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Sample records for wall accelerator development

  1. Vacuum Insulator Development for the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J R; Blackfield, D; Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Hawkins, S; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Krogh, M; Managan, J E

    2008-03-17

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a new type of accelerator, known as a Dielectric Wall Accelerator, in which compact pulse forming lines directly apply an accelerating field to the beam through an insulating vacuum boundary. The electrical strength of this insulator may define the maximum gradient achievable in these machines. To increase the system gradient, we are using 'High Gradient Insulators' composed of alternating layers of dielectric and metal for the vacuum insulator. In this paper, we present our recent results from experiment and simulation, including the first test of a High Gradient Insulator in a functioning Dielectric Wall Accelerator cell.

  2. Development of a Compact Radiography Accelerator Using Dielectric Wall Accelerator Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sampayan, Stephen; Chen Yu Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven; Holmes, Clifford; McCarrick, James F; Nelson, Scott D; Nunnally, William; Poole, Brian R; Rhodes, Mark; Sanders, David; Sullivan, James; Wang, Lisa; Watson, James

    2005-01-01

    We are developing of a compact accelerator system primarily intended for pulsed radiography. Design characteristics are an 8 MeV endpoint energy, 2 kA beam current and a cell gradient of approximately 3 MV/m. Overall length of the device is below 3 m. Such compact designs have been made possible with the development of high specific energy dielectrics (> 10 J/cc), specialized transmission line designs and multi-gap laser-triggered low jitter (<1 ns) gas switches. In this geometry, the pulse forming lines, switches and insulator/beam pipe are fully integrated within each cell to form a compact stand-alone stackable unit. We detail our research and modeling to date, recent high voltage test results, and the integration concept of the cells into a radiographic system.

  3. Compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator Development For Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy And Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y -; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Gower, E; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Stanley, J; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-06-17

    Compact dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator technology is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DWA accelerator uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. Its high electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The DWA concept can be applied to accelerate charge particle beams with any charge to mass ratio and energy. Based on the DWA system, a novel compact proton therapy accelerator is being developed. This proton therapy system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources. Applications of the DWA accelerator to problems in homeland security will also be discussed.

  4. STATUS OF THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Carroll, J; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-04-22

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system is capable of accelerating any charge to mass ratio particle. Applications of high gradient proton and electron versions of this accelerator will be discussed. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  5. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  6. Engineering Prototype for a Compact Medical Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografos, Anthony; Hening, Andy; Joshkin, Vladimir; Leung, Kevin; Pearson, Dave; Pearce-Percy, Henry; Rougieri, Mario; Parker, Yoko; Weir, John [CPAC, Livermore, CA (United States); Blackfield, Donald; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Poole, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Hamm, Robert W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Pleasanton, CA (United States); Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Gelnhausen (Germany)

    2011-12-13

    A compact accelerator system architecture based on the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) for medical proton beam therapy has been developed by the Compact Particle Acceleration Corporation (CPAC). The major subsystems are a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) injector linac, a pulsed kicker to select the desired proton bunches, and a DWA linear accelerator incorporating a high gradient insulator (HGI) with stacked Blumleins to produce the required acceleration energy. The Blumleins are switched with solid state laser-driven optical switches integrated into the Blumlein assemblies. Other subsystems include a high power pulsed laser, fiber optic distribution system, electrical charging system, and beam diagnostics. An engineering prototype has been constructed and characterized, and these results will be used within the next three years to develop an extremely compact 150 MeV system capable of modulating energy, beam current, and spot size on a shot-to-shot basis. This paper presents the details the engineering prototype, experimental results, and commercialization plans.

  7. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  8. Accelerating forward genetics for cell wall deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle eVidaurre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of cell wall biology is the elucidation of the genes involved the cell wall and their function due to the recalcitrance of the cell wall. Through traditional genetic approaches, many simple yet elegant screens have been able to identify components of the cell wall and their networks. Despite progress in the identification of several genes of the cell wall, there remain many unknown players whose function has yet to be determined. Exhausting the genetic toolbox by performing secondary screens on a genetically mutated background, chemical genetics using small molecules and improved cell wall imaging hold promise for new gene discovery and function. With the recent introduction of next-generation sequencing technologies, it is now possible to quickly and efficiently map and clone genes of interest in Arabidopsis and any model organism with a completed genome sequence. The combination of a classical genetics approach and cutting edge technology will propel cell wall biology of Arabidopsis and other useful crops forward into the future.

  9. Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall MHD Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm's law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm's law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities lead to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed field accelerator operation.

  10. Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall Magnetohydrodynamic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed-field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm s law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm s law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current-dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects, including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities leads to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed-field accelerator operation.

  11. Accelerated Development of Organizational Talent

    OpenAIRE

    Korotov, Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    This working paper explores the challenges of accelerated development of organizational talent. The meaning of the word "accelerated" is that such development takes place at a pace that is significantly higher than that of "traditional" development that allows an individual to learn the intricacies of the current job, observe incumbents in a higher level position (usually, one level up), practice elements of the boss' job when being delegated tasks, undergoing formal training, or benefiting f...

  12. ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Kumaraswamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a construction organization development in terms of an over-arching management support system model, as well as improved information and knowledge management; and (b project team development in the context of relationally integrated teams and supply chains, joint risk management and ‘technology and knowledge exchange’ in joint ventures, as well as longer term public private partnerships. These apparently disparate research thrusts are threaded together into a pattern that may inspire, if not feed, specific research and development (R & D agendas for construction industry development in different countries according to their own priorities, constraints and stages of infrastructure and national development.

  13. Electromagnetic simulation study of dielectric wall accelerator structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Quan-Tang; ZHANG Zi-Min; YUAN Ping; CAO Shu-Chun; SHEN Xiao-Kang; JING Yi; LIU Ming; ZHAO Hong-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two types of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) structures,a bi-polar Blumlein line and zero integral pulse line (ZIP) structures were investigated.The high gradient insulator simulated by the particle in cell code confirms that it has little influence on the axial electric field.The results of simulations using CST microwave studio indicate how the axial electric field is formed,and the electric field waveforms agree with the theoretical one very well.The influence of layer-to-layer coupling in a ZIP structure is much smaller and the electric field waveform is much better.The axial of the Blumlein structure's electric field has better axial stability.From both of the above,it found that for a shorter pulse width,the axial electric field is much higher and the pulse stability and fidelity are much better.The CST simulation is very helpful for designing DWA structures.

  14. Analysis of flame acceleration induced by wall friction in open tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Akkerman, V'yacheslav; Bychkov, Vitaly; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; 10.1063/1.3425646

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous flame acceleration leading to explosion triggering in open tubes/channels due to wall friction was analytically and computationally studied. It was first demonstrated that the acceleration is effected when the thermal expansion across the flame exceeds a critical value depending on the combustion configuration. For the axisymmetric flame propagation in cylindrical tubes with both ends open, a theory of the initial (exponential) stage of flame acceleration in the quasi-isobaric limit was developed and substantiated by extensive numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics and combustion with an Arrhenius reaction. The dynamics of the flame shape, velocity, and acceleration rate, as well as the velocity profile ahead and behind the flame, have been determined.

  15. Accelerator Operators and Software Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April Miller; Michele Joyce

    2001-11-01

    At Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, accelerator operators perform tasks in their areas of specialization in addition to their machine operations duties. One crucial area in which operators contribute is software development. Operators with programming skills are uniquely qualified to develop certain controls applications because of their expertise in the day-to-day operation of the accelerator. Jefferson Lab is one of the few laboratories that utilizes the skills and knowledge of operators to create software that enhances machine operations. Through the programs written; by operators, Jefferson Lab has improved machine efficiency and beam availability. Because many of these applications involve automation of procedures and need graphical user interfaces, the scripting language Tcl and the Tk toolkit have been adopted. In addition to automation, some operator-developed applications are used for information distribution. For this purpose, several standard web development tools such as perl, VBScript, and ASP are used. Examples of applications written by operators include injector steering, spin angle changes, system status reports, magnet cycling routines, and quantum efficiency measurements. This paper summarizes how the unique knowledge of accelerator operators has contributed to the success of the Jefferson Lab control system. *This work was supported by the U.S. DOE contract No. DE-AC05-84-ER40150.

  16. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quantang; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S. C.; Shen, X. K.; Jing, Y.; Yu, C. S.; Li, Z. P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R. Q.; Zong, Y.; Wang, Y. R.; Zhao, H. W.

    2013-11-01

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60-70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article.

  17. Development project of small accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project is demonstration of a small proton and heavy ion synchrotron and a small hard X-ray photon radiation source by using new technology and application of them to therapy, diagnosis, material science and life science. In this paper, a part of small proton and heavy ion synchrotron is discussed. Nine organizations joined in this project. There are four development themes such as optimization of laser-ion 100 TW class source target, beam storage and cooling device, small synchrotron ring and FFAG accelerator. Outline and contents of development of them are explained. This project is planning to generate a few MeV/u carbon ions in fully ionized states by impact of laser with about 100 TW output. 3 T maximum bending magnetic field using normal conduction AC magnet will be actualized for synchrotron with 200 MeV proton beam. (S.Y.)

  18. On the existence of steady flow in a channel with one porous wall or two accelerating walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Lu

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available channel either with no-slip at one wall and constant uniform suction or injection through another wall, or with two accelerating walls. The flows are governed by the fourth order nonlinear differential equation $F^{iv}+R(FF'''-F'F''=0$. In the former case, the flow is subject to the boundary conditions $F(-1=F'(-1=F'(1=0$, $F(1=-1$. In the latter case, the boundary conditions are $F(-1=F(1=0$, $F'(-1=-1$, $F'(1 = 1$.

  19. Acceleration of inertial particles in wall bounded flows: DNS and LES with stochastic modelling of the subgrid acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamansky, Remi; Vinkovic, Ivana; Gorokhovski, Mikhael, E-mail: ivana.vinkovic@univ-lyonl.fr [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique CNRS UMR 5509 Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36, av. Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2011-12-22

    Inertial particle acceleration statistics are analyzed using DNS for turbulent channel flow. Along with effects recognized in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, an additional effect is observed due to high and low speed vortical structures aligned with the channel wall. In response to those structures, particles with moderate inertia experience strong longitudinal acceleration variations. DNS is also used in order to assess LES-SSAM (Subgrid Stochastic Acceleration Model), in which an approximation to the instantaneous non-filtered velocity field is given by simulation of both, filtered and residual, accelerations. This approach allow to have access to the intermittency of the flow at subgrid scale. Advantages of LES-SSAM in predicting particle dynamics in the channel flow at a high Reynolds number are shown.

  20. Soft X-ray reflectivity: from quasi-perfect mirrors to accelerator walls

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfers, F

    2013-01-01

    Reflection of light from surfaces is a very common, but complex phenomenon not only in science and technology, but in every day life. The underlying basic optical principles have been developed within the last five centuries using visible light available from the sun or other laboratory light sources. X-rays were detected in 1895, and the full potential of soft- and hard-x ray radiation as a probe for the electronic and geometric properties of matter, for material analysis and its characterisation is available only since the advent of synchrotron radiation sources some 50 years ago. On the other hand high-brilliance and high power synchrotron radiation of present-days 3rd and 4th generation light sources is not always beneficial. Highenergy machines and accelerator-based light sources can suffer from a serious performance drop or limitations due to interaction of the synchrotron radiation with the accelerator walls, thus producing clouds of photoelectrons (e-cloud) which in turn interact with the accelerated ...

  1. The Small-Scale Structure of Acceleration in Wall Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kenneth T.; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2001-11-01

    Temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are measured in the streamwise--wall-normal plane of turbulent channel flow at Re_τ=547, 1133, and 1734 using a new technique called particle-image accelerometry. Pairs of temporally-resolved instantaneous velocity fields are acquired in rapid succession using a two-CCD-camera arrangement, and the associated instantaneous temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are computed numerically from this data. Advection of the small-scale vortices embedded within the flow dominates the small-scale behavior of the velocity time-derivative as noted in both the instantaneous rate-of-change fields as well as in the statistics of the temporal derivative. However, in a reference frame traveling with the vortices, a marked deceleration is present and represents the evolution of the flow. This large-scale deceleration is conjectured to be the dynamic influence of larger-scale vortices present further away from the wall on the smaller scale vortices present closer to the wall.

  2. Development of wall ranging radiation inspection robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. J.; Yoon, J. S.; Park, Y. S.; Hong, D. H.; Oh, S. C.; Jung, J. H.; Chae, K. S

    1999-03-01

    With the aging of nation's nuclear facilities, the target of this project is to develop an under water wall ranging robotic vehicle which inspects the contamination level of the research reactor (TRIGA MARK III) as a preliminary process to dismantling. The developed vehicle is driven by five thrusters and consists of small sized control boards, and absolute position detector, and a radiation detector. Also, the algorithm for autonomous navigation is developed and its performance is tested through under water experiments. Also, the test result at the research reactor shows that the vehicle firmly attached the wall while measuring the contamination level of the wall.

  3. Characterization of the neutron for linear accelerator shielding wall using a Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yeon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eun Tae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiologic Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    As previous studies to proceed with the evaluation of the radioactive at linear accelerator's shielding concrete wall. And the shielding wall was evaluated the characteristics for the incoming neutron. As a result, the shielding wall is the average amount of incoming neutrons 10 MV 4.63E-7%, 15 MV 9.69E-6%, showed the occurrence of 20 MV 2.18E-5%. The proportion of thermal neutrons of which are found to be approximately 18-33%. The neutron generation rate can be seen as a slight numerical order. However, in consideration of the linear accelerator operating time we can not ignore the effects of neutrons. Accordingly radioactive problem of the radiation shield wall of the treatment room will be this should be considered.

  4. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Z.M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S.C.; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zong, Y.; Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60–70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article. -- Highlights: •The key technology of DWA, including switches and pulse forming lines were studied. •The SiC PCSS obtained from Shanghai Institute were tested. •Two layers ZIP lines (new structure) and four layers Blumlein lines were studied with laser triggered spark gap switches. •A nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on DWA technologies is achieved and studied experimentally. •The principle of DWA is also proved by the diode.

  5. Asymptotic solutions for laminar flow in a channel with uniformly accelerating rigid porous walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was done for the generalized Berman problem, which arises in steady laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid along a channel with accelerating rigid porous walls. The existence of multiple solutions and its conditions were established by taking into account exponentially small terms in matched asymptotic expansion. The correctness of the analytical predictions was verified by numerical results.

  6. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, E.; Brescaccin, L.; Serianni, G.

    2016-02-01

    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production—detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion—are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared.

  7. CAS Scientists Develop China's First RFQ Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the support of the National Program on Key Basic Research Projects (dubbed the "973Program"), researchers from the CAS Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) have developed the first high-power Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator in China.

  8. Effects of the hanging wall and footwall on peak acceleration during the Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan Province, earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The M=7.6 Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake, Taiwan Province, on September 21, 1999 (local time) is a thrust fault style earthquake. The empirical attenuation relations of the horizontal and vertical peak ground accelerations (PGA) for the Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake are developed by regression method. By examining the residuals from the Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake-specific peak acceleration attenuation relations, it is found that there are systematic differences between PGA on the hanging-wall and footwall. The recorded peak accelerations are higher on the hanging-wall and lower on the footwall. The clear asymmetry of PGA distribution to the surface rupture trace can also be seen from the PGA contour map. These evidences indicate that the PGA attenuates faster on the hanging-wall than on the footwall. In the study of near-source strong motion, seismic hazard assessment, scenario earthquake and seis-mic disaster prediction, the style-of-faulting must be considered in order that the attenuation model can reflect the characteristic of ground motion in various seismic environmental regions.

  9. Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator Simulation Code Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, Steven; Ryne, Robert

    1997-05-01

    We present recent work on the development and testing of a 3-D simu- lation code for relativistic klystron two-beam accelerators (RK-TBAs). This new code utilizes symplectic integration techniques to push macro- particles, coupled to a circuit equation framework that advances the fields in the cavities. Space charge effects are calculated using a Green's function approach, and pipe wall effects are included in the electrostatic approximation. We present simulations of the LBNL/LLNL RK-TBA device, emphasizing cavity power development and beam dynamics, including the high- and low-frequency beam break-up instabilities.

  10. Essays on Accelerated Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Cancurtaran (Pinar)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The past three decades have seen many companies adopting time-based strategies in an effort to bring their products to market quickly. While this trend in the industry has given rise to extensive scholarly interest in product development speed, extant literature has yet

  11. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  12. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  13. Factors Associated With Chest Wall Toxicity After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sheree, E-mail: shereedst32@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States); Vicini, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vanapalli, Jyotsna R.; Whitaker, Thomas J.; Pope, D. Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, Florida (United States); Bruggeman, Lisa; Haile, Kenneth L.; McLaughlin, Mark P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate dose-volume relationships associated with a higher probability for developing chest wall toxicity (pain) after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by using both single-lumen and multilumen brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Rib dose data were available for 89 patients treated with APBI and were correlated with the development of chest wall/rib pain at any point after treatment. Ribs were contoured on computed tomography planning scans, and rib dose-volume histograms (DVH) along with histograms for other structures were constructed. Rib DVH data for all patients were sampled at all volumes {>=}0.008 cubic centimeter (cc) (for maximum dose related to pain) and at volumes of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 cc for analysis. Rib pain was evaluated at each follow-up visit. Patient responses were marked as yes or no. No attempt was made to grade responses. Eighty-nine responses were available for this analysis. Results: Nineteen patients (21.3%) complained of transient chest wall/rib pain at any point in follow-up. Analysis showed a direct correlation between total dose received and volume of rib irradiated with the probability of developing rib/chest wall pain at any point after follow-up. The median maximum dose at volumes {>=}0.008 cc of rib in patients who experienced chest wall pain was 132% of the prescribed dose versus 95% of the prescribed dose in those patients who did not experience pain (p = 0.0035). Conclusions: Although the incidence of chest wall/rib pain is quite low with APBI brachytherapy, attempts should be made to keep the volume of rib irradiated at a minimum and the maximum dose received by the chest wall as low as reasonably achievable.

  14. Accelerating development of advanced inverters :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin

    2013-11-01

    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  15. Second International Conference on Accelerating Biopharmaceutical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Accelerating Biopharmaceutical Development was held in Coronado, California. The meeting was organized by the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE) and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE); SBE is a technological community of the AIChE. Bob Adamson (Wyeth) and Chuck Goochee (Centocor) were co-chairs of the event, which had the theme “Delivering cost-effective, robust processes and methods quickly and efficiently.” The first day focused on emerging disruptive technologies and cutting-edge analytical techniques. Day two featured presentations on accelerated cell culture process development, critical quality attributes, specifications and comparability, and high throughput protein formulation development. The final day was dedicated to discussion of technology options and new analysis methods provided by emerging disruptive technologies; functional interaction, integration and synergy in platform development; and rapid and economic purification process development. PMID:20065637

  16. Target and accelerator developments at CTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvord, C. W.; Mendez, A. J.; Wittner, D. E.

    2001-07-01

    The accelerator products marketed by CTI have exclusively focused on proton-only, low energy (11 MeV) designs. This choice best suited the research customer, interested in producing several doses a day of a variety of positron emitting compounds. The PET cyclotron market has evolved into a high output, cost driven, competitive radiotracer production environment. A thoughtful analysis of the choices of energy and particle reveals that an 11 MeV proton accelerator outfitted with target changers and automated target loading and unloading equipment is still the best choice for FDG distribution. However technological innovations are required to face the challenges of the rapidly growing PET radiotracer business. Modifications to the CTI line of accelerators developed to face this evolving need will be presented.

  17. A compact 300 kV solid-state high-voltage nanosecond generator for dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yi; Xia, Liansheng; Zhang, Huang; Pan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jun; Shi, Jinshui; Zhang, Linwen; Deng, Jianjun

    2015-05-01

    Compact solid-state system is the main development trend in pulsed power technologies. A compact solid-state high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator with output voltage of 300 kV amplitude, 10 ns duration (FWHM), and 3 ns rise-time was designed for a dielectric wall accelerator. The generator is stacked by 15 planar-plate Blumlein pulse forming lines (PFL). Each Blumlein PFL consists of two solid-state planar transmission lines, a GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch, and a laser diode trigger. The key components of the generator and the experimental results are reported in this paper.

  18. Development of NRU reflector wall inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, R.H.; Luloff, B.V.; Zahn, N.; Simpson, N., E-mail: lumsdenr@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service. The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism had damaged the reflector vessel led to the development of a system to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage. The inspection region could only be accessed through 64 mm diameter ports, was 10 m below the port, and had to be inspected from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique was designed to produce a closely spaced wall thickness (WT) grid over an area of approximately 5 m2 on the corroded surface using a very small probe holder. This paper describes the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) development project and the system that resulted. (author)

  19. CNPC Accelerates Development of Financial Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Beijing-based China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has got approval from the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council and China Banking Regulatory Commission to buy the stake in Karamay City Commercial Bank in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The deal was an important step for the companyto develop its own financial business. Currently, CNPC is making efforts to accelerate the development of thefinancial business to diversify its portfolio.

  20. Accelerated vaccine development against emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Pierre R; Yuan, Jianping; Brauns, Tim; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; Poznansky, Mark C

    2012-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases represent a major challenge to vaccine development since it involves two seemingly contradictory requirements. Rapid and flexible vaccine generation while using technologies and processes that can facilitate accelerated regulatory review. Development in the "-omics" in combination with advances in vaccinology offer novel opportunities to meet these requirements. Here we describe how a consortium of five different organizations from academia and industry is addressing these challenges. This novel approach has the potential to become the new standard in vaccine development allowing timely deployment to avert potential pandemics.

  1. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, Rajni; Basak, T.; Roy, Shweta; Aslam, M.; Jain, P.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Kumar, Rajesh; Nema, P. K.; Kailas, S.; Sahni, V. C.

    2007-02-01

    At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) lines match the beam from the ion source to RFQ and from RFQ to DTL respectively. Design of these systems has been completed and fabrication of their prototypes has started. Physics studies of the 20-1000 MeV part of the Linac are also in progress. In this paper, the present status of this project is presented.

  2. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Singh; S V L S Rao; Rajni Pande; T Basak; Shwetha Roy; M Aslam; P Jain; S C L Srivastava; Rajesh Kumar; P K Nema; S Kailas; V C Sahni

    2007-02-01

    At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) lines match the beam from the ion source to RFQ and from RFQ to DTL respectively. Design of these systems has been completed and fabrication of their prototypes has started. Physics studies of the 20{1000 MeV part of the Linac are also in progress. In this paper, the present status of this project is presented.

  3. Development of compact accelerator neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letourneau Alain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a worldwide growing interest for small-scale and reduced-cost neutron sources not based on nuclear fission. High-intensity proton or deuteron beams impinging on light materials could be used to produce such neutron sources with intensities or brightness comparable to nuclear reactor for dedicated experiments. To develop such technologies several key technological issues have to be addressed. Among them the neutron production and the maximization of the neutron extraction and transport to the instrument is a key parameter for the design of high-brightness sources adapted for the required application. This issue have to be addressed with validated and predictive Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper we present preliminary results on the use of Geant4 in the context of Compact Accelerator based Neutron Source (CANS developments.

  4. Simulation and experimental study of the solid pulse forming lines for dielectric wall accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Quan-Tang; YUAN Ping; ZHANG Zi-Min; CAO Shu-Chun; SHEN Xiao-Kang; LIU Ming; JING Yi; ZHAO Hong-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Two types of pulse forming lines for dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) were investigated preliminarily.By simulation with CST Microwave Studio,the results indicate the pulse forming process,which can help to understand the voltage wave transmission process and optimize the line parameters.Furthermore,the principle of the pulse forming process was proved by experiments and some excellent pulse waveforms were obtained.During the experiments,the Blumlein line and zero integral pulse (ZIP) forming line,constructed with aluminum foil,poly plate and air gap self-closing switch,were tested.The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the waveform is 16 nanoseconds (BL) and 17 nanoseconds (ZIP line),and the formed pulse voltage amplitude is 5 kV (BL) and +2.2 kV/-1.6 kV (ZIP line).The experiments result coincides well with the simulation.

  5. Heavy ion accelerator and associated developments in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Mehta

    2002-11-01

    Developments of ion accelerator and associated facilities in India are presented. Various types of accelerator facilities which are systematically built in the country through sustained development and research programs at various research centres and institutions are highlighted. Impact of accelerator in different interdisciplinary fields of research are highlighted.

  6. Superconducting Linac and associated accelerator development at NSC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Roy

    2001-08-01

    There has been significant progress in the programme to develop a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster for the Pelletron accelerator at the Nuclear Science Centre. This paper presents the current status of the development in all the major components of the accelerator.

  7. Development of neutron calibration field using accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    A brief summary is given on the fast neutron calibration fields for 1) 8 keV to 15 MeV range, and 2) 30-80 MeV range. The field for 8 keV to 15 MeV range was developed at the Fast Neutron Laboratory (FNL) at Tohoku University using a 4.5 MV pulsed Dynamitron accelerator and neutron production reactions, {sup 45}Sc(p, n), {sup 7}Li(p, n), {sup 3}H(p, n), D(d, n) and T(d, n). The latter 30-80 MeV fields are setup at TIARA of Takasaki Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and at Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University using a 90 MeV AVF cyclotron and the {sup 7}Li(p, n) reaction. These fields have been applied for various calibration of neutron spectrometers and dosimeters, and for irradiation purposes. (author)

  8. Neutron Diagnostic Development for the Z Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kelly; Chandler, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Jones, B.; Gomez, M. R.; Knapp, P. F.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hansen, S. B.; Schmit, P. F.; Harding, E. C.; Norris, E.; Torres, J. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Styron, J. D.; Frenje, J.; Lahmann, B.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Fittinghoff, D.; May, M.; Snyder, L.; Moy, K.; Buckles, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    We are studying Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) and Gas Puff fusion neutron sources on the Z accelerator. MagLIF experiments have produced up to 3e12 primary DD neutrons with 2-3 keV ion temperatures and 1-2 ns burn widths. Gas puff experiments have produced up to 5e13 primary DD neutrons with higher ion temperatures, longer burn times, and evidence of non-thermonuclear production. For MagLIF, the yield is expected to increase rapidly with increased energy coupling, yet it remains unclear if Gas Puffs would scale as attractively. We review neutron measurements for these experiments and plans for developing neutron diagnostics for these two very different sources. Sandia is sponsored by the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Inelastic collapse and near-wall localization of randomly accelerated particles

    CERN Document Server

    Belan, S; Lebedev, V; Falkovich, G

    2016-01-01

    The inelastic collapse of stochastic trajectories of a randomly accelerated particle moving in half-space $z > 0$ has been discovered by McKean and then independently re-discovered by Cornell et. al. The essence of this phenomenon is that particle arrives to a wall at $z = 0$ with zero velocity after an infinite number of inelastic collisions if the restitution coefficient $\\beta$ of particle velocity is smaller than the critical value $\\beta_c=\\exp(-\\pi/\\sqrt{3})$. We demonstrate that inelastic collapse takes place also in a wide class of models with spatially inhomogeneous random force and, what is more, that the critical value $\\beta_c$ is universal. That class includes an important case of inertial particles in wall-bounded random flows. To establish how the inelastic collapse influence the particle distribution, we construct an exact equilibrium probability density function $\\rho(z,v)$ for particle position and velocity. The equilibrium distribution exists only at $\\beta<\\beta_c$ and indicates that in...

  10. Experimental Characterization of a Plasma Deflagration Accelerator for Simulating Fusion Wall Response to Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the suitability of a pulsed deflagration accelerator to simulate the interaction of edge-localized modes with plasma first wall materials is investigated. Experimental measurements derived from a suite of diagnostics are presented that focus on the both the properties of the plasma jet and the manner in which such jets couple with material interfaces. Detailed measurements of the thermodynamic plasma state variables within the jet are presented using a quadruple Langmuir probe operating in current-saturation mode. This data in conjunction with spectroscopic measurements of H α Stark broadening via a fast-framing, intensified CCD camera provide spatial and temporal measurements of how the plasma density and temperature scale as a function of input energy. Using these measurements, estimates for the energy flux associated with the deflagration accelerator are found to be completely tunable over a range spanning 150 MW m-2 - 30 GW m-2. The plasma-material interface is investigated using tungsten tokens exposed to the plasma plume under variable conditions. Visualizations of resulting shock structures are achieved through Schlieren cinematography and energy transfer dynamics are discussed by presenting temperature measurements of exposed materials. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  11. Fluid-structure-interaction analysis for welded pipes with flow-accelerated corrosion wall thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L.; Ding, Y., E-mail: lan.sun@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    The flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) entrance effect results in enhanced wall thinning immediately downstream of a weld if the weld connects an upstream FAC-resistant material with a downstream less resistant material. The weld regions, especially those with local repairs, are susceptible to cracking due to the high residual stresses induced by fabrication. The combined effects of the FAC entrance effect and high stresses at a weld might compromise the structural integrity of the piping and lead to a failure. Weld degradation by FAC entrance effect has been observed at nuclear and fossil power plants. This paper describes an application using fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) modelling to study the combined effects of FAC wall thinning, weld residual stresses, and in-service loads on welded structures. Simplified cases analyzed were based on CANDU outlet feeder conditions. The analysis includes the flow and mass transfer modelling of the FAC entrance effect using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and nonlinear structural analyses of the welded structures with wall thinning and an assumed weld residual stress and strain distribution. The FSI analyses were performed using ANSYS Workbench, an integrated platform that enables the coupling of CFD and structural analysis solutions. The obtained results show that the combination of FAC, weld residual stresses, in-service loads (including the internal pressure) and (or) extreme loads could cause high stresses and affect the integrity of the welded pipes. The present work demonstrated that the FSI modelling can be used as an effective approach to assess the integrity of welded structures. (author)

  12. Development of high quality electron beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kando, Masaki; Dewa, Hideki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kondo, Shuji; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A design study on a high quality electron beam accelerator is described. This accelerator will be used for second generation experiments of laser wakefield acceleration, short x-ray generation, and other experiments of interaction of high intensity laser with an electron beam at Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The system consists of a photocathode rf gun and a race-track microtron (RTM). To combine these two components, injection and extraction beamlines are designed employing transfer matrix and compute codes. A present status of the accelerator system is also presented. (author)

  13. Cell Wall Heterogeneity in Root Development of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somssich, Marc; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion. Once the cells have differentiated, the walls of specific cell types need to comply with and support different cell functions. For example, a newly formed root hair needs to be able to break through the surrounding soil, while endodermal cells modify their walls at distinct positions to form Casparian strips between them. Hence, the cell walls are modified and rebuilt while cells transit through different developmental stages. In addition, the cell walls of roots readjust to their environment to support growth and to maximize nutrient uptake. Many of these modifications are likely driven by different developmental and stress signaling pathways. However, our understanding of how such pathways affect cell wall modifications and what enzymes are involved remain largely unknown. In this review we aim to compile data linking cell wall content and re-modeling to developmental stages of root cells, and dissect how root cell walls respond to certain environmental changes. PMID:27582757

  14. Accelerator mass spectrometry at the Australian National University's 14UD accelerator: experience and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifield, L. K.; Ophel, T. R.; Allan, G. L.; Bird, J. R.; Davie, R. F.

    1990-12-01

    Although the major emphasis of the joint ANU/ANSTO accelerator mass spectrometry program has been the measurement of 36Cl samples, both 14C and 10Be capabilities have been implemented recently on the 14UD accelerator. The new developments and operating experience are reviewed.

  15. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  16. Technology development for high power induction accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1985-06-11

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability.

  17. Feedback in Flow for Accelerated Reaction Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reizman, Brandon J; Jensen, Klavs F

    2016-09-20

    The pharmaceutical industry is investing in continuous flow and high-throughput experimentation as tools for rapid process development accelerated scale-up. Coupled with automation, these technologies offer the potential for comprehensive reaction characterization and optimization, but with the cost of conducting exhaustive multifactor screens. Automated feedback in flow offers researchers an alternative strategy for efficient characterization of reactions based on the use of continuous technology to control chemical reaction conditions and optimize in lieu of screening. Optimization with feedback allows experiments to be conducted where the most information can be gained from the chemistry, enabling product yields to be maximized and kinetic models to be generated while the total number of experiments is minimized. This Account opens by reviewing select examples of feedback optimization in flow and applications to chemical research. Systems in the literature are classified into (i) deterministic "black box" optimization systems that do not model the reaction system and are therefore limited in the utility of results for scale-up, (ii) deterministic model-based optimization systems from which reaction kinetics and/or mechanisms can be automatically evaluated, and (iii) stochastic systems. Though diverse in application, flow feedback systems have predominantly focused upon the optimization of continuous variables, i.e., variables such as time, temperature, and concentration that can be ramped from one experiment to the next. Unfortunately, this implies that the screening of discrete variables such as catalyst, ligand, or solvent generally does not factor into automated flow optimization, resulting in incomplete process knowledge. Herein, we present a system and strategy developed for optimizing discrete and continuous variables of a chemical reaction simultaneously. The approach couples automated feedback with high-throughput reaction screening in droplet flow

  18. Wakefield monitor development for CLIC accelerating structure

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Girardot, P; Andersson, A; Riddone, G; Samoshkin, A; Solodko, A; Zennaro, R; Ruber, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract To achieve high luminosity in CLIC, the accelerating structures must be aligned to an accuracy of 5 μm with respect to the beam trajectory. Position detectors called Wakefield Monitors (WFM) are integrated to the structure for a beam based alignment. This paper describes the requirements of such monitors. Detailed RF design and electromagnetic simulations of the WFM itself are presented. In particular, time domain computations are performed and an evaluation of the resolution is done for two higher order modes at 18 and 24 GHz. The mechanical design of a prototype accelerating structure with WFM is also presented as well as the fabrication status of three complete structures. The objective is to implement two of them in CTF3 at CERN for a feasibility demonstration with beam and high power rf.

  19. The in-situ diagnosis of plasma-wall interactions on magnetic fusion devices with accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Zachary

    2013-10-01

    We present the first in-situ, time-resolved measurements of low-Z isotope composition and deuterium retention over a large plasma-facing component (PFC) surface area in a magnetic fusion device. These critical measurements were made using a novel diagnostic technique based on the analysis of induced nuclear reactions from PFC surfaces on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Achieving an integrated understanding of plasma physics and materials science in magnetic fusion devices is severely hindered by a dearth of in-situ PFC surface diagnosis. Plasma-wall interactions, such as the erosion/redeposition of PFC material, the evolution of PFC surface isotope composition, and fusion fuel retention present significant plasma physics and materials science challenges for long pulse or steady-state devices. Our diagnostic uses a compact (~1 meter), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject ~1 MeV deuterons into the vacuum vessel. We control the tokamak's magnetic fields - in between plasma shots - to steer the deuterons to PFC surfaces, where they induce high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes in the first ~10 microns of material. Analysis of the induced gamma and neutron energy spectra provides quantitative reconstruction of PFC surface conditions. This nondestructive, in-situ technique achieves PFC surface composition measurements with plasma shot-to-shot time resolution and 1 centimeter spatial resolution over large PFC areas. Work supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-94ER54235 and Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  20. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body.

  1. Relativistic particle acceleration in developing Alfv\\'{e}n turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Matsukiyo, S; 10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1004

    2009-01-01

    A new particle acceleration process in a developing Alfv\\'{e}n turbulence in the course of successive parametric instabilities of a relativistic pair plasma is investigated by utilyzing one-dimensional electromagnetic full particle code. Coherent wave-particle interactions result in efficient particle acceleration leading to a power-law like energy distribution function. In the simulation high energy particles having large relativistic masses are preferentially accelerated as the turbulence spectrum evolves in time. Main acceleration mechanism is simultaneous relativistic resonance between a particle and two different waves. An analytical expression of maximum attainable energy in such wave-particle interactions is derived.

  2. TEACHERS IN THE ERA OF ACCELERATION : How the acceleration of ICT developments influences the ICT use by teachers at school

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    In the effort to examine the factors that impact the use of ICT by teachers, research has up until now neglected the acceleration of ICT developments as a factor that affects the successful integration of ICT in education. The technological acceleration in general has triggered significant changes at the social level, such as the acceleration of social change and the acceleration of the pace of life. This is why the study of the acceleration of ICT provides for a good theoretical framework to...

  3. In vivo wall shear measurements within the developing zebrafish heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aidan Jamison

    Full Text Available Physical forces can influence the embryonic development of many tissues. Within the cardiovascular system shear forces resulting from blood flow are known to be one of the regulatory signals that shape the developing heart. A key challenge in investigating the role of shear forces in cardiac development is the ability to obtain shear force measurements in vivo. Utilising the zebrafish model system we have developed a methodology that allows the shear force within the developing embryonic heart to be determined. Accurate wall shear measurement requires two essential pieces of information; high-resolution velocity measurements near the heart wall and the location and orientation of the heart wall itself. We have applied high-speed brightfield imaging to capture time-lapse series of blood flow within the beating heart between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization. Cardiac-phase filtering is applied to these time-lapse images to remove the heart wall and other slow moving structures leaving only the red blood cell movement. Using particle image velocimetry to calculate the velocity of red blood cells in different regions within the heart, and using the signal-to-noise ratio of the cardiac-phase filtered images to determine the boundary of blood flow, and therefore the position of the heart wall, we have been able to generate the necessary information to measure wall shear in vivo. We describe the methodology required to measure shear in vivo and the application of this technique to the developing zebrafish heart. We identify a reduction in shear at the ventricular-bulbar valve between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization and demonstrate that the shear environment of the ventricle during systole is constantly developing towards a more uniform level.

  4. Twin-Screw Extruder and Pellet Accelerator Integration Developments for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France

    2011-01-01

    The ITER pellet injection system consisting of a twinscrew frozen hydrogen isotope extruder, coupled to a combination solenoid actuated pellet cutter and pneumatic pellet accelerator, is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A prototype extruder has been built to produce a continuous solid deuterium extrusion and will be integrated with a secondary section, where pellets are cut, chambered, and launched with a single-stage pneumatic accelerator into the plasma through a guide tube. This integrated pellet injection system is designed to provide 5 mm fueling pellets, injected at a rate up to 10 Hz, or 3 mm edge localized mode (ELM) triggering pellets, injected at higher rates up to 20 Hz. The pellet cutter, chamber mechanism, and the solenoid operated pneumatic valve for the accelerator are optimized to provide pellet velocities between 200-300 m/s to ensure high pellet survivability while traversing the inner wall fueling guide tubes, and outer wall ELMpacing guide tubes. This paper outlines the current twin-screwextruder design, pellet accelerator design, and the integrationrequired for both fueling and ELM pacing pellets.

  5. 介质壁直线加速器加速单元间的电路耦合及解耦%Circuit coupling and decoupling between accelerating units of dielectric wall linear accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌怡; 张篁; 刘毅; 王卫; 叶茂; 夏连胜; 石金水; 章林文; 邓建军

    2016-01-01

    中国工程物理研究院流体物理研究所研发的介质壁直线加速器是基于固态脉冲形成线、GaAs光导开关和高梯度绝缘介质壁三项关键技术的新型直线脉冲加速器.在加速器调试阶段,测量出获得加速的质子束流能量远低于预期值,在排除功率源负载能力因素之后,发现脉冲功率源因连接回路引起的电路耦合效应是导致束流能量低的主要原因.基于介质壁直线加速器加速单元放电回路结构的分析,确认了加速单元之间的电路耦合的必然性.并通过测量回路电流,研究了几种不同工作模式下的电路耦合效应.结合电路耦合的特点,给出了两种基于磁芯隔离的解耦方法,并测量了这两种方法的解耦效率.%The dielectric wall linear accelerator,based on technologies of solid-state pulse forming lines,photoconductive semiconductor switches and high gradient insulators,is a new concept linear accelerator being developed at Institute of Fluid Phys-ics,CAEP.During accelerator test process,the measured energy gain of the accelerated proton beam is much lower than expec-ted.After the exclusion of the pulsed power source factor,we find that the coupling effect induced connecting circuit is the main factor of causing low beam energy gain.Based on discharge circuit analysis of the dielectric wall linear accelerator acceleration u-nit,we confirm that the circuit coupling between acceleration units is inevitable.The circuit coupling of several different operation modes is studied by measuring the circuit current.According to the characteristics of the coupled circuit,we give two kind of de-coupling methods based on the magnetic core isolation,and we measure the efficiency of the decoupling of the two methods.

  6. Linear accelerator development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, K

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of operating experience on the 200 MeV Proton Injector Linace of the A.G.S. emphasizing developments in field phase and amplitude control and beam diagnostics. Developments in auxilliary use of the machine are also described.

  7. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David; Sahinidis, N V; Cozad, A; Lee, A; Kim, H; Morinelly, J; Eslick, J; Yuan, Z

    2013-06-04

    This presentation reports development of advanced computational tools to accelerate next generation technology development. These tools are to develop an optimized process using rigorous models. They include: Process Models; Simulation-Based Optimization; Optimized Process; Uncertainty Quantification; Algebraic Surrogate Models; and Superstructure Optimization (Determine Configuration).

  8. Progress In Plasma Accelerator Development for Dynamic Formation of Plasma Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Cassibry, Jason T.; Griffin, Steven; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental plasma accelerator for magnetic target fusion (MTF) applications under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The accelerator is a coaxial pulsed plasma thruster (Figure 1). It has been tested experimentally and plasma jet velocities of approx.50 km/sec have been obtained. The plasma jet has been photographed with 10-ns exposure times to reveal a stable and repeatable plasma structure (Figure 2). Data for velocity profile information has been obtained using light pipes and magnetic probes embedded in the gun walls to record the plasma and current transit respectively at various barrel locations. Preliminary spatially resolved spectral data and magnetic field probe data are also presented. A high speed triggering system has been developed and tested as a means of reducing the gun "jitter". This jitter is being characterized and future work for second generation "ultra-low jitter" gun development is being identified.

  9. Plasma Accelerator Development for Dynamic Formation of Plasma Liners: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An experimental plasma accelerator for magnetic target fusion (MTF) applications under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The accelerator is a pulsed plasma thruster and has been tested experimentally and plasma jet velocities of approximately 50 km/sec have been obtained. The plasma jet structure has been photographed with 10 ns exposure times to reveal a stable and repeatable plasma structure. Data for velocity profile information has been obtained using light pipes embedded in the gun walls to record the plasma transit at various barrel locations. Preliminary spatially resolved spectral data and magnetic field probe data are also presented. A high speed triggering system has been developed and tested as a means of reducing the gun "jitter". This jitter is being characterized and future work for second generation "ultra-low jitter" gun development is being identified.

  10. Advanced Accelerator Development Strategy Report: DOE Advanced Accelerator Concepts Research Roadmap Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-03

    Over a full two day period, February 2–3, 2016, the Office of High Energy Physics convened a workshop in Gaithersburg, MD to seek community input on development of an Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) research roadmap. The workshop was in response to a recommendation by the HEPAP Accelerator R&D Subpanel [1] [2] to “convene the university and laboratory proponents of advanced acceleration concepts to develop R&D roadmaps with a series of milestones and common down selection criteria towards the goal for constructing a multi-TeV e+e– collider” (the charge to the workshop can be found in Appendix A). During the workshop, proponents of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (LWFA), particle-beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), and dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWFA), along with a limited number of invited university and laboratory experts, presented and critically discussed individual concept roadmaps. The roadmap workshop was preceded by several preparatory workshops. The first day of the workshop featured presentation of three initial individual roadmaps with ample time for discussion. The individual roadmaps covered a time period extending until roughly 2040, with the end date assumed to be roughly appropriate for initial operation of a multi-TeV e+e– collider. The second day of the workshop comprised talks on synergies between the roadmaps and with global efforts, potential early applications, diagnostics needs, simulation needs, and beam issues and challenges related to a collider. During the last half of the day the roadmaps were revisited but with emphasis on the next five to ten years (as specifically requested in the charge) and on common challenges. The workshop concluded with critical and unanimous endorsement of the individual roadmaps and an extended discussion on the characteristics of the common challenges. (For the agenda and list of participants see Appendix B.)

  11. China Accelerates Development of Coalbed Methane Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shenyan

    1997-01-01

    @@ Coalbed methane is a kind of natural gas self-accumulated in coalbed and adjacent strata. It was usually regarded hazardous in coal mine production and drained with an aim of coal mine safe production in the past time. Many countries have re-cently attached great importance to the development of coalbed methane since the United States developed the technique of extraction of coalbed methane through drilling a hole from the surface in the 1980s. It has rapidly become a new industrial sector, which provides both clean gas energy for residential and industrial purposes and raw material for chemical products such as fertilizer,carbon black and methanol.

  12. Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) pulse power technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.; Branum, D.; Cook, E.

    1981-03-09

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear induction accelerator with the following design parameters: 50 MeV, 10 kA, 70 ns, and 1 kHz in a ten-pulse burst. Acceleration is accomplished by means of 190 ferrite-loaded cells, each capable of maintaining a 250 kV voltage pulse for 70 ns across a 1-inch gap. The unique characteristic of this machine is its 1 kHz burst mode capability at very high currents. This paper dscribes the pulse power development program which used the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) technology as a starting base. Considerable changes have been made both electrically and mechanically in the pulse power components with special consideration being given to the design to achieve higher reliability. A prototype module which incorporates all the pulse power components has been built and tested for millions of shots. Prototype components and test results are described.

  13. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet development around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Lamm

    2003-06-23

    During the past 30 years superconducting magnet systems have enabled accelerators to achieve energies and luminosities that would have been impractical if not impossible with resistive magnets. By far, NbTi has been the preferred conductor for this application because of its ductility and insensitivity of Jc to mechanical strain. This is despite the fact that Nb{sub 3}Sn has a more favorable Jc vs. B dependence and can operate at much higher temperatures. Unfortunately, NbTi conductor is reaching the limit of it usefulness for high field applications. Despite incremental increases in Jc and operation at superfluid temperatures, magnets are limited to approximately a 10 T field. Improvements in conductor performance combined with future requirements for accelerator magnets to have bore fields greater than 10 T or operate in areas of large beam-induced heat loads now make Nb{sub 3}Sn look attractive. Thus, laboratories in several countries are actively engaged in programs to develop Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets for future accelerator applications. A summary of this important research activity is presented along with a brief history of Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnet development and a discussion of requirements for future accelerator magnets.

  14. Computational Tools to Accelerate Commercial Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the work reported are: to develop new computational tools and models to enable industry to more rapidly develop and deploy new advanced energy technologies; to demonstrate the capabilities of the CCSI Toolset on non-proprietary case studies; and to deploy the CCSI Toolset to industry. Challenges of simulating carbon capture (and other) processes include: dealing with multiple scales (particle, device, and whole process scales); integration across scales; verification, validation, and uncertainty; and decision support. The tools cover: risk analysis and decision making; validated, high-fidelity CFD; high-resolution filtered sub-models; process design and optimization tools; advanced process control and dynamics; process models; basic data sub-models; and cross-cutting integration tools.

  15. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  16. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  17. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  18. Molecular mechanisms for vascular development and secondary cell wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vascular tissues are important for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant and as physical support of upright growth. The primary constituents of vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, are derived from the meristematic vascular procambium and cambium. Xylem cells develop secondary cell walls that form the largest part of plant lignocellulosic biomass that serve as a renewable feedstock for biofuel production. For the last decade, research on vascular development and secondary cell wall biosynthesis has seen rapid progress due to the importance of these processes to plant biology and to the biofuel industry. Plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and peptide signaling regulate procambium/cambium proliferation, vascular patterning, and xylem differentiation. Transcriptional regulatory pathways play a pivot role in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Although most of these discoveries are derived from research in Arabidopsis, many genes have shown conserved functions in biofuel feedstock species. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of vascular development and secondary cell wall formation and discuss potential biotechnological uses.

  19. Continuous Surveillance Technique for Flow Accelerated Corrosion of Pipe Wall Using Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, F.; Kosaka, D.; Umetani, K.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a on-line monitoring technique using electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). In the series of laboratory experiments, carbon steel pipes were used and each sample was fabricated to simulate FAC. Electromagnetic acoustic resonance method (EMAR) is successfully tested for pipe wall thickness measurements. The validity and the feasibility of our method are also demonstrated through the laboratory experiments.

  20. Cell wall assembly and intracellular trafficking in plant cells are directly affected by changes in the magnitude of gravitational acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Chebli

    Full Text Available Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in gravitational acceleration. To understand the effect of gravity on the metabolism and cellular functioning of non-specialized plant cells, we investigated a rapidly growing plant cell devoid of known statoliths and without gravitropic behavior, the pollen tube. The effects of hyper-gravity and omnidirectional exposure to gravity on intracellular trafficking and on cell wall assembly were assessed in Camellia pollen tubes, a model system with highly reproducible growth behavior in vitro. Using an epi-fluorescence microscope mounted on the Large Diameter Centrifuge at the European Space Agency, we were able to demonstrate that vesicular trafficking is reduced under hyper-gravity conditions. Immuno-cytochemistry confirmed that both in hyper and omnidirectional gravity conditions, the characteristic spatial profiles of cellulose and callose distribution in the pollen tube wall were altered, in accordance with a dose-dependent effect on pollen tube diameter. Our findings suggest that in response to gravity induced stress, the pollen tube responds by modifying cell wall assembly to compensate for the altered mechanical load. The effect was reversible within few minutes demonstrating that the pollen tube is able to quickly adapt to changing stress conditions.

  1. Development of a Wireless Displacement Measurement System Using Acceleration Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billie F. Spencer Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM, earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  2. Electron cloud studies for CERN particle accelerators and simulation code development

    OpenAIRE

    Iadarola, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In a particle accelerator free electrons in the beam chambers can be generated by different mechanisms like the ionization of the residual gas or the photoemission from the chamber’s wall due to the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. The electromagnetic field of the beam can accelerate these electrons and project them onto the chamber’s wall. According to their impact energy and to the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of the surface, secondary electrons can be generated. Especially...

  3. Development of an explosive detection system using a proton accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Y S; Lee, J H

    2002-01-01

    The technology of explosive detection using radiation had been studied. On the basis that explosives has nitrogen atoms, the proof of principle experiments had been performed with the gamma ray which interacts with nitrogen atoms. The production of the gamma ray had been confirmed and, the scattered gamma ray from nitrogen had been observed in the experiment at Seoul National University. According to the experimental results, the specifications of the accelerator had been determined, 1.8MeV and 10mA. For a long-life time, a TCP type ion source using rf power have been developed. A tandem type accelerator had been chosen, and the important technologies, accelerating column and high voltage power supply, had been developed. On the basis of these technologies, the 1MV tandem accelerator had been constructed. The production process of C-13 film had been developed, and a 20kW water-cooled target had been fabricated. For gamma ray detection, a array detector with 9 BGO had been constructed, and the SW had been deve...

  4. Wall-Current-Monitor based Ghost and Satellite Bunch Detection in the CERN PS and the LHC Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, R J; Belleman, J; Bohl, T; Damerau, H

    2012-01-01

    While most LHC detectors and instrumentation systems are optimised for a nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns, the LHC RF cavities themselves operate at the 10th harmonic of the maximum bunch frequency. Due to the beam production scheme and transfers in the injector chain, part of the nominally ‘empty’ RF buckets may contain particles, referred to as ghost or satellite bunches. These populations must be accurately quantified for high-precision experiments, luminosity calibration and control of parasitic particle encounters at the four LHC interaction points. This contribution summarises the wall-current-monitor based ghost and satellite bunch measurements in CERN’s PS and LHC accelerators. Instrumentation set-up, post-processing and achieved performance are discussed.

