded in the large-scale positive u‧ τ streaks. They seem to be formed by near-wall ‘splatting’ process, which are related to strong finger-like sweeping (Q4) events originated from the outer-layer positive LSMs.
Blow-off characteristics of turbulent premixed flames in curved-wall Jet Burner
Mansour, Morkous S.
2015-08-02
This study concerns the flame dynamics of a curved-wall jet (CWJ) stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches blow-off conditions. Time resolved OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) delineated reaction zone contours and simultaneously stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) quantified the turbulent flow field features. Ethylene/air flames were stabilized in CWJ burner to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff. For stably burning flames far from blowoff, flames are characterized with a recirculation zone (RZ) upstream for flame stabilization followed by an intense turbulent interaction jet (IJ) and merged-jet regions downstream; the flame front counterparts the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, as the velocity of reactants increases, high local stretch rates exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously resulting in localized flame extinction along the IJ region. As Reynolds number (Re) increases, flames become shorter and are entrained by larger amounts of cold reactants. The increased strain rates together with heat loss effects result in further fragmentation of the flame, eventually leading to the complete quenching of the flame. This is explained in terms of local turbulent Karlovitz stretch factor (K) and principal flow strain rates associated with C contours. Hydrogen addition and increasing the RZ size lessen the tendency of flames to be locally extinguished.
Heterogeneous upper-bound finite element limit analysis of masonry walls out-of-plane loaded
Milani, G.; Zuccarello, F. A.; Olivito, R. S.; Tralli, A.
2007-11-01
A heterogeneous approach for FE upper bound limit analyses of out-of-plane loaded masonry panels is presented. Under the assumption of associated plasticity for the constituent materials, mortar joints are reduced to interfaces with a Mohr Coulomb failure criterion with tension cut-off and cap in compression, whereas for bricks both limited and unlimited strength are taken into account. At each interface, plastic dissipation can occur as a combination of out-of-plane shear, bending and torsion. In order to test the reliability of the model proposed, several examples of dry-joint panels out-of-plane loaded tested at the University of Calabria (Italy) are discussed. Numerical results are compared with experimental data for three different series of walls at different values of the in-plane compressive vertical loads applied. The comparisons show that reliable predictions of both collapse loads and failure mechanisms can be obtained by means of the numerical procedure employed.
Small scale structure in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogar, T.J.
1975-01-01
This paper is a report of the construction and application of an extremely small hot-wire X-probe (typical dimensions of 100 μ) to the measurement of Reynolds stress in the wall region of the turbulent boundary layer of a flat plate at high Reynolds number (Re/sub theta/ = 11,300). In the present flow, the size of the probe corresponds to a dimensionless length based on wall parameters of lu/sub tau//ν = 3. Probe construction methods are described. The Wyngaard-Lumley constant temperature anemometer used to heat the wire is analyzed, and a direct acoustical frequency calibration of the wire is made. This calibration shows the small wire to have uniform frequency response to 15 kHz. A novel calibration technique is employed using a high speed, digital mini-computer to determine the velocity in the stream direction and in a direction normal to the wall by matching the unique voltage pairs produced by the X-wire array in a turbulent flow to the voltage pairs produced when the probe is exposed to a known uniform flow inclined at various angles
Linear modeling of turbulent skin-friction reduction due to spanwise wall motion
Duque-Daza, Carlos; Baig, Mirza; Lockerby, Duncan; Chernyshenko, Sergei; Davies, Christopher; University of Warwick Team; Imperial College Team; Cardiff University Team
2012-11-01
We present a study on the effect of streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise wall velocity on the growth of near-wall turbulent streaks using a linearized formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The changes in streak amplification due to the travelling waves induced by the wall velocity are compared to published results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) predictions of the turbulent skin-friction reduction over a range of parameters; a clear correlation between these two sets of results is observed. Additional linearized simulations but at a much higher Reynolds numbers, more relevant to aerospace applications, produce results that show no marked differences to those obtained at low Reynolds number. It is also observed that a close correlation exists between DNS data of drag reduction and a very simple characteristic of the ``generalized'' Stokes layer generated by the streamwise-travelling waves. Carlos.Duque-Daza@warwick.ac.uk - School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK caduqued@unal.edu.co - Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
Elbing, Brian R.; Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.
2010-08-01
Wall-pressure fluctuations were investigated within a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer (TBL) modified by the addition of dilute friction-drag-reducing polymer solutions. The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth (k+<0.2) and achieving downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220×106. The polymer (polyethylene oxide) solution was injected into the TBL through a slot in the surface. The primary flow diagnostics were skin-friction drag balances and an array of flush-mounted dynamic pressure transducers 9.8 m from the model leading edge. Parameters varied included the free-stream speed (6.7, 13.4, and 20.2 m s-1) and the injection condition (polymer molecular weight, injection concentration, and volumetric injection flux). The behavior of the pressure spectra, convection velocity, and coherence, regardless of the injection condition, were determined primarily based on the level of drag reduction. Results were divided into two regimes dependent on the level of polymer drag reduction (PDR), nominally separated at a PDR of 40%. The low-PDR regime is characterized by decreasing mean-square pressure fluctuations and increasing convection velocity with increasing drag reduction. This shows that the decrease in the pressure spectra with increasing drag reduction is due in part to the moving of the turbulent structures from the wall. Conversely, with further increases in drag reduction, the high-PDR regime has negligible variation in the mean-squared pressure fluctuations and convection velocity. The convection velocity remains constant at approximately 10% above the baseline-flow convection velocity, which suggests that the turbulent structures no longer move farther from the wall with increasing drag reduction. In light of recent numerical work, the coherence results indicate that in the low-PDR regime, the turbulent structures are being elongated in
Convection of wall shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer
Pabon, Rommel; Mills, David; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
2017-11-01
The fluctuating wall shear stress is measured in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer of Reτ 1700 simultaneously with velocity measurements using either hot-wire anemometry or particle image velocimetry. These experiments elucidate the patterns of large scale structures in a single point measurement of the wall shear stress, as well as their convection velocity at the wall. The wall shear stress sensor is a CS-A05 one-dimensional capacitice floating element from Interdisciplinary Consulting Corp. It has a nominal bandwidth from DC to 5 kHz and a floating element size of 1 mm in the principal sensing direction (streamwise) and 0.2 mm in the cross direction (spanwise), allowing the large scales to be well resolved in the current experimental conditions. In addition, a two sensor array of CS-A05 aligned in the spanwise direction with streamwise separations O (δ) is utilized to capture the convection velocity of specific scales of the shear stress through a bandpass filter and peaks in the correlation. Thus, an average wall normal position for the corresponding convecting event can be inferred at least as high as the equivalent local streamwise velocity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer
Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2015-11-01
Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.
1993-08-12
Rlain in . power spectral density of the fluctuating wall pressure on the cylinder, boldine . fractional contribution to the total wall pressure energy...or repeated sequences of events are responsible for the production of turbulence in the near- wall region and the desire to extract their...signals over a prespecified window centered about the event detection times to extract the individual events. I 3.) Ensemble average the individual
One-equation near-wall turbulence modeling with the aid of direct simulation data
Rodi, W.; Mansour, N. N.; Michelassi, V.
1993-01-01
The length scales appearing in the relations for the eddy viscosity and dissipation rate in one-equation models were evaluated from direct numerical (DNS) simulation data for developed channel and boundary-layer flow at two Reynolds numbers each. To prepare the ground for the evaluation, the distribution of the most relevant mean-flow and turbulence quantities is presented and discussed, also with respect to Reynolds-number influence and to differences between channel and boundary-layer flow. An alternative model is tested as near wall component of a two-layer model by application to developed-channel, boundary-layer and backward-facing-step flows.
Extremely rare collapse and build-up of turbulence in stochastic models of transitional wall flows.
Rolland, Joran
2018-02-01
This paper presents a numerical and theoretical study of multistability in two stochastic models of transitional wall flows. An algorithm dedicated to the computation of rare events is adapted on these two stochastic models. The main focus is placed on a stochastic partial differential equation model proposed by Barkley. Three types of events are computed in a systematic and reproducible manner: (i) the collapse of isolated puffs and domains initially containing their steady turbulent fraction; (ii) the puff splitting; (iii) the build-up of turbulence from the laminar base flow under a noise perturbation of vanishing variance. For build-up events, an extreme realization of the vanishing variance noise pushes the state from the laminar base flow to the most probable germ of turbulence which in turn develops into a full blown puff. For collapse events, the Reynolds number and length ranges of the two regimes of collapse of laminar-turbulent pipes, independent collapse or global collapse of puffs, is determined. The mean first passage time before each event is then systematically computed as a function of the Reynolds number r and pipe length L in the laminar-turbulent coexistence range of Reynolds number. In the case of isolated puffs, the faster-than-linear growth with Reynolds number of the logarithm of mean first passage time T before collapse is separated in two. One finds that ln(T)=A_{p}r-B_{p}, with A_{p} and B_{p} positive. Moreover, A_{p} and B_{p} are affine in the spatial integral of turbulence intensity of the puff, with the same slope. In the case of pipes initially containing the steady turbulent fraction, the length L and Reynolds number r dependence of the mean first passage time T before collapse is also separated. The author finds that T≍exp[L(Ar-B)] with A and B positive. The length and Reynolds number dependence of T are then discussed in view of the large deviations theoretical approaches of the study of mean first passage times and
Extremely rare collapse and build-up of turbulence in stochastic models of transitional wall flows
Rolland, Joran
2018-02-01
This paper presents a numerical and theoretical study of multistability in two stochastic models of transitional wall flows. An algorithm dedicated to the computation of rare events is adapted on these two stochastic models. The main focus is placed on a stochastic partial differential equation model proposed by Barkley. Three types of events are computed in a systematic and reproducible manner: (i) the collapse of isolated puffs and domains initially containing their steady turbulent fraction; (ii) the puff splitting; (iii) the build-up of turbulence from the laminar base flow under a noise perturbation of vanishing variance. For build-up events, an extreme realization of the vanishing variance noise pushes the state from the laminar base flow to the most probable germ of turbulence which in turn develops into a full blown puff. For collapse events, the Reynolds number and length ranges of the two regimes of collapse of laminar-turbulent pipes, independent collapse or global collapse of puffs, is determined. The mean first passage time before each event is then systematically computed as a function of the Reynolds number r and pipe length L in the laminar-turbulent coexistence range of Reynolds number. In the case of isolated puffs, the faster-than-linear growth with Reynolds number of the logarithm of mean first passage time T before collapse is separated in two. One finds that ln(T ) =Apr -Bp , with Ap and Bp positive. Moreover, Ap and Bp are affine in the spatial integral of turbulence intensity of the puff, with the same slope. In the case of pipes initially containing the steady turbulent fraction, the length L and Reynolds number r dependence of the mean first passage time T before collapse is also separated. The author finds that T ≍exp[L (A r -B )] with A and B positive. The length and Reynolds number dependence of T are then discussed in view of the large deviations theoretical approaches of the study of mean first passage times and multistability
A methodology for including wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambrosini, W.; Pucciarelli, A.; Borroni, I.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A model for taking into account wall roughness in low-Reynolds k-ε models is presented. • The model is subjected to a first validation to show its potential in general applications. • The application of the model in predicting heat transfer to supercritical fluids is also discussed. - Abstract: A model accounting for wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models is described in the present paper. In particular, the introduction in the transport equations of k and ε of additional source terms related to roughness, based on simple assumptions and dimensional relationships, is proposed. An objective of the present paper, in addition to obtaining more realistic predictions of wall friction, is the application of the proposed model to the study of heat transfer to supercritical fluids. A first validation of the model is reported. The model shows the capability of predicting, at least qualitatively, some of the most important trends observed when dealing with rough pipes in very different flow conditions. Qualitative comparisons with some DNS data available in literature are also performed. Further analyses provided promising results concerning the ability of the model in reproducing the trend of friction factor when varying the flow conditions, though improvements are necessary for achieving better quantitative accuracy. First applications of the model in simulating heat transfer to supercritical fluids are also described, showing the capability of the model to affect the predictions of these heat transfer phenomena, in particular in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical conditions. A more extended application of the model to relevant deteriorated heat transfer conditions will clarify the usefulness of this modelling methodology in improving predictions of these difficult phenomena. Whatever the possible success in this particular application that motivated its development, this approach suggests a general methodology for accounting
Numerical study of the inlet conditions on a turbulent plane two dimensional wall jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kechiche, Jamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. de Mecanique des Fluides et de Transferts Thermiques, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Marseille, 13 (France)
2004-11-01
The low Reynolds number turbulence model of Herrero et al. [Int J Heat Mass Trans 34 (1991) 711] is used in this work to study turbulent isothermal or non-isothermal plane two dimensional wall jets in stagnant surroundings. In this model, the empirical constant C{sub {mu}} = 0.09 appearing in the Kolmogorov-Prandtl relation was replaced by the function proposed by Ljuboja and Rodi [J Fluids Eng 102 (1980) 350] to take account of the damping effect of the wall on the lateral fluctuations. The system of equations governing the studied configuration is solved with a finite difference scheme using a staggered grid for numerical stability, not uniform in the two directions of the flow. In the present work, we are interested particularly in the influence of the inlet conditions at the nozzle exit on the jet characteristic parameters. The obtained results show that the inlet conditions affect the flow in the vicinity of the region of the nozzle. Starting from a certain distance, the established region is reached (auto-similar region), and the results become independent of the flow characteristics at the nozzle exit. The results are also compared to those suggested in the literature. The agreement with the experimental data is satisfactory for all studied flow configurations, which provides validation of our results. (Author)
High Reynolds number rough wall turbulent boundary layer experiments using Braille surfaces
Harris, Michael; Monty, Jason; Nova, Todd; Allen, James; Chong, Min
2007-11-01
This paper details smooth, transitional and fully rough turbulent boundary layer experiments in the New Mexico State high Reynolds number rough wall wind tunnel. The initial surface tested was generated with a Braille printer and consisted of an uniform array of Braille points. The average point height being 0.5mm, the spacing between the points in the span was 0.5mm and the surface consisted of span wise rows separated by 4mm. The wavelength to peak ratio was 8:1. The boundary layer thickness at the measurement location was 190mm giving a large separation of roughness height to layer thickness. The maximum friction velocity was uτ=1.5m/s at Rex=3.8 x10^7. Results for the skin friction co-efficient show that this surface follows a Nikuradse type inflectional curve and that Townsends outer layer similarity hypothesis is valid for rough wall flows with a large separation of scales. Mean flow and turbulence statistics will be presented.
Diffusion of drag-reducing polymer solutions within a rough-walled turbulent boundary layer
Elbing, Brian R.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.
2010-04-01
The influence of surface roughness on diffusion of wall-injected, drag-reducing polymer solutions within a turbulent boundary layer was studied with a 0.94 m long flat-plate test model at speeds of up to 10.6 m s-1 and Reynolds numbers of up to 9×106. The surface was hydraulically smooth, transitionally rough, or fully rough. Mean concentration profiles were acquired with planar laser induced fluorescence, which was the primary flow diagnostic. Polymer concentration profiles with high injection concentrations (≥1000 wppm) had the peak concentration shifted away from the wall, which was partially attributed to a lifting phenomenon. The diffusion process was divided into three zones—initial, intermediate, and final. Studies of polymer injection into a polymer ocean at concentrations sufficient for maximum drag reduction indicated that the maximum initial zone length is of the order of 100 boundary layer thicknesses. The intermediate zone results indicate that friction velocity and roughness height are important scaling parameters in addition to flow and injection conditions. Lastly, the current results were combined with those in Petrie et al. ["Polymer drag reduction with surface roughness in flat-plate turbulent boundary layer flow," Exp. Fluids 35, 8 (2003)] to demonstrate that the influence of polymer degradation increases with increased surface roughness.
Experimental Investigation of Compliant Wall Surface Deformation in Turbulent Boundary Layer
Wang, Jin; Agarwal, Karuna; Katz, Joseph
2017-11-01
On-going research integrates Tomographic PIV (TPIV) with Mach-Zehnder Interferometry (MZI) to measure the correlations between deformation of a compliant wall and a turbulent channel flow or a boundary layer. Aiming to extend the scope to two-way coupling, in the present experiment the wall properties have been designed, based on a theoretical analysis, to increase the amplitude of deformation to several μm, achieving the same order of magnitude as the boundary layer wall unit (5-10 μm). It requires higher speeds and a softer surface that has a Young's modulus of 0.1MPa (vs. 1Mpa before), as well as proper thickness (5 mm) that maximize the wall response to excitation at scales that fall within the temporal and spatial resolution of the instruments. The experiments are performed in a water tunnel extension to the JHU refractive index matched facility. The transparent compliant surface is made of PDMS molded on the tunnel window, and measurements are performed at friction velocity Reynolds numbers in the 1000-7000 range. MZI measures the 2D surface deformation as several magnifications. The time-resolved 3D pressure distribution is determined by calculating to spatial distribution of material acceleration from the TPIV data and integrating it using a GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration method. ONR.
Time Resolved Tomographic PIV Measurements of Rough-Wall Turbulent Channel Flow
Miorini, Rinaldo; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph
2013-11-01
Time resolved tomographic PIV is used to study flow structures in the outer region of a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer, focusing on imprints of the roughness on the outer layer. Measurements are performed in a transparent channel installed in the JHU optically index matched facility. The roughness consists of pyramids with height, k = 0.46 mm, and wavelength, λ = 3.2 mm, satisfying h/k = 55 (h = 25.4 mm is the channel half-height), k + = 64 and Re = 40000. The TPIV setup consists of four high-speed cameras operating at 3 kHz, which view the sample volume through acrylic prisms. The flow field is illuminated by an Nd:YLF laser. Following enhancement, calibration, and reconstruction, 643 voxels interrogation volumes with 0.75 overlap provide 3D velocity fields with spacing of 0.5883 mm3. Formation and transport of near-wall 3D U-shaped vortex structures, with base in front of the pyramids, and quasi-streamwise legs extending between pyramid crest lines are evident from the data. Extended streamwise regions of high wall-normal vorticity appear ``latched'' to the roughness elements close to the wall, but are transported downstream at higher elevations. Also evident are traveling streamwise low velocity streaks, which cover many roughness elements. Sponsored by NSF CBET and ONR.
A model for near-wall dynamics in turbulent Rayleigh Bénard convection
Theerthan, S. Ananda; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
1998-10-01
Experiments indicate that turbulent free convection over a horizontal surface (e.g. Rayleigh Bénard convection) consists of essentially line plumes near the walls, at least for moderately high Rayleigh numbers. Based on this evidence, we propose here a two-dimensional model for near-wall dynamics in Rayleigh Bénard convection and in general for convection over heated horizontal surfaces. The model proposes a periodic array of steady laminar two-dimensional plumes. A plume is fed on either side by boundary layers on the wall. The results from the model are obtained in two ways. One of the methods uses the similarity solution of Rotem & Classen (1969) for the boundary layer and the similarity solution of Fuji (1963) for the plume. We have derived expressions for mean temperature and temperature and velocity fluctuations near the wall. In the second approach, we compute the two-dimensional flow field in a two-dimensional rectangular open cavity. The number of plumes in the cavity depends on the length of the cavity. The plume spacing is determined from the critical length at which the number of plumes increases by one. The results for average plume spacing and the distribution of r.m.s. temperature and velocity fluctuations are shown to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results.
Investigation of secondary flows in turbulent pipe flows with three-dimensional sinusoidal walls
Chan, Leon; MacDonald, Michael; Chung, Daniel; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew
2017-11-01
The occurrence of secondary flows is systematically investigated via Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent flow in a rough wall pipe at friction Reynolds numbers of 540. In this study, the peak-to-trough height of the roughness elements, which consist of three-dimensional sinusoidal roughness, is fixed at 120 viscous units while the wavelength of the roughness elements is varied. The solidity or effective slope (ES) of the roughness ranges from the sparse regime (ES = 0.18) to the closely packed roughness/dense regime (ES = 0.72). The time-independent dispersive stresses, which arise due to the stationary features of the flow, are analysed and are found to increase with increasing roughness wavelength. These dispersive stresses are related to the occurrence of secondary flows and are maximum within the roughness canopy. Above the crest of the roughness elements, the dispersive stresses reduce to zero at wall-normal heights greater than half of the roughness wavelength. This study has found that the size and wall-normal extent of the secondary flows scales with the roughness wavelength and can reach wall-normal heights of almost half of the pipe radius.
Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Mirabella, Lucia; Yoganathan, Ajit P
2015-06-01
Congenital bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are associated with accelerated disease progression, such as leaflet calcification and ascending aorta dilatation. Although common underlying genetic factors have been implicated in accelerated disease in BAV patients, several studies have suggested that altered hemodynamics also play a role in this disease process. The present study compares turbulence and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements between various BAV and trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) models to provide information for mechanobiological models of BAV disease. BAV and TAV models were constructed from excised porcine aortic valves to simulate parametric variations in BAV stenosis, hemodynamics and geometry. Particle image velocimetry experiments were conducted at physiological pressure conditions to characterize velocity fields in the ascending aorta. The velocity fields were post-processed to calculate turbulence, viscous and wall shear stresses in the ascending aorta. Stenosed BAV models showed the presence of eccentric systolic jets, causing increased WSS. Lower cardiac output resulted in a narrower jet, lower turbulence and lower viscous shear stress (VSS). The specific severe stenosis BAV model studied here showed reduced WSS due to reduction in non-fused leaflet mobility. Dilation of the aorta did not affect any turbulence or VSS, but reduced the WSS. In comparison with BAVs, TAVs have similar VSS values, but much smaller WSS and turbulence levels. These increased turbulence and WSS levels in BAVs may play a key role in amplifying the biological responses of the ascending aorta wall and valvular leaflets, and support the hemodynamic underpinnings of BAV disease processes.
Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Kok, Jacobus B.W.
2012-01-01
An accurate prediction of the flow and the thermal boundary layer is required to properly simulate gas to wall heat transfer in a turbulent flow. This is studied with a view to application to gas turbine combustors. A typical gas turbine combustion chamber flow presents similarities with the
Bandyopadhyay, Promode R; Hellum, Aren M
2014-10-23
Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.
One-way spatial integration of Navier-Stokes equations: stability of wall-bounded flows
Rigas, Georgios; Colonius, Tim; Towne, Aaron; Beyar, Michael
2016-11-01
For three-dimensional flows, questions of stability, receptivity, secondary flows, and coherent structures require the solution of large partial-derivative eigenvalue problems. Reduced-order approximations are thus required for engineering prediction since these problems are often computationally intractable or prohibitively expensive. For spatially slowly evolving flows, such as jets and boundary layers, a regularization of the equations of motion sometimes permits a fast spatial marching procedure that results in a huge reduction in computational cost. Recently, a novel one-way spatial marching algorithm has been developed by Towne & Colonius. The new method overcomes the principle flaw observed in Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE), namely the ad hoc regularization that removes upstream propagating modes. The one-way method correctly parabolizes the flow equations based on estimating, in a computationally efficient way, the local spectrum in each cross-stream plane and an efficient spectral filter eliminates modes with upstream group velocity. Results from the application of the method to wall-bounded flows will be presented and compared with predictions from the full linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations and PSE.
Queiros-Conde, D.; Foucher, F.; Mounaïm-Rousselle, C.; Kassem, H.; Feidt, M.
2008-12-01
Multi-scale features of turbulent flames near a wall display two kinds of scale-dependent fractal features. In scale-space, an unique fractal dimension cannot be defined and the fractal dimension of the front is scale-dependent. Moreover, when the front approaches the wall, this dependency changes: fractal dimension also depends on the wall-distance. Our aim here is to propose a general geometrical framework that provides the possibility to integrate these two cases, in order to describe the multi-scale structure of turbulent flames interacting with a wall. Based on the scale-entropy quantity, which is simply linked to the roughness of the front, we thus introduce a general scale-entropy diffusion equation. We define the notion of “scale-evolutivity” which characterises the deviation of a multi-scale system from the pure fractal behaviour. The specific case of a constant “scale-evolutivity” over the scale-range is studied. In this case, called “parabolic scaling”, the fractal dimension is a linear function of the logarithm of scale. The case of a constant scale-evolutivity in the wall-distance space implies that the fractal dimension depends linearly on the logarithm of the wall-distance. We then verified experimentally, that parabolic scaling represents a good approximation of the real multi-scale features of turbulent flames near a wall.
Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.
2008-12-01
A digital holographic microscope is used to simultaneously measure the instantaneous 3D flow structure in the inner part of a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth wall, and the spatial distribution of wall shear stresses. The measurements are performed in a fully developed turbulent channel flow within square duct, at a moderately high Reynolds number. The sample volume size is 90 × 145 × 90 wall units, and the spatial resolution of the measurements is 3 8 wall units in streamwise and spanwise directions and one wall unit in the wall-normal direction. The paper describes the data acquisition and analysis procedures, including the particle tracking method and associated method for matching of particle pairs. The uncertainty in velocity is estimated to be better than 1 mm/s, less than 0.05% of the free stream velocity, by comparing the statistics of the normalized velocity divergence to divergence obtained by randomly adding an error of 1 mm/s to the data. Spatial distributions of wall shear stresses are approximated with the least square fit of velocity measurements in the viscous sublayer. Mean flow profiles and statistics of velocity fluctuations agree very well with expectations. Joint probability density distributions of instantaneous spanwise and streamwise wall shear stresses demonstrate the significance of near-wall coherent structures. The near wall 3D flow structures are classified into three groups, the first containing a pair of counter-rotating, quasi streamwise vortices and high streak-like shear stresses; the second group is characterized by multiple streamwise vortices and little variations in wall stress; and the third group has no buffer layer structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinink, Shawn K.; Yaras, Metin I.
2015-01-01
Forced-convection heat transfer in a heated working fluid at a thermodynamic state near its pseudocritical point is poorly predicted by correlations calibrated with data at subcritical temperatures and pressures. This is suggested to be primarily due to the influence of large wall-normal thermophysical property gradients that develop in proximity of the pseudocritical point on the concentration of coherent turbulence structures near the wall. The physical mechanisms dominating this influence remain poorly understood. In the present study, direct numerical simulation is used to study the development of coherent vortical structures within a turbulent spot under the influence of large wall-normal property gradients. A turbulent spot rather than a fully turbulent boundary layer is used for the study, for the coherent structures of turbulence in a spot tend to be in a more organized state which may allow for more effective identification of cause-and-effect relationships. Large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties are created by heating the working fluid which is near the pseudocritical thermodynamic state. It is found that during improved heat transfer, wall-normal gradients in density accelerate the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism in the shear layer enveloping low-speed streaks, causing it to roll up into hairpin vortices at a faster rate. It is suggested that this occurs by the baroclinic vorticity generation mechanism which accelerates the streamwise grouping of vorticity during shear layer roll-up. The increased roll-up frequency leads to reduced streamwise spacing between hairpin vortices in wave packets. The density gradients also promote the sinuous instability mode in low-speed streaks. The resulting oscillations in the streaks in the streamwise-spanwise plane lead to locally reduced spanwise spacing between hairpin vortices forming over adjacent low-speed streaks. The reduction in streamwise and spanwise spacing between
Rigorous Statistical Bounds in Uncertainty Quantification for One-Layer Turbulent Geophysical Flows
Qi, Di; Majda, Andrew J.
2018-04-01
Statistical bounds controlling the total fluctuations in mean and variance about a basic steady-state solution are developed for the truncated barotropic flow over topography. Statistical ensemble prediction is an important topic in weather and climate research. Here, the evolution of an ensemble of trajectories is considered using statistical instability analysis and is compared and contrasted with the classical deterministic instability for the growth of perturbations in one pointwise trajectory. The maximum growth of the total statistics in fluctuations is derived relying on the statistical conservation principle of the pseudo-energy. The saturation bound of the statistical mean fluctuation and variance in the unstable regimes with non-positive-definite pseudo-energy is achieved by linking with a class of stable reference states and minimizing the stable statistical energy. Two cases with dependence on initial statistical uncertainty and on external forcing and dissipation are compared and unified under a consistent statistical stability framework. The flow structures and statistical stability bounds are illustrated and verified by numerical simulations among a wide range of dynamical regimes, where subtle transient statistical instability exists in general with positive short-time exponential growth in the covariance even when the pseudo-energy is positive-definite. Among the various scenarios in this paper, there exist strong forward and backward energy exchanges between different scales which are estimated by the rigorous statistical bounds.
Modelling complex draft-tube flows using near-wall turbulence closures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ventikos, Y.; Sotiropoulos, F. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Patel, V.C. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research
1996-12-31
This paper presents a finite-volume method for simulating flows through complex hydroturbine draft-tube configurations using near-wall turbulence closures. The method employs the artificial-compressibility pressure-velocity coupling approach in conjunction with multigrid acceleration for fast convergence on very fine grids. Calculations are carried out for a draft tube with two downstream piers on a computational mesh consisting of 1.2x10{sup 6} nodes. Comparisons of the computed results with measurements demonstrate the ability of the method to capture most experimental trends with reasonable accuracy. Calculated three-dimensional particle traces reveal very complex flow features in the vicinity of the piers, including horse-shoe longitudinal vortices and and regions of flow reversal.
Targeting specific azimuthal modes using wall changes in turbulent pipe flow
van Buren, Tyler; Hellström, Leo; Marusic, Ivan; Smits, Alexander
2017-11-01
We experimentally study turbulent pipe flow at Re =3486 using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Using pipe inserts with non-circular geometry to perturb the flow upstream of the measurement location, we excite specific naturally occurring energetic modes. We consider inserts that directly manipulate the flow momentum (vortex generators), and/or induce secondary flows through Reynolds stresses (sinusoidally varying wall shape). These inserts substantially change the mean flow, and produce distinct regions of low and high momentum corresponding to the mode being excited. The inserts add energy in the targeted modes while simultaneously reducing the energy in the non-excited azimuthal modes. In addition, inserts designed to excite two modes simultaneously exhibit non-linear interactions. Supported under ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2402, Program Manager/Director Thomas Fu and the Australian Research Council.
Destabilizing turbulence in pipe flow
Kühnen, Jakob; Song, Baofang; Scarselli, Davide; Budanur, Nazmi Burak; Riedl, Michael; Willis, Ashley P.; Avila, Marc; Hof, Björn
2018-04-01
Turbulence is the major cause of friction losses in transport processes and it is responsible for a drastic drag increase in flows over bounding surfaces. While much effort is invested into developing ways to control and reduce turbulence intensities1-3, so far no methods exist to altogether eliminate turbulence if velocities are sufficiently large. We demonstrate for pipe flow that appropriate distortions to the velocity profile lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and subsequently friction losses are reduced by as much as 90%. Counterintuitively, the return to laminar motion is accomplished by initially increasing turbulence intensities or by transiently amplifying wall shear. Since neither the Reynolds number nor the shear stresses decrease (the latter often increase), these measures are not indicative of turbulence collapse. Instead, an amplification mechanism4,5 measuring the interaction between eddies and the mean shear is found to set a threshold below which turbulence is suppressed beyond recovery.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Kim, C.
