Accelerating Moving Walkways (AMWs) are conveyor systems that accelerate pedestrians from a low speed at the entrance to a higher speed at the middle section, and then decelerate them to a low speed again at the exit. It is envisaged they can be a potential transport mode to fill the gap between
Macfarlane, Pamela A.; Looney, Marilyn A.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) distances that would accommodate young and older adults walking at their preferred and fast speeds. A secondary purpose was to determine the minimal walkway length needed to record six steady state (SS) steps (three full gait cycles) for younger and older…
Many aspects of steady human locomotion are thought to be constrained by a tendency to minimize the expenditure of metabolic cost. This paper has three parts related to the theme of energetic optimality: (1) a brief review of energetic optimality in legged locomotion, (2) an examination of the notion of optimal locomotion speed, and (3) an analysis of walking on moving walkways, such as those found in some airports. First, I describe two possible connotations of the term "optimal locomotion speed:" that which minimizes the total metabolic cost per unit distance and that which minimizes the net cost per unit distance (total minus resting cost). Minimizing the total cost per distance gives the maximum range speed and is a much better predictor of the speeds at which people and horses prefer to walk naturally. Minimizing the net cost per distance is equivalent to minimizing the total daily energy intake given an idealized modern lifestyle that requires one to walk a given distance every day--but it is not a good predictor of animals' walking speeds. Next, I critique the notion that there is no energy-optimal speed for running, making use of some recent experiments and a review of past literature. Finally, I consider the problem of predicting the speeds at which people walk on moving walkways--such as those found in some airports. I present two substantially different theories to make predictions. The first theory, minimizing total energy per distance, predicts that for a range of low walkway speeds, the optimal absolute speed of travel will be greater--but the speed relative to the walkway smaller--than the optimal walking speed on stationary ground. At higher walkway speeds, this theory predicts that the person will stand still. The second theory is based on the assumption that the human optimally reconciles the sensory conflict between the forward speed that the eye sees and the walking speed that the legs feel and tries to equate the best estimate of the forward
Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is to study the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics in walkway of subway station. We analyze the observed data of the selected facility and find that walking speed and occupied space were varied in the population. In reality, pedestrians are heterogeneous individuals with different attributes. However, the research on how the heterogeneity affects the pedestrian dynamics in facilities of subway stations is insufficient. The improved floor field model is therefore presented to explore the effects of heterogeneity. Pedestrians are classified into pedestrians walking in pairs, fast pedestrians, and ordinary pedestrians. For convenience, they are denoted as P-pedestrians, F-pedestrians, and O-pedestrians, respectively. The proposed model is validated under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. Three pedestrian compositions are simulated to analyze the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics. The results show that P-pedestrians have negative effect and F-pedestrians have positive effect. All of the results in this paper indicate that the capacity of walkway is not a constant value. It changes with different component proportions of heterogeneous pedestrians. The heterogeneity of pedestrian has an important influence on the pedestrian dynamics in the walkway of the subway station.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours (PIBs in order to propose a revised pedestrian walkway Level of Service (LOS in China. Field data on overtaking and evasive behaviours were collected at a metro station walkway in Shanghai, China to calculate macro and micro indicators. Occurrence intensities of these two PIBs initially increased with moderate density and later decreased with high density that reduced available space. PIBs were also analysed in terms of sideways behaviours to account for the varying difficulties of PIBs at different densities. It was found that available space for PIBs was the main factor contributing to the intensity features. Moreover, the different space demands of the two PIBs resulted in different features between them. Finally, a revised pedestrian walkway LOS was proposed based on the macro and micro characteristics of PIBs in China.