  5. Scientists at Brookhaven contribute to the development of a better electron accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Scientists working at Brookhaven have developed a compact linear accelerator called STELLA (Staged Electron Laser Acceleration). Highly efficient, it may help electron accelerators become practical tools for applications in industry and medicine, such as radiation therapy (1 page)

  6. On the development of turbulent boundary layer with wall transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Marco; Downs, Robert S., III; Fallenius, Bengt E. G.; Fransson, Jens H. M.

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study of the development of the transpired boundary layer in zero pressure gradient is carried out on a 6.4 m long hydrodynamically smooth and perforated plate. The relatively longer development length of the present perforated plate compared to the ones used in previous studies allows us to investigate whether an asymptotic suction boundary layer with constant thickness is achieved for the turbulent state, analogously to what happens in the laminar state. Velocity profiles are obtained via hot-wire anemometry while the wall shear stress is measured at several streamwise locations with hot-film and wall-wire probes as well as with oil-film interferometry. The threshold suction coefficient above which relaminarization starts to occur is examined. The scaling of the mean velocity and of higher order velocity moments is discussed in light of the measured wall shear stress data. Support from the European Research Council of the Advanced Fluid Research On Drag reduction in Turbulence Experiments (AFRODITE) is acknowledged.

  7. Development of thick wall welding and cutting tools for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Akou, Kentaro; Koizumi, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The Vacuum Vessel, which is a core component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is required to be exchanged remotely in a case of accident such as superconducting coil failure. The in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are planned to be exchanged or fixed. In these exchange or maintenance operations, the thick wall welding and cutting are inevitable and remote handling tools are necessary. The thick wall welding and cutting tools for blanket are under developing in the ITER R and D program. The design requirement is to weld or cut the stainless steel of 70 mm thickness in the narrow space. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding, plasma cutting and iodine laser welding/cutting are selected as primary option. Element welding and cutting tests, design of small tools to satisfy space requirement, test fabrication and performance tests were performed. This paper reports the tool design and overview of welding and cutting tests. (author)

  8. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  9. Accelerating clinical insights: how to use accelerator mass spectrometry to make better early development decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Mark

    2010-12-01

    This paper is an overview of the applications of the technique of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) in the biomedical drug development field. The work described here has been carried out at Xceleron (York, UK and Germantown, MD, USA), and it aims to apply AMS to provide better information about the human pharmacokinetic/metabolic behaviour of drugs or drug candidates as early as possible. It is hoped that the use of this technique will contribute to the delivery of better, more effective drugs onto the market sooner, which will be good news for all concerned.

  10. Accelerating Vaccine Formulation Development Using Design of Experiment Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Patrick L; Mensch, Christopher; Hu, Binghua; Pixley, Heidi; Zhang, Lan; Dieter, Lance; Russell, Ryann; Smith, William J; Przysiecki, Craig; Kosinski, Mike; Blue, Jeffrey T

    2016-10-01

    Vaccine drug product thermal stability often depends on formulation input factors and how they interact. Scientific understanding and professional experience typically allows vaccine formulators to accurately predict the thermal stability output based on formulation input factors such as pH, ionic strength, and excipients. Thermal stability predictions, however, are not enough for regulators. Stability claims must be supported by experimental data. The Quality by Design approach of Design of Experiment (DoE) is well suited to describe formulation outputs such as thermal stability in terms of formulation input factors. A DoE approach particularly at elevated temperatures that induce accelerated degradation can provide empirical understanding of how vaccine formulation input factors and interactions affect vaccine stability output performance. This is possible even when clear scientific understanding of particular formulation stability mechanisms are lacking. A DoE approach was used in an accelerated 37(°)C stability study of an aluminum adjuvant Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B vaccine. Formulation stability differences were identified after only 15 days into the study. We believe this study demonstrates the power of combining DoE methodology with accelerated stress stability studies to accelerate and improve vaccine formulation development programs particularly during the preformulation stage. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New developments in design and applications for Pelletron accelerators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Greg Norton

    2002-11-01

    Most of the developments over the last several years related to Pelletron accelerator are in the field of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and other low beam current applications with the exception of a very high DC electron recirculation Pelletron. High precision AMS systems based on tandem Pelletrons from 500 kV to 5 MV terminal potential are now in use for routine high precision AMS measurements. Their performance will be reported. In addition, there has been significant advancement in the design of the multi-cathode SNICS source for the use of both gas and solid samples within a single source. The latest performance of these sources will be discussed. New diagnostics is being developed for very low beam currents. The latest design of the low current beam profile monitor (LCBPM) will also be presented.

  12. Impact of accelerated plant growth on seed variety development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The commercial lives of agricultural seed products have steadily declined in recent years. The introduction of genetically engineered crop seeds in 1966 has accentuated that trend. Widespread grower demand for genetically engineered seed requires competitive response by industry followers in order to avert market share losses to the industry leaders. Limitations on plant transformation technology, regulatory requirements and patent impediments require companies to rapidly convert transformed lines into elite commercial products. Massive multigenerational backcrossing efforts are required to distribute genetically engineered traits into a broad product mix. Significant incidents of expression failures, or ``gene silencing,'' have occurred unexpectedly, requiring product substitution strategies. First-to-market strategies, competitive response, broad germplasm conversion and rescue of product failures all share the element of urgency. Technologies which reliably accelerate product development rates can expect favorable reception by commercial seed developers. A growth chamber which dramatically accelerates the rate of plant growth is described.

  13. Development of lowenergy accelerator-based production of medical isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, Naomi; Barlow, Roger; Cywinski, Robert; Beasley, P.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present methods for production of new and existing isotopes for SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) and PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging using accelerator-based systems. Such isotopes are already widely used in medical diagnostics and research, and there is constant development of new drugs and isotopes. However the main production method for 99mTc, is currently in research reactors and is at risk due to scheduled and unscheduled shut downs. Therefore, a low c...

  14. Development of small applied accelerator in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    Interdigital-H(IH) Linac was constructed and applied to materials research in the University. IH Linac uses 1.6 MV small tandem pelletron and accelerates ion (>Q/A=1/4) from 240 KeV to 2.4 MeV. The secondary IH Linac was built and increased the energy to 3.4 MeV/u. In order to apply linac to therapy, IH Linac for PET (Position Emission Tomography), Carbon 6 MeV/u Linac for cancer therapy, APF (Alternating Phase Focus)-IH prototype linac, Carbon 2 MeV/u test APF-IH linac were developed. On application to semiconductor and industry, IHQ type MeV ion implantation device, APF-IH type MeV ion implantation device and high-energy electron accelerator were developed. A bone density measurement instrument was developed and the data was proved better values than ordinary instrument. The problems of prototype small accelerator are summarized. (S.Y.)

  15. Development of superconducting acceleration cavity technology for free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2000-10-01

    As a result of the cooperative research between the KAERI and Peking University, the key technologies of superconducting acceleration cavity and photoelectron gun have been developed for the application to high power free electron lasers. A 1.5-GHz, 1-cell superconducting RF cavity has been designed and fabricated by using pure Nb sheets. The unloaded Q values of the fabricated superconducting cavity has been measured to be 2x10{sup 9} at 2.5K, and 8x10{sup 9} at 1.8K. The maximum acceleration gradient achieved was 12 MeV/m at 2.5K, and 20MV/m at 1.8 K. A cryostat for the 1-cell superconducting cavity has been designed. As a source of electron beam, a DC photocathode electron gun has been designed and fabricated, which is composed of a photocathode evaporation chamber and a 100-keV acceleration chamber. The efficiency of the Cs2Te photocathode is 3% nominally at room temperature, 10% at 290 deg C. The superconducting photoelectron gun system developed has been estimated to be a good source of high-brightness electron beam for high-power free electron lasers.

  16. Acceleration, rythms and school trajectory: developing acamemic talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenita C. Guenther

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the school work into a serial sequence of interlocked years install negative conditions to learning, and everyday living, for students with intellectual ability and level of achievement higher than their peer group. Acceleration is a way to advance these students through school curriculum is less time than required, without submitting them to the minimum age limits established by school systems. The big conundrum is that although it is one of the most studied themes is both, Education and Gifted Education, the results of such research do not have an impact in the educational practice, still marked by strong resistance within the school milieu. This article discuss acceleration as a measure to develop academic talent, also the expression of intelligence as an ability domain most and perhaps better studied, in the area of giftedness and talent.

  17. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  18. Muscle Patterning in Mouse and Human Abdominal Wall Development and Omphalocele Specimens of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Peter F.; Corliss, Robert F.; Yamada, Shigehito; SHIOTA, KOHEI; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and p...

  19. Development of high current injector for tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Takashi; Iwamoto, Eiji [Nissin - High Voltage Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Kishimoto, Naoki; Saito, Tetsuya; Mori, Yoshiharu

    1997-02-01

    The development of the electrostatic type tandem accelerators has been carried out so far, but by the recent remarkable progress of negative ion sources, the beam current which was inconceivable so far has become obtainable, and the use as the electrostatic type tandem accelerators is expanding rapidly. The problem which must be solved in the development of a high energy, large current heavy ion injection device is the development of an injector. As to the generation of negative ions, by the development of plasma sputter negative ion sources, the almost satisfactory performance has been obtained in beam current, emittance, life and so on, but as for the transport and control of generated negative ion beam, there is the large problem of spatial charge effect. This time, the verifying test on this problem was carried out, therefore, its contents and results are reported. The equipment which was developed this time was delivered to the Institute for Materials Research. Its specifications are shown. The whole constitution, negative ion source, and beam transport system are described. Beam generation test and spatial charge effect test are reported. The test stand was made, and in the verifying test, the maximum beams of 4 mA in Cu and 3 mA in Ni were able to be generated and transported. The effect of the countermeasures to spatial charge effect was confirmed. (K.I.)

  20. [Acceleration of somatic development in the surroundings of zinc plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbus, Onufry; Grzywna, Teresa; Grzywna, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    One of the most sensitive measures of health state depending on for example social conditions of the society and family as well as the degree of environmental pollution is somatic development of children. Changes in the somatic and descriptive values, which have been observed for the decades, are known as secular trend that is tendency for changes over centuries. One of its parts is enlargement of parameters of somatic development that is acceleration. Numerous studies on the development of children living in Silesia, the area of great economic potential, however, highly polluted, show the deterioration of developmental parameters of children in Silesia in comparison with their peers from other parts of Poland. The aim of the study is to evaluate the acceleration of somatic development of children living nearby zinc plant. Studies on the somatic development of children at the age between 7-15 years attending the same primary school were carried out in Miasteczko Slaskie at interval of 15 years (1983-1998). Miasteczko Slaskie is the town known for its zinc plant that emits the highest levels of pollution of all steelworks in Poland. This is related to metallurgy of non-ferrous metals. The results were compared with the results of body measurement of the peers from one of the schools in Tarnowskie Góry carried out in the years 1988 and 1998. It was shown that boys and girls from both communities presented lower body mass and height in all periods of study than the standards of The Institute of Mother and Child showed in 1983. No acceleration of somatic development was present among children in Tarnowskie Góry, which may be explained by deterioration of social conditions of these children. However, this acceleration is present in the population of children in Miasteczko Slaskie. This fact may be explained by significantly decreased emission of pollution by the zinc plant and intense care for children shown by the plant managers as well as the foundation for children

  1. Tomato Fruit Cell Wall Synthesis during Development and Senescence : In Vivo Radiolabeling of Wall Fractions Using [C]Sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcham, E J; Gross, K C; Ng, T J

    1989-02-01

    The pedicel of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv ;Rutgers') of different developmental stages from immature-green (IG) to red was injected on the vine with 7 microcuries [(14)C(U)]sucrose and harvested after 18 hours. Cell walls were isolated from outer pericarp and further fractionated yielding ionically associated pectin, covalently bound pectin, hemicellulosic fraction I, hemicellulosic fraction II, and cellulosic fraction II. The dry weight of the total cell wall and of each cell wall fraction per gram fresh weight of pericarp tissue decreased after the mature-green (MG) stage of development. Incorporation of radiolabeled sugars into each fraction decreased from the IG to MG3 (locules jellied but still green) stage. Incorporation in all fractions increased from MG3 to breaker and turning (T) and then decreased from T to red. Data indicate that cell wall synthesis continues throughout ripening and increases transiently from MG4 (locules jellied and yellow to pink in color) to T, corresponding to the peak in respiration and ethylene synthesis during the climacteric. Synthesis continued at a time when total cell wall fraction dry weight decreased indicating the occurrence of cell wall turnover. Synthesis and insertion of a modified polymer with removal of other polymers may produce a less rigid cell wall and allow softening of the tissue integrity during ripening.

  2. Latest Diagnostic Electronics Development for the PROSCAN Proton Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperrex, P. A.; Frei, U.; Gamma, G.; Müller, U.; Rezzonico, L.

    2004-11-01

    New VME-based diagnostic electronics are being developed for PROSCAN, a proton accelerator for medical application presently under construction at PSI. One new development is a VME-based multi-channel logarithmic amplifier for converting current to voltage (LogIV). The LogIV boards are used for measuring current from the multiple wire (harp) profile monitors. The LogIV calibration method, current dependant bandwidth and temperature stability are presented. Another development is a BPM front end, based on the newest digital receiver techniques. Features of this new system are the remote control of the preamplifier stage and the continuous monitoring of each individual signal overall gain. Characteristics of the developed prototype are given.

  3. Feasibility study on the development of proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ki Hyung; Bang, Hyung Chan; Cho, Yong Sup [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Rak [Church Environment Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam Kung, Won; Cho, Moo Hyun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Suk [Cartolrik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Hyung Joo [Nature Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Basic Study Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hun Joo [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Hong; Cho, Nam Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeon Kun [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    A feasibility on the development of a high energy proton accelerator to be used for R and D in the nuclear field of korea was studied. The proposed one is a proton linac with parameters of about 1 GeV, 20 mA which can supply enough neutrons by the spallation reaction to drive a subcritical reactor. It= is expected to solve the intrinsic problem in the nuclear field such as safety, nuclear waste, proliferation and resource. The study was carried out through a multi-institutional cooperation of universities, institute and industry for a national consensus. 5 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs. (author)

  4. 76 FR 50224 - Medicare Program; Accountable Care Organization Accelerated Development Learning Sessions; Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Accountable Care Organization Accelerated Development Learning Sessions; Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, September 15th and... second Accelerated Development Learning Session (ADLS) hosted by CMS to help Accountable Care...

  5. Accelerator-driven subcritical facility:Conceptual design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: gohar@anl.gov; Bolshinsky, Igor [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2528, Idaho Falls, ID 83403 (United States); Naberezhnev, Dmitry [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Duo, Jose [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Belch, Henry [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-06-23

    A conceptual design development of an accelerator-driven subcritical facility has been carried out in the preparation of a joint activity with Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology of Ukraine. The main functions of the facility are the medical isotope production and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. An electron accelerator is considered to drive the subcritical assembly. The neutron source intensity and spectrum have been studied. The energy deposition, spatial neutron generation, neutron utilization fraction, and target dimensions have been quantified to define the main target performance parameters, and to select the target material and beam parameters. Different target conceptual designs have been developed based the engineering requirements including heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. The subcritical assembly is designed to obtain the highest possible neutron flux level with a K {sub eff} of 0.98. Different fuel materials, uranium enrichments, and reflector materials are considered in the design process. The possibility of using low enrichment uranium without penalizing the facility performance is carefully evaluated. The mechanical design of the facility has been developed to maximize its utility and minimize the time for replacing the target and the fuel assemblies. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements, upgrades, and new missions. In addition, it has large design margins to accommodate different operating conditions and parameters. In this paper, the conceptual design and the design analyses of the facility will be presented.

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF IMPORTANT POLICIES FOR ACCELERATING DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Neupane

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nepal belongs to one of the least developed countries around the world with HDI 157 out of 187 countries (UNDP 2013. Even though poverty in Nepal has reduced to 24.8% in the latest census, the livelihoods of the poorest people living in the remote communities are still vulnerable. Two third of the population still depends on the subsistence agriculture. Similarly, due to lack of job opportunities, youth migration is escalating and Nepal is facing one of the most critical phases of development in its history (Snellinger 2009. Inadequate infrastructure and poor road connectivity are other constraints for the development (World Bank 2011. It follows that, poor access to electricity is another challenge despite the country’s enormous potential for hydroelectricity. Similarly, Nepal  has huge prospective for tourism due to its unique natural resources (Bhandari 2004. Nonetheless, Nepal has not benefited optimally from the tourism sector for its self-sustained development. Recently Government of Nepal (2011 has announced diverse policies for accelerating development through proper utilization of local resources. This paper critically evaluates the crucial policies such as Agriculture Development Strategy, National Cooperatives Policy, National Youth Policy, and Micro-hydro for Rural Development, and Tourism for Development. The paper discusses each of these policies’ background; critically analyse the likelihood as well as challenges for fast-tracking development; and finally offers some recommendations based discussion and analysis.

  7. Structural changes in cell wall pectins during strawberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Candelas; Santiago-Doménech, Nieves; Kirby, Andrew R; Gunning, A Patrick; Morris, Victor J; Quesada, Miguel A; Matas, Antonio J; Mercado, José A

    2017-09-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × anannasa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruit. Rapid loss of firmness occurs during the ripening process, resulting in a short shelf life and high economic losses. To get insight into the role of pectin matrix in the softening process, cell walls from strawberry fruit at two developmental stages, unripe-green and ripe-red, were extracted and sequentially fractionated with different solvents to obtain fractions enriched in a specific component. The yield of cell wall material as well as the per fresh weight contents of the different fractions decreased in ripe fruit. The largest reduction was observed in the pectic fractions extracted with a chelating agent (trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid, CDTA fraction) and those covalently bound to the wall (extracted with Na2CO3). Uronic acid content of these two fractions also decreased significantly during ripening, but the amount of soluble pectins extracted with phenol:acetic acid:water (PAW) and water increased in ripe fruit. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the different fractions showed that the degree of esterification decreased in CDTA pectins but increased in soluble fractions at ripen stage. The chromatographic analysis of pectin fractions by gel filtration revealed that CDTA, water and, mainly PAW polyuronides were depolymerised in ripe fruit. By contrast, the size of Na2CO3 pectins was not modified. The nanostructural characteristics of CDTA and Na2CO3 pectins were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Isolated pectic chains present in the CDTA fractions were significantly longer and more branched in samples from green fruit than those from red fruit. No differences in contour length were observed in Na2CO3 strands between samples of both stages. However, the percentage of branched chains decreased from 19.7% in unripe samples to 3.4% in ripe fruit. The number of pectin aggregates was higher in green fruit samples of both fractions. These

  8. Cell Wall Composition and Candidate Biosynthesis Gene Expression During Rice Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra; Peck, Matthew L.; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Williams, Brian; Chiniquy, Dawn M.; Saha, Prasenjit; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Conlin, Brian; Zhu, Lan; Hahn, Michael G.; Willats, William G. T.; Scheller, Henrik V.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2016-08-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had previously been identified as being highly expressed in rice. Most cell wall components vary significantly during development, and correlations among them support current understanding of cell walls. We identified 92 significant correlations between cell wall components and gene expression and establish nine strong hypotheses for genes that synthesize xylans, mixed linkage glucan and pectin components. This work provides an extensive analysis of cell wall composition throughout rice development, identifies genes likely to synthesize grass cell walls, and provides a framework for development of genetically improved grasses for use in lignocellulosic biofuel production and agriculture.

  9. Cell wall composition and candidate biosynthesis gene expression during rice development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall...

  10. Development of high purity niobium used in SRF accelerating cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Niobium is widely used in SRF(Superconducting Radio Frequency)cavities due to its excellent superconductivity and workability.With the continuous development of technology,higher demands of material are raised.One of the key issues is that RRR(Residual Resistance Ratio)of the Nb material should be more than 300.which requires that the Nb ingot have even higher RRR.This article introduces the development and the experimental results of high purity niobium in OTIC in Ningxia(Ningxia Orient Tantalum Industry Co.Ltd.),and the test results of the single cell TESLA(Tera Electron volt energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator)shaped cavity manufactured by Peking University using Nb material from OTIC.

  11. Developments on the SCADA of CERN Accelerators Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniotti, F; Boccioli, M; Gomes, P; Pereira, H; Kopylov, L; Mikheev, M; Merker, S

    2014-01-01

    During the first 3 years of LHC operation, the priority for the SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) of vacuum controls was to attend to user requests, and to improve its ergonomics and efficiency: access & presentation of information simplified and normalized; coherent functionalities & menus across all accelerators; automatic scripts instead of fastidious manual actions; enhanced tools for data analysis and for maintenance interventions. Several decades of cumulative developments, based on heterogeneous technologies and architectures, have been asking for a homogenization effort. The first LHC Long Shutdown (LS1) provides the opportunity to further standardize the vacuum controls systems [1], around Siemens-S7 PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers) and PVSS SCADA. Meanwhile, exchanges with other Groups at CERN and outside Institutes have been promoted: to follow the global update policy for software libraries; to discuss philosophies and development details; and to accomplish common pro...

  12. Highly Productive Application Development with ViennaCL for Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, K.; Weinbub, J.; Rudolf, F.

    2012-12-01

    The use of graphics processing units (GPUs) for the acceleration of general purpose computations has become very attractive over the last years, and accelerators based on many integrated CPU cores are about to hit the market. However, there are discussions about the benefit of GPU computing when comparing the reduction of execution times with the increased development effort [1]. To counter these concerns, our open-source linear algebra library ViennaCL [2,3] uses modern programming techniques such as generic programming in order to provide a convenient access layer for accelerator and GPU computing. Other GPU-accelerated libraries are primarily tuned for performance, but less tailored to productivity and portability: MAGMA [4] provides dense linear algebra operations via a LAPACK-comparable interface, but no dedicated matrix and vector types. Cusp [5] is closest in functionality to ViennaCL for sparse matrices, but is based on CUDA and thus restricted to devices from NVIDIA. However, no convenience layer for dense linear algebra is provided with Cusp. ViennaCL is written in C++ and uses OpenCL to access the resources of accelerators, GPUs and multi-core CPUs in a unified way. On the one hand, the library provides iterative solvers from the family of Krylov methods, including various preconditioners, for the solution of linear systems typically obtained from the discretization of partial differential equations. On the other hand, dense linear algebra operations are supported, including algorithms such as QR factorization and singular value decomposition. The user application interface of ViennaCL is compatible to uBLAS [6], which is part of the peer-reviewed Boost C++ libraries [7]. This allows to port existing applications based on uBLAS with a minimum of effort to ViennaCL. Conversely, the interface compatibility allows to use the iterative solvers from ViennaCL with uBLAS types directly, thus enabling code reuse beyond CPU-GPU boundaries. Out-of-the-box support

  13. Developing an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) based on electron accelerators and heavy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, H.; Ranjbar, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    An ADS based on electron accelerators has been developed specifically for energy generation and medical applications. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed using FLUKA code to design a hybrid electron target and the core components. The composition, geometry of conversion targets and the coolant system have been optimized for electron beam energies of 20 to 100 MeV . Furthermore, the photon and photoneutron energy spectra, distribution and energy deposition for various incoming electron beam powers have been studied. Light-heavy water of various mixtures have been used as heat removal for the targets, as γ-n converters and as neutron moderators. We have shown that an electron LINAC, as a neutron production driver for ADSs, is capable of producing a neutron output of > 3.5 × 1014 (n/s/mA). Accordingly, the feasibility of an electron-based ADS employing the designed features is promising for energy generation and high intense neutron production which have various applications such as medical therapies.

  14. Maternal enrichment during pregnancy accelerates retinal development of the fetus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sale

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal environment on fetal development is largely unexplored, the available evidence concerns only the deleterious effects elicited by prenatal stress. Here we investigated the influence of prenatal enrichment on the early development of the visual system in the fetus. We studied the anatomical development of the rat retina, by analyzing the migration of neural progenitors and the process of retinal ganglion cell death, which exerts a key role in sculpturing the developing retinal system at perinatal ages. The number of apoptotic cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer was analyzed using two distinct methods: the presence of pyknotic nuclei stained for cresyl violet and the appearance of DNA fragmentation (Tunel method. We report that environmental enrichment of the mother during pregnancy affects the structural maturation of the retina, accelerating the migration of neural progenitors and the dynamics of natural cell death. These effects seem to be under the control of insulin-like growth factor-I: its levels, higher in enriched pregnant rats and in their milk, are increased also in their offspring, its neutralization abolishes the action of maternal enrichment on retinal development and chronic insulin-like growth factor-I injection to standard-reared females mimics the effects of enrichment in the fetuses. Thus, the development of the visual system is sensitive to environmental stimulation during prenatal life. These findings could have a bearing in orienting clinical research in the field of prenatal therapy.

  15. Bmp2 and Bmp4 accelerate alveolar bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mingming; Zhao, Yibing; Zhang, Fangming; Huang, Xiaofeng

    2015-06-01

    Alveolar bone remodeling is a continuous process that takes place during development and in response to various physiological and pathological stimuli. However, detailed knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms involved in alveolar bone development is still lacking. This study aims at improving our understanding of alveolar bone formation and the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) in this process. Mice at embryonic (E) day 13.5 to postnatal (PN) day 15.5 were selected to observe the process of alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone development was found to be morphologically observable at E14.5. Molar teeth isolated from mice at PN7.5 were pretreated with Bmp2, Bmp4, Noggin, or BSA, and grafted subcutaneously into mice. The subcutaneously implanted tooth germs formed alveolar bone indicating the role of the dental follicle in alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone formation was increased after pretreatment with Bmp2 and Bmp4, but not with Noggin. Gene expression levels in dental follicle cells from murine molars were also determined by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of Runx2, Bsp, and Ocn were significantly higher in dental follicle cells cultured with Bmp2 or Bmp4, and significantly lower in those cultured with Noggin when compared with that of the BSA controls. Our results suggest that the dental follicle participates in alveolar bone formation and Bmp2/4 appears to accelerate alveolar bone development.

  16. Kimberlite Wall Rock Fragmentation: Venetia K08 Pipe Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Tait, M.; Dirks, P.

    2009-05-01

    Volcanic systems impose powerful disrupting forces on the country rock into which they intrude. The nature of the induced brittle deformation or fragmentation can be characteristic of the volcanic processes ongoing within the volcanic system, but are most typically partially removed or obscured by repeated, overprinting volcanic activity in mature pipes. Incompletely evolved pipes may therefore provide important evidence for the types and stages of wall rock fragmentation, and mechanical processes responsible for the fragmentation. Evidence for preserved stages of fragmentation is presented from a detailed study of the K08 pipe within the Cambrian Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa. This paper investigates the growth history of the K08 pipe and the mechanics of pipe development based on observations in the pit, drill core and thin sections, from geochemical analyses, particle size distribution analyses, and 3D modeling. Present open pit exposures of the K08 pipe comprise greater than 90% mega-breccia of country rock clasts (gneiss and schist) with fractal statistics on particle size distributions (PSD) is used to quantify sheared and non- sheared breccia zones. The calculated energy required to form the non-sheared breccia PSD implies an explosive early stage of fragmentation that pre-conditions the rock mass. The pre-conditioning would have been caused by explosions that are either phreatic or phreatomagmatic in nature. The explosions are likely to have been centered on a dyke, or pulses of preceding volatile-fluid phases, which have encountered a local hydrologically active fault. The explosions were inadequate in mechanical energy release (72% of a mine production blast) to eject material from the pipe, and the pipe may not have breached surface. The next stage of fragmentation is interpreted to have been an upward-moving collapse of the pre-conditioned hanging wall of a subterranean volcanic excavation. This would explain the mega-scale layering across

  17. Accelerated killing of cancer cells using a multifunctional single-walled carbon nanotube-based system for targeted drug delivery in combination with photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyamohan P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prashanti Jeyamohan, Takashi Hasumura, Yutaka Nagaoka, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi Kumar Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Japan Abstract: The photothermal effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs in combination with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX for targeting and accelerated destruction of breast cancer cells is demonstrated in this paper. A targeted drug-delivery system was developed for selective killing of breast cancer cells with polyethylene glycol biofunctionalized and DOX-loaded SWCNTs conjugated with folic acid. In our work, in vitro drug-release studies showed that the drug (DOX binds at physiological pH (pH 7.4 and is released only at a lower pH, ie, lysosomal pH (pH 4.0, which is the characteristic pH of the tumor environment. A sustained release of DOX from the SWCNTs was observed for a period of 3 days. SWCNTs have strong optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR region. In this special spectral window, biological systems are highly transparent. Our study reports that under laser irradiation at 800 nm, SWCNTs exhibited strong light–heat transfer characteristics. These optical properties of SWCNTs open the way for selective photothermal ablation in cancer therapy. It was also observed that internalization and uptake of folate-conjugated NTs into cancer cells was achieved by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. Results of the in vitro experiments show that laser was effective in destroying the cancer cells, while sparing the normal cells. When the above laser effect was combined with DOX-conjugated SWCNTs, we found enhanced and accelerated killing of breast cancer cells. Thus, this nanodrug-delivery system, consisting of laser, drug, and SWCNTs, looks to be a promising selective modality with high treatment efficacy and low side effects for cancer therapy. Keywords: cancer, nanotherapy, SWCNTs, targeted drug delivery

  18. Target development for the Munich fission fragment accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, H J; Gross, M L; Grossmann, R; Kester, O; Thirolf, P

    2002-01-01

    The target for the Munich Fission Fragment Accelerator (MAFF) consists of typically 1 g of the fission material sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U in the form of UC sub 2 , dispersed homogeneously in a cylindrical graphite matrix, which is encapsulated in a protective Re container. This special type of target is currently under development. The problems related to its manufacture are discussed. To enable diffusion and extraction of the fission products, the target has to be maintained at a temperature of up to 2700 K during operation. Extensive tests are required to study the long-term behaviour of the involved materials at these conditions. For this purpose a resistively heated high vacuum furnace has been set up, which allows high-temperature heat treatment of target samples for a period of up to 1000 h.

  19. Change in wall composition of transfer and aleurone cells during wheat grain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, P; Jamme, F; Barron, C; Bouchet, B; Saulnier, L; Dumas, P; Guillon, F

    2011-02-01

    In addition to the starchy endosperm, a specialized tissue accumulating storage material, the endosperm of wheat grain, comprises the aleurone layer and the transfer cells next to the crease. The transfer cells, located at the ventral region of the grain, are involved in nutrient transfer from the maternal tissues to the developing endosperm. Immunolabeling techniques, Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron infrared micro-spectroscopy were used to study the chemistry of the transfer cell walls during wheat grain development. The kinetic depositions of the main cell wall polysaccharides of wheat grain endosperm, arabinoxylan, and (1-3)(1-4)-β-glucan in transfer cell walls were different from kinetics previously observed in the aleurone cell walls. While (1-3)(1-4)-β-glucan appeared first in the aleurone cell walls at 90°D, arabinoxylan predominated in the transfer cell walls from 90 to 445°D. Both aleurone and transfer cell walls were enriched in (1-3)(1-4)-β-glucan at the mature stage of wheat grain development. Arabinoxylan was more substituted in the transfer cell walls than in the aleurone walls. However, arabinoxylan was more feruloylated in the aleurone than in the transfer cell walls, whatever the stage of grain development. In the transfer cells, the ferulic acid was less abundant in the outer periclinal walls while para-coumarate was absent. Possible implications of such differences are discussed.

  20. New Method Developed To Purify Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes have attracted considerable attention because of their remarkable mechanical properties and electrical and thermal conductivities. Use of these materials as primary or secondary reinforcements in polymers or ceramics could lead to new materials with significantly enhanced mechanical strength and electrical and thermal conductivity. Use of carbon-nanotube-reinforced materials in aerospace components will enable substantial reductions in component weight and improvements in durability and safety. Potential applications for single wall carbon nanotubes include lightweight components for vehicle structures and propulsion systems, fuel cell components (bipolar plates and electrodes) and battery electrodes, and ultra-lightweight materials for use in solar sails. A major barrier to the successful use of carbon nanotubes in these components is the need for methods to economically produce pure carbon nanotubes in large enough quantities to not only evaluate their suitability for certain applications but also produce actual components. Most carbon nanotube synthesis methods, including the HiPCO (high pressure carbon monoxide) method developed by Smalley and others, employ metal catalysts that remain trapped in the final product. These catalyst impurities can affect nanotube properties and accelerate their decomposition. The development of techniques to remove most, if not all, of these impurities is essential to their successful use in practical applications. A new method has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to purify gram-scale quantities of single wall carbon nanotubes. This method, a modification of a gas phase purification technique previously reported by Smalley and others, uses a combination of high-temperature oxidations and repeated extractions with nitric and hydrochloric acid. This improved procedure significantly reduces the amount of impurities (catalyst and nonnanotube forms of carbon) within the nanotubes, increasing

  1. Status and Future Developments in Large Accelerator Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen S. White

    2006-10-31

    Over the years, accelerator control systems have evolved from small hardwired systems to complex computer controlled systems with many types of graphical user interfaces and electronic data processing. Today's control systems often include multiple software layers, hundreds of distributed processors, and hundreds of thousands of lines of code. While it is clear that the next generation of accelerators will require much bigger control systems, they will also need better systems. Advances in technology will be needed to ensure the network bandwidth and CPU power can provide reasonable update rates and support the requisite timing systems. Beyond the scaling problem, next generation systems face additional challenges due to growing cyber security threats and the likelihood that some degree of remote development and operation will be required. With a large number of components, the need for high reliability increases and commercial solutions can play a key role towards this goal. Future control systems will operate more complex machines and need to present a well integrated, interoperable set of tools with a high degree of automation. Consistency of data presentation and exception handling will contribute to efficient operations. From the development perspective, engineers will need to provide integrated data management in the beginning of the project and build adaptive software components around a central data repository. This will make the system maintainable and ensure consistency throughout the inevitable changes during the machine lifetime. Additionally, such a large project will require professional project management and disciplined use of well-defined engineering processes. Distributed project teams will make the use of standards, formal requirements and design and configuration control vital. Success in building the control system of the future may hinge on how well we integrate commercial components and learn from best practices used in other industries.

  2. Resource for the Development of Biomedical Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turteltaub, K. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bench, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buchholz, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Enright, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kulp, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McCartt, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Malfatti, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ognibene, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Loots, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stewart, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-08

    The NIH Research Resource for Biomedical AMS was originally funded at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1999 to develop and apply the technology of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in broad- based biomedical research. The Resource’s niche is to fill needs for ultra high sensitivity quantitation when isotope-labeled agents are used. The Research Resource’s Technology Research and Development (TR&D) efforts will focus on the needs of the biomedical research community in the context of seven Driving Biomedical Projects (DBPs) that will drive the Center’s technical capabilities through three core TR&Ds. We will expand our present capabilities by developing a fully integrated HPLC AMS to increase our capabilities for metabolic measurements, we will develop methods to understand cellular processes and we will develop and validate methods for the application of AMS in human studies, which is a growing area of demand by collaborators and service users. In addition, we will continue to support new and ongoing collaborative and service projects that require the capabilities of the Resource. The Center will continue to train researchers in the use of the AMS capabilities being developed, and the results of all efforts will be widely disseminated to advance progress in biomedical research. Towards these goals, our specific aims are to:1.) Increase the value and information content of AMS measurements by combining molecular speciation with quantitation of defined macromolecular isolates. Specifically, develop and validate methods for macromolecule labeling, characterization and quantitation.2.) Develop and validate methods and strategies to enable AMS to become more broadly used in human studies. Specifically, demonstrate robust methods for conducting pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies in humans and model systems.3.) Increase the accessibility of AMS to the Biomedical research community and the throughput of AMS through direct coupling to separatory

  3. Resource for the Development of Biomedical Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerteltaub, K. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bench, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buchholz, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Enright, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kulp, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Loots, G. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McCartt, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Malfatti, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ognibene, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stewart, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-21

    The NIH Research Resource for Biomedical AMS was originally funded at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1999 to develop and apply the technology of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in broad- based biomedical research. The Resource’s niche is to fill needs for ultra high sensitivity quantitation when isotope-labeled agents are used. The Research Resource’s Technology Research and Development (TR&D) efforts will focus on the needs of the biomedical research community in the context of seven Driving Biomedical Projects (DBPs) that will drive the Center’s technical capabilities through three core TR&Ds. We will expand our present capabilities by developing a fully integrated HPLC AMS to increase our capabilities for metabolic measurements, we will develop methods to understand cellular processes and we will develop and validate methods for the application of AMS in human studies, which is a growing area of demand by collaborators and service users. In addition, we will continue to support new and ongoing collaborative and service projects that require the capabilities of the Resource. The Center will continue to train researchers in the use of the AMS capabilities being developed, and the results of all efforts will be widely disseminated to advance progress in biomedical research. Towards these goals, our specific aims are to:1.) Increase the value and information content of AMS measurements by combining molecular speciation with quantitation of defined macromolecular isolates. Specifically, develop and validate methods for macromolecule labeling, characterization and quantitation.2.) Develop and validate methods and strategies to enable AMS to become more broadly used in human studies. Specifically, demonstrate robust methods for conducting pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies in humans and model systems.3.) Increase the accessibility of AMS to the Biomedical research community and the throughput of AMS through direct coupling to separatory

  4. Developing Key Parameters for Green Performance of Partition Wall Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Cheng Siew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To promote sustainable construction, it is important to consider green performance of construction materials throughout the life cycle. Selecting inappropriate materials could not only affect the functional performance but also preclude the achievement of green building performance as a whole. Green performance of construction materials has therefore been one of the primary considerations of green building assessment systems. Using partition wall blocks as an example, this paper examines green performance of building materials primarily from the cradle to gate boundaries. Nine key parameters are proposed for the green performance of partition wall blocks. Apart from environmental features, technical performance of partition wall blocks is also taken into consideration since it is the determinant of the lifecycle performance. This paper offers a roadmap to decision makers to make environmentally responsible choices for their materials of internal walls and partitions, and hence provides a potential sustainable solution for green buildings.

  5. The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC`s seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility`s structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a {open_quotes}reality basis{close_quotes} for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures.

  6. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Development of Wall-Thinning Evaluation Procedure for Nuclear Power Plant Piping—Part 1: Quantification of Thickness Measurement Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Yun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pipe wall thinning by flow-accelerated corrosion and various types of erosion is a significant and costly damage phenomenon in secondary piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs. Most NPPs have management programs to ensure pipe integrity due to wall thinning that includes periodic measurements for pipe wall thicknesses using nondestructive evaluation techniques. Numerous measurements using ultrasonic tests (UTs; one of the nondestructive evaluation technologies have been performed during scheduled outages in NPPs. Using the thickness measurement data, wall thinning rates of each component are determined conservatively according to several evaluation methods developed by the United States Electric Power Research Institute. However, little is known about the conservativeness or reliability of the evaluation methods because of a lack of understanding of the measurement error. In this study, quantitative models for UT thickness measurement deviations of nuclear pipes and fittings were developed as the first step for establishing an optimized thinning evaluation procedure considering measurement error. In order to understand the characteristics of UT thickness measurement errors of nuclear pipes and fittings, round robin test results, which were obtained by previous researchers under laboratory conditions, were analyzed. Then, based on a large dataset of actual plant data from four NPPs, a quantitative model for UT thickness measurement deviation is proposed for plant conditions.

  8. Development of wall-thinning evaluation procedure for nuclear power plant piping-part 1: Quantification of thickness measurement deviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hun; Moon, Seung Jae [Dept. of Material Engineering, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Pipe wall thinning by flow-accelerated corrosion and various types of erosion is a significant and costly damage phenomenon in secondary piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most NPPs have management programs to ensure pipe integrity due to wall thinning that includes periodic measurements for pipe wall thicknesses using nondestructive evaluation techniques. Numerous measurements using ultrasonic tests (UTs; one of the nondestructive evaluation technologies) have been performed during scheduled outages in NPPs. Using the thickness measurement data, wall thinning rates of each component are determined conservatively according to several evaluation methods developed by the United States Electric Power Research Institute. However, little is known about the conservativeness or reliability of the evaluation methods because of a lack of understanding of the measurement error. In this study, quantitative models for UT thickness measurement deviations of nuclear pipes and fittings were developed as the first step for establishing an optimized thinning evaluation procedure considering measurement error. In order to understand the characteristics of UT thickness measurement errors of nuclear pipes and fittings, round robin test results, which were obtained by previous researchers under laboratory conditions, were analyzed. Then, based on a large dataset of actual plant data from four NPPs, a quantitative model for UT thickness measurement deviation is proposed for plant conditions.

  9. Physics and technical development of accelerators; Physique et technique des accelerateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    About 90 registered participants delivered more than 40 scientific papers. A great part of these presentations were of general interest about running projects such as CIME accelerator at Ganil, IPHI (high intensity proton injector), ESRF (European source of synchrotron radiation), LHC (large hadron collider), ELYSE accelerator at Orsay, AIRIX, and VIVITRON tandem accelerator. Other presentations highlighted the latest technological developments of accelerator components: superconducting cavities, power klystrons, high current injectors..

  10. Maize development: Cell wall changes in leaves and sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental changes occur in maize (Zea mays L.) as it transitions from juvenile stages to the mature plant. Changes also occur as newly formed cells mature into adult cells. Maize leaf blades, including the midribs and sheaths, undergo cell wall changes as cells transition to fully mature cell ty...

  11. Muscle patterning in mouse and human abdominal wall development and omphalocele specimens of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Peter F; Corliss, Robert F; Yamada, Shigehito; Shiota, Kohei; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and predicted that we would observe delays in myoblast maturation and an arrest in secondary abdominal wall development. To look for evidence in support of our hypothesis, we performed a histological analysis of normal human abdominal wall development and compared this to mouse. We also conducted the first histological analysis of two human specimens with omphalocele. In these two omphalocele specimens, secondary abdominal wall development appears to have undergone an arrest around Carnegie Stage 19. In both specimens disruptions in the unidirectional orientation of myofibers were observed in the external and internal obliques, and rectus abdominis but not in the transversus abdominis. These latter findings support a model of normal abdominal wall development in which positional information instructs the orientation of myoblasts as they organize into individual muscle groups.

  12. Accelerated molecular dynamics methods: introduction and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Voter, Arthur F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shim, Y [UNIV OF TOLEDO; Amar, J G [UNIV OF TOLEDO

    2009-01-01

    reaction pathways may be important, we return instead to a molecular dynamics treatment, in which the trajectory itself finds an appropriate way to escape from each state of the system. Since a direct integration of the trajectory would be limited to nanoseconds, while we are seeking to follow the system for much longer times, we modify the dynamics in some way to cause the first escape to happen much more quickly, thereby accelerating the dynamics. The key is to design the modified dynamics in a way that does as little damage as possible to the probability for escaping along a given pathway - i.e., we try to preserve the relative rate constants for the different possible escape paths out of the state. We can then use this modified dynamics to follow the system from state to state, reaching much longer times than we could reach with direct MD. The dynamics within any one state may no longer be meaningful, but the state-to-state dynamics, in the best case, as we discuss in the paper, can be exact. We have developed three methods in this accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD) class, in each case appealing to TST, either implicitly or explicitly, to design the modified dynamics. Each of these methods has its own advantages, and we and others have applied these methods to a wide range of problems. The purpose of this article is to give the reader a brief introduction to how these methods work, and discuss some of the recent developments that have been made to improve their power and applicability. Note that this brief review does not claim to be exhaustive: various other methods aiming at similar goals have been proposed in the literature. For the sake of brevity, our focus will exclusively be on the methods developed by the group.

  13. Robotics development for the accelerator production of tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.R.

    2000-01-18

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) has been proposed as the source of tritium for the United States in the next century. The APT will accelerate protons that will strike replaceable tungsten target modules. The tungsten target modules generate neutrons that interact with blanket modules and other modules where {sup 3}He gas is turned into tritium. The target and blanket modules are predicted to require replacement every one to ten years, depending on their location. The target modules may weigh as much as 85 tons (77 metric tons) each. All of the modules will be contained in a target/blanket vessel, which is in a shielded facility. The spent modules will be radioactive, so that remote replacement of the modules will be required. The modules will be 27 feet (8.23 m) high and the top of the modules, where most of the remote operations will occur, will be approximately 20 feet (6.1 m) down into the target/blanket vessel. The immense weights of the modules, the long reaches required and the requirement for completely remote operation of at least part of the operation, make this a unique and challenging task. Initially, manual fastening and unfastening of the jumper flanges on the modules as well as manual valve operation was proposed followed by remote replacement of the modules. This manual/remote operation was demonstrated with a computer-generated, dynamic, 3-D simulation. After review of the simulation, this operation was changed to be a complete remote operation. Complete remote operation brought about the concept of a remotely operated bridge crane and a remotely operated, bridge-mounted, manipulator to perform the entire replacement operation. A second simulation showed the intended operation of the remote concept and was instrumental in developing the requirements for the equipment and end effectors for this concept. The concept included development of end effectors for the following tasks: flange nut fastening and unfastening, flange lifting and latch

  14. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  15. Hydrogen-oxygen flame acceleration and transition to detonation in channels with no-slip walls for a detailed chemical reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M F; Kiverin, A D; Liberman, M A

    2011-05-01

    The features of flame acceleration in channels with wall friction and the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) are investigated theoretically and using high resolution numerical simulations of two-dimensional reactive Navier-Stokes equations, including the effects of viscosity, thermal conduction, molecular diffusion, and a detailed chemical reaction mechanism for hydrogen-oxygen gaseous mixture. It is shown that in a wide channel, from the beginning, the flame velocity increases exponentially for a short time and then flame acceleration decreases, ending up with the abrupt increase of the combustion wave velocity and the actual transition to detonation. In a thin channel with a width smaller than the critical value, the exponential increase of the flame velocity is not bounded and ends up with the transition to detonation. The transition to detonation occurs due to the pressure pulse, which is formed at the tip of the accelerating flame. The amplitude of the pressure pulse grows exponentially due to a positive feedback coupling between the pressure pulse and the heat released in the reaction. Finally, large amplitude pressure pulse steepens into a strong shock coupled with the reaction zone forming the overdriven detonation. The evolution from a temperature gradient to a detonation via the Zeldovich gradient mechanism and its applicability to the deflagration-to-detonation transition is investigated for combustible materials whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics. The results of the high resolution simulations are fully consistent with experimental observations of the flame acceleration and DDT.

  16. Recycle economy and the development of the wall material in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZouJi

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzes the current situation of wall material ecological production in China, discusses the clean producing ,ecosystem industry park,social wastes recovery .Through practicing the recycle economy,the wall material industry gradually establishes a recycle development mode of“resources- production- renewable resources” in China.

  17. Current Status on the Development of a Double Wall Tube Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Choi, Byoung Hae; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho

    2007-12-15

    A fast reactor, which uses sodium as a coolant, has a lot of merits as a next generation nuclear reactor. However, the possibility of a sodium-water reaction occurrence hinders the commercialization of this reactor. As one way to improve the reliability of a steam generator, a double-wall tube steam generator is being developed in GEN-4 program. In this report, the current state of the technical developments for a double-wall tube steam generator are reviewed and a future plan for the development of a double-wall tube steam generator is established. The current focuses of this research are an improvement of the heat transfer capability for a double-wall tube and the development of a proper leak detection method for the failure of a double-wall tube during a reactor operation. The ideal goal is an on-line leak detection of a double wall tube to prevent the sodium-water reaction. However, such a method is not developed as yet. An alternative method is being used to improve the reliability of a steam generator by performing a non-destructive test of a double wall tube during the refueling period of a reactor. In this method a straight double wall tube is employed to perform this test easily, but has a difficulty regarding an absorption of a thermal expansion of the used materials. If an on-line leak detection method is developed, the demerits of a straight double-wall tube are avoided by using a helical type double-wall tube, and the probability of a sodium-water reaction can be reduced to a level less than the design-based accident.

  18. Developments on the SCADA of CERN Accelerators Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniotti, F; Boccioli, M; Gomes, P; Pereira, H F; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M S

    2014-01-01

    During the first 3 years of LHC operation, the priority for the SCADA of vacuum controls was to attend to user requests, and to improve its ergonomics and efficiency: access & presentation of information simplified and normalized; coherent functionalities & menus across all accelerators; automatic

  19. Initial investigation into development of accelerated pavement evaluation (APE) vehicle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available CSIR Transportek has for many years been at the forefront of Accelerating Pavement Testing (APT) technology. The use of the HVS for research purpose has attracted much attention. One aspect of the HVS's capabilities has not been used that often...

  20. Ectodermal Wnt signaling regulates abdominal myogenesis during ventral body wall development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Li, Hanjun; Yu, Jian; Cao, Jingjing; Chen, Huihui; Zhao, Haixia; Zhao, Jianzhi; Yao, Yiyun; Cheng, Huihui; Wang, Lifang; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Zhengju; Guo, Xizhi

    2014-03-01

    Defects of the ventral body wall are prevalent birth anomalies marked by deficiencies in body wall closure, hypoplasia of the abdominal musculature and multiple malformations across a gamut of organs. However, the mechanisms underlying ventral body wall defects remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of Wnt signaling in ventral body wall development by inactivating Wls or β-catenin in murine abdominal ectoderm. The loss of Wls in the ventral epithelium, which blocks the secretion of Wnt proteins, resulted in dysgenesis of ventral musculature and genito-urinary tract during embryonic development. Molecular analyses revealed that the dermis and myogenic differentiation in the underlying mesenchymal progenitor cells was perturbed by the loss of ectodermal Wls. The activity of the Wnt-Pitx2 axis was impaired in the ventral mesenchyme of the mutant body wall, which partially accounted for the defects in ventral musculature formation. In contrast, epithelial depletion of β-catenin or Wnt5a did not resemble the body wall defects in the ectodermal Wls mutant. These findings indicate that ectodermal Wnt signaling instructs the underlying mesodermal specification and abdominal musculature formation during ventral body wall development, adding evidence to the theory that ectoderm-mesenchyme signaling is a potential unifying mechanism for the origin of ventral body wall defects.

  1. 76 FR 33305 - Medicare Program; Accelerated Development Sessions for Accountable Care Organizations-June 20, 21...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ``Medicare Program; Accelerated Development Sessions for Accountable Care Organizations--June 20, 21, and 22... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Accelerated Development Sessions for Accountable Care Organizations--June 20, 21, and 22, 2011; Corrections AGENCY: Centers for...

  2. 76 FR 66931 - Medicare Program; Accountable Care Organization Accelerated Development Learning Sessions; Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Accountable Care Organization Accelerated Development Learning Sessions; Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation November 17 and 18... third and final Accelerated Development Learning Session (ADLS) hosted by CMS to help Accountable Care...

  3. Analytical validation of accelerator mass spectrometry for pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Bradly D; Ognibene, Ted; Vogel, John S

    2010-03-01

    The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of (14)C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the (14)C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least 1 year, linear over four orders of magnitude with an analytical range from 0.1 Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Furthermore, accuracy was excellent (between 1 and 3%), while precision expressed as coefficient of variation was between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of (14)C, respectively (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with (14)C corresponds to 30 fg equivalents. Accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, accurate and precise method of measuring drug compounds in biological matrices.