1990-01-01
The fundamental problem in the theory of turbulent transport is to find the flux Γ of a quantity such as heat. Methods based on statistical closures are mired in conceptual controversies and practical difficulties. However, it is possible to bound Γ by employing constraints derived rigorously from the equations of motion. Brief reviews of the general theory and its application to passive advection are given. Then, a detailed application is made to anomalous resistivity generated by self-consistent turbulence in a reversed-field pinch. A nonlinear variational principle for an upper bound on the turbulent electromotive force for fixed current is formulated from the magnetohydrodynamic equations in cylindrical geometry. Numerical solution of a case constrained solely by energy balance leads to a reasonable bound and nonlinear eigenfunctions that share intriguing features with experimental data: The dominant mode numbers appear to be correct, and field reversal is predicted at reasonable values of the pinch parameter. Although open questions remain, upon considering all bounding calculations to date it can be concluded, remarkably, that global energy balance constrains transport sufficiently so that bounds derived therefrom are not unreasonable and that bounding calculations are feasible even for involved practical problems. The potential of the method has hardly been tapped; it provides a fertile area for future research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Kim, Chang-Bae
1990-06-01
The fundamental problem in the theory of turbulent transport is to find the flux Γ of a quantity such as heat. Methods based on statistical closures are mired in conceptual controversies and practical difficulties. However, it is possible to bound Γ by employing constraints derived rigorously from the equations of motion. Brief reviews of the general theory and its application to passive advection are given. Then, a detailed application is made to anomalous resistivity generated by self-consistent turbulence in a reversed-field pinch. A nonlinear variational principle for an upper bound on the turbulence electromotive force for fixed current is formulated from the magnetohydrodynamic equations in cylindrical geometry. Numerical solution of a case constrained solely by energy balance leads to a reasonable bound and nonlinear eigenfunctions that share intriguing features with experimental data: the dominant mode numbers appear to be correct, and field reversal is predicted at reasonable values of the pinch parameter. Although open questions remain upon considering all bounding calculations to date one can conclude, remarkably, that global energy balance constrains transport sufficiently so that bounds derived therefrom are not unreasonable and that bounding calculations are feasible even for involved practical problems. The potential of the method has hardly been tapped; it provides a fertile area for future research. 29 refs
Cuevas Bautista, Juan Carlos; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; White, Christopher; Chini, Gregory; Klewicki, Joseph
2017-11-01
The Reynolds shear stress gradient is a leading order mechanism on the inertial domain of turbulent wall-flows. This quantity can be described relative to the sum of two velocity-vorticity correlations, vωz and wωy . Recent studies suggest that the first of these correlates with the step-like structure of the instantaneous streamwise velocity profile on the inertial layer. This structure is comprised of large zones of uniform momentum segregated by slender regions of concentrated vorticity. In this talk we study the contributions of the v and ωz motions to the vorticity transport (vωz) mechanism through the use of experimental data at large friction Reynolds numbers, δ+. The primary contributions to v and ωz were estimated by identifying the peak wavelengths of their streamwise spectra. The magnitudes of these peaks are of the same order, and are shown to exhibit a weak δ+ dependence. The peak wavelengths of v, however, exhibit a strong wall-distance (y) dependence, while the peak wavelengths of ωz show only a weak y dependence, and remain almost O (√{δ+}) in size throughout the inertial domain. This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation and partially supported by the Australian Research Council.
Turbulent combustion and DDT events as an upper bound for hydrogen mitigation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorofeev, S.B.
1997-01-01
A brief review is presented on the limiting conditions for fast combustion regimes (accelerated flames, fast turbulent deflagrations, and DDT events), and on their effect on confining structures. Main attention is given to hydrogen-air-steam mixtures typical for severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison is made of the pressure loads resulting from different combustion regimes. Transient wave processes are shown to be very important for description of the pressure loads. Different limiting conditions are discussed for DDT being the most dangerous combustion event. Possibility of DDT is shown to be limited by the geometrical scale. Detailed description is presented for DDT criterion based on the minimum scale requirement for detonation formation. This criterion gives a conservative estimate that DDT is impossible, if characteristic size of combustible mixture is less than 7 detonation cell widths of the mixture. Conditions limiting possibility of flame acceleration are also discussed. (author)
Yang, Jongmin; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin
2017-11-01
The effects of low- and high-speed structures on the interface of the quiescent core region are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent pipe flow. The quiescent core region is a uniform momentum zone located at the center of the pipe flow, which contains the highest streamwise momentum with a low level of turbulence. The interface of the quiescent core region can be identified from the probability density function of the streamwise modal velocity. In the vicinity of the interface of the quiescent core region, the streamwise velocity changes abruptly. The abrupt jump in velocity causes an increase of the velocity gradient. The interface of the quiescent core region is similar to the laminar superlayer in turbulent/non-turbulent interface. The interface of the quiescent core region contains the low- and high-speed structures. They can be classified into wall-attached and detached structures depending on the distance between the structures and the wall. The influence of the detached structures accounted for most of the number of detected structures is negligible due to its small volume. Conversely, the wall-attached structures adjacent to the interface have a huge influence on the statistical amount of the interface, such as entrainment characteristics. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pouransari, Zeinab; Vervisch, Luc; Johansson, Arne V.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► A non-premixed turbulent flame close to a solid surface is studied using DNS. ► Heat release effects delay transition and enlarge fluctuation of density and pressure. ► The fine-scale structures damped and surface wrinkling diminished due to heat-release. ► Using semilocal scaling improves the collapse of turbulence statistic in inner region. ► There are regions of the flame where considerable (up to 10%) premixed burning occurs. -- Abstract: The present study concerns the role of heat release effects on characteristics mixing scales of turbulence in reacting wall-jet flows. Direct numerical simulations of exothermic reacting turbulent wall-jets are performed and compared to the isothermal reacting case. An evaluation of the heat-release effects on the structure of turbulence is given by examining the mixture fraction surface characteristics, diagnosing vortices and exploring the dissipation rate of the fuel and passive scalar concentrations, and moreover by illustration of probability density functions of reacting species and scatter plots of the local temperature against the mixture fraction. Primarily, heat release effects delay the transition, enlarge the fluctuation intensities of density and pressure and also enhance the fluctuation level of the species concentrations. However, it has a damping effect on all velocity fluctuation intensities and the Reynolds shear stress. A key result is that the fine-scale structures of turbulence are damped, the surface wrinkling is diminished and the vortices become larger due to heat-release effects. Taking into account the varying density by using semi-local scaling improves the collapse of the turbulence statistics in the inner region, but does not eliminate heat release induced differences in the outer region. Examining the two-dimensional premultiplied spanwise spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations indicates a shifting in the positions of the outer peaks, associated with large
A comparative study of near-wall turbulence in high and low Reynolds number boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metzger, M.M.; Klewicki, J.C.
2001-01-01
The present study explores the effects of Reynolds number, over three orders of magnitude, in the viscous wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. Complementary experiments were conducted both in the boundary layer wind tunnel at the University of Utah and in the atmospheric surface layer which flows over the salt flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert in western Utah. The Reynolds numbers, based on momentum deficit thickness, of the two flows were R θ =2x10 3 and R θ ≅5x10 6 , respectively. High-resolution velocity measurements were obtained from a five-element vertical rake of hot-wires spanning the buffer region. In both the low and high R θ flows, the length of the hot-wires measured less than 6 viscous units. To facilitate reliable comparisons, both the laboratory and field experiments employed the same instrumentation and procedures. Data indicate that, even in the immediate vicinity of the surface, strong influences from low-frequency motions at high R θ produce noticeable Reynolds number differences in the streamwise velocity and velocity gradient statistics. In particular, the peak value in the root mean square streamwise velocity profile, when normalized by viscous scales, was found to exhibit a logarithmic dependence on Reynolds number. The mean streamwise velocity profile, on the other hand, appears to be essentially independent of Reynolds number. Spectra and spatial correlation data suggest that low-frequency motions at high Reynolds number engender intensified local convection velocities which affect the structure of both the velocity and velocity gradient fields. Implications for turbulent production mechanisms and coherent motions in the buffer layer are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monty, J.P.; Lien, K.; Chong, M.S. [University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Allen, J.J. [New Mexico State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Cruces, NM (United States)
2011-12-15
A high Reynolds number boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University was fitted with a regularly distributed braille surface. The surface was such that braille dots were closely packed in the streamwise direction and sparsely spaced in the spanwise direction. This novel surface had an unexpected influence on the flow: the energy of the very large-scale features of wall turbulence (approximately six-times the boundary-layer thickness in length) became significantly attenuated, even into the logarithmic region. To the author's knowledge, this is the first experimental study to report a modification of 'superstructures' in a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. The result gives rise to the possibility that flow control through very small, passive surface roughness may be possible at high Reynolds numbers, without the prohibitive drag penalty anticipated heretofore. Evidence was also found for the uninhibited existence of the near-wall cycle, well known to smooth-wall-turbulence researchers, in the spanwise space between roughness elements. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Chiriki
2003-01-01
Numerical analysis has been performed for three-dimensional developing turbulent flow in the U-bend of strong curvature with rib-roughened walls by using an algebraic Reynolds stress model. In this calculation, the algebraic Reynolds stress model is adopted in order to predict preciously Reynolds stresses and boundary fitted-coordinate system is introduced as the method for coordinate transformation to set exactly boundary conditions along complicated shape in rib-roughed walls. Calculated results of mean velocity and Reynolds stresses are compared with the experimental data in order to examine the validity of the presented numerical method and the algebraic Reynolds stress model. It has been pointed out as a characteristic feature from the experimental result that the maximum velocity appears near the inner wall of curved duct, which phenomenon is not recognized in mild curved duct. The present method could predict such velocity profiles correctly and reproduce the separated flow generated near the outlet cross section of curved duct. Adding to this, calculated results show clearly that the generation of maximum velocity near a inner wall is caused by pressure driven secondary flow which moves to inner wall from outer wall along symmetrical axis. As for the comparison of Reynolds stresses, the present turbulent model relatively predicts the experimental data well except for the flow separated region which is located near the outlet cross section of curved duct. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piscaglia F.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The implementation and the combination of advanced boundary conditions and subgrid scale models for Large Eddy Simulations are presented. The goal is to perform reliable cold flow LES simulations in complex geometries, such as in the cylinders of internal combustion engines. The implementation of an inlet boundary condition for synthetic turbulence generation and of two subgrid scale models, the local Dynamic Smagorinsky and the Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity SGS model ( WALE is described. The WALE model is based on the square of the velocity gradient tensor and it accounts for the effects of both the strain and the rotation rate of the smallest resolved turbulent fluctuations and it recovers the proper y3 near-wall scaling for the eddy viscosity without requiring dynamic pressure; hence, it is supposed to be a very reliable model for ICE simulation. Model validation has been performed separately on two steady state flow benches: a backward facing step geometry and a simple IC engine geometry with one axed central valve. A discussion on the completeness of the LES simulation (i.e. LES simulation quality is given.
Solution of the Korteweg--de Vries equation in a half-space bounded by a wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moses, H.E.
1976-01-01
A solution of the Korteweg--de Vries equation in the half-space 0 less than r less than infinity with the boundary condition V(0) = 0 is given. The boundary condition may be interpreted as the requirement that the plane which bounds the half-space be a rigid wall. Aside from possible physical interest, this solution, which is obtained from one of the potentials for the radial Schroedinger equation which do not scatter, appears to indicate that the radial Schroedinger equation and the corresponding Gel'fand--Levitan equation play a role in the case of the half-space bounded by a wall similar to that of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation (-- infinity less than x less than infinity) and its corresponding Gel'fand--Levitan equation in the more usual full space treatment of the KdV equation. A possible interpretation of the solution presented is that it corresponds to the reflection of a wave by a wall, in which the incident wave is singular and the reflected wave is nonsingular but highly dispersive
On the role of the smallest scales of a passive scalar field in a near-wall turbulent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert, Bergant; Iztok, Tiselj [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2006-03-01
Role of the smallest diffusive scales of a passive scalar field in the near-wall turbulent flow was examined with pseudo-spectral numerical simulations. Temperature fields were analyzed at friction Reynolds number Re{sub {tau}}=171 and at Prandtl numbers, Pr=1 and Pr=5.4. Results of direct numerical simulations (DNS) were compared with the under-resolved simulations where the velocity field was still resolved with the DNS accuracy, while a coarser grid was used to describe the temperature fields. Since the smallest temperature scales remained unresolved in these simulations, an appropriate spectral turbulent thermal diffusivity was applied to avoid pile-up at the higher wave numbers. In spite of coarser numerical grids, the temperature fields are still highly correlated with the DNS results, including instantaneous temperature fields. Results point to practically negligible role of the diffusive temperature scales on the macroscopic behavior of the turbulent heat transfer. (orig.)
Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.
Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph
2015-11-01
This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Rechia
2007-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to predict numerically the turbulent flow through a straight square duct using Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equations (RANS by the widely used k – ε and a near wall turbulence k – ε − fμ models. To handle wall proximity and no-equilibrium effects, the first model is modified by incorporating damping functions fμ via the eddy viscosity relation. The predicted results for the streamwise, spanwise velocities and the Reynolds stress components are compared to those given by the k – ε model and by the direct numerical simulation (DNS data of Gavrilakis (J. Fluid Mech., 1992. In light of these results, the proposed k – ε − fμ model is found to be generally satisfactory for predicting the considered flow.
On the Link Between Kolmogorov Microscales and Friction in Wall-Bounded Flow of Viscoplastic Fluids
Ramos, Fabio; Anbarlooei, Hamid; Cruz, Daniel; Silva Freire, Atila; Santos, Cecilia M.
2017-11-01
Most discussions in literature on the friction coefficient of turbulent flows of fluids with complex rheology are empirical. As a rule, theoretical frameworks are not available even for some relatively simple constitutive models. In this work, we present a new family of formulas for the evaluation of the friction coefficient of turbulent flows of a large family of viscoplastic fluids. The developments combine an unified analysis for the description of the Kolmogorov's micro-scales and the phenomenological turbulence model of Gioia and Chakraborty. The resulting Blasius-type friction equation has only Blasius' constant as a parameter, and tests against experimental data show excellent agreement over a significant range of Hedstrom and Reynolds numbers. The limits of the proposed model are also discussed. We also comment on the role of the new formula as a possible benchmark test for the convergence of DNS simulations of viscoplastic flows. The friction formula also provides limits for the Maximum Drag Reduction (MDR) for viscoplastic flows, which resembles MDR asymptote for viscoelastic flows.
Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.
1980-01-01
Asymptotic methods are used to calculate the shear stress at the wall for the interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A mixing length model is used for the eddy viscosity. The shock wave is taken to be strong enough that the sonic line is deep in the boundary layer and the upstream influence is thus very small. It is shown that unlike the result found for laminar flow an asymptotic criterion for separation is not found; however, conditions for incipient separation are computed numerically using the derived solution for the shear stress at the wall. Results are compared with available experimental measurements.
Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loisel, V.; Abbas, M., E-mail: micheline.abbas@ensiacet.fr; Masbernat, O. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Laboratoire de Génie Chimique and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France); Climent, E. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France)
2015-12-15
Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section.
Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loisel, V.; Abbas, M.; Masbernat, O.; Climent, E.
2015-01-01
Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section
LES of fluid and heat flow over a wall-bounded short cylinder at different inflow conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borello, D [Dipartmento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Aerospaziale, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Hanjalic, K, E-mail: borello@dma.ing.uniroma1.it [Department of Multi-scale Physics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)
2011-12-22
We report on LES studies of flow patterns, vortical structures and heat transfer in flows over a short single cylinder of diameter D placed in a plane channel of height h = 0.4D in which the bottom wall is heated. The Reynolds number of 6150, based on D, corresponds to the water experiments reported by Sahin et al. (2008). For the basic computational domain of 24 Multiplication-Sign 14 Multiplication-Sign 0.4D three different inflow conditions have been considered: a non-turbulent flow with a uniform initial velocity developing along the channel (NT), a fully developed channel flows (FD) (generated a priori) and periodic conditions (PC). The latter boundary conditions have also been considered for two shorter domain lengths of 6D and 3D corresponding to a cylinder in a compact matrix. For the long domain, despite the length of the channel of 9.5 D before (and after) the cylinder, the inlet conditions show strong effects on the formation and evolution of the multiple vortex systems both in front and behind the cylinder, influencing significantly also friction and heat transfer. Simulations show some agreement with experimental data though the comparison is impaired by the uncertainty in the experimental inflow conditions. For the shortest cylinder spacing the wake never closes and the flow shows enhanced unsteadiness and turbulence level. Interestingly, the comparison for the same short domain (3Dx3D) using the mean temperature at the inflow to this domain as a reference shows the lowest average base-wall Nusselt number in the PC 3D case that corresponds to compact heat exchangers.
Inhibition of cadmium ion uptake in rice (Oryza sativa) cells by a wall-bound form of silicon.
Liu, Jian; Ma, Jie; He, Congwu; Li, Xiuli; Zhang, Wenjun; Xu, Fangsen; Lin, Yongjun; Wang, Lijun
2013-11-01
The stresses acting on plants that are alleviated by silicon (Si) range from biotic to abiotic stresses, such as heavy metal toxicity. However, the mechanism of stress alleviation by Si at the single-cell level is poorly understood. We cultivated suspended rice (Oryza sativa) cells and protoplasts and investigated them using a combination of plant nutritional and physical techniques including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that most Si accumulated in the cell walls in a wall-bound organosilicon compound. Total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in protoplasts from Si-accumulating (+Si) cells were significantly reduced at moderate concentrations of Cd in the culture medium compared with those from Si-limiting (-Si) cells. In situ measurement of cellular fluxes of the cadmium ion (Cd(2+) ) in suspension cells and root cells of rice exposed to Cd(2+) and/or Si treatments showed that +Si cells significantly inhibited the net Cd(2+) influx, compared with that in -Si cells. Furthermore, a net negative charge (charge density) within the +Si cell walls could be neutralized by an increase in the Cd(2+) concentration in the measuring solution. A mechanism of co-deposition of Si and Cd in the cell walls via a [Si-wall matrix]Cd co-complexation may explain the inhibition of Cd ion uptake, and may offer a plausible explanation for the in vivo detoxification of Cd in rice. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, M.
1998-04-01
To predict thermal-hydraulic phenomena in actual plant under various conditions accurately, adequate simulation of laminar-turbulent flow transition is of importance. A low Reynolds number turbulence model is commonly used for a numerical simulation of the laminar-turbulent transition. The existing low Reynolds number turbulence models generally demands very thin mesh width between a wall and a first computational node from the wall, to keep accuracy and stability of numerical analyses. There is a criterion for the distance between the wall and the first computational node in which non-dimensional distance y + must be less than 0.5. Due to this criterion the suitable distance depends on Reynolds number. A liquid metal sodium is used for a coolant in first reactors therefore, Reynolds number is usually one or two order higher than that of the usual plants in which air and water are used for the work fluid. This makes the load of thermal-hydraulic numerical simulation of the liquid sodium relatively heavier. From above context, a new method is proposed for providing wall boundary condition of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ε. The present method enables the wall-first node distance 10 times larger compared to the existing models. A function of the ε wall boundary condition has been constructed aided by a direct numerical simulation (DNS) data base. The method was validated through calculations of a turbulent Couette flow and a fully developed pipe flow and its laminar-turbulent transition. Thus the present method and modeling are capable of predicting the laminar-turbulent transition with less mesh numbers i.e. lighter computational loads. (J.P.N.)
On the validity of Taylor's hypothesis for wall-bounded flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piomelli, U.; Balint, J.; Wallace, J.M.
1989-01-01
The results of large eddy simulation (LES) of the Navier--Stokes equations are used to evaluate the validity of Taylor's hypothesis of frozen turbulence, which states that the time derivative of some instantaneous quantity is proportional to its derivative in the streamwise direction, for incompressible plane channel flow. Time and space derivatives in the streamwise direction of the velocity components are, in fact, found to be well correlated. Root-mean-square fluctuations of the terms in Taylor's hypothesis also support the validity of this hypothesis above the buffer layer. The good agreement between LES and experimental results indicates that errors in the evaluation of derivatives in the streamwise direction are due mostly to insufficient resolution
Bound eigenstate dynamics under a sudden shift of the well's wall
Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi
2010-03-01
We investigate the dynamics of the eigenstate of an infinite well under an abrupt shift of the well’s wall. It is shown that when the shift is small compared to the initial well’s dimensions, the short-time behavior changes from the well-known t3/2 behavior to t1/2. It is also shown that the complete dynamical picture converges to a universal function, which has fractal structure with dimensionality D=1.25.
Bound eigenstate dynamics under a sudden shift of the well's wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi
2010-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of the eigenstate of an infinite well under an abrupt shift of the well's wall. It is shown that when the shift is small compared to the initial well's dimensions, the short-time behavior changes from the well-known t 3/2 behavior to t 1/2 . It is also shown that the complete dynamical picture converges to a universal function, which has fractal structure with dimensionality D=1.25.
Convection-driven melting in an n-octane pool fire bounded by an ice wall
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Farahani, Hamed Farmahini; Alva, Wilson Ulises Rojas; Rangwala, Ali S.
2017-01-01
×3cm) placed on one side of the tray. The melting front velocity, as an indicator of the melting rate of the ice, increased from 0.04cm/min to 1cm/min. The measurement of the burning rates and flame heights showed two distinctive behaviors; an induction period from the initial self-sustained flame...... to the multi-roll location. The multi-roll structure could be the main reason for the transport of the heat received from the flame toward the ice wall which causes the melting....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Hura
Full Text Available Long-stemmed and semi-dwarf cultivars of triticale were exposed to water stress at tillering, heading and anthesis stage. Quantitative determination of free and cell wall-bound polyamines, i.e. agmatine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was supplemented with an analysis of quantitative relationships between free and cell wall-bound polyamines.The content of free and cell wall-bound polyamines varied depending on the development stage, both under optimal and water stress conditions. Drought-induced increase in free agmatine content was observed at all developmental stages in long-stemmed cultivar. A depletion of spermidine and putrescine was also reported in this cultivar, and spermidine was less abundant in semi-dwarf cultivar exposed to drought stress at the three analyzed developmental stages. Changes in the content of the other free polyamines did not follow a steady pattern reflecting the developmental stages. On the contrary, the content of cell wall-bound polyamines gradually increased from tillering, through heading and until anthesis period.Water stress seemed to induce a progressive decrease in the content of free polyamines and an accumulation of cell wall-bound polyamines.
Chang, Kyungsik
2012-09-01
We report on the isogeometric residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) large eddy simulation of a fully developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall. To assess the predictive capability of the VMS modeling framework, we compare its predictions against the results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) and, when available, against experimental measurements. We use C 1 quadratic B-spline basis functions to represent the smooth geometry of the sinusoidal lower wall and the solution variables. The Reynolds numbers of the flows considered are 6760 and 30,000 based on the bulk velocity and average channel height. The ratio of amplitude to wavelength (α/λ) of the sinusoidal wavy surface is set to 0.05. The computational domain is 2λ×1.05λ×λ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively. For the Re=6760 case, mean averaged quantities, including velocity and pressure profiles, and the separation/reattachment points in the recirculation region, are compared with DNS and experimental data. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress are in good agreement with benchmark data. Coherent structures over the wavy wall are observed in isosurfaces of the Q-criterion and show similar features to those previously reported in the literature. Comparable accuracy to DNS solutions is obtained with at least one order of magnitude fewer degrees of freedom. For the Re=30,000 case, good agreement was obtained for mean wall shear stress and velocity profiles compared with available LES results reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Chang, Kyungsik; Hughes, Thomas Jr R; Calo, Victor M.
2012-01-01
We report on the isogeometric residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) large eddy simulation of a fully developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall. To assess the predictive capability of the VMS modeling framework, we compare its predictions against the results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) and, when available, against experimental measurements. We use C 1 quadratic B-spline basis functions to represent the smooth geometry of the sinusoidal lower wall and the solution variables. The Reynolds numbers of the flows considered are 6760 and 30,000 based on the bulk velocity and average channel height. The ratio of amplitude to wavelength (α/λ) of the sinusoidal wavy surface is set to 0.05. The computational domain is 2λ×1.05λ×λ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively. For the Re=6760 case, mean averaged quantities, including velocity and pressure profiles, and the separation/reattachment points in the recirculation region, are compared with DNS and experimental data. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress are in good agreement with benchmark data. Coherent structures over the wavy wall are observed in isosurfaces of the Q-criterion and show similar features to those previously reported in the literature. Comparable accuracy to DNS solutions is obtained with at least one order of magnitude fewer degrees of freedom. For the Re=30,000 case, good agreement was obtained for mean wall shear stress and velocity profiles compared with available LES results reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.
2016-01-01
An important goal for modern fluid mechanics experiments is to provide datasets which present a challenge for Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations to reproduce. Such "CFD validation experiments" should be well-characterized and well-documented, and should investigate flows which are difficult for CFD to calculate. It is also often convenient for the experiment to be challenging for CFD in some aspects while simple in others. This report is part of the continuing documentation of a series of experiments conducted to characterize the flow around an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Computation of this flow is easy in some ways - subsonic flow over a simple shape - while being complex in others - separated flow and boundary layer interactions. The primary set of experiments were performed on a 15.2 cm high, 45.7 cm base diameter machined aluminum model that was tested at mean speeds of 50 m/s (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000). The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3. The flow was characterized using surface oil flow visualization, Cobra probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction magnitude and direction. A set of pathfinder experiments were also performed in a water channel on a smaller scale (5.1 cm high, 15.2 cm base diameter) sintered nylon model. The water channel test was conducted at a mean test section speed of 3 cm/s (Reynolds Number of 1500), but at the same ratio of model height to boundary layer thickness. Dye injection from both the model and an upstream rake was used to visualize the flow. This report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, and data
Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
2016-11-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating wall shear stress experiments were performed on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) under zero pressure gradient conditions. The fluctuating wall shear stress was measured using a microelectromechanical 1mm × 1mm floating element capacitive shear stress sensor (CSSS) developed at the University of Florida. The experiments elucidated the imprint of the organized motions in a TBL on the wall shear stress through its direct measurement. Spatial autocorrelation of the streamwise velocity from the PIV snapshots revealed large scale motions that scale on the order of boundary layer thickness. However, the captured inclination angle was lower than that determined using the classic method by means of wall shear stress and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) temporal cross-correlations and a frozen field hypothesis using a convection velocity. The current study suggests the large size of these motions begins to degrade the applicability of the frozen field hypothesis for the time resolved HWA experiments. The simultaneous PIV and CSSS measurements are also used for spatial reconstruction of the velocity field during conditionally sampled intense wall shear stress events. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Blow-off characteristics of turbulent premixed flames in curved-wall Jet Burner
Mansour, Morkous S.; Mannaa, O.; Chung, Suk-Ho
2015-01-01
and simultaneously stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) quantified the turbulent flow field features. Ethylene/air flames were stabilized in CWJ burner to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff. For stably burning flames far from blowoff
Expression and Function of Cell Wall-Bound Cationic Peroxidase in Asparagus Somatic Embryogenesis
Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kotake, Toshihisa; Nakagawa, Naoki; Sakurai, Naoki; Nevins, Donald J.
2003-01-01
Cultured asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. cv Y6) cells induced to regenerate into whole plants through somatic embryogenesis secreted a 38-kD protein into cell walls. The full-length cDNA sequence of this protein (Asparagus officinalis peroxidase 1 [AoPOX1]) determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed similarity with plant peroxidases. AoPOX1 transcripts were particularly abundant during early somatic embryogenesis. To evaluate the in vivo function of AoPOX1 protein, purified recombinant AoPOX1 protein was reacted with a series of phenolic substrates. The AoPOX1 protein was effective in the metabolism of feruloyl (o-methoxyphenol)-substituted substrates, including coniferyl alcohol. The reaction product of coniferyl alcohol was fractionated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, indicating that the oxidation product of coniferyl alcohol in the presence of AoPOX1 was dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol. The concentration of dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol in the cultured medium of the somatic embryos was in the range of 10−8 m. Functions of the AoPOX1 protein in the cell differentiation are discussed. PMID:12692335
Bilirubin oxidase bound to multi-walled carbon nanotube-modified gold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, Kirsten; Goebel, Gero; Lisdat, Fred
2009-01-01
We report on direct electron transfer (DET) reactions of bilirubin oxidase at multi-walled carbon nanotube-(MWCNT) modified gold electrodes. MWCNTs are very suitable for protein immobilisation and provide surface groups that can be used for the stable fixation on electrodes. They can also effectively replace the natural substrate of BOD - bilirubin, the electron donor for oxygen reduction. The bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction was recorded using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) with BOD covalently linked to the nanotubes. The start potential of the bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction at pH 7 and a scan rate of 10 mV/s was determined to be 485 ± 10 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, 1 M KCl (720 mV vs. SHE). Current densities up to 500 μA/cm 2 were detected in an air-saturated buffer at room temperature (25 ± 5 deg. C). Experiments with a rotating disk electrode (RDE) indicate a diffusion controlled electrode reaction. A k s value in the range of 80-100 s -1 could be estimated. The DET could also be observed directly by the redox conversion of a copper centre of BOD under anaerobic conditions. A peak pair with a formal potential of 680 ± 10 mV vs. SHE was found. The T1 site is probably addressed by the electrode as indicated by several experimental studies
Convection-driven melting in an n-octane pool fire bounded by an ice wall
Farmahini Farahani, Hamed; Alva, Ulises; Rangwala, Ali; Jomaas, Grunde
2017-11-01
Burning of the liquid fuels adjacent to ice bodies creates a lateral cavity due to melting of the ice. The formation of lateral cavities are noticed recently and only a few experimental studies have addressed them. One study has shown lateral cavity formation with length of 12 cm for 5 minutes burning of oil. Based on the hypothesis that melting is facilitated by the convection in the liquid fuel, a series of PIV tests were conducted on burning of n-octane in a square glass tray with a 3 cm thick ice wall placed on one side of the tray. Marangoni generates a flow below the surface of the fuel and near the ice from hot to cold regions. The flow measurements by a 2D PIV system indicated the existence of different flow regimes. Before ignition, combined surface tension and buoyancy effects led to a one roll structure. After ignition the flow field began transitioning toward an unstable regime with an increase in velocity magnitude. Unfortunately, the PIV quality declined in the unstable regime, but indications of a multi-roll structure separating from a primary horizontal flow on the top driven by Marangoni convection were observed. The knowledge gained from these experiments will help determine the influential parameters in ice melting during burning of oil in ice-infested waters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thiery, Mylene [Aerodynamics and Energetics Modelling Department, Turbulence Modelling and Prediction Unit, ONERA Toulouse, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Coustols, Eric [Aerodynamics and Energetics Modelling Department, Turbulence Modelling and Prediction Unit, ONERA Toulouse, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: Eric.Coustols@onera.fr
2006-08-15
The present study deals with recent numerical results from on-going research conducted at ONERA/DMAE regarding the prediction of transonic flows, for which shock wave/boundary layer interaction is important. When this interaction is strong enough (M {>=} 1.3), shock induced oscillations (SIO) appear at the suction side of the airfoil and lead to the formation of unsteady separated areas. The main issue is then to perform unsteady computations applying appropriate turbulence modelling and relevant boundary conditions with respect to the test case. Computations were performed with the ONERA elsA software and the URANS-type approach, closure relationships being achieved from transport-equation models. Applications are provided for the OAT15A airfoil data base, well documented for unsteady CFD validation (mean and r.m.s. pressure, phase-averaged LDA data, ...). In this paper, the capabilities of turbulence models are evaluated with two 2D URANS strategies, under free-stream or confined conditions. The latter takes into account the adaptive upper and lower wind-tunnel walls. A complete 3D URANS simulation was then performed to demonstrate the real impact of all lateral wind-tunnel walls on such a flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiery, Mylene; Coustols, Eric
2006-01-01
The present study deals with recent numerical results from on-going research conducted at ONERA/DMAE regarding the prediction of transonic flows, for which shock wave/boundary layer interaction is important. When this interaction is strong enough (M ≥ 1.3), shock induced oscillations (SIO) appear at the suction side of the airfoil and lead to the formation of unsteady separated areas. The main issue is then to perform unsteady computations applying appropriate turbulence modelling and relevant boundary conditions with respect to the test case. Computations were performed with the ONERA elsA software and the URANS-type approach, closure relationships being achieved from transport-equation models. Applications are provided for the OAT15A airfoil data base, well documented for unsteady CFD validation (mean and r.m.s. pressure, phase-averaged LDA data, ...). In this paper, the capabilities of turbulence models are evaluated with two 2D URANS strategies, under free-stream or confined conditions. The latter takes into account the adaptive upper and lower wind-tunnel walls. A complete 3D URANS simulation was then performed to demonstrate the real impact of all lateral wind-tunnel walls on such a flow
Features of reducing the turbulent friction of a liquid on the channel wall by gas-saturation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evseev Aleksei
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The report presents the results of an experimental study of the efficiency of reducing the local friction at gas saturation of the turbulent boundary layer (TBL in the input section of the channel at different gravitational orientation of the wall, and its dependence on the structure of gas-liquid flow. Profiles of gas concentration have a peak near the wall, which increases with the gas flow increase. The growth of concentration in the near-wall zone leads to rapid coalescence of bubbles, as a result of which the flow in TBL transits to the film-bubble regime with increasing the buoyancy effect of the gas phase, especially at low flow rates. It is shown that the key parameter of friction reduction by gas saturation is the gas phase concentration in the inner region of the boundary layer, whose magnitude is determined by the gas flow rate, the flow velocity, the distance downstream behind the gas generator, and the gravitational orientation of the wall.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorotyntsev, M.A.