Geerse, Daphne J; Coolen, Bert H; Roerdink, Melvyn
The ability to adapt walking to environmental circumstances is an important aspect of walking, yet difficult to assess. The Interactive Walkway was developed to assess walking adaptability by augmenting a multi-Kinect-v2 10-m walkway with gait-dependent visual context (stepping targets, obstacles) using real-time processed markerless full-body kinematics. In this study we determined Interactive Walkway's usability for walking-adaptability assessments in terms of between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations. Under varying task constraints, 21 healthy subjects performed obstacle-avoidance, sudden-stops-and-starts and goal-directed-stepping tasks. Various continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures were concurrently determined with the Interactive Walkway and a gold-standard motion-registration system: available response time, obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stop margins, step length, stepping accuracy and walking speed. The same holds for dichotomous classifications of success and failure for obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stops tasks and performed short-stride versus long-stride obstacle-avoidance strategies. Continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures generally agreed well between systems (high intraclass correlation coefficients for absolute agreement, low biases and narrow limits of agreement) and were highly sensitive to task and subject variations. Success and failure ratings varied with available response times and obstacle types and agreed between systems for 85-96% of the trials while obstacle-avoidance strategies were always classified correctly. We conclude that Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability outcome measures are reliable and sensitive to task and subject variations, even in high-functioning subjects. We therefore deem Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability assessments usable for obtaining an objective and more task-specific examination of one's ability to walk, which may be feasible for both high
de Faria, Luís Guilherme; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; dos Reis Mesquita, Luciane; Agostinho, Felipe Stefan; Kano, Washington Takashi; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros
The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetic and temporospatial parameters of clinically healthy juvenile giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) by using a pressure-sensing walkway. Three free-ranging clinically healthy giant anteaters (M. tridactyla), two males and one female, aged 5-7 mo, were used. There was no statistically significant difference between the right and left sides for the kinetic and temporospatial parameters for both forelimbs and hind limbs. Although the gait velocity was similar for all giant anteaters, the stride frequency was higher in the smaller anteaters. The difference in stride frequency is associated with body size, which also influenced other temporospatial parameters. The percentage of body distribution was higher on the forelimbs than the hind limbs. The contact surface and trajectory of the force of the forepaws differed from the hind paws. In conclusion, the anteaters have gait peculiarities associated with the anatomical differences between forelimbs and hind limbs.
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli
Full Text Available A saúde bucal coletiva, na medida em que surge como um modo de trazer a saúde bucal para o SUS (e vice-versa, tem, na epidemiologia, um de seus mais contundentes aliados. Este artigo discute o modo como se deu esse caminhar, trilhado compartilhadamente, entre a saúde bucal coletiva e a epidemiologia. Analisa, inicialmente, os esforços na tentativa de estabelecer modelos metodológicos para pesquisas transversais, bem como a possibilidade da construção de uma base de dados nacional. Num segundo momento, discute-se como esse conjunto de conhecimentos tem se corporificado em uma produção científica qualificada e compartilhada com seus pares, refletindo sobre o modo como este processo vem contribuindo para a consolidação do campo da saúde bucal coletiva. Percebe-se que este caminhar compartilhado esteve e está condicionado pela conjuntura política que, em momentos distintos, proporcionou o crescimento da saúde bucal coletiva. A epidemiologia em saúde bucal, ao mesmo tempo em que se consolida como área de conhecimento no plano da produção científica no Brasil, articula-se com este movimento, proporcionando, de um lado, uma ferramenta que aproxima os modelos assistenciais em saúde bucal do ideário do SUS; e, de outro, aprofunda as discussões a respeito dos determinantes biopsicossociais das doenças bucais.The public health dentistry is a way to bring oral health to Brazilian National Health System (SUS and vice-versa. Thus, the epidemiology, in this context, it is one of the most important allies. In this article we intend to discuss the "shared walkway" between epidemiology and public health dentistry, through two views: first, we analyzed the efforts to establish methodological models for oral health sectional studies and the possibilities to construct a national data base. Second, we discussed how this knowledge has been transformed in a qualified scientific production presented in meetings and papers, which reflects, at the
Lorenz, J.J.; McIvor, C.C.; Powell, G.V.N.; Frederick, P.C.