  4. Development of Joining Technologies for the ITER Blanket First Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Sang Yoon; Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Suk Kwon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The design of the ITER blanket first wall includes the Beryllium amour tiles joined to CuCrZr heat sink with stainless steel cooling tubes. For the ITER application, the Be/CuCrZr/SS joint was proposed as a first wall material. The joining of Be/CuCrZr as well as CuCrZr/SS was generally carried out by using a hot isostatic pressing (CuC) in many countries. The joining strength for Be/CuCrZr is relatively lower than that for CuCrZr/SS, since we usually forms surface oxides (BeO) and brittle a metallics with Cu. Therefore, the joining technology for the Be/CuCrZr joint has been investigated. Be is apt to adsorb oxygen in an air atmosphere, so we should be etched to eliminate the surface pre-oxide using a chemical solution and Ar ions in a vacuum chamber. Then we is coated with a first was to prevent further oxidation. The kinds of a first we are chosen to be able to enhance the joining strength as inhibiting excessive be diffusion. The performance of the Be/CuCrZr/SS joint used for the ITER first wall is primarily dependent on the joining strength of the Be/CuCrZr interface. The Cr/Cu and Ti/Cr/Cu interlayers enabled the successful joining of be tile to CuCrZr plate. Moreover, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) increased joining strength of the Be/CuCrZr joint mock-ups. IBAD induced the increased packing of depositing atoms, which resulted in denser and more adhesive interlayers. The interlayers formed by IBAD process revealed about 40% improved resistance to the scratch test. It is suggested that the improved adhesion of coating interlayers enabled tight joining of Be and CuCrZr blocks. As compared to without IBAD coating, the shear strength as well as the 4-point bend strength were increased more than 20% depending on interlayer types and coating conditions

  5. Design, development, and acceleration trials of radio-frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. V. L. S.; Jain, Piyush; Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Mathew, Jose V.; Kumar, Rajesh; Pande, Manjiri; Krishnagopal, S.; Gupta, S. K.; Singh, P.

    2014-04-01

    A deuteron radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested at BARC, which will be used for neutron generation. The RFQ operates at a frequency of 350 MHz and needs an inter-vane voltage of 44 kV to accelerate the deuteron beam to 400 keV within a length of 1.03 m. The error analysis shows that the offset of two opposite vanes in the same direction by 100 μm leads to a change in resonant frequency by 1.3 MHz and a significant change of fields in the quadrants (˜±40% with respect to average field). From the 3D analysis, we have observed that the unwanted dipole mode frequencies are very near to the quadrupole mode frequency which will make structure sensitive to the perturbations. In order to move the dipole modes away from the quadrupole modes, we have used the dipole stabilizer rods. The 5 wire transmission line theory was used to study the perturbative analysis of the RFQ and based on this a computer program has been written to tune the cavity to get required field distribution. Based on these studies, a 1.03 m long RFQ made of OFE copper has been fabricated and tested. Even though the RFQ was designed for deuteron (D+) beam, we tested it by accelerating both the proton (H+) and D+ beams. The RFQ was operated in pulsed mode and accelerated both H+ and D+ beams to designed values of 200 and 400 keV, respectively. The measured parameters are in good agreement with the designed values validating our simulations and fabrication processes. In this paper, simulations, RF measurements, and beam commissioning results are presented.

  6. High Temperature μSR Experiments for Accelerator Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Chihiro; Koda, Akihiro; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Kusuo; Shimomura, Koichiro; Schnase, Alexander; Ezura, Eiji; Hara, Keigo; Hasegawa, Katsushi; Nomura, Masahiro; Shimada, Taihei; Takata, Koji; Tamura, Fumihiko; Toda, Makoto; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    High temperature μSR is a powerful technique to study magnetic materials. In J-PARC accelerator synchrotrons, the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) and Main Ring (MR), a unique magnetic alloy-loaded cavity is used for the beam acceleration and much higher field gradient has been achieved. Such high field gradient cavities made a compact RCS possible by reducing the length for beam acceleration. Now, further upgrades of the J-PARC, RF cavities with higher RF voltage and less power loss in the magnetic core are needed for the MR. For the improvements of the magnetic property of magnetic alloy core, the high temperature μSR (muon Spin Rotation/Relaxation) was used to investigate the crystallization process of the material. Based on the measurement results, the test production of the large ring cores of a magnetic alloy, FT3L, was tried. The FT3L is the magnetic alloy which has two times better performance than the present one, FT3M. For the FT3L production, the magnetic annealing is needed to control the easy-magnetized axis of the crystalline. After the success of the test production, a mass production was started in the industry to replace all existing cavities in the MR. The first 5-cell FT3L cavity is assembled for the bench test before the installation in the accelerator tunnel. By the new cavities, the total RF voltage of J-PARC MR will be doubled to increase the beam power for neutrino experiment. In future, the cavities will be also used for the RCS to increase the beam power beyond 1 MW.

  7. Feasibility Study on the Development of Proton Accelerator II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Ki Woong [Korea Accelerator and Plasma Research Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Present status and research trend of KOMAC (Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex)-grade accelerator construction in Europe, Japan, America, and Russia are surveyed in view of basic nuclear technology study in 2nd feasibility study on the KOMAC. KOMAC can be applied to study the increasing of nuclear reactor safety, the Proto-plant of transmutation technology for low cost nuclear fuel, the nuclear data production, the life science, mechanical dynamics, the structure probe, the radioisotope production, the cancer therapy, and the defense industry etc. And also KOMAC structure selection is investigated in point of utilization aims referred from various proposal of LANL and ORNL in USA, Neutron Science Research program in Japan, Energy Amplifier in Europe, and Institute of Theoretical and Experimental physics in Russia. As a result of meeting, study team is approached to the conclusion the KOMAC should be constructed to get the nuclear transmutation technology and the world leadership in future nuclear industry. Member`s opinion of study team agreed new nuclear technology, such as Accelerator Driven Energy Amplifier will be possible to sustain a survival of human being in post 21c. 7 tabs., 10 figs. (author)

  8. Analysis of male pheromones that accelerate female reproductive organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Kelly A; Webb, William; Stowers, Lisa

    2011-02-08

    Male odors can influence a female's reproductive physiology. In the mouse, the odor of male urine results in an early onset of female puberty. Several volatile and protein pheromones have previously been reported to each account for this bioactivity. Here we bioassay inbred BALB/cJ females to study pheromone-accelerated uterine growth, a developmental hallmark of puberty. We evaluate the response of wild-type and mutant mice lacking a specialized sensory transduction channel, TrpC2, and find TrpC2 function to be necessary for pheromone-mediated uterine growth. We analyze the relative effectiveness of pheromones previously identified to accelerate puberty through direct bioassay and find none to significantly accelerate uterine growth in BALB/cJ females. Complementary to this analysis, we have devised a strategy of partial purification of the uterine growth bioactivity from male urine and applied it to purify bioactivity from three different laboratory strains. The biochemical characteristics of the active fraction of all three strains are inconsistent with that of previously known pheromones. When directly analyzed, we are unable to detect previously known pheromones in urine fractions that generate uterine growth. Our analysis indicates that pheromones emitted by males to advance female puberty remain to be identified.

  9. Analysis of male pheromones that accelerate female reproductive organ development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Flanagan

    Full Text Available Male odors can influence a female's reproductive physiology. In the mouse, the odor of male urine results in an early onset of female puberty. Several volatile and protein pheromones have previously been reported to each account for this bioactivity. Here we bioassay inbred BALB/cJ females to study pheromone-accelerated uterine growth, a developmental hallmark of puberty. We evaluate the response of wild-type and mutant mice lacking a specialized sensory transduction channel, TrpC2, and find TrpC2 function to be necessary for pheromone-mediated uterine growth. We analyze the relative effectiveness of pheromones previously identified to accelerate puberty through direct bioassay and find none to significantly accelerate uterine growth in BALB/cJ females. Complementary to this analysis, we have devised a strategy of partial purification of the uterine growth bioactivity from male urine and applied it to purify bioactivity from three different laboratory strains. The biochemical characteristics of the active fraction of all three strains are inconsistent with that of previously known pheromones. When directly analyzed, we are unable to detect previously known pheromones in urine fractions that generate uterine growth. Our analysis indicates that pheromones emitted by males to advance female puberty remain to be identified.

  10. Graduate Student Program in Materials and Engineering Research and Development for Future Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spentzouris, Linda [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-07-07

    The objective of the proposal was to develop graduate student training in materials and engineering research relevant to the development of particle accelerators. Many components used in today's accelerators or storage rings are at the limit of performance. The path forward in many cases requires the development of new materials or fabrication techniques, or a novel engineering approach. Often, accelerator-based laboratories find it difficult to get top-level engineers or materials experts with the motivation to work on these problems. The three years of funding provided by this grant was used to support development of accelerator components through a multidisciplinary approach that cut across the disciplinary boundaries of accelerator physics, materials science, and surface chemistry. The following results were achieved: (1) significant scientific results on fabrication of novel photocathodes, (2) application of surface science and superconducting materials expertise to accelerator problems through faculty involvement, (3) development of instrumentation for fabrication and characterization of materials for accelerator components, (4) student involvement with problems at the interface of material science and accelerator physics.

  11. Development of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technology at the Comenius University in Bratislava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, Pavel P., E-mail: povinec@fmph.uniba.sk; Masarik, Jozef; Ješkovský, Miroslav; Kaizer, Jakub; Šivo, Alexander; Breier, Robert; Pánik, Ján; Staníček, Jaroslav; Richtáriková, Marta; Zahoran, Miroslav; Zeman, Jakub

    2015-10-15

    An Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) laboratory has been established at the Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies (CENTA) at the Comenius University in Bratislava comprising of a MC-SNICS ion source, 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, and an analyzer of accelerated ions. The preparation of targets for {sup 14}C and {sup 129}I AMS measurements is described in detail. The development of AMS techniques for potassium, uranium and thorium analysis in radiopure materials required for ultra-low background underground experiments is briefly mentioned.

  12. Comparative in situ analyses of cell wall matrix polysaccharide dynamics in developing rice and wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Richard; Cornuault, Valérie; Marcus, Susan E; Knox, J Paul; Shewry, Peter R; Tosi, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides of wheat and rice endosperm are an important source of dietary fibre. Monoclonal antibodies specific to cell wall polysaccharides were used to determine polysaccharide dynamics during the development of both wheat and rice grain. Wheat and rice grain present near synchronous developmental processes and significantly different endosperm cell wall compositions, allowing the localisation of these polysaccharides to be related to developmental changes. Arabinoxylan (AX) and mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) have analogous cellular locations in both species, with deposition of AX and MLG coinciding with the start of grain filling. A glucuronoxylan (GUX) epitope was detected in rice, but not wheat endosperm cell walls. Callose has been reported to be associated with the formation of cell wall outgrowths during endosperm cellularisation and xyloglucan is here shown to be a component of these anticlinal extensions, occurring transiently in both species. Pectic homogalacturonan (HG) was abundant in cell walls of maternal tissues of wheat and rice grain, but only detected in endosperm cell walls of rice in an unesterified HG form. A rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) backbone epitope was observed to be temporally regulated in both species, detected in endosperm cell walls from 12 DAA in rice and 20 DAA in wheat grain. Detection of the LM5 galactan epitope showed a clear distinction between wheat and rice, being detected at the earliest stages of development in rice endosperm cell walls, but not detected in wheat endosperm cell walls, only in maternal tissues. In contrast, the LM6 arabinan epitope was detected in both species around 8 DAA and was transient in wheat grain, but persisted in rice until maturity.

  13. Development and duration of accelerated degradation of nematicides in different soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelt, J.H.; Peppel-Groen, van de A.E.; Pas, van der L.J.T.; Dijksterhuis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and duration of accelerated degradation of nematicides were studied in incubation experiments with soils from three experimental fields that had been treated annually for three to ten years with aldicarb, oxamyl, ethoprophos, fenamiphos or 1,3-dichloropropene. Highly accelerated degr

  14. Development of a large proton accelerator for innovative researches; development of high power RF source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. O.; Shin, H. M.; Chung, I. Y. [KAPRA, Seoul (Korea); Kim, D. I. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea); Noh, S. J. [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Ko, S. K. [Ulsan University, Ulsan (Korea); Lee, H. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea); Choi, W. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This study was performed with objective to design and develop the KOMAC proton accelerator RF system. For the development of the high power RF source for CCDTL(coupled cavity drift tube linac), the medium power RF system using the UHF klystron for broadcasting was integrated and with this RF system we obtained the basic design data, operation experience and code-validity test data. Based on the medium power RF system experimental data, the high power RF system for CCDTL was designed and its performed was analyzed. 16 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs. (Author)

  15. Development of X-band accelerating structures for high gradients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Bini; M. G. Grimaldi; L. Romano; F. Ruffino; R. Parodi; V. Chimenti; A. Marcelli; L. Palumbo; B. Spataro; V. A. Dolgashev; S. Tantawi; A.D. Yeremian; Y. Higashi

    2012-01-01

    Short copper standing wave (SW) structures operating at an X-band frequency have been recently designed and manufactured at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) using the vacuum brazing technique.High power tests of the structures have been performed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.In this manuscript we report the results of these tests and the activity in progress to enhance the high gradient performance of the next generation of structures,particularly the technological characterization of high performance coatings obtained via molybdenum sputtering.

  16. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2003-10-01

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting the first year of work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under US Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project is being conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser Company, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August, 2002 through October, 2003. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that will monitor long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. In the first year WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, and installed instrumentation in the test walls. By the end of the contract period described in this document, WSU was recording data from the test wall specimens. The experiment described in this report will continue through December, 2005. Each year a number of reports will be published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results will be made available to the building industry by industry partners and the University cooperators.

  17. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  18. Formation of silica aggregates in sorghum root endodermis is predetermined by cell wall architecture and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Milan; Martinka, Michal; Bosnic, Dragana; Caplovicová, Mária; Elbaum, Rivka; Lux, Alexander

    2017-06-22

    Deposition of silica in plant cell walls improves their mechanical properties and helps plants to withstand various stress conditions. Its mechanism is still not understood and silica-cell wall interactions are elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silica deposition on the development and structure of sorghum root endodermis and to identify the cell wall components involved in silicification. Sorghum bicolor seedlings were grown hydroponically with (Si+) or without (Si-) silicon supplementation. Primary roots were used to investigate the transcription of silicon transporters by quantitative RT-PCR. Silica aggregation was induced also under in vitro conditions in detached root segments. The development and architecture of endodermal cell walls were analysed by histochemistry, microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Water retention capability was compared between silicified and non-silicified roots. Raman spectroscopy analyses of isolated silica aggregates were also carried out. Active uptake of silicic acid is provided at the root apex, where silicon transporters Lsi1 and Lsi2 are expressed. The locations of silica aggregation are established during the development of tertiary endodermal cell walls, even in the absence of silicon. Silica aggregation takes place in non-lignified spots in the endodermal cell walls, which progressively accumulate silicic acid, and its condensation initiates at arabinoxylan-ferulic acid complexes. Silicification does not support root water retention capability; however, it decreases root growth inhibition imposed by desiccation. A model is proposed in which the formation of silica aggregates in sorghum roots is predetermined by a modified cell wall architecture and takes place as governed by endodermal development. The interaction with silica is provided by arabinoxylan-ferulic acid complexes and interferes with further deposition of lignin. Due to contrasting hydrophobicity, silicification and lignification

  19. Development of New Photovoltaic Devices Based on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0014 Development of new photovoltaic devices based on multi wall carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles... photovoltaic devices based on multi wall carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-11-1-3036 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 11...response is registered in all the photon spectral range studied. The new kind of Graetzel-like solar cell device was built without dye and TiO2 , showing

  20. A Single Parameter to Characterize Wall Shear Stress Developed from an Underexpanded Axisymmetric Impinging Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, Patrick; Murali, Harikrishnan

    2016-11-01

    Wall shear stress is characterized for underexpanded axisymmetric impinging jets for the application of aerodynamic particle resuspension from a surface. Analysis of the flow field and the wall shear stress resulted from normally impinging axisymmetric jets is conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics. A normally impinging jet is modeled with a constant area nozzle, while varying height to diameter ratio (H/D) and inlet pressures. Schlieren photography is used to visualize the density gradient of the flow field for validation of the CFD. The Dimensionless Jet Parameter (DJP) is developed to describe flow regimes and characterize the shear stress. The DJP is defined as being proportional to the jet pressure ratio divided by the H/D ratio squared. Maximum wall shear stress is examined as a function of DJP with three distinct regimes: (i) subsonic impingement (DJP2). Due to the jet energy dissipation in shock structures, which become a dominant dissipation mechanism in the supersonic impingement regime, wall shear stress is limited to a finite value. Additionally, formation of shock structures in the wall flow were observed for DJP>2 resulting in difficulties with dimensionless analysis. In the subsonic impingement and transitional regimes equations as a function of the DJP are obtained for the maximum wall shear stress magnitude, maximum shear stress location, and shear stress decay. Using these relationships wall shear stress can be predicted at all locations along the impingement surface.

  1. A highly segmented. Delta. E-time-of-flight wall as forward detector of the 4. pi. -system for charged particles at the SIS/ESR accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobbi, A.; Augustinski, G.; Bock, R.; Charity, R.J.; Fan, Z.G.; Freifelder, R.; Grigorian, Y.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Jeong, S.C.; Marquardt, M.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Sodan, U.; Tanaka, M.H.; Teh, K.M.; Weinert, J.; Wessels, J.P. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)); Alard, J.P.; Bastid, N.; Boussange, S.; Crouau, M.; Daudon, F.; Dupieux, P.; Fayard, C.; Fraysse, L.; Jorio, M.; Mayade, S.; Mo

    1992-05-01

    At the SIS/ESR accelerator facility at GSI in Darmstadt the 4{pi}-detector system FOPI is under construction at present. It is designed for the investigation of central collisions of heavy ions in the energy range up to 2xA GeV. As phase I of this detector a forward wall has been built and used in various experiments. It comprises a total number of 764 scintillators with an additional shell of 188 thin {Delta}E-detectors in front of it and covers the full azimuth of the polar angles from 1{sup 0} to 30{sup 0}. The velocity and the nuclear charge of the fragments are determined by a combined time of flight and {Delta}E measurement. (orig.).

  2. EuCARD2: enhanced accelerator research and development in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. EuCARD2 is an European research project which will be realized during 2013-2017 inside the EC FP7 framework. The project concerns the development and coordination of European Accelerator Research and Development. The project is particularly important, to a number of domestic laboratories, due to some plans to build large accelerator infrastructure in Poland. Large accelerator infrastructure of fundamental and applied research character stimulates around it the development and industrial applications as well as biomedical of advanced accelerators, material research and engineering, cryo-technology, mechatronics, robotics, and in particular electronics - like networked measurement and control systems, sensors, computer systems, automation and control systems. The paper presents a digest of the European project EuCARD2 which is Enhanced European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper presents a digest of the research results and assumptions in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator R&D, and the kick-off meeting of the EuCARD2. There are debated a few basic groups of accelerator systems components like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution, high field magnets, superconducting cavities, novel beam collimators, etc. The paper bases on the following materials: Internet and Intranet documents combined with EuCARD2, Description of Work FP7 EuCARD-2 DoW-312453, 2013-02-13, and discussions and preparatory materials worked on by Eucard-2 initiators.

  3. Present status of radiation processing and its future development by using electron accelerator in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac An; Tran Tich Canh; Doan Binh [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA), Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Nguyen Quoc Hien [Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-02-01

    In Vietnam, studies on Radiation Processing have been carried out since 1983. Some results are applicable in the field of agriculture, health and foodstuff, some researches were developed to commercial scale and others have high potential for development by using electron accelerator. The paper offers the present status of radiation processing and also give out the growing tendency of using electron accelerator in the future. (author)

  4. The hub wall boundary layer development and losses in an axial flow compressor rotor passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K. N. S.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1987-02-01

    The hub wall boundary layer development in a compressor stage including the rotor passage is experimentally investigated. A miniature five-hole probe was employed to measure the hub wall boundary layer inside the inlet guide vane passage, upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The hub wall boundary layer inside the rotor passage was acquired using a rotating miniature five-hole probe. The boundary layer is well behaved upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The migration of the hub wall boundary layer towards the suction surface corner is observed. The limiting streamline angles and static pressure distribution across the stage were also measured. The mean velocity profiles and the integral properties upstream, inside and downstream of the rotor, and the losses are presented and interpreted.

  5. Challenging developments in three decades of accelerator mass spectrometry at ETH: from large particle accelerators to table size instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was invented for the detection of radiocarbon at natural isotopic concentrations (10(-12) to 10(-15)) more than 30 years ago. Meanwhile this method has also been applied for the analysis of many other long-lived radioisotopes, which are found at very low concentrations. The first investigations were made at large tandem accelerators originally built for nuclear physics research and operating at voltages of 6-12 MV. Today dedicated instruments are mostly used for AMS, which are optimized for associated applications. In the past 15 years, a new generation of much smaller instruments has been developed. For many years it was believed that accelerators with voltages of 2 MV or higher are needed to eliminate the molecular interferences. At these energies the ions are predominantly stripped to charge state 3+, thereby removing the binding electrons of the molecules. In contrast, the new compact facilities use 1+ or 2+ ions. In this case the molecular destruction process is based on molecule-atom collisions in the gas cell. The cross sections for this destruction are sufficiently large that the intensity of molecular components such as (12)CH(2) and (13)CH can be reduced by 10 orders of magnitude. These new facilities can be built much smaller due to the lower energies. Universal instruments providing analysis for many isotopes over the whole range of periodic table have a space requirement of about 4 x 6 m(2); dedicated radiocarbon facilities based on a 200 kV accelerator have a footprint of about 2.5 x 3 m(2). This smallest category of instruments use special technologies: The high voltage terminal with the gas stripper canal is vacuum insulated and the gas is pumped to ground potential through a ceramic pipe. A conventional 200 kV power supply provides the terminal voltage from outside. A review of this new generation of compact AMS facilities is given. Design considerations and performance of these new instruments will be presented

  6. Three-dimensional structures and turbulence closure of the wake developing in a wall shear layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, C.

    1981-01-01

    The turbulent wake interacting with the rotating wall shear layer is investigated analytically and numerically. The turbulent wakes of the rotating blades in a compressor which are interacting with the rotating hub-wall boundary layer are analyzed. A modified version of the closure model of the pressure-strain correlation term in the Reynolds stress transport equation is developed to predict the effect of rotation, which is appreciable for the present flow because the thick hub-wall boundary layer is interacting with the rotor wake. It is noted that the Poisson type equation for the pressure-strain correlation has an extra rotation term when the entire flow field is rotating. This extra rotation term is modeled to accommodate the effect of rotation. In addition, the standard correction for the wall effect is incorporated for the utilized Reynolds stress closure model. The rotation-modified Reynolds stress closure model is used to predict the present flow, and the predictions are compared with the experimental data. The experimental data reveal that the characteristics of the three-dimensional turbulent wake interacting with the wall shear layer are considerably altered by the effects of the wall and the rotation. These features are predicted with good accuracy by the turbulence closure model developed.

  7. Photonic programmable pulser for the Weto Wall detector and measuring system tests in the ZEUS experiment at the HERA accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Adamus, Marek

    1999-05-01

    Background rejection power of Veto Wall detector in ZEUS experiment significantly depends on electronics and photonics efficiency. This paper describes idea, and recent solution, for programmable multi-channel optical pulser. The pulser excites, with short electrical pulses, certain light emitting diodes. LEDs are placed in scintillators. These tests simulate flight of real particles through scintillator. The scintillator works as an optical waveguide in which guides photons to both ends of scintillators. These ends are attached to photomultipliers. Photons cause avalanche multiplication of electrons and an electrical pulse resulting in registered by measuring system. Some results of pulser application are presented for diagnosis of all processing blocks of measuring system. Paper includes also, for the sake of completeness, description of the functional structure of measuring system.

  8. Development and acceleration of unstructured mesh-based cfd solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, V.; Karpenko, A.; Volkov, K.

    2017-06-01

    The study was undertaken as part of a larger effort to establish a common computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for simulation of internal and external flows and involves some basic validation studies. The governing equations are solved with ¦nite volume code on unstructured meshes. The computational procedure involves reconstruction of the solution in each control volume and extrapolation of the unknowns to find the flow variables on the faces of control volume, solution of Riemann problem for each face of the control volume, and evolution of the time step. The nonlinear CFD solver works in an explicit time-marching fashion, based on a three-step Runge-Kutta stepping procedure. Convergence to a steady state is accelerated by the use of geometric technique and by the application of Jacobi preconditioning for high-speed flows, with a separate low Mach number preconditioning method for use with low-speed flows. The CFD code is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs). Speedup of solution on GPUs with respect to solution on central processing units (CPU) is compared with the use of different meshes and different methods of distribution of input data into blocks. The results obtained provide promising perspective for designing a GPU-based software framework for applications in CFD.

  9. Advanced fuel developments for an industrial accelerator driven system prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delage, Fabienne; Ottaviani, Jean Pierre [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA (France); Fernandez-Carretero, Asuncion; Staicu, Dragos [JRC-ITU (Germany); Boccaccini, Claudia-Matzerath; Chen, Xue-Nong; Mascheck, Werner; Rineiski, Andrei [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - FZK (Germany); D' Agata, Elio [JRC-IE (Netherlands); Klaassen, Frodo [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sobolev, Vitaly [SCK-CEN (Belgium); Wallenius, Janne [KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Abram, T. [National Nuclear Laboratory - NNL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation in a fast spectrum, can be described as a highly innovative concept in comparison with fuels used in critical cores. ADS fuel is not fertile, so as to improve the transmutation performance. It necessarily contains a high concentration ({approx}50%) of minor actinides and plutonium. This unusual fuel composition results in high gamma and neutron emissions during its fabrication, as well as degraded core performance. So, an optimal ADS fuel is based on finding the best compromise between thermal, mechanical, chemical, neutronic and technological constraints. CERCER and CERMET composite fuels consisting of particles of (Pu,MA)O{sub 2} phases dispersed in a magnesia or molybdenum matrix are under investigation within the frame of the ongoing European Integrated Project EUROTRANS (European Research programme for Transmutation) which aims at performing a conceptual design of a 400 MWth transmuter: the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT). Performances and safety of EFIT cores loaded with CERCER and CERMET fuels have been evaluated. Out-of-pile and in-pile experiments are carried out to gain knowledge on the properties and the behaviour of these fuels. The current paper gives an overview of the work progress. (authors)

  10. TNO-PML developments of blast resistant doors and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkel, A.G.; Luyten, J.M.; Galle, L.F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will address the ongoing developments on blast resistant light or moderate weight steel structures at the Prins Maurits Laboratory of the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO-PML) for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) and other parties. Five structural products wi

  11. Endo-b-1,4-glucanases impact plant cell wall development by influencing cellulose crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdalena Glass; Sarah Barkwill; Faride Unda; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls are vital to the normal growth and development of plants as they protect the protoplast and provide rigidity to the stem. Here, two poplar and Arabidopsis orthologous endoglucanases, which have been proposed to play a role in secondary cell wall development, were examined. The class B endoglucanases, PtGH9B5 and AtGH9B5, are secreted enzymes that have a predicted glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, while the class C endo-glucanases, PtGH9C2 and AtGH9C2, are also predicted to be secreted but instead contain a carbohydrate-binding module. The poplar endoglucanases were expressed in Arabidopsis using both a 35S promoter and the Arabidopsis secondary cell wall-specific CesA8 promoter. Additionally, Arabidopsis t-DNA insertion lines and an RNAi construct was created to downregulate AtGH9C2 in Arabidopsis. All of the plant lines were examined for changes in cell morphology and pattern-ing, growth and development, cell wall crystallinity, microfibril angle, and proportion of cell wall carbohydrates. Misregula-tion of PtGH9B5/AtGH9B5 resulted in changes in xylose content, while misregulation of PtGH9C2/AtGH9C2 resulted in changes in crystallinity, which was inversely correlated with changes in plant height and rosette diameter. Together, these results suggest that these endoglucanases affect secondary cell wall development by contributing to the cell wall crystallization process.

  12. Sustainable Health Development Goals (SHDG): breaking down the walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world.

  13. Role of proline in cell wall synthesis and plant development and its implications in plant ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLAVARAPU BILHAN KAVI KISHOR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline is a proteogenic amino acid and accumulates both under stress and non-stress conditions as a beneficial solute in plants. Recent discoveries point out that proline plays an important role in plant growth and differentiation across life cycle. It is a key determinant of many cell wall proteins that plays important roles in plant development. The role of extensins (EXTs, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs and hydroxyproline- and proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs as important components of cell wall proteins that play pivotal roles in cell wall signal transduction cascades, plant development and stress tolerance is discussed in this review. Molecular insights are also provided here into the plausible roles of proline transporters modulating key events in plant development. In addition, the roles of proline during seed developmental transitions including storage protein synthesis are discussed.

  14. Regulation of plant cells, cell walls and development by mechanical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The overall goal of the revised scope of work for the final year of funding was to characterize cell wall biosynthesis in developing cotyledons and in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana, as a way of learning about developmental control of cell wall biosynthesis in plants, and interactions between cell wall biosynthesis and the microtubule cytoskeleton. The proposed work had two parts – to look at the effect of mutation in the SPIRAL2 gene on microtubule organization and reorganization, and to thoroughly characterize the glycosyltransferase genes expressed in shoot apical meristems by RNA-seq experiments, by in situ hybridization of the RNAs expressed in the meristem, and by antibody staining of the products of the glycosyltransferases in meristems. Both parts were completed; the spiral2 mutant was found to speed microtubule reorientation after ablation of adjacent cells, supporting our hypothesis that reorganization correlates with microtubule severing, the rate of which is increased by the mutation. The glycosyltransferase characterization was completed and published as Yang et al. (2016). Among the new things learned was that primary cell wall biosynthesis is strongly controlled both by cell type, and by stage of cell cycle, implying not only that different, even adjacent, cells can have different sugar linkages in their (nonshared) walls, but also that a surprisingly large proportion of glycosyltransferases is regulated in the cell cycle, and therefore that the cell cycle regulates wall maturation to a degree previously unrecognized.

  15. Seismic Earth Pressure Development in Sheet Pile Retaining Walls: A Numerical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeev, P; Sivakugan, N

    2015-01-01

    The design of retaining walls requires the complete knowledge of the earth pressure distribution behind the wall. Due to the complex soil-structure effect, the estimation of earth pressure is not an easy task; even in the static case. The problem becomes even more complex for the dynamic (i.e., seismic) analysis and design of retaining walls. Several earth pressure models have been developed over the years to integrate the dynamic earth pressure with the static earth pressure and to improve the design of retaining wall in seismic regions. Among all the models, MononobeOkabe (M-O) method is commonly used to estimate the magnitude of seismic earth pressures in retaining walls and is adopted in design practices around the world (e.g., EuroCode and Australian Standards). However, the M-O method has several drawbacks and does not provide reliable estimate of the earth pressure in many instances. This study investigates the accuracy of the M-O method to predict the dynamic earth pressure in sheet pile wall. A 2D pl...

  16. Group living accelerates bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    For many insect species, group living provides physiological and behavioral benefits, including faster development. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) live in aggregations composed of eggs, nymphs, and adults of various ages. Our aim was to determine whether bed bug nymphs reared in groups develop faster than solitary nymphs. We reared first instars either in isolation or in groups from hatching to adult emergence and recorded their development time. In addition, we investigated the effects of group housing on same-age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition. Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation.

  17. Electronic Developments for the Hades RPC Wall Overview and Progress

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, A; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Díaz, J; Garzón, J A; Gonzales-Diaz, D; König, W; Lange, J S; May, G; Traxler, M

    2007-01-01

    This contribution presents the current status and progress of the electronics developed for the Resistive Plate Chamber detector of HADES. This new detector for the time-of-flight detection system will contain more than 1000 RPC modules, covering a total active area of around 7 m2. The Front-End electronics consist of custom-made boards that exploit the benefit of the use of commercial components to achieve time resolutions below 100 ps. The Readout electronics, also custom-made, is a multipurpose board providing a 128- channel Time to Digital Converter (TDC) based on the HPTDC chip.

  18. Latest Development in Superconducting RF Structures for beta=1 Particle Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Kneisel

    2006-06-26

    Superconducting RF technology is since nearly a decade routinely applied to different kinds of accelerating devices: linear accelerators, storage rings, synchrotron light sources and FEL's. With the technology recommendation for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a year ago, new emphasis has been placed on improving the performance of accelerating cavities both in Q-value and in accelerating gradients with the goal to achieve performance levels close to the fundamental limits given by the material parameters of the choice material, niobium. This paper will summarize the challenges to SRF technology and will review the latest developments in superconducting structure design. Additionally, it will give an overview of the newest results and will report on the developments in alternative materials and technologies.

  19. Acceleration of suspending single-walled carbon nanotubes in BSA aqueous solution induced by amino acid molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Horie, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) suspensions in aqueous media were prepared using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and amino acid molecules. It was found that the amino acid molecules clearly decreased the time required for suspending the SWCNTs in BSA aqueous solutions. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the particle sizes of the SWCNTs suspended in aqueous media with and without amino acid molecules were approximately the same and stable for more than one week. The zeta potential values of the BSA molecules in pure water and amino acid aqueous solutions were different, and these values were also reflected in the surface potential of colloidal SWCNT particles in the corresponding aqueous media, thus inducing different dispersibility of SWCNTs in aqueous media. Pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements showed that the interactions between the SWCNTs and the amino acid molecules are weak and comprise chemical exchange interactions and not bonding interactions. Amino acid molecules play a fascinating role in the preparation of SWCNT suspensions in BSA aqueous media by increasing electrostatic repulsive interactions between SWCNT colloidal particles and consequently enhancing the dispersion ability of the BSA molecules.

  20. Walls around tumours - why plants do not develop cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, John H; Sablowski, Robert

    2010-11-01

    In plants, as in animals, most cells that constitute the organism limit their reproductive potential in order to provide collective support for the immortal germ line. And, as in animals, the mechanisms that restrict the proliferation of somatic cells in plants can fail, leading to tumours. There are intriguing similarities in tumorigenesis between plants and animals, including the involvement of the retinoblastoma pathway as well as overlap with mechanisms that are used for stem cell maintenance. However, plant tumours are less frequent and are not as lethal as those in animals. We argue that fundamental differences between plant and animal development make it much more difficult for individual plant cells to escape communal controls.

  1. Xylem development and cell wall changes of soybean seedlings grown in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Ruel, Katia

    2008-04-01

    Plants growing in altered gravity conditions encounter changes in vascular development and cell wall deposition. The aim of this study was to investigate xylem anatomy and arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in vessel walls of different organs of soybean seedlings grown in Space. Seeds germinated and seedlings grew for 5 d in Space during the Foton-M2 mission. The environmental conditions, other than gravity, of the ground control repeated those experienced in orbit. The seedlings developed in space were compared with those of the control test on the basis of numerous anatomical and ultrastructural parameters such as number of veins, size and shape of vessel lumens, thickness of cell walls and deposition of cellulose microfibrils. Observations made with light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, together with the quantification of the structural features through digital image analysis, showed that the alterations due to microgravity do not occur at the same level in the various organs of soybean seedlings. The modifications induced by microgravity or by the indirect effect of space-flight conditions, became conspicuous only in developing vessels at the ultrastructural level. The results suggested that the orientation of microfibrils and their assembly in developing vessels are perturbed by microgravity at the beginning of wall deposition, while they are still able to orient and arrange in thicker and ordered structures at later stages of secondary wall deposition. The process of proper cell-wall building, although not prevented, is perturbed in Space at the early stage of development. This would explain the almost unaltered anatomy of mature structures, accompanied by a slower growth observed in seedlings grown in Space than on Earth.

  2. Fernald Silos 1 & 2 Accelerated Waste Retrieval Program Surrogate Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, O Dennis; Erian, Fadel F.

    2002-09-01

    Whitepaper describing the rationale and methodology for development of surrogates to be used for testing retrieval and processing systems for the DOE Fernald Silos 1 & 2 wastes. One significant updating/revision is expected.

  3. An Experience of Taiwan Policy Development To Accelerate Cloud Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chi Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available developing cloud computing is a key policy for government, while convenient service is an important issue for people living. In the beginning of 2010, the Taiwan Government has launched a “Cloud Computing Development Project”, and has devoted to service planning and investment activities. At the end of 2012, in a three-year comprehensive review and suggestion adoption from public and private sectors, the Taiwan Government adjusted the policy and rename as “Cloud Computing Application and Development Project”. From the perspectives of government application, industry development, and cloud open platform, this study describes how the vision drive goals and thinking push forward strategies. In the process of government and industry collaboration, it is progressively created value for cloud services. The Cloud Computing Project Management Office acts a key role as policy advisor, matching platform, and technical supporting to the achievements of (1 policy assessment and strategy enhancement; (2 construction of cloud open platform to the demand and supply linkage; (3 innovation and integration planning for government service application, leading to industry development.

  4. Development of wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.Y., E-mail: brbbebbero@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, J.; Kim, Y.G.; Yang, S.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, K.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Y.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.J.; Na, Y.S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The baking for partial wall heating and H{sub 2}/He GDC systems are developed in VEST. • The RGA and OES systems for monitoring impurities are constructed in VEST. • The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics. • H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms. • After H{sub 2} GDC, the discharge should be conducted within 3 h from treatment. - Abstract: Wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems are developed in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). As a wall conditioning system, a baking system covering the vacuum vessel wall partially and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system using two electrodes with dc and 50 kHz power supplies are installed. The GDC system operates with hydrogen and helium gases for both chemical and physical desorption. The impurity monitoring system with residual gas analyzer (RGA), operating at <10{sup −5} Torr with a differential pumping system, is installed along with the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system to monitor the hydrogen and impurity radiation lines. Effects of these wall conditioning techniques are investigated with the impurity monitoring system for ohmic discharges of VEST. The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics but sufficient H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms within 3 h from the end of treatment.

  5. The bulk elastic modulus and the reversible properties of cell walls in developing Quercus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takami; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Terashima, Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    We examined the relationship between the bulk elastic modulus (epsilon) of an individual leaf obtained by the pressure-volume (P-V) technique and the mechanical properties of cell walls in the leaf. The plants used were Quercus glauca and Q. serrata, an evergreen and a deciduous broad-leaved tree species, respectively. We compared epsilon and Young's modulus of leaf specimens determined by the stretch technique at various stages of their leaf development. The results showed that epsilon increased from approximately 5 to 20 MPa during leaf development, although other potential determinants of epsilon such as the apoplastic water content in the leaf and the diameter of a palisade tissue cells remained almost constant. epsilon in these two species was similar at every developmental stages, although the apparent mechanical strength of the leaf lamina and thickness of mesophyll cell walls were greater in Q. glauca. There were significant linear relationships between Young's modulus and epsilon (P < 0.01; R (2) = 0.78 and 0.84 in Q. glauca and Q. serrata, respectively) with small y-intercepts. From these results, we conclude that epsilon is closely related to the reversible properties of the cell walls. From the estimation of epsilon based on a physical model, we suggest that the effective thickness of cell walls responsible for epsilon is smaller than the observed wall thickness.

  6. Changes in free polyamines and related enzymes during stipule and pod wall development in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Lahiri, Kajari; Bharati, Ghosh

    2002-08-01

    Level of free polyamines, their key metabolic enzymes, and other features related to ageing were examined during stipule and pod wall development in pea (Pisum sativum). Free polyamine titre (per unit fresh mass) in both the organs, the specific activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase in the pod wall, gradually decreased with maturation. In stipule, these enzymes attained peak activity at 15 days after pod emergence and declined thereafter. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was greater in pod wall than in stipule; while, arginine decarboxylase activity was higher in stipule. Activity of degradative enzyme diamine oxidase increased with the onset of senescence in both the organs. Chlorophyll and electrical conductance had a inverse relationship throughout the experimental period, whereas, the chlorophyll content was directly related with polyamine levels in both stipule and pod wall during aging. On the other hand, protein and RNA contents were positively correlated with free polyamines throughout the test period in stipule, but in the pod wall this was true only for the later stages of development.

  7. Sustainable Energy in Remote Indonesian Grids. Accelerating Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Brian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burman, Kari [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elchinger, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hardison, R. [Winrock International, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karsiwulan, D. [Winrock International, Little Rock, AR (United States); Castermans, B. [Winrock International, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Sustainable Energy for Remote Indonesian Grids (SERIG) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to support Indonesia’s efforts to develop clean energy and increase access to electricity in remote locations throughout the country. With DOE support, the SERIG implementation team consists of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Winrock International’s Jakarta, Indonesia office. Through technical assistance that includes techno-economic feasibility evaluation for selected projects, government-to-government coordination, infrastructure assessment, stakeholder outreach, and policy analysis, SERIG seeks to provide opportunities for individual project development and a collective framework for national replication office.

  8. Development of an Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) System for RF Electron Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Lee, Soo Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the AFC system for the X-band linac are presented. The main function of the AFC system is automatically matching of the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure and the RF frequency of the magnetron. For the frequency tuning, a fine tuning of 10 kHz is possible by rotating the tuning shaft with a rotation of 0.72 degree per pulse. Therefore, the frequency deviation is about 0.01%, and almost full RF power (2.1 MW) transmission was obtained because the reflected power is minimized. The Radiation Equipment Research Division of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing and upgrading a medical/industrial X-band RF electron linear accelerators. The medical compact RF electron linear accelerator consists of an electron gun, an acceleration tube (accelerating structure), two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, modulator, an automatic frequency control (AFC) system, and an X-ray generating target. The accelerating structure of the component is composed of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the volume of the structure, hence, its resonance frequency can easily be changeable if the ambient temperature and pressure are changed. If the RF frequency of the 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of accelerating structure are not matched, performance of the structure can be degraded. An AFC system is automatically matched with the RF frequency of the magnetron and resonance frequency of the accelerating structure, which obtained a high output power and reliable accelerator operation.

  9. Particle Accelerators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  10. Fast Track Teaching: Beginning the Experiment in Accelerated Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churches, Richard; Hutchinson, Geraldine; Jones, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the development of the Fast Track teaching programme and personalised nature of the training and support that has been delivered. Fast Track teacher promotion rates are compared to national statistics demonstrating significant progression for certain groups, particularly women. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  11. Follicle-stimulating hormone accelerates mouse oocyte development in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeestere, Isabelle; Streiff, Agathe K; Suzuki, João; Al-Khabouri, Shaima; Mahrous, Enas; Tan, Seang Lin; Clarke, Hugh J

    2012-07-01

    During folliculogenesis, oocytes grow and acquire developmental competence in a mutually dependent relationship with their adjacent somatic cells. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays an essential and well-established role in the differentiation of somatic follicular cells, but its function in the development of the oocyte has still not been elucidated. We report here that oocytes of Fshb(-/-) mice, which cannot produce FSH, grow at the same rate and reach the same size as those of wild-type mice. Consistent with this observation, the granulosa cells of Fshb(-/-) mice express the normal quantity of mRNA encoding Kit ligand, which has been implicated in oocyte growth. Oocytes of Fshb(-/-) mice also accumulate normal quantities of cyclin B1 and CDK1 proteins and mitochondrial DNA. Moreover, they acquire the ability to complete meiotic maturation in vitro and undergo transition from non-surrounded nucleolus to surrounded nucleolus. However, these events of late oocyte development are significantly delayed. Following in vitro maturation and fertilization, only a small number of embryos derived from oocytes of Fshb(-/-) mice reach the blastocyst stage. Administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin, which provides FSH activity, 48 h before in vitro maturation increases the number of blastocysts obtained subsequently. These results indicate that FSH is not absolutely required for oocyte development in vivo but that this process occurs more rapidly in its presence. We suggest that FSH may coordinate the development of the germline and somatic compartments of the follicle, ensuring that ovulation releases a developmentally competent egg.

  12. Development of a 20-MeV Dielectric-Loaded Accelerator Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Steven H; Gai, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Jing, Chunguang; Kinkead, Allen; Konecny, Richard; Lin, Y; Nantista, Christopher D; Power, John G; Tang, C; Tantawi, Sami G

    2006-01-01

    This paper will describe a joint project by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to develop a dielectric-loaded accelerator (DLA) test facility powered by the high-power 11.424-GHz magnicon that was developed by NRL and Omega-P, Inc. The magnicon can presently produce 25 MW of output power in a 250-ns pulse at 10 Hz, and efforts are in progress to increase this to 50 MW.* The facility will include a 5-MeV electron injector being developed by the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. The DLA test structures are being developed by ANL, and some have undergone testing at NRL at gradients up to ~8 MV/m.** SLAC is developing a means to combine the two magnicon output arms, and to drive an injector and accelerator with separate control of the power ratio and relative phase. The installation and testing of the first dielectric-loaded test accelerator, including injector, DLA structure...

  13. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the work reported are: to develop new computational tools and models to enable industry to more rapidly develop and deploy new advanced energy technologies; to demonstrate the capabilities of the CCSI Toolset on non-proprietary case studies; and to deploy the CCSI Toolset to industry. Challenges of simulating carbon capture (and other) processes include: dealing with multiple scales (particle, device, and whole process scales); integration across scales; verification, validation, and uncertainty; and decision support. The tools cover: risk analysis and decision making; validated, high-fidelity CFD; high-resolution filtered sub-models; process design and optimization tools; advanced process control and dynamics; process models; basic data sub-models; and cross-cutting integration tools.

  14. ACCELERATION DEVELOPMENT OF CORN ICM TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION AT SEVERAL AGROECOSYSTEM AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Sirappa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology innovation of corn integrated crop management (ICM is formed of concept with integrated a variety of technology component which synergy interdependent so disperse local problem, increasing eficiency input, take care of and increasingsoil fertility. Agriculture Agency of Research Development agitating for assemble new superior varieties which have a highest production, early ripening, resistent main pest and disease, tolerance of marginal domain, and yield quality which accord with consumer preference. A new superior variety which admissible for agroecosystem rain field are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1, dan Semar-10; For dry land wet climate are Bisma, Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1 and Semar-10; For acid dry land wet climate are Sukmaraga; and for dry land and dry climate are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. For necessity silage, development directed towards varieties of Bisma, Lamuru, Bima-1, and Semar-10, whereas for food matter are Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. Several strategy for accelerate of corn development, especially varieties which producting by Agriculture Agency of Research Development for farmer are trough survey or PRA, verification and evaluation technology production, field encountered, socialization of technology production, and management of seed measuring.

  15. Developing the Systems Engineering Experience Accelerator (SEEA) Prototype and Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    uploads/downloads to/from DropBox . In Increment 1, we have established an integrated development work at Stevens. In addition to this we have moved...o Hosting: Stevens’ server • Content: o Dialog files – Chat Mapper o Integration: Dropbox , manual upload to Subversion o Software upgrades...reduce the errors in the process. • Today: – Designer saves file in DropBox – Designer tells technical staff to load it into the design Report No

  16. Using pattern enumeration to accelerate process development and ramp yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Linda; Pang, Jenny; Xu, Jessy; Tsai, Mengfeng; Wang, Amy; Zhang, Yifan; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Ding, Hua

    2016-03-01

    During a new technology node process setup phase, foundries do not initially have enough product chip designs to conduct exhaustive process development. Different operational teams use manually designed simple test keys to set up their process flows and recipes. When the very first version of the design rule manual (DRM) is ready, foundries enter the process development phase where new experiment design data is manually created based on these design rules. However, these IP/test keys contain very uniform or simple design structures. This kind of design normally does not contain critical design structures or process unfriendly design patterns that pass design rule checks but are found to be less manufacturable. It is desired to have a method to generate exhaustive test patterns allowed by design rules at development stage to verify the gap of design rule and process. This paper presents a novel method of how to generate test key patterns which contain known problematic patterns as well as any constructs which designers could possibly draw based on current design rules. The enumerated test key patterns will contain the most critical design structures which are allowed by any particular design rule. A layout profiling method is used to do design chip analysis in order to find potential weak points on new incoming products so fab can take preemptive action to avoid yield loss. It can be achieved by comparing different products and leveraging the knowledge learned from previous manufactured chips to find possible yield detractors.

  17. Developments in application of light and scanning electron microscopy techniques for cell wall degradation studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    The results of recent technological developments in light and scanning electron microscopy closely used for research on forage cell wall degradation in ruminants, are reviewed. The indigestibility of forages by rumen microorganisms used to be ascribed mainly to an overall presence of lignin in the p

  18. Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

  19. Development of divertor tungsten coatings for the JET ITER-like wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, G. F.; Coad, P.; Greuner, H.; Hill, M.; Hirai, T.; Likonen, J.; Maier, H.; Mayer, M.; Neu, R.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R.; Riccardo, V.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2009-06-01

    The main objectives of the JET ITER-like Wall Project are to provide a beryllium main wall and tungsten divertor with at least a 4 year lifetime to allow full evaluation of the materials and related plasma scenarios for ITER. Tungsten coatings will be used over most of the divertor area and this paper describes the latest developments in the coating technology and an analysis of the implications for the coating lifetime and machine operation. Both steady state and transient heat loads are assessed.

  20. Accelerating materials discovery through the development of polymer databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audus, Debra

    In our line of business we create chemical solutions for a wide range of applications, such as home and personal care, printing and packaging, automotive and structural coatings, and structural plastics and foams applications. In this environment, stable and highly automated workflows suitable to handle complex systems are a must. By satisfying these prerequisites, efficiency for the development of new materials can be significantly improved by combining modeling and experimental approaches. This is in fact in line with recent Materials Genome Initiative efforts sponsored by the US administration. From our experience, we know, that valuable contributions to product development are possible today by combining existing modeling techniques in an intelligent fashion, provided modeling and experiment work closely together. In my presentation I intend to review approaches to build and parameterize soft matter systems. As an example of our standard workflow, I will show a few applications, which include the design of a stabilizer molecule for dispersing polymer particles and the simulation of polystyrene dispersions.

  1. Structured Annual Faculty Review Program Accelerates Professional Development and Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley J. Robboy MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective observational study on faculty development analyzes the Duke University Pathology Department’s 18-year experience with a structured mentoring program involving 51 junior faculty members. The majority had MD degrees only (55%. The percentage of young women faculty hires before 1998 was 25%, increasing to 72% after 2005. Diversity also broadened from 9% with varied heritages before 1998 to 37% since then. The mentoring process pivoted on an annual review process. The reviews generally helped candidates focus much earlier, identified impediments they individually felt, and provided new avenues to gain a national reputation for academic excellence. National committee membership effectively helped gain national exposure. Thirty-eight percent of the mentees served on College of American Pathologists (CAP committees, exponential multiples of any other national society. Some used CAP resources to develop major programs, some becoming nationally and internationally recognized for their academic activities. Several faculty gained national recognition as thought leaders for publishing about work initiated to serve administrative needs in the Department. The review process identified the need for more protected time for research, issues with time constraints, and avoiding exploitation when collaborating with other departments. This review identified a rigorous faculty mentoring and review process that included annual career counseling, goal-oriented academic careers, monitored advancement to promotion, higher salaries, and national recognition. All contributed to high faculty satisfaction and low faculty turnover. We conclude that a rigorous annual faculty review program and its natural sequence, promotion, can greatly foster faculty satisfaction.

  2. Innovations in rocking wall-frame systems-theory and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, Mark; Tavousi, Shayan

    2017-09-01

    The need to improve the seismic performance of buildings has brought about innovative systems such as rocking wall-moment frame (RWMF) combinations. The behavior of RWMFs can best be visualized by the moment-frame (MF) restraining the wall in place, and the rigid rocking wall (RRW) providing additional damping and imposing uniform drift along the height of the frame. A novel method of analysis followed by the development of a new lateral resisting system is introduced. The proposed concepts lead to an efficient structural configuration with provisions for self-centering, reparability, performance control, damage tolerance and collapse prevention. Exact, unique, closed form formulae have been provided to assess the collapse prevention and self-centering capabilities of the system. The objective is to provide an informative account of RWMF behavior for preliminary design as well as educational purposes. All formulae have been verified by independent computer analysis. Parametric examples have been provided to verify the validity of the proposed solutions.

  3. The effect of construction stage on the development of retaining wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Hiung, Voo Kien; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Sofri, Liyana Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    With the growing of population and density in metropolitan areas, especially for the narrow space areas, high rise buildings are the best choice to fulfil the demands for the lacking spaces for development. Hence, it seems deep excavation is necessary to construct underground spaces. Control of soil deformation is crucial for deep excavation in congested urban area to minimize its effect on adjacent structures. During excavation of the soil, retaining walls are required to retain the soil behind it. Therefore, an appropriate method or modelling is required to determine the movement of retaining wall due to lateral earth pressure acts behind it. Finite Element Method (FEM) utilizing computer program PLAXIS, was used to estimate the wall and ground deformation at each stage of excavation.