1991-01-01
Key problems of turbulent mass transfer at a solid wall are reviewed: closure problem for the concentration field, information on wall turbulence, applications of microelectrodes to study the structure of turbulence, correlation properties of current fluctuations. (author). 26 refs
Mansour, Morkous S.
2015-06-30
A novel double-slit curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner was proposed and employed, which utilizes the Coanda effect by supplying fuel and air as annular-inward jets over a curved surface. We investigated the stabilization characteristics and structure of methane/air, and propane/air turbulent premixed and non-premixed flames with varying global equivalence ratio, , and Reynolds number, Re. Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals were conducted. The burner showed potential for stable operation for methane flames with relatively large fuel loading and overall rich conditions. These have a non-sooting nature. However, propane flames exhibit stable mode for a wider range of equivalence ratio and Re. Mixing characteristics in the cold flow of non-premixed cases were first examined using acetone fluorescence technique, indicating substantial transport between the fuel and air by exhibiting appreciable premixing conditions.PIV measurements revealed that velocity gradients in the shear layers at the boundaries of the annularjets generate the turbulence, enhanced with the collisions in the interaction jet, IJ,region. Turbulent mean and rms velocities were influenced significantly by Re and high rms turbulent velocities are generated within the recirculation zone improving the flame stabilization in this burner.Premixed and non-premixed flames with high equivalence ratio were found to be more resistant to local extinction and exhibited a more corrugated and folded nature, particularly at high Re. For flames with low equivalence ratio, the processes of local quenching at IJ region and of re-ignition within merged jet region maintained these flames further downstream particularly for non-premixed methane flame, revealing a strong intermittency.
Effects of flow depth and wall roughness on turbulence in compound channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prinos, P.; Townsend, R.; Tavoularis, S.
1985-01-01
Current methods for estimating discharge in compound channels often lead to large errors. The error is largely due to momentum transfer mechanism (MTM) generated in the junction regions of the flow field (between adjacent deep and shallow zones). The MTM adversely affects system conveyance, particularly when the velocity differential between the deep and shallow zones is large. Improved prediction methods, therefore, will necessarily reflect the MTM's presence and its effect on the compound flow field. The mechanism's influence on system hydraulics is best examined by analysing the related turbulence characteristics in the junction zones of the compound section. Townsend reported increased turbulence levels in the junction region between a main channel and its shallower flood plain zone and Elsawy, McKee and McKeogh found that observed normal turbulent stresses in a similar region were of the same order of magnitude as the apparent shear stress on the junction's vertical interface plane. The objective of the present study is to measure turbulent stresses in the junction region of a symmetrical compound open channel and examine their dependence on relative depth and relative boundary roughness. Further details of this phase of the larger study are presented elsewhere. (author)
Interphasial energy transfer and particle dissipation in particle-laden wall turbulence
Zhao, L.; Andersson, H.I.; Gillissen, J.J.J.
2013-01-01
Transfer of mechanical energy between solid spherical particles and a Newtonian carrier fluid has been explored in two-way coupled direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow. The inertial particles have been treated as individual point particles in a Lagrangian framework and their
The influence of wall permeability on laminar and turbulent flows : Theory and simulations
Breugem, W.P.
2005-01-01
The study of flows over permeable walls is relevant to many applications. Examples are flows over and through porous river beds, vegetation, snow, heat exchangers of foam metal, and oil wells. The main objectives of this thesis are to gain insight in the influence of wall permeability on both
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2009-01-01
This book introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. For the computation of turbulent compressible flows, current methods of averaging and filtering are presented so that the reader is exposed to a consistent development of applicable equation sets for both the mean or resolved fields as well as the transport equations for the turbulent stress field. For the measurement of turbulent compressible flows, current techniques ranging from hot-wire anemometry to PIV are evaluated and limitations assessed. Characterizing dynamic features of free shear flows, including jets, mixing layers and wakes, and wall-bounded flows, including shock-turbulence and shock boundary-layer interactions, obtained from computations, experiments and simulations are discussed. Key features: * Describes prediction methodologies in...
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2013-01-01
Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, S. H.; Kim, K. H.; Hwang, K. M.
2010-01-01
When components made of carbon steel in nuclear, fossil, and industry plants are exposed to flowing fluid, wall thinning caused by FAC (flow accelerated corrosion) can be generated and eventually ruptured at the portion of pressure boundary. A study to identify the locations generating local wall thinning and to disclose turbulence coefficients related to the local wall thinning was performed. Experiments and numerical analyses for orifice of down-scaled piping components were performed and the results were compared. Based on the results that the flow behaviors inside piping components can be simulated by numerical analysis, numerical analyses for magnified models to actual size of plants were performed. To disclose the relationship between turbulence coefficients and local thinning rate, numerical analyses were preformed for orifice components included in the main feedwater systems. The turbulence coefficients based on the numerical analyses were compared with the local wear rate based on the measured data. From the comparison of the results, the vertical flow velocity component (Vr) flowing to the wall after separating in the wall due to the geometrical configuration and colliding with the wall directly at an angle of some degree was analogous to the configuration of local wall thinning. (authors)
Boiko, Andrey V; Grek, Genrih R; Kozlov, Victor V
2012-01-01
Starting from fundamentals of classical stability theory, an overview is given of the transition phenomena in subsonic, wall-bounded shear flows. At first, the consideration focuses on elementary small-amplitude velocity perturbations of laminar shear layers, i.e. instability waves, in the simplest canonical configurations of a plane channel flow and a flat-plate boundary layer. Then the linear stability problem is expanded to include the effects of pressure gradients, flow curvature, boundary-layer separation, wall compliance, etc. related to applications. Beyond the amplification of instability waves is the non-modal growth of local stationary and non-stationary shear flow perturbations which are discussed as well. The volume continues with the key aspect of the transition process, that is, receptivity of convectively unstable shear layers to external perturbations, summarizing main paths of the excitation of laminar flow disturbances. The remainder of the book addresses the instability phenomena found at l...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tongmin Liou; Jennjiang Hwang; Shihhui Chen
1993-01-01
This paper performs a numerical and experimental analysis to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow behaviour in a rectangular channel flow with streamwise-periodic ribs mounted on one of the principal walls. The k --A PDM turbulence model together with a smoothed hybrid central/skew upstream difference scheme (SCSUDS) and the PISO pressure-velocity coupling algorithm was applied to solving the accelerated, separated and recirculating flows. The real-time holographic interferometry technique was adopted to measure the time-dependent temperature field in the ribbed duct. The predicted fluid flow and temperature field were tested by previous laser-Doppler velocimetry measurements and present holographic interferometry data, and reasonable agreement was achieved. By the examination of the local wall temperature distribution for the uniform wall heat flux (UHF) boundary condition the regions susceptible to the hot spots are identified. Moreover, the study provided the numerical solution to investigate the effect of geometry and flow parameters on the local as well as average heat transfer coefficients. The compact correlation of the average heat transfer coefficient was further developed and accounted for the rib height, rib spacing, and Reynolds number. (Author)
Elbing, Brian; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David; Solomon, Michael; Ceccio, Steven
2008-11-01
Two experiments were conducted to investigate polymer drag reduction (PDR) within high Reynolds number (to 200 million based on downstream distance), rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. The first experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate at speeds to 20 m/s with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough. Local skin-friction measurements on the smooth and rough surfaces had maximum PDR levels of 65 and 75 percent, respectively. However, PDR decreased with increasing downstream distance and flow speed more rapidly on the rough surface, and at the top speed no measureable level of PDR was observed. The roughness-induced increased diffusion was quantified with near-wall concentration measurements and the second experiment, which measured concentration profiles on a 0.94 m long flat-plate with three surface conditions: smooth, 240-grit, and 60-grit sandpaper. The increased diffusion does not fully explain the smooth-rough PDR differences observed in the first experiment. Rheological analysis of drawn samples from the first experiment indicates that polymer degradation (chain scission) could be responsible for the remaining loss of rough-wall PDR. These results have implications for the cost effectiveness of PDR for surface ships.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graham, Elizabeth G.; MacNeill, Christopher M.; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole H.
2013-01-01
Peritoneal metastases of colorectal cancer are a significant challenge in the field of medicine today due to poor results of systemic chemotherapy caused by the poor diffusion of drugs across the blood–peritoneal barrier. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are a biocompatible nanomaterial that strongly absorb near-infrared light to locally heat the surrounding area. Colorectal cancer is known to overexpress folate receptor; therefore, folic acid (FA) was covalently attached to MWNTs to target colorectal cancer cells. Results from real-time polymerase chain reaction found differing expression of folate receptor-α in two colorectal cancer cell lines, RKO and HCT116, as well as a healthy epithelial cell line, HEPM. A spectrophotometric method was developed to quantify the mass of MWNTs bound to cells, and it was determined that FA-targeted MWNTs resulted in a 400–500 % greater affinity for colorectal cancer cells than untargeted MWNTs. The non-cancerous cell line, HEPM, had higher non-specific MWNT interaction and similar MWNT–FA affinity. Stimulated by 1,064 nm light, FA-functionalized MWNTs caused a 50–60 % decrease in colorectal cancer cell viability compared to a 4–10 % decrease caused by untargeted MWNTs. Our results indicate that FA-targeted MWNTs may increase the therapeutic index of MWNT-induced photothermal therapy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, Elizabeth G.; MacNeill, Christopher M.; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole H., E-mail: nlevi@wakehealth.edu [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (United States)
2013-05-15
Peritoneal metastases of colorectal cancer are a significant challenge in the field of medicine today due to poor results of systemic chemotherapy caused by the poor diffusion of drugs across the blood-peritoneal barrier. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are a biocompatible nanomaterial that strongly absorb near-infrared light to locally heat the surrounding area. Colorectal cancer is known to overexpress folate receptor; therefore, folic acid (FA) was covalently attached to MWNTs to target colorectal cancer cells. Results from real-time polymerase chain reaction found differing expression of folate receptor-{alpha} in two colorectal cancer cell lines, RKO and HCT116, as well as a healthy epithelial cell line, HEPM. A spectrophotometric method was developed to quantify the mass of MWNTs bound to cells, and it was determined that FA-targeted MWNTs resulted in a 400-500 % greater affinity for colorectal cancer cells than untargeted MWNTs. The non-cancerous cell line, HEPM, had higher non-specific MWNT interaction and similar MWNT-FA affinity. Stimulated by 1,064 nm light, FA-functionalized MWNTs caused a 50-60 % decrease in colorectal cancer cell viability compared to a 4-10 % decrease caused by untargeted MWNTs. Our results indicate that FA-targeted MWNTs may increase the therapeutic index of MWNT-induced photothermal therapy.
Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zauber, Henrik; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter
2008-10-01
Extracellular ATP (eATP) has recently been demonstrated to play a crucial role in plant development and growth. To investigate the fate of eATP within the apoplast, we used intact potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber slices as an experimental system enabling access to the apoplast without interference of cytosolic contamination. (i) Incubation of intact tuber slices with ATP led to the formation of ADP, AMP, adenosine, adenine and ribose, indicating operation of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase. (ii) Measurement of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase activities in fractionated tuber tissue confirmed the apoplastic localization for apyrase and phosphatase in potato and led to the identification of a novel cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase activity. (iii) When intact tuber slices were incubated with saturating concentrations of adenosine, the conversion of adenosine into adenine was much higher than adenosine import into the cell, suggesting a potential bypass of adenosine import. Consistent with this, import of radiolabeled adenine into tuber slices was inhibited when ATP, ADP or AMP were added to the slices. (iv) In wild-type plants, apyrase and adenosine nucleosidase activities were found to be co-regulated, indicating functional linkage of these enzymes in a shared pathway. (v) Moreover, adenosine nucleosidase activity was reduced in transgenic lines with strongly reduced apoplastic apyrase activity. When taken together, these results suggest that a complete ATP salvage pathway is present in the apoplast of plant cells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergant, R.; Tiselj, I.
2002-01-01
Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the fully developed velocity and temperature fields in the two-dimensional turbulent channel flow was performed for friction Reynolds number Reτ = 150 and Prandtl number Pr 0.71. Two thermal boundary conditions (BCs), isothermal and isoflux, were carried out. The main difference between two ideal types of boundary conditions is in temperature fluctuations, which retain a nonzero value on the wall for isoflux BC, and zero for isothermal BC. Very interesting effect is seen in streamwise temperature auto-correlation functions. While the auto-correlation function for isothermal BC decreases close to zero in the observed computational domain, the decrease of the auto-correlation function for the isoflux BC is slower and remains well above zero. Therefore, another DNS at two times longer computational domain was performed, but results did not show any differences larger than the statistical uncertainty.(author)
Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.
2017-11-01
Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.
Tang, Zhanqi; Jiang, Nan
2018-05-01
This study reports the modifications of scale interaction and arrangement in a turbulent boundary layer perturbed by a wall-mounted circular cylinder. Hot-wire measurements were executed at multiple streamwise and wall-normal wise locations downstream of the cylindrical element. The streamwise fluctuating signals were decomposed into large-, small-, and dissipative-scale signatures by corresponding cutoff filters. The scale interaction under the cylindrical perturbation was elaborated by comparing the small- and dissipative-scale amplitude/frequency modulation effects downstream of the cylinder element with the results observed in the unperturbed case. It was obtained that the large-scale fluctuations perform a stronger amplitude modulation on both the small and dissipative scales in the near-wall region. At the wall-normal positions of the cylinder height, the small-scale amplitude modulation coefficients are redistributed by the cylinder wake. The similar observation was noted in small-scale frequency modulation; however, the dissipative-scale frequency modulation seems to be independent of the cylindrical perturbation. The phase-relationship observation indicated that the cylindrical perturbation shortens the time shifts between both the small- and dissipative-scale variations (amplitude and frequency) and large-scale fluctuations. Then, the integral time scale dependence of the phase-relationship between the small/dissipative scales and large scales was also discussed. Furthermore, the discrepancy of small- and dissipative-scale time shifts relative to the large-scale motions was examined, which indicates that the small-scale amplitude/frequency leads the dissipative scales.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belletre, J.; Bataille, F.; Lallemaned, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)
1997-12-31
The effusion of a cold gas through a porous wall submitted to a hot turbulent parietal flow is studied in order to reduce the convective heat fluxes between the wall and the hot fluid. A modeling of the turbulent dynamical and thermal boundary layer is obtained using a RNG k-{epsilon} model. The cold gas injection through the porous plate and the fluid-wall friction are taken into account using a discrete succession of pores and solid elements. For a 1% injection rate, the modeling results agree with experiments performed in a test-duct. On the other hand, convective heat fluxes on the porous plate are calculated using semi-empirical correlations and different injection rates and temperatures of the hot flow. (J.S.) 23 refs.
Analysis of wall-function approaches using two-equation turbulence models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albets-Chico, X.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.; Oliva, A. [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, C/ Colom, 11, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain); Bredberg, J. [Multi-physics/CFD Epsilon, HighTech AB Lindholmspiren 9, SE-41756 Gothenburg (Sweden)
2008-09-15
This paper focuses the attention on the drawbacks and abilities of wall-function techniques through an analysis of well-known wall-functions from literature. Besides this, some deeper analysis of these tools by means of physical and numerical considerations are carried out in order to improve their limitations when they are applied to predict heat transfer and fluid flow. Accuracy, grid-sensitivity, numerical behaviour and verification of numerical simulations are key aspects in this paper. The main purpose is to obtain tools which are able to predict both fluid flow and heat transfer with low CPU time consumption, reduced grid-sensitivity and a relatively good accuracy. (author)
Lakehal, D.; Métrailler, D.; Reboux, S.
2017-06-01
This paper presents Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results of a turbulent water flow in a channel at Reτ = 400 laden with 0.25 mm diameter air bubbles clustered near the wall (maximum void fraction of α = 8% at y+ ˜ 20). The bubbles were fully resolved using the level set approach built within the CFD/CMFD code TransAT. The fluid properties (air and water) were kept real, including density, viscosity, and surface tension coefficient. The aim of this work is to understand the effects of the bubbles on near-wall turbulence, paving the way towards convective wall-boiling flow studies. The interactions between the gas bubbles and the water stream were studied through an in-depth analysis of the turbulence statistics. The near-wall flow is overall affected by the bubbles, which act like roughness elements during the early phase, prior to their departure from the wall. The average profiles are clearly altered by the bubbles dynamics near the wall, which somewhat contrasts with the findings from similar studies [J. Lu and G. Tryggvason, "Dynamics of nearly spherical bubbles in a turbulent channel upflow," J. Fluid Mech. 732, 166 (2013)], most probably because the bubbles were introduced uniformly in the flow and not concentrated at the wall. The shape of the bubbles measured as the apparent to initial diameter ratio is found to change by a factor of at least two, in particular at the later stages when the bubbles burst out from the boundary layer. The clustering of the bubbles seems to be primarily localized in the zone populated by high-speed streaks and independent of their size. More importantly, the bubbly flow seems to differ from the single-phase flow in terms of turbulent stress distribution and energy exchange, in which all the stress components seem to be increased in the region very close to the wall, by up to 40%. The decay in the energy spectra near the wall was found to be significantly slower for the bubbly flow than for a single-phase flow, which
Tsakalidou, E.; Anastasiou, R.; Vandenberghe, I.; van Beeumen, J.; Kalantzopoulos, G.
1999-01-01
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ACA-DC 178, which was isolated from Greek Kasseri cheese, produces a cell-wall-bound proteinase. The proteinase was removed from the cell envelope by washing the cells with a Ca2+-free buffer. The crude proteinase extract shows its highest activity at pH 6.0 and 40°C. It is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, showing that the enzyme is a serine-type proteinase. Considering the substrate specificity, the enzyme is similar to the lactococcal PI-type proteinases, since it hydrolyzes β-casein mainly and α- and κ-caseins to a much lesser extent. The cell-wall-bound proteinase from L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis ACA-DC 178 liberates four main peptides from β-casein, which have been identified. PMID:10223997
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Li
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. Coating surface roughness may potentially distort the laminar flow pattern, induce turbulence and introduce uncertainties in the calculated uptake coefficient based on molecular diffusion assumptions (e.g., Brown/Cooney–Kim–Davis (CKD/Knopf–Pöschl–Shiraiwa (KPS methods, which has not been fully resolved in earlier studies. Here, we investigate the influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies. According to laminar boundary theory and considering the specific flow conditions in a coated-wall flow tube, we derive and propose a critical height δc to evaluate turbulence effects in the design and analysis of coated-wall flow tube experiments. If a geometric coating thickness δg is larger than δc, the roughness elements of the coating may cause local turbulence and result in overestimation of the real uptake coefficient (γ. We further develop modified CKD/KPS methods (i.e., CKD-LT/KPS-LT to account for roughness-induced local turbulence effects. By combination of the original methods and their modified versions, the maximum error range of γCKD (derived with the CKD method or γKPS (derived with the KPS method can be quantified and finally γ can be constrained. When turbulence is generated, γCKD or γKPS can bear large difference compared to γ. Their difference becomes smaller for gas reactants with lower uptake (i.e., smaller γ and/or for a smaller ratio of the geometric coating thickness to the flow tube radius (δg ∕ R0. On the other hand, the critical height δc can also be adjusted by optimizing flow tube configurations and operating conditions (i.e., tube diameter, length, and flow velocity, to ensure not only unaffected laminar flow patterns but also other specific requirements for an
Robust flow stability: Theory, computations and experiments in near wall turbulence
Bobba, Kumar Manoj
Helmholtz established the field of hydrodynamic stability with his pioneering work in 1868. From then on, hydrodynamic stability became an important tool in understanding various fundamental fluid flow phenomena in engineering (mechanical, aeronautics, chemical, materials, civil, etc.) and science (astrophysics, geophysics, biophysics, etc.), and turbulence in particular. However, there are many discrepancies between classical hydrodynamic stability theory and experiments. In this thesis, the limitations of traditional hydrodynamic stability theory are shown and a framework for robust flow stability theory is formulated. A host of new techniques like gramians, singular values, operator norms, etc. are introduced to understand the role of various kinds of uncertainty. An interesting feature of this framework is the close interplay between theory and computations. It is shown that a subset of Navier-Stokes equations are globally, non-nonlinearly stable for all Reynolds number. Yet, invoking this new theory, it is shown that these equations produce structures (vortices and streaks) as seen in the experiments. The experiments are done in zero pressure gradient transiting boundary layer on a flat plate in free surface tunnel. Digital particle image velocimetry, and MEMS based laser Doppler velocimeter and shear stress sensors have been used to make quantitative measurements of the flow. Various theoretical and computational predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. A closely related topic of modeling, simulation and complexity reduction of large mechanics problems with multiple spatial and temporal scales is also studied. A nice method that rigorously quantifies the important scales and automatically gives models of the problem to various levels of accuracy is introduced. Computations done using spectral methods are presented.
Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans
2017-01-01
Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth's atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat...... subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured...... and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.
2009-01-01
A new regime of plasma-wall interaction is identified in particle-in-cell simulations of a hot plasma bounded by walls with secondary electron emission. Such a plasma has a strongly non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function and consists of bulk plasma electrons and beams of secondary electrons. In the new regime, the plasma sheath is not in a steady space charge limited state even though the secondary electron emission produced by the plasma bulk electrons is so intense that the corresponding partial emission coefficient exceeds unity. Instead, the plasma-sheath system performs relaxation oscillations by switching quasiperiodically between the space charge limited and non-space-charge limited states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaar, K.
1979-01-01
The ultrastructural localization of peroxidase activity in young, growing root hairs of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) after assay with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine is reported. Prominent peroxidase activity has been found in the dictyosomes and the associated vesicles, in ribosomes on ER-cisternae, as well as in the cell wall. On the basis of both ultrastructural and cytochemical evidence it is proposed that peroxidase in root hairs is synthesized on the ER- and within dictyosome cisternae packaged and transported in secretory vesicles and extruded into the cell wall particularily at the tip region of a root hair. The kinetic of Golgi apparatus mediated peroxidasesecretion was monitored by measuring the 55 Fe protoheme content of primary cell walls. Peroxidase secretion seems to be enhanced during stress incubation in destilled water. Secretory activity in root hairs is 20 times higher than in cells of the root body. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shurygin, R. V.; Morozov, D. Kh.
2014-01-01
Turbulent dynamics of the near-wall tokamak plasma is simulated by numerically solving the nonlinear reduced Braginskii magnetohydrodynamic equations with allowance for a lithium ion admixture. The effects of turbulence and radiation of the admixture are analyzed in the framework of a self-consistent approach. The radial distributions of the radiative loss power and the density of Li 0 atoms and Li +1 ions are obtained as functions of the electron and ion temperatures of the main plasma in the near-wall layer. The results of numerical simulations show that supply of lithium ions into the low-temperature near-wall plasma substantially depends on whether the additional power is deposited into the electron or ion component of the main plasma. If the electron temperature in the layer increases (ECR heating), then the ion density drops. At the same time, an increase in the temperature of the main ions (ICR heating) leads to an increase in the density of Li +1 ions. The results of numerical simulations are explained by the different influence of the electron and ion temperatures on the atomic processes governing the accumulation and loss of particles in the balance equations for neutral Li 0 atoms and Li +1 ions in the admixture. The radial profile of the electron temperature and the corresponding distribution of the radiative loss power for different densities of neutral Li 0 atoms on the wall are obtained. The calculations show that the presence of Li +1 ions affects turbulent transport of the main ions. In this case, the electron heat flux increases by 20–30% with increasing Li +1 density, whereas the flux of the main ions drops by nearly the same amount. The radial profile of the turbulent flux of lithium ions is obtained. It is demonstrated that the appearance of the pinch effect is related to the positive density gradient of lithium ions across the calculation layer. For the parameters of the T-10 tokamak, the effect of radiative cooling of the near-wall plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burnage, H
1962-07-01
A theoretical study has been made of a fully developed turbulent flow in cylindrical tubing of circular cross-section subjected to a uniform suction through the walls. This study has made it possible to find a relationship giving the friction coefficient at the wall in terms of the amount of local suction and of the longitudinal static pressure gradient. A method for calculating the Reynolds tensions from the pressure measurements has been devised. An experimental system has been developed. Pressure measurements have been made. By using experimental results it has been possible to obtain a semi empirical expression for the friction coefficient at the wall, in terms of the amount of suction of the inlet Reynolds number, and of the abscissa. (author) [French] Une etude theorique de refoulement turbulent pleinement developpe dans une conduite cylindrique de section circulaire soumise a une aspiration parietale uniforme a ete entreprise. Elle a permis de trouver une relation donnant le coefficient de frottement a la paroi en fonction du taux d'aspiration local et du gradient de pression statique longitudinal. Une methode de calcul des tensions de Reynolds a partir des mesures de pression a ete etablie. Un dispositif experimental a ete realise et mis au point. Des mesures de pression ont ete effectuees. L'utilisation des resultats experimentaux a permis d'obtenir une expression semi-empirique du coefficient de frottement a la paroi en fonction du taux d'aspiration, du nombre de Reynolds d'entree et de l'abscisse. (auteur)
Characterisation of minimal-span plane Couette turbulence with pressure gradients
Sekimoto, Atsushi; Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio
2018-04-01
The turbulence statistics and dynamics in the spanwise-minimal plane Couette flow with pressure gradients, so-called, Couette-Poiseuille (C-P) flow, are investigated using direct numerical simulation. The large-scale motion is limited in the spanwise box dimension as in the minimal-span channel turbulence of Flores & Jiménez (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010, 071704). The effect of the top wall, where normal pressure-driven Poiseuille flow is realised, is distinguished from the events on the bottom wall, where the pressure gradient results in mild or almost-zero wall-shear stress. A proper scaling of turbulence statistics in minimal-span C-P flows is presented. Also the ‘shear-less’ wall-bounded turbulence, where the Corrsin shear parameter is very weak compared to normal wall-bounded turbulence, represents local separation, which is also observed as spanwise streaks of reversed flow in full-size plane C-P turbulence. The local separation is a multi-scale event, which grows up to the order of the channel height even in the minimal-span geometry.
On the correlation of heat transfer in turbulent boundary layers subjected to free-stream turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, M.J.; Hollingsworth, D.K.
1999-07-01
The turbulent flow of a fluid bounded by a heated surface is a wonderfully complex yet derisively mundane phenomenon. Despite its commonness in natural and man-made environments, the authors struggle to accurately predict its behavior in many simple situations. A complexity encountered in a number of flows is the presence of free-stream turbulence. A turbulent free-stream typically yields increased surface friction and heat transfer. Turbulent boundary layers with turbulent free-streams are encountered in gas-turbine engines, rocket nozzles, electronic-cooling passages, geophysical flows, and numerous other dynamic systems. Here, turbulent boundary layers were subjected to grid-generated free-stream turbulence to study the effects of length scale and intensity on heat transfer. The research focused on correlating heat transfer without the use of conventional boundary-layer Reynolds numbers. The boundary-layers studied ranged from 400 to 2,700 in momentum-thickness Reynolds number and from 450 to 1,900 in enthalpy-thickness Reynolds number. Free-stream turbulence intensities varied from 0.1 to 8.0%. The turbulent-to-viscous length-scale ratios presented are the smallest found in the heat-transfer literature; the ratios spanned from 100 to 1000. The turbulent-to-thermal ratios (using enthalpy thickness as the thermal scale) are also the smallest reported; the ratios ranged from 3.2 to 12.3. A length-scale dependence was identified in a Stanton number based on a near-wall streamwise velocity fluctuation. A new near-wall Stanton number was introduced; this parameter was regarded as a constant in a two-region boundary-layer model. The new model correlated heat-transfer to within 7%.
Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Adinpunya
2008-07-01
Alkaline hydrolysis of cell wall material of tomato hairy roots yielded ferulic acid as the major phenolic compound. Other phenolics were 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and 4-coumaric acid. The content of phenolics was much higher at the early stage of hairy root growth. The ferulic acid content decreased up to 30 days and then sharply increased to 360 microg/g at 60 days of growth. Elicitation of hairy root cultures with Fusarium mat extract (FME) increased ferulic acid content 4-fold after 24 h. As the pathogen-derived elicitors have specific receptors in plants, FME may thus be used for inducing resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruneaux, G.
1996-05-20
Premixed turbulent flame-wall interaction is studied using theoretical and numerical analysis. Laminar interactions are first investigated through a literature review. This gives a characterization of the different configurations of interaction and justifies the use of simplified kinetic schemes to study the interaction. Calculations are then performed using Direct Numerical Simulation with a one-step chemistry model, and are compared with good agreements to asymptotic analysis. Flame-wall distances and wall heat fluxes obtained are compared successfully with those of the literature. Heat losses decrease the consumption rate, leading to extinction at the maximum of wall heat flux. It is followed by a flame retreat, when the fuel diffuses into the reaction zone, resulting in low unburnt hydrocarbon levels. Then, turbulent regime is investigated, using two types of Direct Numerical Simulations: 2D variable density and 3D constant density. Similar results are obtained: the local turbulent flame behavior is identical to a laminar interaction, and tongues of fresh gases are expelled from the wall region, near zones of quenching. In the 2D simulations, minimal flame-wall distances and maximum wall heat fluxes are similar to laminar values. However, the structure of the turbulence in the 3D calculations induces smaller flame-wall distances and higher wall heat fluxes. Finally, a flame-wall interaction model is built and validated. It uses the flamelet approach, where the flame is described in terms of consumption speed and flame surface density. This model is simplified to produce a law of the wall, which is then included in a averaged CFD code (Kiva2-MB). It is validated in an engine calculation. (author) 36 refs.
Turbulence generation by waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.
Mansour, Morkous S.; Chung, Suk-Ho
2015-01-01
Mixing characteristics in the cold flow of non-premixed cases were first examined using acetone fluorescence technique, indicating substantial transport between the fuel and air by exhibiting appreciable premixing conditions.PIV measurements revealed that velocity gradients in the shear layers at the boundaries of the annularjets generate the turbulence, enhanced with the collisions in the interaction jet, IJ,region. Turbulent mean and rms velocities were influenced significantly by Re and high rms turbulent velocities are generated within the recirculation zone improving the flame stabilization in this burner.Premixed and non-premixed flames with high equivalence ratio were found to be more resistant to local extinction and exhibited a more corrugated and folded nature, particularly at high Re. For flames with low equivalence ratio, the processes of local quenching at IJ region and of re-ignition within merged jet region maintained these flames further downstream particularly for non-premixed methane flame, revealing a strong intermittency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenaud, C.; Podvin, B.; Fraigneau, Y.; Daru, V.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Study devoted to the compressible LES of the separated/reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate with a right-angled leading edge. • Original contribution using a compressible approach to analyze main coherent structure features and their relation to the unsteady pressure field in the separated/reattached turbulent flow. • The present study provides a well resolved LES reference data-basis that is compared to incompressible results for validation. • It contributes to a better understanding of the coupling between the vortex dynamics and the wall pressure fluctuations, especially in connection with either the vortex shedding or the low frequency shear-layer flapping. - Abstract: This study deals with the numerical predictions through Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the separated–reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate for analyzing main coherent structure features and their relation to the unsteady pressure field. A compressible approach that inherently includes acoustic propagation is here followed to describe the relationship between pressure fluctuations and vortex dynamics around the separation bubble. The objective of the present work is then to contribute to a better understanding of the coupling between the vortex dynamics and the wall pressure fluctuations. The filtered compressible Navier–Stokes equations are then solved with a numerical method that follows a Lax–Wendroff approach to recover a high accuracy in both time and space. For validations, the present numerical results are compared to experimental measurements, coming from both the Pprime laboratory (Sicot el al., 2012) and the literature (Cherry et al., 1984; Kiya and Sasaki, 1985; Tafti and Vanka,1991; Sicot et al., 2012). Our numerical results very well predict mean and fluctuating pressure and velocity fields. Flapping, shedding as well as Kelvin–Helmholtz characteristic frequencies educed by present simulations are in very good agreement with the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Chien-Yuan; Li, Quanzi; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Shi, Rui; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Jack P.; Liu, Jie; Loziuk, Philip; Edmunds, Charles W.; Miller, Zachary D.; Peszlen, Ilona; Muddiman, David C.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.