We describe a 9 m2 drop net and removable walkways designed to quantify densities of small fishes in wetland habitats with low to moderate vegetation density. The method permits the collection of small, quantitative, discrete samples in ecologically sensitive areas by combining rapid net deployment from fixed sites with the carefully contained use of the fish toxicant rotenone. This method requires very little contact with the substrate, causes minimal alteration to the habitat being sampled, samples small fishes in an unbiased manner, and allows for differential sampling of microhabitats within a wetland. When used in dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) habitat in southern Everglades National Park and adjacent areas (September 1990 to March 1993), we achieved high recovery efficiencies (78–90%) for five common species <110 mm in length. We captured 20,193 individuals of 26 species. The most abundant fishes were sheepshead minnowCyprinodon variegatus, goldspotted killifishFloridichthys carpio, rainwater killifishLucania parva, sailfin mollyPoecilia latipinna, and the exotic Mayan cichlidCichlasoma urophthalmus. The 9 m2 drop net and associated removable walkways are versatile and can be used in a variety of wetland types, including both interior and coastal wetlands with either herbaceous or woody vegetation.
Sorsdahl, Anne Brit; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Strand, Liv Inger
The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability of seven selected temporal and spatial gait parameters and asymmetry measures in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with CP between 3 and 13 years of age walked at three different speeds across an electronic walkway of 5.2m. The tests were repeated after approximately 25 min. The scores were normalized to a walking speed of 1.1m/s to avoid the confounding effect of gait speed on speed dependent gait parameters. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(1,1) and ICC(3,1)) with 95% confidence intervals, within-subject standard deviation (S(w)) and smallest detectable difference (SDD) were calculated. The relative reliability of cadence, step length, stride length and single stance time was high to excellent (ICC(1,1) between 0.73 and 0.95), while it was poor for step width (ICC(1,1)=0.27 and 0.35). The relative reliability for two calculated asymmetry measures were high for the step length index (ICC(1,1)=0.82) and moderate for the single stance time index (ICC(1,1)=0.49). The absolute reliability values for all gait parameters are reported. Five of seven gait parameters measured by an electronic walkway and normalized to a common walking speed, appear to be highly repeatable in a short-term time span in children with CP who were able to walk without assistive walking devices, provided sufficient cognitive function.
Many mattress manufacturers recommend that consumers rotate their mattresses at least twice a year to help prevent soft spots from developing and increase the product's life span. It's unfortunate that the same kind of treatment can't be applied to flooring for schools, such as carpeting, especially in hallways. Being able to flip or turn a carpet…
Cappellini, Germana; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco
Friction and gravity represent two basic physical constraints of terrestrial locomotion that affect both motor patterns and the biomechanics of bipedal gait. To provide insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output in connection with ground contact forces, we studied adaptation
Preeti S. Virkar
Full Text Available Beekeeping for honey and other bee products is an age old practice. Besides the popular honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, stingless bees belonging to the tribe Meliponini, subfamily Apinae and family Apidae (Michener, 2007 are also reared for honey, having high medicinal value. Stingless bees are exclusive to tropics and their size ranges from 2mm to slightly bigger than the popular honeybee A. mellifera (O'Toole & Raw, 1999. The practice of keeping stingless bees is called meliponiculture, and once it was an integral part of the culture of indigenous people of South and Central America. It held a social and religious significance in the meso-American culture, mainly the ancient Mayans (Sommeijer, 1999. Stingless bee products such as honey, wax and propolis formed a small-scale economy in their livelihood as well (Cortopassi-Laurino et al., 2006. Although least explored, meliponiculture is an age old practice in India also. Kani tribe in Western Ghats is the only reported reference, keeping stingless bees (Kumar et al., 2012. Trigona iridipennis is the widespread stingless bee species in the Indian subcontinent and used for meliponiculture.
Full Text Available (ES El artículo aborda cuatro conceptos estructurantes: lugar, identidad, memoria, y patrimonio para fundamentar la formación docente en ciencias sociales. La creación y legitimación del saber escolar evidencia una red de interacciones entre la escuela y el mundo cultural y social. Importa la reflexión construida desde lugares y localizaciones epistemológicas que enriquecen la producción en el campo en tanto posibilita pensar en las construcciones simbólicas que se juegan a la hora de enseñar y aprender conocimientos sociales, para ser más precisos nos interesan las maneras locales de conocer y por ello presentamos una propuesta de trabajo para las ciudades que habitamos. (EN The article approaches four structuring concepts: place, identity, memory, and heritage to base the educational formation on social sciences. The creation and legitimization of to know student demonstrates a network of interactions between the school and the cultural and social world. It imports the reflection constructed from places and locations epistemológicas that enrich the production in the field while it makes possible to think about the symbolic constructions that they are played at the moment of teaching and to learn social knowledge, to be more precise we are interested the local ways of knowing and for it let's sense beforehand an offer of work for the cities that we live.