  4. Biomedical discovery acceleration, with applications to craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Sonia M; Tipney, Hannah; Feng, Weiguo; Baumgartner, William A; Kasliwal, Priyanka; Schuyler, Ronald P; Williams, Trevor; Spritz, Richard A; Hunter, Lawrence

    2009-03-01

    The profusion of high-throughput instruments and the explosion of new results in the scientific literature, particularly in molecular biomedicine, is both a blessing and a curse to the bench researcher. Even knowledgeable and experienced scientists can benefit from computational tools that help navigate this vast and rapidly evolving terrain. In this paper, we describe a novel computational approach to this challenge, a knowledge-based system that combines reading, reasoning, and reporting methods to facilitate analysis of experimental data. Reading methods extract information from external resources, either by parsing structured data or using biomedical language processing to extract information from unstructured data, and track knowledge provenance. Reasoning methods enrich the knowledge that results from reading by, for example, noting two genes that are annotated to the same ontology term or database entry. Reasoning is also used to combine all sources into a knowledge network that represents the integration of all sorts of relationships between a pair of genes, and to calculate a combined reliability score. Reporting methods combine the knowledge network with a congruent network constructed from experimental data and visualize the combined network in a tool that facilitates the knowledge-based analysis of that data. An implementation of this approach, called the Hanalyzer, is demonstrated on a large-scale gene expression array dataset relevant to craniofacial development. The use of the tool was critical in the creation of hypotheses regarding the roles of four genes never previously characterized as involved in craniofacial development; each of these hypotheses was validated by further experimental work.

  5. Biomedical discovery acceleration, with applications to craniofacial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Leach

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The profusion of high-throughput instruments and the explosion of new results in the scientific literature, particularly in molecular biomedicine, is both a blessing and a curse to the bench researcher. Even knowledgeable and experienced scientists can benefit from computational tools that help navigate this vast and rapidly evolving terrain. In this paper, we describe a novel computational approach to this challenge, a knowledge-based system that combines reading, reasoning, and reporting methods to facilitate analysis of experimental data. Reading methods extract information from external resources, either by parsing structured data or using biomedical language processing to extract information from unstructured data, and track knowledge provenance. Reasoning methods enrich the knowledge that results from reading by, for example, noting two genes that are annotated to the same ontology term or database entry. Reasoning is also used to combine all sources into a knowledge network that represents the integration of all sorts of relationships between a pair of genes, and to calculate a combined reliability score. Reporting methods combine the knowledge network with a congruent network constructed from experimental data and visualize the combined network in a tool that facilitates the knowledge-based analysis of that data. An implementation of this approach, called the Hanalyzer, is demonstrated on a large-scale gene expression array dataset relevant to craniofacial development. The use of the tool was critical in the creation of hypotheses regarding the roles of four genes never previously characterized as involved in craniofacial development; each of these hypotheses was validated by further experimental work.

  6. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  7. Design of an X-band accelerating structure using a newly developed structural optimization procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Fang, Wencheng; Gu, Qiang; Zhao, Zhentang

    2017-05-01

    An X-band high gradient accelerating structure is a challenging technology for implementation in advanced electron linear accelerator facilities. The present work discusses the design of an X-band accelerating structure for dedicated application to a compact hard X-ray free electron laser facility at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, and numerous design optimizations are conducted with consideration for radio frequency (RF) breakdown, RF efficiency, short-range wakefields, and dipole/quadrupole field modes, to ensure good beam quality and a high accelerating gradient. The designed X-band accelerating structure is a constant gradient structure with a 4π/5 operating mode and input and output dual-feed couplers in a racetrack shape. The design process employs a newly developed effective optimization procedure for optimization of the X-band accelerating structure. In addition, the specific design of couplers providing high beam quality by eliminating dipole field components and reducing quadrupole field components is discussed in detail.

  8. Acceleration of pubertal development following pituitary radiotherapy for Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, R.M.; Kirk, J.M.W.; Grossman, A.B.; Plowman, P.N.; Besser, G.M.; Savage, M.O. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with pituitary dependent Cushing's disease was treated with pituitary irradiation following unsuccessful microadenomectomy. This led to normalization of the hypercortisolaemia, but was followed by GH deficiency. Two years after radiotherapy he had the onset of pubertal development with testicular enlargement to 8 ml bilaterally. Pubertal regression was induced using the long-acting GnRH analogue goserelin. Acceleration of skeletal maturation was also arrested, resulting in improvement of final height prediction. Irradiation directly to the hypothalamo-pituitary region, as well as whole brain irradiation, may thus be associated with accelerated pubertal development. (author).

  9. Development of a new connection for precast concrete walls subjected to cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghei, Ramin; Hejazi, Farzad; Taheri, Hafez; Jaafar, Mohd Saleh; Aziz, Farah Nora Aznieta Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The Industrialized Building System (IBS) was recently introduced to minimize the time and cost of project construction. Accordingly, ensuring the integration of the connection of precast components in IBS structures is an important factor that ensures stability of buildings subjected to dynamic loads from earthquakes, vehicles, and machineries. However, structural engineers still lack knowledge on the proper connection and detailed joints of IBS structure construction. Therefore, this study proposes a special precast concrete wall-to-wall connection system for dynamic loads that resists multidirectional imposed loads and reduces vibration effects (PI2014701723). This system is designed to connect two adjacent precast wall panels by using two steel U-shaped channels (i.e., male and female joints). During casting, each joint is adapted for incorporation into a respective wall panel after considering the following conditions: one side of the steel channel opens into the thickness face of the panel; a U-shaped rubber is implemented between the two channels to dissipate the vibration effect; and bolts and nuts are used to create an extension between the two U-shaped male and female steel channels. The developed finite element model of the precast wall is subjected to cyclic loads to evaluate the performance of the proposed connection during an imposed dynamic load. Connection performance is then compared with conventional connections based on the energy dissipation, stress, deformation, and concrete damage in the plastic range. The proposed precast connection is capable of exceeding the energy absorption of precast walls subjected to dynamic load, thereby improving its resistance behavior in all principal directions.

  10. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distanchyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eRancour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as a livestock nutritive energy source and a potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass Brachypodium distanchyon has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agriculturally important temperate forage grasses based on phylogenetic relationships. To physically corroborate genetic predictions, we determined the chemical composition profiles of organ-specific cell walls throughout the development of two common diploid accessions of Brachypodium distanchyon, Bd21-3 and Bd21. Chemical analysis was performed on cell walls isolated from distinct organs (i.e. leaves, sheaths, stems and roots at three developmental stages of 1 12-day seedling, 2 vegetative-to-reproductive transition, and 3 mature seed-fill. In addition, we have included cell wall analysis of embryonic callus used for genetic transformations. Composition of cell walls based on components lignin, hydroxycinnamates, uronosyls, neutral sugars, and protein suggests that Brachypodium distanchyon is similar chemically to agriculturally important forage grasses. There were modest compositional differences in hydroxycinnamate profiles between accessions Bd21-3 and Bd21. In addition, when compared to agronomical important C3 grasses, more mature Brachypodium stem cell walls have a relative increase in glucose of 48% and a decrease in lignin of 36%. Though differences exists between Brachypodium and agronomical important C3 grasses, Brachypodium distanchyon should be still a useful model system for genetic manipulation of cell wall composition to determine the impact upon functional characteristics such as rumen digestibility or energy conversion efficiency for bioenergy production.

  11. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, C. E.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Birkel, A.; Kabadi, N. V.; Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Simpson, R. A.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G. D.; Wink, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, DT and DD neutron sources, and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The accelerator generates DD and D3He fusion products through the acceleration of D+ ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Accurately characterized fusion product rates of around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved. The DT and DD neutron sources generate up to 6x108, and 1x107 neutrons/s, respectively. One x-ray generator is a thick-target W source with a peak energy of 225 keV and a maximum dose rate of 12 Gy/min; the other uses Cu, Mo, or Ti elemental tubes to generate x-rays with a maximum energy of 40 keV. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39-based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a valuable hands-on tool for graduate and undergraduate education at MIT. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DoE, SNL, LLE and LLNL.

  12. Developing a Model of Compulsory Basic Education Completion Acceleration in Support of Millennium Development Goals in Magelang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarno; Haryati, Sri

    2015-01-01

    This article reports Year One of a two-year study to develop a model to accelerate compulsory basic education completion toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Magelang, Indonesia. The study focuses on five issues: (1) profile of MDGs in Magelang, (2) achievement of MDGs, (3) problems in MDGs implementation, (4) model of compulsary basic…

  13. Accelerating the Early Numeracy Development of Kindergartners with Limited Working Memory Skills through Remedial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children with limited working memory skills are a special interest group among all children that score below average on early numeracy tests. This study examines the effect of accelerating the early numeracy development of these children through remedial education, by comparing them with children with typically working memory…

  14. Three decades of development and achievements: the heavy vehicle simulator in accelerated pavement testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two fold. First, it will provide a brief description of the technological developments involved in the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) accelerated pavement testing equipment. This covers the period from concept in the late...

  15. Development of Tandem Accelerator Mixed Target Cone and Its Application for Single Event Effects Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Li; SHEN; Dong-jun; YOU; Qu-bo; WANG; Hui

    2012-01-01

    <正>For carrying out heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test, the tandem accelerator has the advantage of rapid replacement of ion species, making it possible to replace 5 or 6 kinds of ion in one experiment (about 20 h) and get complete cross-section curve for devices under test (DUTs). In order to achieve the purpose of rapid replacement of ion species, multi-element mixed target cone using in tandem accelerator has been developed. In this way variety of ions can be extracted in one target cone, the time of replacing target cone can be saved, thereby further raise efficiency of experiment.

  16. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE NEUTRON DOSEMETER FOR THE USE AT HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexey; Fehrenbacher, Georg; Radon, Torsten

    2016-09-01

    For the radiation survey at intermediate and high-energy accelerators, there is a need for a neutron dosemeter which provides reliable readings of the neutron dose in a wide energy range for continuous and pulsed radiation. The objective of this development is to find a dosemeter that fulfils the necessary requirements and can be reliably used to prove that the radiation levels in areas around accelerators are in accordance with the limits of the respective radiation protection legislation. A simple layout with small dimensions and light weight as well as the usage of common materials to lower the production costs is to be achieved.

  17. Development of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner, A.J., E-mail: kreiner@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castell, W. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Paolo, H. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Baldo, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The machine currently being constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 0.6 MV. We report here on the progress achieved in a number of different areas.

  18. Second International Conference on Accelerating Biopharmaceutical Development: March 9-12, 2009, Coronado, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M; Jacob, Nitya M; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2009-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Accelerating Biopharmaceutical Development was held in Coronado, California. The meeting was organized by the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE) and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE); SBE is a technological community of the AIChE. Bob Adamson (Wyeth) and Chuck Goochee (Centocor) were co-chairs of the event, which had the theme "Delivering cost-effective, robust processes and methods quickly and efficiently." The first day focused on emerging disruptive technologies and cutting-edge analytical techniques. Day two featured presentations on accelerated cell culture process development, critical quality attributes, specifications and comparability, and high throughput protein formulation development. The final day was dedicated to discussion of technology options and new analysis methods provided by emerging disruptive technologies; functional interaction, integration and synergy in platform development; and rapid and economic purification process development.

  19. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier–Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number’. PMID:28167585

  20. Development of a Thin-Wall Magnesium side door Inner Panel for Automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jekl, J.; Auld, J.; Sweet, C.; Carter, Jon; Resch, Steve; Klarner, A.; Brevick, J.; Luo, A.

    2015-05-17

    Cast magnesium side door inner panels can provide a good combination of weight, functional, manufacturing and economical requirements. However, several challenges exist including casting technology for thin-wall part design, multi-material incompatibility and relatively low strength vs steel. A project has been initiated, supported by the US Department of Energy, to design and develop a lightweight frame-under-glass door having a thin-wall, full die-cast, magnesium inner panel. This development project is the first of its kind within North America. Phase I of the project is now complete and the 2.0mm magnesium design, through casting process enablers, has met or exceeded all stiffness requirements, with significant mass reduction and part consolidation. In addition, a corrosion mitigation strategy has been established using industry-accepted galvanic isolation methods and coating technologies.

  1. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  2. Developing The Physics Desing for NDCS-II, A Unique Pulse-Compressing Ion Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Faltens, A; Henestroza, E; Jung, J; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Vay, J -; Waldron, W L; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Gilson, E P; Kaganovich, I

    2009-09-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the 'warm dense matter' regime at {approx}< 1 eV, and is developing capabilities for studying target physics relevant to ion-driven inertial fusion energy. The need for rapid target heating led to the development of plasma-neutralized pulse compression, with current amplification factors exceeding 50 now routine on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Construction of an improved platform, NDCX-II, has begun at LBNL with planned completion in 2012. Using refurbished induction cells from the Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL, NDCX-II will compress a {approx}500 ns pulse of Li{sup +} ions to {approx} 1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over {approx} 15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  3. Mixed endometrioid and serous carcinoma developing in abdominal wall endometriosis following Cesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Ines, David; Montoriol, Pierre Francois; Petitcolin, Virginie; Garcier, Jean-Marc (Dept. of Radiology and Medical Imaging, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand (France)), email: ddaines@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Bourdel, Nicolas; Canis, Michel (Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand (France)); Charpy, Cecile (Dept. of Pathology, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand (France))

    2011-06-15

    Abdominal wall endometriosis is unusual and mostly occurs in scars following Cesarean section. Although malignant transformation is rare, it must be recognized in order to benefit from radical resection. We report a very rare case of mixed endometrioid and serous carcinoma developing in a Cesarean section endometriosis scar and the way we managed it using surgery and chemotherapy. 18-FDG PET-CT imaging was performed to correctly stage the disease

  4. Development of new S-band RF window for stable high-power operation in linear accelerator RF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Youngdo; Lee, Byung-Joon; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kong, Hyung-Sup; Hwang, Woonha; Roh, Sungjoo; Ryu, Jiwan

    2017-09-01

    For stable high-power operation, a new RF window is developed in the S-band linear accelerator (Linac) RF systems of the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) and the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL). The new RF window is designed to mitigate the strength of the electric field at the ceramic disk and also at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure of the conventional RF window. By replacing the pill-box type cavity in the conventional RF window with an overmoded cavity, the electric field component perpendicular to the ceramic disk that caused most of the multipacting breakdowns in the ceramic disk was reduced by an order of magnitude. The reduced electric field at the ceramic disk eliminated the Ti-N coating process on the ceramic surface in the fabrication procedure of the new RF window, preventing the incomplete coating from spoiling the RF transmission and lowering the fabrication cost. The overmoded cavity was coupled with input and output waveguides through dual side-wall coupling irises to reduce the electric field strength at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure and the possibility of mode competitions in the overmoded cavity. A prototype of the new RF window was fabricated and fully tested with the Klystron peak input power, pulse duration and pulse repetition rate of 75 MW, 4.5 μs and 10 Hz, respectively, at the high-power test stand. The first mass-produced new RF window installed in the PLS-II Linac is running in normal operation mode. No fault is reported to date. Plans are being made to install the new RF window to all S-band accelerator RF modules of the PLS-II and PAL-XFEL Linacs. This new RF window may be applied to the output windows of S-band power sources like Klystron as wells as the waveguide windows of accelerator facilities which operate in S-band.

  5. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, C.D.

    1977-11-15

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a significant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospect in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  6. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALL METHOD TO INCREASE FRONT WATER DEPTH AND SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF EXISTING QUAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Masakatsu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Takahiro; Morikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hoshino, Masami; Miki, Kenichi

    Recently the dual anchored sheet pile wall method has been developed to increase a front water depth and seismic resistance of existing quay walls by providing an additional anchor in the lower level of them to reduce a flexural moment of the sheet piles and a tension of the anchors. The existing technical information is not enough to evaluate the seismic behavior and the retrofit of the quay walls with anchors at two different levels. Therefore the experiments with a scale model set on the vibration table of the centrifugal apparatus as well as two dimensional effective stress analyses have been mobilized to investigate the seismic retrofit of the dual anchored sheet pile wall. The experiments and analyses demonstrate the increase the earthquake resistance of quay walls, because they showed the additional anchor can reduce the stress of the sheet walls to one half.

  8. Recent developments in the application of electron accelerators for polymer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Berejka, A. J.; Cleland, M. R.; Antoniak, M.

    2014-01-01

    There are now over 1700 high current, electron beam (EB) accelerators being used world-wide in industrial applications, most of which involve polymer processing. In contrast to the use of heat, which transfers only about 5-10% of input energy into energy useful for materials modification, radiation processing is very energy efficient, with 60% or more of the input energy to an accelerator being available for affecting materials. Historic markets, such as the crosslinking of wire and cable jacketing, of heat shrinkable tubings and films, of partial crosslinking of tire components and of low-energy EB to cure or dry inks and coatings remain strong. Accelerator manufacturers have made equipment more affordable by down-sizing units while maintaining high beam currents. Very powerful accelerators with 700 kW output have made X-ray conversion a practical alternative to the historic use of radioisotopes, mainly cobalt-60, for applications as medical device sterilization. New EB end-uses are emerging, such as the development of nano-composites and nano-gels and the use of EB processing to facilitate biofuel production. These present opportunities for future research and development.

  9. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  10. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii development mutants identifies a potential proteophosphogylcan that enhances cyst wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Mary Patricia J; Rooney, Peggy J; Knoll, Laura J

    2010-02-01

    Within warm-blooded animals, Toxoplasma gondii switches from an actively replicating form called a tachyzoite into a slow growing encysted form called a bradyzoite. To uncover the genes involved in bradyzoite development, we screened over 8000 T. gondii insertional mutants by immunofluorescence microscopy. We identified nine bradyzoite development mutants that were defective in both cyst wall formation and expression of a bradyzoite specific heat shock protein. One of these mutants, named 42F5, contained an insertion into the predicted gene TGME49_097520. The disrupted protein is serine/proline-rich with homology to proteophosphoglycans from Leishmania. T. gondii proteophosphoglycan (GU182879) expressed from the native promoter was undetectable in tachyzoites, but bradyzoites show punctate spots within the parasite and staining around the parasitophorous vacuole. Complementation of the 42F5 mutant with GU182879 expressed from either the alpha-tubulin or native promoter restores cyst wall formation. Overall, GU182879 is upregulated in bradyzoites and enhances cyst wall component expression and assembly.

  11. Manufacturing Process Developments for Regeneratively-Cooled Channel Wall Rocket Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Brandsmeier, Will

    2016-01-01

    Regeneratively cooled channel wall nozzles incorporate a series of integral coolant channels to contain the coolant to maintain adequate wall temperatures and expand hot gas providing engine thrust and specific impulse. NASA has been evaluating manufacturing techniques targeting large scale channel wall nozzles to support affordability of current and future liquid rocket engine nozzles and thrust chamber assemblies. The development of these large scale manufacturing techniques focus on the liner formation, channel slotting with advanced abrasive water-jet milling techniques and closeout of the coolant channels to replace or augment other cost reduction techniques being evaluated for nozzles. NASA is developing a series of channel closeout techniques including large scale additive manufacturing laser deposition and explosively bonded closeouts. A series of subscale nozzles were completed evaluating these processes. Fabrication of mechanical test and metallography samples, in addition to subscale hardware has focused on Inconel 625, 300 series stainless, aluminum alloys as well as other candidate materials. Evaluations of these techniques are demonstrating potential for significant cost reductions for large scale nozzles and chambers. Hot fire testing is planned using these techniques in the future.

  12. Development of digital image correlation method to analyse crack variations of masonry wall

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shih-Heng Tung; Ming-Hsiang Shih; Wen-Pei Sung

    2008-12-01

    The detection of crack development in a masonry wall forms an important study for investigating the earthquake resistance capability of the masonry structures. Traditionally, inspecting the structure and documenting the findings were done manually. The procedures are time-consuming, and the results are sometimes inaccurate. Therefore, the digital image correlation (DIC) technique is developed to identify the strain and crack variations. This technique is non-destructive for inspecting the whole displacement and strain field. Tests on two masonry wall samples were performed to verify the performance of the digital image correlation method. The phenomena of micro cracks, strain concentration situation and nonuniform deformation distribution which could not have been observed preciously by manual inspection are successfully identified using DIC. The crack formation tendencies on masonry wall can be observed at an earlier stage by this proposed method. These results show a great application potential of the DIC technique for various situations such as inspecting shrinkage-induced cracks in fresh concrete, masonry and reinforced concrete structures, and safety of bridges.

  13. Rectangular Blocks vs Polygonal Walls in Archaeoseismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-G. Hinzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Collapsed or deformed walls in ancient structures constitute important evidence in archaeoseismology, where damage is interpreted in terms of earthquake ground motion. A large variety of wall types have been developed during the millennia in different cultural backgrounds. Often walls with polygonal-shaped building blocks are regarded as more earthquake-resistant than a wall consisting of rectangular elements and, as is sometimes speculated, that the irregular wall types were intentionally developed for that purpose. We use simply structured discrete element models of four walls with different block geometries, perfect rectangular, an Inka-type structure and two polygonal designs, to test their dynamic behavior. In addition to an analytic calculation of ground motion, we use measured strong motion signals as boundary conditions for the 3D wall models with varying height to width ratios. At peak ground accelerations between 1.0 and 9.0 m/s2 and major frequencies of 0.5 to 3 Hz, numeric experiments with the horizontally applied analytic ground motions result in clear differences in the resistance of the four wall types with the rectangular block wall being most vulnerable. For more complex measured 3D motions the Inka-type wall proves more stable than the rectangular block wall; however, height to width ratio still has equally strong influence on the stability. Internal deformation of non-collapsed walls shows some correlation with the parameters of the driving motion. For simple impulsive ground motions, a peak ground displacement threshold exists between toppling and remaining upright for all four models but peak acceleration cannot be reliably back calculated.

  14. Development of a Magnetron Resonance Frequency Auto Tuning System for Medical Xband [9300 MHz] RF Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sung Su; Lee, Byung Cheol [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Cha, Hyungki; Lee, Soo Min; Song, Ki Baek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The total components of the accelerator are the magnetron, electron gun, accelerating structure, a set of solenoid magnets, four sets of steering coils, a modulator, and a circulator. One of the accelerator components of the accelerating structure is made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC), and its volume is changed according to the ambient temperature. As the volume changes, the resonant frequency of the accelerating structure is changed. Accordingly, the resonance frequency is mismatched between the source of the magnetron and the accelerating structure. An automatic frequency tuning system is automatically matched with the resonant frequency of the magnetron and accelerating structure, which allows a high output power and reliable accelerator operation. An automatic frequency tuning system is composed of a step motor control part for correcting the frequency of the source and power measuring parts, i.e., the forward and reflected power between the magnetron and accelerating structure. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the automatic frequency tuning system for the X-band linac are presented. A frequency tuning system was developed to overcome an unstable accelerator operation owing to the frequency mismatch between the magnetron and accelerating structure. The frequency measurement accuracy is 100 kHz and 0.72 degree per pulse.

  15. Cell walls as a stage for intercellular communication regulating shoot meristem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki eTameshige

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground organs of plants are ultimately derived/generated from the shoot apical meristem (SAM, which is the proliferative tissue located at the apex of the stem. The SAM contains a population of stem cells that provide new cells for organ/tissue formation. The SAM is composed of distinct cell layers and zones with different properties. Primordia of lateral organs develop at the periphery of the SAM. The shoot apex is a dynamic and complex tissue, and as such intercellular communications among cells, layers and zones play significant roles in the coordination of cell proliferation, growth and differentiation to achieve elaborate morphogenesis. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of a number of singling molecules acting in the cell wall space for the intercellular communication, including classic phytohormones and secretory peptides. Moreover, accumulating evidences reveal that cell wall properties and their modifying enzymes modulate hormone actions. In this review, we overview how behaviors of singling molecules and changes of cell wall properties are integrated for the shoot meristem regulation.

  16. openSE: a Systems Engineering Framework Particularly Suited to Particle Accelerator Studies and Development Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnal, P. [CERN; Féral, B. [CERN; Kershaw, K. [CERN; Nicquevert, B. [CERN; Baudin, M. [Ecole Normale Superieure; Lari, L. [ESS, Lund; Le Cardinal, J. [Chatenay-Malabry, Ecole Centrale

    2016-07-15

    Particle accelerator projects share many characteristics with industrial projects. However, experience has shown that best practice of industrial project management is not always well suited to particle accelerator projects. Major differences include the number and complexity of technologies involved, the importance of collaborative work, development phases that can last more than a decade, and the importance of telerobotics and remote handling to address future preventive and corrective maintenance requirements due to induced radioactivity, to cite just a few. The openSE framework it is a systems engineering and project management framework specifically designed for scientific facilities’ systems and equipment studies and development projects. Best practices in project management, in systems and requirements engineering, in telerobotics and remote handling and in radiation safety management were used as sources of inspiration, together with analysis of current practices surveyed at CERN, GSI and ESS.

  17. Development of the superconducting 3.9-GHz accelerating cavity at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkan, T.; Bauer, P.; Bellantoni, L.; Boffo, C.; Borissov, E.; Carter, H.; Edwards, H.; Foley, M.; Gonin, I.; Khabibouline, T.; Mishra, S.; Mitchell, D.; Polubotko, V.; Rowe, A.; Solyak, N.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    A superconducting third harmonic 3.9 GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve the beam quality in the TTF-like photoinjector [1]. Fermilab has developed, built and tested several prototypes, including two copper 9-cell cavities, one niobium 3-cell cavity, and one 9-cell cavity. The helium vessel and frequency tuner for the 9-cell cavity was built and tested as well. In cold tests, we achieved a peak surface magnetic field of {approx}100mT, well above the 70mT specification. The accelerating gradient was likely limited by thermal breakdown. Studies of the higher order modes in the cavity revealed that the existing cavity design with two HOM couplers will provide sufficient damping of these modes. In this paper we discuss the cavity design, results of the studies and plans for further development.

  18. Stepwise Distributed Open Innovation Contests for Software Development: Acceleration of Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Loh, Po-Ru; Bharadwaj, Ragu B; Pons, Pascal; Shang, Jingbo; Guinan, Eva; Lakhani, Karim; Kilty, Iain; Jelinsky, Scott A

    2017-05-01

    The association of differing genotypes with disease-related phenotypic traits offers great potential to both help identify new therapeutic targets and support stratification of patients who would gain the greatest benefit from specific drug classes. Development of low-cost genotyping and sequencing has made collecting large-scale genotyping data routine in population and therapeutic intervention studies. In addition, a range of new technologies is being used to capture numerous new and complex phenotypic descriptors. As a result, genotype and phenotype datasets have grown exponentially. Genome-wide association studies associate genotypes and phenotypes using methods such as logistic regression. As existing tools for association analysis limit the efficiency by which value can be extracted from increasing volumes of data, there is a pressing need for new software tools that can accelerate association analyses on large genotype-phenotype datasets. Using open innovation (OI) and contest-based crowdsourcing, the logistic regression analysis in a leading, community-standard genetics software package (PLINK 1.07) was substantially accelerated. OI allowed us to do this in computational, numeric, and algorithmic approaches was identified that accelerated the logistic regression in PLINK 1.07 by 18- to 45-fold. Combining contest-derived logistic regression code with coarse-grained parallelization, multithreading, and associated changes to data initialization code further developed through distributed innovation, we achieved an end-to-end speedup of 591-fold for a data set size of 6678 subjects by 645 863 variants, compared to PLINK 1.07's logistic regression. This represents a reduction in run time from 4.8 hours to 29 seconds. Accelerated logistic regression code developed in this project has been incorporated into the PLINK2 project. Using iterative competition-based OI, we have developed a new, faster implementation of logistic regression for genome-wide association

  19. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel f...

  20. Development of a photovoltaic module qualification test based on combined-environment accelerated stress data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, S. E.; Royal, E.; Anderson, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard has developed a qualification test to screen photovoltaic modules for utilization on marine aids to navigation. The test is based on a combined-environment of hot and cold saltwater immersion and air pressurization. The test has demonstrated a very high acceleration factor and excellent correlation of electrical failures with modules in a concurrent real-time marine exposure.

  1. Priority research areas to accelerate the development of practical ultraconductive copper conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dominic F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burwell, Malcolm [International Copper Association, Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, H. [International Copper Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the findings at an Ultraconductive Copper Strategy Meeting held on March 11, 2015 in Washington DC. The aim of this meeting was to bring together researchers of ultraconductive copper in the U.S. to identify and prioritize critical non-proprietary research activities that will enhance the understanding in the material and accelerate its development into practical conductors. Every effort has been made to ensure that the discussion and findings are accurately reported in this document.

  2. Development and beam test of a continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The front end of any modern ion accelerator includes a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ. While many pulsed ion linacs successfully operate RFQs, several ion accelerators worldwide have significant difficulties operating continuous wave (CW RFQs to design specifications. In this paper we describe the development and results of the beam commissioning of a CW RFQ designed and built for the National User Facility: Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS. Several innovative ideas were implemented in this CW RFQ. By selecting a multisegment split-coaxial structure, we reached moderate transverse dimensions for a 60.625-MHz resonator and provided a highly stabilized electromagnetic field distribution. The accelerating section of the RFQ occupies approximately 50% of the total length and is based on a trapezoidal vane tip modulation that increased the resonator shunt impedance by 60% in this section as compared to conventional sinusoidal modulation. To form an axially symmetric beam exiting the RFQ, a very short output radial matcher with a length of 0.75βλ was developed. The RFQ is designed as a 100% oxygen-free electronic (OFE copper structure and fabricated with a two-step furnace brazing process. The radio frequency (rf measurements show excellent rf properties for the resonator, with a measured intrinsic Q equal to 94% of the simulated value for OFE copper. An O^{5+} ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was used for the RFQ commissioning. In off-line beam testing, we found excellent coincidence of the measured beam parameters with the results of beam dynamics simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK, which was developed at Argonne. These results demonstrate the great success of the RFQ design and fabrication technology developed here, which can be applied to future CW RFQs.

  3. Design and Development Tools for the Systems Engineering Experience Accelerator - Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-29

    Experience Accelerator infrastructure to HTML5 , which allows for more flexibility in developing functionality and interfaces for different experiences, and...interface technology needs to be upgraded from Flash to HTML5 . This is critical for Section 508 compliance, and is a requirement for U.S. Government use...infrastructure to HTML5 is described. The evaluation of the tools is provided next. Finally, the Conclusions and future research are presented. RESEARCH

  4. Development of the C{sup 6+} laser ablation ion source for the KEK digital accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munemoto, Naoya, E-mail: munemoto.n.ad@m.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takayama, Ken [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Miura, Kanagawa 240-8550 (Japan); Takano, Susumu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kumaki, Masahumi [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A laser ion source that provides a fully ionized carbon ion beam is under joint development at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Long-pulse (6 ns) and short-pulse (500 ps) laser systems were tested by using them to irradiate a graphite target. Notable differences between the systems were observed in these experiments. Preliminary experimental results, such as the charge-state spectrum, beam intensity, and stability, are discussed.

  5. Development of a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole accelerator facility for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Thatar Vento, V; Levinas, P; Bergueiro, J; Di Paolo, H; Burlon, A A; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Minsky, D M; Estrada, L; Hazarabedian, A; Johann, F; Suarez Sandin, J C; Castell, W; Davidson, J; Davidson, M; Giboudot, Y; Repetto, M; Obligado, M; Nery, J P; Huck, H; Igarzabal, M; Fernandez Salares, A

    2009-07-01

    In this work we describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for accelerator-based (AB) BNCT at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina in Buenos Aires. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. An electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. The machine being designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 1.2 MV intended to work in air. Such a machine is conceptually shown to be capable of transporting and accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.4 MeV. The general geometric layout, its associated electrostatic fields, and the acceleration tube are simulated using a 3D finite element procedure. The design and construction of the ESQ modules is discussed and their electrostatic fields are investigated. Beam transport calculations through the accelerator are briefly mentioned. Likewise, work related to neutron production targets, strippers, beam shaping assembly and patient treatment room is briefly described.

  6. Development of a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole accelerator facility for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner, A.J. [Dept. de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917(C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: kreiner@tandar.cnea.gov.ar; Thatar Vento, V. [Dept. de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Levinas, P. [Dept. de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917(C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J. [Dept. de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Paolo, H.; Burlon, A.A. [Dept. de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kesque, J.M. [Dept. de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R. [Dept. de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Minsky, D.M. [Dept. de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917(C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)] (and others)

    2009-07-15

    In this work we describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for accelerator-based (AB) BNCT at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina in Buenos Aires. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. An electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. The machine being designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 1.2 MV intended to work in air. Such a machine is conceptually shown to be capable of transporting and accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.4 MeV. The general geometric layout, its associated electrostatic fields, and the acceleration tube are simulated using a 3D finite element procedure. The design and construction of the ESQ modules is discussed and their electrostatic fields are investigated. Beam transport calculations through the accelerator are briefly mentioned. Likewise, work related to neutron production targets, strippers, beam shaping assembly and patient treatment room is briefly described.0.

  7. Development of superconducting crossbar-H-mode cavities for proton and ion accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dziuba

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The crossbar-H-mode (CH structure is the first superconducting multicell drift tube cavity for the low and medium energy range operated in the H_{21} mode. Because of the large energy gain per cavity, which leads to high real estate gradients, it is an excellent candidate for the efficient acceleration in high power proton and ion accelerators with fixed velocity profile. A prototype cavity has been developed and tested successfully with a gradient of 7  MV/m. A few new superconducting CH cavities with improved geometries for different high power applications are under development at present. One cavity (f=325  MHz, β=0.16, seven cells is currently under construction and studied with respect to a possible upgrade option for the GSI UNILAC. Another cavity (f=217  MHz, β=0.059, 15 cells is designed for a cw operated energy variable heavy ion linac application. Furthermore, the EUROTRANS project (European research program for the transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system, 600 MeV protons, 352 MHz is one of many possible applications for this kind of superconducting rf cavity. In this context a layout of the 17 MeV EUROTRANS injector containing four superconducting CH cavities was proposed by the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP Frankfurt. The status of the cavity development related to the EUROTRANS injector is presented.

  8. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahng, Jungbae [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob, E-mail: bslee@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@korea.ac.kr [Department of Accelerator Science, Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong 339-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  9. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  10. Development of free electron laser and accelerator technology in Poland (CARE and EuCARD projects)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The development of accelerator technology in Poland is strictly combined with the cooperation with specialist accelerator centers of global character, where the relevant knowledge is generated, allowing to build big and modern machines. These are relatively costly undertakings of interdisciplinary character. Most of them are financed from the local resources. Only the biggest machines are financed commonly by many nations like: LHC in CERN, ILC in Fermi Lab, E-XFEL in DESY. A similar financing solution has to be implemented in Poland, where a scientific and political campaign is underway on behalf of building two big machines, a Polish Synchrotron in Kraków and a Polish FEL in Świerk. Around these two projects, there are realized a dozen or so smaller ones.

  11. Development of accelerator technology in Poland, Impact of European CARE and EuCARD projects

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R

    2008-01-01

    The development of accelerator technology in Poland is strictly combined with the cooperation with specialist accelerator centers of global character, where the relevant knowledge is generated, allowing to build big and modern machines. These are relatively costly undertakings of interdisciplinary character. Most of them are financed from the local resources. Only the biggest machines are financed commonly by many nations like: LHC in CERN, ILC in Fermi Lab, E-XFEL in DESY. A similar financing solution has to be implemented in Poland, where a scientific and political campaign is underway on behalf of building two big machines, a Polish Synchrotron in Kraków and a Polish FEL in Świerk. Around these two projects, there are realized a dozen or so smaller ones.

  12. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.

    2017-03-01

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted.

  13. Influence of Intuition and Capability on Accelerated Product Development in Big-Medium Scaled Food Companies in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepey Riawati Kurnia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To face the pressure of competition, more and more companies perform accelerated product development by shortening the product development time so that the product will arrive at the market at the shortest time. Food industry has also performed accelerated product development. Using evolution theory, contingency theory, market-based view, and resource-based view a research model has been built. Results of the research’s initial identification show that food industry in Indonesia is in growth level towards maturity level. Meanwhile, competition in the food industry is in moderate level towards hypercompetition level. Tactics of accelerated product development often carried out is by simplifying the product development steps to eliminating the product development steps. The innovation type used is incremental innovation since it is fast and easy. Results of the research give information that intuition and capabilities are the main motivating factors for big-medium scaled food companies in Indonesia to accelerate product development.

  14. Cell-wall architecture and lignin composition of wheat developed in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Heyenga, A. G.; Levine, H. G.; Choi, J.; Davin, L. B.; Krikorian, A. D.; Lewis, N. G.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The microgravity environment encountered during space-flight has long been considered to affect plant growth and developmental processes, including cell wall biopolymer composition and content. As a prelude to studying how microgravity is perceived - and acted upon - by plants, it was first instructive to investigate what gross effects on plant growth and development occurred in microgravity. Thus, wheat seedlings were exposed to microgravity on board the space shuttle Discovery (STS-51) for a 10 day duration, and these specimens were compared with their counterparts grown on Earth under the same conditions (e.g. controls). First, the primary roots of the wheat that developed under both microgravity and 1 g on Earth were examined to assess the role of gravity on cellulose microfibril (CMF) organization and secondary wall thickening patterns. Using a quick freeze/deep etch technique, this revealed that the cell wall CMFs of the space-grown wheat maintained the same organization as their 1 g-grown counterparts. That is, in all instances, CMFs were randomly interwoven with each other in the outermost layers (farthest removed from the plasma membrane), and parallel to each other within the individual strata immediately adjacent to the plasma membranes. The CMF angle in the innermost stratum relative to the immediately adjacent stratum was ca 80 degrees in both the space and Earth-grown plants. Second, all plants grown in microgravity had roots that grew downwards into the agar; they did not display "wandering" and upward growth as previously reported by others. Third, the space-grown wheat also developed normal protoxylem and metaxylem vessel elements with secondary thickening patterns ranging from spiral to regular pit to reticulate thickenings. Fourthly, both the space- and Earth-grown plants were essentially of the same size and height, and their lignin analyses revealed no substantial differences in their amounts and composition regardless of the gravitational

  15. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  16. Development and Analysis of Synthetic Composite Materials Emulating Patient AAA Wall Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, Christa M.

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture accounts for 14,000 deaths a year in the United States. Since the number of ruptures has not decreased significantly in recent years despite improvements in imaging and surgical procedures, there is a need for an accurate, noninvasive technique capable of establishing rupture risk for specific patients and discriminating lesions at high risk. In this project, synthetic composite materials replicating patient-specific wall stiffness and strength were developed and their material properties evaluated. Composites utilizing various fibers were developed to give a range of stiffness from 1825.75 kPa up through 8187.64 kPa with one base material, Sylgard 170. A range of strength from 631.12 kPa to 1083 kPa with the same base material was also found. By evaluating various base materials and various reinforcing fibers, a catalogue of stiffnesses and strengths was started to allow for adaptation to specific patient properties. Three specific patient properties were well-matched with two composites fabricated: silk thread-reinforced Sylgard 170 and silk thread-reinforced Dragon Skin 20. The composites showed similar stiffnesses to the specific patients while reaching target stresses at particular strains. Not all patients were matched with composites as of yet, but recommendations for future matches are able to be determined. These composites will allow for the future evaluation of flow-induced wall stresses in models replicating patient material properties and geometries.

  17. Using Uncertainty Analysis to Guide the Development of Accelerated Stress Tests (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M.

    2014-03-01

    Extrapolation of accelerated testing to the long-term results expected in the field has uncertainty associated with the acceleration factors and the range of possible stresses in the field. When multiple stresses (such as temperature and humidity) can be used to increase the acceleration, the uncertainty may be reduced according to which stress factors are used to accelerate the degradation.

  18. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  19. Accelerated development of CuSbS2 thin film photovoltaic device prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO USA; Baranowski, Lauryn L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO USA; Zawadzki, Pawel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; DeHart, Clay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Johnston, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Lany, Stephan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Wolden, Colin A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO USA; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA

    2016-02-03

    Development of alternative thin film photovoltaic technologies is an important research topic because of the potential of low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells to produce terawatt levels of clean power. However, this development of unexplored yet promising absorbers can be hindered by complications that arise during solar cell fabrication. Here, a high-throughput combinatorial method is applied to accelerate development of photovoltaic devices, in this case, using the novel CuSbS2 absorber via a newly developed three-stage self-regulated growth process to control absorber purity and orientation. Photovoltaic performance of the absorber, using the typical substrate CuInxGa1 - xSe2 (CIGS) device architecture, is explored as a function of absorber quality and thickness using a variety of back contacts. This study yields CuSbS2 device prototypes with ~1% conversion efficiency, suggesting that the optimal CuSbS2 device fabrication parameters and contact selection criteria are quite different than for CIGS, despite the similarity of these two absorbers. The CuSbS2 device efficiency is at present limited by low short-circuit current because of bulk recombination related to defects, and a small open-circuit voltage because of a theoretically predicted cliff-type conduction band offset between CuSbS2 and CdS. Overall, these results illustrate both the potential and limits of combinatorial methods to accelerate the development of thin film photovoltaic devices using novel absorbers.

  20. Advanced laser particle accelerator development at LANL: from fast ignition to radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, D T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cobble, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, M J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, D C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwan, T J T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montgomery, D S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kluge, Thomas [FZD-GERMANY; Bussmann, Micheal [FZD-GERMANY; Bartal, T [UCSD; Beg, F N [UCSD; Gall, B [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Geissel, M [SNL; Korgan, G [NANOLABZ; Kovaleski, S [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Lockard, T [UNIV OF NEVADA; Malekos, S [NANOLABZ; Schollmeier, M [SNL; Sentoku, Y [UNIV OF NEVADA; Cowan, T E [FZD-GERMANY

    2010-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, SN M detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high current and high energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology in conjunction with our partners at the ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent etliciencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  1. Development of high gradient laser wakefield accelerators towards nuclear detection applications at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, Cameron GR; Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Esarey, Eric H.; Gonsalves, Anthony J.; Lin, Chen; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Matlis, Nicholas H.; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Mike; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Plateau, Guillaume R.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim P.

    2008-09-08

    Compact high-energy linacs are important to applications including monochromatic gamma sources for nuclear material security applications. Recent laser wakefield accelerator experiments at LBNL demonstrated narrow energy spread beams, now with energies of up to 1 GeV in 3 cm using a plasma channel at low density. This demonstrates the production of GeV beams from devices much smaller than conventional linacs, and confirms the anticipated scaling of laser driven accelerators to GeV energies. Stable performance at 0.5 GeV was demonstrated. Experiments and simulations are in progress to control injection of particles into the wake and hence to improve beam quality and stability. Using plasma density gradients to control injection, stable beams at 1 MeV over days of operation, and with an order of magnitude lower absolute momentum spread than previously observed, have been demonstrated. New experiments are post-accelerating the beams from controlled injection experiments to increase beam quality and stability. Thomson scattering from such beams is being developed to provide collimated multi-MeV monoenergetic gamma sources for security applications from compact devices. Such sources can reduce dose to target and increase accuracy for applications including photofission and nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  2. Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Cowan, T. E.; Gall, B.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Kwan, T. J.; Korgan, G.; Kovaleski, S.; Lockard, T.; Malekos, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schollmeier, M.; Sentoku, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity [1] and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser [2]. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  3. Development of a process control computer device for the adaptation of flexible wind tunnel walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, J.

    1982-01-01

    In wind tunnel tests, the problems arise of determining the wall pressure distribution, calculating the wall contour, and controlling adjustment of the walls. This report shows how these problems have been solved for the high speed wind tunnel of the Technical University of Berlin.

  4. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankar, K.; Kortstee, A.J.; Toonen, M.A.J.; Wolters-Arts, M.; Houbein, R.; Mariani, C.; Ulvskov, P.; Jorgensen, B.; Schols, H.A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Pectin is a complex polysaccharide and an integral part of the primary plant cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to cell wall mechanical strength and cell adhesion. To understand the structure–function relationships of pectin in the cell wall, a set of transgenic potato lines with altered pec

  5. Future accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hübner, K

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the various schemes for electron-positron linear colliders is given and the status of the development of key components and the various test facilities is given. The present studies of muon-muon colliders and very large hadron colliders are summarized including the plans for component development and tests. Accelerator research and development to achieve highest gradients in linear accelerators is outlined. (44 refs).

  6. The development of controller and navigation algorithm for underwater wall crawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyung Suck; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Min Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    In this project, the control system of a underwater robotic vehicle(URV) for underwater wall inspection in the nuclear reactor pool or the related facilities has been developed. The following 4-sub projects have been studied for this project: (1) Development of the controller and motor driver for the URV (2) Development of the control algorithm for the tracking control of the URV (3) Development of the localization system (4) Underwater experiments of the developed system. First, the dynamic characteristic of thruster with the DC servo-motor was analyzed experimentally. Second the controller board using the INTEL 80C196 was designed and constructed, and the software for the communication and motor control is developed. Third the PWM motor-driver was developed. Fourth the localization system using the laser scanner and inclinometer was developed and tested in the pool. Fifth the dynamics of the URV was studied and the proper control algorithms for the URV was proposed. Lastly the validation of the integrated system was experimentally performed. (author). 27 refs., 51 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Changes in the cell-wall polysaccharides of outer pericarp tissues of kiwifruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjun; Nakagawa, Naoki; Nevins, Donald J; Sakurai, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    Changes in pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose in the cell walls of outer pericarp tissues of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) were determined during development. An extensive amylase digestion was employed to remove possible contaminating starch before and after fractionation of wall polysaccharides. An initial treatment of crude cell walls with alpha-amylase and iso-amylase or DMSO, was found to be insufficient removing the contaminating starch from wall polysaccharides. After EDTA and alkaline extraction, the pectic and hemicellulose fractions were again treated with the combination of alpha-amylase and iso-amylase. The amounts of predominant pectic sugars Gal, Rha and Ara, unaffected by the first and second amylase digestion, decreased markedly during the early fruit enlargement (8-12 weeks after anthesis, WAA), then increased during 16-20 WAA, and finally declined during fruit maturity (20-25 WAA). The molecular-mass of pectic polysaccharides decreased during fruit enlargement (8-16 WAA), and then changed little during fruit maturity. The higher molecular-mass components of hemicelluloses in HC-I and HC-II fractions detected at the early stage of fruit enlargement (8-12 WAA) were degraded at the late stage of fruit enlargement (16 WAA), but then remained stable at the much lower molecular-mass till fruit maturity. The amount of Xyl in the HC-II fraction decreased during the early fruit enlargement and fruit maturity, an observation that was consistent with xyloglucan (XG) content. The gel permeation profiles of XG showed a slight increase in higher molecular-mass components during 8-12 WAA, but thereafter there was no significant down-shift of molecular-mass until harvest time. The cellulose fraction increased steadily during fruit enlargement through maturity, but the XG contents in HC-I and HC-II fractions remained at a low level during these stages. Methylation analysis of HC-I and HC-II fractions confirmed the low level of XG in the

  8. Secondary cell wall composition and candidate gene expression in developing willow (Salix purpurea) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongfang; Gritsch, Cristina; Tryfona, Theodora; Ray, Mike J; Andongabo, Ambrose; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Jones, Huw D; Dupree, Paul; Karp, Angela; Shewry, Peter R; Mitchell, Rowan A C

    2014-05-01

    The properties of the secondary cell wall (SCW) in willow largely determine the suitability of willow biomass feedstock for potential bioenergy and biofuel applications. SCW development has been little studied in willow and it is not known how willow compares with model species, particularly the closely related genus Populus. To address this and relate SCW synthesis to candidate genes in willow, a tractable bud culture-derived system was developed in Salix purpurea, and cell wall composition and RNA-Seq transcriptome were followed in stems during early development. A large increase in SCW deposition in the period 0-2 weeks after transfer to soil was characterised by a big increase in xylan content, but no change in the frequency of substitution of xylan with glucuronic acid, and increased abundance of putative transcripts for synthesis of SCW cellulose, xylan and lignin. Histochemical staining and immunolabeling revealed that increased deposition of lignin and xylan was associated with xylem, xylem fibre cells and phloem fibre cells. Transcripts orthologous to those encoding xylan synthase components IRX9 and IRX10 and xylan glucuronyl transferase GUX1 in Arabidopsis were co-expressed, and showed the same spatial pattern of expression revealed by in situ hybridisation at four developmental stages, with abundant expression in proto-xylem, xylem fibre and ray parenchyma cells and some expression in phloem fibre cells. The results show a close similarity with SCW development in Populus species, but also give novel information on the relationship between spatial and temporal variation in xylan-related transcripts and xylan composition.

  9. Studying secondary growth and bast fiber development: the hemp hypocotyl peeks behind the wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Behr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e. elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e. 6-9-15-20 days after sowing to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases and transcription factors involved in light-related processes and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors.

  10. Studying Secondary Growth and Bast Fiber Development: The Hemp Hypocotyl Peeks behind the Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Žižková, Eva; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre I; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e., elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e., 6-9-15-20 days after sowing) to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases, and transcription factors involved in light-related processes) and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors).

  11. Neoadjuvant paradigm for accelerated drug development: an ideal model in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chism, David D; Woods, Michael E; Milowsky, Matthew I

    2013-01-01

    Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has been shown to confer a survival advantage in two randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis. Despite level 1 evidence supporting its benefit, utilization remains dismal with nearly one-half of patients ineligible for cisplatin-based therapy because of renal dysfunction, impaired performance status, and/or coexisting medical problems. This situation highlights the need for the development of novel therapies for the management of MIBC, a disease with a lethal phenotype. The neoadjuvant paradigm in bladder cancer offers many advantages for accelerated drug development. First, there is a greater likelihood of successful therapy at an earlier disease state that may be characterized by less genomic instability compared with the metastatic setting, with an early readout of activity with results determined in months rather than years. Second, pre- and post-treatment tumor tissue collection in patients with MIBC is performed as the standard of care without the need for research-directed biopsies, allowing for the ability to perform important correlative studies and to monitor tumor response to therapy in "real time." Third, pathological complete response (pT0) predicts for improved outcome in patients with MIBC. Fourth, there is a strong biological rationale with rapidly accumulating evidence for actionable targets in bladder cancer. This review focuses on the neoadjuvant paradigm for accelerated drug development using bladder cancer as the ideal model.

  12. Development of Neural Network Model for Predicting Peak Ground Acceleration Based on Microtremor Measurement and Soil Boring Test Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerh, T; Lin, J. S; Gunaratnam, D

    2012-01-01

    .... This paper is therefore aimed at developing a neural network model, based on available microtremor measurement and on-site soil boring test data, for predicting peak ground acceleration at a site...

  13. DTU climate change technologies. Recommendations on accelerated development and deployment of climate change technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Halsnaes, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, System Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Nielsen, Niels Axel; Moeller, J.S.; Hansen, Jakob Fritz; Froekjaer Strand, I. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    During 2009, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has held a number of international workshops for climate change. Participants came from industry, research institutions and government. The workshops focused on sustainable energy systems and climate change adaptation. The summary of conclusions and recommendations from the workshops constitutes a comprehensive set of technology tracks and recommended actions towards accelerated development and deployment of technology within these two key areas. The workshop process has led to three main conclusions. A. Radical changes are needed to develop sustainable energy systems. B. Tools and processes that climate-proof societal planning and management are needed in order to adapt to climate change. C. Partnerships concerning innovation and deployment (research, development and deployment) are required to meet time constraints.