2016-03-11
Class III peroxidases are members of a large plant-specific sequence-heterogeneous protein family. Several sequence-conserved homologs have been associated with lignin polymerization in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Nicotiana tabacum, Zinnia elegans, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris. In Populus trichocarpa, a model species for studies of wood formation, the peroxidases involved in lignin biosynthesis have not yet been identified. To do this, we retrieved sequences of all PtrPOs from Peroxibase and conducted RNA-seq to identify candidates. Transcripts from 42 PtrPOs were detected in stem differentiating xylem (SDX) and four of them are the most xylem-abundant (PtrPO12, PtrPO21, PtrPO42, and PtrPO64). PtrPO21 shows xylem-specific expression similar to that of genes encoding the monolignol biosynthetic enzymes. Using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry, PtrPO21 is detected only in the cell wall fraction and not in the soluble fraction. Downregulated transgenics of PtrPO21 have a lignin reduction of ~20% with subunit composition (S/G ratio) similar to wild type. The transgenics show a growth reduction and reddish color of stem wood. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the stems of the downregulated PtrPO21-line 8 can be reduced to ~60% of wild type. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis of PtrPO21 downregulated transgenics identified a significant overexpression of PtPrx35, suggesting a compensatory effect within the peroxidase family. No significant changes in the expression of the 49 P. trichocarpa laccases (PtrLACs) were observed.
Universal model of finite Reynolds number turbulent flow in channels and pipes
L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.; Rudenko, O.
2008-01-01
In this Letter, we suggest a simple and physically transparent analytical model of pressure driven turbulent wall-bounded flows at high but finite Reynolds numbers Re. The model provides an accurate quantitative description of the profiles of the mean-velocity and Reynolds stresses (second order
Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.
1979-01-01
An analysis is presented of the flow in the two inner layers, the Reynolds stress sublayer and the wall layer. Included is the calculation of the shear stress at the wall in the interaction region. The limit processes considered are those used for an inviscid flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, Yassin A., E-mail: y-hassan@tamu.edu
2016-04-01
Highlights: • Near wall full-field velocity components under subcooled boiling were measured. • Simultaneous shadowgraphy, infrared thermometry wall temperature and particle-tracking velocimetry techniques were combined. • Near wall velocity modifications under subcooling boiling were observed. - Abstract: Multi-phase flows are one of the challenges on which the CFD simulation community has been working extensively with a relatively low success. The phenomena associated behind the momentum and heat transfer mechanisms associated to multi-phase flows are highly complex requiring resolving simultaneously for multiple scales on time and space. Part of the reasons behind the low predictive capability of CFD when studying multi-phase flows, is the scarcity of CFD-grade experimental data for validation. The complexity of the phenomena and its sensitivity to small sources of perturbations makes its measurements a difficult task. Non-intrusive and innovative measuring techniques are required to accurately measure multi-phase flow parameters while at the same time satisfying the high resolution required to validate CFD simulations. In this context, this work explores the feasible implementation of innovative measuring techniques that can provide whole-field and multi-scale measurements of two-phase flow turbulence, heat transfer, and boiling parameters. To this end, three visualization techniques are simultaneously implemented to study subcooled boiling flow through a vertical rectangular channel with a single heated wall. These techniques are listed next and are used as follow: (1) High-speed infrared thermometry (IR-T) is used to study the impact of the boiling level on the heat transfer coefficients at the heated wall, (2) Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) is used to analyze the influence that boiling parameters have on the liquid phase turbulence statistics, (3) High-speed shadowgraphy with LED illumination is used to obtain the gas phase dynamics. To account
Kim, T.; Blois, G.; Best, J.; Christensen, K. T.
2017-12-01
Coarse-gravel river beds possess a high degree of permeability. Flow interactions between surface and subsurface flow across the bed interface is key to a number of natural processes occurring in the hyporheic zone. In fact, it is increasingly recognized that these interactions drive mass, momentum and energy transport across the interface, and consequently control biochemical processes as well as stability of sediments. The current study explores the role of the wall permeability in surface and subsurface flow interaction under controlled experimental conditions on a physical model of a gravel bed. The present wall model was constructed by five layers of cubically arranged spheres (d=25.4mm, where d is a diameter) providing 48% of porosity. Surface topography was removed by cutting half of a diameter on the top layer of spheres to render the flow surface smooth and highlight the impact of the permeability on the overlying flow. An impermeable smooth wall was also considered as a baseline of comparison for the permeable wall flow. To obtain basic flow statistics, low-frame-rate high-resolution PIV measurements were performed first in the streamwise-wall-normal (x-y) plane and refractive-index matching was employed to optically access the flow within the permeable wall. Time-resolved PIV experiments in the same facility were followed to investigate the flow interaction across the wall interface in sptaio-temporal domain. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the first and second order velocity statistics as well as the amplitude modulation for the flow overlying the permeable smooth wall will be presented.
Turbulence Intensity Scaling: A Fugue
Basse, Nils T.
2018-01-01
We study streamwise turbulence intensity definitions using smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow measurements made in the Princeton Superpipe. Scaling of turbulence intensity with the bulk (and friction) Reynolds number is provided for the definitions. The turbulence intensity is proportional to the square root of the friction factor with the same proportionality constant for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow. Turbulence intensity definitions providing the best description of the measurements are i...
Instantaneous structure of a boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence
Hearst, R. Jason; de Silva, Charitha; Dogan, Eda; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2017-11-01
A canonical turbulent boundary layer (TBL) has a distinct turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) separating the rotational wall-bounded fluid from the irrotational free-stream. If an intermittency profile is constructed separating the flow above and below the TNTI, this profile can be described by an error-function. Within the turbulent region, the flow is separated by interfaces that demarcate uniform momentum zones (UMZs). We observe that these characteristics of a TBL change if there is free-stream turbulence (FST). First, the entire flow is rotational, and thus a distinct TNTI does not exist. Nonetheless, it is possible to identify an interface that approximately separates the flow with mean zero vorticity from the distinctly wall-signed vorticity. This turbulent/turbulent interface is shown to be closer to the wall than the traditional TNTI, and the resulting intermittency profile is not an error-function. Also, UMZs appear to be masked by the free-stream perturbations. Despite these differences, a velocity field of a TBL with homogeneous, isotropic turbulence superimposed and weighted with the empirical intermittency profile, qualitatively reproduces the 1st and 2nd-order statistics. These findings suggest that a TBL subjected to FST may be described by a simple model. EPSRC, ERC, NSERC, Zonta International.
5th iTi Conference in Turbulence 2012
Oberlack, Martin; Peinke, Joachim
2014-01-01
This volume collects the edited and reviewed contributions presented in the 5th iTi Conference in Bertinoro. covering fundamental aspects in turbulent flows. In the spirit of the iTi initiative, the volume is produced after the conference so that the authors had the possibility to incorporate comments and discussions raised during the meeting. Turbulence presents a large number of aspects and problems, which are still unsolved and which challenge research communities in engineering and physical sciences both in basic and applied research. The book presents recent advances in theory related to new statistical approaches, effect of non-linearities and presence of symmetries. This edition presents new contributions related to the physics and control of laminar-turbulent transition in wall-bounded flows, which may have a significant impact on drag reduction applications. Turbulent boundary layers, at increasing Reynolds number, are the main subject of both computational and experimental long research programs ...
Kocal, Nurcan; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia
2008-11-01
Cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv) plays an important role in carbohydrate partitioning and regulation of sink-source interaction. There is increasing evidence that pathogens interfere with sink-source interaction, and induction of cw-Inv activity has frequently been shown in response to pathogen infection. To investigate the role of cw-Inv, transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants silenced for the major leaf cw-Inv isoforms were generated and analyzed during normal growth and during the compatible interaction with Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria. Under normal growth conditions, activities of sucrolytic enzymes as well as photosynthesis and respiration were unaltered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. However, starch levels of source leaves were strongly reduced, which was most likely caused by an enhanced sucrose exudation rate. Following X. campestris pv vesicatoria infection, cw-Inv-silenced plants showed an increased sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast of leaves. Symptom development, inhibition of photosynthesis, and expression of photosynthetic genes were clearly delayed in transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, induction of senescence-associated and pathogenesis-related genes observed in infected wild-type plants was abolished in cw-Inv-silenced tomato lines. These changes were not associated with decreased bacterial growth. In conclusion, cw-Inv restricts carbon export from source leaves and regulates the sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast. Furthermore, an increased apoplastic hexose to sucrose ratio can be linked to inhibition of photosynthesis and induction of pathogenesis-related gene expression but does not significantly influence bacterial growth. Indirectly, bacteria may benefit from low invertase activity, since the longevity of host cells is raised and basal defense might be dampened.
On the calculation of length scales for turbulent heat transfer correlation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, M.J.; Hollingsworth, D.K.
1999-07-01
Turbulence length scale calculation methods were critically reviewed for their usefulness in boundary layer heat transfer correlations. Merits and deficiencies in each calculation method were presented. A rigorous method for calculating an energy-based integral scale was introduced. The method uses the variance of the streamwise velocity and a measured dissipation spectrum to calculate the length scale. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method were discussed. A principal advantage is the capability to decisively calculate length scales in a low-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer. The calculation method was tested with data from grid-generated, free-shear-layer, and wall-bounded turbulence. In each case, the method proved successful. The length scale is well behaved in turbulent boundary layers with momentum thickness Reynolds numbers from 400 to 2,100 and in flows with turbulent Reynolds numbers as low as 90.
Local heat transfer around a wall-mounted cube at 45 deg. to flow in a turbulent boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hajime; Igarashi, Tamotsu; Tsutsui, Takayuki
2003-01-01
The flow and local heat transfer around a wall-mounted cube oriented 45 deg. to the flow is investigated experimentally in the range of Reynolds number 4.2 x 10 3 -3.3 x 10 4 based on the cube height. The distribution of local heat transfer on the cube and its base wall are examined, and it is clarified that the heat transfer distribution under the angled condition differs markedly to that for cube oriented perpendicular to the flow, particularly on the top face of the cube. The surface pressure distribution is also investigated, revealing a well-formed pair of leading-edge vortices extending from the front corner of the top face downstream along both front edges for Re>(1-2)x10 4 . Regions of high heat transfer and low pressure are formed along the flow reattachment and separation lines caused by these vortices. In particular, near the front corner of the top face, pressure suction and heat transfer enhancement are pronounced. The average heat transfer on the top face is enhanced at Re>(1-2)x10 4 over that of a cube aligned perpendicular to the flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, B.; Bergstrom, D.J.
2002-01-01
The dynamic two-parameter mixed model (DTPMM) has been recently introduced in the large eddy simulation (LES). However, current approaches in the literatures are mathematically inconsistent. In this paper, the DTPMM has been optimized using the functional variational method. The mathematical inconsistency has been removed and a governing system of two integral equations for the model coefficients of the DTPMM and some significant features have been obtained. Coherent structures relating to the vortex motion of large vortices have been investigated, using the vortex λ 2 -definition of Jeong and Hussain (1995). The numerical results agrees with the classical wall law of von Karman (1939) and experimental correlation of Aydin and Leutheusser (1991). (author)
Turbulence Statistics in a Two-Dimensional Vortex Condensate
Frishman, Anna; Herbert, Corentin
2018-05-01
Disentangling the evolution of a coherent mean-flow and turbulent fluctuations, interacting through the nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations, is a central issue in fluid mechanics. It affects a wide range of flows, such as planetary atmospheres, plasmas, or wall-bounded flows, and hampers turbulence models. We consider the special case of a two-dimensional flow in a periodic box, for which the mean flow, a pair of box-size vortices called "condensate," emerges from turbulence. As was recently shown, a perturbative closure describes correctly the condensate when turbulence is excited at small scales. In this context, we obtain explicit results for the statistics of turbulence, encoded in the Reynolds stress tensor. We demonstrate that the two components of the Reynolds stress, the momentum flux and the turbulent energy, are determined by different mechanisms. It was suggested previously that the momentum flux is fixed by a balance between forcing and mean-flow advection: using unprecedently long numerical simulations, we provide the first direct evidence supporting this prediction. By contrast, combining analytical computations with numerical simulations, we show that the turbulent energy is determined only by mean-flow advection and obtain for the first time a formula describing its profile in the vortex.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caughey, David
2010-10-08
A Symposium on Turbulence and Combustion was held at Cornell University on August 3-4, 2009. The overall goal of the Symposium was to promote future advances in the study of turbulence and combustion, through an unique forum intended to foster interactions between leading members of these two research communities. The Symposium program consisted of twelve invited lectures given by world-class experts in these fields, two poster sessions consisting of nearly 50 presentations, an open forum, and other informal activities designed to foster discussion. Topics covered in the lectures included turbulent dispersion, wall-bounded flows, mixing, finite-rate chemistry, and others, using experiment, modeling, and computations, and included perspectives from an international community of leading researchers from academia, national laboratories, and industry.
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.
1980-01-01
An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.
Minakawa, Masahito; Fukuda, Ikuo; Yamazaki, Junichi; Fukui, Kozo; Yanaoka, Hideki; Inamura, Takao
2007-12-01
This study was designed to analyze flow pattern, velocity, and strain on the aortic wall of a glass aortic model during extracorporeal circulation, and to elucidate the characteristics of flow pattern in four aortic cannulas. Different patterns of large vortices and helical flow were made by each cannula. The high-velocity flow (0.6 m/s) was observed in end-hole cannula, causing high strain rate tensor (0.3~0.4 without unit) on the aortic arch. In dispersion cannula, a decreased strain rate tensor (less than 0.1) was found on the outer curvature of the aortic arch. In Soft-flow cannula (3M Cardiovascular, Ann Arbor, MI, USA), further decreased flow velocity (0.2 m/s) and strain (less than 0.2) were observed. In Select 3D cannula (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA), a high strain (0.4~0.5) was observed along the inner curvature of the aortic arch. In conclusion, end-hole cannula should not be used in atherosclerotic aorta. Particular attention should be paid both for selection of cannulas and cannulation site based on this result.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afgan, Imran; Moulinec, Charles; Prosser, Robert; Laurence, Dominique
2007-01-01
The flow structure around wall mounted circular cylinders of finite heights is numerically investigated via large eddy simulation (LES). The cylinder aspect ratios (AR) are 6 and 10 and the Reynolds number (Re) based on cylinder diameter and free stream velocity is 20,000 for both cases. The cantilever cylinder mounted on a flat plate is chosen since it gives insight into two entirely different flow phenomena; the tip effects of the free end (which show strong three-dimensional wake structures) and the base or junction effects (due to interaction of flow between the cylinder and the flat plate). Regular vortex shedding is found in the wake of the higher aspect ratio case as was anticipated, along with a strong downwash originating from the flow over the free end of the cylinder, whereas irregular and intermittent vortex shedding occurs in the lower aspect ratio case. Pressure distributions are computed along the length of the cylinder and compared to experimental results. Lift and drag values are also computed, along with Strouhal numbers
The lagRST Model: A Turbulence Model for Non-Equilibrium Flows
Lillard, Randolph P.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Olsen, Michael E.; Blaisdell, Gregory A.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.
2011-01-01
This study presents a new class of turbulence model designed for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows with separation. The model addresses deficiencies seen in the modeling of nonequilibrium turbulent flows. These flows generally have variable adverse pressure gradients which cause the turbulent quantities to react at a finite rate to changes in the mean flow quantities. This "lag" in the response of the turbulent quantities can t be modeled by most standard turbulence models, which are designed to model equilibrium turbulent boundary layers. The model presented uses a standard 2-equation model as the baseline for turbulent equilibrium calculations, but adds transport equations to account directly for non-equilibrium effects in the Reynolds Stress Tensor (RST) that are seen in large pressure gradients involving shock waves and separation. Comparisons are made to several standard turbulence modeling validation cases, including an incompressible boundary layer (both neutral and adverse pressure gradients), an incompressible mixing layer and a transonic bump flow. In addition, a hypersonic Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction with separation is assessed along with a transonic capsule flow. Results show a substantial improvement over the baseline models for transonic separated flows. The results are mixed for the SWTBLI flows assessed. Separation predictions are not as good as the baseline models, but the over prediction of the peak heat flux downstream of the reattachment shock that plagues many models is reduced.
Elbing, Brian R.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.; Ceccio, Steven L.
2013-08-01
The current study explores the influence of polymer drag reduction on the near-wall velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and its dependence on Reynolds number. Recent moderate Reynolds number direct numerical simulation and experimental studies presented in White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862 have challenged the classical representation of the logarithmic dependence of the velocity profile for drag-reduced flows, especially at drag reduction levels above 40%. In the present study, high Reynolds number data from a drag reduced TBL is presented and compared to the observations of White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862. Data presented here were acquired in the TBL flow on a 12.9-m-long flat plate at speeds to 20.3 m s-1, achieving momentum thickness based Reynolds number to 1.5 × 105, which is an order of magnitude greater than that available in the literature. Polyethylene oxide solutions with an average molecular weight of 3.9 × 106 g mol-1 were injected into the flow at various concentrations and volumetric fluxes to achieve a particular level of drag reduction. The resulting mean near-wall velocity profiles show distinctly different behavior depending on whether they fall in the low drag reduction (LDR) or the high drag reduction (HDR) regimes, which are nominally divided at 40% drag reduction. In the LDR regime, the classical view that the logarithmic slope remains constant at the Newtonian value and the intercept constant increases with increasing drag reduction appears to be valid. However, in the HDR regime the behavior is no longer universal. The intercept constant continues to increase linearly in proportion to the drag reduction level until a Reynolds-number-dependent threshold is achieved, at which point the intercept constant rapidly decreases to that predicted by the ultimate profile. The rapid decrease in the intercept constant is due to the corresponding increase in the
Sameshima, Naoki; Yamashita, Atsushi; Sato, Shinya; Matsuda, Shuntaro; Matsuura, Yunosuke; Asada, Yujiro
2014-01-01
To clarify the contribution of hemodynamic factors to the onset of plaque erosion in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-rich atherosclerotic plaque. We developed a rabbit model of SMC-rich atherosclerotic plaque with various degree of stenosis induced by incomplete ligation and generated three-dimensional models of five rabbit femoral arteries based on 130-162 serial histological cross-sections at 100-μm intervals per artery. We performed a computational blood flow simulation using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model and calculated the wall shear stress (WSS), turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure gradients (BPG) in eight sections (the inlet, the stenotic portion and areas 1, 2 and 5mm from the stenotic portion) in each rabbit. We also investigated whether the magnitude of WSS or TKE was related to the presence or absence of erosive injury by evaluating six points (the locally highest, median and lowest of WSS or TKE) in each section. The magnitudes of WSS, TKE and BPG, but not BP, correlated significantly with the extent of histologically-defined plaque erosion (WSS, r=0.55, p＜0.001; TKE, r=0.53, p＜0.001; BPG, r=0.61, p＜0.0001, n=40). The values for WSS and TKE were significantly larger at sites with, compared to without, erosive injury (n=107 and n=119 points, respectively; both p＜0.0001). These results suggest that increased values of WSS, TKE and BPG considerably contribute to the onset of plaque erosion.
Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Demirbilek, Zeki; Mahdi, Tew-Fik; Vrijling, J.K.
2010-01-01
In this paper we provide a computational framework for evaluation of reliability and safety assessment of infrastructures. It is based on the combined application of the dynamic bounds (DB) method and a probabilistic finite element model (FEM). The DB improves the computational efficiency of the FEM
Stirring turbulence with turbulence
Cekli, H.E.; Joosten, R.; van de Water, W.
2015-01-01
We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the
Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Ceglińska, Alicja
2015-03-30
The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
Sharma, Ati S; Moarref, Rashad; McKeon, Beverley J; Park, Jae Sung; Graham, Michael D; Willis, Ashley P
2016-02-01
We report that many exact invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for both pipe and channel flows are well represented by just a few modes of the model of McKeon and Sharma [J. Fluid Mech. 658, 336 (2010)]. This model provides modes that act as a basis to decompose the velocity field, ordered by their amplitude of response to forcing arising from the interaction between scales. The model was originally derived from the Navier-Stokes equations to represent turbulent flows and has been used to explain coherent structure and to predict turbulent statistics. This establishes a surprising new link between the two distinct approaches to understanding turbulence.
Skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent channel flow based on streamwise shear control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Hwa
2017-01-01
Highlights: • We perform DNSs of fully developed turbulent channel flows to explore an active flow control concept using streamwise velocity shear control at the wall. • The structural spacing and wall amplitude parameters are systematically changed to achieve a high-efficient drag reduction rate for longitudinal control surface. • Significant drag reduction is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations. • The generation and evolution of the turbulent vortices in the absence of velocity shear and how they contribute to DR have been examined. - Abstract: It is known that stretching and intensification of a hairpin vortex by mean shear play an important role to create a hairpin vortex packet, which generates the large Reynolds shear stress associated with skin-friction drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows. In order to suppress the mean shear at the wall for high efficient drag reduction (DR), in the present study, we explore an active flow control concept using streamwise shear control (SSC) at the wall. The longitudinal control surface is periodically spanwise-arranged with no-control surface while varying the structural spacing, and an amplitude parameter for imposing the strength of the actuating streamwise velocity at the wall is introduced to further enhance the skin-friction DR. Significant DR is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations, although a further increase in the parameters amplifies the turbulence activity in the near-wall region. In order to study the direct relationship between turbulent vortical structures and DR under the SSC, temporal evolution with initial eddies extracted by conditional averages for Reynolds-stress-maximizing Q2 events are examined. It is shown that the generation of new vortices is dramatically inhibited with an increase in the parameters
Turbulence anisotropy and coherent structures in electromagnetically generated vortex patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenjereš, S
2011-01-01
Numerical investigations addressing influence of the localised electromagnetic forcing on turbulent thermal convection of a weakly electrically conductive fluid in a wall-bounded rectangular enclosure are performed over a wide range of working parameters (10 4 ≤Ra≤5×10 5 , Pr = 7). An asymmetrical electromagnetic forcing (EMF) is applied originating from combined effects of the imposed magnetic fields (originating from an array of 5×7 permanent magnets with |b 0 | max = 1 T each, located beneath the lower thermally active wall) and electric fields (originating from two electrodes supplied with dc current of different intensities, 0≤I≤10 A). Subgrid turbulent stress is modelled by electromagnetically extended Smagorinsky model and subgrid turbulent heat flux is represented by a simple gradient diffusion hypothesis. Simulations revealed two interesting findings: the electromagnetic forcing generated significant overall heat transfer increase (more than 500% for lower values of Ra) compared to its neutral case, and, the turbulence anisotropy was reduced in the central part of the enclosure.
7th iTi Conference in Turbulence
Talamelli, Alessandro; Oberlack, Martin; Peinke, Joachim
2017-01-01
This volume collects the edited and reviewed contribution presented in the 7th iTi Conference in Bertinoro, covering fundamental and applied aspects in turbulence. In the spirit of the iTi conference, the volume is produced after the conference so that the authors had the opportunity to incorporate comments and discussions raised during the meeting. In the present book, the contributions have been structured according to the topics: I Theory II Wall bounded flows III Pipe flow IV Modelling V Experiments VII Miscellaneous topics.
Fractality and the law of the wall
Xu, Haosen H. A.; Yang, X. I. A.
2018-05-01
Fluid motions in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence are fractal, with their space-filling capacity slightly below regular three-dimensional objects, which is a consequence of the energy cascade. Besides the energy cascade, the other often encountered cascading process is the momentum cascade in wall-bounded flows. Despite the long-existing analogy between the two processes, many of the thoroughly investigated aspects of the energy cascade have so far received little attention in studies of the momentum counterpart, e.g., the possibility of the momentum-transferring scales in the logarithmic region being fractal has not been considered. In this work, this possibility is pursued, and we discuss one of its implications. Following the same dimensional arguments that lead to the D =2.33 fractal dimension of wrinkled surfaces in isotropic turbulence, we show that the large-scale momentum-carrying eddies may also be fractal and non-space-filling, which then leads to the power-law scaling of the mean velocity profile. The logarithmic law of the wall, on the other hand, corresponds to space-filling eddies, as suggested by Townsend [The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980)]. Because the space-filling capacity is an integral geometric quantity, the analysis presented in this work provides us with a low-order quantity, with which, one would be able to distinguish between the logarithmic law and the power law.
Lattice Boltzmann equation calculation of internal, pressure-driven turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammond, L A; Halliday, I; Care, C M; Stevens, A
2002-01-01
We describe a mixing-length extension of the lattice Boltzmann approach to the simulation of an incompressible liquid in turbulent flow. The method uses a simple, adaptable, closure algorithm to bound the lattice Boltzmann fluid incorporating a law-of-the-wall. The test application, of an internal, pressure-driven and smooth duct flow, recovers correct velocity profiles for Reynolds number to 1.25 x 10 5 . In addition, the Reynolds number dependence of the friction factor in the smooth-wall branch of the Moody chart is correctly recovered. The method promises a straightforward extension to other curves of the Moody chart and to cylindrical pipe flow
Mansour, Morkous S.
2015-04-29
A double-slit curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner utilizing a Coanda effect by supplying fuel and air as annular-inward jets over a curved surface was employed to investigate the stabilization characteristics and structure of propane/air turbulent non-premixed flames with varying global equivalence ratio and Reynolds number. Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals were conducted. The burner showed a potential of stable and non-sooting operation for relatively large fuel loading and overall rich conditions. Mixing characteristics in cold flow were first examined using an acetone fluorescence technique, indicating substantial transport between the fuel and air by exhibiting appreciable premixing conditions. PIV measurements revealed that the flow field consisted of a wall-jet region leading to a recirculation zone through flow separation, an interaction jet region resulting from the collision of annular-inward jets, followed by a merged-jet region. The flames were stabilized in the recirculation zone and, in extreme cases, only a small flame seed remained in the recirculation zone. Together with the collision of the slit jets in the interaction jet region, the velocity gradients in the shear layers at the boundaries of the annular jets generate the turbulence. Turbulent mean and rms velocities were influenced by the presence of the flame, particularly in the recirculation zone. Flames with a high equivalence ratio were found to be more resistant to local extinction and exhibited a more corrugated and folded nature, particularly at high Reynolds numbers. For flames with a low equivalence ratio, local quenching and re-ignition processes maintained flames in the merged jet region, revealing a strong intermittency, which was substantiated by the increased principal strain rates for these flames. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel
2015-04-01
The Scale Dependent Dynamic Model (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the dynamic procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa3d.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a model wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky Model (SM), the Scale Independent Dynamic Model (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the dynamic procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent dynamic model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of
Fiedler, Heinrich E.
1991-01-01
Recent works on flow stability and turbulence are reviewed with emphasis on the flow control of free and wall-bounded flows. Axisymmetric jets in counterflow are considered for two characteristic cases: a stable case at low velocity ratios and an unstable case at higher velocity ratios. Among mixing layers, excited layers are covered as well as density-inhomogeneous flows, where countergradient, homogeneous, and cogradient cases are reviewed. The influences of boundary conditions are analyzed, and focus is placed on feedback condition, flow distortion, accelerated flow, and two- and three-dimensional studies. Attention is given to stability investigations and riblets as a means for reducing surface friction in a turbulent flow.
Experimental and numerical investigation of low-drag intervals in turbulent boundary layer
Park, Jae Sung; Ryu, Sangjin; Lee, Jin
2017-11-01
It has been widely investigated that there is a substantial intermittency between high and low drag states in wall-bounded shear flows. Recent experimental and computational studies in a turbulent channel flow have identified low-drag time intervals based on wall shear stress measurements. These intervals are a weak turbulence state characterized by low-speed streaks and weak streamwise vortices. In this study, the spatiotemporal dynamics of low-drag intervals in a turbulent boundary layer is investigated using experiments and simulations. The low-drag intervals are monitored based on the wall shear stress measurement. We show that near the wall conditionally-sampled mean velocity profiles during low-drag intervals closely approach that of a low-drag nonlinear traveling wave solution as well as that of the so-called maximum drag reduction asymptote. This observation is consistent with the channel flow studies. Interestingly, the large spatial stretching of the streak is very evident in the wall-normal direction during low-drag intervals. Lastly, a possible connection between the mean velocity profile during the low-drag intervals and the Blasius profile will be discussed. This work was supported by startup funds from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Brocchini, M
2006-01-01
This book contains a collection of 11 research and review papers devoted to the topic of fluid-structure interaction.The subject matter is divided into chapters covering a wide spectrum of recognized areas of research, such as: wall bounded turbulence; quasi 2-D turbulence; canopy turbulence; large eddy simulation; lake hydrodynamics; hydraulic hysteresis; liquid impacts; flow induced vibrations; sloshing flows; transient pipe flow and air entrainment in dropshaft.The purpose of each chapter is to summarize the main results obtained by the individual research unit through a year-long activity on a specific issue of the above list. The main feature of the book is to bring state of the art research on fluid structure interaction to the attention of the broad international community.This book is primarily aimed at fluid mechanics scientists, but it will also be of value to postgraduate students and practitioners in the field of fluid structure interaction.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Naguib, Ahmed
2003-01-01
.... Moreover, analysis of typical wall-pressure spectra beneath high- and low-Reynolds-number, boundary layers in light of these limits underlines the potential advantage of the new sensor in resolving...
Ranjan, R.; Menon, S.
2018-04-01
The two-level simulation (TLS) method evolves both the large-and the small-scale fields in a two-scale approach and has shown good predictive capabilities in both isotropic and wall-bounded high Reynolds number (Re) turbulent flows in the past. Sensitivity and ability of this modelling approach to predict fundamental features (such as backscatter, counter-gradient turbulent transport, small-scale vorticity, etc.) seen in high Re turbulent flows is assessed here by using two direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets corresponding to a forced isotropic turbulence at Taylor's microscale-based Reynolds number Reλ ≈ 433 and a fully developed turbulent flow in a periodic channel at friction Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 1000. It is shown that TLS captures the dynamics of local co-/counter-gradient transport and backscatter at the requisite scales of interest. These observations are further confirmed through a posteriori investigation of the flow in a periodic channel at Reτ = 2000. The results reveal that the TLS method can capture both the large- and the small-scale flow physics in a consistent manner, and at a reduced overall cost when compared to the estimated DNS or wall-resolved LES cost.
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Biskamp, Dieter
2003-01-01
This book presents an introduction to, and modern account of, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, an active field both in general turbulence theory and in various areas of astrophysics. The book starts by introducing the MHD equations, certain useful approximations and the transition to turbulence. The second part of the book covers incompressible MHD turbulence, the macroscopic aspects connected with the different self-organization processes, the phenomenology of the turbulence spectra, two-point closure theory, and intermittency. The third considers two-dimensional turbulence and compressi
Yang, X. I. A.; Marusic, I.; Meneveau, C.