Nakano, Hideki; Murata, Shin; Shiraiwa, Kayoko; Iwase, Hiroaki; Kodama, Takayuki
Mental chronometry, commonly used to evaluate motor imagery ability, measures the imagined time required for movements. Previous studies investigating mental chronometry of walking have investigated healthy older adults. However, mental chronometry in frail older adults has not yet been clarified. To investigate temporal characteristics of imagined and actual walking in frail older adults. We investigated the time required for imagined and actual walking along three walkways of different widths [width(s): 50, 25, 15 cm × length: 5 m] in 29 frail older adults and 20 young adults. Imagined walking was measured with mental chronometry. We observed significantly longer imagined and actual walking times along walkways of 50, 25, and 15 cm width in frail older adults compared with young adults. Moreover, temporal differences (absolute error) between imagined and actual walking were significantly greater in frail older adults than in young adults along walkways with a width of 25 and 15 cm. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in temporal differences (constant error) between frail older adults and young adults for walkways with a width of 25 and 15 cm. Frail older adults tended to underestimate actual walking time in imagined walking trials. Our results suggest that walkways of different widths may be a useful tool to evaluate age-related changes in imagined and actual walking in frail older adults.
Cross, Fiona R.; Jackson, Robert R.
Many spiders from the salticid subfamily Spartaeinae specialize at preying on other spiders and they adopt complex strategies when targeting these dangerous prey. We tested 15 of these spider-eating spartaeine species for the capacity to plan detours ahead of time. Each trial began with the test subject on top of a tower from which it could view two boxes: one containing prey and the other not containing prey. The distance between the tower and the boxes was too far to reach by leaping and the tower sat on a platform surrounded by water. As the species studied are known to avoid water, the only way they could reach the prey without getting wet was by taking one of two circuitous walkways from the platform: one leading to the prey (‘correct’) and one not leading to the prey (‘incorrect’). After leaving the tower, the test subject could not see the prey and sometimes it had to walk past the incorrect walkway before reaching the correct walkway. Yet all 15 species chose the correct walkway significantly more often than the incorrect walkway. We propose that these findings exemplify genuine cognition based on representation. PMID:26781057
Describes the Xerox International Center for Training and Management Development: its philosophy; use of space, texture, and color; flexibility of classroom interior arrangement; classroom A/V facilities; resource center; television studio and facilities; and furniture, student luggage, walkways, and lighting. (JEG)
Grunt, S.; van Kampen, P.M.; van der Krogt, M.M.; Brehm, M.A.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Becher, J.G.
Purpose: To determine the reproducibility and validity of video screen measurement (VSM) of sagittal plane joint angles during gait. Methods: 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy walked on a 10. m walkway. Videos were recorded and 3d-instrumented gait analysis was performed. Two investigators
Grunt, Sebastian; van Kampen, Petra J.; van der Krogt, Marjolein M.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Doorenbosch, Caroline A. M.; Becher, Jules G.