  14. Accelerating the implementation of the clean development mechanism in South African industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Little

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the responses to the threat of global warming is the Kyoto Protocol and the associated Clean Development Mechanism (CDM to reduce greenhouse gases. South Africa is an ideal country for the implementation of industrial CDM projects, yet lags behind many other countries. This qualitative research determines the factors that cause South Africa to lag other developing countries in the implementation of industrial CDM projects and the interventions that will have the most impact on accelerating implementation. The research involved interviews with 30 experts involved in the South African CDM process. The results identify the factors perceived to be facilitating and inhibiting the use of CDM opportunities and a framework for CDM practitioners to develop an implementation strategy within South African industry is established.

  15. ROCK2 is involved in accelerated fetal lung development induced by in vivo lung distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Marc; Tremblay, Monique; Piedboeuf, Bruno

    2010-10-01

    Lung development is strongly influenced by its state of distension. For instance, increasing distension induced by fetal tracheal occlusion (TO) stimulates lung development. In contrast, oligohydramnios (OH) reduces lung distending forces and results in lung hypoplasia. We hypothesize that Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway plays an important role as mechanosensor in vivo acting either directly or indirectly in the translation of increased distension into acceleration of lung growth. TO was done in fetal mice sacrificed either 3 or 24 hr later; in a subset of dam, fasudil, a specific ROCK inhibitor, or vehicle was injected intra-peritoneally. OH was done by puncture of the amniotic sac. ROCK2 protein levels were assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC); lung development was assessed by measuring the generation of distal respiratory airway. Significant differences were found in ROCK2 protein levels between TO and Sham-TO at 3 and 24 hr, but not for ROCK1. Indeed, IHC revealed that ROCK2 staining was sparse and restricted to a few mesenchymal cells in Sham-TO, whereas it was strong in acini of TO lungs. OH lungs expressed lower levels of ROCK2 in the acini when compared to untouched controls. In fasudil-treated animals, the degree of lung development following TO was significantly lower than in the group injected with vehicle. At the dose regimen used, fasudil did not affect normal lung development, as observed in the untouched animals. In summary, ROCK2 protein levels was affected by the degree of lung expansion and blunting ROCK activity abolished the response to increased lung distension, suggesting that ROCK is a key regulator in TO-induced accelerated lung development.

  16. Development of buried wire gages for measurement of wall shear stress in Blastane experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, S. V.; Steinle, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    Buried Wire Gages operated from a Constant Temperature Anemometer System are among the special types of instrumentation to be used in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). These Gages are of a new type and need to be adapted for specific applications. Methods were developed to fabricate Gage inserts and mount those in the BLASTANE Instrumentation Plugs. A large number of Gages were prepared and operated from a Constant Temperature Anemometer System to derive some of the calibration constants for application to fluid-flow wall shear-stress measurements. The final stage of the calibration was defined, but could not be accomplished because of non-availability of a suitable flow simulating apparatus. This report provides a description of the Buried Wire Gage technique, an explanation of the method evolved for making proper Gages and the calibration constants, namely Temperature Coefficient of Resistance and Conduction Loss Factor.

  17. Development of EEM based silicon-water and silica-water wall potentials for non-reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghan; Iype, Eldhose; Frijns, Arjan J. H.; Nedea, Silvia V.; van Steenhoven, Anton A.

    2014-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of heat transfer in gases are computationally expensive when the wall molecules are explicitly modeled. To save computational time, an implicit boundary function is often used. Steele's potential has been used in studies of fluid-solid interface for a long time. In this work, the conceptual idea of Steele's potential was extended in order to simulate water-silicon and water-silica interfaces. A new wall potential model is developed by using the electronegativity-equalization method (EEM), a ReaxFF empirical force field and a non-reactive molecular dynamics package PumMa. Contact angle simulations were performed in order to validate the wall potential model. Contact angle simulations with the resulting tabulated wall potentials gave a silicon-water contact angle of 129°, a quartz-water contact angle of 0°, and a cristobalite-water contact angle of 40°, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental values.

  18. Neutron research and facility development at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator 1970 to 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, R.W.; Harvey, J.A.; Maienschein, F.C.; Weston, L.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Larson, D.C.; Macklin, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    This report reviews the accomplishments of the first decade of operation of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) and discusses the plans for the facility in the coming decade. Motivations for scientific and applied research during the next decade are included. In addition, ORELA is compared with competing facilities, and prospects for ORELA's improvement and even replacement are reported. Development efforts for the next few years are outlined that are consistent with the anticipated research goals. Recommendations for hardware development include improving the electron injection system to give much larger short-pulse currents on a reliable basis, constructing an Electron Beam Injector Laboratory to help make this improvement possible, continuing a study of possibly replacing the electron accelerator with a proton machine, and replacing or upgrading the facility's data-acquistion and immediate-analysis computer systems. Increased operating time and more involvement of nuclear theorists are recommended, and an effective staff size for optimum use of this unique facility is discussed. A bibliography of all ORELA-related publications is included.

  19. Seawater-based wastewater accelerates development of aerobic granular sludge: A laboratory proof-of-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiling; Luo, Jinghai; Guo, Gang; Mackey, Hamish R; Hao, Tianwei; Chen, Guanghao

    2017-05-15

    This study aimed to develop an aerobic granular sludge process for the efficient treatment of highly saline wastewater and understand the granulation process in a seawater-based multi-ion matrix. Five identical sequencing batch airlift reactors (SBARs) are used to treat synthetic saline sewage with different proportions of real seawater (0%-100%). The results confirm that aerobic granular sludge can be successfully developed with various proportions of seawater up to 100% and show that seawater not only significantly accelerates granulation but also generates stronger granular structures than does freshwater. The increased presence of gel-forming alginate-like exopolysaccharides in the granules explains why a greater proportion of seawater leads to higher density and improves the cohesive strength of the granules. SEM-EDX analysis further revealed substantial presence of both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) phosphate in the granule core as well as in the outer layers providing extra bridging forces in addition to alginate-like exopolysaccharides for accelerating the granule formation and maintaining the structure. It is hoped that this work could explore another approach for saline sewage treatment and bring some clues for the mystery of granulation mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accelerating process and catalyst development in reforming reactions with high throughput technologies under industrially relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, S.A.; Bollmann, G.; Froescher, A.; Kaiser, H.; Lange de Oliveira, A.; Roussiere, T.; Wasserschaff, G. [hte Aktiengesellschaft, Heidelberg (Germany); Domke, I. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The generation of hydrogen via reforming of a variety of carbon containing feed-stocks in the presence of water is up to date one of the most versatile technologies for the production of hydrogen and syngas. Although these reforming technologies are in principle well established, understood and commercialized, there are still a number of technological challenges that are not solved up to a satisfactorily degree and there is a constant demand for appropriate answers to the challenges posed. High throughput experimentation can be a valuable tool in helping accelerate the development of suitable solutions on the catalyst and process development side. In order to be able to generate test data that are close or identical to process relevant conditions, hte has developed a new technology portfolio of test technologies named Stage-IV technology. In contrast to earlier developments which address more small scale testing on the basis of catalyst volumes of 1ml up to 10 ml under isothermal conditions, our new technology portfolio offers the advantage of test volumes at sub-pilot scale also realizing reactor dimensions close to technical applications. This does not only ensure a good mimic of the hydrodynamic conditions of the technical scale, but also allows a fingerprinting of features like temperature gradients in the catalyst bed which play a large role for catalyst performance. Apart from catalyst tests with granulates when screening for optimized catalyst compositions, the units are designed to accommodate tests with shaped catalysts. In order to demonstrate how these technologies can accelerate catalyst and process development we have chosen technically challenging application examples: (I) Pre-reforming and reforming of methane based feeds which accelerate coking and catalyst deactivation. Higher reaction pressures, high CO{sub 2} contents in the feedgas (which occur typically in sources like bio-gas or certain types of natural gas), the presence of higher alkanes

  1. Deletion of mesenchymal glucocorticoid receptor attenuates embryonic lung development and abdominal wall closure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqing Li

    Full Text Available As a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR is essential for normal embryonic development. To date, the role of mesenchymal glucocorticoid signaling during development has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of the GR during embryogenesis specifically in mesenchymal tissues. To this aim, we crossed GRflox mice with Dermo1-Cre mice to generate GR(Dermo1 mice, where the GR gene was deleted within mesenchymal cells. Compared to their wild type littermates, GR(Dermo1 mice displayed severe pulmonary atelectasis, defects in abdominal wall formation resulting in intestinal herniation, abnormal extracellular matrix synthesis in connective tissues and high postnatal lethality. Lungs of GR(Dermo1 mice failed to progress from the canalicular to saccular stage, as evidenced by the presence of immature air sacs, thickened interstitial mesenchyme and an underdeveloped vascular network between E17.5 and E18.5. Furthermore, myofibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells, although present in normal numbers in GR(Dermo1 animals, were characterized by significantly reduced elastin synthesis, whilst epithelial lining cells of the immature saccules were poorly differentiated. A marked reduction in normal elastin and collagen deposits were also observed in connective tissues adjacent to the umbilical hernia. This study demonstrates that eliminating the GR in cells of the mesenchymal lineage results in marked effects on interstitial fibroblast function, including a significant decrease in elastin synthesis. This results in lung atelectasis and postnatal lethality, as well as additional and hitherto unrecognized developmental defects in abdominal wall formation. In addition, altered glucocorticoid signaling in the mesenchyme attenuates normal lung epithelial differentiation.

  2. Developing Xenopus embryos recover by compacting and expelling single wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brian D; Shawky, Joseph H; Dahl, Kris Noel; Davidson, Lance A; Islam, Mohammad F

    2016-04-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes are high aspect ratio nanomaterials being developed for use in materials, technological and biological applications due to their high mechanical stiffness, optical properties and chemical inertness. Because of their prevalence, it is inevitable that biological systems will be exposed to nanotubes, yet studies of the effects of nanotubes on developing embryos have been inconclusive and are lacking for single wall carbon nanotubes exposed to the widely studied model organism Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog). Microinjection of experimental substances into the Xenopus embryo is a standard technique for toxicology studies and cellular lineage tracing. Here we report the surprising finding that superficial (12.5 ± 7.5 µm below the membrane) microinjection of nanotubes dispersed with Pluronic F127 into one- to two-cell Xenopus embryos resulted in the formation and expulsion of compacted, nanotube-filled, punctate masses, at the blastula to mid-gastrula developmental stages, which we call "boluses." Such expulsion of microinjected materials by Xenopus embryos has not been reported before and is dramatically different from the typical distribution of the materials throughout the progeny of the microinjected cells. Previous studies of microinjections of nanomaterials such as nanodiamonds, quantum dots or spherical nanoparticles report that nanomaterials often induce toxicity and remain localized within the embryos. In contrast, our results demonstrate an active recovery pathway for embryos after exposure to Pluronic F127-coated nanotubes, which we speculate is due to a combined effect of the membrane activity of the dispersing agent, Pluronic F127, and the large aspect ratio of nanotubes.

  3. Three cavities dielectric wall proton accelerator timing optimization simulation and design%三腔介质壁质子加速器时序优化模拟及设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 夏连胜; 王卫; 刘毅; 谌怡; 叶茂; 张篁; 邓建军

    2016-01-01

    The three cavities dielectric wall proton accelerator is systemically simulated by the self-developed 3D particle simulation software.On this basis,the transit time of protons in three cavities shall be calculated and the timing optimization de-sign between cavities shall be achieved.The impressed voltage peak value is 100 kV.The width at top is 1ns and it is 10 ns at half maximum.The thickness of insulation micro reactor is 2.0 cm.The proton initial energy is 40 keV.The tungsten mesh is added to accelerating electrode.The simulation results are the following:When the voltage lasts 6.5 ns,the H+ which goes into high insulation gradient material shall get a maximum 90.84% acceleration efficiency while passing the first cavity,and the corre-sponding transit time is 5.668 ns.When the voltage triggers in the second cavity 4.5 ns behinds the first cavity,the H+ shall get a maximum 94.77% acceleration efficiency while passing the third cavity,and the corresponding transit time is 3.545 ns.When the voltage triggers in the third cavity 3.0 ns behinds the second cavity,the H+ shall get a maximum 97.30% acceleration effi-ciency while passing the second cavity,and the corresponding transit time is 3.018 ns.The total time of the maximum energy H+transiting the three cavities is 12.231 ns.The acceleration efficiency of total H+ is 94.31%.When the proton beam center enters the first cavity and falls behind the pulse voltage trigger in 6.5 ns,with the delay time between first and second cavities,the sec-ond and third cavities are 4.5 ns and 3.0 ns respectively.The H+ of proton beams whose lengths are 2.5 ns and 4.0 ns shall be accelerated above 90% and 80% respectively.%采用自主研发的三维粒子模拟软件对三腔介质壁加速器进行系统仿真,在此基础上,计算三个腔质子的渡越时间并实现腔体间的时序优化设计.外加电压峰值100 kV,顶宽1 ns,半高宽10 ns,绝缘微堆厚度2.0 cm,质子初始束能40 keV,加速电极添加钨网,模

  4. ANNULUS CLOSURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INSPECTION/SALT DEPOSIT CLEANING MAGNETIC WALL CRAWLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichan, R; Russell Eibling, R; James Elder, J; Kevin Kane, K; Daniel Krementz, D; Rodney Vandekamp, R; Nicholas Vrettos, N

    2008-06-01

    The Liquid Waste Technology Development organization is investigating technologies to support closure of radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Tank closure includes removal of the wastes that have propagated to the tank annulus. Although amounts and types of residual waste materials in the annuli of SRS tanks vary, simple salt deposits are predominant on tanks with known leak sites. This task focused on developing and demonstrating a technology to inspect and spot clean salt deposits from the outer primary tank wall located in the annulus of an SRS Type I tank. The Robotics, Remote and Specialty Equipment (RRSE) and Materials Science and Technology (MS&T) Sections of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collaborated to modify and equip a Force Institute magnetic wall crawler with the tools necessary to demonstrate the inspection and spot cleaning in a mock-up of a Type I tank annulus. A remote control camera arm and cleaning head were developed, fabricated and mounted on the crawler. The crawler was then tested and demonstrated on a salt simulant also developed in this task. The demonstration showed that the camera is capable of being deployed in all specified locations and provided the views needed for the planned inspection. It also showed that the salt simulant readily dissolves with water. The crawler features two different techniques for delivering water to dissolve the salt deposits. Both water spay nozzles were able to dissolve the simulated salt, one is more controllable and the other delivers a larger water volume. The cleaning head also includes a rotary brush to mechanically remove the simulated salt nodules in the event insoluble material is encountered. The rotary brush proved to be effective in removing the salt nodules, although some fine tuning may be required to achieve the best results. This report describes the design process for developing technology to add features to a commercial wall crawler and the results of the

  5. Vocal sac development and accelerated sexual maturity in the lesser swimming frog, Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Javier; Barrasso, Diego A; Agostini, M Gabriela; Quinzio, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Sexual maturity involves the differentiation of the reproductive system, the maturation of germ cells, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Even though this topic has received much attention, little is known about the sequence of events that encompass reproductive maturation in anurans and what it could reveal about the developmental basis of life cycle evolution. The discovery of froglets of Pseudis minuta with incipient vocal sacs calling in breeding pools alongside several larger adult specimens with fully developed vocal sacs raised the question of the timing of sexual maturity in this species. Here we describe the sequence and timing of differentiation, development and maturation of the vocal sac apparatus and the testes in P. minuta (Anura, Hylidae), in order to establish a timeline of events leading to sexual maturity. Differentiation of the vocal sac apparatus begins at the final metamorphic stages, earlier than reported for other species, and the vocal sac acquires its final shape during the early postmetamorphic period. These modifications occur after gonadal differentiation, which begins early during the larval period and proceeds with a highly accelerated rate of development (e.g., secondary spermatids appear well before metamorphic climax), a situation reported previously for other anuran species only in the genus Pseudis. These results, together with a skeletochronological analysis showing that some calling specimens presented no lines of arrested growth, indicate acceleration in the timing of sexual maturity in Pseudis, and raise questions about the interdependence/decoupling during the development of the different components involved in reaching the adult stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  7. High Voltage Hall Accelerator Propulsion System Development for NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Mathers, Alex

    2013-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorates In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.8 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn Research Center and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster have been performed. In addition, the HiVHAc project is also pursuing the development of a power processing unit (PPU) and xenon feed system (XFS) for integration with the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster. Colorado Power Electronics and NASA Glenn Research Center have tested a brassboard PPU for more than 1,500 hours in a vacuum environment, and a new brassboard and engineering model PPU units are under development. VACCO Industries developed a xenon flow control module which has undergone qualification testing and will be integrated with the HiVHAc thruster extended duration tests. Finally, recent mission studies have shown that the HiVHAc propulsion system has sufficient performance for four Discovery- and two New Frontiers-class NASA design reference missions.

  8. Development of a decision support system for residential construction using panellised walls: approach and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Maury A; Shewchuk, John P; Kim, Sunwook; Seol, Hyang; Guo, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among residential construction workers, yet control in this industry can be difficult for a number of reasons. A decision support system (DSS) is described here to allow early assessment of both ergonomic and productivity concerns, specifically by designers. Construction using prefabricated walls (panels) is the focus of current DSS development and is based conceptually on an existing 'Safety in Construction Design' model. A stepwise description of the development process is provided, including input from end users, taxonomy development and task analysis, construction worker input, detailed laboratory-based simulations and modelling/solution approaches and implementation. Preliminary results are presented for several steps. These results suggest that construction activities using panels can be efficiently represented, that some of these activities involve exposure to high levels of WMSD risk and that several assumptions are required to allow for ease of mathematical and computational implementation of the DSS. Successful development of such tools, which allow for proactive control of exposures, is argued as having substantial potential benefit.

  9. Preparative Scale Resolution of Enantiomers Enables Accelerated Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Hanna; Andersson, Shalini

    2017-01-18

    The provision of pure enantiomers is of increasing importance not only for the pharmaceutical industry but also for agro-chemistry and biotechnology. In drug discovery and development, the enantiomers of a chiral drug depict unique chemical and pharmacological behaviors in a chiral environment, such as the human body, in which the stereochemistry of the chiral drugs determines their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological properties. We present a number of challenging case studies of up-to-kilogram separations of racemic or enriched isomer mixtures using preparative liquid chromatography and super critical fluid chromatography to generate individual enantiomers that have enabled the development of new candidate drugs within AstraZeneca. The combination of chromatography and racemization as well as strategies on when to apply preparative chiral chromatography of enantiomers in a multi-step synthesis of a drug compound can further facilitate accelerated drug discovery and the early clinical evaluation of the drug candidates.

  10. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  11. Preparative Scale Resolution of Enantiomers Enables Accelerated Drug Discovery and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Leek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of pure enantiomers is of increasing importance not only for the pharmaceutical industry but also for agro-chemistry and biotechnology. In drug discovery and development, the enantiomers of a chiral drug depict unique chemical and pharmacological behaviors in a chiral environment, such as the human body, in which the stereochemistry of the chiral drugs determines their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological properties. We present a number of challenging case studies of up-to-kilogram separations of racemic or enriched isomer mixtures using preparative liquid chromatography and super critical fluid chromatography to generate individual enantiomers that have enabled the development of new candidate drugs within AstraZeneca. The combination of chromatography and racemization as well as strategies on when to apply preparative chiral chromatography of enantiomers in a multi-step synthesis of a drug compound can further facilitate accelerated drug discovery and the early clinical evaluation of the drug candidates.

  12. Development and construction of a neutron beam line for accelerator-based boron neutron capture synovectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierga, D P; Yanch, J C; Shefer, R E

    2000-01-01

    A potential application of the 10B(n, alpha)7Li nuclear reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, termed Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), is under investigation. In an arthritic joint, the synovial lining becomes inflamed and is a source of great pain and discomfort for the afflicted patient. The goal of BNCS is to ablate the synovium, thereby eliminating the symptoms of the arthritis. A BNCS treatment would consist of an intra-articular injection of boron followed by neutron irradiation of the joint. Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations have been used to develop an accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam line for BNCS treatments. The model includes a moderator/reflector assembly, neutron producing target, target cooling system, and arthritic joint phantom. Single and parallel opposed beam irradiations have been modeled for the human knee, human finger, and rabbit knee joints. Additional reflectors, placed to the side and back of the joint, have been added to the model and have been shown to improve treatment times and skin doses by about a factor of 2. Several neutron-producing charged particle reactions have been examined for BNCS, including the 9Be(p,n) reaction at proton energies of 4 and 3.7 MeV, the 9Be(d,n) reaction at deuteron energies of 1.5 and 2.6 MeV, and the 7Li(p,n) reaction at a proton energy of 2.5 MeV. For an accelerator beam current of 1 mA and synovial boron uptake of 1000 ppm, the time to deliver a therapy dose of 10,000 RBEcGy ranges from 3 to 48 min, depending on the treated joint and the neutron producing charged particle reaction. The whole-body effective dose that a human would incur during a knee treatment has been estimated to be 3.6 rem or 0.75 rem, for 1000 ppm or 19,000 ppm synovial boron uptake, respectively, although the shielding configuration has not yet been optimized. The Monte Carlo design process culminated in the construction, installation, and testing of a dedicated BNCS beam line on the high

  13. New options for developing of nuclear energy using an accelerator-driven reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1997-09-01

    Fissile fuel can be produced at a high rate using an accelerator-driven Pu-fueled subcritical fast reactor. Thus, the necessity of early introduction of the fast reactor can be moderated. High reliability of the proton accelerator, which is essential to implementing an accelerator-driven reactor in the nuclear energy field can be achieved by a slight extension of the accelerator`s length, with only a small economical penalty. Subcritical operation provides flexible nuclear energy options including high neutron economy producing the fuel, transmuting high-level wastes, such as minor actinides, and of converting efficiently the excess Pu and military Pu into proliferation-resistant fuel.

  14. Development of a PYTHON-based emittance calculator at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. T.

    Beam emittance is an important characteristic describing charged particle beams. In linear accelerators (linac), it is critical to characterize the beam phase space parameters and, in particular, to precisely measure transverse beam emittance. The quadrupole scan (quad-scan) is a well-established technique used to characterize transverse beam parameters in four-dimensional phase space, including beam emittance. A computational algorithm with PYTHON scripts has been developed to estimate beam parameters, in particular beam emittance, using the quad-scan technique in the electron linac at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. This script has been implemented in conjunction with an automated quad-scan tool (also written in PYTHON) and has decreased the time it takes to perform a single quad-scan from an hour to a few minutes. From the experimental data, the emittance calculator quickly delivers several results including: geometrical and normalized transverse emittance, Courant-Snyder parameters, and plots of the beam size versus quadrupole field strength, among others. This paper will discuss the details of the techniques used, the results from several quad-scans preformed at FAST during the electron injector commissioning, and the PYTHON code used to obtain the results.

  15. Development of Velocity Guidance Assistance System by Haptic Accelerator Pedal Reaction Force Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Feilong; Hayashi, Ryuzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    This research proposes a haptic velocity guidance assistance system for realizing eco-driving as well as enhancing traffic capacity by cooperating with ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems). The proposed guidance system generates the desired accelerator pedal (abbreviated as pedal) stroke with respect to the desired velocity obtained from ITS considering vehicle dynamics, and provides the desired pedal stroke to the driver via a haptic pedal whose reaction force is controllable and guides the driver in order to trace the desired velocity in real time. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of the haptic velocity guidance. A haptic velocity guidance system for research is developed on the Driving Simulator of TUAT (DS), by attaching a low-inertia, low-friction motor to the pedal, which does not change the original characteristics of the original pedal when it is not operated, implementing an algorithm regarding the desired pedal stroke calculation and the reaction force controller. The haptic guidance maneuver is designed based on human pedal stepping experiments. A simple velocity profile with acceleration, deceleration and cruising is synthesized according to naturalistic driving for testing the proposed system. The experiment result of 9 drivers shows that the haptic guidance provides high accuracy and quick response in velocity tracking. These results prove that the haptic guidance is a promising velocity guidance method from the viewpoint of HMI (Human Machine Interface).

  16. Synchronous development of breast cancer and chest wall fibrosarcoma after previous mantle radiation for Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patlas, Michael [Hamilton General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); McCready, David [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Surgery, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kulkarni, Supriya; Dill-Macky, Marcus J. [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-09-01

    Survivors of Hodgkin's disease are at increased risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm, including breast carcinoma and sarcoma. We report the first case of synchronous development of chest wall fibrosarcoma and breast carcinoma after mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Mammographic, sonographic and MR features are demonstrated. (orig.)

  17. Auxin and Cell Wall Invertase Related Signaling during Rice Grain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Russell French

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA synthesis is required for grain-fill in maize and appears to be regulated by cell-wall invertase (CWIN activity. OsYUC12 is one of three IAA biosynthesis genes we previously reported as expressed during early rice grain development, correlating with a large increase in IAA content of the grain. This work aimed to investigate further the role of OsYUC12 and its relationship to CWIN activity and invertase inhibitors (INVINH. The analysis shows a brief peak of OsYUC12 expression early in endosperm development. Meta-analysis of microarray data, confirmed by quantitative expression analysis, revealed that OsYUC12 is coexpressed with OsIAA29, which encodes an unusual AUX/IAA transcription factor previously reported as poorly expressed. Maximum expression of OsYUC12 and OsIAA29 coincided with maximum CWIN activity, but also with a peak in INVINH expression. Unlike ZmYUC1, OsYUC12 expression is not reduced in the rice CWIN mutant, gif1. Several reports have investigated CWIN expression in rice grains but none has reported on expression of INVINH in this species. We show that rice has 54 genes encoding putative invertase/pectin methylesterase inhibitors, seven of which are expressed exclusively during grain development. Our results suggest a more complex relationship between IAA, CWIN, and INVINH than previously proposed.

  18. Metal octacarboxyphthalocyanine / multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was prepared through non- covalent (Pi)p-(Pi)p stacking. The metallo-octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was later employed in dye solar cells as a photosensitiser of choice...

  19. Accelerating Sustainability by Hydropower Development in China: The Story of HydroLancang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a shared responsibility. Accelerating sustainability of water–energy–people nexus and building a common awareness of issues pertaining to sustainable development are essential for any sort of success in this direction. Hydropower has been a useful sustainable energy for development, yet highly controversial. This paper reviews the overall situation of hydropower development and China’s energy reforms and policies, accompanied with a case study of hydropower development the Lancang River by the HydroLancang, aiming to illustrate the two opposite sides of hydropower development—economy and environment. The paper concludes with a neutral view of hydropower as the necessary facilitator for development. Water is a shared responsibility. Hydropower might not be the optimum solution to eliminate the tension between human demand of energy and finite natural resource and the rising pressure of climate change worldwide, but it serves well as an “Electricity Bridge” before better alternatives become available. This is a more balanced view of hydropower rather than two extreme viewpoints that present themselves: on the one hand, exaggerated claims of the human power to tame the wild river, and, on the other hand, the idealistic fantasy of preserving nature by abandoning all human activity.

  20. Theobromine Upregulates Osteogenesis by Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro and Accelerates Bone Development in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Bret H; Ylostalo, Joni; Browder, Elizabeth; McNeill, Eoin P; Bartosh, Thomas J; Rawls, H Ralph; Nakamoto, Tetsuo; Gregory, Carl A

    2017-03-01

    Theobromine (THB) is one of the major xanthine-like alkaloids found in cacao plant and a variety of other foodstuffs such as tea leaves, guarana and cola nuts. Historically, THB and its derivatives have been utilized to treat cardiac and circulatory disorders, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, proteinuria and as an immune-modulator. Our previous work demonstrated that THB has the capacity to improve the formation of hydroxyl-apatite during tooth development, suggesting that it may also enhance skeletal development. With its excellent safety profile and resistance to pharmacokinetic elimination, we reasoned that it might be an excellent natural osteoanabolic supplement during pregnancy, lactation and early postnatal growth. To determine whether THB had an effect on human osteoprogenitors, we subjected primary human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to osteogenic assays after exposure to THB in vitro and observed that THB exposure increased the rate of osteogenesis and mineralization by hMSCs. Moreover, THB exposure resulted in a list of upregulated mRNA transcripts that best matched an osteogenic tissue expression signature as compared to other tissue expression signatures archived in several databases. To determine whether oral administration of THB resulted in improved skeletal growth, we provided pregnant rats with chow supplemented with THB during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, offspring received THB continuously until postnatal day 50 (approximately 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). Administration of THB resulted in neonates with larger bones, and 50-day-old offspring accumulated greater body mass, longer and thicker femora and superior tibial trabecular parameters. The accelerated growth did not adversely affect the strength and resilience of the bones. These results indicate that THB increases the osteogenic potential of bone marrow osteoprogenitors, and dietary supplementation of a safe dose of THB to expectant mothers and during the postnatal period

  1. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  2. Accelerated development of Zr-containing new generation ferritic steels for advanced nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys that can be fabricated using conventional steelmaking methods. The new alloys are expected to have superior high-temperature creep performance and excellent radiation resistance as compared to Grade 91. The designed alloys were fabricated using arc-melting and drop-casting, followed by hot rolling and conventional heat treatments. Comprehensive experimental studies have been conducted on the developed alloys to evaluate their hardness, tensile properties, creep resistance, Charpy impact toughness, and aging resistance, as well as resistance to proton and heavy ion (Fe2+) irradiation.

  3. Development of a Nb 3Sn multifilamentary wire for accelerator magnet applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, M.; Bredy, P.; Devred, A.; Otmani, R.; Reytier, M.; Schild, T.; Trillaud, F.

    2001-05-01

    CEA/Saclay and Alstom/MSA have carried out a program to develop a Nb 3Sn multifilamentary wire for accelerator magnet applications relying on the internal-tin process. The main wire specifications are: an overall diameter of 0.825 mm, a critical current larger than 405 A at 4.2 K and 7 T, hysteresis losses lower than 450 mJ/cm 3 for a±3 T trapezoidal cycle, and a copper-to-non-copper ratio greater than 1. The last phase of the optimization program was based on four different strands and we present here the results of the characterization tests, including residual resistivity ratio, critical current and AC loss measurements.

  4. Development of a PCI Based Data Acquisition Platform for High Intensity Accelerator Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Higuchi, T; Ikeno, M; Igarashi, Y; Inoue, E; Itoh, R; Kodama, H; Murakami, T; Nakao, M; Nakayoshi, K; Saitoh, M; Shimazaki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tanaka, M; Tauchi, K; Yamauchi, M; Yasu, Y; Varner, G; Nagasaka, Y; Katayama, T; Watanabe, K; Ishizuka, M; Onozawa, S; Li, C J

    2003-01-01

    Data logging at an upgraded KEKB accelerator or the J-PARC facility, currently under commission, requires a high density data acquisition platform with integrated data reduction CPUs. To follow market trends, we have developed a DAQ platform based on the PCI bus, a choice which permits a fast DAQ and a long expected lifetime of the system. The platform is a 9U-VME motherboard consisting of four slots for signal digitization modules, readout FIFOs for data buffering, and three PMC slots, on one of which resides a data reduction CPU. We have performed long term and thermal stability tests. The readout speed on the platform has been measured up to 125 MB/s in DMA mode.

  5. Narrow bandwidth Thomson photon source development using Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, C. G. R.; van Tilborg, J.; Tsai, H.-E.; Toth, Cs.; Vay, J.-L.; Lehe, R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Rykovanov, S. G.; Grote, D. P.; Friedman, A.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-10-01

    Compact, high-quality photon sources at MeV energies are being developed based on Laser-Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). An independent scattering laser with controlled pulse shaping in frequency and amplitude can be used together with laser guiding to realize high photon yield and narrow bandwidth. Simulations are presented on production of controllable narrow bandwidth sources using the beam and plasma capabilities of LPAs. Recent experiments and simulations demonstrate controllable LPAs in the energy range appropriate to MeV Thomson sources. Design of experiments and laser capabilities to combine these elements will be presented, towards a compact photon source system. A dedicated facility under construction will be described. Work supported by US DOE NNSA DNN R&D and by Sc. HEP under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  6. Mitotic activity and specification of fibrocyte subtypes in the developing rat cochlear lateral wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutai, H; Nagashima, R; Fujii, M; Matsunaga, T

    2009-11-10

    Spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs) in the mammalian cochlear lateral wall participate in K(+) recycling; they are classified into five subtypes based on their morphology, distribution, and function. Regeneration of SLFs is a potential therapeutic strategy for correcting several types of hearing loss, prompting us to investigate how SLF subtypes are established during development. We compared transitional SLF-type marker expression with mitotic activity to evaluate proliferation-differentiation relationships in SLFs from postnatal rat cochleae. I.p. injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that the overall mitotic activity of SLFs decreased significantly between postnatal day 7 (P7) and P10. For all developmental periods, BrdU incorporation was weakest in the area where type I SLFs reside. The onset of expression of markers for type II/IV SLFs followed the reduced mitotic activity of the cells, whereas that of aquaporin-1, a marker for type III SLFs, was already detectable at P7, when the type III SLFs were still proliferating vigorously. Distribution of BrdU(+) cells increased in the area of type I SLFs between P7 and P10, suggesting migration of SLFs from adjacent areas. We conclude that the time course of development of SLFs is subtype-specific.

  7. Development of biofuel cells based on gold nanoparticle decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Junichi; Hoa, Le Quynh; Sugano, Yasuhito; Ikeuchi, Tomohiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Saito, Masato; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2011-12-15

    This study focused on developing the synthesis of Au nanoparticle-decorated functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Au-NPs/f-MWCNTs) for monosaccharide (bio-fuel) oxidation reactions and practical application in air-biofuel cells. We developed a scalable and straightforward method to synthesize Au-NPs/f-MWCNTs which allow us to control the loading and size of the Au-NPs. The Au-NPs/f-MWCNTs exhibited better catalytic activities and stability than the Au sheet and subsequently resulted in a threefold increase in the power density of the air-glucose fuel cell with an exceptionally high open circuit voltage (~1.3 V). The catalytic efficiency was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography with the superior of the Au-NPs/f-MWCNTs over a bare gold electrode. In addition, the application of this advanced catalyst to other monosaccharide oxidation reactions figured out that the configuration of -OH groups at C(2) and C(3) of the reactants plays an important role in the initial adsorption process, and thus, affects the required activation energy for further oxidation. The different monosaccharides lead to significantly different fuel cell performances in terms of power density, which coherently corresponds to the difference in the configuration of C(2) and C(3). Because two small air-glucose fuel cells using Au-NPs/f-MWCNTs can run a LED lamp, further applications of other monosaccharides as fuel in biofuel cells for equivalent required power devices may be possible.

  8. In vivo localization of antibodies raised against Eimeria maxima wall forming bodies during sexual intracellular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Sonja; Shahparee, Annisha; Wasinger, Valerie C; Wallach, Michael

    2014-11-01

    SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases in humans and livestock. Previously we demonstrated that antibodies targeting transmissible forms of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria, are effective at reducing parasite shedding thus preventing the transmission of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible have not been fully defined. Moreover, there is no direct evidence that the parasite-specific IgG antibodies can reach the parasite developing in the enterocytes of the infected chicken host. This study summarizes our efforts using host immunity, parasite proteomics and 3D microscopy to provide a step forward in our understanding of how this immune response works. Eimeria maxima is an important pathogen of poultry and used as a surrogate for a number of human pathogens including Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Our studies demonstrate that immunization with the purified wall forming bodies (WFBs) results in a production of parasite-specific IgG antibodies, which have the ability to reach in situ gametocytes in the intestinal lumen and permeate the enterocyte/parasite membranes in order to bind to the cytoplasmic Type 1 and Type 2 WFBs. This raises the intriguing possibility that via this process antibodies block the development of Eimeria maxima in vivo.

  9. Accelerated renal disease is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in a glucolipotoxic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Cristina; Izquierdo, Adriana; Velagapudi, Vidya; Vivas, Yurena; Velasco, Ismael; Campbell, Mark; Burling, Keith; Cava, Fernando; Ros, Manuel; Oresic, Matej; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Medina-Gomez, Gema

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at high risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) through unclear pathogenic mechanisms. Obesity and diabetes are known to induce glucolipotoxic effects in metabolically relevant organs. However, the pathogenic role of glucolipotoxicity in the aetiology of diabetic nephropathy is debated. We generated a murine model, the POKO mouse, obtained by crossing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) knockout (KO) mouse into a genetically obese ob/ob background. We have previously shown that the POKO mice showed: hyperphagia, insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia as early as 4 weeks of age, and developed a complete loss of normal β-cell function by 16 weeks of age. Metabolic phenotyping of the POKO model has led to investigation of the structural and functional changes in the kidney and changes in blood pressure in these mice. Here we demonstrate that the POKO mouse is a model of renal disease that is accelerated by high levels of glucose and lipid accumulation. Similar to ob/ob mice, at 4 weeks of age these animals exhibited an increased urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and significantly increased blood pressure, but in contrast showed a significant increase in the renal hypertrophy index and an associated increase in p27(Kip1) expression compared with their obese littermates. Moreover, at 4 weeks of age POKO mice showed insulin resistance, an alteration of lipid metabolism and glomeruli damage associated with increased transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) expression. At this age, levels of proinflammatory molecules, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and fibrotic factors were also increased at the glomerular level compared with levels in ob/ob mice. At 12 weeks of age, renal damage was fully established. These data suggest an accelerated lesion through glucolipotoxic effects in the renal pathogenesis in POKO mice.

  10. Accelerated renal disease is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in a glucolipotoxic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martínez-García

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at high risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD through unclear pathogenic mechanisms. Obesity and diabetes are known to induce glucolipotoxic effects in metabolically relevant organs. However, the pathogenic role of glucolipotoxicity in the aetiology of diabetic nephropathy is debated. We generated a murine model, the POKO mouse, obtained by crossing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2 knockout (KO mouse into a genetically obese ob/ob background. We have previously shown that the POKO mice showed: hyperphagia, insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia as early as 4 weeks of age, and developed a complete loss of normal β-cell function by 16 weeks of age. Metabolic phenotyping of the POKO model has led to investigation of the structural and functional changes in the kidney and changes in blood pressure in these mice. Here we demonstrate that the POKO mouse is a model of renal disease that is accelerated by high levels of glucose and lipid accumulation. Similar to ob/ob mice, at 4 weeks of age these animals exhibited an increased urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and significantly increased blood pressure, but in contrast showed a significant increase in the renal hypertrophy index and an associated increase in p27Kip1 expression compared with their obese littermates. Moreover, at 4 weeks of age POKO mice showed insulin resistance, an alteration of lipid metabolism and glomeruli damage associated with increased transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP expression. At this age, levels of proinflammatory molecules, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and fibrotic factors were also increased at the glomerular level compared with levels in ob/ob mice. At 12 weeks of age, renal damage was fully established. These data suggest an accelerated lesion through glucolipotoxic effects in the renal pathogenesis in POKO mice.

  11. Self-accelerated development of salt karst during flash floods along the Dead Sea Coast, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Yoav; Lensky, Nadav; Dente, Elad; Shviro, Maayan; Arav, Reuma; Gavrieli, Ittai; Yechieli, Yoseph; Abelson, Meir; Lutzky, Hallel; Filin, Sagi; Haviv, Itai; Baer, Gidon

    2016-01-01

    We document and analyze the rapid development of a real-time karst system within the subsurface salt layers of the Ze'elim Fan, Dead Sea, Israel by a multidisciplinary study that combines interferometric synthetic aperture radar and light detection and ranging measurements, sinkhole mapping, time-lapse camera monitoring, groundwater level measurements and chemical and isotopic analyses of surface runoff and groundwater. The >1 m/yr drop of Dead Sea water level and the subsequent change in the adjacent groundwater system since the 1960s resulted in flushing of the coastal aquifer by fresh groundwater, subsurface salt dissolution, gradual land subsidence and formation of sinkholes. Since 2010 this process accelerated dramatically as flash floods at the Ze'elim Fan were drained by newly formed sinkholes. During and immediately after these flood events the dissolution rates of the subsurface salt layer increased dramatically, the overlying ground surface subsided, a large number of sinkholes developed over short time periods (hours to days), and salt-saturated water resurged downstream. Groundwater flow velocities increased by more than 2 orders of magnitudes compared to previously measured velocities along the Dead Sea. The process is self-accelerating as salt dissolution enhances subsidence and sinkhole formation, which in turn increase the ponding areas of flood water and generate additional draining conduits to the subsurface. The rapid terrain response is predominantly due to the highly soluble salt. It is enhanced by the shallow depth of the salt layer, the low competence of the newly exposed unconsolidated overburden and the moderate topographic gradients of the Ze'elim Fan.

  12. Muscle contributions to centre of mass acceleration during turning gait in typically developing children: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Philippe C; Jansen, Karen; Jonkers, Ilse; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2015-12-16

    Turning while walking requires substantial joint kinematic and kinetic adaptations compared to straight walking in order to redirect the body centre of mass (COM) towards the new walking direction. The role of muscles and external forces in controlling and redirecting the COM during turning remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the contributors to COM medio-lateral acceleration during 90° pre-planned turns about the inside limb (spin) and straight walking in typically developing children. Simulations of straight walking and turning gait based on experimental motion data were implemented in OpenSim. The contributors to COM global medio-lateral acceleration during the approach (outside limb) and turn (inside limb) stance phase were quantified via an induced acceleration analysis. Changes in medio-lateral COM acceleration occurred during both turning phases, compared to straight walking (pgait and may be used clinically to guide the management of gait disorders in populations with restricted gait ability.

  13. A Point Mutation in Myh10 Causes Major Defects in Heart Development and Body Wall Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuefei; Adelstein, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The three isoforms of nonmuscle myosin II (NMII-A, NMII-B and NMII-C) play various roles during mouse embryonic development. Previous work, using knockout and hypomorphic mice, showed that MYH10 encoding myosin heavy chain II-B is critical for cardiac and brain development. Ablating or decreasing NMII-B by 80% results in cardiac (ventricular septal defect, double outlet of the right ventricle) and brain defects but not midline fusion defects. Neither NMII-A nor II-C appear to play roles in early myocardial development. Methods and Results We had previously generated point mutant knock-in mice and now report novel findings due to expressing motor deficient NMII-B at wild-type levels. Homozygous mice die at E14.5 in cardiac failure exhibiting abnormalities not seen in NMII-B null and hypomorphic mice: a failure in midline fusion resulting in a cleft palate, ectopia cordis, and a large omphalocele. Fusion of the sternum and endocardial cushions is impaired in the mutant mice associated with a failure in apoptosis of the mesenchyme cells. Failure to disassemble myocyte cell-cell adhesions during cardiac outflow tract development contributes to impaired outflow tract myocardialization and displacement of the aorta to the right ventricle. Conclusions Expression of motor impaired NMII-B disrupts normal ventral body wall closure, due to a dominant negative effect. This is not due to the loss of NMII-B function but rather to a gain-of-function resulting from prolonged crosslinking of NMII-B to actin-filaments thereby interfering with the dynamics of actomyosin cytoskeletal structure. Moreover impaired NMII-B motor activity inhibits outflow tract myocardialization leading to mis-localization of the aorta. PMID:24825879

  14. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misuri, Alessio [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  15. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misuri, Alessio

    2002-06-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  16. Development of a Real-Time Ion Spectrometer with a Scintillator for Laser-Driven Ion Acceleration Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao-Hua; David Neely; Paul McKenna; WANG Zhao-Hua; WEI Zhi-Yi; YAN Xue-Qing; LI Yu-Tong; LI Ying-Jun; ZHANG Jie; LI Hong-Wei; LIU Bi-Cheng; LIU Feng; SU Lu-Ning; DU Fei; ZHANG Lu; ZHENG Yi; MA Jing-Long

    2011-01-01

    A real-time ion spectrometer mainly based on a high-resolution Thomson parabola and a plastic scintillator is designed and developed. The spectrometer is calibrated by protons from an electrostatic accelerator. The feasibility and reliability of the diagnostics ore demonstrated in laser-driven ion acceleration experiments performed on the XL-H laser facility. The proton spectrum extrapolated from the scintillator data is in excellent agreement with the CR39 spectrum in terms of beam temperature and the cutoff energy. This real-time spectrometer allows an online measurement of the ion spectra in single shot, which enables efficient and statistical studies and applications in high-repetition-rate laser acceleration experiments.%@@ A real-time ion spectrometer mainly based on a high-resolution Thomson parabola and a plastic scintillator is designed and developed.The spectrometer is calibrated by protons from an electrostatic accelerator.The feasi-bility and reliability of the diagnostics are demonstrated in laser-driven ion acceleration experiments performed on the XL-Ⅱ laser facility.The proton spectrum extrapolated from the scintillator data is in excellent agreement with the CR39 spectrum in terms of beam temperature and the cutoff energy.This real-time spectrometer allows an online measurement of the ion spectra in single shot,which enables efficient and statistical studies and applications in high-repetition-rate laser acceleration experiments.

  17. Economic analysis of opportunities to accelerate Alzheimer's disease research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Troy J; O'Connor, Alan C; Link, Albert N; Beaulieu, Travis J

    2014-04-01

    The development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) faces a number of barriers. Among these are the lack of surrogate biomarkers, the exceptional size and duration of clinical trials, difficulties in identifying appropriate populations for clinical trials, and the limitations of monotherapies in addressing such a complex multifactorial disease. This study sets out to first estimate the consequent impact on the expected cost of developing disease-modifying treatments for AD and then to estimate the potential benefits of bringing together industry, academic, and government stakeholders to co-invest in, for example, developing better biomarkers and cognitive assessment tools, building out advanced registries and clinical trial-readiness cohorts, and establishing clinical trial platforms to investigate combinations of candidate drugs and biomarkers from the portfolios of multiple companies. Estimates based on interviews with experts on AD research and development suggest that the cost of one new drug is now $5.7 billion (95% confidence interval (CI) $3.7-9.5 billion) and could be reduced to $2.0 billion (95% CI $1.5-2.9 billion). The associated acceleration in the arrival of disease-modifying treatments could reduce the number of case years of dementia by 7.0 million (95% CI 4.4-9.4 million) in the United States from 2025 through 2040.

  18. Development of Grid Control Electron Gun for Multi-energy Irradiation Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Guang-wen; ZHU; Zhi-bin; WANG; Shu-xian

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the project of multi-energy electron irradiation accelerator, It is necessary to adjust the electron beam pulse inject to the accelerating tube. Under the same conditions of the injection energy, the grid controlled electron gun was used in the accelerator. Using cathode-grid assembly, after the simulation of electron optics program design, we manufactured focus electrode, the anode, and built an experiment

  19. Development of High-Gradient Dielectric Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byer, Robert L.

    2013-11-07

    The thrust of Stanford's program is to conduct research on high-gradient dielectric accelerator structures driven with high repetition-rate, tabletop infrared lasers. The close collaboration between Stanford and SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) is critical to the success of this project, because it provides a unique environment where prototype dielectric accelerator structures can be rapidly fabricated and tested with a relativistic electron beam.

  20. Proteomics Coupled with Metabolite and Cell Wall Profiling Reveal Metabolic Processes of a Developing Rice Stem Internode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan; Williams, Brad J.; Thangella, Padmavathi A. V.; Ladak, Adam; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Olivos, Hernando J.; Zhao, Kangmei; Callister, Stephen J.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2017-07-13

    Internodes of grass stems function in mechanical support, transport, and, in some species, are a major sink organ for carbon in the form of cell wall polymers. This study reports cell wall composition, proteomic and metabolite analyses of the rice elongating internode. Along eight segments of the second rice internode (internode II) at booting stage, cellulose, lignin, and xylose increase as a percentage of cell wall material from the younger to the older internode segments, indicating active cell wall synthesis. Liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of trypsin-digested peptides of size-fractionated proteins extracted from this internode at booting reveals 2547proteins with at least two unique peptides. The dataset includes many glycosyltransferases, acyltransferases, glycosyl hydrolases, cell wall-localized proteins, and protein kinases that have or may have functions in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. Phospho-enrichment of the internode II peptides identified 21 unique phosphopeptides belonging to 20 phosphoproteins including an LRR-III family receptor like kinase. GO over-representation and KEGG pathway analyses highlight the abundances of internode proteins involved in biosynthetic processes, especially the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. LC-MS of hot methanol-extracted secondary metabolites from internode II at four stages (elongation, early mature, mature and post mature) indicates that secondary metabolites in stems are distinct from those of roots and leaves, and differ during stem maturation. This work fills a void of knowledge of proteomics and metabolomics data for grass stems, specifically for rice, and provides baseline knowledge for more detailed studies of cell wall synthesis and other biological processes during internode development, toward improving grass agronomic properties.

  1. Proteomics Coupled with Metabolite and Cell Wall Profiling Reveal Metabolic Processes of a Developing Rice Stem Internode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Internodes of grass stems function in mechanical support, transport, and, in some species, are a major sink organ for carbon in the form of cell wall polymers. This study reports cell wall composition, proteomic, and metabolite analyses of the rice elongating internode. Cellulose, lignin, and xylose increase as a percentage of cell wall material along eight segments of the second rice internode (internode II at booting stage, from the younger to the older internode segments, indicating active cell wall synthesis. Liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of trypsin-digested proteins from this internode at booting reveals 2,547 proteins with at least two unique peptides in two biological replicates. The dataset includes many glycosyltransferases, acyltransferases, glycosyl hydrolases, cell wall-localized proteins, and protein kinases that have or may have functions in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. Phospho-enrichment of internode II peptides identified 21 unique phosphopeptides belonging to 20 phosphoproteins including a leucine rich repeat-III family receptor like kinase. GO over-representation and KEGG pathway analyses highlight the abundances of proteins involved in biosynthetic processes, especially the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. LC-MS/MS of hot methanol-extracted secondary metabolites from internode II at four stages (booting/elongation, early mature, mature, and post mature indicates that internode secondary metabolites are distinct from those of roots and leaves, and differ across stem maturation. This work fills a void of in-depth proteomics and metabolomics data for grass stems, specifically for rice, and provides baseline knowledge for more detailed studies of cell wall synthesis and other biological processes characteristic of internode development, toward improving grass agronomic properties.

  2. Development of new techniques for functionalizing single-wall carbon nanotubes for composite and biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared Lee

    Building from established methods of using diazonium salts to derivatize single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), new methodologies for achieving functionalized individual nanotubes that are compatible with a wide variety of materials have been developed. The use of aryl triazenes as diazonium precursors to functionalize surfactant stabilized suspensions of individual SWNTs has resulted in the ability to synthesize more complex molecules bearing a diazonium salt precursor. Prior to this work, such functionality was difficult to install in complex molecules due to the required linearity of diazonium salt synthesis. A protocol to access individualized SWNTs without the use of scale-limiting techniques such as high powered sonication and centrifugation was achieved by the use of oleum as a solvent for underivatized SWNTs. This disentangled suspension of SWNTs was then treated with a modification of an established in-situ diazonium functionalization protocol to yield alcohol and water-soluble, exfoliated, nonroping SWNTs. Functionalized SWNTs were used as polymerization initiators for both anionic and atom transfer radical polymerization. They were used to reinforce poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(propylene fumarate) based composites. The functionalized SWNTs were also used as a support for neuronal interface systems and to reinforce the collagen network in rat cervical tissue. Through continued functionalization and PEGylation (poly(ethylene glycol) attachment) of cut SWNTs, the development of a SWNT-based, viable nanovector core has been achieved. Continued functionalization provides one with the ability to further derivatize aqueous suspensions of previously functionalized SWNTs, while the PEGylation of cut SWNTs offers solubility in water, irrigation saline, and phosphate buffered saline. Using the developed SWNT-based nanovector core, molecules that are relevant for attachment to a nanovector were targeted. This includes a fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC

  3. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M.