2016-06-01
Townsend [Townsend, The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1976)] hypothesized that the logarithmic region in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows consists of space-filling, self-similar attached eddies. Invoking this hypothesis, we express streamwise velocity fluctuations in the inertial layer in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows as a hierarchical random additive process (HRAP): uz+=∑i=1Nzai . Here u is the streamwise velocity fluctuation, + indicates normalization in wall units, z is the wall normal distance, and ai's are independently, identically distributed random additives, each of which is associated with an attached eddy in the wall-attached hierarchy. The number of random additives is Nz˜ln(δ /z ) where δ is the boundary layer thickness and ln is natural log. Due to its simplified structure, such a process leads to predictions of the scaling behaviors for various turbulence statistics in the logarithmic layer. Besides reproducing known logarithmic scaling of moments, structure functions, and correlation function [" close="]3/2 uz(x ) uz(x +r ) >, new logarithmic laws in two-point statistics such as uz4(x ) > 1 /2, 1/3, etc. can be derived using the HRAP formalism. Supporting empirical evidence for the logarithmic scaling in such statistics is found from the Melbourne High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel measurements. We also show that, at high Reynolds numbers, the above mentioned new logarithmic laws can be derived by assuming the arrival of an attached eddy at a generic point in the flow field to be a Poisson process [Woodcock and Marusic, Phys. Fluids 27, 015104 (2015), 10.1063/1.4905301]. Taken together, the results provide new evidence supporting the essential ingredients of the attached eddy hypothesis to describe streamwise velocity fluctuations of large, momentum transporting eddies in wall-bounded turbulence, while observed deviations suggest the need for further extensions of the
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Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney O.
2016-01-01
Simulations of strongly coupled (i.e., high-mass-loading) fluid-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of understanding the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions are presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow are evaluated in an Eulerian–Lagrangian (EL) framework for the first time. A key distinction between the RA formulation presented in the current work and previous derivations of multiphase turbulence models is the partitioning of the particle velocity fluctuations into spatially correlated and uncorrelated components, used to define the components of the particle-phase turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and granular temperature, respectively. The adaptive spatial filtering technique developed in our previous work for homogeneous flows [J. Capecelatro, O. Desjardins, and R. O. Fox, “Numerical study of collisional particle dynamics in cluster-induced turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech. 747, R2 (2014)] is shown to accurately partition the particle velocity fluctuations at all distances from the wall. Strong segregation in the components of granular energy is observed, with the largest values of particle-phase TKE associated with clusters falling near the channel wall, while maximum granular temperature is observed at the center of the channel. The anisotropy of the Reynolds stresses both near the wall and far away is found to be a crucial component for understanding the distribution of the particle-phase volume fraction. In Part II of this paper, results from the EL simulations are used to validate a multiphase Reynolds-stress turbulence model that correctly predicts the wall-normal distribution of the two-phase turbulence statistics.
Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney O.
2016-03-01
Simulations of strongly coupled (i.e., high-mass-loading) fluid-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of understanding the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions are presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow are evaluated in an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) framework for the first time. A key distinction between the RA formulation presented in the current work and previous derivations of multiphase turbulence models is the partitioning of the particle velocity fluctuations into spatially correlated and uncorrelated components, used to define the components of the particle-phase turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and granular temperature, respectively. The adaptive spatial filtering technique developed in our previous work for homogeneous flows [J. Capecelatro, O. Desjardins, and R. O. Fox, "Numerical study of collisional particle dynamics in cluster-induced turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 747, R2 (2014)] is shown to accurately partition the particle velocity fluctuations at all distances from the wall. Strong segregation in the components of granular energy is observed, with the largest values of particle-phase TKE associated with clusters falling near the channel wall, while maximum granular temperature is observed at the center of the channel. The anisotropy of the Reynolds stresses both near the wall and far away is found to be a crucial component for understanding the distribution of the particle-phase volume fraction. In Part II of this paper, results from the EL simulations are used to validate a multiphase Reynolds-stress turbulence model that correctly predicts the wall-normal distribution of the two-phase turbulence statistics.
Role of Elasto-Inertial Turbulence in Polymer Drag Reduction
Dubief, Yves; Sid, Samir; Terrapon, Vincent
2017-11-01
Elasto-Inertial Turbulence (EIT) is a peculiar state of turbulence found in dilute polymer solutions flowing in parallel wall flows over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. At subcritical Reynolds numbers, appropriate boundary conditions trigger EIT, a self-sustaining cycle of energy transfers between thin sheets of stretched polymers and velocity perturbations, which translates into an increase of friction drag. For critical and supercritical Reynolds numbers, polymer additives may lead to significant drag reduction, bounded by the asymptotic state known as Maximum Drag Reduction (MDR). The present research investigates the role of EIT in the dynamics of critical and supercritical Reynolds number wall flows. Using high-fidelity direct numerical simulations of channel flows and the FENE-P model, we establish that (i) EIT is two-dimensional, (ii) the scales essential to the existence of EIT are sub-Kolmogorov, and (iii) EIT drives MDR at low and possibly moderate Reynolds number turbulent flows. These findings were validated in two different codes and using unprecedented resolutions for polymer flows. YD is grateful for the support of Binational Science Foundation. SS and VT acknowledges Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), MarieCurie Career Integration Grant and computing allocation from University of Liege and PRACE.
Contribution to the study of turbulence spectra
Dumas, R.
1979-01-01
An apparatus suitable for turbulence measurement between ranges of 1 to 5000 cps and from 6 to 16,000 cps was developed and is described. Turbulence spectra downstream of the grills were examined with reference to their general characteristics, their LF qualities, and the effects of periodic turbulence. Medium and HF are discussed. Turbulence spectra in the boundary layers are similarly examined, with reference to their fluctuations at right angles to the wall, and to lateral fluctuations. Turbulence spectra in a boundary layer with suction to the wall is discussed. Induced turbulence, and turbulence spectra at high Reynolds numbers. Calculations are presented relating to the effect of filtering on the value of the correlations in time and space.
Description and detection of burst events in turbulent flows
Schmid, P. J.; García-Gutierrez, A.; Jiménez, J.
2018-04-01
A mathematical and computational framework is developed for the detection and identification of coherent structures in turbulent wall-bounded shear flows. In a first step, this data-based technique will use an embedding methodology to formulate the fluid motion as a phase-space trajectory, from which state-transition probabilities can be computed. Within this formalism, a second step then applies repeated clustering and graph-community techniques to determine a hierarchy of coherent structures ranked by their persistencies. This latter information will be used to detect highly transitory states that act as precursors to violent and intermittent events in turbulent fluid motion (e.g., bursts). Used as an analysis tool, this technique allows the objective identification of intermittent (but important) events in turbulent fluid motion; however, it also lays the foundation for advanced control strategies for their manipulation. The techniques are applied to low-dimensional model equations for turbulent transport, such as the self-sustaining process (SSP), for varying levels of complexity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, R.J.
1988-01-01
Most flows of fluids, in nature and in technology, are turbulent. Since much of the energy expended by machines and devices that involve fluid flows is spent in overcoming drag caused by turbulence, there is a strong motivation to understand the phenomena. Surprisingly, the peculiar, quantum-mechanical form of turbulence that can form in superfluid helium may turn out to be much simpler to understand that the classical turbulence that forms in normal fluids. It now seems that the study of superfluid turbulence may provide simplified model systems for studying some forms of classical turbulence. There are also practical motivations for studying superfluid turbulence. For example, superfuid helium is often used as a coolant in superconducting machinery. Superfluid turbulence is the primary impediment to the transfer of heat by superfluid helium; an understanding of the phenomena may make it possible to design more efficient methods of refrigeration for superconducting devices. 8 figs
Zhu, Lu; Xi, Li
2018-04-01
Drag reduction induced by polymer additives in wall-bounded turbulence has been studied for decades. A small dosage of polymer additives can drastically reduce the energy dissipation in turbulent flows and alter the flow structures at the same time. As the polymer-induced fluid elasticity increases, drag reduction goes through several stages of transition with drastically different flow statistics. While much attention in the area of polymer-turbulence interactions has been focused on the onset and the asymptotic stage of maximum drag reduction, the transition between the two intermediate stages – low-extent drag reduction (LDR) and high-extent drag reduction (HDR) – likely reflects a qualitative change in the underlying vortex dynamics according to our recent study [1]. In particular, we proposed that polymers start to suppress the lift-up and bursting of vortices at HDR, leading to the localization of turbulent structures. To test our hypothesis, a statistically robust conditional sampling algorithm, based on Jenong and Hussain [2]’s work, was adopted in this study. The comparison of conditional eddies between the Newtonian and the highly elastic turbulence shows that (i) the lifting “strength” of vortices is suppressed by polymers as reflected by the decreasing lifting angle of the conditional eddy and (ii) the curvature of vortices is also eliminated as the orientation of the head of the conditional eddy changes. In summary, the results of conditional sampling support our hypothesis of polymer-turbulence interactions during the LDR-HDR transition.
The mechanism by which nonlinearity sustains turbulence in plane Couette flow
Nikolaidis, M.-A.; Farrell, B. F.; Ioannou, P. J.
2018-04-01
Turbulence in wall-bounded shear flow results from a synergistic interaction between linear non-normality and nonlinearity in which non-normal growth of a subset of perturbations configured to transfer energy from the externally forced component of the turbulent state to the perturbation component maintains the perturbation energy, while the subset of energy-transferring perturbations is replenished by nonlinearity. Although it is accepted that both linear non-normality mediated energy transfer from the forced component of the mean flow and nonlinear interactions among perturbations are required to maintain the turbulent state, the detailed physical mechanism by which these processes interact in maintaining turbulence has not been determined. In this work a statistical state dynamics based analysis is performed on turbulent Couette flow at R = 600 and a comparison to DNS is used to demonstrate that the perturbation component in Couette flow turbulence is replenished by a non-normality mediated parametric growth process in which the fluctuating streamwise mean flow has been adjusted to marginal Lyapunov stability. It is further shown that the alternative mechanism in which the subspace of non-normally growing perturbations is maintained directly by perturbation-perturbation nonlinearity does not contribute to maintaining the turbulent state. This work identifies parametric interaction between the fluctuating streamwise mean flow and the streamwise varying perturbations to be the mechanism of the nonlinear interaction maintaining the perturbation component of the turbulent state, and identifies the associated Lyapunov vectors with positive energetics as the structures of the perturbation subspace supporting the turbulence.
Advancements in engineering turbulence modeling
Shih, T.-H.
1991-01-01
Some new developments in two-equation models and second order closure models are presented. Two-equation models (k-epsilon models) have been widely used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for engineering problems. Most of low-Reynolds number two-equation models contain some wall-distance damping functions to account for the effect of wall on turbulence. However, this often causes the confusion and difficulties in computing flows with complex geometry and also needs an ad hoc treatment near the separation and reattachment points. A set of modified two-equation models is proposed to remove the aforementioned shortcomings. The calculations using various two-equation models are compared with direct numerical simulations of channel flow and flat boundary layers. Development of a second order closure model is also discussed with emphasis on the modeling of pressure related correlation terms and dissipation rates in the second moment equations. All the existing models poorly predict the normal stresses near the wall and fail to predict the 3-D effect of mean flow on the turbulence (e.g. decrease in the shear stress caused by the cross flow in the boundary layer). The newly developed second order near-wall turbulence model is described and is capable of capturing the near-wall behavior of turbulence as well as the effect of 3-D mean flow on the turbulence.
Investigation of particle lift off in a turbulent boundary layer
Barros, Diogo; Tee, Yi Hui; Morse, Nicholas; Hiltbrand, Ben; Longmire, Ellen
2017-11-01
Entrainment and suspension of particles within turbulent flows occur widely in environmental and industrial processes. Three-dimensional particle tracking experiments are thus conducted in a water channel to understand the interaction of finite-size particles with a turbulent boundary layer. A neutrally buoyant sphere made of wax and iron oxide is first held in place on the bounding surface by a magnet before being released and tracked. The sphere is marked with dots to monitor rotation as well as translation. By setting up two pairs of cameras in a stereoscopic configuration, the trajectories of the sphere are reconstructed and tracked over a distance of 4 to 6 δ. Sphere diameters ranging from 40 to 130 wall units, initial particle Reynolds numbers of 600 to 2000 and friction Reynolds numbers of 500 to 1800 are considered. For this parameter set, the particle typically lifts off from the wall after release before falling back toward the wall. Aspects of both particle rotation and translation will be discussed. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adil Abbas AL-Moosawy
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Experimental study of γ /Al2O3 with mean diameter of less than 50 nm was dispersed in the distilled water that flows through a pipe consist of five sections as work station ,four sections made of carbon steel metal and one sections made of Pyrex glass pipe, with five nanoparticles volume concentrations of 0%,0.1%,0.2%,0.3%,and 0.4% with seven different volume flow rates 100, 200 , 300, 400, 500, 600 ,and 700ℓ/min were investigated to calculated pressure distribution for the cases without rubber ,with 3mm rubber and with 6mm rubber used to support the pipe. Reynolds number was between 20000 and 130000. Frequency value through pipe was measured for all stations of pipe for all cases. The results show that the pressure drop and wall shear stress of the nanofluid increase by increasing the nanoparticles volume concentrations or Reynolds number, the values of frequency through the pipe increase continuously when wall shear stress increases and the ratio of increment increases as nanofluid concentrations increase. Increasing of vibration frequency lead to increasing the friction factor between the pipe and the wall and thus increasing in pressure drop. Several equations between the wall shear stress and frequency for all volume concentration and for three cases without rubber, with rubber has 3mm thickness ,and with rubber has 6mm thickness. Finally, the results led to that γ /Al2O3 could function as a good and alternative conventional working fluid in heat transfer applications. A good agreement is seen between the experimental and those available in the literature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurganov, V.A.; Gladuntsov, A.I.
1977-01-01
Analysed are the experimental data obtained for heat transfer to gaseous dissociating ammonium (NH 3 ) under heating in round pipes (steel Kh18N10T) at developed eddying input flow and marginal condition of heat supply gsub(c) approximately equal to const in the ranges of the following parameters: p=3-10 atm; Tsub(input)=310-720 K; Tsub(c) ( 3 ; gsub(c)/-anti rho W 8.8 kJ/kg; gsub(c)/(anti rho WCsub(p) sub(input)Tsub(input)) (<=) 0.0104; 1/d (<=) 150 (where Tsub(c) is the wall temperature, gsub(c) the heat flow density on wall, and anti rho W velocity). The discussion involves phenomena of worsened heat transfer at high heat loads. The authors show the basic relationship between these phenomena and laminarization of the near-wall flow at the input site of the pipe. The regularities of heat transfer were noted to undergo substantial transformation under laminarized flow
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-11-01
interaction. Furthermore, the steady state distribution of energy again follows a Kolmogorov scaling law; in this case the ripple energy is distributed according to 1/k 7/4. Again, in parallel with vortex turbulence ripple turbulence exhibits intermittency. The problem of ripple turbulence presents an experimental opportunity to generate data in a controlled, benchmarked system. In particular the surface of a sphere is an ideal environment to study ripple turbulence. Waves run around the sphere and interact with each other, and the effect of walls is eliminated. In microgravity this state can be realized for over 2 decades of frequency. Wave turbulence is a physically relevant problem in its own right. It has been studied on the surface of liquid hydrogen and its application to Alfven waves in space is a source of debate. Of course, application of wave turbulence perspectives to ocean waves has been a major success. The experiment which we plan to run in microgravity is conceptually straightforward. Ripples are excited on the surface of a spherical drop of fluid and then their amplitude is recorded with appropriate photography. A key challenge is posed by the need to stably position a 10cm diameter sphere of water in microgravity. Two methods are being developed. Orbitec is using controlled puffs of air from at least 6 independent directions to provided the positioning force. This approach has actually succeeded to position and stabilize a 4cm sphere during a KC 135 segment. Guigne International is using the radiation pressure of high frequency sound. These transducers have been organized into a device in the shape of a dodecahedron. This apparatus 'SPACE DRUMS' has already been approved for use for combustion synthesis experiments on the International Space Station. A key opportunity presented by the ripple turbulence data is its use in driving the development of codes to simulate its properties.
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-01-01
interaction. Furthermore, the steady state distribution of energy again follows a Kolmogorov scaling law; in this case the ripple energy is distributed according to 1/k (sup 7/4). Again, in parallel with vortex turbulence ripple turbulence exhibits intermittency. The problem of ripple turbulence presents an experimental opportunity to generate data in a controlled, benchmarked system. In particular the surface of a sphere is an ideal environment to study ripple turbulence. Waves run around the sphere and interact with each other, and the effect of walls is eliminated. In microgravity this state can be realized for over 2 decades of frequency. Wave turbulence is a physically relevant problem in its own right. It has been studied on the surface of liquid hydrogen and its application to Alfven waves in space is a source of debate. Of course, application of wave turbulence perspectives to ocean waves has been a major success. The experiment which we plan to run in microgravity is conceptually straightforward. Ripples are excited on the surface of a spherical drop of fluid and then their amplitude is recorded with appropriate photography. A key challenge is posed by the need to stably position a 10cm diameter sphere of water in microgravity. Two methods are being developed. Orbitec is using controlled puffs of air from at least 6 independent directions to provided the positioning force. This approach has actually succeeded to position and stabilize a 4cm sphere during a KC 135 segment. Guigne International is using the radiation pressure of high frequency sound. These transducers have been organized into a device in the shape of a dodecahedron. This apparatus 'SPACE DRUMS' has already been approved for use for combustion synthesis experiments on the International Space Station. A key opportunity presented by the ripple turbulence data is its use in driving the development of codes to simulate its properties.
Nagib, Hassan; Vinuesa, Ricardo
2013-11-01
Ability of available Pitot tube corrections to provide accurate mean velocity profiles in ZPG boundary layers is re-examined following the recent work by Bailey et al. Measurements by Bailey et al., carried out with probes of diameters ranging from 0.2 to 1.89 mm, together with new data taken with larger diameters up to 12.82 mm, show deviations with respect to available high-quality datasets and hot-wire measurements in the same Reynolds number range. These deviations are significant in the buffer region around y+ = 30 - 40 , and lead to disagreement in the von Kármán coefficient κ extracted from profiles. New forms for shear, near-wall and turbulence corrections are proposed, highlighting the importance of the latest one. Improved agreement in mean velocity profiles is obtained with new forms, where shear and near-wall corrections contribute with around 85%, and remaining 15% of the total correction comes from turbulence correction. Finally, available algorithms to correct wall position in profile measurements of wall-bounded flows are tested, using as benchmark the corrected Pitot measurements with artificially simulated probe shifts and blockage effects. We develop a new scheme, κB - Musker, which is able to accurately locate wall position.
Turbulence modeling for Francis turbine water passages simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruzewski, P; Munch, C; Mombelli, H P; Avellan, F; Hayashi, H; Yamaishi, K; Hashii, T; Sugow, Y
2010-01-01
The applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, to hydraulic machines life require the ability to handle turbulent flows and to take into account the effects of turbulence on the mean flow. Nowadays, Direct Numerical Simulation, DNS, is still not a good candidate for hydraulic machines simulations due to an expensive computational time consuming. Large Eddy Simulation, LES, even, is of the same category of DNS, could be an alternative whereby only the small scale turbulent fluctuations are modeled and the larger scale fluctuations are computed directly. Nevertheless, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS, model have become the widespread standard base for numerous hydraulic machine design procedures. However, for many applications involving wall-bounded flows and attached boundary layers, various hybrid combinations of LES and RANS are being considered, such as Detached Eddy Simulation, DES, whereby the RANS approximation is kept in the regions where the boundary layers are attached to the solid walls. Furthermore, the accuracy of CFD simulations is highly dependent on the grid quality, in terms of grid uniformity in complex configurations. Moreover any successful structured and unstructured CFD codes have to offer a wide range to the variety of classic RANS model to hybrid complex model. The aim of this study is to compare the behavior of turbulent simulations for both structured and unstructured grids topology with two different CFD codes which used the same Francis turbine. Hence, the study is intended to outline the encountered discrepancy for predicting the wake of turbine blades by using either the standard k-ε model, or the standard k-ε model or the SST shear stress model in a steady CFD simulation. Finally, comparisons are made with experimental data from the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines reduced scale model measurements.
Turbulence modeling for Francis turbine water passages simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maruzewski, P; Munch, C; Mombelli, H P; Avellan, F [Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne, Laboratory of Hydraulic Machines Avenue de Cour 33 bis, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hayashi, H; Yamaishi, K; Hashii, T; Sugow, Y, E-mail: pierre.maruzewski@epfl.c [Nippon KOEI Power Systems, 1-22 Doukyu, Aza, Morijyuku, Sukagawa, Fukushima Pref. 962-8508 (Japan)
2010-08-15
The applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, to hydraulic machines life require the ability to handle turbulent flows and to take into account the effects of turbulence on the mean flow. Nowadays, Direct Numerical Simulation, DNS, is still not a good candidate for hydraulic machines simulations due to an expensive computational time consuming. Large Eddy Simulation, LES, even, is of the same category of DNS, could be an alternative whereby only the small scale turbulent fluctuations are modeled and the larger scale fluctuations are computed directly. Nevertheless, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS, model have become the widespread standard base for numerous hydraulic machine design procedures. However, for many applications involving wall-bounded flows and attached boundary layers, various hybrid combinations of LES and RANS are being considered, such as Detached Eddy Simulation, DES, whereby the RANS approximation is kept in the regions where the boundary layers are attached to the solid walls. Furthermore, the accuracy of CFD simulations is highly dependent on the grid quality, in terms of grid uniformity in complex configurations. Moreover any successful structured and unstructured CFD codes have to offer a wide range to the variety of classic RANS model to hybrid complex model. The aim of this study is to compare the behavior of turbulent simulations for both structured and unstructured grids topology with two different CFD codes which used the same Francis turbine. Hence, the study is intended to outline the encountered discrepancy for predicting the wake of turbine blades by using either the standard k-{epsilon} model, or the standard k-{epsilon} model or the SST shear stress model in a steady CFD simulation. Finally, comparisons are made with experimental data from the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines reduced scale model measurements.
Turbulence modeling for Francis turbine water passages simulation
Maruzewski, P.; Hayashi, H.; Munch, C.; Yamaishi, K.; Hashii, T.; Mombelli, H. P.; Sugow, Y.; Avellan, F.
2010-08-01
The applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, to hydraulic machines life require the ability to handle turbulent flows and to take into account the effects of turbulence on the mean flow. Nowadays, Direct Numerical Simulation, DNS, is still not a good candidate for hydraulic machines simulations due to an expensive computational time consuming. Large Eddy Simulation, LES, even, is of the same category of DNS, could be an alternative whereby only the small scale turbulent fluctuations are modeled and the larger scale fluctuations are computed directly. Nevertheless, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS, model have become the widespread standard base for numerous hydraulic machine design procedures. However, for many applications involving wall-bounded flows and attached boundary layers, various hybrid combinations of LES and RANS are being considered, such as Detached Eddy Simulation, DES, whereby the RANS approximation is kept in the regions where the boundary layers are attached to the solid walls. Furthermore, the accuracy of CFD simulations is highly dependent on the grid quality, in terms of grid uniformity in complex configurations. Moreover any successful structured and unstructured CFD codes have to offer a wide range to the variety of classic RANS model to hybrid complex model. The aim of this study is to compare the behavior of turbulent simulations for both structured and unstructured grids topology with two different CFD codes which used the same Francis turbine. Hence, the study is intended to outline the encountered discrepancy for predicting the wake of turbine blades by using either the standard k-epsilon model, or the standard k-epsilon model or the SST shear stress model in a steady CFD simulation. Finally, comparisons are made with experimental data from the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines reduced scale model measurements.
Generalized surface tension bounds in vacuum decay
Masoumi, Ali; Paban, Sonia; Weinberg, Erick J.
2018-02-01
Coleman and De Luccia (CDL) showed that gravitational effects can prevent the decay by bubble nucleation of a Minkowski or AdS false vacuum. In their thin-wall approximation this happens whenever the surface tension in the bubble wall exceeds an upper bound proportional to the difference of the square roots of the true and false vacuum energy densities. Recently it was shown that there is another type of thin-wall regime that differs from that of CDL in that the radius of curvature grows substantially as one moves through the wall. Not only does the CDL derivation of the bound fail in this case, but also its very formulation becomes ambiguous because the surface tension is not well defined. We propose a definition of the surface tension and show that it obeys a bound similar in form to that of the CDL case. We then show that both thin-wall bounds are special cases of a more general bound that is satisfied for all bounce solutions with Minkowski or AdS false vacua. We discuss the limit where the parameters of the theory attain critical values and the bound is saturated. The bounce solution then disappears and a static planar domain wall solution appears in its stead. The scalar field potential then is of the form expected in supergravity, but this is only guaranteed along the trajectory in field space traced out by the bounce.
Turbulent flows over sparse canopies
Sharma, Akshath; García-Mayoral, Ricardo
2018-04-01
Turbulent flows over sparse and dense canopies exerting a similar drag force on the flow are investigated using Direct Numerical Simulations. The dense canopies are modelled using a homogeneous drag force, while for the sparse canopy, the geometry of the canopy elements is represented. It is found that on using the friction velocity based on the local shear at each height, the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds stress within the sparse canopy are similar to those from a comparable smooth-wall case. In addition, when scaled with the local friction velocity, the intensity of the off-wall peak in the streamwise vorticity for sparse canopies also recovers a value similar to a smooth-wall. This indicates that the sparse canopy does not significantly disturb the near-wall turbulence cycle, but causes its rescaling to an intensity consistent with a lower friction velocity within the canopy. In comparison, the dense canopy is found to have a higher damping effect on the turbulent fluctuations. For the case of the sparse canopy, a peak in the spectral energy density of the wall-normal velocity, and Reynolds stress is observed, which may indicate the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instabilities. It is also found that a sparse canopy is better modelled by a homogeneous drag applied on the mean flow alone, and not the turbulent fluctuations.
Bangga, Galih; Kusumadewi, Tri; Hutomo, Go; Sabila, Ahmad; Syawitri, Taurista; Setiadi, Herlambang; Faisal, Muhamad; Wiranegara, Raditya; Hendranata, Yongki; Lastomo, Dwi; Putra, Louis; Kristiadi, Stefanus
2018-03-01
Numerical simulations for relatively thick airfoils are carried out in the present studies. An attempt to improve the accuracy of the numerical predictions is done by adjusting the turbulent viscosity of the eddy-viscosity Menter Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The modification involves the addition of a damping factor on the wall-bounded flows incorporating the ratio of the turbulent kinetic energy to its specific dissipation rate for separation detection. The results are compared with available experimental data and CFD simulations using the original Menter SST model. The present model improves the lift polar prediction even though the stall angle is still overestimated. The improvement is caused by the better prediction of separated flow under a strong adverse pressure gradient. The results show that the Reynolds stresses are damped near the wall causing variation of the logarithmic velocity profiles.
Computational fluid dynamics investigation of turbulent separated ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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Turbulent mixing is largely suppressed by the proximity of a wall boundary and ... the uncertainty between the experimental and CFD values falls within ± 3.8% of f .... Numerical, Experimental, and Theoretical Aspects, Vieweg, Berlin, 1989, pp.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin
2015-01-01
An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control. (paper)
PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert
2008-10-01
presentations were published in the Book of Abstracts, International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', August 18-26, 2007, Copyright 2007 Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, ISBN 92-95003-36-5. This Topical Issue consists of nearly 60 articles accepted for publication in the Conference Proceedings and reflects a substantial part of the Conference contributions. The articles cover a broad variety of TMB-2007 themes and are sorted alphabetically by the last name of the first author within each of the following topics: Canonical Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing (invariant, scaling, spectral properties, scalar transports) Wall-bounded Flows (structure and fundamentals, unsteady boundary layers, super-sonic flows, shock - boundary layer interaction) Interfacial Dynamics (Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities) Unsteady Turbulent Processes (turbulence and turbulent mixing in unsteady, multiphase and anisotropic flows) High Energy Density Physics (laser-material interaction, Z-pinches, laser-driven, heavy-ion and magnetic fusion) Astrophysics (supernovae, interstellar medium, star formation, stellar interiors, early Universe, cosmic micro-wave background) Magneto-hydrodynamics (magneto-convection, magneto-rotational instability, accretion disks, dynamo) Plasmas in Ionosphere (coupled plasmas, anomalous resistance, ionosphere) Physics of Atmosphere (environmental fluid dynamics, forecasting, data analysis, error estimate) Geophysics (turbulent convection in stratified, rotating and active flows) Combustion (dynamics of flames, fires, blast waves and explosions) Mathematical Aspects of Multi-Scale Dynamics (vortex dynamics, singularities, discontinuities, asymptotic dynamics, weak solutions, well- and ill-posedness) Statistical Approaches, Stochastic Processes and Probabilistic Description (uncertainty quantification, anomalous diffusion, long-tail distributions, wavelets) Advanced Numerical Simulations
Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
Zeman, Otto
1993-01-01
A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.
New Models for Velocity/Pressure-Gradient Correlations in Turbulent Boundary Layers
Poroseva, Svetlana; Murman, Scott
2014-11-01
To improve the performance of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models, one has to improve the accuracy of models for three physical processes: turbulent diffusion, interaction of turbulent pressure and velocity fluctuation fields, and dissipative processes. The accuracy of modeling the turbulent diffusion depends on the order of a statistical closure chosen as a basis for a RANS model. When the Gram-Charlier series expansions for the velocity correlations are used to close the set of RANS equations, no assumption on Gaussian turbulence is invoked and no unknown model coefficients are introduced into the modeled equations. In such a way, this closure procedure reduces the modeling uncertainty of fourth-order RANS (FORANS) closures. Experimental and direct numerical simulation data confirmed the validity of using the Gram-Charlier series expansions in various flows including boundary layers. We will address modeling the velocity/pressure-gradient correlations. New linear models will be introduced for the second- and higher-order correlations applicable to two-dimensional incompressible wall-bounded flows. Results of models' validation with DNS data in a channel flow and in a zero-pressure gradient boundary layer over a flat plate will be demonstrated. A part of the material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A.
RANS Modeling of Stably Stratified Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows in OpenFOAM®
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wilson Jordan M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Quantifying mixing processes relating to the transport of heat, momentum, and scalar quantities of stably stratified turbulent geophysical flows remains a substantial task. In a stably stratified flow, such as the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SABL, buoyancy forces have a significant impact on the flow characteristics. This study investigates constant and stability-dependent turbulent Prandtl number (Prt formulations linking the turbulent viscosity (νt and diffusivity (κt for modeling applications of boundary layer flows. Numerical simulations of plane Couette flow and pressure-driven channel flow are performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS framework with the standard k-ε turbulence model. Results are compared with DNS data to evaluate model efficacy for predicting mean velocity and density fields. In channel flow simulations, a Prandtl number formulation for wall-bounded flows is introduced to alleviate overmixing of the mean density field. This research reveals that appropriate specification of Prt can improve predictions of stably stratified turbulent boundary layer flows.
The interaction of synthetic jets with turbulent boundary layers
Cui, Jing
In recent years, a promising approach to the control of wall bounded as well as free shear flows, using synthetic jet (oscillatory jet with zero-net-mass-flux) actuators, has received a great deal of attention. A variety of impressive flow control results have been achieved experimentally by many researchers including the vectoring of conventional propulsive jets, modification of aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies, control of lift and drag of airfoils, reduction of skin-friction of a flat plate boundary layer, enhanced mixing in circular jets, and control of external as well as internal flow separation and of cavity oscillations. More recently, attempts have been made to numerically simulate some of these flowfields. Numerically several of the above mentioned flow fields have been simulated primarily by employing the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations with a turbulence model and a limited few by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). In simulations, both the simplified boundary conditions at the exit of the jet as well as the details of the cavity and lip have been included. In this dissertation, I describe the results of simulations for several two- and three-dimensional flowfields dealing with the interaction of a synthetic jet with a turbulent boundary layer and control of separation. These simulations have been performed using the URANS equations in conjunction with either one- or a two-equation turbulence model. 2D simulations correspond to the experiments performed by Honohan at Georgia Tech. and 3D simulations correspond to the CFD validation test cases proposed in the NASA Langley Research Center Workshop---"CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control" held at Williamsburg VA in March 2004. The sources of uncertainty due to grid resolution, time step, boundary conditions, turbulence modeling etc. have been examined during the computations. Extensive comparisons for various flow variables are made with the
Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer
Cheng, W.
2015-11-11
© 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which can calculate the time- and space-dependent skin-friction vector field at the wall, at the resolved scale. By combining the virtual-wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model, we construct a self-consistent framework for the LES of separating and reattaching turbulent wall-bounded flows at large Reynolds numbers. The present LES methodology is applied to two different experimental flows designed to produce separation/reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer at medium Reynolds number Reθ based on the momentum boundary-layer thickness θ. Comparison with data from the first case at demonstrates the present capability for accurate calculation of the variation, with the streamwise co-ordinate up to separation, of the skin friction coefficient, Reθ, the boundary-layer shape factor and a non-dimensional pressure-gradient parameter. Additionally the main large-scale features of the separation bubble, including the mean streamwise velocity profiles, show good agreement with experiment. At the larger Reθ = 11000 of the second case, the LES provides good postdiction of the measured skin-friction variation along the whole streamwise extent of the experiment, consisting of a very strong adverse pressure gradient leading to separation within the separation bubble itself, and in the recovering or reattachment region of strongly-favourable pressure gradient. Overall, the present two-dimensional wall model used in LES appears to be capable of capturing the quantitative features of a separation-reattachment turbulent boundary-layer flow at low to moderately large Reynolds numbers.
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates
Comparison of superhydrophobic drag reduction between turbulent pipe and channel flows
Im, Hyung Jae; Lee, Jae Hwa
2017-09-01
It has been known over several decades that canonical wall-bounded internal flows of a pipe and channel share flow similarities, in particular, close to the wall due to the negligible curvature effect. In the present study, direct numerical simulations of fully developed turbulent pipe and channel flows are performed to investigate the influence of the superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) on the turbulence dynamics and the resultant drag reduction (DR) of the flows under similar conditions. SHSs at the wall are modeled in spanwise-alternating longitudinal regions with a boundary with no-slip and shear-free conditions, and the two parameters of the spanwise periodicity (P/δ) and SHS fraction (GF) within a pitch are considered. It is shown, in agreement with previous investigations in channels, that the turbulent drag for the pipe and channel flows over SHSs is continuously decreased with increases in P/δ and GF. However, the DR rate in the pipe flows is greater than that in the channel flows with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stress. The enhanced performance of the DR for the pipe flow is attributed to the increased streamwise slip and weakened Reynolds shear stress contributions. In addition, a mathematical analysis of the spanwise mean vorticity equation suggests that the presence of a strong secondary flow due to the increased spanwise slip of the pipe flows makes a greater negative contribution of advective vorticity transport than the channel flows, resulting in a higher DR value. Finally, an inspection of the origin of the mean secondary flow in turbulent flows over SHSs based on the spatial gradients of the turbulent kinetic energy demonstrates that the secondary flow is both driven and sustained by spatial gradients in the Reynolds stress components, i.e., Prandtl's secondary flow of the second kind.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mrugesh S. Shringarpure
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Turbidity currents are submarine flows where the sediment fluid mixture (heavy current drives along the sloping ocean floor displacing the surrounding clear fluid (light ambient. Under the influence of gravity, the suspended sediments drive the current and at the same time settle down on the ocean bed. The interplay of turbulent mixing and settling sediments leads to stable stratification of sediments in the turbidity current. In previous studies (Cantero et al. 2009b; Cantero et al., 2009a; Cantero et al., 2012a; Talling et al., 2007 it was observed that strong settling tendency (large sediment sizes could cause complete turbulence suppression. In this study, we will analyse this process of complete turbulence suppression by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS of turbidity currents. In wall bounded unstratified flows, it has been long established that turbulence is sustained by the process of auto-generation of near-wall hairpin like and quasi-streamwise turbulent vortical structures. It was also identified that auto-generation is possible only when the strength of the turbulent structures is greater than a threshold value (Zhou et. al., 1996. Through quadrant analysis of Reynolds stress events and visualization of turbulent vortical structures, we observe that stratification by sediments lead to damping and spatial re-distribution of turbulent vortical structures in the flow. We propose that complete turbulence suppression is brought about by a total shutdown in the auto-generation process of the existing turbulent structures in the flow. We also identify three parameters – Reynolds number (Reτ, Richardson number (Riτ and sediment settling velocity (V˜z that quantify the process of turbulence suppression. A criterion for complete turbulence suppression is also proposed which can be defined as a critical value for RiτV˜z. This critical value is a function of Ret and based on simulations, experiments and field observations it
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.
2011-07-01
Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)
Reynolds number scaling of straining motions in turbulence
Elsinga, Gerrit; Ishihara, T.; Goudar, M. V.; da Silva, C. B.; Hunt, J. C. R.
2017-11-01
Strain is an important fluid motion in turbulence as it is associated with the kinetic energy dissipation rate, vorticity stretching, and the dispersion of passive scalars. The present study investigates the scaling of the turbulent straining motions by evaluating the flow in the eigenframe of the local strain-rate tensor. The analysis is based on DNS of homogeneous isotropic turbulence covering a Reynolds number range Reλ = 34.6 - 1131. The resulting flow pattern reveals a shear layer containing tube-like vortices and a dissipation sheet, which both scale on the Kolmogorov length scale, η. The vorticity stretching motions scale on the Taylor length scale, while the flow outside the shear layer scales on the integral length scale. These scaling results are consistent with those in wall-bounded flow, which suggests a quantitative universality between the different flows. The overall coherence length of the vorticity is 120 η in all directions, which is considerably larger than the typical size of individual vortices, and reflects the importance of spatial organization at the small scales. Transitions in flow structure are identified at Reλ 45 and 250. Below these respective Reynolds numbers, the small-scale motions and the vorticity stretching motions appear underdeveloped.
Tracking coherent structures in massively-separated and turbulent flows
Rockwood, Matthew; Huang, Yangzi; Green, Melissa
2018-01-01
Coherent vortex structures are tracked in simulations of massively-separated and turbulent flows. Topological Lagrangian saddle points are found using intersections of the positive and negative finite-time Lyapunov exponent ridges, and these points are then followed in order to track individual coherent structure motion both in a complex interacting three-dimensional flow (turbulent channel) and during vortex formation (two-dimensional bluff body shedding). For a simulation of wall-bounded turbulence in a channel flow, tracking Lagrangian saddles shows that the average structure convection speed exhibits a similar trend as a previously published result based on velocity and pressure correlations, giving validity to the method. When this tracking method is applied in a study of a circular cylinder in cross-flow it shows that Lagrangian saddles rapidly accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex sheds. This saddle behavior is compared with the time-resolved static pressure distribution on the circular cylinder, yielding locations on a cylinder surface where common sensors could detect this phenomenon, which is not available from force measurements or vortex circulation calculations. The current method of tracking coherent structures yields insight into the behavior of the coherent structures in both of the diverse flows presented, highlighting the breadth of its potential application.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masip, Yunesky; Rivas, Alejandro; Larraona, Gorka S.; Anton, Raúl; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Moshfegh, Bahram
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We measured the instantaneous flow velocity using 2D-Particle Image Velocimetry. ► Recirculation bubbles, vortices, detachment and reattachment zones are showed. ► The influence of the Re H and Re j /Re H was studied. ► The Re j /Re H determines the effects produced around the component. - Abstract: The air flow around a cubic obstacle mounted on one wall of a rectangular channel was studied experimentally. The obstacle represents an electronic component and the channel the space between two parallel printed circuit boards (PCBs). The flow was produced by the combination of a channel stream and a jet which issued from a circular nozzle placed at the wall opposite from where the component is mounted. With this aim, a test rig was designed and built to carry out experiments with both the above mentioned configurations and other cooling arrangements. Planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was employed to measure the instantaneous flow velocity on several planes covering the space around the component. The mean velocity and the Reynolds stresses were obtained from averaging the instantaneous velocity, and the mean flow showed a complex pattern with different features such as recirculation bubbles, vortices, detachment and reattachment zones. The influence of two parameters, namely the channel Reynolds number and the jet-to-channel Reynolds number ratio, on these flow features was studied considering nine cases that combined three values of the channel Reynolds number (3410, 5752 and 8880) and three values of the ratio (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5). The results show that the Reynolds number ratio determines the drag produced on the jet and the deflection from its geometric axis due to the channel stream. In all the cases corresponding to the lowest value of the ratio, the jet was dragged and did not impact the component. This fact accounts for the non-existence of the Upper Horseshoe Vortex and changes in the flow characteristics at the region over the
Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli
2001-01-01
Significant research has been underway for several years in NASA Glenn Research Center's nozzle branch to develop advanced computational methods for simulating turbulent flows in exhaust nozzles. The primary efforts of this research have concentrated on improving our ability to calculate the turbulent mixing layers that dominate flows both in the exhaust systems of modern-day aircraft and in those of hypersonic vehicles under development. As part of these efforts, a hybrid numerical method was recently developed to simulate such turbulent mixing layers. The method developed here is intended for configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. Interest in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods have increased in recent years, but applying an LES method to calculate the wide range of turbulent scales from small eddies in the wall-bounded regions to large eddies in the mixing region is not yet possible with current computers. As a result, the hybrid method developed here uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall-bounded regions entering a mixing section and uses a LES procedure to calculate the mixing-dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. With this technique, closure for the RANS equations is obtained by using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The LES equations are closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. Although the function of the Cebeci-Smith model to replace all of the turbulent stresses is quite different from that of the Smagorinsky subgrid model, which only replaces the small subgrid turbulent stresses, both are eddy viscosity models and both are derived at least in part from mixing-length theory. The similar formulation of these two models enables the RANS
Turbulent deflagrations, autoignitions, and detonations
Bradley, Derek
2012-09-01
Measurements of turbulent burning velocities in fan-stirred explosion bombs show an initial linear increase with the fan speed and RMS turbulent velocity. The line then bends over to form a plateau of high values around the maximum attainable burning velocity. A further increase in fan speed leads to the eventual complete quenching of the flame due to increasing localised extinctions because of the flame stretch rate. The greater the Markstein number, the more readily does flame quenching occur. Flame propagation along a duct closed at one end, with and without baffles to increase the turbulence, is subjected to a one-dimensional analysis. The flame, initiated at the closed end of the long duct, accelerates by the turbulent feedback mechanism, creating a shock wave ahead of it, until the maximum turbulent burning velocity for the mixture is attained. With the confining walls, the mixture is compressed between the flame and the shock plane up to the point where it might autoignite. This can be followed by a deflagration to detonation transition. The maximum shock intensity occurs with the maximum attainable turbulent burning velocity, and this defines the limit for autoignition of the mixture. For more reactive mixtures, autoignition can occur at turbulent burning velocities that are less than the maximum attainable one. Autoignition can be followed by quasi-detonation or fully developed detonation. The stability of ensuing detonations is discussed, along with the conditions that may lead to their extinction. © 2012 by Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Brouwers, J.J.H.
2010-01-01
We derive the Langevin equation describing the stochastic process of fluid particle motion in wall-induced turbulence (turbulent flow in pipes, channels, and boundary layers including the atmospheric surface layer). The analysis is based on the asymptotic behavior at a large Reynolds number. We use
Flow topology of rare back flow events and critical points in turbulent channels and toroidal pipes
Chin, C.; Vinuesa, R.; Örlü, R.; Cardesa, J. I.; Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.; Chong, M. S.
2018-04-01
A study of the back flow events and critical points in the flow through a toroidal pipe at friction Reynolds number Re τ ≈ 650 is performed and compared with the results in a turbulent channel flow at Re τ ≈ 934. The statistics and topological properties of the back flow events are analysed and discussed. Conditionally-averaged flow fields in the vicinity of the back flow event are obtained, and the results for the torus show a similar streamwise wall-shear stress topology which varies considerably for the spanwise wall-shear stress when compared to the channel flow. The comparison between the toroidal pipe and channel flows also shows fewer back flow events and critical points in the torus. This cannot be solely attributed to differences in Reynolds number, but is a clear effect of the secondary flow present in the toroidal pipe. A possible mechanism is the effect of the secondary flow present in the torus, which convects momentum from the inner to the outer bend through the core of the pipe, and back from the outer to the inner bend through the pipe walls. In the region around the critical points, the skin-friction streamlines and vorticity lines exhibit similar flow characteristics with a node and saddle pair for both flows. These results indicate that back flow events and critical points are genuine features of wall-bounded turbulence, and are not artifacts of specific boundary or inflow conditions in simulations and/or measurement uncertainties in experiments.
Determination of wall shear stress from mean velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles
Volino, Ralph J.; Schultz, Michael P.
2018-03-01
An analytical method is presented for determining the Reynolds shear stress profile in steady, two-dimensional wall-bounded flows using the mean streamwise velocity. The method is then utilized with experimental data to determine the local wall shear stress. The procedure is applicable to flows on smooth and rough surfaces with arbitrary pressure gradients. It is based on the streamwise component of the boundary layer momentum equation, which is transformed into inner coordinates. The method requires velocity profiles from at least two streamwise locations, but the formulation of the momentum equation reduces the dependence on streamwise gradients. The method is verified through application to laminar flow solutions and turbulent DNS results from both zero and nonzero pressure gradient boundary layers. With strong favorable pressure gradients, the method is shown to be accurate for finding the wall shear stress in cases where the Clauser fit technique loses accuracy. The method is then applied to experimental data from the literature from zero pressure gradient studies on smooth and rough walls, and favorable and adverse pressure gradient cases on smooth walls. Data from very near the wall are not required for determination of the wall shear stress. Wall friction velocities obtained using the present method agree with those determined in the original studies, typically to within 2%.
Turbulent/non-turbulent interfaces detected in DNS of incompressible turbulent boundary layers
Watanabe, T.; Zhang, X.; Nagata, K.
2018-03-01
The turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) detected in direct numerical simulations is studied for incompressible, temporally developing turbulent boundary layers at momentum thickness Reynolds number Reθ ≈ 2000. The outer edge of the TNTI layer is detected as an isosurface of the vorticity magnitude with the threshold determined with the dependence of the turbulent volume on a threshold level. The spanwise vorticity magnitude and passive scalar are shown to be good markers of turbulent fluids, where the conditional statistics on a distance from the outer edge of the TNTI layer are almost identical to the ones obtained with the vorticity magnitude. Significant differences are observed for the conditional statistics between the TNTI detected by the kinetic energy and vorticity magnitude. A widely used grid setting determined solely from the wall unit results in an insufficient resolution in a streamwise direction in the outer region, whose influence is found for the geometry of the TNTI and vorticity jump across the TNTI layer. The present results suggest that the grid spacing should be similar for the streamwise and spanwise directions. Comparison of the TNTI layer among different flows requires appropriate normalization of the conditional statistics. Reference quantities of the turbulence near the TNTI layer are obtained with the average of turbulent fluids in the intermittent region. The conditional statistics normalized by the reference turbulence characteristics show good quantitative agreement for the turbulent boundary layer and planar jet when they are plotted against the distance from the outer edge of the TNTI layer divided by the Kolmogorov scale defined for turbulent fluids in the intermittent region.
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2005-01-01
Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.
[Statistical modeling studies of turbulent reacting flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dwyer, H.A.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses the study of turbulent wall shear flows, and we feel that this problem is both more difficult and a better challenge for the new methods we are developing. Turbulent wall flows have a wide variety of length and time scales which interact with the transport processes to produce very large fluxes of mass, heat, and momentum. At the present time we have completed the first calculation of a wall diffusion flame, and we have begun a velocity PDF calculation for the flat plate boundary layer. A summary of the various activities is contained in this report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bricteux, L.; Duponcheel, M.; Winckelmans, G.; Tiselj, I.; Bartosiewicz, Y.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We perform direct and hybrid-large eddy simulations of high Reynolds and low Prandtl turbulent wall-bounded flows with heat transfer. ► We use a state-of-the-art numerical methods with low energy dissipation and low dispersion. ► We use recent multiscalesubgrid scale models. ► Important results concerning the establishment of near wall modeling strategy in RANS are provided. ► The turbulent Prandtl number that is predicted by our simulation is different than that proposed by some correlations of the literature. - Abstract: This paper deals with the issue of modeling convective turbulent heat transfer of a liquid metal with a Prandtl number down to 0.01, which is the order of magnitude of lead–bismuth eutectic in a liquid metal reactor. This work presents a DNS (direct numerical simulation) and a LES (large eddy simulation) of a channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers, and the results are analyzed in the frame of best practice guidelines for RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes) computations used in industrial applications. They primarily show that the turbulent Prandtl number concept should be used with care and that even recent proposed correlations may not be sufficient.
Momentum and scalar transport at the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a jet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerweel, J.; Fukushima, C.; Pedersen, Jakob Martin
2009-01-01
and well-defined bounding interface between the turbulent and non-turbulent regions of flow. The jet carries a fluorescent dye measured with planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and the surface discontinuity in the scalar concentration is identified as the fluctuating turbulent jet interface. Thence...... velocity and mean scalar and a tendency towards a singularity in mean vorticity. These actual or asymptotic discontinuities are consistent with the conditional mean momentum and scalar transport equations integrated across the interface. Measurements of the fluxes of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy...
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, J.P.; Houze, R.N.; Buenger, D.E.; Theofanous, T.G.
1981-01-01
Hot film Anemometry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry have been employed in this work to study the turbulence characteristics of Bubbly and Stratified two-phase flows, respectively. Extensive consistency checks were made to establish the reliability and hence the utility of these experimental techniques for the measurement of turbulence in two-phase flows. Buoyancy-driven turbulence in vertical bubbly flows has been identified experimentally and correlated in terms of a shear velocity superposition approach. This approach provides a criterion for the demarcation of the buoyancy-driven turbulence region from the wall shear-generated turbulence region. Our data confirm the roughly isotropic behavior expected for buoyancy-driven turbulence. Upgrading of our experimental system will permit investigations of the wall-shear dominated regime (i.e., isotropy, superposition approach, etc.). The stratified flow data demonstrate clearly that the maximum in the mean velocity profile does not coincide with the zero shear plane, indicating the existence of a negative eddy viscosity region. Previous studies do not take into account this difference and thus they yield incorrect friction factor data in addition to certain puzzling behavior in the upper wall region. The conditioned turbulence data in the wavy region indicate interesting trends and that an appropriate normalization of intensities must take into account the shear velocity at the interfacial (wavy) region
Pressure atomizer having multiple orifices and turbulent generation feature
VanBrocklin, Paul G.; Geiger, Gail E.; Moran, Donald James; Fournier, Stephane
2002-01-01
A pressure atomizer includes a silicon plate having a top surface and a bottom surface. A portion of the top surface defines a turbulent chamber. The turbulent chamber is peripherally bounded by the top surface of the plate. The turbulent chamber is recessed a predetermined depth relative to the top surface. The silicon plate further defines at least one flow orifice. Each flow orifice extends from the bottom surface of the silicon plate to intersect with and open into the turbulent chamber. Each flow orifice is in fluid communication with the turbulent chamber.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drury, L.O.; Stewart, J.M.
1976-01-01
A generalization of a transformation due to Kurskov and Ozernoi is used to rewrite the usual equations governing subsonic turbulence in Robertson-Walker cosmological models as Navier-Stokes equations with a time-dependent viscosity. This paper first rederives some well-known results in a very simple way by means of this transformation. The main result however is that the establishment of a Kolmogorov spectrum at recombination appears to be incompatible with subsonic turbulence. The conditions after recombination are also discussed briefly. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bettencourt, João H; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio
2013-01-01
In this paper, we use the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) to characterize Lagrangian coherent structures in three-dimensional (3D) turbulent flows. Lagrangian coherent structures act as the organizers of transport in fluid flows and are crucial to understand their stirring and mixing properties. Generalized maxima (ridges) of the FSLE fields are used to locate these coherent structures. 3D FSLE fields are calculated in two phenomenologically distinct turbulent flows: a wall-bounded flow (channel flow) and a regional oceanic flow obtained by the numerical solution of the primitive equations where two-dimensional (2D) turbulence dominates. In the channel flow, autocorrelations of the FSLE field show that the structure is substantially different from the near wall to the mid-channel region and relates well to the more widely studied Eulerian coherent structure of the turbulent channel flow. The ridges of the FSLE field have complex shapes due to the 3D character of the turbulent fluctuations. In the oceanic flow, strong horizontal stirring is present and the flow regime is similar to that of 2D turbulence where the domain is populated by coherent eddies that interact strongly. This in turn results in the presence of high FSLE lines throughout the domain leading to strong non-local mixing. The ridges of the FSLE field are quasi-vertical surfaces, indicating that the horizontal dynamics dominates the flow. Indeed, due to rotation and stratification, vertical motions in the ocean are much less intense than horizontal ones. This suppression is absent in the channel flow, as the 3D character of the FSLE ridges shows. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)
Surface roughness effects on turbulent Couette flow
Lee, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Hwa
2017-11-01
Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent Couette flow with two-dimensional (2-D) rod roughness is performed to examine the effects of the surface roughness. The Reynolds number based on the channel centerline laminar velocity (Uco) and channel half height (h) is Re =7200. The 2-D rods are periodically arranged with a streamwise pitch of λ = 8 k on the bottom wall, and the roughness height is k = 0.12 h. It is shown that the wall-normal extent for the logarithmic layer is significantly shortened in the rough-wall turbulent Couette flow, compared to a turbulent Couette flow with smooth wall. Although the Reynolds stresses are increased in a turbulent channel flow with surface roughness in the outer layer due to large-scale ejection motions produced by the 2-D rods, those of the rough-wall Couette flow are decreased. Isosurfaces of the u-structures averaged in time suggest that the decrease of the turbulent activity near the centerline is associated with weakened large-scale counter-rotating roll modes by the surface roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).
Mohri, Mehryar; Rostamizadeh, Afshin
2013-01-01
We present a brief survey of existing mistake bounds and introduce novel bounds for the Perceptron or the kernel Perceptron algorithm. Our novel bounds generalize beyond standard margin-loss type bounds, allow for any convex and Lipschitz loss function, and admit a very simple proof.
Evanescent-Wave Visualizations of the Viscous Sublayer in Turbulent Channel Flow
2015-09-02
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The study of wall turbulence dates back more than a century. Recently, however, a number of studies suggest that the flow...in the inner region (i.e., the viscous sublayer and buffer layer) is not “universal”—and actually depends upon the specific type of wall turbulence ...Many of these new insights on wall turbulence are recent because we have only recently developed the experimental techniques, such as volumetric
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
Direct numerical simulation of turbulence and heat transfer in a hexagonal shaped duct
Marin, Oana; Obabko, Aleks; Schlatter, Philipp
2014-11-01
Flows in hexagonal shapes frequently occur in nuclear reactor applications, and are also present in honeycomb-shaped settling chambers for e.g. wind tunnels. Whereas wall-bounded turbulence has been studied comprehensively in two-dimensional channels, and to a lesser degree also in square and rectangular ducts and triangles, only very limited data for hexagonal ducts is available, including resistance correlations and mean profiles. Here, we use resolved spectral-element simulations to compute velocity and temperature in fully-developed (periodic) hexagonal duct flow. The Reynolds number, based on the fixed flow rate and the hydraulic diameter, ranges between 2000 and 20000. The temperature assumes constant wall flux or constant wall temperature. First DNS results are focused on the mean characteristics such a head loss, Nusselt number, and critical Reynolds number for sustained turbulence. Profiles, both for mean and fluctuating quantities, are extracted and discussed in the context of square ducts and pipes. Comparisons to existing experiments, RANS and empirical correlations are supplied as well. The results show a complicated and fine-scale pattern of the in-plane secondary flow, which clearly affects the momentum and temperature distribution throughout the cross section.
PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.
2010-12-01
The goals of the International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a broad scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together researchers from different areas, which include but are not limited to fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and Earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and telecommunications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a broad variety of phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales and high or low energy density regimes. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Feng Yao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump impeller is bounded by complex surfaces, including blades, a hub and a shroud. The primary challenge of the flow simulation arises from the generation of a boundary layer between the surface of the impeller and the moving fluid. The principal objective is to evaluate the near-wall solution approaches that are typically used to deal with the flow in the boundary layer for the large-eddy simulation (LES of a centrifugal pump impeller. Three near-wall solution approaches –the wall-function approach, the wall-resolved approach and the hybrid Reynolds averaged Navier–Stoke (RANS and LES approach – are tested. The simulation results are compared with experimental results conducted through particle imaging velocimetry (PIV and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV. It is found that the wall-function approach is more sparing of computational resources, while the other two approaches have the important advantage of providing highly accurate boundary layer flow prediction. The hybrid RANS/LES approach is suitable for predicting steady-flow features, such as time-averaged velocities and hydraulic losses. Despite the fact that the wall-resolved approach is expensive in terms of computing resources, it exhibits a strong ability to capture a small-scale vortex and predict instantaneous velocity in the near-wall region in the impeller. The wall-resolved approach is thus recommended for the transient simulation of flows in centrifugal pump impellers.
Circuit lower bounds in bounded arithmetics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pich, Ján
2015-01-01
Roč. 166, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-45 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.582, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000888
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tezuka, Hirokazu.
1984-10-01
Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)
Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III
1996-01-01
The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.
A new algebraic turbulence model for accurate description of airfoil flows
Xiao, Meng-Juan; She, Zhen-Su
2017-11-01
We report a new algebraic turbulence model (SED-SL) based on the SED theory, a symmetry-based approach to quantifying wall turbulence. The model specifies a multi-layer profile of a stress length (SL) function in both the streamwise and wall-normal directions, which thus define the eddy viscosity in the RANS equation (e.g. a zero-equation model). After a successful simulation of flat plate flow (APS meeting, 2016), we report here further applications of the model to the flow around airfoil, with significant improvement of the prediction accuracy of the lift (CL) and drag (CD) coefficients compared to other popular models (e.g. BL, SA, etc.). Two airfoils, namely RAE2822 airfoil and NACA0012 airfoil, are computed for over 50 cases. The results are compared to experimental data from AGARD report, which shows deviations of CL bounded within 2%, and CD within 2 counts (10-4) for RAE2822 and 6 counts for NACA0012 respectively (under a systematic adjustment of the flow conditions). In all these calculations, only one parameter (proportional to the Karmen constant) shows slight variation with Mach number. The most remarkable outcome is, for the first time, the accurate prediction of the drag coefficient. The other interesting outcome is the physical interpretation of the multi-layer parameters: they specify the corresponding multi-layer structure of turbulent boundary layer; when used together with simulation data, the SED-SL enables one to extract physical information from empirical data, and to understand the variation of the turbulent boundary layer.
Gross separation approaching a blunt trailing edge as the turbulence intensity increases.
Scheichl, B
2014-07-28
A novel rational description of incompressible two-dimensional time-mean turbulent boundary layer (BL) flow separating from a bluff body at an arbitrarily large globally formed Reynolds number, Re, is devised. Partly in contrast to and partly complementing previous approaches, it predicts a pronounced delay of massive separation as the turbulence intensity level increases. This is bounded from above by a weakly decaying Re-dependent gauge function (hence, the BL approximation stays intact locally), and thus the finite intensity level characterizing fully developed turbulence. However, it by far exceeds the moderate level found in a preceding study which copes with the associated moderate delay of separation. Thus, the present analysis bridges this self-consistent and another forerunner theory, proposing extremely retarded separation by anticipating a fully attached external potential flow. Specifically, it is shown upon formulation of a respective distinguished limit at which rate the separation point and the attached-flow trailing edge collapse as [Formula: see text] and how on a short streamwise scale the typical small velocity deficit in the core region of the incident BL evolves to a large one. Hence, at its base, the separating velocity profile varies generically with the one-third power of the wall distance, and the classical triple-deck problem describing local viscous-inviscid interaction crucial for moderately retarded separation is superseded by a Rayleigh problem, governing separation of that core layer. Its targeted solution proves vital for understanding the separation process more close to the wall. Most importantly, the analysis does not resort to any specific turbulence closure. A first comparison with the available experimentally found positions of separation for the canonical flow past a circular cylinder is encouraging. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Turbulent Boundary Layer Over Geophysical-like Topographies
Chamorro, L. P.; Hamed, A. M.; Castillo, L.
2016-12-01
An experimental investigation of the flow and the turbulence structure over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls was performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry in a refractive-index-matching (RIM) channel. Extensive measurements were performed to characterize the developing and developed flows. The 2D wall is described by a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave superimposed in the spanwise direction with a/λy = 0.1. The flow over these walls was characterized at Reynolds numbers of 4000 and 40000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls have an amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio a/δ99 ≈ 0.1 and resemble large-scale and geophysical-like roughnesses found in rivers beds and natural terrain. Instantaneous velocity fields and time-averaged turbulence quantities reveal strong coupling between large-scale topography and the turbulence dynamics near the wall. Turbulence statistics for both walls show the presence of a well-structured shear layer past the roughness crests. Analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy production rate suggests that the shear layer is responsible for the majority of turbulence production across both walls. However, the 3D wall exhibits preferential spanwise flows that are thought to result in the multiple distinctive flow features for the 3D wall including comparatively reduced spanwise vorticity and decreased turbulence levels. Further insight on the effect of roughness three-dimensionality and Reynolds number is drawn in both the developed and developing regions through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and quadrant analysis.
Vortex statistics for turbulence in a container with rigid boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clercx, H.J.H.; Nielsen, A.H.
2000-01-01
The evolution of vortex statistics for decaying two-dimensional turbulence in a square container with rigid no-slip walls is compared with a few available experimental results and with the scaling theory of two-dimensional turbulent decay as proposed by Carnevale et al. Power-law exponents......, computed from an ensemble average of several numerical runs, coincide with some experimentally obtained values, but not with data obtained from numerical simulations of decaying two-dimensional turbulence with periodic boundary conditions....
Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface
Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S. E.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Astrup, P.; Larsén, X. G.
2017-12-01
Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber, or frequency. Spectra are derived from Fourier transforms of wind records as functions of space or time corresponding to wavenumber and frequency spectra, respectively. Atmospheric spectra often exhibit different subranges that can be distinguished and scaled by the physical parameters responsible for: (1) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen’s early work in 1953 ‘on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow’ led Tchen to predict a shear production subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen’s prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree -1
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masoud Ziaei-Rad
2010-01-01
In this paper, a two-dimensional numerical scheme is presented for the simulation of turbulent, viscous, transient compressible flows in the simultaneously developing hydraulic and thermal boundary layer region. The numerical procedure is a finite-volume-based finite-element method applied to unstructured grids. This combination together with a new method applied for the boundary conditions allows for accurate computation of the variables in the entrance region and for a wide range of flow fields from subsonic to transonic. The Roe-Riemann solver is used for the convective terms, whereas the standard Galerkin technique is applied for the viscous terms. A modified κ-ε model with a two-layer equation for the near-wall region combined with a compressibility correction is used to predict the turbulent viscosity. Parallel processing is also employed to divide the computational domain among the different processors to reduce the computational time. The method is applied to some test cases in order to verify the numerical accuracy. The results show significant differences between incompressible and compressible flows in the friction coefficient, Nusselt number, shear stress and the ratio of the compressible turbulent viscosity to the molecular viscosity along the developing region. A transient flow generated after an accidental rupture in a pipeline was also studied as a test case. The results show that the present numerical scheme is stable, accurate and efficient enough to solve the problem of transient wall-bounded flow.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Kim, J.; Simon, T. W.