    2016-08-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca2+ ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  4. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 is associated with pollen wall development in Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yao, Lina; Yu, Youjian; Lv, Meiling; Miao, Ying; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-11-01

    PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 (PLL10) was previously identified as one of the differentially expressed genes both in microspores during the late pollen developmental stages and in pistils during the fertilization process in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Here, antisense-RNA was used to study the functions of BcPLL10 in Chinese cabbage. Abnormal pollen was identified in the transgenic lines (bcpll10-4, -5, and -6). In fertilization experiments, fewer seeds were harvested when the antisense-RNA lines were used as pollen donor. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays less germinated pollen tubes were observed in bcpll10 lines. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified that the tryphine materials were over accumulated around the pollen surface and sticked them together in bcpll10. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the internal endintine was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, and disturbed the normal proportional distribution of the two layers in the non-germinal furrow region; and no obvious demarcation existed between them in the germinal furrow region in the bcpll10 pollen. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that played an important role during the pollen wall development in B. campestris, which may also possess potential importance for male sterility usage in agriculture.

  5. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 is associated with pollen wall development in Brassica campestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Jiang; Lina Yao; Youjian Yu; Meiling Lv; Ying Miao; Jiashu Cao

    2014-01-01

    PECTATE LYASE‐LIKE10 (PLL10) was previously identified as one of the differentially expressed genes both in microspores during the late pollen developmental stages and in pistils during the fertilization process in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Here, antisense‐RNA was used to study the functions of BcPLL10 in Chinese cabbage. Abnormal pollen was identified in the transgenic lines (bcpll10‐4,‐5, and‐6). In fertilization experiments, fewer seeds were harvested when the antisense‐RNA lines were used as pollen donor. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays less germinated pollen tubes were observed in bcpll10 lines. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified that the tryphine materials were over accumulated around the pollen surface and sticked them together in bcpll10. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the internal endintine was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, and disturbed the normal proportional distribution of the two layers in the non‐germinal furrow region; and no obvious demarcation existed between them in the germinal furrow region in the bcpll10 pollen. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that played an important role during the pollen wall development in B. campestris, which may also possess potential importance for male sterility usage in agriculture.

  6. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  7. Development and validation of a new TRNSYS type for the simulation of external building walls containing PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph; Johannes, Kevyn [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, CETHIL, UMR 5008, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France Universite Lyon 1, F-69622 (France)

    2010-07-15

    In building construction, the use of phase change materials (PCMs) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. However, in order to assess and optimize phase change materials included in building wall, numerical simulation is mandatory. For that purpose, a new TRNSYS Type, named Type 260, is developed to model the thermal behavior of an external wall with PCM. This model is presented in this paper and validated using experimental data from the literature. (author)

  8. Simulation of the development and interaction of instabilities in a relativistic electron beam under variation of the beam wall thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badarin, A. A.; Kurkin, S. A. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation); Koronovskii, A. A. [Yuri Gagarin State Technical University (Russian Federation); Rak, A. O. [Belorussian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Hramov, A. E., E-mail: hramovae@gmail.com [Saratov State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The development and interaction of Bursian and diocotron instabilities in an annular relativistic electron beam propagating in a cylindrical drift chamber are investigated analytically and numerically as functions of the beam wall thickness and the magnitude of the external uniform magnetic field. It is found that the interaction of instabilities results in the formation of a virtual cathode with a complicated rotating helical structure and several reflection regions (electron bunches) in the azimuthal direction. It is shown that the number of electron bunches in the azimuthal direction increases with decreasing beam wall thickness and depends in a complicated manner on the magnitude of the external magnetic field.

  9. Development of high intensity linear accelerator for heavy ion inertial fusion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Liang, E-mail: luliang@riken.jp [Institute of Modern Physics, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Riken Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Noriyosu [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-25 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishibashi, Takuya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Takeuchi, Takeshi [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, 301, 6-18-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Zhao, Hongwei; He, Yuan [Institute of Modern Physics, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    In order to verify the direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), an acceleration test was carried out in 2001 using a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) heavy ion linear accelerator (linac) and a CO{sub 2}-laser ion source (LIS) (Okamura et al., 2002) [1]. The accelerated carbon beam was observed successfully and the obtained current was 9.22 mA for C{sup 4+}. To confirm the capability of the DPIS, we succeeded in accelerating 60 mA carbon ions with the DPIS in 2004 (Okamura et al., 2004; Kashiwagi and Hattori, 2004) [2,3]. We have studied a multi-beam type RFQ with an interdigital-H (IH) cavity that has a power-efficient structure in the low energy region. We designed and manufactured a two-beam type RFQ linac as a prototype for the multi-beam type linac; the beam acceleration test of carbon beams showed that it successfully accelerated from 5 keV/u up to 60 keV/u with an output current of 108 mA (2×54 mA/channel) (Ishibashi et al., 2011) [4]. We believe that the acceleration techniques of DPIS and the multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac are technical breakthroughs for heavy-ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF). The conceptual design of the RF linac with these techniques for HIF is studied. New accelerator-systems using these techniques for the HIF basic experiment are being designed to accelerate 400 mA carbon ions using four-beam type IH-RFQ linacs with DPIS. A model with a four-beam acceleration cavity was designed and manufactured to establish the proof of principle (PoP) of the accelerator.

  10. Optimising translational oncology in clinical practice: strategies to accelerate progress in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, R; Bogaerts, J; Ciardiello, F; de Ruysscher, D; Dubsky, P; Ducreux, M; Finn, S; Laurent-Puig, P; Peters, S; Piccart, M; Smit, E; Sotiriou, C; Tejpar, S; Van Cutsem, E; Tabernero, J

    2015-02-01

    Despite intense efforts, the socioeconomic burden of cancer remains unacceptably high and treatment advances for many common cancers have been limited, suggesting a need for a new approach to drug development. One issue central to this lack of progress is the heterogeneity and genetic complexity of many tumours. This results in considerable variability in therapeutic response and requires knowledge of the molecular profile of the tumour to guide appropriate treatment selection for individual patients. While recent advances in the molecular characterisation of different cancer types have the potential to transform cancer treatment through precision medicine, such an approach presents a major economic challenge for drug development, since novel targeted agents may only be suitable for a small cohort of patients. Identifying the patients who would benefit from individual therapies and recruiting sufficient numbers of patients with particular cancer subtypes into clinical trials is challenging, and will require collaborative efforts from research groups and industry in order to accelerate progress. A number of molecular screening platforms have already been initiated across Europe, and it is hoped that these networks, along with future collaborations, will benefit not only patients but also society through cost reductions as a result of more efficient use of resources. This review discusses how current developments in translational oncology may be applied in clinical practice in the future, assesses current programmes for the molecular characterisation of cancer and describes possible collaborative approaches designed to maximise the benefits of translational science for patients with cancer.

  11. WIPO Re:Search: Accelerating anthelmintic development through cross-sector partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Ramamoorthi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, malaria, and tuberculosis have a devastating effect on an estimated 1.6 billion people worldwide. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO Re:Search consortium accelerates the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics for these diseases by connecting the assets and resources of pharmaceutical companies, such as compound libraries and expertise, to academic or nonprofit researchers with novel product discovery or development ideas. As the WIPO Re:Search Partnership Hub Administrator, BIO Ventures for Global Health (BVGH fields requests from researchers, identifies Member organizations able to fulfill these requests, and helps forge mutually beneficial collaborations. Since its inception in October 2011, WIPO Re:Search membership has expanded to more than 90 institutions, including leading pharmaceutical companies, universities, nonprofit research institutions, and product development partnerships from around the world. To date, WIPO Re:Search has facilitated over 70 research agreements between Consortium Members, including 11 collaborations focused on anthelmintic drug discovery.

  12. Accelerating the development of improved analgesic treatments: the ACTION public-private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C

    2011-07-01

    There has been considerable progress identifying pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, but analgesic medications with improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability still represent an unmet public health need. Numerous treatments examined in recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have failed to show efficacy for neuropathic pain, including treatments that had previously demonstrated efficacy. This suggests that at least some negative results reflect limited assay sensitivity of RCTs to distinguish efficacious treatments from placebo. Patient characteristics, clinical trial research designs and methods, outcome measures, approaches to data analysis, and statistical power may all play a role in accounting for difficulties in demonstrating the benefits of efficacious analgesic treatments vs placebo. The identification of specific clinical trial characteristics associated with assay sensitivity in existing data has the potential to provide an evidence-based approach to the design of analgesic clinical trials. The US Food and Drug Administration recently launched the Analgesic Clinical Trial Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTION) public-private partnership, which is designed to facilitate the discovery and development of analgesics with improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability for acute and chronic pain conditions. ACTION will establish a collaborative effort to prioritize research objectives, develop a standardized analgesic database platform, and conduct methodologically focused studies to increase the assay sensitivity and efficiency of analgesic clinical trials. The results of these activities have the potential to inform and accelerate the development of improved pain management interventions of all types, not just pharmacologic treatments.

  13. Development of a Compton Camera for Online Range Monitoring of Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams via Prompt-Gamma Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thirolf, P.G.; Lang, C.; Aldawood, S.; Van der Kolff, H.G.; Maier, L.; Schaart, D.R.; Parodi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Presently large efforts are conducted in Munich towards the development of proton beams for bio-medical applications, generated via the technique of particle acceleration from high-power, short-pulse lasers. While so far mostly offline diagnostics tools are used in this context, we aim at developing

  14. Heat transfer enhancement by the Goertler vortices developed on a wall with a finite thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Peixinho, Jorge; Kahouadji, Lyes

    2013-11-01

    Görtler vortices appear in a flow over a concave wall as a result of centrifugal instability [Saric, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 379 (1994)]. They may have a strong influence on heat transfer [Momayez et al., Int. J. heat Mass transfer 47, 3783 (2004)]. The purpose of this work is to model heat transfer by Görtler vortices using a weakly nonlinear analysis of Smith &-Haj- Hariri [Phys. Fluids A 5, 2815 (1993)]. We have investigated the coupling of the convective heat transfer by the stationary vortices with the heat conduction inside the solid wall. The finite thickness and thermal conductivity of the wall enter into the boundary conditions of the problem through the ratio δ of the wall thickness to the boundary layer thickness and through the ratio K of the thermal conductivities of the fluid and the wall. The parametric dependence Nu (δ , K) of the Nusselt number is performed and it is shown that found the heat transfer is quite well modified by these two parameters. The local thermal stress can be estimated in order to analyze the effects on ageing of the wall material. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the french Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), through the program ``Investissements d'Avenir'' (ANR-10-LABX-09-01), LabEx EMC3.

  15. Development of a dual-pulse RF driver for an S-band (= 2856 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki; Ha, Jang Ho; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hui Su; Buaphad, Pikad

    2016-04-01

    The radiation equipment research division of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed a Container Inspection System (CIS) using a Radio Frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for port security. The primary purpose of the CIS is to detect nuclear materials and explosives, as well country-specific prohibited substances, e.g., smuggled. The CIS consists of a 9/6 MeV dualenergy electron linear accelerator for distinguishing between organic and inorganic materials. The accelerator consists of an electron gun, an RF accelerating structure, an RF driver, a modulator, electromagnets, a cooling system, a X-ray generating target, X-ray collimator, a detector, and a container moving system. The RF driver is an important part of the configuration because it is the RF power source: it supplies the RF power to the accelerating structure. A unique aspect of the RF driver is that it generates dual RF power to generate dual energy (9/6 MeV). The advantage of this RF driver is that it can allow the pulse width to vary and can be used to obtain a wide range of energy output, and pulse repetition rates up to 300 Hz. For this reason, 140 W (5 MW - 9 MeV) and 37 W (3.4 MW - 6 MeV) power outputs are available independently. A high power test for 20 minutes demonstrate that stable dual output powers can be generated. Moreover, the dual power can be applied to the accelerator which has stable accelerator operation. In this paper, the design, fabrication and high power test of the RF driver for the RF electron linear accelerator (linac) are presented.

  16. Development of a generally valid model for calculating combustion chamber wall temperatures in internal combustion engines. Wall temperature model - final report; Entwicklung eines allgemeingueltigen Modells zur Berechnung der Brennraumwandtemperaturen bei Verbrennungsmotoren. Wandtemperaturmodell - Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, P. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany); Bargende, M.; Sargenti, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)

    2004-07-01

    Starting from the literature research in the FVV-Project 722, the objective of this project was set on the development of a universally valid model for the calculation of wall temperatures in combustion engines. To reach this target, intensive research work was necessary to improve the simple zero-dimensional modeling of the in-cylinder processes. For this reason, a 2.3 l Otto-engine was fitted with thermocouples in a manner to permit accurate measurements of wall temperatures of both cylinder liner wall and cylinder head. To allow for the calculation of the thermodynamic boundary conditions of the gas phase using a pressure history analysis, the engine was indicated in all four cylinders. The parameters cooling liquid temperature and oil temperature were highly varied to examine their influence on the wall temperature. Simultaneous to the test bench measurements, the components for the numerical calculation of the wall temperature were programmed and analyzed. The modular description of the combustion chamber enables modelling of an arbitrary combustion engine. For the calculation of the influence of the gas phase heat, the working process analyses was performed by an external simulation program. The wall temperature model can be used as an independent tool as well as an integrated part of a coupled simulation. In a pressure history analysis the wall temperatures needed for the calculation of the wall heat can be determined precisely. In case of a coupling with a one-dimensional simulation tool, the wall temperature model is used for an iterative calculation of the wall temperatures and the wall heat fluxes. Due to the possibility of an arbitrary discretisation of the cylinder liner, this model can also be applied to a three-dimensional simulation for the initial calculation of the boundary conditions. (orig.)

  17. Development of an accelerator driven neutron activator for medical radioisotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, K.; Buono, S.; Burgio, N.; Cotogno, G.; Gibson, N.; Maciocco, L.; Mercurio, G.; Santagata, A.; Simonelli, F.; Tagziria, H.

    2009-04-01

    A compact, accelerator driven, neutron activator based on a modified version of the Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) concept has been developed, with the aim of efficiently utilising ion-beam generated neutrons for the production of radioactive nanoparticles for brachytherapy. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to optimise the design of the activator, which is based on a hybrid approach, coupling a lead buffer and a graphite reflector. Computational Fluid Dynamic methods have been used for the thermal-hydraulic design of the neutron-generating beryllium target to ensure efficient water cooling under high proton beam currents. The facility has been tested under various experimental configurations, and the activation yields of different materials, measured with γ-spectrometry techniques, have been compared with theoretical predictions. In this paper the main elements of the activator are described, and calculated and measured results for pure Au, Mo, Ho, and Re foils as well as for Re and Ho nanoparticle samples are presented. A satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory was found, confirming that the improved ARC activator developed in this work is suitable for isotope production for certain applications such as brachytherapy.

  18. Development Of A Four Cavity Second-harmonic Gyroklystron As Driver For A Linear Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Gouveia, E S

    2004-01-01

    Gyroklystrons are microwave amplifiers that combine the multi-cavity configuration of a klystron with the energy extraction mechanism of the cyclotron maser instability. These devices have been studied at the University of Maryland for several years. This work is focused on the development of a 17.14 GHz four-cavity frequency-doubling gyroklystron circuit. This device was designed specifically to drive a high gradient linear accelerator recently developed by the Haimson Corporation. The gyroklystron was designed using the code MAGYKL, yielding a predicted output power of 87 MW for an input drive power of 250 W, with a velocity pitch ratio (α) of 1.4. The tube was later fabricated, and underwent a series of experimental tests to evaluate its performance. The highest peak power observed was 18.5 ± 1.7 MW, corresponding to an efficiency of 7.0% and a gain of 24.0 dB. This result fell short of the theoretical design, yet it was consistent with the low value of the velocity pitch ratio (&a...

  19. Accelerating what works: using qualitative research methods in developing a change package for a learning collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Asta V; Bernard, Shulamit L

    2012-02-01

    Learning (quality improvement) collaboratives are effective vehicles for driving coordinated organizational improvements. A central element of a learning collaborative is the change package-a catalogue of strategies, change concepts, and action steps that guide participants in their improvement efforts. Despite a vast literature describing learning collaboratives, little to no information is available on how the guiding strategies, change concepts, and action items are identified and developed to a replicable and actionable format that can be used to make measurable improvements within participating organizations. The process for developing the change package for the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) Patient Safety and Clinical Pharmacy Services Collaborative entailed environmental scan and identification of leading practices, case studies, interim debriefing meetings, data synthesis, and a technical expert panel meeting. Data synthesis involved end-of-day debriefings, systematic qualitative analyses, and the use of grounded theory and inductive data analysis techniques. This approach allowed systematic identification of innovative patient safety and clinical pharmacy practices that could be adopted in diverse environments. A case study approach enabled the research team to study practices in their natural environments. Use of grounded theory and inductive data analysis techniques enabled identification of strategies, change concepts, and actionable items that might not have been captured using different approaches. Use of systematic processes and qualitative methods in identification and translation of innovative practices can greatly accelerate the diffusion of innovations and practice improvements. This approach is effective whether or not an individual organization is part of a learning collaborative.

  20. High Power Proton Accelerator Development at KAERI and its Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung-Ho; Park, Mi Young; Kim, Kui Young; Kim, Kye Ryung; Kim, Jun Yeon; Cho, Yong-Sub

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP), approved and launched by the Korean government in July 2002, includes a 100 MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) development and programs for its utilization and application. The main goals in the first phase of the project, spanning from 2002 to 2005, were the design of a 100 MeV proton linac and the development of a 20 MeV linac consisting of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The 50 keV injector and 3 MeV RFQ have been installed and tested, and the 20 MeV DTL is being assembled, tuned and under a beam test. At the same time, the utilization programs using the proton beam have been planned, and some are now under way. The vacuum system of the 20 MeV proton linac and its related issues, especially in operation with a high duty, are discussed in detail.

  1. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-10-16

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A highly-segmented ΔE-time-of-flight wall as forward detector of the 4π-system for charged particles at the SIS/ESR accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, A.; Alard, J. P.; Augustinski, G.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belayev, I. M.; Blaich, Th.; Boccaccio, P.; Bock, R.; Boussange, S.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Charity, R. J.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Crouau, M.; Daudon, F.; Devin, J. F.; Dupieux, P.; Erö, J.; Fan, Z. G.; Fayard, C.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R.; Frolov, S.; Gimenez, E.; Grigorian, Y.; Guillaume, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hölbling, S.; Hornecker, F.; Houari, A.; Jeong, S. C.; Jorio, M.; Jundt, F.; Kecskeméti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Krämer, M.; Kuhn, C.; Lebedev, A.; Legrand, I.; Maguire, C. F.; Manko, V.; Marquardt, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Mayade, S.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Mösner, J.; Moisa, D.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Morel, P.; Neubert, W.; Neunlist, R.; Ortlepp, G.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Rami, F.; Reisdorf, W.; Saettel, M. A.; Sahuc, E.; Savinel, G.; Seres, Z.; Schüll, D.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, S.; Sodan, U.; Tanaka, M. H.; Teh, K. M.; Tezkratt, R.; Tischler, B.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Vincent, D.; Wagner, P.; Weinert, J.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    At the SIS/ESR accelerator facility at GSI in Darmstadt the 4π-detector system FOPI is under construction at present. It is designed for the investigation of central collisions of heavy ions in the energy range up to 2 A GeV. As phase I of this detector a forward wall has been built and used in various experiments. It comprizes a total number of 764 scintillators with an additional shell of 188 thin ΔE-detectors in front of it and covers the full azimuth of the polar angles from 1° to 30°. The velocity and the nuclear charge of the fragments are determined by a combined time-of-flight and ΔE measurement.

  3. A highly-segmented [Delta]E-time-of-flight wall as forward detector of the 4[pi]-system for charged particles at the SIS/ESR accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobbi, A.; Augustinski, G.; Bock, R.; Charity, R.J.; Fan, Z.G.; Freifelder, R.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Jeong, S.C.; Marquardt, M.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Sodan, U.; Tanaka, M.H.; Teh, K.M.; Weinert, J.; Wessels, J.P. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)); Alard, J.P.; Bastid, N.; Boussange, S.; Crouau, M.; Daudon, F.; Dupieux, P.; Fayard, C.; Fraysse, L.; Jorio, M.; Mayade, S.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Morel, P.; Sahuc, E.; Savinel, G.; Vincent, D. (Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Univ. Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere (France)); Basrak, Z.; Caplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Hoelbling, S. (Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Belayev, I.M.; Frolov, S.; Korchagin, Y.; Lebedev, A.; Smolyankin, S.; Zhilin, A.V. (Inst. for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russia)); Blaich, T. (Inst. fuer Kernchemie, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Boccaccio, P. (Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali Legnaro, Padua (Italy)); Buta, A.; Legrand, I.; Moisa, D.; Petrovici, M

    1993-01-01

    At the SIS/ESR accelerator facility at GSI in Darmstadt the 4[pi]-detector system FOPI is under construction at present. It is designed for the investigation of central collisions of heavy ions in the energy range up to 2 A GeV. As phase I of this detector a forward wall has been built and used in various experiments. It comprizes a total number of 764 scintillators with an additional shell of 188 thin [Delta]E-detectors in front of it and covers the full azimuth of the polar angles from 1deg to 30deg. The velocity and the nuclear charge of the fragments are determined by a combined time-of-flight and [Delta]E measurements. (orig.).

  4. Development and applications of a multi-purpose digital controller with a System-on-Chip FPGA for accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Keigo

    2016-12-01

    J-PARC Main Ring (MR) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which accelerates protons from 3 GeV to 30 GeV. It has operated at a beam intensity of 390 kW and an upgrade toward the megawatt rating is scheduled. For higher beam intensity, some of the accelerator components require more intelligent and complicated functions. To consolidate such functions among various components, we developed multi-purpose digital boards using a System-on-Chip Field-Programmable Gated Array (SoC FPGA). In this paper, we describe the details of our developed boards as well as their possible applications. As an application of the boards, we have successfully performed the measurement of the betatron amplitude function during beam acceleration in J-PARC MR. The experimental setup and results of the measurement are also described in detail.

  5. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  6. Early natural stimulation through environmental enrichment accelerates neuronal development in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus is the primary afferent into the hippocampal formation, with important functions in learning and memory. Granule cells, the principle neuronal type in the dentate gyrus, are mostly formed postnatally, in a process that continues into adulthood. External stimuli, including environmental enrichment, voluntary exercise and learning, have been shown to significantly accelerate the generation and maturation of dentate granule cells in adult rodents. Whether, and to what extent, such environmental stimuli regulate the development and maturation of dentate granule cells during early postnatal development is largely unknown. Furthermore, whether natural stimuli affect the synaptic properties of granule cells had been investigated neither in newborn neurons of the adult nor during early development. To examine the effect of natural sensory stimulation on the dentate gyrus, we reared newborn mice in an enriched environment (EE. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that dentate granule cells from EE-reared mice exhibited earlier morphological maturation, manifested as faster peaking of doublecortin expression and elevated expression of mature neuronal markers (including NeuN, calbindin and MAP2 at the end of the second postnatal week. Also at the end of the second postnatal week, we found increased density of dendritic spines across the entire dentate gyrus, together with elevated levels of postsynaptic scaffold (post-synaptic density 95 and receptor proteins (GluR2 and GABA(ARγ2 of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Furthermore, dentate granule cells of P14 EE-reared mice had lower input resistances and increased glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs. Together, our results demonstrate that EE-rearing promotes morphological and electrophysiological maturation of dentate granule cells, underscoring the importance of natural environmental stimulation on development of the dentate gyrus.

  7. Effect of water deficit on the cell wall of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet nour', Arecales) fruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribaa, Ali; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud; Rihouey, Christophe; Burel, Carole; Ferchichi, Ali; Driouich, Azeddine; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2013-05-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important crop providing a valuable nutrition source for people in many countries including the Middle East and North Africa. In recent years, the amount of rain in North Africa and especially in the Tunisian palm grove areas has dropped significantly. We investigated the growth and cell wall remodelling of fruits harvested at three key development stages from trees grown with or without water supply. During development, cell wall solubilization and remodelling was characterized by a decrease of the degree of methylesterification of pectin, an important loss of galactose content and a reduction of the branching of xylan by arabinose in irrigated condition. Water deficit had a profound effect on fruit size, pulp content, cell wall composition and remodelling. Loss of galactose content was not as important, arabinose content was significantly higher in the pectin-enriched extracts from non-irrigated condition, and the levels of methylesterification of pectin and O-acetylation of xyloglucan were lower than in irrigated condition. The lower levels of hydrophobic groups (methylester and O-acetyl) and the less intensive degradation of the hydrophilic galactan, arabinan and arabinogalactan in the cell wall may be implicated in maintaining the hydration status of the cells under water deficit.

  8. Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR. Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5% produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9% was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%. The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis. The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase.

  9. Newly developed vacuum differential pressure casting of thin-walled complicated Al-alloy castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The newly designed vacuum differential pressure casting (VDPC) unit was introduced, by which the capability of the VDPC process to produce thin-walled complicated Al-alloy castings, that are free from oxides, gas pore and shrinkage cavity and thus enhance overall part quality, was studied. Experimental results were compared with those of traditional gravity pouring and vacuum suction casting. The first series of experiments were focused on investigating the castability of thin section Al-alloy casting. In the second series of experiments the metallographic evidence, casting strength and soundness were examined. Finally, case studies of very interesting thin walled complicated casting applications were described. The advantages of the described technique have made possible to produce thin walled complicated Al-alloy casting (up to a section thickness of 1 mm), which is not practical for gravity pouring and vacuum suction casting.

  10. Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan; Grover, Monica; Sibai, Tarek; Black, Jennifer; Rianon, Nahid; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Munivez, Elda; Bertin, Terry; Dawson, Brian; Chen, Yuqing; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lee, Brendan; Yang, Tao; Bae, Yangjin

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are a group of anti-hypertensive drugs that are widely used to treat pediatric hypertension. Recent application of ARBs to treat diseases such as Marfan syndrome or Alport syndrome has shown positive outcomes in animal and human studies, suggesting a broader therapeutic potential for this class of drugs. Multiple studies have reported a benefit of ARBs on adult bone homeostasis; however, its effect on the growing skeleton in children is unknown. We investigated the effect of Losartan, an ARB, in regulating bone mass and cartilage during development in mice. Wild type mice were treated with Losartan from birth until 6 weeks of age, after which bones were collected for microCT and histomorphometric analyses. Losartan increased trabecular bone volume vs. tissue volume (a 98% increase) and cortical thickness (a 9% increase) in 6-weeks old wild type mice. The bone changes were attributed to decreased osteoclastogenesis as demonstrated by reduced osteoclast number per bone surface in vivo and suppressed osteoclast differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in RAW cells was attenuated by Losartan. Similarly, RANKL-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was suppressed by Losartan, suggesting a convergence of RANKL and angiotensin signaling at the level of ERK1/2 regulation. To assess the effect of Losartan on cartilage development, we examined the cartilage phenotype of wild type mice treated with Losartan in utero from conception to 1 day of age. Growth plates of these mice showed an elongated hypertrophic chondrocyte zone and increased Col10a1 expression level, with minimal changes in chondrocyte proliferation. Altogether, inhibition of the angiotensin pathway by Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in growth plate during skeletal development.

  11. ANALYSIS AND VALIDATION OF PIPE WALL THINNING DUE TO FLOW ACCELERATED CORROSION%流动加速腐蚀引起的管壁减薄分析及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanori Naitoh; 陈耀东; Shunsuke Uchida; Hidetoshi Okada

    2011-01-01

    针对危害电站安全运行的流动加速腐蚀(FAC)现象,结合专用分析程序包DRAWTHREE的模型和结构,阐明了FAC的发生机理及其决定性因素,提出了用于评估FAC和管壁减薄速率的方法和步骤,并将上述程序分析结果与实验及电厂实际测量数据进行了比较,结果吻合较好.最后给出了用于缓解FAC的一些措施.%Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of phenomena which are challenging safety operation of power plant. The mechanism and dominant factor contributing to its ocurrence are illustrated. In parrallel, a dedicated FAC simulation code package, DRAWTHREE, its physical models and structure, as well as methodology and procedure for FAC and wall thinning evaluation are introduced. The code is then applied to the simulation of FAC and prediction of wall thinning rate, and the simulated results agree well with experimental and plant measured data. Finally, some countermeasures against FAC for different types of power plant are proposed.

  12. Accelerating the development of emotion competence in Head Start children: effects on adaptive and maladaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E; King, Kristen A; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Morgan, Judith K; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Krauthamer-Ewing, E Stephanie; Finlon, Kristy J

    2008-01-01

    Separate studies of rural and urban Head Start systems tested the hypothesis that an emotion-based prevention program (EBP) would accelerate the development of emotion and social competence and decrease agonistic behavior and potential precursors of psychopathology. In both studies, Head Start centers were randomly assigned to treatment and control/comparison group conditions. In Study 1 (rural community), results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that compared to the control condition (Head Start as usual), EBP produced greater increases in emotion knowledge and emotion regulation and greater decreases in children's negative emotion expressions, aggression, anxious/depressed behavior, and negative peer and adult interactions. In Study 2 (inner city), compared to the established prevention program I Can Problem Solve, EBP led to greater increases in emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, positive emotion expression, and social competence. In Study 2, emotion knowledge mediated the effects of EBP on emotion regulation, and emotion competence (an aggregate of emotion knowledge and emotion regulation) mediated the effects of EBP on social competence.

  13. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  14. New developments of {sup 11}C post-accelerated beams for hadron therapy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, R.S., E-mail: r.s.augusto@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ludwig Maximilians – University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Mendonca, T.M.; Wenander, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Penescu, L. [MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Orecchia, R. [CNAO – Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica per il trattamento dei tumori, Pavia (Italy); Parodi, K. [Ludwig Maximilians – University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Ferrari, A.; Stora, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-06-01

    Hadron therapy was first proposed in 1946 and is by now widespread throughout the world, as witnessed with the design and construction of the CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN and MedAustron treatment centres, among others. The clinical interest in hadron therapy lies in the fact that it delivers precision treatment of tumours, exploiting the characteristic shape (the Bragg peak) of the energy deposition in the tissues for charged hadrons. In particular, carbon ion therapy is found to be biologically more effective, with respect to protons, on certain types of tumours. Following an approach tested at NIRS in Japan [1], carbon ion therapy treatments based on {sup 12}C could be combined or fully replaced with {sup 11}C PET radioactive ions post-accelerated to the same energy. This approach allows providing a beam for treatment and, at the same time, to collect information on the 3D distributions of the implanted ions by PET imaging. The production of {sup 11}C ion beams can be performed using two methods. A first one is based on the production using compact PET cyclotrons with 10–20 MeV protons via {sup 14}N(p,α){sup 11}C reactions following an approach developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [2]. A second route exploits spallation reactions {sup 19}F(p,X){sup 11}C and {sup 23}Na(p,X){sup 11}C on a molten fluoride salt target using the ISOL (isotope separation on-line) technique [3]. This approach can be seriously envisaged at CERN-ISOLDE following recent progresses made on {sup 11}C{sup +} production [4] and proven post-acceleration of pure {sup 10}C{sup 3/6+} beams in the REX-ISOLDE linac [5]. Part of the required components is operational in radioactive ion beam facilities or commercial medical PET cyclotrons. The driver could be a 70 MeV, 1.2 mA proton commercial cyclotron, which would lead to 8.1 × 10{sup 711}C{sup 6+} per spill. This intensity is appropriate using {sup 11}C ions alone for both imaging and treatment. Here we report on the ongoing feasibility

  15. New developments of 11C post-accelerated beams for hadron therapy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, R. S.; Mendonca, T. M.; Wenander, F.; Penescu, L.; Orecchia, R.; Parodi, K.; Ferrari, A.; Stora, T.

    2016-06-01

    Hadron therapy was first proposed in 1946 and is by now widespread throughout the world, as witnessed with the design and construction of the CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN and MedAustron treatment centres, among others. The clinical interest in hadron therapy lies in the fact that it delivers precision treatment of tumours, exploiting the characteristic shape (the Bragg peak) of the energy deposition in the tissues for charged hadrons. In particular, carbon ion therapy is found to be biologically more effective, with respect to protons, on certain types of tumours. Following an approach tested at NIRS in Japan [1], carbon ion therapy treatments based on 12C could be combined or fully replaced with 11C PET radioactive ions post-accelerated to the same energy. This approach allows providing a beam for treatment and, at the same time, to collect information on the 3D distributions of the implanted ions by PET imaging. The production of 11C ion beams can be performed using two methods. A first one is based on the production using compact PET cyclotrons with 10-20 MeV protons via 14N(p,α)11C reactions following an approach developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [2]. A second route exploits spallation reactions 19F(p,X)11C and 23Na(p,X)11C on a molten fluoride salt target using the ISOL (isotope separation on-line) technique [3]. This approach can be seriously envisaged at CERN-ISOLDE following recent progresses made on 11C+ production [4] and proven post-acceleration of pure 10C3/6+ beams in the REX-ISOLDE linac [5]. Part of the required components is operational in radioactive ion beam facilities or commercial medical PET cyclotrons. The driver could be a 70 MeV, 1.2 mA proton commercial cyclotron, which would lead to 8.1 × 10711C6+ per spill. This intensity is appropriate using 11C ions alone for both imaging and treatment. Here we report on the ongoing feasibility studies of such approach, using the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA [6,7] to simulate

  16. Developments in accelerators and instrumentation relevant to imaging with charged particles and positron emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1980-11-01

    In past years particle accelerators have become increasingly important tools for the advancement of medical science. From the pace of advancing technology and current directions in medical research, it is clear that this relationship between accelerators and medicine will only grow stronger in future years. In view of this importance, this relationship is investigated in some detail, with an eye not so much towards the medical uses of the beams produced, but more towards the technology associated with these accelerators and the criteria which make for successful incorporation of these machines into the clinical environment. In order to lay the necessary groundwork, the different kinds of accelerators found in medical use today are reviewed briefly discussing salient points of each.

  17. Executable SysML Model Development Accelerator for the Constellation Program Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is aimed at investigating ways to accelerate the creation of SysML based models that can be used for model checking and more generally for...

  18. Report of the Subpanel on Accelerator Research and Development of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Accelerator R and D in the US High Energy Physics (HEP) program is reviewed. As a result of this study, some shift in priority, particularly as regards long-range accelerator R and D, is suggested to best serve the future needs of the US HEP program. Some specific new directions for the US R and D effort are set forth. 18 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  19. The development of algorithms for parallel knowledge discovery using graphics accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Paweł; Mulawka, Jan

    2011-10-01

    The paper broaches topics of selected knowledge discovery algorithms. Different implementations have been verified on parallel platforms, including graphics accelerators using CUDA technology, multi-core microprocessors using OpenMP and many graphics accelerators. Results of investigations have been compared in terms of performance and scalability. Different types of data representation were also tested. The possibilities of both platforms, using the classification algorithms: the k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines and logistic regression are discussed.

  20. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-05-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  1. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Born, A Peter; Nagy, Zoltan;

    2008-01-01

    stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants have suggested developmental delays, the results of this study are more consistent with accelerated white matter development, possibly as a result of increased sensorimotor stimulation in the extrauterine environment. These results are the first......Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal...

  2. Development and validation of a clinical prediction rule for chest wall syndrome in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronga Alexandre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chest wall syndrome (CWS, the main cause of chest pain in primary care practice, is most often an exclusion diagnosis. We developed and evaluated a clinical prediction rule for CWS. Methods Data from a multicenter clinical cohort of consecutive primary care patients with chest pain were used (59 general practitioners, 672 patients. A final diagnosis was determined after 12 months of follow-up. We used the literature and bivariate analyses to identify candidate predictors, and multivariate logistic regression was used to develop a clinical prediction rule for CWS. We used data from a German cohort (n = 1212 for external validation. Results From bivariate analyses, we identified six variables characterizing CWS: thoracic pain (neither retrosternal nor oppressive, stabbing, well localized pain, no history of coronary heart disease, absence of general practitioner’s concern, and pain reproducible by palpation. This last variable accounted for 2 points in the clinical prediction rule, the others for 1 point each; the total score ranged from 0 to 7 points. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.83 in the derivation cohort (specificity: 89%; sensitivity: 45%; cut-off set at 6 points. Among all patients presenting CWS (n = 284, 71% (n = 201 had a pain reproducible by palpation and 45% (n = 127 were correctly diagnosed. For a subset (n = 43 of these correctly classified CWS patients, 65 additional investigations (30 electrocardiograms, 16 thoracic radiographies, 10 laboratory tests, eight specialist referrals, one thoracic computed tomography had been performed to achieve diagnosis. False positives (n = 41 included three patients with stable angina (1.8% of all positives. External validation revealed the ROC curve to be 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.73-0.79 with a sensitivity of 22% and a specificity of 93%. Conclusions This CWS score offers

  3. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-01

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  4. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, A., E-mail: kojima.atsushi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, M.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Yamano, Y. [Saitama University, Saitama, Saitama-ken 338-8570 (Japan); Grisham, L. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  5. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, A; Hanada, M; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  6. Thin-Wall Aluminum Die-Casting Technology for Development of Notebook Computer Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Silicon-based aluminum casting alloys are known to be one of the most widely used alloy systems mainly due to their superior casting characteristics and unique combination of mechanical and physical properties.However, manufacturing of thin-walled aluminum die-casting components, less than 1.0 mm in thickness, is generally known to be very difficult task to achieve aluminum casting alloys with high fluidity. Therefore, in this study, the optimal die-casting conditions for producing 297 mm×210 mm×0.7 mm thin-walled aluminum component was examined experimentally by using 2 different gating systems, tangential and split type, and vent design. Furthermore, computational solidification simulation was also conducted. The results showed that split type gating system was preferable gating design than tangential type gating system at the point of view of soundness of casting and distortion generated after solidification. It was also found that proper vent design was one of the most important factors for producing thin-wall casting components because it was important for the fulfillment of the thin-wall cavity and the minimization of the casting distortion.

  7. Genetic analysis of Hedgehog signaling in ventral body wall development and the onset of omphalocele formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumaru, D.; Haraguchi, R.; Miyagawa, S.; Motoyama, J.; Nakagata, N.; Meijlink, F.; Yamada, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In

  8. Genetic Analysis of Hedgehog Signaling in Ventral Body Wall Development and the Onset of Omphalocele Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumaru, Daisuke; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Motoyama, Jun; Nakagata, Naomi; Meijlink, Frits; Yamada, Gen

    2011-01-01

    Background: An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In

  9. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A J; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Houbein, Rudolf; Mariani, Celestina; Ulvskov, Peter; Jorgensen, Bodil; Schols, Henk A; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2014-05-01

    Pectin is a complex polysaccharide and an integral part of the primary plant cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to cell wall mechanical strength and cell adhesion. To understand the structure-function relationships of pectin in the cell wall, a set of transgenic potato lines with altered pectin composition was analysed. The expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in pectin acetylation, degradation of the rhamnogalacturonan backbone and type and length of neutral side chains, arabinan and galactan in particular, has been altered. Upon crossing of different transgenic lines, some transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different developmental stages were microscopically examined to study the phenotype in more detail. Scanning electron microscopy of flowers showed collapsed pollen grains in mature anthers and in earlier stages cytoplasmic protrusions at the site of the of kin pore, eventually leading to bursting of the pollen grain and leaking of the cytoplasm. This phenomenon is only observed after the microspores are released and the tapetum starts to degenerate. Timing of the phenotype indicates a role for pectic arabinan side chains during remodelling of the cell wall when the pollen grain is maturing and dehydrating.

  10. Development of EEM based silicon–water and silica–water wall potentials for non-reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junghan; Iype, Eldhose; Frijns, Arjan J.H.; Nedea, Silvia V.; Steenhoven, Anton A. van

    2014-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of heat transfer in gases are computationally expensive when the wall molecules are explicitly modeled. To save computational time, an implicit boundary function is often used. Steele's potential has been used in studies of fluid–solid interface for a long time. In this work, the conceptual idea of Steele's potential was extended in order to simulate water–silicon and water–silica interfaces. A new wall potential model is developed by using the electronegativity-equalization method (EEM), a ReaxFF empirical force field and a non-reactive molecular dynamics package PumMa. Contact angle simulations were performed in order to validate the wall potential model. Contact angle simulations with the resulting tabulated wall potentials gave a silicon–water contact angle of 129°, a quartz–water contact angle of 0°, and a cristobalite–water contact angle of 40°, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental values.

  11. The development of a under-water robot system for inspection of the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Byung Man; Cho, Hyung Suk; Park, Ki Yong [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Soo; Yoon, Ji Sup; Lee, Byung Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, an under-water robot system is developed in order to inspect the radiation level and decontaminate the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor, TRIGA MARK III. This system is composed of the mobile robot which navigates autonomously under the water and the ground control unit which monitors and commands the motion of mobile robot. The mobile robot can move on the wall surface with five thruster systems and is composed of three parts, i.e., mechanical, control, and sensory parts. The five thruster system is configured such as one main thruster, two wall adhesion thruster, and two turning/buoyancy compensation thruster. The control part has 4 CPU boards and each board is configured such that one is in charge of supervisory control mode which controls the position of mobile robot and communicates with the ground control unit and the other board is designed to have motor control mode which drives two motors simultaneously. In secondary part, the laser scanner and fluorescent reflectors and the incilinometer are designed. The laser scanner with fluorescent reflectors provides the current position of the mobile robot on the wall surface and by incilinometer, the moving direction can be obtained. This paper describes the design and configuration procedures of under-water robot in detail and presents the experimental results for characteristic test of the thruster system. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Development of on-line wall thickness gauge for small size seamless tube. Shokei seamless netsukan nikuatsukei no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, T.; Konya, N.; Oka, H.; Kasuya, T. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    In order to heighten the accuracy of small size seamless tube wall thickness, hot wall thickness gauge was developed to be installed, immediately behind the finishing/rolling mill, for the on-line measurement, of which the method was by the parallel-beam transmissivity of gamma-ray. The measurement unit, aiming at flexible manufacturing system (FMS), is completely automated in correcting the accuracy, changing the sizes, etc. The damping characteristics of gamma-ray beam can be expressed by a characteristic function, taking the outside diameter and wall thickness of subject tube as parameters. The functional calculation, as based on measurement of transmitted quantity of gamma-ray through the three-dimensional steel material, changes, depending upon the outside diameter, wall thickness and material specification of subject tube. System was so applied as to calculate it therefore on a case-by-case basis. Though in the vicinity of tube end, the transmitted quantity of gamma-ray is largely influenced by the horizontal dislocation, that influence is slack in the middle part of tube. Therefore, the cross sectional division was made dense and sparse in the end part and middle part, respectively of tube, which division could diminish the error from several percent to less than 0.1%. The static noise was compressed by the optimized digital filter. That gauge is presently applied for the operational administration of small size seamless tube rolling. 2 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Development of an accurate molecular mechanics model for buckling behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under axial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, B; Naseradinmousavi, P; Rahmani, A

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, an analytical solution based on a molecular mechanics model is developed to evaluate the elastic critical axial buckling strain of chiral multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To this end, the total potential energy of the system is calculated with the consideration of the both bond stretching and bond angular variations. Density functional theory (DFT) in the form of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is implemented to evaluate force constants used in the molecular mechanics model. After that, based on the principle of molecular mechanics, explicit expressions are proposed to obtain elastic surface Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the single-walled carbon nanotubes corresponding to different types of chirality. Selected numerical results are presented to indicate the influence of the type of chirality, tube diameter, and number of tube walls in detailed. An excellent agreement is found between the present numerical results and those found in the literature which confirms the validity as well as the accuracy of the present closed-form solution. It is found that the value of critical axial buckling strain exhibit significant dependency on the type of chirality and number of tube walls. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Development of eddy current testing probe for thick-walled metal plate and quantitative evaluation of cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K; Uchimoto, T; Takagi, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which is difficult because of Kelvin skin effect generally. The purpose of this research is the development of an new eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and crack shapes quantitative evaluation. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of this new probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and gentle decrement of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect with 0.5 mm thickness on IN-CONEL 718 specimen with 7.0 mm thickness. Reconstruction of crack shapes was performed based on the experimental results with the inverse problem code developed by authors. The length and depth of reconstructed defects approximately agree with those of real crack. (author)

  15. Evaluation of particles released from single-wall carbon nanotube/polymer composites with or without thermal aging by an accelerated abrasion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Kondo, Akira; Shigeta, Masahiro; Endoh, Shigehisa; Uejima, Mitsugu; Ogura, Isamu; Naito, Makio

    2014-01-01

    To provide data required for assessing the environmental health and safety risks of nanocomposites, abrasion-induced particle release from single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/polymer composites with or without thermal aging were evaluated by a shot blast system. First, overall composite weight loss (i.e., overall particle release) as a result of shot blasting was measured. Incorporating 5 wt% SWCNTs in polystyrene (PS) matrix was observed to reduce overall particle release by approximately 30% compared with pure PS. Heat treatment of the 5 wt% SWCNT/PS composites at 100°C for 10 days induced very slight change in overall particle release due to shot blasting. However, heat treatment at 350°C for 1 hr greatly deteriorated the abrasion resistance of the composites, enhancing overall particle release. Second, to verify the existence and form of SWCNTs released from the composites, released particles were observed by electron microscopy. Micron-sized particles with protruding SWCNTs and submicron-sized SWCNT clusters were observed in the particles released from the composites. Heat treatment of the composites at 350°C for 1 hr enhanced SWCNT release, which mainly formed clusters or rope-like bundles.

  16. Isogeometric variational multiscale large-eddy simulation of fully-developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Kyungsik

    2012-09-01

    We report on the isogeometric residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) large eddy simulation of a fully developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall. To assess the predictive capability of the VMS modeling framework, we compare its predictions against the results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) and, when available, against experimental measurements. We use C 1 quadratic B-spline basis functions to represent the smooth geometry of the sinusoidal lower wall and the solution variables. The Reynolds numbers of the flows considered are 6760 and 30,000 based on the bulk velocity and average channel height. The ratio of amplitude to wavelength (α/λ) of the sinusoidal wavy surface is set to 0.05. The computational domain is 2λ×1.05λ×λ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively. For the Re=6760 case, mean averaged quantities, including velocity and pressure profiles, and the separation/reattachment points in the recirculation region, are compared with DNS and experimental data. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress are in good agreement with benchmark data. Coherent structures over the wavy wall are observed in isosurfaces of the Q-criterion and show similar features to those previously reported in the literature. Comparable accuracy to DNS solutions is obtained with at least one order of magnitude fewer degrees of freedom. For the Re=30,000 case, good agreement was obtained for mean wall shear stress and velocity profiles compared with available LES results reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Altering carbon allocation in hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) impacts cell wall growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Faride; Kim, Hoon; Hefer, Charles; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2016-12-20

    Galactinol synthase is a pivotal enzyme involved in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) that function as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, as storage compounds in sink tissues and as soluble metabolites that combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. Hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana GolS3 (AtGolS3) gene showed clear effects on development; the extreme overexpressing lines were stunted and had cell wall traits characteristic of tension wood, whereas lines with only moderate up-regulation grew normally and had moderately altered secondary cell wall composition and ultrastructure. Stem cross-sections of the developing xylem revealed a significant increase in the number of vessels, as well as the clear presence of a G-layer in the fibres. Furthermore, AtGolS3-OE lines possessed higher cellulose and lower lignin contents, an increase in cellulose crystallinity, and significantly altered hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates, notably manifested by their mannose and xylose contents. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed elevated xylem starch content. Transcriptome interrogation of the transgenic plants showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of myo-inositol, along with genes involved in sucrose degradation. The results suggest that the overexpression of GolS and its product galactinol may serve as a molecular signal that initiates metabolic changes, culminating in a change in cell wall development and potentially the formation of tension wood.

  18. Exogenous GA3 Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA3 and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC, seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA3 and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol–HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA3, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA3-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA3 treatment, suggesting their role in GA3-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA3 induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants.

  19. A kinetic analysis of the auxin transcriptome reveals cell wall remodeling proteins that modulate lateral root development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel R; Olex, Amy L; Lundy, Stacey R; Turkett, William H; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S; Muday, Gloria K

    2013-09-01

    To identify gene products that participate in auxin-dependent lateral root formation, a high temporal resolution, genome-wide transcript abundance analysis was performed with auxin-treated Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Data analysis identified 1246 transcripts that were consistently regulated by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), partitioning into 60 clusters with distinct response kinetics. We identified rapidly induced clusters containing auxin-response functional annotations and clusters exhibiting delayed induction linked to cell division temporally correlated with lateral root induction. Several clusters were enriched with genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall modification, opening the possibility for understanding mechanistic details of cell structural changes that result in root formation following auxin treatment. Mutants with insertions in 72 genes annotated with a cell wall remodeling function were examined for alterations in IAA-regulated root growth and development. This reverse-genetic screen yielded eight mutants with root phenotypes. Detailed characterization of seedlings with mutations in cellulase3/glycosylhydrolase9b3 and leucine rich extensin2, genes not normally linked to auxin response, revealed defects in the early and late stages of lateral root development, respectively. The genes identified here using kinetic insight into expression changes lay the foundation for mechanistic understanding of auxin-mediated cell wall remodeling as an essential feature of lateral root development.

  20. Developing Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes into an Industrial Material through the Super-Growth CVD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaba, Don

    2013-03-01

    Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube (CNT) 20 years ago, extensive effort has been made to utilize their exceptional intrinsic properties toward industrial applications. However, availability has significantly thwarted these endeavors. In one section of my presentation, I will describe our efforts toward the economical mass-production of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) based on the water-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique, from which highly efficient synthesis of vertically aligned SWCNTs grow from substrates (SWCNT forests). Further, I will discuss our work to promote the industrial use of SWCNTs as a member of the Technology Research Association for Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (TASC) (A consortium of five companies and AIST founded for the specific purpose of developing SWCNT industrial technology.) Specifically, I will present our progress on developing the technology for the synthetic control of SWCNTs and the development of standardized evaluation techniques for the purpose of understanding the relationship between the SWCNT forest structure, e.g. length, density, crystallinity, etc and the targeted property, e.g. conductivity, mechanical reinforcement, etc. Finally, I will present several examples of applications from composites to CNT-based devices. Technology Research Association for Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (TASC), Japan

  1. How can accelerated development of bioenergy contribute to the future UK energy mix? Insights from a MARKAL modelling exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandarajah Gabrial

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work explores the potential contribution of bioenergy technologies to 60% and 80% carbon reductions in the UK energy system by 2050, by outlining the potential for accelerated technological development of bioenergy chains. The investigation was based on insights from MARKAL modelling, detailed literature reviews and expert consultations. Due to the number and complexity of bioenergy pathways and technologies in the model, three chains and two underpinning technologies were selected for detailed investigation: (1 lignocellulosic hydrolysis for the production of bioethanol, (2 gasification technologies for heat and power, (3 fast pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production, (4 biotechnological advances for second generation bioenergy crops, and (5 the development of agro-machinery for growing and harvesting bioenergy crops. Detailed literature searches and expert consultations (looking inter alia at research and development needs and economic projections led to the development of an 'accelerated' dataset of modelling parameters for each of the selected bioenergy pathways, which were included in five different scenario runs with UK-MARKAL (MED. The results of the 'accelerated runs' were compared with a low-carbon (LC-Core scenario, which assesses the cheapest way to decarbonise the energy sector. Results Bioenergy was deployed in larger quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with the LC-Core scenario. In the electricity sector, solid biomass was highly utilised for energy crop gasification, displacing some deployment of wind power, and nuclear and marine to a lesser extent. Solid biomass was also deployed for heat in the residential sector from 2040 in much higher quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with LC-Core. Although lignocellulosic ethanol increased, overall ethanol decreased in the transport sector in the bioenergy

  2. Research and Development of Wires and Cables for High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, Emanuela; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2016-04-01

    The latest strategic plans for High Energy Physics endorse steadfast superconducting magnet technology R&D for future Energy Frontier Facilities. This includes 10 to 16 T Nb3Sn accelerator magnets for the luminosity upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider and eventually for a future 100 TeV scale proton-proton (pp) collider. This paper describes the multi-decade R&D investment in the Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which was crucial to produce the first reproducible 10 to 12 T accelerator-quality dipoles and quadrupoles, as well as their scale-up. We also indicate prospective research areas in superconducting Nb3Sn wires and cables to achieve the next goals for superconducting accelerator magnets. Emphasis is on increasing performance and decreasing costs while pushing the Nb3Sn technology to its limits for future pp colliders.