1987-01-01
The effects of streamwise convex curvature, recovery, and freestream turbulence intensity on the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in a mature boundary layer are studied using a specially designed three-wire hot-wire probe. Increased freestream turbulence is found to increase the profiles throughout the boundary layer on the flat developing wall. Curvature effects were found to dominate turbulence intensity effects for the present cases considered. For the higher TI (turbulence intensity) case, negative values of the turbulent Prandtl number are found in the outer half of the boundary layer, indicating a breakdown in Reynolds analogy.
Analysis of turbulent heat and momentum transfer in a transitionally rough turbulent boundary layer
Doosttalab, Ali; Dharmarathne, Suranga; Tutkun, Murat; Adrian, Ronald; Castillo, Luciano
2016-11-01
A zero-pressure-gradient (ZPG) turbulent boundary layer over a transitionally rough surface is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The rough surface is modeled as 24-grit sandpaper which corresponds to k+ 11 , where k+ is roughness height. Reynolds number based on momentum thickness is approximately 2400. The walls are isothermal and turbulent flow Prandtl number is 0.71. We simulate temperature as passive scalar. We compute the inner product of net turbulent force (d (u1ui) / dxi) and net turbulent heat flux (d (ui θ / dxi)) in order to investigate (i) the correlation between these vectorial quantities, (II) size of the projection of these fields on each other and (IIi) alignment of momentum and hear flux. The inner product in rough case results in larger projection and better alignment. In addition, our study on the vortices shows that surface roughness promotes production of vortical structures which affects the thermal transport near the wall.
Computation of a turbulent channel flow using PDF method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.
1997-05-01
The purpose of the present paper is to present an analysis of a PDF model (Probability Density Function) and an illustration of the possibilities offered by such a method for a high-Reynolds turbulent channel flow. The first part presents the principles of the PDF approach and the introduction of stochastic processes along with a Lagrangian point of view. The model retained is the one put forward by Pope (1991) and includes evolution equations for location, velocity and dissipation of a large number of particles. Wall boundary conditions are then developed for particles. These conditions allow statistical results of the logarithmic region to be correctly reproduced. Simulation of non-homogeneous flows require a pressure-gradient algorithm which is briefly described. Developments are validated by analysing numerical predictions with respect to Comte Bellot experimental data (1965) on a channel flow. This example illustrates the ability of the approach to simulate wall-bounded flows and to provide detailed information such as skewness and flatness factors. (author)
Intense structures of different momentum fluxes in turbulent channels
Osawa, Kosuke; Jiménez, Javier
2018-04-01
The effect of different definitions of the momentum flux on the properties of the coherent structures of the logarithmic region of wall-bounded turbulence is investigated by comparing the structures of intense tangential Reynolds stress with those of the alternative flux proposed in [Jimenez (2016) J. Fluid Mech. 809:585]. Despite the fairly different statistical properties of the two flux definitions, it is found that their intense structures show many similarities, such as the dominance of ‘wall-attached’ objects, and geometric self-similarity. However, the new structures are wider, although not taller, than the classical ones, and include both high- and low-momentum regions within the same object. It is concluded that they represent the same phenomenon as the classical group of a sweep, an ejection, and a roller, which should thus be considered as the fundamental coherent structure of the momentum flux. The present results suggest that the properties of these momentum structures are robust with respect to the definition of the fluxes.
Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eitel-Amor, G; Schlatter, P; Flores, O
2014-01-01
The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Re τ = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Re τ < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Dynamical eigenfunction decomposition of turbulent channel flow
Ball, K. S.; Sirovich, L.; Keefe, L. R.
1991-01-01
The results of an analysis of low-Reynolds-number turbulent channel flow based on the Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion are presented. The turbulent flow field is generated by a direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations at a Reynolds number Re(tau) = 80 (based on the wall shear velocity and channel half-width). The K-L procedure is then applied to determine the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for this flow. The random coefficients of the K-L expansion are subsequently found by projecting the numerical flow field onto these eigenfunctions. The resulting expansion captures 90 percent of the turbulent energy with significantly fewer modes than the original trigonometric expansion. The eigenfunctions, which appear either as rolls or shearing motions, possess viscous boundary layers at the walls and are much richer in harmonics than the original basis functions.
Wind effect in turbulence parametrization
Colombini, M.; Stocchino, A.
2005-09-01
The action of wind blowing over a closed basin ultimately results in a steady shear-induced circulation pattern and in a leeward rising of the free surface—and a corresponding windward lowering—known as wind set-up. If the horizontal dimensions of the basin are large with respect to the average flow depth, the occurrence of local quasi-equilibrium conditions can be expected, i.e. the flow can be assumed to be locally driven only by the wind stress and by the opposing free surface gradient due to set-up. This wind-induced flow configuration shows a strong similarity with turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow, the one dimensional flow between parallel plates generated by the simultaneous action of a constant pressure gradient and of the shear induced by the relative motion of the plates. A two-equation turbulence closure is then employed to perform a numerical study of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows for different values of the ratio of the shear stresses at the two walls. The resulting eddy viscosity vertical distributions are analyzed in order to devise analytical profiles of eddy viscosity that account for the effect of wind. The results of this study, beside allowing for a physical insight on the turbulence process of this class of flows, will allow for a more accurate description of the wind effect to be included in the formulation of quasi-3D and 3D models of lagoon hydrodynamics.
Characteristics of wall pressure over wall with permeable coating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Woo Seog; Shin, Seungyeol; Lee, Seungbae [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-11-15
Fluctuating wall pressures were measured using an array of 16 piezoelectric transducers beneath a turbulent boundary layer. The coating used in this experiment was an open cell, urethane type foam with a porosity of approximately 50 ppi. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The boundary layer on the flat plate was measured by using a hot wire probe, and the CPM method was used to determine the skin friction coefficient. The wall pressure autospectra and streamwise wavenumber frequency spectra were compared to assess the attenuation of the wall pressure field by the coating. The coating is shown to attenuate the convective wall pressure energy. However, the relatively rough surface of the coating in this investigation resulted in a higher mean wall shear stress, thicker boundary layer, and higher low frequency wall pressure spectral levels compared to a smooth wall.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.
2004-01-01
We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias
2010-01-01
) resultant by means of mixed volume, as well as recent advances on aggregate root bounds for univariate polynomials, and are applicable to arbitrary positive dimensional systems. We improve upon Canny's gap theorem [7] by a factor of O(dn-1), where d bounds the degree of the polynomials, and n is the number...... bound on the number of steps that subdivision-based algorithms perform in order to isolate all real roots of a polynomial system. This leads to the first complexity bound of Milne's algorithm [22] in 2D....
Radiative heat transfer in a heat generating and turbulently convecting fluid layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Chan, S.H.; Chawla, T.C.; Cho, D.H.
1980-01-01
The coupled problem of radiative transport and turbulent natural convection in a volumetrically heated, horizontal gray fluid medium, bounded from above by a rigid, isothermal wall and below by a rigid, adiabatic wall, is investigated analytically. An approximate method based upon the boundary layer approach is employed to obtain the dependence of heat transfer at the upper wall on the principal parameters of the problem, which, for moderate Prandtl number, are the Rayleigh number, Ra, the optical thickness, KL, and the conduction-radiation coupling parameter, N. Also obtained in this study is the behaviour of the thermal boundary layer at the upper wall. At large kL, the contribution of thermal radiation to heat transfer in the layer is found to be negligible for N > 10, moderate for N approximately 1, and overwhelming for N < 0.1. However, at small kL, thermal radiation is found to be important only for N < 0.01. While a higher level of turbulence results in a thinner boundary layer, a larger effect of radiation is found to result in a thicker one. Thus, in the presence of strong thermal radiation, a much larger value of Ra is required for the boundary layer approach to remain valid. Under severe radiation conditions, no boundary layer flow regime is found to exist even at very high Rayleigh numbers. Accordingly, the ranges of applicability of the present results are determined and the approximate method justified. In particular, the validity of the present analysis is tested in three limiting cases, ie those of kL → infinity, N → infinity, and Ra → infinity, and is further confirmed by comparison with the numerical solution (author)
Turbulent Heat Transfer in Curved Pipe Flow
Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo
2013-11-01
In the present investigation, turbulent heat transfer in fully-developed curved pipe flow with axially uniform wall heat flux has been numerically studied. The Reynolds numbers under consideration are Reτ = 210 (DNS) and 1,000 (LES) based on the mean friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the Prandtl number (Pr) is 0.71. For Reτ = 210 , the pipe curvature (κ) was fixed as 1/18.2, whereas three cases of κ (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) were computed in the case of Reτ = 1,000. The mean velocity, turbulent intensities and heat transfer rates obtained from the present calculations are in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental results. To elucidate the secondary flow structures due to the pipe curvature, the mean quantities and rms fluctuations of the flow and temperature fields are presented on the pipe cross-sections, and compared with those of the straight pipe flow. To study turbulence structures and their influence on turbulent heat transfer, turbulence statistics including but not limited to skewness and flatness of velocity fluctuations, cross-correlation coefficients, an Octant analysis, and turbulence budgets are presented and discussed. Based on our results, we attempt to clarify the effects of Reynolds number and the pipe curvature on turbulent heat transfer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).
Advances in engineering turbulence modeling. [computational fluid dynamics
Shih, T.-H.
1992-01-01
Some new developments in two equation models and second order closure models are presented. In this paper, modified two equation models are proposed to remove shortcomings such as computing flows over complex geometries and the ad hoc treatment near the separation and reattachment points. The calculations using various two equation models are compared with direct numerical solutions of channel flows and flat plate boundary layers. Development of second order closure models will also be discussed with emphasis on the modeling of pressure related correlation terms and dissipation rates in the second moment equations. All existing models poorly predict the normal stresses near the wall and fail to predict the three dimensional effect of mean flow on the turbulence. The newly developed second order near-wall turbulence model to be described in this paper is capable of capturing the near-wall behavior of turbulence as well as the effect of three dimension mean flow on the turbulence.
Understanding Turbulence in Compressing Plasmas and Its Exploitation or Prevention
Davidovits, Seth
lower bound on the growth of turbulence in molecular clouds. This bound raises questions about the level of dissipation in existing molecular cloud models. Finally, the observations originally motivating the thesis, Z-pinch measurements suggesting dominant turbulent energy, are reexamined by self-consistently accounting for the impact of the turbulence on the spectroscopic analysis. This is found to strengthen the evidence that the multiple observations describe a highly turbulent plasma state.
Bounded Gaussian process regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan
2013-01-01
We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...... with the proposed explicit noise-model extension....
Bounded Intention Planning Revisited
Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte
2014-01-01
Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Mercier, P.; Machefaux, Ewan
2016-01-01
by a bound vorticity lifting line while the turbine wake vorticity and the turbulence vorticity are projected onto vortex particles. In the present work the rotor blades are stiff leaving aero-elastic interactions for future work. Inflow turbulence is generated with the model of Mann and converted to vortex......? Is it acceptable to neglect the influence of the wake and the wind turbine on the turbulent inflow? Is there evidence to justify the extra cost of a method capable of including these effects correctly? To this end, a unified vorticity representation of the flow is used: the wind turbine model is represented......A vortex particle representation of turbulent fields is devised in order to address the following questions: Does a wind turbine affect the statistics of the incoming turbulence? Should this imply a change in the way turbulence boxes are used in wind turbine aero-elastic simulations...
Direct numerical simulation of MHD flow with electrically conducting wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, S.; Kunugi, T.; Naito, N.; Sagara, A.
2006-01-01
The 2D vortex problem and 3D turbulent channel flow are treated numerically to assess the effect of electrically conducting walls on turbulent MHD flow. As a first approximation, the twin vortex pair is considered as a model of a turbulent eddy near the wall. As the eddy approaches and collides with the wall, a high value electrical potential is induced inside the wall. The Lorentz force, associated with the potential distribution, reduces the velocity gradient in the near-wall region. When considering a fully developed turbulent channel flow, a high electrical conductivity wall was chosen to emphasize the effect of electromagnetic coupling between the wall and the flow. The analysis was performed using DNS. The results are compared with a non-MHD flow and MHD flow in the insulated channel. The mean velocity within the logarithmic region in the case of the electrically conducting wall is slightly higher than that in the non-conducting wall case. Thus, the drag is smaller compared to that in the non-conducting wall case due to a reduction of the Reynolds stress in the near wall region through the Lorentz force. This mechanism is explained via reduction of the production term in the Reynolds shear stress budget
Bounding species distribution models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].
Bounding Species Distribution Models
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
Turbulent boundary layer approaches to resistance coefficient in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A logarithmic velocity profile has been used, in conjunction with a formulation for the origin of the profile, to study the nature of wall roughness and influence of roughness elements on turbulent flow through circular pipes with part smooth, part rough walls. Experimental data on velocity distribution and frictional head loss ...
Effect of turbulent flow on the double electric layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutten, F. van.
1978-01-01
The existence of the double electric layer could explain the local deposition of corrosion products in water cooled reactors. It is shown that turbulent flow tends to drive the ions away from the wall, disturbs the diffuse layer and enables the electric field to extend further into the liquid phase. This electric field attracts the particles to the walls by electrophoresis [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diabate, S.; Strack, S.
1993-01-01
Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toki, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu
1989-01-01
The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ - ) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2 Heπ - ) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ - ) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)
Influence of a k-type Roughness on the Behaviour of Turbulence in an Unsteady Channel Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seddighi, Mehdi; He Shuisheng; Vardy, Alan E; Orlandi, Paolo
2011-01-01
Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) have been carried out for a spatially fully developed turbulent channel flow with one smooth wall and one k-type rough-wall surface to study the influence of a square bar roughness on the behaviour of unsteady turbulent flow. The flow state under investigation is a uniform acceleration from an initially steady turbulent flow. Results are compared with simulations of flows in a smooth wall channel undergoing a similar acceleration, and with quasi-steady behaviour obtained using steady flow simulations. The turbulence in the wall region and the buffer layer of an accelerating flow with a rough wall shows strikingly different behaviour from that of corresponding flows with smooth walls. The characteristic long delays in the response of the streamwise turbulent velocity and the different behaviours of the three turbulent velocity components that are exhibited in smooth wall flows are not seen in the rough wall flow. This is attributed to different turbulent production mechanisms in the two types of flows. Important differences are also seen in the wall shear stress responses one wall is rough and when both walls are smooth.
Whither turbulence and big data in the 21st century?
Castillo, Luciano; Danaila, Luminita; Glauser, Mark
2017-01-01
This volume provides a snapshot of the current and future trends in turbulence research across a range of disciplines. It provides an overview of the key challenges that face scientific and engineering communities in the context of huge databases of turbulence information currently being generated, yet poorly mined. These challenges include coherent structures and their control, wall turbulence and control, multi-scale turbulence, the impact of turbulence on energy generation and turbulence data manipulation strategies. The motivation for this volume is to assist the reader to make physical sense of these data deluges so as to inform both the research community as well as to advance practical outcomes from what is learned. Outcomes presented in this collection provide industry with information that impacts their activities, such as minimizing impact of wind farms, opportunities for understanding large scale wind events and large eddy simulation of the hydrodynamics of bays and lakes thereby increasing energy ...
Suboptimal control for drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Jung Il; Sung, Hyung Jin; Xu, Chun Xiao
2001-01-01
A suboptimal control law in turbulent pipe flow is derived and tested. Two sensing variables ∂ρ/∂θ / w and ∂ν θ /∂r / w are applied with two actuations φ θ and φ γ . To test the suboptimal control law, direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow at Re τ =150 are performed. When the control law is applied, a 13∼23% drag reduction is achieved. The most effective drag reduction is made at the pair of ∂υ θ /∂r / w and φ γ . An impenetrable virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall suction and blowing. The virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall behavior of the controlled flow. Comparison of the present suboptimal control with that of turbulent channel flow reveals that the curvature effect is insignificant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1989-01-01
Papers on turbulent shear flows are presented, covering topics such as the structure of pressure fluctuations, fossil two-dimensional turbulence in the ocean, turbulence production and eddy structure in wall turbulence, bypass transition in a heated boundary layer, a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow, the evolution of an axisymmetric jet, plane mixing layer development, vortex models of a pseudoturbulent shear flow, numerical techniques for turbulence studies, Reynolds stress in the wall region of turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent structure of a momentumless wake, the near field of the transverse jet. Additional topics include a turbulent boundary layer disturbed by a cylinder, evolving mixing layers, flow analysis in a vortex flowmeter, ejections and bursts in pulsatile turbulent wall flow measurements, a flat plate oscillating in pitch, turbulent buoyant flows, isothermal lobed mixer flows, flow distortion on a turbulent scalar field, two phase flows. In addition, papers on the applications of turbulent shear flow studies are given, including air pollutant deposition, closures, oceanography, instrumentation, heat transfer, rotating flows, combustion, coherent structures, turbulence control, and scalar transport modeling
Bounded Rationality and Budgeting
Ibrahim, Mukdad
2016-01-01
This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...
Tate, Stephen James
2013-10-01
In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orzalesi, C.A.
1979-01-01
In relativistic quantum theory, bound states generate forces in the crossed channel; such forces can affect the binding and self-consistent solutions should be sought for the bound-state problem. The author investigates how self-consistency can be achieved by successive approximations, in a simple scalar model and with successive relativistic eikonal approximations (EAs). Within the generalized ladder approximation, some exact properties of the resulting ''first generation'' bound states are discussed. The binding energies in this approximation are rather small even for rather large values of the primary coupling constant. The coupling of the constituent particles to the first-generation reggeon is determined by a suitable EA and a new generalized ladder amplitude is constructed with rungs given either by the primary gluons or by the first-generation reggeons. The resulting new (second-generation) bound states are found in a reggeized EA. The size of the corrections to the binding energies due to the rebinding effects is surprisingly large. The procedure is then iterated, so as to find - again in an EA - the third-generation bound states. The procedure is found to be self-consistent already at this stage: the third-generation bound states coincide with those of second generation, and no further rebinding takes place in the higher iterations of the approximation method. Features - good and bad - of the model are discussed, as well as the possible relevance of rebinding mechanisms in hadron dynamics. (author)
Turbulent kinetic energy equation and free mixing
Morel, T.; Torda, T. P.; Bradshaw, P.
1973-01-01
Calculation of free shear flows was carried out to investigate the usefulness of several concepts which were previously successfully applied to wall flows. The method belongs to the class of differential approaches. The turbulence is taken into account by the introduction of one additional partial differential equation, the transport equation for the turbulent shear stress. The structure of turbulence is modeled after Bradshaw et al. This model was used successfully in boundary layers and its applicability to other flows is demonstrated. The work reported differs substantially from that of an earlier attempt to use this approach for calculation of free flows. The most important difference is that the region around the center line is treated by invoking the interaction hypothesis (concerning the structure of turbulence in the regions separated by the velocity extrema). The compressibility effects on shear layer spreading at low and moderate Mach numbers were investigated. In the absence of detailed experiments in free flows, the evidence from boundary layers that at low Mach numbers the structure of turbulence is unaffected by the compressibility was relied on. The present model was tested over a range of self-preserving and developing flows including pressure gradients using identical empirical input. The dependence of the structure of turbulence on the spreading rate of the shear layer was established.
High Reynolds Number Turbulence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Smits, Alexander J
2007-01-01
The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.
2012-01-01
The first high confinement H-mode plasma has been obtained in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with about 1 MW lower hybrid current drive after wall conditioning by lithium evaporation and real-time injection of Li powder. Following the L–H transition, a small-amplitude, low...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob
2011-01-01
The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakao, Keisuke; Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A large-eddy simulation of a spatially developing natural convection boundary layer is conducted. • First- and second-order moments of the heat and momentum showed a reasonable agreement with past experiments. • Coherent structure of turbulent vortex inherent in this boundary layer is discussed. - Abstract: Large-eddy simulation (LES) on a spatially developing natural convection boundary layer along a vertical heated plate was conducted. The heat transfer rate, friction velocity, mean velocity and temperature, and second-order turbulent properties both in the wall-normal and the stream-wise direction showed reasonable agreement with the findings of past experiments. The spectrum of velocity and temperature fluctuation showed a -2/3-power decay slope and -2-power decay slope respectively. Quadrant analysis revealed the inclination on Q1 and Q3 in the Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux, changing their contribution along the distance from the plate surface. Following the convention, we defined the threshold region where the stream-wise mean velocity takes local maximum, the inner layer which is closer to the plate than the threshold region, the outer layer which is farther to the plate than the threshold region. The space correlation of stream-wise velocity tilted the head toward the wall in the propagating direction in the outer layer; on the other hand, the correlated motion had little inclination in the threshold region. The time history of the second invariant of gradient tensor Q revealed that the vortex strength oscillates both in the inner and the outer layers in between the laminar and the transition region. In the turbulent region, the vortex was often dominant in the outer layer. Instantaneous three-dimensional visualization of Q revealed the existence of high-speed fluid parcels associated with arch-shape vortices. These results were considered as an intrinsic structure in the outer layer, which is symmetrical to the structure of
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mody, Astrid
2012-01-01
The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, M.V.
1984-01-01
After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taxil, I.
1996-12-20
Gas-solid turbulent fluidization has already been widely studied in the literature. However, its definition and specificities remain controversial and confused. Most of the studies focussed on the turbulent transition velocities are based on wall pressure drop fluctuations studies. In this work, we first characterize the turbulent regime with the classical study of pressure drop signals with standard deviation analysis, completed with a more specific frequency analysis and also by a stochastic analysis. Then, we evaluate bubble flow properties. Experimental results have been obtained in a 0.2 m I.D. fluidized bed expanding to 0.4 m I.D. in the freeboard in order to limit entrainment at high fluidization velocities. The so lid used was FCC catalyst. It was fluidized by air at ambient conditions. The superficial fluidization velocity ranged 0.2 to 2 m/s. Fast response transducers recorded pressure drop at the wall and bubble flow properties (bubble size, bubble velocity and bubble frequency) could be deduced from a light reflected signal at various bed locations with optical fibers. It has been shown the turbulent regime is delimited by two velocities: Uc (onset of turbulent regime) and Utr (onset of transport regime), which can be determined based on standard deviations, dominant frequencies and width of wave land of pressure signals. The stochastic analysis confirms that the signal enriches in frequencies in the turbulent regime. Bubble size and bubble velocity could be correlated to the main superficial gas velocity. The main change in bubble flow in the turbulent regime was shown to be the stagnation of the bubble frequency at its maximum value. It was also shown that the bubble flow properties in the turbulent regime imply a strong aeration of the emulsion phase. (authors) 76 refs.
Transport equation for the time scale of a turbulent scalar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurbatskij, A.F.
1999-01-01
The two-parametric turbulence models cause serious difficulties by modeling the near-wall flows due to absence of the natural boundary condition on the wall for dissipation of the ε turbulence energy and the ε θ scalar field destruction. This difficulty may be overcome, if instead of the ε and ε θ , as the second parameter of the model, to apply the time scales of the turbulent dynamic and scalar fields. The equation of the scalar field is derived and numerical coefficients included therein, are determined from the simplest problems on the turbulent heat transfer [ru
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mody, Astrid
2012-01-01
The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patterson, G.K.; Zakin, J.L.
1983-01-01
Investigations related to the study of boundary layers are discussed, taking into account the simulation of turbulent shear flows, turbulent shear flows behind two-dimensional obstacles placed on a plane boundary, the development of turbulent boundary layers in open channel flows, the turbulent kinetic energy balance in a conical diffuser, strong adverse pressure gradient effects on supersonic turbulent boundary layers, the effects of upstream boundary layer thickness upon flow past a backward-facing step, and a turbulent wall jet issued from a Coanda nozzle. Other topics considered are concerned with scalar transport and combustion, particulate flows, experimental techniques and signal processing, thermal anemometry, complient surface and polymer effects, the coherent structure of turbulence, laser Doppler anemometry, and the transition to turbulence. Attention is given to a pattern recognition study of coherent motion in a transpired turbulent boundary layer, investigations of flow visualization techniques for detecting turbulent bursts, and the frequency response of cold wires
TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao
2015-01-01
The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Chang-Bae; Krommes, J.A.
1988-08-01
The work of Krommes and Smith on rigorous upper bounds for the turbulent transport of a passively advected scalar [/ital Ann. Phys./ 177:246 (1987)] is extended in two directions: (1) For their ''reference model,'' improved upper bounds are obtained by utilizing more sophisticated two-time constraints which include the effects of cross-correlations up to fourth order. Numerical solutions of the model stochastic differential equation are also obtained; they show that the new bounds compare quite favorably with the exact results, even at large Reynolds and Kubo numbers. (2) The theory is extended to take account of a finite spatial autocorrelation length L/sub c/. As a reasonably generic example, the problem of particle transport due to statistically specified stochastic magnetic fields in a collisionless turbulent plasma is revisited. A bound is obtained which reduces for small L/sub c/ to the quasilinear limit and for large L/sub c/ to the strong turbulence limit, and which provides a reasonable and rigorous interpolation for intermediate values of L/sub c/. 18 refs., 6 figs
Boundary layer turbulence in transitional and developed states
Park, George Ilhwan; Wallace, James M.; Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz
2012-03-01
Using the recent direct numerical simulations by Wu and Moin ["Transitional and turbulent boundary layer with heat transfer," Phys. Fluids 22, 85 (2010)] of a flat-plate boundary layer with a passively heated wall, statistical properties of the turbulence in transition at Reθ ≈ 300, from individual turbulent spots, and at Reθ ≈ 500, where the spots merge (distributions of the mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, kinetic energy production, and dissipation rates, enstrophy and its components) have been compared to these statistical properties for the developed boundary layer turbulence at Reθ = 1840. When the distributions in the transitional regions are conditionally averaged so as to exclude locations and times when the flow is not turbulent, they closely resemble the distributions in the developed turbulent state at the higher Reynolds number, especially in the buffer layer. Skin friction coefficients, determined in this conditional manner at the two Reynolds numbers in the transitional flow are, of course, much larger than when their values are obtained by including both turbulent and non-turbulent information there, and the conditional averaged values are consistent with the 1/7th power law approximation. An octant analysis based on the combinations of signs of the velocity and temperature fluctuations, u, v, and θ shows that the momentum and heat fluxes are predominantly of the mean gradient type in both the transitional and developed regions. The fluxes appear to be closely associated with vortices that transport momentum and heat toward and away from the wall in both regions of the flow. The results suggest that there may be little fundamental difference between the nonlinear processes involved in the formation of turbulent spots that appear in transition and those that sustain the turbulence when it is developed. They also support the view that the transport processes and the vortical structures that drive them in developed and transitional boundary
Progress in turbulence research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradshaw, P.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in experiments and eddy simulations, as an introduction to a discussion of turbulence modeling for engineers is reviewed. The most important advances in the last decade rely on computers: microcomputers to control laboratory experiments, especially for multidimensional imaging, and supercomputers to simulate turbulence. These basic studies in turbulence research are leading to genuine breakthroughs in prediction methods for engineers and earth scientists. The three main branches of turbulence research: experiments, simulations (numerically-accurate three-dimensional, time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, with any empiricism confined to the smallest eddies), and modeling (empirical closure of time-averaged equations for turbulent flow) are discussed. 33 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay
2013-01-01
Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e.......g., affine functions or polynomials of bounded degree. In this work, we show that it is possible to go beyond the algebraic barrier and achieve security against arbitrary key relations, by restricting the number of tampering queries the adversary is allowed to ask for. The latter restriction is necessary......-protocols (including the Okamoto scheme, for instance) are secure even if the adversary can arbitrarily tamper with the prover’s state a bounded number of times and obtain some bounded amount of leakage. Interestingly, for the Okamoto scheme we can allow also independent tampering with the public parameters. We show...
Massive Galileon positivity bounds
de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2017-09-01
The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.
A finite-elements method for turbulent flow analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Autret, A.
1986-03-01
The work discussed here covers turbulent flow calculations using GALERKIN's finite-element method. Turbulence effects on the mean field are taken into account by the k-epsilon model with two evolution equations: one for the kinetic energy of the turbulence, and one for the energy dissipation rate. The wall zone is covered by wall laws, and by REICHARDT's law in particular. A law is advanced for the epsilon input profile, and a numerical solution is proposed for the physically aberrant values of k and epsilon generated by the model. Single-equation models are reviewed comparatively with the k-epsilon model. A comparison between calculated and analytical solutions or calculated and experimental results is presented for decreasing turbulence behind a grid, for the flow between parallel flat plates with three REYNOLDS numbers, and for backward facing step. This part contains graphs and curves corresponding to results of the calculations presented in part one [fr
Ghannam, Khaled
The atmospheric boundary-layer is the lowest 500-2000 m of the Earth's atmosphere where much of human life and ecosystem services reside. This layer responds to land surface (e.g. buoyancy and roughness elements) and slowly evolving free tropospheric (e.g. temperature and humidity lapse rates) conditions that arguably mediate and modulate biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Such response often results in spatially- and temporally-rich turbulence scales that continue to be the subject of inquiry given their significance to a plethora of applications in environmental sciences and engineering. The work here addresses key aspects of boundary layer turbulence with a focus on the role of roughness elements (vegetation canopies) and buoyancy (surface heating) in modifying the well-studied picture of shear-dominated wall-bounded turbulence. A combination of laboratory channel experiments, field experiments, and numerical simulations are used to explore three distinct aspects of boundary layer turbulence. These are: • The concept of ergodicity in turbulence statistics within canopies: It has been long-recognized that homogeneous and stationary turbulence is ergodic, but less is known about the effects of inhomogeneity introduced by the presence of canopies on the turbulence statistics. A high resolution (temporal and spatial) flume experiment is used here to test the convergence of the time statistics of turbulent scalar concentrations to their ensemble (spatio-temporal) counterpart. The findings indicate that within-canopy scalar statistics have a tendency to be ergodic, mostly in shallow layers (close to canopy top) where the sweeping flow events appear to randomize the statistics. Deeper layers within the canopy are dominated by low-dimensional (quasi-deterministic) von Karman vortices that tend to break ergodicity. • Scaling laws of turbulent velocity spectra and structure functions in near-surface atmospheric turbulence: the existence of a logarithmic scaling in the
Large eddy simulations of turbulent flows with heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatelain, Alexandre
2004-01-01
LES of turbulent flows with heat transfer was used within the framework of conjugate heat transfer problems. The objective of this work lies not only in identifying the various elements likely to impair temperature fluctuations estimations at the fluid/solid interface but also to introduce adequate wall modeling. The choice of a proper convection scheme for the transport of passive scalars led to the adoption of a high order upwind scheme with slope limiter. The use of classical wall models having shown some weaknesses as for the estimation of parietal temperature fluctuations, two new approaches are proposed and tested. The first one relies on a complete resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations on a refined grid close to the wall making it possible to rebuild the temperature fluctuations near the wall. The second one relies on the simultaneous and one dimensional resolution of a turbulent boundary layer equation and a variance transport equation near the wall. (author) [fr
Homogeneous turbulence dynamics
Sagaut, Pierre
2018-01-01
This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse
of resolved inflow turbulence on airfoil simulations in CFD. The detached-eddy simulation technique is used because it can resolve the inflow turbulence without becoming too computationally expensive due to its limited requirements for mesh resolution in the boundary layer. It cannot resolve the turbulence......Wind turbines operate in inflow turbulence whether it originates from the shear in the atmospheric boundary layer or from the wake of other wind turbines. Consequently, the airfoils of the wings experience turbulence in the inflow. The main topic of this thesis is to investigate the effect...... that is formed in attached boundary layers, but the freestream turbulence can penetrate the boundary layer. The idea is that the resolved turbulence from the freestream should mix high momentum flow into the boundary layer and thereby increase the resistance against separation and increase the maximum lift...
Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José
2013-01-01
This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.