  3. Development and test of a planar R-band accelerating structure

    CERN Document Server

    Merte, R; Peikert, M; Yu, D

    1999-01-01

    Planar accelerating structures, so called muffin tins, are of great interest for new accelerating techniques which are operating at high frequencies. At present the upper frequency limit for high power sources is 29.9855 GHz available at CERN. Therefore a new design of a planar traveling wave constant impedance accelerating structure is presented. A fully engineered 37-cell prototype with an operating frequency of 29.9855 GHz, which is designed for the 2 pi /3-mode, was fabricated by CNC milling technology. The design includes a power coupler, a cavity geometry optimized to compensate the effect of transverse forces, vacuum flanges and beam pipe flanges. Shown are the frequency scan of transmission and reflection measurements compared to numerical simulations with GdfidL. Further, a non resonant bead pull measurement was made to determine and verify the fundamental modes of the structure. The cavity is planned to be powered at the CLIC test stand at CERN. (4 refs).

  4. Research and Development of Nb3Sn Wires and Cables for High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, Emanuela [Fermilab; Zlobin, Alexander V. [Fermilab

    2016-02-18

    The latest strategic plans for High Energy Physics endorse steadfast superconducting magnet technology R&D for future Energy Frontier Facilities. This includes 10 to 16 T Nb3Sn accelerator magnets for the luminosity upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider and eventually for a future 100 TeV scale proton-proton (pp) collider. This paper describes the multi-decade R&D investment in the Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which was crucial to produce the first reproducible 10 to 12 T accelerator-quality dipoles and quadrupoles, as well as their scale-up. We also indicate prospective research areas in superconducting Nb3Sn wires and cables to achieve the next goals for superconducting accelerator magnets. Emphasis is on increasing performance and decreasing costs while pushing the Nb3Sn technology to its limits for future pp colliders.

  5. Development of an In-Situ Radiological Classification Technique for Material from CERN's Accelerator Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081300; Froeschl, Robert; Forkel-Wirth, Doris

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, operates high energy accelerators for particle physics research. Because of beam losses and subsequent particle interactions, radioactivity can be induced in certain accelerator components. Material and waste taken out of the accelerators facilities as a result of maintenance repair and upgrade actions as well as in case of decommissioning needs to be radiologically classied for future handling. Depending on the level of residual activity, some of these components are candidates for clearance from regulatory control in Switzerland. The Swiss radiation protection ordinance sets as criteria for clearance of material and waste from regulatory control the compliance with radionuclide specic limits for surface contamination and for specic activity as well as an ambient dose equivalent rate criterion. For objects with a mass below 1 kg a radionuclide specic clearance limit for total activity has to be respected. This work is focused on the specic activity criter...

  6. Development and Aplication of High Strength Precast Block of Scum Wall for Blast Furnace Iron Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENDeling; ZHANGLi; 等

    1998-01-01

    The properties of castables for iron main trough have been improved by means of increaing the castable's critical size and adding expandable mate-rial ,The precast blocks made from this castable have been used as the scum wall of the main trough in Baosan I& s Co.,Which have solved the problems usually occurred in this area,such as serious ero-sion,easy craking and lower service life.

  7. High efficiency RF amplifier development over wide dynamic range for accelerator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Joshi, Gopal; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Pitamber

    2017-10-01

    Superconducting (SC) cavities in an accelerating section are designed to have the same geometrical velocity factor (βg). For these cavities, Radio Frequency (RF) power needed to accelerate charged particles varies with the particle velocity factor (β). RF power requirement from one cavity to other can vary by 2-5 dB within the accelerating section depending on the energy gain in the cavity and beam current. In this paper, we have presented an idea to improve operating efficiency of the SC RF accelerators using envelope tracking technique. A study on envelope tracking technique without feedback is carried out on a 1 kW, 325 MHz, class B (conduction angle of 180 degrees) tuned load power amplifier (PA). We have derived expressions for the efficiency and power output for tuned load amplifier operating on the envelope tracking technique. From the derived expressions, it is observed that under constant load resistance to the device (MOSFET), optimum amplifier efficiency is invariant whereas output power varies with the square of drain bias voltage. Experimental results on 1 kW PA module show that its optimum efficiency is always greater than 62% with variation less than 5% from mean value over 7 dB dynamic range. Low power amplifier modules are the basic building block for the high power amplifiers. Therefore, results for 1 kW PA modules remain valid for the high power solid state amplifiers built using these PA modules. The SC RF accelerators using these constant efficiency power amplifiers can improve overall accelerator efficiency.

  8. DEVELOPING OF A NEW COMPREHENSIVE SPARK IGNITION ENGINES CODE FOR HEAT LOSS ANALYSIS WITHIN COMBUSTION CHAMBER WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Khalilarya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop the existing a zero-dimensional model named ODES to provide detailed insights into the internal process of the modern high speed spark ignition engines. Therefore, it has been concentrated on the development of new sub models for incorporation in an extended form of ODES, as follows: - the existing semi-empirical combustion model has been replaced by a new comprehensive model, which is based on the turbulent flame speed in the combustion chamber. - the existing three wall heat transfer model has been replaced by a new one in which, the combustion chamber is divided in to three zones including cylinder head, cylinder wall, and piston head. The steady-state heat transfer equation is solved through finite difference method with replaced boundary and initial conditions. The results gave the temperature distribution of combustion chamber walls. The rate of heat losses from combustion chamber to the coolant is calculated by using the mean temperature of each part. The code has been extensively validated with respect to performance and heat transfer against experimental results obtained on XU7JP spark ignition engine with two kinds of fuel, gasoline and compresed natural gas and gave good agreement with available experimental.

  9. Development of pressure control system in counter gravity casting for large thin-walled A357 aluminum alloy components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-lei; HAO Qi-tang; JIE Wan-qi; ZHOU Yu-chuan

    2008-01-01

    Counter gravity casting equipments(CGCE) were widely used to produce large thin-walled A357 aluminum alloy components. To improve the pressure control precision of CGCE to get high quality castings, a pressure control system based on fuzzy-PID hybrid control technology and the digital assembled valve was developed. The actual pressure tracking experiment results show that the special system by applying PID controller and fuzzy controller to varied phases, is not only able to inherit the small error and good static stability of classical PID control, but also has fuzzy control's advantage of fully adapting itself to the object. The pressure control error is less than 0.3 kPa. By using this pressure control system, large complex thin-walled A357 aluminum alloy castings with high quality was successfully produced.

  10. Development of a GPU-accelerated MIKE 21 Solver for Water Wave Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aackermann, Peter Edward; Pedersen, Peter Juhler Dinesen; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2013-01-01

    With encouragement by the company DHI are the aim of this B.Sc. thesis1 to investigate, whether if it is possible to accelerate the simulation speed of DHIs commercial product MIKE 21 HD, by formulating a parallel solution scheme and implementing it to be executed on a CUDA-enabled GPU (massive...

  11. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  12. Development of an Efficient GPU-Accelerated Model for Fully Nonlinear Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of an optimized sequential single-CPU algorithm based on a flexible-order Finite Difference Method. High performance is pursued by utilizing many-core processing in the model focusing on GPUs for acceleration of code execution. This involves combining analytical methods with an algorithm redesign of the current...

  13. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-06-01

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios.

  14. EuCARD and CARE - development of accelerator technology in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    EuCARD (2009-1013) and CARE (2004-2008) are examples of big European R&D projects for building integrated accelerator infrastructures in Europe. Several research teams from a number of European countries are participating in this consolidated effort. Here we summarize the tasks done by some teams from Poland on a more general background.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR DATA REPORTING SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION TO TREND ANALYSIS OF BEAM CURRENT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M.J.; Blokland, W.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed ongoing information about the ion beam quality is crucial to the successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In order to provide the highest possible neutron production time, ion beam quality is monitored to isolate possible problems or performance-related issues throughout the accelerator and accumulator ring. For example, beam current monitor (BCM) data is used to determine the quality of the beam transport through the accelerator. In this study, a reporting system infrastructure was implemented and used to generate a trend analysis report of the BCM data. The BCM data was analyzed to facilitate the identifi cation of monitor calibration issues, beam trends, beam abnormalities, beam deviations and overall beam quality. A comparison between transformed BCM report data and accelerator log entries shows promising results which represent correlations between the data and changes made within the accelerator. The BCM analysis report is one of many reports within a system that assist in providing overall beam quality information to facilitate successful beam operation. In future reports, additional data manipulation functions and analysis can be implemented and applied. Built-in and user-defi ned analytic functions are available throughout the reporting system and can be reused with new data.

  16. Cell wall glycosidase activities and protein content variations during fruit development and ripening in three texture contrasted tomato cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konozy, Emadeldin H.E.; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Excessive softening is the main factor limiting fruit shelf life and storage. It is generally acceptable now that softening of fruit which occurs during the ripening is due to synergistic actions of several enzymes on cell wall polysaccharides. As a subject for this study, we have assayed some glycosidase activities using three tomato species (Lycopersicon esculentum) contrasted for their texture phenotypes; the cherry tomato line Cervil (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme), a common taste tomato line Levovil (S. lycopersicum Mill.) and VilB a modern line, large, firmer and with good storage capability. Four glycosidase activities namely α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, β-mannosidase and β-glucosidase were extracted from tomato’s cell wall of the three species. Cell wall protein from fruits pericarp was extracted and compared among the three cultivars at the following stages; 14 days post anthesis (14DPA) fruit; 21 days post anthesis (21DPA), turning (breaker), red and over ripe. When glycolytic activities were also compared among these cultivars at the precited development stages, gross variations were noticed from stage to stage and also from species to species in accordance with the fruit firmness status. Interestingly, VilB cultivar, the firmer among the other two, though possessed the highest total protein content, exhibited the lowest enzymatic activities. Taken together, these results may therefore allow us to conclude that studies of glycolytic activities in a single tomato cultivar cannot be generalized to all species. On the other hand, relating fruit development to glycosidase activities should logically be coupled to these enzymes from cell wall compartment. PMID:23961187

  17. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cell wall peroxidase are cooperatively involved in the extensive formation of ferulate network in cell walls of developing rice shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki

    2012-02-15

    The relationship between the formation of cell wall-bound ferulic acid (FA) and diferulic acid (DFA) and the change in activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cell wall-bound peroxidase (CW-PRX) was studied in rice shoots. The length and the fresh mass of shoots increased during the growth period from day 4 to 6, while coleoptiles ceased elongation growth on day 5. The amounts of FA and DFA isomers as well as cell wall polysaccharides continued to increase during the whole period. The activities of PAL and CW-PRX greatly increased in the same manner during the period. There were close correlations between the PAL activity and ferulate content or between the CW-PRX activity and DFA content. The expression levels of investigated genes for PAL and putative CW-PRX showed good accordance with the activities of these enzymes. These results suggest that increases in PAL and CW-PRX activities are cooperatively involved in the formation of ferulate network in cell walls of rice shoots and that investigated genes may be, at least in part, associated with the enzyme activities. The substantial increase in such network probably causes the maturation of cell walls and thus the cessation of elongation growth of coleoptiles.

  18. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N Dygalo

    Full Text Available Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  19. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygalo, Nikolay N; Shemenkova, Tatjana V; Kalinina, Tatjana S; Shishkina, Galina T

    2014-01-01

    Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  20. Development of a Rear Wall for the KATRIN Rear Section and investigation of tritium compatibility of Rear Section components

    OpenAIRE

    Schönung, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment is to improve the current neutrino mass sensitivity limit to 0.2 eV/c2 (90%C.L.). For that, the required proof of suitability of several components for a low pressure tritium atmosphere is furnished. In addition, an optical design for an e-gun is developed and the resulting electron rate is calculated. Also, a final Rear Wall with temporally stable and homogeneous work function is developed and characterized within the scope of this thesis.

  1. Exposure to perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA accelerates insulitis development in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoralkylated substances (PFAS are classified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances and are widespread environmental contaminants. Humans are exposed through food, drinking water and air. We have previously reported that bisphenol A accelerates spontaneous diabetes development in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and observed in the present study that perfluoroundecanoic acid, PFUnDA, increased insulitis development, a prerequisite for diabetes development in NOD mice. We exposed NOD mice to PFUnDA in drinking water (3, 30 and 300 μg/l at mating, during gestation and lactation and until 30 weeks of age. After 300 μg/l PFUnDA exposure, we report (i increased pancreatic insulitis, (ii increased number of apoptotic cells in pancreatic islets prior to insulitis and (iii decreased phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages. There was also a trend of decreased number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreatic islets prior to insulitis after exposure to 300 μg/l, and altered cytokine secretion in activated splenocytes after exposure to 3 μg/l PFUnDA. Although insulitis is a prerequisite for autoimmune diabetes, the accelerated insulitis was not associated with accelerated diabetes development. Instead, the incidence of diabetes tended to be reduced in the animals exposed to 3 and 30 μg/l PFUnDA, suggesting a non-monotonic dose response. The effects of PFUnDA exposure on increased apoptosis in pancreas and reduced macrophage function as well as accelerated insulitis development in NOD mice, may also be relevant for human insulitis. Further observational autoimmune diabetes clinical cohort studies and animal experiments for PFUnDA as well as other PFASs are therefore encouraged.

  2. Development of an Emergency Locking Unit for a Belt-In-Seat (BIS System Using a MEMS Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Baek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emergency locking unit (ELU for a seat belt retractor which is mounted on the back frame of a vehicle seat. The proposed unit uses a recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor and solenoid mechanism. The seat has an upper frame supported to tilt on a lower frame. The retractor in belt in seat (BIS system is supported by the upper frame. The proposed recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor comprises orientation means for maintaining a predetermined orientation of emergency relative to the lower frame independently of the force of gravity when the upper frame tilts on the lower frame. Experimental results show that the developed recliner sensor unit operates effectively with respect to rollover angles. Thus, the developed unit will have a considerable potential to offer a new design concept in BIS system.

  3. Accelerating System Development for the Food Chain: A Portfolio of over 30 Projects, Aiming at Impact and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sundmaeker

    2016-08-01

    The FIWARE initiative is accelerating startups and supporting SME type technology developers that are realising solutions for real world business cases, which are serving as reference customers and test cases to assure an end-user acceptance and valid business models. This paper discusses the main food chain related topics and innovation potentials that are addressed as well as outlines the related methodological and technological approaches that are used to facilitate the realisation of impact and growth for commercial exploitation.

  4. Progress towards the development of transient ram accelerator simulation as part of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N.; York, B. J.; Dash, S. M.; Drabczuk, R.; Rolader, G. E.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced CFD simulation capability in support of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate's ram accelerator research initiative. The state-of-the-art CRAFT computer code has been specialized for high fidelity, transient ram accelerator simulations via inclusion of generalized dynamic gridding, solution adaptive grid clustering, high pressure thermochemistry, etc. Selected ram accelerator simulations are presented which serve to exhibit the CRAFT code's capabilities and identify some of the principal research/design issues.

  5. Structural alteration of cell wall pectins accompanies pea development in response to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laëtitia; Domon, Jean-Marc; Klimek, John F; Fournet, Françoise; Sellier, Hélène; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Carpita, Nicholas C; Rayon, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) cell wall metabolism in response to chilling was investigated in a frost-sensitive genotype 'Terese' and a frost-tolerant genotype 'Champagne'. Cell walls isolated from stipules of cold acclimated and non-acclimated plants showed that cold temperatures induce changes in polymers containing xylose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid residues. In the tolerant cultivar Champagne, acclimation is accompanied by increases in homogalacturonan, xylogalacturonan and highly branched Rhamnogalacturonan I with branched and unbranched (1→5)-α-arabinans and (1→4)-β-galactans. In contrast, the sensitive cultivar Terese accumulates substantial amounts of (1→4)-β-xylans and glucuronoxylan, but not the pectins. Greater JIM7 labeling was observed in Champagne compared to Terese, indicating that cold acclimation also induces an increase in the degree of methylesterification of pectins. Significant decrease in polygalacturonase activities in both genotypes were observed at the end of cold acclimation. These data indicate a role for esterified pectins in cold tolerance. The possible functions for pectins and their associated arabinans and galactans in cold acclimation are discussed.

  6. Calpain-Mediated Positional Information Directs Cell Wall Orientation to Sustain Plant Stem Cell Activity, Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhe; Brown, Roy C; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn

    2015-09-01

    Eukaryotic development and stem cell control depend on the integration of cell positional sensing with cell cycle control and cell wall positioning, yet few factors that directly link these events are known. The DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 (DEK1) gene encoding the unique plant calpain protein is fundamental for development and growth, being essential to confer and maintain epidermal cell identity that allows development beyond the globular embryo stage. We show that DEK1 expression is highest in the actively dividing cells of seeds, meristems and vasculature. We further show that eliminating Arabidopsis DEK1 function leads to changes in developmental cues from the first zygotic division onward, altered microtubule patterns and misshapen cells, resulting in early embryo abortion. Expression of the embryonic marker genes WOX2, ATML1, PIN4, WUS and STM, related to axis organization, cell identity and meristem functions, is also altered in dek1 embryos. By monitoring cell layer-specific DEK1 down-regulation, we show that L1- and 35S-induced down-regulation mainly affects stem cell functions, causing severe shoot apical meristem phenotypes. These results are consistent with a requirement for DEK1 to direct layer-specific cellular activities and set downstream developmental cues. Our data suggest that DEK1 may anchor cell wall positions and control cell division and differentiation, thereby balancing the plant's requirement to maintain totipotent stem cell reservoirs while simultaneously directing growth and organ formation. A role for DEK1 in regulating microtubule-orchestrated cell wall orientation during cell division can explain its effects on embryonic development, and suggests a more general function for calpains in microtubule organization in eukaryotic cells.

  7. Recent Developments on ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saveliev, Y M; Buckley, R K; Buckley, S R; Clarke, J A; Corlett, P A; Dunning, D J; Goulden, A R; Hill, S F; Jackson, F; Jamison, S P; Jones, J K; Jones, L B; Leonard, S; McIntosh, P A; McKenzie, J W; Middleman, K J; Militsyn, B L; Moss, A J; Muratori, B D; Orrett, J F; Pattalwar, S M; Phillips, P J; Scott, D J; Seddon, E A; Shepherd, B.J.A.; Smith, S L; Thompson, N; Wheelhouse, A E; Williams, P H; Harrison, P; Holder, D J; Holder, G M; Schofield, A L; Weightman, P; Williams, R L; Laundry, D; Powers, T; Priebe, G

    2010-05-01

    Progress made in ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) commissioning and a summary of the latest experimental results are presented in this paper. After an extensive work on beam loading effects in SC RF linac (booster) and linac cavities conditioning, ALICE can now operate in full energy recovery mode at the bunch charge of 40pC, the beam energy of 30MeV and train lengths of up to 100us. This improved operation of the machine resulted in generation of coherently enhanced broadband THz radiation with the energy of several tens of uJ per pulse and in successful demonstration of the Compton Backscattering x-ray source experiment. The next steps in the ALICE scientific programme are commissioning of the IR FEL and start of the research on the first non-scaling FFAG accelerator EMMA. Results from both projects will be also reported.

  8. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  9. Planning the research and development necessary for accelerator transmutation of waste, leading to integrated proof of performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Finck, P.; Pitcher, E.; Khalil, H.; Todosow, M.; Hill, R.; Van Tuyle, G.; Laidler, J.; Crawford, D.; Thomas, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) Plan for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program has been developed for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE/NE) to serve as a focus and progressional guide in developing critical transmutation technologies. It is intended that the Plan will serve as a logical reference considering all elements of an integrated accelerator-driven transmutation system, and will maximize the use of resources by identifying and prioritizing research, design, development and trade activities. The R and D Plan provides a structured framework for identifying and prioritizing activities leading to technically-justifiable integrated Proof of Performance testing within ten years and ultimate demonstration of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The Plan builds from the decision objectives specified for ATW, utilizes informational input from the ATW Roadmap and programmatic System Point Design efforts, and employs the knowledge and expertise provided by professionals familiar with ATW technologies. With the firm intent of understanding what, why and when information is needed, including critical interfaces, the Plan then develops a progressional strategy for developing ATW technologies with the use of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale. The TRL approach is first used to develop a comprehensive, yet generic, listing of experimental, analytical and trade study activities critical to developing ATW technologies. Technology-specific and concept-specific aspects are then laid over the generic mapping to gage readiness levels. Prioritization criteria for reducing technical uncertainty, providing information to decision points, and levering off of international collaborations are then applied to focus analytical, experimental and trade activities. (author)

  10. Development and analysis of a metal-fueled accelerator-driven burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lypsch, F. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Juelich GmbH (Germany); Hill, R.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the safety characteristics of an accelerator driven metal fueled fast system to a critical core on a consistent basis to determine how these characteristics are affected solely by subcritically of the system. To accomplish this an accelerator proton beam/tungsten neutron source model is surrounded by a subcritical blanket using metallic fuel and sodium as coolant. The consequences of typical accident transients, namely unprotected transient overpower (TOP), loss of heat sink (LOHS), and loss of flow (LOP) were calculated for the hybrid system and compared to corresponding results for a metal-fueled fast reactor. Results indicate that the subcritical system exhibits superior performance for TOP (reactivity-induced) transits; however, only in the critical system are reactivity feedbacks able to cause passive shutdown in the LOHS ad LOP events. Therefore, for a full spectrum of accident initiators considered, the overall safety behavior of accelerator-driven metal-fueled systems can neither be concluded to be worse nor to be better than advanced reactor designs which rely on passive safety features.

  11. Development and analysis of a metal-fueled accelerator-driven burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lypsch, F.; Hill, R. N.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the safety characteristics of an accelerator driven metal-fueled fast system to a critical core on a consistent basis to determine how these characteristics are affected solely by subcriticality of the system. To accomplish this, an accelerator proton beam/tungsten neutron source model is surrounded by a subcritical blanket using metallic fuel and sodium as coolant. The consequences of typical accident transients, namely unprotected transient overpower (TOP), loss of heat sink (LOHS), and loss of flow (LOF) were calculated for the hybrid system and compared to corresponding results for a metal-fueled fast reactor. Results indicate that the subcritical system exhibits superior performance for TOP (reactivity-induced) transients; however, only in the critical system are reactivity feedbacks able to cause passive shutdown in the LOHS and LOF events. Therefore, for a full spectrum of accident initiators considered, the overall safety behavior of accelerator-driven metal-fueled systems can neither be concluded to be worse nor to be better than advanced reactor designs which rely on passive safety features.

  12. Development of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced monetite bionanocomposite cements for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujeni, Nariman Mansoori; Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J F; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we present results of our research on biodegradable monetite (DCPA, CaHPO4) cement with surface-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mMWCNTs) as potential bone defect repair material. The cement pastes showed desirable handling properties and possessed a suitable setting time for use in surgical setting. The incorporation of mMWCNTs shortened the setting time of DCPA and increased the compressive strength of DCPA cement from 11.09±1.85 MPa to 21.56±2.47 MPa. The cytocompatibility of the materials was investigated in vitro using the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. An increase of cell numbers was observed on both DCPA and DCPA-mMWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results also revealed an obvious cell growth on the surface of the cements. Based on these results, DCPA-mMWCNTs composite cements can be considered as potential bone defect repair materials.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CALCULATING MODEL APPLICABLE FOR CYLINDER WALL DYNAMIC HEAT TRANSFER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Minjun; SHI Tielin

    2007-01-01

    In the calculation of submarine air conditioning load of the early stage, the obtained heat is regarded as cooling load. The confusion of the two words causing the cooling load figured out is abnormally high, and the change of air conditioning cooling load can not be indicated. In accordance with submarine structure and heat transfer characteristics of its inner components, Laplace transformation to heat conduction differential equation of cylinder wall is carried out. The dynamic calculation of submarine conditioning load based on this model is also conducted, and the results of calculation are compared with those of static cooling load calculation. It is concluded that the dynamic cooling load calculation methods can illustrate the change of submarine air conditioning cooling load more accurate than the static one.

  14. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A.J.

    2014-01-01

    transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different...... developmental stages were microscopically examined to study the phenotype in more detail. Scanning electron microscopy of flowers showed collapsed pollen grains in mature anthers and in earlier stages cytoplasmic protrusions at the site of the of kin pore, eventually leading to bursting of the pollen grain...... and leaking of the cytoplasm. This phenomenon is only observed after the microspores are released and the tapetum starts to degenerate. Timing of the phenotype indicates a role for pectic arabinan side chains during remodelling of the cell wall when the pollen grain is maturing and dehydrating....

  15. Development of micro engine oil condition sensor using multi-wall carbon nanotube films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dae Seok; Jung-Ho Pak, James; Kyeong Kim, Jai

    2007-03-01

    A new interdigit-type micro oil condition sensor was designed and fabricated for monitoring the deterioration of lubricating and insulating oils. The designed sensor operates based on the change of the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. In order to improve sensor performance, an oil condition sensor was fabricated using MEMS technology and multi-wall carbon nanotube film. The experiment was performed with automobile engine oils with the same brand and quality so as to ensure measurement reliability. Capacitance changes were measured according to increasing mileage and the sensors' performance was improved. These results show that the proposed sensor could measure the degree of oil deterioration with a high sensitivity and it is applicable to other lubricating systems as well as insulating systems.

  16. Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels. Fourth quarter technical progress report for period ending September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Progress in developing an automated welding process for the field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels is reported. Plans for the demonstration facility, for nondestructive testing, and for the procurement of materials are discussed. (LCL)

  17. Fractal derivative multi-scale model of fluid particle transverse accelerations in fully developed turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Tsallis distribution and the stretched exponential distribution were successfully used to fit the experimental data of turbulence particle acceleration published in Nature (2001), which manifested a clear departure from the normal distribution. These studies, however, fall short of a clear physical mechanism behind the statistical phenomenological description. In this study, we propose a multi- scale diffusion model which considers both normal diffusion in molecular-scale and anomalous diffu- sion in vortex-scale, and the latter is described by a novel fractal derivative modeling approach. This multi-scale model gives rise to a new probability density function which fits experimental data very well.

  18. Fractal derivative multi-scale model of fluid particle transverse accelerations in fully developed turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN HongGuang; CHEN Wen

    2009-01-01

    The Tsallis distribution and the stretched exponential distribution were successfully used to fit the experimental data of turbulence particle acceleration published in Nature (2001), which manifested a clear departure from the normal distribution. These studies, however, fall short of a clear physical mechanism behind the statistical phenomenological description. In this study, we propose a multi-scale diffusion model which considers both normal diffusion in molecular-scale and anomalous diffu-sion in vortex-scale, and the latter is described by a novel fractal derivative modeling approach. This multi-scale model gives rise to a new probability density function which fits experimental data very well.

  19. Accelerator Technology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  20. A study on wall surface mobile robots. Development of moving mechanism for crawler-type wall surface mobile robots with vacuum pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Arai, Fumihito; Matsuura, Hideo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; Nishibori, Kenji; Sakauchi, Hitoshi; Yoshii, Naohito

    1995-06-01

    We study the moving mechanism of a wall surface mobile robot for hazard maintenance under gravity. This robot can attach itself to a vertical wall or ceiling by vacuum pads. The vacuum pads are set on the crawler so as to enable rapid mobility on the surface. Each vacuum pad is simply designed. There is a mechanical valve set at each sucker, and every sucker is connected to an air duct inside the crawler belt. The valve opens mechanically when the sucker touches the surface, and the sucker clings to the surface. By this mechanism, the sucking control system becomes simple. The vacuum pad is made of flexible material in order to ensure sufficient sucking force even when the surface is rough. This robot also has an automatic pushing mechanism for the suckers and distribution mechanism. We designed, fabricated and tested the prototype. In the experiment, this robot succeeded in smoothly and rapidly climbing the surface of vertical walls and ceilings having both rough and smooth finishes. (author).

  1. Progress on laser plasma accelerator development using transverselyand longitudinally shaped plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, Wim P.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Schroeder, C.B.; Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A.J.; Panasenko, D.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Plateau, G.R.; Lin, C.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Cary, J.R.

    2009-03-31

    A summary of progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is given on: (1) experiments on down-ramp injection; (2) experiments on acceleration in capillary discharge plasma channels; and (3) simulations of a staged laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). Control of trapping in a LWFA using plasma density down-ramps produced electron bunches with absolute longitudinal and transverse momentum spreads more than ten times lower than in previous experiments (0.17 and 0.02 MeV Ic FWHM, respectively) and with central momenta of 0.76 +- 0.02 MeV Ic, stable over a week of operation. Experiments were also carried out using a 40 TW laser interacting with a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide. For a 15 mm long, 200 mu m diameter capillary, quasi-monoenergetic bunches up to 300 MeV were observed. By detuning discharge delay from optimum guiding performance, self-trapping was found to be stabilized. For a 33 mm long, 300 mu m capillary, a parameter regime with high energy bunches, up to 1 Ge V, was found. In this regime, peak electron energy was correlated with the amount of trapped charge. Simulations show that bunches produced on a down-ramn and iniected into a channel-guided LWFA can produce stable beams with 0.2 MeV Ic-class momentum spread at high energies.

  2. Proof-of-concept development of PXAMS (projectile x-ray accelerator mass spectrometry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, I.D.; Roberts, M.L.; McAninch, J.E.; Bench, G.S.

    1996-03-01

    Prior to the current work, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was limited to a set of {approximately}8--10 isotopes. This limitation is caused primarily by the inability to discriminate against stable atomic isobars. An analysis scheme that combines the isotopic sensitivity of AMS with similar isobar selectivity would open a large new class of isotope applications. This project was undertaken to explore the use of characteristic x rays as a method for the detection and identification of ions,and to allow the post-spectrometer rejection of isobaric interferences for isotopes previously inaccessible to AMS. During the second half of FY94 (with Advanced Concepts funding from the Office of Non-Proliferation and National Security), we examined the feasability of this technique, which we are referring to as PXAMS (Projectile X ray AMS), to the detection of several isotopes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In our first exploratory work, we measured the x ray yield vs energy for {sup 80}Se ions stopped in a thick Y target. These results, demonstrated that useful detection efficiencies could be obtained for Se ions at energies accessible with our accelerator, and that the count rate from target x rays is small compared to the Se K{alpha} rate. We followed these measurements with a survey of x ray yields for Z = 14-46.

  3. Development and characterization of a graphite-walled ionization chamber as a reference dosimeter for 60Co beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Ana P.; Neves, Lucio P.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2014-11-01

    A graphite-walled ionization chamber with a sensitive volume of 6.4 cm3 was developed at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN (LCI) to determine the air kerma rate of a 60Co source. This new prototype was developed to be a simple chamber, without significant nongraphite components and with a simple set-up, which allows the determination of its various required correction factors by Monte Carlo simulations. This new ionization chamber was characterized according to the IEC 60731 standard, and all results were obtained within its limits. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were undertaken to obtain the correction factors involved with the air kerma determination. The air kerma rate obtained with the graphite-walled ionization chamber was compared with that from the reference dosimeter at the LCI, a PTW ionization chamber (model TN30002). The results obtained showed good agreement within the statistical uncertainties. A graphite ionization chamber was assembled and characterized as a reference dosimeter. The characterization test results were within recommended limits. Monte Carlo simulations were undertaken to obtain the correction factors. The air kerma rate of a 60Co source was obtained with satisfactory results.

  4. Opposition control with arrayed actuators in the near-wall region of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamies, Mathieu [ONERA Applied Aerodynamic Department, 8, rue des Vertugadins, F-92200 Meudon (France); Garnier, Eric, E-mail: eric.garnier@onera.fr [ONERA Applied Aerodynamic Department, 8, rue des Vertugadins, F-92200 Meudon (France); Merlen, Alain [Institut d' electronique, microelectronique et nanotechnologie, CNRS, Universite Lille 1 (France); Sagaut, Pierre [IJLRA/UPMC, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 5 (France)

    2011-06-15

    Opposition control is known as an efficient mean to reduce drag in numerical simulations. However, even if the actuation principle follows simple spatio-temporal scales of turbulent motion, practical implementation of this concept results in very heavy technological constraints. Before going further in technological developments, it seems reasonable to assess numerically the efficiency of possible control devices by improving significantly the realism of simulations. In this study, the performance of an array of wall deforming actuators is investigated. The realistic wall deformations are allowed for by means of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique. The Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) has been performed at friction Reynolds number of 368 on a spatially developing boundary layer configuration. The result analysis including averaging conditioned to actuator location and position shows that even if the actuator functioning in opposition control is validated, the drag reduction is not significant. The gains associated with an ideal opposition control are completely annihilated when a realistic actuator description is included in the simulation.

  5. Dielectric assist accelerating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    A higher-order TM02 n mode accelerating structure is proposed based on a novel concept of dielectric loaded rf cavities. This accelerating structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. Unlike conventional dielectric loaded accelerating structures, most of the rf power is stored in the vacuum space near the beam axis, leading to a significant reduction of the wall loss, much lower than that of conventional normal-conducting linac structures. This allows us to realize an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature. A simulation of a 5 cell prototype design with an existing alumina ceramic indicates an unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode over 120 000 and a shunt impedance exceeding 650 M Ω /m at room temperature.

  6. Using combinatorial bioinformatics methods to analyze annual perspective changes of influenza viruses and to accelerate development of effective vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard World Health Organization procedure for vaccine development has provided a guideline for influenza viruses, but no systematic operational model. We recently designed a systemic analysis method to evaluate annual perspective sequence changes of influenza virus strains. We applied dnaml of PHYLIP 3.69, developed by Joseph Felsenstein of Washington University, and ClustalX2, developed by Larkin et al, for calculating, comparing, and localizing the most plausible vaccine epitopes. This study identified the changes in biological sequences and associated alignment alterations, which would ultimately affect epitope structures, as well as the plausible hidden features to search for the most conserved and effective epitopes for vaccine development. Addition our newly designed systemic analysis method to supplement the WHO guidelines could accelerate the development of urgently needed vaccines that might concurrently combat several strains of viruses within a shorter period.

  7. Development of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced monetite bionanocomposite cements for orthopedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroujeni, Nariman Mansoori [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Zhou, Huan, E-mail: Huan.Zhou@Rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we present results of our research on biodegradable monetite (DCPA, CaHPO{sub 4}) cement with surface-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mMWCNTs) as potential bone defect repair material. The cement pastes showed desirable handling properties and possessed a suitable setting time for use in surgical setting. The incorporation of mMWCNTs shortened the setting time of DCPA and increased the compressive strength of DCPA cement from 11.09 ± 1.85 MPa to 21.56 ± 2.47 MPa. The cytocompatibility of the materials was investigated in vitro using the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. An increase of cell numbers was observed on both DCPA and DCPA-mMWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results also revealed an obvious cell growth on the surface of the cements. Based on these results, DCPA-mMWCNTs composite cements can be considered as potential bone defect repair materials. - Highlights: • A monetite bone cement for orthopedic applications is reported. • Incorporation of MWCNTs into monetite bone cement is discussed. • Surface functionalized MWCNTs can improve the mechanical strength of monetite cement. • MWCNTs have no impacts on the cytocompatibility of monetite cements.

  8. Developing a new methodology to characterize in vivo the passive mechanical behavior of abdominal wall on an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Allué, R; Montiel, J M M; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B

    2015-11-01

    The most common surgical repair of abdominal wall hernia goes through implanting a mesh that substitutes the abdominal muscle/fascia while it is healing. To reduce the risk of relapse or possible complications, this mesh needs to mimic the mechanical behavior of the muscle/fascia, which nowadays is not fully determined. The aim of this work is to develop a methodology to characterize in vivo the passive mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall. For that, New Zealand rabbits were subjected to pneumoperitoneum tests, taking the inner pressure from 0 mmHg to 12 mmHg, values similar to those used in human laparoscopies. Animals treated were divided into two groups: healthy and herniated animals with a surgical mesh (polypropylene Surgipro(TM) Covidien) previously implanted. All experiments were recorded by a stereo rig composed of two synchronized cameras. During the postprocessing of the images, several points over the abdominal surface were tracked and their coordinates extracted for different levels of internal pressure. Starting from that, a three dimensional model of the abdominal wall was reconstructed. Pressure-displacement curves, radii of curvature and strain fields were also analysed. During the experiments, animals tissue mostly deformed during the first levels of pressure, showing the noticeable hyperelastic passive behavior of abdominal muscles. Comparison between healthy and herniated specimen displayed a strong stiffening for herniated animals in the zone where the high density mesh was situated. Cameras were able to discern this change, so this method can be used to measure the possible effect of other meshes.

  9. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  10. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  11. Numerical Investigation and Experimental Reproduction of Fermi Acceleration in Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M.; Zhai, C.

    2015-12-01

    Fermi acceleration is widely accepted as the mechanism to explain power law of cosmic ray spectrum. Now this mechanism has been developed to first order Fermi acceleration and second order Fermi acceleration. In first order Fermi acceleration, also known as diffusive shock acceleration, particles are confined around the shock through scattering and accelerated by repeatedly crossing shock front. In second order Fermi acceleration, particles gain energy through statistical collisions with interstellar clouds. In this proposed work, we plan to carefully study these two kinds of acceleration numerically and experimentally. We first consider a single relativistic particle and investigate how it gains energy in Fermi-Ulam model and shock wave acceleration model respectively. We investigate collective behavior of particles with different kinds of wall-oscillation functions and try to find an optimal one in terms of efficiency of acceleration. Then, we plan to go further and consider a group of particles statistically, during which we borrow the correct generalization of Maxwell's velocity distribution in special relativity and compare the results with those in cases where we simply use Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. To this end, we try to provide a scheme to build an accelerator applying both laser technology and mirror effect in Laboratory to reproduce Fermi acceleration, which might be a promising source to obtain high energy particles and further study the mechanism of cosmic rays acceleration.

  12. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  13. AIRIX: an induction accelerator facility developed at CEA for flash radiography in detonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavailler, Claude

    1999-06-01

    AIRIX is an induction linear accelerator which will be used for flash radiography in CEA/DAM. Designed to produce an X-ray dose of more than 500 Rads at 1 meter with an X-ray focal spot size diameter of less than 2 mm (LANL-CEA DAM definition), this facility consists in a 4 MeV/3.5 kA pulsed electron injector and 16 MeV induction accelerator powered by 32 high voltage generators. A prototype of this accelerator, called PIVAIR, has been studied and realized in CEA CESTA near Bordeaux. PIVAIR is a validation step for AIRIX at 8 MeV. It includes an injector (4 MeV, 3.5 kA, 60 ns) and 16 inductor cells supplied by 8 high voltage generators (250 kV, 70 ns). Two different technologies of induction cells have been tested (rexolite insulator or ferrite under vacuum). We have chosen ferrite under vacuum cells technology after comparison of results on beam transport and reliability tests. A focusing experiment at 7.2 MeV of the electron beam as been achieved during summer 1997. We have begun to produce X-rays in October 1997. A dose level of 50 Rad at 1 meter has been achieved with an X-ray spot size diameter of 3.5 to 4 mm (LANL-CEA DAM definition). Static flash radiography of very dense object have been achieved from November 97 until February 98. We have been able to test in situ new kinds of very high sensitive X- ray detectors and to check they had reached our very ambitious goals: (1) quantum efficiency at 5 MeV greater than 50% instead of 1% for luminous screens and film; (2) sensitivity less than 10 (mu) Rad (100 time more sensitive than radiographic luminous screens and films); (3) dynamic range greater than 100; (4) resolution less than 2 mm. We will present in this communication brand new kinds of detection systems, called high stopping power detectors, such as: (1) (gamma) camera with segmented thick crystal of BGO and MCP image intensifier; (2) multistep parallel plate avalanche chamber; (3) pixellized CdTe MeV photoconductor matrix. AIRIX accelerator is being

  14. Be target development for the accelerator-based SPES-BNCT facility at INFN Legnaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J; Colautti, P; Fabritsiev, S; Gervash, A; Giniyatulin, R; Lomasov, V N; Makhankov, A; Mazul, I; Pisent, A; Pokrovsky, A; Rumyantsev, M; Tanchuk, V; Tecchio, L

    2009-07-01

    An accelerator-driven thermal neutron source for BNCT, planned to be installed at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), is in progress in the framework of the SPES (selective production of exotic species) research program. The most critical element of such a facility is the construction of a reliable neutron converter based on the (9)Be(p,xn) nuclear reaction, working at a high power level (150 kW) and 5 MeV beam energy, due to the SPES driver constraints. Two original, beryllium-based, target concepts have been designed for such a purpose. The present status of the neutron converter, as well as the test results performed so far on prototypes constructed, is reported here.

  15. Asparagus Spears as a Model to Study Heteroxylan Biosynthesis during Secondary Wall Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zeng, Wei; Wu, Aimin; Picard, Kelsey; Lampugnani, Edwin R; Cheetamun, Roshan; Beahan, Cherie; Cassin, Andrew; Lonsdale, Andrew; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a commercially important crop species utilized for its excellent source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. However, after harvest the tissue hardens and its quality rapidly deteriorates because spear cell walls become rigidified due to lignification and substantial increases in heteroxylan content. This latter observation prompted us to investigate the in vitro xylan xylosyltransferase (XylT) activity in asparagus. The current model system for studying heteroxylan biosynthesis, Arabidopsis, whilst a powerful genetic system, displays relatively low xylan XylT activity in in vitro microsomal preparations compared with garden asparagus therefore hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanism(s) of heteroxylan assembly. Here, we analyzed physiological and biochemical changes of garden asparagus spears stored at 4 °C after harvest and detected a high level of xylan XylT activity that accounts for this increased heteroxylan. The xylan XylT catalytic activity is at least thirteen-fold higher than that reported for previously published species, including Arabidopsis and grasses. A biochemical assay was optimized and up to seven successive Xyl residues were incorporated to extend the xylotetraose (Xyl4) acceptor backbone. To further elucidate the xylan biosynthesis mechanism, we used RNA-seq to generate an Asparagus reference transcriptome and identified five putative xylan biosynthetic genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9-L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14_A, AoIRX14_B) with AoIRX9 having an expression profile that is distinct from the other genes. We propose that Asparagus provides an ideal biochemical system to investigate the biochemical aspects of heteroxylan biosynthesis and also offers the additional benefit of being able to study the lignification process during plant stem maturation.

  16. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  17. Asparagus Spears as a Model to Study Heteroxylan Biosynthesis during Secondary Wall Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Song

    Full Text Available Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. is a commercially important crop species utilized for its excellent source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. However, after harvest the tissue hardens and its quality rapidly deteriorates because spear cell walls become rigidified due to lignification and substantial increases in heteroxylan content. This latter observation prompted us to investigate the in vitro xylan xylosyltransferase (XylT activity in asparagus. The current model system for studying heteroxylan biosynthesis, Arabidopsis, whilst a powerful genetic system, displays relatively low xylan XylT activity in in vitro microsomal preparations compared with garden asparagus therefore hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanism(s of heteroxylan assembly. Here, we analyzed physiological and biochemical changes of garden asparagus spears stored at 4 °C after harvest and detected a high level of xylan XylT activity that accounts for this increased heteroxylan. The xylan XylT catalytic activity is at least thirteen-fold higher than that reported for previously published species, including Arabidopsis and grasses. A biochemical assay was optimized and up to seven successive Xyl residues were incorporated to extend the xylotetraose (Xyl4 acceptor backbone. To further elucidate the xylan biosynthesis mechanism, we used RNA-seq to generate an Asparagus reference transcriptome and identified five putative xylan biosynthetic genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9-L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14_A, AoIRX14_B with AoIRX9 having an expression profile that is distinct from the other genes. We propose that Asparagus provides an ideal biochemical system to investigate the biochemical aspects of heteroxylan biosynthesis and also offers the additional benefit of being able to study the lignification process during plant stem maturation.

  18. A development of an accelerator board dedicated for multi-precision arithmetic operations and its application to Feynman loop integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Motoki, Shinji; Nakasato, Naohito; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Yuasa, Fukuko; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Atsushi; Makino, Junichiro

    2014-01-01

    Higher order corrections in perturbative quantum field theory are required for precise theoretical analysis to investigate new physics beyond the Standard Model. This indicates that we need to evaluate Feynman loop diagram with multi-loop integral which may require multi-precision calculation. We developed a dedicated accelerator system for multi-precision calculation (GRAPE9-MPX). We present performance results of our system for the case of Feynman two-loop box and three-loop selfenergy diagrams with multi-precision.

  19. Developing LBM Process Parameters for Ti-6Al-4V Thin Wall Structures and Determining the Corresponding Mechanical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Schaub, Adam; Karg, Michael; Lechner, Michael; Merklein, Marion; Schmidt, Michael

    The Laser Beam Melting (LBM) process technology within the family of Additive Manufacturing technology is characterized by its ability to fabricate fully dense 3D structures directly from micro-sized metal powder. With the current state of the art, Ti-6Al-4V has been processed using LBM machine systems constituting a laser with a beam diameter of about 100 μm. In order to fabricate structures with smaller wall thicknesses, processing of Ti-6Al-4V is attempted on the LBM machine system, Realizer SLM 50 consisting of a laser with a beam diameter 10 μm. The proposed paper presents the development of process parameters for fabricating fully dense Ti-6Al-4V 3D structures using the LBM machine system, Realizer SLM 50. Further experiments are carried out to determine the wall thickness and mechanical properties achievable using the selected process parameters. Analysis and scientific arguments are presented to explain the influence of building direction and heat treatment on mechanical properties.

  20. Analysis of the strain and stress distribution in the wall of the developing and mature rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, A; Greenwald, S E; Kane, T P; Moore, J E; Meister, J J

    1995-01-01

    The variation of wall stress distribution with age in the thoracic and abdominal aortas of normotensive rats was studied. Dimensions of the zero-stress configurations were measured at the ages of 4, 8, 12, 20, and 52 weeks. Using data from previously published inflation tests, the circumferential stress-strain relationship was obtained in each age group. The calculated stress distribution showed that the average circumferential stress remained practically constant after the age of 20 weeks. The circumferential stress at the innermost part of the arterial wall was greater than the stress at the outermost part, but the difference was maintained at a moderate level with adjustments in the zero-stress configuration. It is speculated that, after the age of 20 weeks, changes in arterial geometry and rheological properties tend to maintain a constant stress distribution under varying conditions of loading. This distribution was achieved by enhanced growth at the inner part of the media in comparison with the growth at its outer margins and suggests that during development and maturity, the growth of the aorta is modulated by circumferential stress.

  1. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  2. Upgrade of the MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) for nuclear diagnostics development for Omega, Z and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinenian, N; Manuel, M J-E; Zylstra, A B; Rosenberg, M; Waugh, C J; Rinderknecht, H G; Casey, D T; Sio, H; Ruszczynski, J K; Zhou, L; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Ruiz, C L; Leeper, R J

    2012-04-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) generates DD and D(3)He fusion products for the development of nuclear diagnostics for Omega, Z, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Significant improvements to the system in recent years are presented. Fusion reaction rates, as high as 10(7) s(-1) and 10(6) s(-1) for DD and D(3)He, respectively, are now well regulated with a new ion source and electronic gas control system. Charged fusion products are more accurately characterized, which allows for better calibration of existing nuclear diagnostics. In addition, in situ measurements of the on-target beam profile, made with a CCD camera, are used to determine the metrology of the fusion-product source for particle-counting applications. Finally, neutron diagnostics development has been facilitated by detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) modeling of neutrons in the accelerator target chamber, which is used to correct for scattering within the system. These recent improvements have resulted in a versatile platform, which continues to support the existing nuclear diagnostics while simultaneously facilitating the development of new diagnostics in aid of the National Ignition Campaign at the National Ignition Facility.

  3. An Lck-cre transgene accelerates autoantibody production and lupus development in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R K; Gould, K A

    2016-02-01

    Lupus is an autoimmune disease characterized by the development of antinuclear autoantibodies and immune complex-mediated tissue damage. T cells in lupus patients appear to undergo apoptosis at an increased rate, and this enhanced T cell apoptosis has been postulated to contribute to lupus pathogenesis by increasing autoantigen load. However, there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we show that an Lck-cre transgene, which increases T cell apoptosis as a result of T cell-specific expression of cre recombinase, accelerates the development of autoantibodies and nephritis in lupus-prone (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. Although the enhanced T cell apoptosis in Lck-cre transgenic mice resulted in an overall decrease in the relative abundance of splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the proportion of activated CD4(+) T cells was increased and no significant change was observed in the relative abundance of suppressive T cells. We postulate that the Lck-cre transgene promoted lupus by enhancing T cell apoptosis, which, in conjunction with the impaired clearance of apoptotic cells in lupus-prone mice, increased the nuclear antigen load and accelerated the development of anti-nuclear autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results also underscore the importance of including cre-only controls in studies using the cre-lox system.

  4. Three decades of development and achievements: the heavy vehicle simulator in accelerated pavement testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verhaeghe, Benoit MJA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available of national and regional pavement design standards and guidelines, the development of material specifications and guidelines, the development of human resources, capacity building in the road construction industry, the development of innovative products...