Definition of Turbulent Boundary-Layer with Entropy Concept
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Rui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the entropy increment and the viscosity dissipation in turbulent boundary-layer is systematically investigated. Through theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS, an entropy function fs is proposed to distinguish the turbulent boundary-layer from the external flow. This approach is proved to be reliable after comparing its performance in the following complex flows, namely, low-speed airfoil flows with different wall temperature, supersonic cavity-ramp flow dominated by the combination of free-shear layer, larger recirculation and shocks, and the hypersonic flow past an aeroplane configuration. Moreover, fs is deduced from the point of energy, independent of any particular turbulent quantities. That is, this entropy concept could be utilized by other engineering applications related with turbulent boundary-layer, such as turbulence modelling transition prediction and engineering thermal protection.
Evans, John; Coley, Christopher; Aronson, Ryan; Nelson, Corey
2017-11-01
In this talk, a large eddy simulation methodology for turbulent incompressible flow will be presented which combines the best features of divergence-conforming discretizations and the residual-based variational multiscale approach to large eddy simulation. In this method, the resolved motion is represented using a divergence-conforming discretization, that is, a discretization that preserves the incompressibility constraint in a pointwise manner, and the unresolved fluid motion is explicitly modeled by subgrid vortices that lie within individual grid cells. The evolution of the subgrid vortices is governed by dynamical model equations driven by the residual of the resolved motion. Consequently, the subgrid vortices appropriately vanish for laminar flow and fully resolved turbulent flow. As the resolved velocity field and subgrid vortices are both divergence-free, the methodology conserves mass in a pointwise sense and admits discrete balance laws for energy, enstrophy, and helicity. Numerical results demonstrate the methodology yields improved results versus state-of-the-art eddy viscosity models in the context of transitional, wall-bounded, and rotational flow when a divergence-conforming B-spline discretization is utilized to represent the resolved motion.
Compressible turbulent flows: aspects of prediction and analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedrich, R. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Fachgebiet Stroemungsmechanik
2007-03-15
Compressible turbulent flows are an important element of high-speed flight. Boundary layers developing along fuselage and wings of an aircraft and along engine compressor and turbine blades are compressible and mostly turbulent. The high-speed flow around rockets and through rocket nozzles involves compressible turbulence and flow separation. Turbulent mixing and combustion in scramjet engines is another example where compressibility dominates the flow physics. Although compressible turbulent flows have attracted researchers since the fifties of the last century, they are not completely understood. Especially interactions between compressible turbulence and combustion lead to challenging, yet unsolved problems. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) represent modern powerful research tools which allow to mimic such flows in great detail and to analyze underlying physical mechanisms, even those which cannot be accessed by the experiment. The present lecture provides a short description of these tools and some of their numerical characteristics. It then describes DNS and LES results of fully-developed channel and pipe flow and highlights effects of compressibility on the turbulence structure. The analysis of pressure fluctuations in such flows with isothermal cooled walls leads to the conclusion that the pressure-strain correlation tensor decreases in the wall layer and that the turbulence anisotropy increases, since the mean density falls off relative to the incompressible flow case. Similar increases in turbulence anisotropy due to compressibility are observed in inert and reacting temporal mixing layers. The nature of the pressure fluctuations is however two-facetted. While inert compressible mixing layers reveal wave-propagation effects in the pressure and density fluctuations, compressible reacting mixing layers seem to generate pressure fluctuations that are controlled by the time-rate of change of heat release and mean density
Homogeneous purely buoyancy driven turbulent flow
Arakeri, Jaywant; Cholemari, Murali; Pawar, Shashikant
2010-11-01
An unstable density difference across a long vertical tube open at both ends leads to convection that is axially homogeneous with a linear density gradient. We report results from such tube convection experiments, with driving density caused by salt concentration difference or temperature difference. At high enough Rayleigh numbers (Ra) the convection is turbulent with zero mean flow and zero mean Reynolds shear stresses; thus turbulent production is purely by buoyancy. We observe different regimes of turbulent convection. At very high Ra the Nusselt number scales as the square root of the Rayleigh number, giving the so-called "ultimate regime" of convection predicted for Rayleigh-Benard convection in limit of infinite Ra. Turbulent convection at intermediate Ra, the Nusselt number scales as Ra^0.3. In both regimes, the flux and the Taylor scale Reynolds number are more than order of magnitude larger than those obtained in Rayleigh-Benard convection. Absence of a mean flow makes this an ideal flow to study shear free turbulence near a wall.
Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H.; Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M.
2011-01-01
Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C d is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.
Secondary flow in turbulent ducts with increasing aspect ratio
Vinuesa, R.; Schlatter, P.; Nagib, H. M.
2018-05-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent duct flows with aspect ratios 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14.4 at a center-plane friction Reynolds number Reτ,c≃180 , and aspect ratios 1 and 3 at Reτ,c≃360 , were carried out with the spectral-element code nek5000. The aim of these simulations is to gain insight into the kinematics and dynamics of Prandtl's secondary flow of the second kind and its impact on the flow physics of wall-bounded turbulence. The secondary flow is characterized in terms of the cross-plane component of the mean kinetic energy, and its variation in the spanwise direction of the flow. Our results show that averaging times of around 3000 convective time units (based on duct half-height h ) are required to reach a converged state of the secondary flow, which extends up to a spanwise distance of around ≃5 h measured from the side walls. We also show that if the duct is not wide enough to accommodate the whole extent of the secondary flow, then its structure is modified as reflected through a different spanwise distribution of energy. Another confirmation of the extent of the secondary flow is the decay rate of kinetic energy of any remnant secondary motions for zc/h >5 (where zc is the spanwise distance from the corner) in aspect ratios 7, 10, and 14.4, which exhibits a decreasing level of energy with increasing averaging time ta, and in its rapid rate of decay given by ˜ta-1 . This is the same rate of decay observed in a spanwise-periodic channel simulation, which suggests that at the core, the kinetic energy of the secondary flow integrated over the cross-sectional area, , behaves as a random variable with zero mean, with rate of decay consistent with central limit theorem. Long-time averages of statistics in a region of rectangular ducts extending about the width of a well-designed channel simulation (i.e., extending about ≃3 h on each side of the center plane) indicate that ducts or experimental facilities with aspect ratios larger than 10 may
Kahneman, Daniel
2002-01-01
The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...
Bounded Satisfiability for PCTL
Bertrand, Nathalie; Fearnley, John; Schewe, Sven
2012-01-01
While model checking PCTL for Markov chains is decidable in polynomial-time, the decidability of PCTL satisfiability, as well as its finite model property, are long standing open problems. While general satisfiability is an intriguing challenge from a purely theoretical point of view, we argue that general solutions would not be of interest to practitioners: such solutions could be too big to be implementable or even infinite. Inspired by bounded synthesis techniques, we turn to the more appl...
Active compliant wall for skin friction reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pätzold, A.; Peltzer, I.; Nitsche, W.; Goldin, N.; King, R.; Haller, D.; Woias, P.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Objective: Delay of laminar-turbulent transition on a wing by active wall actuation. • Natural, convective TS-instabilities are damped by travelling counter waves. • Piezo driven active wall and model predictive controller were developed. • TS amplitudes were damped by 83.6% (equals 15.7 dB within instability band). • Significant effect on skin friction distribution. -- Abstract: In order to reduce skin friction drag, an active laminarisation method is developed. Laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition caused by Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) waves is delayed by attenuation of these convective instabilities. An actively driven compliant wall is integrated as part of a wing’s surface. Different configurations of piezo-based actuators are combined with an array of sensitive surface flow sensors. Wall-normal actuation as well as inclined wall displacement are investigated. Together with a realtime-control strategy, transition onset is shifted downstream by six average TS-wave lengths. Using the example of flow velocity, the influence of variable flow conditions on TS-damping rates was investigated. Besides, the boundary layer flow downstream of the active wall area as well as required wall deflections and the global damping effect on skin friction are presented in this paper
Plasma Turbulence General Topics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)
1965-06-15
It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.
The influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence
Lee, Jin; Jung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Zaki, Tamer A.
2012-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over isothermally-heated walls were performed to investigate the influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence and drag. The adopted model for temperature-dependent viscosity was typical of water. The free-stream temperature was set to 30°C, and two wall temperatures, 70°C and 99°C, were simulated. In the heated flows, the mean shear-rate is enhanced near the wall and reduced in the buffer region, which induces a reduction in turbulence production. On the other hand, the turbulence dissipation is enhanced near the wall, despite the the reduction in fluid viscosity. The higher dissipation is attributed to a decrease in the smallest length scales and near-wall fine-scale motions. The combined effect of the reduced production and enhanced dissipation leads to lower Reynolds shear stresses and, as a result, reduction of the skin-friction coefficient. Supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant EP/F034997/1) and partially supported by the Erasmus Mundus Build on Euro-Asian Mobility (EM-BEAM) programme.
Dilley, Arthur D.; McClinton, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Results from a study to assess the accuracy of turbulent heating and skin friction prediction techniques for hypersonic applications are presented. The study uses the original and a modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model with a space marching code. Grid converged turbulent predictions using the wall damping formulation (original model) and local damping formulation (modified model) are compared with experimental data for several flat plates. The wall damping and local damping results are similar for hot wall conditions, but differ significantly for cold walls, i.e., T(sub w) / T(sub t) hypersonic vehicles. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the local damping formulation be used with the Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith turbulence models in design and analysis of Hyper-X and future hypersonic vehicles.
A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows
Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-01-01
examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model
Reynolds number effects in a turbulent pipe flow for low to moderate Re
Toonder, den J.M.J.; Nieuwstadt, F.T.M.
1997-01-01
We present in this paper high resolution, two-dimensional LDV measurements in a turbulent pipe flow of water over the Reynolds number range 500025000. Results for the turbulence statistics up to the fourth moment are presented, as well as power spectra in the near-wall region. These results clearly
Water circulation in non-isothermal droplet-laden turbulent channel flow
Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; van der Geld, C.W.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Simos, T.; Psihoyios, G.; Tsitouras, Ch.
2013-01-01
We propose a point-particle model for two-way coupling of water droplets dispersed in turbulent flow of a carrier gas consisting of air and water vapor. An incompressible flow formulation is applied for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow with a warm and a cold wall. Compared
Turbulence modeling of natural convection in enclosures: A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong O
2012-01-01
In this paper a review of recent developments of turbulence models for natural convection in enclosures is presented. The emphasis is placed on the effect of the treatments of Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux on the stability and accuracy of the solution for natural convection in enclosures. The turbulence models considered in the preset study are the two-layer k -ε model, the shear stress transport (SST) model, the elliptic-relaxation (V2-f) model and the elliptic-blending second-moment closure (EBM). Three different treatments of the turbulent heat flux are the generalized gradient diffusion hypothesis (GGDH), the algebraic flux model (AFM) and the differential flux model (DFM). The mathematical formulation of the above turbulence models and their solution method are presented. Evaluation of turbulence models are performed for turbulent natural convection in a 1:5 rectangular cavity ( Ra = 4.3x10 10 ) and in a square cavity with conducting top and bottom walls ( Ra =1.58x10 9 ) and the Rayleigh-Benard convection ( Ra = 2x10 6 ∼ Ra =10 9 ). The relative performances of turbulence models are examined and their successes and shortcomings are addressed
Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.
2017-11-01
Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.
Turbulent flow with suction in smooth and rough pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verdier, Andre.
1977-11-01
It concerns an experimental study of turbulent flow inside a pipe with rough and porous wall and suction applied through it. The first part recall the basic knowledge concerning the turbulent flow with roughness. In second part statistical equations of fluid wall stress are written in the case of a permeable rough wall, in order to underline the respective role played by viscosity and pressure terms. In the third part the dynamic equilibrium of the flow is experimentally undertaken in the smooth and rough range with and without wall suction. Some empirical formulae are proposed for the mean velocity profiles in the inertial range and for friction velocity with suction. In the case of the sand roughness used, it does not seem that critical Reynolds number of transition from smooth to rough range is varied [fr
Universal bounds on current fluctuations.
Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C; Seifert, Udo
2016-05-01
For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.
PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pope, Stephen B
2006-01-01
.... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groetzbach, G.
2007-12-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) programs have a wide application field in reactor technique, like to diverse flow types which have to be considered in Accelerator Driven nuclear reactor Systems (ADS). This requires turbulence models for the momentum and heat transfer with very different capabilities. The physical demands on the models are elaborated for selected transport mechanisms, the status quo of the modelling is discussed, and it is investigated which capabilities are offered by the market dominating commercial CFD codes. One topic of the discussion is on the already earlier achieved knowledge on the distinct anisotropy of the turbulent momentum and heat transport near walls. It is shown that this is relevant in channel flows with inhomogeneous wall conditions. The related consequences for the turbulence modelling are discussed. The second topic is the turbulent heat transport in buoyancy influenced flows. The only turbulence model for heat transfer which is available in the large commercial CFD-codes is based on the Reynolds analogy. This means, it is required to prescribe suitable turbulent Prandtl number distributions. There exist many correlations for channel flows, but they are seldom used in practical applications. Here, a correlation is deduced for the local turbulent Prandtl number which accounts for many parameters, like wall distance, molecular Prandtl number of the fluid, wall roughness and local shear stress, thermal wall condition, etc. so that it can be applied to most ADS typical heat transporting channel flows. The spatial dependence is discussed. It is shown that it is essential for reliable temperature calculations to get accurate turbulent Prandtl numbers especially near walls. If thermal wall functions are applied, then the correlation for the turbulent Prandtl number has to be consistent with the wall functions to avoid unphysical discretisation dependences. In using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data for horizontal fluid layers it
Monnier, Bruno; Goudarzi, Sepehr A.; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Wark, Candace
2018-02-01
Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was used to provide a three-dimensional characterization of the flow around a simplified urban model defined by a 5 by 7 array of blocks, forming four parallel streets, perpendicular to the incoming wind direction corresponding to a zero angle of incidence. Channeling of the flow through the array under consideration was observed, and its effect increased as the incoming wind direction, or angle of incidence ( AOI), was changed from 0° to 15°, 30°, and 45°. The flow between blocks can be divided into two regions: a region of low turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) levels close to the leeward side of the upstream block, and a high TKE area close to the downstream block. The centre of the arch vortex is located in the low TKE area, and two regions of large streamwise velocity fluctuation bound the vortex in the spanwise direction. Moreover, a region of large spanwise velocity fluctuation on the downstream block is found between the vortex legs. Our results indicate that the reorientation of the arch vortex at increasing AOI is produced by the displacement of the different TKE regions and their interaction with the shear layers on the sides and top of the upstream and downstream blocks, respectively. There is also a close connection between the turbulent structure between the blocks and the wind gusts. The correlations among gust components were also studied, and it was found that in the near-wall region of the street the correlations between the streamwise and spanwise gusts R_{uv} were dominant for all four AOI cases. At higher wall-normal positions in the array, the R_{uw} correlation decreased with increasing AOI, whereas the R_{uv} coefficient increased as AOI increased, and at {it{AOI}}=45° all three correlations exhibited relatively high values of around 0.4.
Fully-resolved prolate spheroids in turbulent channel flows: A lattice Boltzmann study
Eshghinejadfard, Amir; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Thévenin, Dominique
2017-09-01
Particles are present in many natural and industrial multiphase flows. In most practical cases, particle shape is not spherical, leading to additional difficulties for numerical studies. In this paper, DNS of turbulent channel flows with finite-size prolate spheroids is performed. The geometry includes a straight wall-bounded channel at a frictional Reynolds number of 180 seeded with particles. Three different particle shapes are considered, either spheroidal (aspect ratio λ =2 or 4) or spherical (λ =1 ). Solid-phase volume fraction has been varied between 0.75% and 1.5%. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to model the fluid flow. The influence of the particles on the flow field is simulated by immersed boundary method (IBM). In this Eulerian-Lagrangian framework, the trajectory of each particle is computed individually. All particle-particle and particle-fluid interactions are considered (four-way coupling). Results show that, in the range of examined volume fractions, mean fluid velocity is reduced by addition of particles. However, velocity reduction by spheroids is much lower than that by spheres; 2% and 1.6%, compared to 4.6%. Maximum streamwise velocity fluctuations are reduced by addition of particle. By comparing particle and fluid velocities, it is seen that spheroids move faster than the fluid before reaching the same speed in the channel center. Spheres, on the other hand, move slower than the fluid in the buffer layer. Close to the wall, all particle types move faster than the fluid. Moreover, prolate spheroids show a preferential orientation in the streamwise direction, which is stronger close to the wall. Far from the wall, the orientation of spheroidal particles tends to isotropy.
Fully-resolved prolate spheroids in turbulent channel flows: A lattice Boltzmann study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Eshghinejadfard
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Particles are present in many natural and industrial multiphase flows. In most practical cases, particle shape is not spherical, leading to additional difficulties for numerical studies. In this paper, DNS of turbulent channel flows with finite-size prolate spheroids is performed. The geometry includes a straight wall-bounded channel at a frictional Reynolds number of 180 seeded with particles. Three different particle shapes are considered, either spheroidal (aspect ratio λ=2 or 4 or spherical (λ=1. Solid-phase volume fraction has been varied between 0.75% and 1.5%. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is used to model the fluid flow. The influence of the particles on the flow field is simulated by immersed boundary method (IBM. In this Eulerian-Lagrangian framework, the trajectory of each particle is computed individually. All particle-particle and particle-fluid interactions are considered (four-way coupling. Results show that, in the range of examined volume fractions, mean fluid velocity is reduced by addition of particles. However, velocity reduction by spheroids is much lower than that by spheres; 2% and 1.6%, compared to 4.6%. Maximum streamwise velocity fluctuations are reduced by addition of particle. By comparing particle and fluid velocities, it is seen that spheroids move faster than the fluid before reaching the same speed in the channel center. Spheres, on the other hand, move slower than the fluid in the buffer layer. Close to the wall, all particle types move faster than the fluid. Moreover, prolate spheroids show a preferential orientation in the streamwise direction, which is stronger close to the wall. Far from the wall, the orientation of spheroidal particles tends to isotropy.
Turbulence modelling; Modelisation de la turbulence isotherme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laurence, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)
1997-12-31
This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-{epsilon} two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the `standard` (R{sub ij}-{epsilon}) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called `feasible`. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author). 37 refs.
Nagendra Prakash, Vivek
2013-01-01
This thesis deals with the broad topic of particles in turbulence, which has applications in a diverse number of fields. A vast majority of fluid flows found in nature and in the industry are turbulent and contain dispersed elements. In this thesis, I have focused on light particles (air bubbles in
Dynamic paradigm of turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhamedov, Alfred M.
2006-01-01
In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ (United States); Shenker, Stephen H. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford, Douglas [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ (United States)
2016-08-17
We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent λ{sub L}≤2πk{sub B}T/ℏ. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Thien Duy; Wells, John Craig; Nguyen, Chuong Vinh
2010-01-01
In investigations of laminar or turbulent flows, wall shear is often important. Nevertheless, conventional particle image velocimetry (PIV) is difficult in near-wall regions. A near-wall measurement technique, named interfacial PIV (IPIV) [Nguyen, C., Nguyen, T., Wells, J., Nakayama, A., 2008. Proposals for PIV of near-wall flow over curved boundaries. In: Proceedings of 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics], handles curved boundaries by means of conformal transformation, directly measures the wall gradient, and yields the near-wall tangential velocity profile at one-pixel resolution. In this paper, we show the feasibility of extending IPIV to measure wall gradients by stereo reconstruction. First, we perform a test on synthetic images generated from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) snapshot of turbulent flow over sinusoidal bed. Comparative assessment of wall gradients derived by IPIV, stereo-IPIV and particle image distortion (PID) [Huang, H.T., Fiedler, H.E., Wang, J.J., 1993. Limitation and improvement of PIV. Experiments in Fluids 15(4), 263-273] is evaluated with DNS data. Also, the sensitivity of IPIV and stereo-IPIV results to the uncertainty of identified wall position is examined. As a practical application of IPIV and stereo-IPIV to experimental images, results from turbulent open channel flow over a backward-facing step are discussed in detail.
Farsiani, Yasaman; Elbing, Brian
2017-11-01
High molecular weight polymer solutions in wall-bounded flows can reduce the local skin friction by as much as 80%. External flow studies have typical focused on injection of polymer within a developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL), allowing the concentration and drag reduction level to evolve with downstream distance. Modification of the log-law region of the TBL is directly related to drag reduction, but recent results suggest that the exact behavior is dependent on flow and polymer properties. Weissenberg number and the viscosity ratio (ratio of solvent viscosity to the zero-shear viscosity) are concentration dependent, thus the current study uses a polymer ocean (i.e. a homogenous concentration of polymer solution) with a developing TBL to eliminate uncertainty related to polymer properties. The near-wall modified TBL velocity profiles are acquired with particle image velocimetry. In the current presentation the mean velocity profiles and the corresponding flow (Reynolds number) and polymer (Weissenberg number, viscosity ratio, and length ratio) properties are reported. Note that the impact of polymer degradation on molecular weight will also be quantified and accounted for when estimating polymer properties This work was supported by NSF Grant 1604978.
Behaviour of turbulence models near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrey, P.; Aupoix, B.
2006-01-01
The behaviour of turbulence models near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface is investigated. The analysis holds as well for two-equation as for Reynolds stress turbulence models using Daly and Harlow diffusion model. The behaviour near the interface is shown not to be a power law, as usually considered, but a more complex parametric solution. Why previous works seemed to numerically confirm the power law solution is explained. Constraints for turbulence modelling, i.e., for ensuring that models have a good behaviour near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface so that the solution is not sensitive to small turbulence levels imposed in the irrotational flow, are drawn
Hu, YanChao; Bi, WeiTao; Li, ShiYao; She, ZhenSu
2017-12-01
A challenge in the study of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) is to understand the non-equilibrium relaxation process after sep-aration and reattachment due to shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. The classical boundary layer theory cannot deal with the strong adverse pressure gradient, and hence, the computational modeling of this process remains inaccurate. Here, we report the direct numerical simulation results of the relaxation TBL behind a compression ramp, which reveal the presence of intense large-scale eddies, with significantly enhanced Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux. A crucial finding is that the wall-normal profiles of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux obey a β-distribution, which is a product of two power laws with respect to the wall-normal distances from the wall and from the boundary layer edge. In addition, the streamwise decays of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux also exhibit power laws with respect to the streamwise distance from the corner of the compression ramp. These results suggest that the relaxation TBL obeys the dilation symmetry, which is a specific form of self-organization in this complex non-equilibrium flow. The β-distribution yields important hints for the development of a turbulence model.
Wall temperature control of low-speed body drag
Lin, J. C.; Ash, R. L.
1986-01-01
The use of thermal means to control drag under turbulent boundary layer conditions is examined. Numerical calculations are presented for both skin friction and (unseparated) pressure drag for turbulent boundary-layer flows over a fuselage-like body with wall heat transfer. In addition, thermal control of separation on a bluff body is investigated. It is shown that a total drag reduction of up to 20 percent can be achieved for wall heating with a wall-to-total-freestream temperature ratio of 2. For streamlined slender bodies, partial wall heating of the forebody can produce almost the same order of total drag reduction as the full body heating case. For bluff bodies, the separation delay from partial wall cooling of the afterbody is approximately the same as for the fully cooled body.
Mass transfer from smooth alabaster surfaces in turbulent flows
Opdyke, Bradley N.; Gust, Giselher; Ledwell, James R.
1987-11-01
The mass transfer velocity for alabaster plates in smooth-wall turbulent flow is found to vary with the friction velocity according to an analytic solution of the advective diffusion equation. Deployment of alabaster plates on the sea floor can perhaps be used to estimate the viscous stress, and transfer velocities for other species.
Scalar statistics in variable property turbulent channel flows
Patel, A.; Boersma, B.J.; Pecnik, R.
2017-01-01
Direct numerical simulation of fully developed, internally heated channel flows with isothermal walls is performed using the low-Mach-number approximation of Navier-Stokes equation to investigate the influence of temperature-dependent properties on turbulent scalar statistics. Different constitutive
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent concentric annular pipe flow Part 2: Heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin
2003-01-01
A direct numerical simulation is performed for turbulent heat transfer in a concentric annulus at Re D h =8900 and Pr=0.71 for two radius ratios (R 1 /R 2 =0.1 and 0.5) and wall heat flux ratio q * =1.0. Main emphasis is placed on the transverse curvature effect on near-wall turbulent thermal structures. Near-wall turbulent thermal structures close to the inner and outer walls are scrutinized by computing the lower-order statistics. The fluctuating temperature variance and turbulent heat flux budgets are illustrated to confirm the results of the lower-order statistics. Probability density functions of the splat/anti-splat process are investigated to analyze the transverse curvature effect on the strong relationship between sweep and splat events. The present numerical results show that the turbulent thermal structures near the outer wall are more activated than those near the inner wall, which may be attributed to the different vortex regeneration processes between the inner and outer walls
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent pipe flow with nonuniform surface heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, Shin-ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki
1998-01-01
Turbulent transport computations of a scalar quantity for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow were carried out by means of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) procedure. In this paper, three wall-heating boundary conditions were considered as follows: Case-1) a uniform heat-flux condition along the wall, Case-2) a nonuniform wall-heating condition, that is, a cosine heat-flux distribution along the wall and Case-3) a nonuniform wall-heating condition with a constant temperature over a half of the pipe wall. The number of computational grids used in this paper is 256 x 128 x 128. Prandtl number of the working fluid is 0.71. The Nusselt number in case of Case-1 is in good agreement with the empirical correlation. In case of Case-3, the distributions of the turbulent quantity and the Nusselt number seem to be reasonable. However, as for Case-2, the distributions of the turbulent quantity and the Nusselt number seem to be unrealistic. Two numerical treatments of thermal boundary condition on the wall were applied and their results were discussed from the viewpoint of the turbulent transport feature. (author)
Turbulent regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosetto, A.
2014-01-01
The tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) is the plasma region characterized by open field lines that start and end on the vessel walls. The plasma dynamics in the SOL plays a crucial role in determining the overall performance of a tokamak, since it controls the plasma-wall interactions, being responsible of exhausting the tokamak power, it regulates the overall plasma confinement, and it governs the plasma refueling and the removal of fusion ashes. Scrape-off layer physics is intrinsically non-linear and characterized by phenomena that occur on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Free energy sources drive a number of unstable modes that develop into turbulence and lead to transport of particles and heat across the magnetic field lines. Depending on the driving instability, different SOL turbulent regimes can be identified. As the SOL turbulent regimes determine the plasma confinement properties and the SOL width (and, consequently, the power flux on the vessel wall, for example), it is of crucial importance to understand which turbulent regimes are active in the SOL, under which conditions they develop, and which are the main properties of the associated turbulent transport. In the present thesis we define the SOL turbulent regimes, and we provide a framework to identify them, given the operational SOL parameters. Our study is based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations and it is focused on a limited tokamak SOL configuration. We first describe the main SOL linear instabilities, such as the inertial and resistive branches of the drift waves, the resistive, inertial and ideal branches of the ballooning modes, and the ion temperature gradient mode. Then, we find the SOL turbulent regimes depending on the instability driving turbulent transport, assuming that turbulence saturates when the radial gradient associated to the pressure fluctuations is comparable to the equilibrium one. Our methodology for the turbulent regime identification is supported by the analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, Burke
2006-01-01
The Hamiltonian for Dirac's second-order equation depends nonlinearly on the potential V and the energy E. For this reason the magnetic contribution to the Hamiltonian for s-waves, which has a short range, is attractive for a repulsive Coulomb potential (V>0) and repulsive for an attractive Coulomb potential (V 2 . Usually solutions are found in the regime E=mc 2 +ε , where except for high Z, ε 2 . Here it is shown that for V>0 the attractive magnetic term and the linear repulsive term combine to support a bound state near E=0.5mc 2 corresponding to a binding energy E b =-ε =0.5mc 2
Turbulent current drive mechanisms
McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua
2017-08-01
Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.
Belotserkovskii, OM; Chechetkin, VM
2005-01-01
The authors present the results of numerical experiments carried out to examine the problem of development of turbulence and convection. On the basis of the results, they propose a physical model of the development of turbulence. Numerical algorithms and difference schema for carrying out numerical experiments in hydrodynamics, are proposed. Original algorithms, suitable for calculation of the development of the processes of turbulence and convection in different conditions, even on astrophysical objects, are presented. The results of numerical modelling of several important phenomena having both fundamental and applied importance are described.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K S [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B J [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)
Entropy Stability and the No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition
Svä rd, Magnus; Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo
2018-01-01
We present an entropy stable numerical scheme subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. To enforce entropy stability only the no-penetration boundary condition and a temperature condition are needed at a wall, and this leads to an L bound on the conservative variables. In this article, we take the next step and design a finite difference scheme that also bounds the velocity gradients. This necessitates the use of the full no-slip conditions.
Entropy Stability and the No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition
Svärd, Magnus
2018-01-18
We present an entropy stable numerical scheme subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. To enforce entropy stability only the no-penetration boundary condition and a temperature condition are needed at a wall, and this leads to an L bound on the conservative variables. In this article, we take the next step and design a finite difference scheme that also bounds the velocity gradients. This necessitates the use of the full no-slip conditions.
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction
Lane, Todd
2016-01-01
Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.
Examination of wall functions for a Parabolized Navier-Stokes code for supersonic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alsbrooks, T.H. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1993-04-01
Solutions from a Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code with an algebraic turbulence model are compared with wall functions. The wall functions represent the turbulent flow profiles in the viscous sublayer, thus removing many grid points from the solution procedure. The wall functions are intended to replace the computed profiles between the body surface and a match point in the logarithmic region. A supersonic adiabatic flow case was examined first. This adiabatic case indicates close agreement between computed velocity profiles near the wall and the wall function for a limited range of suitable match points in the logarithmic region. In an attempt to improve marching stability, a laminar to turbulent transition routine was implemented at the start of the PNS code. Implementing the wall function with the transitional routine in the PNS code is expected to reduce computational time while maintaining good accuracy in computed skin friction.
Examination of wall functions for a Parabolized Navier-Stokes code for supersonic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alsbrooks, T.H. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-01-01
Solutions from a Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code with an algebraic turbulence model are compared with wall functions. The wall functions represent the turbulent flow profiles in the viscous sublayer, thus removing many grid points from the solution procedure. The wall functions are intended to replace the computed profiles between the body surface and a match point in the logarithmic region. A supersonic adiabatic flow case was examined first. This adiabatic case indicates close agreement between computed velocity profiles near the wall and the wall function for a limited range of suitable match points in the logarithmic region. In an attempt to improve marching stability, a laminar to turbulent transition routine was implemented at the start of the PNS code. Implementing the wall function with the transitional routine in the PNS code is expected to reduce computational time while maintaining good accuracy in computed skin friction.
Influence of the medium's dimensionality on defect-mediated turbulence.
St-Yves, Ghislain; Davidsen, Jörn
2015-03-01
Spatiotemporal chaos in oscillatory and excitable media is often characterized by the presence of phase singularities called defects. Understanding such defect-mediated turbulence and its dependence on the dimensionality of a given system is an important challenge in nonlinear dynamics. This is especially true in the context of ventricular fibrillation in the heart, where the importance of the thickness of the ventricular wall is contentious. Here, we study defect-mediated turbulence arising in two different regimes in a conceptual model of excitable media and investigate how the statistical character of the turbulence changes if the thickness of the medium is changed from (quasi-) two- dimensional to three dimensional. We find that the thickness of the medium does not have a significant influence in, far from onset, fully developed turbulence while there is a clear transition if the system is close to a spiral instability. We provide clear evidence that the observed transition and change in the mechanism that drives the turbulent behavior is purely a consequence of the dimensionality of the medium. Using filament tracking, we further show that the statistical properties in the three-dimensional medium are different from those in turbulent regimes arising from filament instabilities like the negative line tension instability. Simulations also show that the presence of this unique three-dimensional turbulent dynamics is not model specific.