  5. Development and optimization of a beam shaper device for a mobile dedicated IOERT accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriani, Antonella; Iaccarino, Giuseppe; Felici, Giuseppe; Ciccotelli, Alessia; Pinnaro, Paola; Giordano, Carolina; Benassi, Marcello; D' Andrea, Marco; Bellesi, Luca; Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy); Sordina S.p.A Technical Division, Rome 00126 (Italy); Radiation Oncology Department, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy); Medical Physics Department, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei tumori, 47014 Meldola (Italy); Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and build a prototype beam shaper to be used on a dedicated mobile accelerator that protects organs at risk within the radiation field and conforms the beam to the target geometry during intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT). A dosimetric characterization of the beam shaper device was performed based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, as well as experimental data, at different energies, field sizes, and source to skin distances. Methods: A mobile light intraoperative accelerator (LIAC{sup Registered-Sign }, Sordina, Italy) was used. The design of the beam shaper prototype was based on MC simulations (BEAMnrc/OMEGA and DOSXYZnrc code) for a selection of materials and thicknesses, as well as for dosimetric characterization. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and profile measurements were performed using a p-type silicon diode and a commercial water phantom, while output factors were measured using a PinPoint ion chamber in a PMMA phantom. Planar doses in planes of interest were carried out using radiochromic films (Gafchromic{sup TM} EBT and EBT2) in PMMA and in a Solid Water{sup Registered-Sign} phantom. Several experimental set-ups were investigated with the beam shaper device fixed on the top of the phantom, varying both the short side of the rectangular field and the air gap between the device and the phantom surface, simulating the clinical situation. The output factors (OFs) were determined using different geometrical set-ups and energies. Results: The beam shaper prototype consists of four blades sliding alongside each other and mounted on a special support at the end of the 10 cm diameter PMMA circular applicator. Each blade is made of an upper layer of 2.6 cm of Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} and a lower layer of 8 mm of stainless steel. All rectangles inscribed in a 5 cm diameter can be achieved in addition to any 'squircle-shaped' field. When one side of the rectangular field is held constant and the second

  6. Development and optimization of a beam shaper device for a mobile dedicated IOERT accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriani, Antonella; Iaccarino, Giuseppe; Felici, Giuseppe; Ciccotelli, Alessia; Pinnaro, Paola; Giordano, Carolina; Benassi, Marcello; D'Andrea, Marco; Bellesi, Luca; Strigari, Lidia

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design and build a prototype beam shaper to be used on a dedicated mobile accelerator that protects organs at risk within the radiation field and conforms the beam to the target geometry during intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT). A dosimetric characterization of the beam shaper device was performed based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, as well as experimental data, at different energies, field sizes, and source to skin distances. A mobile light intraoperative accelerator (LIAC(®), Sordina, Italy) was used. The design of the beam shaper prototype was based on MC simulations (BEAMnrc∕OMEGA and DOSXYZnrc code) for a selection of materials and thicknesses, as well as for dosimetric characterization. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and profile measurements were performed using a p-type silicon diode and a commercial water phantom, while output factors were measured using a PinPoint ion chamber in a PMMA phantom. Planar doses in planes of interest were carried out using radiochromic films (Gafchromic(TM) EBT and EBT2) in PMMA and in a Solid Water(®) phantom. Several experimental set-ups were investigated with the beam shaper device fixed on the top of the phantom, varying both the short side of the rectangular field and the air gap between the device and the phantom surface, simulating the clinical situation. The output factors (OFs) were determined using different geometrical set-ups and energies. The beam shaper prototype consists of four blades sliding alongside each other and mounted on a special support at the end of the 10 cm diameter PMMA circular applicator. Each blade is made of an upper layer of 2.6 cm of Teflon(®) and a lower layer of 8 mm of stainless steel. All rectangles inscribed in a 5 cm diameter can be achieved in addition to any "squircle-shaped" field. When one side of the rectangular field is held constant and the second side is reduced, both R(50) and R(max) move towards the phantom surface. Comparing the

  7. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  8. Development of a Compton Camera for Online Range Monitoring of Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams via Prompt-Gamma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirolf P.G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently large efforts are conducted in Munich towards the development of proton beams for bio-medical applications, generated via the technique of particle acceleration from high-power, short-pulse lasers. While so far mostly offline diagnostics tools are used in this context, we aim at developing a reliable and accurate online range monitoring technique, based on the position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays emitted from nuclear reactions between the proton beam and the biological sample. For this purpose, we develop a Compton camera, designed to be able to track not only the Compton scattering of the primary photon, but also to detect the secondary Compton electron, thus reducing the Compton cone to an arc segment and by this increasing the source reconstruction efficiency. Design specifications and the status of the protype system are discussed.

  9. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  10. The Control System of CERN Accelerators Vacuum (LS1 Activities and New Developments)

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, P; Bellorini, F; Blanchard, S; Boivin, J P; Gama, J; Girardot, G; Pigny, G; Rio, B; Vestergard, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M

    2014-01-01

    After 3 years of operation, the LHC entered its first Long Shutdown period (LS1), in February 2013 [1]. Major consolidation and maintenance works are being performed across the whole CERN’s Accelerator chain, in order to prepare the LHC to restart at higher energy, in 2015. The injector chain shall resume earlier, in mid-14. We report about the on-going vacuum-controls projects. Some of them concern the renovation of the controls of certain machines; others are associated with the consolidations of the vacuum systems of LHC and its injectors; and a few are completely new installations. ue to the wide age-span of the existing vacuum installations, there is a mix of design philosophies and of control-equipment generations. The renovations and the novel projects offer an opportunity to improve the uniformity and efficiency of vacuum controls by: reducing the number of equipment versions with similar functionality; identifying, naming, labelling, and documenting all pieces of equipment; homogenizing the contr...

  11. New developments of 11C post-accelerated beams for hadron therapy and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, R S; Wenander, F; Penescu, L; Orecchia, R; Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Stora, T

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy was first proposed in 1946 and is by now widespread throughout the world, as witnessed with the design and construction of the CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN and MedAustron treatment centres, among others. The clinical interest in hadron therapy lies in the fact that it delivers precision treatment of tumours, exploiting the characteristic shape (the Bragg peak) of the energy deposition in the tissues for charged hadrons. In particular, carbon ion therapy is found to be biologically more effective, with respect to protons, on certain types of tumours. Following an approach tested at NIRS in Japan [1], carbon ion therapy treatments based on 12C could be combined or fully replaced with 11C PET radioactive ions post-accelerated to the same energy. This approach allows providing a beam for treatment and, at the same time, to collect information on the 3D distributions of the implanted ions by PET imaging. The production of 11C ion beams can be performed using two methods. A first one is based on the production...

  12. Developments in the design of proton and ion accelerators for medical use

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    1998-01-01

    Accelerators and medicine have been close companions since cyclotrons first made biological studies with particle beams possible in the 1930s. Later improvements, such as H-minus (H-) extraction, made cyclotrons the foremost, commercially-available producer of medical isotopes. Although the world's first hospital-based proton treatment centre, Loma Linda, uses a synchrotron, the cyclotron is now al so establishing a dominance in proton centres using passive beam spreading. However, two trends indicate a slightly different direction. The first is towards light ions and the second is towards 'penc il' beam scanning with active energy control. Together, these point to a new generation of synchrotrons with slow-beam-extraction systems that allow time for on-line dosimetry and provide very smooth spills. There are several variants for the slow extraction including the use of a betatron core and rf knockout. There are also methods for improving the spill quality such as rf channelling buckets a nd rf noise. The use...

  13. Developing Use Cases for Evaluation of ADMS Applications to Accelerate Technology Adoption: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veda, Santosh; Wu, Hongyu; Martin, Maurice; Baggu, Murali

    2017-05-12

    Grid modernization for the distribution systems comprise of the ability to effectively monitor and manage unplanned events while ensuring reliable operations. Integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and proliferation of autonomous smart controllers like microgrids and smart inverters in the distribution networks challenge the status quo of distribution system operations. Advanced Distribution Management System (ADMS) technologies are being increasingly deployed to manage the complexities of operating distribution systems. The ability to evaluate the ADMS applications in specific utility environments and for future scenarios will accelerate wider adoption of the ADMS and will lower the risks and costs of their implementation. This paper addresses the first step - identify and define the use cases for evaluating these applications. The applications that are selected for this discussion include Volt-VAr Optimization (VVO), Fault Location Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR), Online Power Flow (OLPF)/Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) and Market Participation. A technical description and general operational requirements for each of these applications is presented. The test scenarios that are most relevant to the utility challenges are also addressed.

  14. Development of accelerated dewatering technology for managing oil sands fine fluid tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Seto, J.T.C. [BGC Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Chapman, D. [O' Kane Consultants Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Carrier, W.D. III [Argila Enterprises Inc., Lakeland, FL (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This article discussed an accelerated dewatering technique being applied and tested for managing fine fluid tailings produced from oil sands mining. The process involved rim ditching and a decant system to promote the drainage of surface waters and enhance the drying and densification of mature fine tailings (MFT). To field test the procedure, a deposit containing 60,000 cubic metres of in-line flocculated MFT was constructed and instrumented to monitor consolidation and dewatering response of the MFT deposit over time. Ten months after being filled, the deposit had settled about 1.2 metres, which corresponds to a 19 percent reduction in volume relative to initial filling. The field test will continue for several more years, during which time the deposit will continue to be monitored and sampled. The Florida phosphate industry has used rim ditching for over 20 years, but the process had never before been applied to oil sand tailings. The paper discussed the particular consolidation behaviour of MFT, the rim ditch concept, the layout of the containment pit and instrumentation, the pit filling procedure, and post-filling observations. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Accelerating development of metal organic framework membranes using atomically detailed simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Seda

    A new group of nanoporous materials, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), have emerged as a fascinating alternative to more traditional nanoporous materials for membrane based gas separations. Although hundreds of different MOF structures have been synthesized in powder forms, very little is currently known about the potential performance of MOFs as membranes since fabrication and testing of membranes from new materials require a large amount of time and resources. The purpose of this thesis is to predict the macroscopic flux of multi-component gas mixtures through MOF-based membranes with information obtained from detailed atomistic simulations. First, atomically detailed simulations of gas adsorption and diffusion in MOFs combined with a continuum description of a membrane are introduced to predict the performance of MOF membranes. These results are compared with the only available experimental data for a MOF membrane. An efficient approximate method based on limited information from molecular simulations to accelerate the modeling of MOF membranes is then introduced. The accuracy and computational efficiency of different modeling approaches are discussed. A robust screening strategy is proposed to screen numerous MOF materials to identify the ones with the high membrane selectivity and to direct experimental efforts to the most promising of many possible MOF materials. This study provides the first predictions of any kind about the potential of MOFs as membranes and demonstrates that using molecular modeling for this purpose can be a useful means of identifying the phenomena that control the performance of MOFs as membranes.

  16. Development of Neural Network Model for Predicting Peak Ground Acceleration Based on Microtremor Measurement and Soil Boring Test Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kerh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It may not be possible to collect adequate records of strong ground motions in a short period of time; hence microtremor survey is frequently conducted to reveal the stratum structure and earthquake characteristics at a specified construction site. This paper is therefore aimed at developing a neural network model, based on available microtremor measurement and on-site soil boring test data, for predicting peak ground acceleration at a site, in a science park of Taiwan. The four key parameters used as inputs for the model are soil values of the standard penetration test, the medium grain size, the safety factor against liquefaction, and the distance between soil depth and measuring station. The results show that a neural network model with four neurons in the hidden layer can achieve better performance than other models presently available. Also, a weight-based neural network model is developed to provide reliable prediction of peak ground acceleration at an unmeasured site based on data at three nearby measuring stations. The method employed in this paper provides a new way to treat this type of seismic-related problem, and it may be applicable to other areas of interest around the world.

  17. Recent developments at French atomic energy commission relating to non destructive nuclear waste assay by using electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvoussi, A.; Romeyer-Dhebey, J.; Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Mariani, A.; Recroix, H.; Payan, E.; Denis, C.; Loridon, J. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, DER, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Buisson, A.; Nurdin, G.; Allano, J.; Jaureguy, J.C. [DGA, Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, ETCA-CEB-DPN, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2000-07-01

    An important program is currently in progress at several laboratories over the world for the development of sensitive, practical non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of low level transuranics (TRU) in solid wastes. The wide variety of materials and contaminants, the low concentrations and large volumes involve, all make this kind of assay a complicated affair. Over the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the field of assay techniques for low level contaminated wastes. This report describes the methods being developed at French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A.) in Cadarache to assay high density TRU waste packages by using photon, neutron or both photon and neutron as interrogating particles. All of these particles are produced by using a pulsed electron linear accelerator from which the photons are produced following Bremsstrahlung phenomena on a heavy metallic converter and the neutrons are generated in appropriate low level photoneutron threshold target (e.g. Beryllium). The dynamic of photonuclear interactions and photoneutron production, use of an electron linear accelerator as a particle source, experimental and electronics details, experimental results, simulation to experiment performances and future experimental and theoretical studies are discussed. (authors)

  18. GPU-Accelerated Monte Carlo Electron Transport Methods: Development and Application for Radiation Dose Calculations Using Six GPU cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin; Du, Xining; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George

    2014-06-01

    An electron-photon coupled Monte Carlo code ARCHER - Accelerated Radiation-transport Computations in Heterogeneous EnviRonments - is being developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute as a software testbed for emerging heterogeneous high performance computers that utilize accelerators such as GPUs. This paper presents the preliminary code development and the testing involving radiation dose related problems. In particular, the paper discusses the electron transport simulations using the class-II condensed history method. The considered electron energy ranges from a few hundreds of keV to 30 MeV. For photon part, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production were modeled. Voxelized geometry was supported. A serial CPU code was first written in C++. The code was then transplanted to the GPU using the CUDA C 5.0 standards. The hardware involved a desktop PC with an Intel Xeon X5660 CPU and six NVIDIA Tesla™ M2090 GPUs. The code was tested for a case of 20 MeV electron beam incident perpendicularly on a water-aluminum-water phantom. The depth and later dose profiles were found to agree with results obtained from well tested MC codes. Using six GPU cards, 6x106 electron histories were simulated within 2 seconds. In comparison, the same case running the EGSnrc and MCNPX codes required 1645 seconds and 9213 seconds, respectively. On-going work continues to test the code for different medical applications such as radiotherapy and brachytherapy.

  19. Conservation of Male Sterility 2 function during spore and pollen wall development supports an evolutionarily early recruitment of a core component in the sporopollenin biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Simon; Chater, Caspar C; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Cuming, Andrew C; Wellman, Charles H; Beerling, David J; Fleming, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The early evolution of plants required the acquisition of a number of key adaptations to overcome physiological difficulties associated with survival on land. One of these was a tough sporopollenin wall that enclosed reproductive propagules and provided protection from desiccation and UV-B radiation. All land plants possess such walled spores (or their derived homologue, pollen). We took a reverse genetics approach, consisting of knock-out and complementation experiments to test the functional conservation of the sporopollenin-associated gene MALE STERILTY 2 (which is essential for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis thaliana) in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Knock-outs of a putative moss homologue of the A. thaliana MS2 gene, which is highly expressed in the moss sporophyte, led to spores with highly defective walls comparable to that observed in the A. thaliana ms2 mutant, and extremely compromised germination. Conversely, the moss MS2 gene could not rescue the A. thaliana ms2 phenotype. The results presented here suggest that a core component of the biochemical and developmental pathway required for angiosperm pollen wall development was recruited early in land plant evolution but the continued increase in pollen wall complexity observed in angiosperms has been accompanied by divergence in MS2 gene function.

  20. Development of a mirror-based endoscope for divertor spectroscopy on JET with the new ITER-like wall (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, A; Brezinsek, S; Mertens, Ph; Schweer, B; Sergienko, G; Terra, A; Arnoux, G; Balshaw, N; Clever, M; Edlingdon, T; Egner, S; Farthing, J; Hartl, M; Horton, L; Kampf, D; Klammer, J; Lambertz, H T; Matthews, G F; Morlock, C; Murari, A; Reindl, M; Riccardo, V; Samm, U; Sanders, S; Stamp, M; Williams, J; Zastrow, K D; Zauner, C

    2012-10-01

    A new endoscope with optimised divertor view has been developed in order to survey and monitor the emission of specific impurities such as tungsten and the remaining carbon as well as beryllium in the tungsten divertor of JET after the implementation of the ITER-like wall in 2011. The endoscope is a prototype for testing an ITER relevant design concept based on reflective optics only. It may be subject to high neutron fluxes as expected in ITER. The operating wavelength range, from 390 nm to 2500 nm, allows the measurements of the emission of all expected impurities (W I, Be II, C I, C II, C III) with high optical transmittance (≥ 30% in the designed wavelength range) as well as high spatial resolution that is ≤ 2 mm at the object plane and ≤ 3 mm for the full depth of field (± 0.7 m). The new optical design includes options for in situ calibration of the endoscope transmittance during the experimental campaign, which allows the continuous tracing of possible transmittance degradation with time due to impurity deposition and erosion by fast neutral particles. In parallel to the new optical design, a new type of possibly ITER relevant shutter system based on pneumatic techniques has been developed and integrated into the endoscope head. The endoscope is equipped with four digital CCD cameras, each combined with two filter wheels for narrow band interference and neutral density filters. Additionally, two protection cameras in the λ > 0.95 μm range have been integrated in the optical design for the real time wall protection during the plasma operation of JET.

  1. Development of a mirror-based endoscope for divertor spectroscopy on JET with the new ITER-like wall (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Mertens, Ph.; Schweer, B.; Sergienko, G.; Terra, A.; Clever, M.; Lambertz, H. T.; Samm, U. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Arnoux, G.; Balshaw, N.; Edlingdon, T.; Farthing, J.; Matthews, G. F.; Riccardo, V.; Sanders, S.; Stamp, M.; Williams, J.; Zastrow, K. D. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Egner, S. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, D-81379 Munich (Germany); and others

    2012-10-15

    A new endoscope with optimised divertor view has been developed in order to survey and monitor the emission of specific impurities such as tungsten and the remaining carbon as well as beryllium in the tungsten divertor of JET after the implementation of the ITER-like wall in 2011. The endoscope is a prototype for testing an ITER relevant design concept based on reflective optics only. It may be subject to high neutron fluxes as expected in ITER. The operating wavelength range, from 390 nm to 2500 nm, allows the measurements of the emission of all expected impurities (W I, Be II, C I, C II, C III) with high optical transmittance ({>=}30% in the designed wavelength range) as well as high spatial resolution that is {<=}2 mm at the object plane and {<=}3 mm for the full depth of field ({+-}0.7 m). The new optical design includes options for in situ calibration of the endoscope transmittance during the experimental campaign, which allows the continuous tracing of possible transmittance degradation with time due to impurity deposition and erosion by fast neutral particles. In parallel to the new optical design, a new type of possibly ITER relevant shutter system based on pneumatic techniques has been developed and integrated into the endoscope head. The endoscope is equipped with four digital CCD cameras, each combined with two filter wheels for narrow band interference and neutral density filters. Additionally, two protection cameras in the {lambda} > 0.95 {mu}m range have been integrated in the optical design for the real time wall protection during the plasma operation of JET.

  2. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  3. Accelerating the Development of 21st-Century Toxicology: Outcome of a Human Toxicology Project Consortium Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L.; Barrow, Craig; Andersen, Melvin E.; Boekelheide, Kim; Carmichael, Paul L.; Holsapple, Michael P.; Lafranconi, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) report on “Toxicity Testing in the 21st century” calls for a fundamental shift in the way that chemicals are tested for human health effects and evaluated in risk assessments. The new approach would move toward in vitro methods, typically using human cells in a high-throughput context. The in vitro methods would be designed to detect significant perturbations to “toxicity pathways,” i.e., key biological pathways that, when sufficiently perturbed, lead to adverse health outcomes. To explore progress on the report’s implementation, the Human Toxicology Project Consortium hosted a workshop on 9–10 November 2010 in Washington, DC. The Consortium is a coalition of several corporations, a research institute, and a non-governmental organization dedicated to accelerating the implementation of 21st-century Toxicology as aligned with the NRC vision. The goal of the workshop was to identify practical and scientific ways to accelerate implementation of the NRC vision. The workshop format consisted of plenary presentations, breakout group discussions, and concluding commentaries. The program faculty was drawn from industry, academia, government, and public interest organizations. Most presentations summarized ongoing efforts to modernize toxicology testing and approaches, each with some overlap with the NRC vision. In light of these efforts, the workshop identified recommendations for accelerating implementation of the NRC vision, including greater strategic coordination and planning across projects (facilitated by a steering group), the development of projects that test the proof of concept for implementation of the NRC vision, and greater outreach and communication across stakeholder communities. PMID:21948868

  4. Development and application of an information-analytic system on the problem of flow accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Kiselev, A. N.; Shepelev, S. V.; Galanin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Specific features relating to development of the information-analytical system on the problem of flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant are considered. The results from a statistical analysis of data on the quantity, location, and operating conditions of the elements and preinserted segments of pipelines used in the condensate-feedwater and wet steam paths are presented. The principles of preparing and using the information-analytical system for determining the lifetime to reaching inadmissible wall thinning in elements of pipelines used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered.

  5. Servant-Leader Development in an Adult Accelerated Degree Completion Program: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Angela R.

    2009-01-01

    Although many private Christian liberal arts programs exist today that seek to foster servant-leader (SL) development within their students, there is a void of both literature and data that details how servant-leadership development occurs and what contexts may be appropriate or necessary for this development. The purpose of this study was to…

  6. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  7. Laser-driven x-ray and neutron source development for industrial applications of plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, C. M.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Rusby, D. R.; Armstrong, C.; Alejo, A.; Wilson, L. A.; Clarke, R.; Ahmed, H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Haddock, D.; Higginson, A.; McClymont, A.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Oliver, P.; Allott, R.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed beams of energetic x-rays and neutrons from intense laser interactions with solid foils are promising for applications where bright, small emission area sources, capable of multi-modal delivery are ideal. Possible end users of laser-driven multi-modal sources are those requiring advanced non-destructive inspection techniques in industry sectors of high value commerce such as aerospace, nuclear and advanced manufacturing. We report on experimental work that demonstrates multi-modal operation of high power laser-solid interactions for neutron and x-ray beam generation. Measurements and Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations show that neutron yield is increased by a factor ~2 when a 1 mm copper foil is placed behind a 2 mm lithium foil, compared to using a 2 cm block of lithium only. We explore x-ray generation with a 10 picosecond drive pulse in order to tailor the spectral content for radiography with medium density alloy metals. The impact of using  >1 ps pulse duration on laser-accelerated electron beam generation and transport is discussed alongside the optimisation of subsequent bremsstrahlung emission in thin, high atomic number target foils. X-ray spectra are deconvolved from spectrometer measurements and simulation data generated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. We also demonstrate the unique capability of laser-driven x-rays in being able to deliver single pulse high spatial resolution projection imaging of thick metallic objects. Active detector radiographic imaging of industrially relevant sample objects with a 10 ps drive pulse is presented for the first time, demonstrating that features of 200 μm size are resolved when projected at high magnification.

  8. Development and Dosimetric Characterization of a Tissue Substitute (Bolus) For Use in Linear Accelerator Electron Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Trujillo, Jorge; Villaseñor Navarro, Luis Felipe; Mitsoura, Eleni

    2003-09-01

    We propose the design of a new custom made material, to be used as a tissue substitute in external beam electron radiotherapy, based on cotton fabric and beeswax. Due to its inexpensive, easy preparation, constant thickness, flexibility, uniform density and physical properties similar to those of soft tissue, this bolus will insure personalized optimal dose build up and dose distribution in irregular treatment regions. Materials and Methods: We used commercial Campeche beeswax and 100% cotton fabric to prepare the bolus. Beeswax's physical characteristics were determined by thermal and density analysis. Its chemical properties are to be determined by electronic microcopy. We performed quality control tests and calibration of the Varian 2100C linear accelerator. The tissue equivalence of the material is established for a range of electron energies (6, 9, 12, 16, 20 MeV) using a water equivalent solid phantom (PTW; Freiburg, Germany) and a plane parallel ionization chamber (PTW) associated to a PTW electrometer. Results: Beeswax's absolute density was found to be 0.9181g/ml at 21°C, with a melting point of 45°C. For the bolus elaboration, the cotton fabric was soaked in liquid beeswax and thin sheets of approximately 1 mm were obtained. These presented high flexibility, physical stability (color, texture, thickness) and homogeneity. Determination of this dosimetric characteristics and equivalent thickness are still in process. Discussion and conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that the tissue substitute is easily made, inexpensive to produce, molds well to the treatment area and its positioning is easy and reproducible over the course of the treatment. So we consider that it's a good alternative to the commercial bolus.

  9. The development of blood-retinal barrier during the interaction of astrocytes with vascular wall cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanling Yao; Tianshi Wang; Jiexin Deng; Ding Liu; Xiaofei Li; Jinbo Deng

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are intimately involved in the formation and development of retinal vessels. Astrocyte dysfunction is a major cause of blood-retinal barrier injury and other retinal vascular diseases. In this study, the development of the retinal vascular system and the formation of the blood-ret-inal barrier in mice were investigated using immunolfuorescence staining, gelatin-ink perfusion, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the retinal vascular system of mice develops from the optic disc after birth, and radiates out gradually to cover the entire retina, taking the papilla optica as the center. First, the superifcial vasculature is formed on the inner retinal layer;then, the vasculature extends into the inner and outer edges of the retinal inner nuclear layer, forming the deep vasculature that is parallel to the superifcial vasculature. The blood-retinal barrier is mainly composed of endothelium, basal lamina and the end-feet of astrocytes, which become mature during mouse development. Initially, the naive endothelial cells were immature with few organelles and many microvilli. The basal lamina was uniform in thickness, and the glial end-feet surrounded the outer basal lamina incompletely. In the end, the blood-retinal barrier matures with smooth endothelia connected through tight junctions, rela-tively thin and even basal lamina, and relatively thin glial cell end-feet. These ifndings indicate that the development of the vasculature in the retina follows the rules of“center to periphery”and“superifcial layer to deep layers”. Its development and maturation are spatially and tempo-rally consistent with the functional performance of retinal neurons and photosensitivity. The blood-retinal barrier gradually becomes mature via the process of interactions between astro-cytes and blood vessel cells.

  10. Development of a New Type of Alkali-Free Liquid Accelerator for Wet Shotcrete in Coal Mine and Its Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address issues such as large rebound rate, high dust concentration, and low compressive strength of shotcrete when adding liquid accelerator during wet spraying, the factors influencing the efficiency of liquid accelerator were experimentally analyzed. The single-admixture, combination, and orthogonal tests were conducted on the five fundamental raw materials required to develop the new liquid accelerator. The WT-1 type liquid accelerator, which had better adaptability to different kinds of cement, was developed with the mass concentration ratio of 55% aluminum sulfate octadecahydrate, 4% sodium fluoride, 2.5% triethanolamine, 0.5% polyacrylamide, 5% bentonite, and 33% water. Experimental investigation showed that the initial setting time of the reference cement with 6% mass content of this liquid accelerator was 2 minutes and 15 seconds, and the final setting time was 7 minutes and 5 seconds. The compressive strength after 1 day of curing was 13.6 MPa and the strength ratio after 28 days of curing was 94.8%, which met the first grade product requirements of the China National Standard. Compared with the conventional type liquid accelerator, the proposed type WT-1 accelerator is capable of effectively reducing the rebound rate and dust concentration while significantly increasing the compressive strength of the shotcrete.

  11. Development stages of Holocene soils formed in loess and loess bearing sediments at the Roman wall (Limes) in the Wetterau (Hesse, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, P.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

    2009-04-01

    About 2000 years ago the Romans built a wall through Europe - named Limes (lat. border) in Middle Europe and Hadrian's wall in UK - with the aim to protect the borders of their empire. In many parts the Limes was constructed by digging a trench and by accumulating the excavated soil material at one side of the trench. The upper decimetres of the wall are mainly made of calcareous sediments, because the trench was dug to a depth of C horizons which are composed of loess with high carbonate content. One prerequisite for research on pedogenesis is to obtain most precise data about the age of the parent material of soil formation. Regarding this, the Limes gives an excellent opportunity to distinguish different stages of Late Holocene soil development. The study area is part of the soilscape of the Wetterau (100 - 250 m asl) situated between Taunus and Vogelsberg in Hesse, Germany. The precipitation is around 500 mm per year. Wetterau's gentle rolling hills were originally covered with loess and periglacial slope deposits. The soilscape is characterized by (Albic) Luvisols, Haplic Phaeozems, Luvic Phaeozems as well as Calcaric Regosols on upper slopes and Anthrosols in footslope positions. Particulary Haplic Phaeozems and Luvic Phaeozems have been of a wider interest of pedogenic research, since they have been formed in the Early and Mid-Holocene and, therefore, they are relic. It is supposed that the Wetterau was a Chernozem soilscape during the Early Holocene changing to a soilscape characterised by (Luvic) Phaeozems and Luvisols during the Atlantic period. Results of archaeological research on the Roman wall in the Wetterau showed that the wall was constructed in the 2nd century AD and that it had different functions over time. In this context soil investigations revealed three different stages of Holocene soil development: (i) a youngest (recent) soil situated in the wall, (ii) a paleosol conserved below the wall and (iii) a soil developed in the area nearby the

  12. Accelerator mass spectrometry in pharmaceutical research and development--a new ultrasensitive analytical method for isotope measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, R C

    2000-09-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) permits the measurement of elemental isotopes at the individual atom level. The main application of AMS in drug discovery and development will be in the analysis of 14-carbon (14C). The principle behind AMS is the separation of individual positively charged atoms through mass, charge and momentum differences. In order to obtain the high-energy charge state required for separation, negative atoms are accelerated through a high voltage field (up to 10 million volts) generated by a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. In the middle of the accelerator, the outer valency electrons are stripped from the atom and the resulting charged species are separated and counted. For 14C, AMS counts the number of individual atoms rather than measuring radioactive decays. The result is that AMS is up to one million times more sensitive than decay counting. Radioactivity levels as low 0.0001 dpm can be detected using AMS. The exquisite sensitivity of AMS analysis means that much lower amounts of 14C can be used than for conventional counting methods. This makes it easier to use 14C for in vitro, preclinical and clinical research programmes. As 14C poses both a biological and environmental hazard, AMS permits much lower doses to be used. Human drug mass balance studies have been conducted with doses of 50 nanoCuries and below. Radioactive HPLC metabolite profiles of plasma extracts from subjects given nanoCurie doses of 14C-labelled drug have been obtained by injecting as little as 0.25 dpm onto an HPLC column. In studies of biologics, biosynthetically 14C-labelled recombinant protein has been produced with a specific radioactivity sufficient to conduct human clinical studies with AMS analysis. For one human recombinant protein an increase in sensitivity of 2,000-fold over ELISA was obtained with AMS measurement. AMS is an enabling technology that should prove of value in increasing human and environmental safety as well as allowing new research

  13. Development of an ultrasmall C-band linear accelerator guide for a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamino, Yuichiro; Miura, Sadao; Kokubo, Masaki; Yamashita, Ichiro; Hirai, Etsuro; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2007-05-01

    We are developing a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. It is capable of pursuing irradiation and delivering irradiation precisely with the help of an agile moving x-ray head on the gimbals. Requirements for the accelerator guide were established, system design was developed, and detailed design was conducted. An accelerator guide was manufactured and basic beam performance and leakage radiation from the accelerator guide were evaluated at a low pulse repetition rate. The accelerator guide including the electron gun is 38 cm long and weighs about 10 kg. The length of the accelerating structure is 24.4 cm. The accelerating structure is a standing wave type and is composed of the axial-coupled injector section and the side-coupled acceleration cavity section. The injector section is composed of one prebuncher cavity, one buncher cavity, one side-coupled half cavity, and two axial coupling cavities. The acceleration cavity section is composed of eight side-coupled nose reentrant cavities and eight coupling cavities. The electron gun is a diode-type gun with a cerium hexaboride (CeB6) direct heating cathode. The accelerator guide can be operated without any magnetic focusing device. Output beam current was 75 mA with a transmission efficiency of 58%, and the average energy was 5.24 MeV. Beam energy was distributed from 4.95 to 5.6 MeV. The beam profile, measured 88 mm from the beam output hole on the axis of the accelerator guide, was 0.7 mm X 0.9 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) width. The beam loading line was 5.925 (MeV)-Ib (mA) X 0.00808 (MeV/mA), where Ib is output beam current. The maximum radiation leakage of the accelerator guide at 100 cm from the axis of the accelerator guide was calculated as 0.33 cGy/min at the rated x-ray output of 500 cGy/min from the measured value. This leakage requires no radiation shielding for the accelerator guide itself per IEC 60601-2-1.

  14. Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, Jon; Berry, Brian; Lundberg, Kare; Anson, Orris

    2003-03-31

    This final report describes a 2000-2003 program for the development of components and processes to enhance the commercialization of ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion in industrial gas turbines. The range of project tasks includes: development of more durable, lower-cost catalysts and catalytic combustor components; development and design of a catalytic pre-burner and a catalytic pilot burner for gas turbines, and on-site fuel conversion processing for utilization of liquid fuel.

  15. 76 FR 28988 - Medicare Program; Accelerated Development Sessions for Accountable Care Organizations-June 20, 21...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... developed many of the characteristics of an ACO, and other experts in ACO core competencies--practitioners... curriculum on core competencies for ACO development within four main areas: leadership and priority-setting... establishing ACO core competencies. Each participating team should consist of two to four senior-level...

  16. Wonderful Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  17. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  18. Developments in Analytical Chemistry: Acoustically Levitated Drop Reactors for Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors for Detection of Toxic Organic Phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Developments in analytical chemistry were made using acoustically levitated small volumes of liquid to study enzyme reaction kinetics and by detecting volatile organic compounds in the gas phase using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Experience gained in engineering, electronics, automation, and software development from the design and…

  19. Search for major genes with progeny test data to accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NCSU

    2003-12-30

    This research project is to develop a novel approach that fully utilized the current breeding materials and genetic test information available from the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program to identify major genes that are segregating for growth and disease resistance in loblolly pine. If major genes can be identified in the existing breeding population, they can be utilized directly in the conventional loblolly pine breeding program. With the putative genotypes of parents identified, tree breeders can make effective decisions on management of breeding populations and operational deployment of genetically superior trees. Forest productivity will be significantly enhanced if genetically superior genotypes with major genes for economically important traits could be deployed in an operational plantation program. The overall objective of the project is to develop genetic model and analytical methods for major gene detection with progeny test data and accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine. Specifically, there are three main tasks: (1) Develop genetic models for major gene detection and implement statistical methods and develop computer software for screening progeny test data; (2) Confirm major gene segregation with molecular markers; and (3) Develop strategies for using major genes for tree breeding.

  20. Accelerated formulation development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and mAb-based modalities: review of methods and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinkov, Vladimir I; Treuheit, Michael J; Becker, Gerald W

    2015-04-01

    More therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antibody-based modalities are in development today than ever before, and a faster and more accurate drug discovery process will ensure that the number of candidates coming to the biopharmaceutical pipeline will increase in the future. The process of drug product development and, specifically, formulation development is a critical bottleneck on the way from candidate selection to fully commercialized medicines. This article reviews the latest advances in methods of formulation screening, which allow not only the high-throughput selection of the most suitable formulation but also the prediction of stability properties under manufacturing and long-term storage conditions. We describe how the combination of automation technologies and high-throughput assays creates the opportunity to streamline the formulation development process starting from early preformulation screening through to commercial formulation development. The application of quality by design (QbD) concepts and modern statistical tools are also shown here to be very effective in accelerated formulation development of both typical antibodies and complex modalities derived from them.

  1. Development of an extremely thin-wall straw tracker operational in vacuum - The COMET straw tracker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, H.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Hamada, E.; Mihara, S.; Moiseenko, A.; Noguchi, K.; Oishi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tojo, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Tsverava, N.; Ueno, K.; Volkov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for a lepton-flavour violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom, μ-e conversion, with a branching-ratio sensitivity of better than 10-16, 4 orders of magnitude better than the present limit, in order to explore the parameter region predicted by most of well-motivated theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. The need for this sensitivity places several stringent requirements on the detector development. The experiment requires to detect the monochromatic electron of 105 MeV, the momentum resolution is primarily limited by the multiple scattering effect for this momentum region. Thus we need the very light material detector in order to achieve an excellent momentum resolution, better than 2%, for 100 MeV region. In order to fulfil such a requirement, the thin-wall straw-tube planar tracker has been developed by an extremely light material which is operational in vacuum. The COMET straw tracker consists of 9.8 mm diameter straw tube, longer than 1 m length, with 20-μm-thick Mylar foil and 70-nm-thick aluminium deposition. Currently even thinner and smaller, 12 μm thick and 5 mm diameter, straw is under development by the ultrasonic welding technique.

  2. Accelerating the Development and Validation of New Value-Based Diagnostics by Leveraging Biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Riegman, Peter H J; Cronin, Maureen; Negrouk, Anastassia; Moch, Holger; Balling, Rudi; Penault-Llorca, Frederiques; Zatloukal, Kurt; Horgan, Denis

    The challenges faced in developing value-based diagnostics has resulted in few of these tests reaching the clinic, leaving many treatment modalities without matching diagnostics to select patients for particular therapies. Many patients receive therapies from which they are unlikely to benefit, resulting in worse outcomes and wasted health care resources. The paucity of value-based diagnostics is a result of the scientific challenges in developing predictive markers, specifically: (1) complex biology, (2) a limited research infrastructure supporting diagnostic development, and (3) the lack of incentives for diagnostic developers to invest the necessary resources. Better access to biospecimens can address some of these challenges. Methodologies developed to evaluate biomarkers from biospecimens archived from patients enrolled in randomized clinical trials offer the greatest opportunity to develop and validate high-value molecular diagnostics. An alternative opportunity is to access high-quality biospecimens collected from large public and private longitudinal observational cohorts such as the UK Biobank, the US Million Veteran Program, the UK 100,000 Genomes Project, or the French E3N cohort. Value-based diagnostics can be developed to work in a range of samples including blood, serum, plasma, urine, and tumour tissue, and better access to these high-quality biospecimens with clinical data can facilitate biomarker research.

  3. Enrichment from birth accelerates the functional and cellular development of a motor control area in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Simonetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that sensory experience in early life has a profound influence on the development of sensory circuits. Very little is known, however, about the role of experience in the early development of striatal networks which regulate both motor and cognitive function. To address this, we have investigated the influence of early environmental enrichment on motor development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were raised in standard or enriched housing from birth. For animals assessed as adults, half of the mice had their rearing condition reversed at weaning to enable the examination of the effects of pre- versus post-weaning enrichment. We found that exclusively pre-weaning enrichment significantly improved performance on the Morris water maze compared to non-enriched mice. The effects of early enrichment on the emergence of motor programs were assessed by performing behavioural tests at postnatal day 10. Enriched mice traversed a significantly larger region of the test arena in an open-field test and had improved swimming ability compared to non-enriched cohorts. A potential cellular correlate of these changes was investigated using Wisteria-floribunda agglutinin (WFA staining to mark chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs. We found that the previously reported transition of CSPG staining from striosome-associated clouds to matrix-associated perineuronal nets (PNNs is accelerated in enriched mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration that the early emergence of exploratory as well as coordinated movement is sensitive to experience. These behavioural changes are correlated with an acceleration of the emergence of striatal PNNs suggesting that they may consolidate the neural circuits underlying these behaviours. Finally, we confirm that pre-weaning experience can lead to life long changes in the learning ability of mice.

  4. Optical coherence tomography provides an ability to assess mechanical property of cardiac wall of developing outflow tract in embryonic heart in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the biomechanical/elastic property of the cardiac wall is of fundamental importance in improving our understanding of cardiac development, particularly the interaction between the wall dynamics and hemodynamics in the developing outflow tract (OFT). We describe a method that employs optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a means to noninvasively measure the local elastic property of the cardiac wall in vivo. The method uses a time-lapse sequence of OCT images that represent the dynamic behavior of the OFT longitudinal section to calculate the regional wall pulse wave velocity (PWV), upon which the Young's modulus of the cardiac wall is deduced by the use of the Moens-Korteweg equation. The experimental results show that the foot-to-foot PWV ranges from 3.2 to 6.6 mm/s with a mean of 4.7 mm/s, and the averaged Young's modulus is 0.36 Pa, both of which are comparable to the documented values of stage HH17 atrioventricular canal tissue. The proposed method that provides the quantitative mechanical assessment may play a significant role in the understanding of the cardiac development.

  5. Assessment of Feeder Wall Thinning of Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Han Sub [KEPRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The reactor of CANDUs of Wolsong Nuclear Power generating station is composed of 380 pressure tubes. The primary heat transport circuit of CANDU connects each pressure tube to headers on the way to and from the steam generators. The feeder is A-106 carbon steel, and suffers from wall thinning by Flow Accelerated Corrosion. Excessive thinning deteriorates the pressure retaining capability of piping so that the minimum allowable thickness of feeder should be maintained throughout the life of feeder. The feeder wall thinning should be monitored by in-service inspection. Knowledge-based inspection strategy needs to be developed since combination of high radiation field and geometric restriction near the tight bend location makes extensive inspection very difficult. A thermo hydraulic assessment using computational fluid dynamics software and feeder wall thinning simulation experiments using plaster of Paris may provide valuable information to understand characteristic features of the feeder wall thinning. Plant in-service inspection database may be another source of valuable information. This paper summarizes a review of feeder wall thinning in Wolsong CANDU station. W-1 feeder suffered significant thinning so that it is being replaced along with the plant refurbishment campaign. The other units, W-2approx4, are still in the early portion of their operation life. A result of feeder wall thinning simulation test using plaster of Paris is presented. The knowledge presented in this paper is important information to design a knowledge-based in-service inspection program of feeder wall thinning

  6. Development and calibration of buried wire gages for wall shear stress measurements in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sreedhara V.; Steinle, Frank W.

    1988-01-01

    Special methods were developed to arrange 'Buried Wire Gage' inserts flush to the contoured flow surfaces of instrument plugs of a boundary-layer flow apparatus. The fabrication process was aimed at producing proper bonding of the sensor wire to the substrate surface, without causing excessive surface waviness. A large number of gages were built and first calibrated for the resistance-temperature characteristics. The gages were then installed in a flow calibration apparatus and operated from a constant temperature anemometer system for a series of flow settings to derive the calibration constants of each of the gages. The flow settings included a range of subsonic freestream Mach numbers in order to help establish the gage calibration characteristics for compressible flow fields. This paper provides a description of the buried wire gage technique, an explanation of the method evolved for making proper gages, the procedure for calibrating the gages and the results of measurements performed for determining the calibration constants.

  7. Development of a clickable designer monolignol for interrogation of lignification in plant cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Natalie; Pandey, Jyotsna L; Doyle, Lucas; Richard, Tom L; Anderson, Charles T; Zhu, Yimin

    2014-12-17

    Lignin is an abundant and essential polymer in land plants. It is a prime factor in the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to agricultural and industrial end-uses such as forage, pulp and papermaking, and biofuels. To better understand lignification at the molecular level, we are developing a lignin spectroscopic and imaging toolbox on one "negligible" auxiliary. Toward that end, we describe the design, synthesis, and characterization of a new designer monolignol, 3-O-propargylcaffeyl alcohol, which contains a bioorthogonal alkynyl functional group at the 3-O-position. Importantly, our data indicate that this monolignol does not alter the fidelity of lignification. We demonstrate that the designer monolignol provides a platform for multiple spectroscopic and imaging approaches to reveal temporal and spatial details of lignification, the knowledge of which is critical to reap the potential of energy-rich renewable plant biomass for sustainable liquid fuels and other diverse economic applications.

  8. Operational Assessment of Tools for Accelerating Leader Development (ALD): Volume 2, Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Self-report instrument uses Likert scales for responses - Instrument requires min of 1 hr to complete Generate profile of individual’s...Survey instrument (41 items) uses Likert scales for self-reporting. - Requires 10-15 min (approximate). Measure propensity to self-develop, and...propensity to self-develop, and stimulate self-motivation. IPIP -NEO Personality Inventory Pre-Training -Indicates to Leaders the facets of their

  9. Present status of plasma-wall interactions research and materials development activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    It is well known in the fusion engineering community that the plasma confinement performance in magnetic fusion devices is strongly affected by edge-plasma interactions with surface components. These plasma-material interactions (PMI) include fuel particle recycling and impurity generation both during normal and off-normal operation. To understand and then to control PMI effects, considerable effort has been made, particularly over the last decade in US, supported by Department of Energy, Division of Development and Technology. Also, because plasma-facing components are generally expected to receive significant amount of heat due to plasma bombardment and run-away electrons, materials must tolerate high-heat fluxes (HHF). The HHF-component research has been conducted in parallel with PMI research. One strong motivation for these research activities is that DT-burning experiments are currently planned in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) in early 1990s. Several different but mutually complementary approaches have been taken in the PMI+HHF research. The first approach is to conduct PMI experiments using toroidal fusion devices such as TFTR. The second one is to simulate elemental processes involved in PMI using ion beams and electron beams, etc. The last one but not least is to use non-tokamak plasma facilities. Along with these laboratory activities, new materials have been developed and evaluated from the PMI+HHF point of view. In this paper, several major PMI+HHF research facilities in US and their activities are briefly reviewed. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Domain wall description of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, F A; Silva, J C M

    2012-01-01

    In the present work we shall address the issue of electrical conductivity in superconductors in the perspective of superconducting domain wall solutions in the realm of field theory. We take our set up made out of a dynamical complex scalar field coupled to gauge field to be responsible for superconductivity and an extra scalar real field that plays the role of superconducting domain walls. The temperature of the system is interpreted as the parameter to move type I to type II domain walls. Alternatively, this means that the domain wall surface is suffering an acceleration as one goes from one type to another. On the other hand, changing from type I to type II state means a formation of a condensate what is in perfect sense of lowering the temperature around the superconductor. One can think of this scenario as an analog of holographic scenarios where this set up is replaced by a black hole near the domain wall.

  11. Accelerated Capacity Development in Water Resources Education: the experiences of the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamirew, T.; Mekonnen, G.; Viglione, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia recently recognises that the water resources development is the major entry point in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Water in Ethiopia plays a key role in the Water-Energy-Food-nexus. Over 98% of the electricity in the country is generated using hydropower and yet about 2000 MW has been developed. Out of the 3.5 Mha potentially irrigable land, only 0.25 Mha has been developed to date. Access to drinking water supply coverage is among the lowest in the world. One of the limiting factors in harnessing the resource base is the absence of water professionals to face the fast growing demand in education, research, development in the water sector. Recognising this, in collaboration with University of Connecticut of the United States, Addis Ababa University launched the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR) by enrolling 18 PhD and 24 MSc students. The program is unique in that much of the course instructors are coming from US and European Universities, but deliver courses together with Ethiopian collaborators. This is supposed to facilitate knowledge and experience transfer from the US/EU scientist to Ethiopian counterparts. The theses/dissertations are designed to focus on Ethiopia's immediate hydrological problems on selected basins, and will be coordinated by three advisors for each PhD - one from US/EU, one from Ethiopian Universities, and one water professional from the sector. We report here the lessons learned in setting up the EIWR institute and the education program.

  12. Accelerating cancer therapy development: the importance of combination strategies and collaboration. Summary of an Institute of Medicine workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRusso, Patricia M; Canetta, Renzo; Wagner, John A; Balogh, Erin P; Nass, Sharyl J; Boerner, Scott A; Hohneker, John

    2012-11-15

    Cancer cells contain multiple genetic changes in cell signaling pathways that drive abnormal cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Unfortunately, patients treated with single agents inhibiting only one of these pathways--even if showing an initial response--often develop resistance with subsequent relapse or progression of their cancer, typically via the activation of an alternative uninhibited pathway. Combination therapies offer the potential for inhibiting multiple targets and pathways simultaneously to more effectively kill cancer cells and prevent or delay the emergence of drug resistance. However, there are many unique challenges to developing combination therapies, including devising and applying appropriate preclinical tests and clinical trial designs, prioritizing which combination therapies to test, avoiding overlapping toxicity of multiple agents, and overcoming legal, cultural, and regulatory barriers that impede collaboration among multiple companies, organizations, and/or institutions. More effective strategies to efficiently develop combination cancer therapies are urgently needed. Thus, the Institute of Medicine's National Cancer Policy Forum recently convened a workshop with the goal of identifying barriers that may be impeding the development of combination investigational cancer therapies, as well as potential solutions to overcome those barriers, improve collaboration, and ultimately accelerate the development of promising combinations of investigational cancer therapies. ©2012 AACR.

  13. Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momozaki, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-03-06

    Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed.

  14. Development of a cryogenic load frame for the neutron diffractometer at Takumi in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xinzhe; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugano, Michinaka [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Harjo, Stefanus; Aizawa, Kazuya; Abe, Jun; Gong, Wu; Iwahashi, Takaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hemmi, Tsutomu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Umeno, Takahiro [Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 306-2611 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    To prepare for projects such as the Large Hadron Collider upgrade, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Demonstration reactor, it is important to form a clear understanding of stress-strain properties of the materials that make up superconducting magnets. Thus, we have been studying the mechanical properties of superconducting wires using neutron diffraction measurements. To simulate operational conditions such as temperature, stress, and strain, we developed a cryogenic load frame for stress-strain measurements of materials using a neutron diffractometer at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Takumi beam line. The maximum load that can be applied to a sample using an external driving machine is 50 kN. Using a Gifford-MacMahon cryocooler, samples can be measured down to temperatures below 10 K when loaded. In the present paper, we describe the details of the cryogenic load frame with its test results by using type-304 stainless steel wire.

  15. Development of a cryogenic load frame for the neutron diffractometer at Takumi in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinzhe; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Harjo, Stefanus; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Umeno, Takahiro; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugano, Michinaka; Aizawa, Kazuya; Abe, Jun; Gong, Wu; Iwahashi, Takaaki

    2013-06-01

    To prepare for projects such as the Large Hadron Collider upgrade, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Demonstration reactor, it is important to form a clear understanding of stress-strain properties of the materials that make up superconducting magnets. Thus, we have been studying the mechanical properties of superconducting wires using neutron diffraction measurements. To simulate operational conditions such as temperature, stress, and strain, we developed a cryogenic load frame for stress-strain measurements of materials using a neutron diffractometer at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Takumi beam line. The maximum load that can be applied to a sample using an external driving machine is 50 kN. Using a Gifford-MacMahon cryocooler, samples can be measured down to temperatures below 10 K when loaded. In the present paper, we describe the details of the cryogenic load frame with its test results by using type-304 stainless steel wire.

  16. COMPILATION OF REGIONAL CONSTRUCTION CATALOGUES AS A RELEVANT METHOD OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT AND ACCELERATION OF DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granev Viktor Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the overview of unification and standardization processes, and their impact on the construction sector in the new social and economic environment of Russia. The expediency of compilation of regional construction catalogues as the drivers of accelerated construction works, construction quality improvement, and profitability. The proposed methodology and the expert opinion principles that serve as its basis may be applied to other sections of regional (territorial construction catalogues. No national economy, regions or territories can pursue their development absent of the construction sector; therefore, a scientific approach to the organization of the process of designing, construction and operation of buildings and structures on the basis of regional unification and regional catalogues of solutions encompassing construction operations, structures and products are of particular relevance.

  17. Feasibility of LTE 700 MHz Digital Dividend for Broadband Development Acceleration in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Setiawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The need of broadband services to reduce digital divide in rural areas had increased in the recent years. The government of the Republic Indonesia shared similar intention and had set guidance of ICT development in its "economic master plan" and "medium term development plan". This paper addressed feasibility and suitability of its implementation in Indonesia, by conducting assessment of possible solutions. Using mixed method, the study was started with qualitative approach to identify possible options, conducted benchmarking and case study analysis to narrow down the options and finally conducted quantitative calculation for the two remaining options and measure performance of the solutions. The results of analysis concluded that early implementation of LTE in 700 MHz Digital Dividend would be feasible in certain geographical areas to fasten the broadband plan development in Indonesia.

  18. Feasibility of LTE 700 MHz Digital Dividend for Broadband Development Acceleration in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Setiawan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The need of broadband services to reduce digital divide in rural areas had increased in the recent years. The government of the Republic Indonesia shared similar intention and had set guidance of ICT development in its "economic master plan" and "medium term development plan". This paper addressed feasibility and suitability of its implementation in Indonesia, by conducting assessment of possible solutions. Using mixed method, the study was started with qualitative approach to identify possible options, conducted benchmarking and case study analysis to narrow down the options and finally conducted quantitative calculation for the two remaining options and measure performance of the solutions. The results of analysis concluded that early implementation of LTE in 700 MHz Digital Dividend would be feasible in certain geographical areas to fasten the broadband plan development in Indonesia.

  19. Development of a relativistic Particle In Cell code PARTDYN for linear accelerator beam transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadte, D.; Patidar, C. B.; Pal, M. K.

    2017-04-01

    A relativistic Particle In Cell (PIC) code PARTDYN is developed for the beam dynamics simulation of z-continuous and bunched beams. The code is implemented in MATLAB using its MEX functionality which allows both ease of development as well higher performance similar to a compiled language like C. The beam dynamics calculations carried out by the code are compared with analytical results and with other well developed codes like PARMELA and BEAMPATH. The effect of finite number of simulation particles on the emittance growth of intense beams has been studied. Corrections to the RF cavity field expressions were incorporated in the code so that the fields could be calculated correctly. The deviations of the beam dynamics results between PARTDYN and BEAMPATH for a cavity driven in zero-mode have been discussed. The beam dynamics studies of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) using PARTDYN have been presented.

  20. Accelerated Recruitment of New Brain Development Genes into the Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E.; Landback, Patrick; V