PURPOSE: To determine the reproducibility and validity of video screen measurement (VSM) of sagittal plane joint angles during gait. METHODS: 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy walked on a 10m walkway. Videos were recorded and 3d-instrumented gait analysis was performed. Two investigators
As Joel Spring's (2007/this issue) description of Singapore's Orchard Road suggests, Benetton, Zara, Nike, BMW, LG, and Microsoft dominate the visual and textual landscape where signage, advertising, packaging, labeling, and the environments of the connected underground malls and walkways merge into a wall-to-wall, 24/7 print and visual…
Suggests ways to use library buildings and space to attract users and to showcase collections and services. Ideas for a marketing strategy using windows, promenades and walkways, the entrance of lobby, and the interior are offered. Increasing use by making libraries a place for fun and entertainment is also recommended. (MES)
Full Text Available Recent researches have proven that the underbridge geometry can be reconstructed by mounting a 3D laser scanner on a motorized cart travelling on a walkway located under the bridge. The walkway is moved by a truck and the accuracy of the bridge model depends on the accuracy of the trajectory of the scanning head with respect to a fixed reference system. In this paper, we describe a vision-based measurement system that can be used to identify the relative motion of the cart that moves the 3D laser scanner with respect to the walkway. The orientation of the walkway with respect to the bridge is determined using inclinometers and a camera that detect the position of a laser spot, while the position of the truck with respect to the bridge is measured using a conventional odometer. The accuracy of the proposed system was initially evaluated by numerical simulations and successively verified by experiments in laboratory conditions. The complete system has then been tested by comparing the geometry of buildings reconstructed using the proposed system with the geometry obtained with a static scan. Results showed that the error is less than 6 mm; given the satisfying quality of the point clouds obtained, it is also possible to detect small defects on the surface.
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13872-000] Renew Hydro, LLC... Intervene, and Competing Applications On October 19, 2010, Renew Hydro, LLC filed an application for a...) a new powerhouse; (3) a crest-mounted walkway carrying hydraulic and electrical conduits; (4) one...
Allen, Nacho Ruiz; Ruiz Esquiroz, Jose Antonio
Slow down, disconnect, become captivated by the vastness of the landscape and think. To reach the walkway-lookout requires a physical and mental effort. The village of LLamo, with only a dozen inhabitants, marks the beginning of the walking route. We enter the Aramo Mountains, a mythical place of...
... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.92...) All means of access and walkways leading to working areas as well as the working areas themselves...
... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.91... present a hazard to employees. (c) Slippery conditions on walkways or working surfaces shall be eliminated...
... sidewalk/walkway D5--In airport; D6- In airplane; D7--In hotel room; E1--On parking lot; E2--In building... Control C--Auto Train Stop D--Automatic Block Signals System E--Broken Rail Monitoring F--Direct Traffic... of the accident/incident. This document updates and moves footnote number four to make it clear that...
... villages, into farming areas, to schools, tourist attractions, or various small enterprises. Also included... all non-road projects such as paths, trails, walkways, or other designated types of routes for public... transportation facilities such as public parking facilities adjacent to IRR routes and scenic byways, rest areas...
... the floor, stretched across walkways, and tangled near work spaces can catch an employee’s foot and lead to ... Robert Williges, ed. Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics, HFES. ... footwear for use at work. British Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety ...
One of the world's greatest plant collections has won a top heritage award at a time when it is highlighting with a tree-top walkway the need to study the forest canopy which is one of the most crucial but least understood habitats.
Khan Rubayet Rahaman
Full Text Available People are walking in cities for different reasons. Some walkers walk for going to work, some are walking for shopping and some are for leisure during day and night hours. Medium sized cities like Braga and Guimarães in Portugal are depending on car for even shorter trips up to 2 kilometers. However, the walkways are allowing people to walk in convenient and safe way including late night environment. The pedestrians feel troublesome to walk on the footpaths because of illegal parking and discontinuation of walkways. Municipality transport plans and master plans do not incorporate pedestrians as a major component. But this egress mode of transportation is very important in medium sized city centers like Guimarães and Braga for the people to enjoy city centers’ activities. This paper focuses on the types of walkers who use the walkways on a regular basis. Usually, people are feeling comfortable to walk when they go to clubs and bars in a group in these small cities especially after work. This paper again tries to focus the varieties of problems on walkways and to present policies that can improve the situation. Municipal master plan and transportation plan have been studied carefully to see the provisions of pedestrian planning options. Field surveys have been conducted both in form of questionnaire and observation during the end of 2009 and results show different patterns of pedestrian behavior as well as evidence that people get different experiences with problems while walking on the walkways in both surveyed towns. Considering the issues of sustainable mobility, this paper also tries to suggest policies to motivate more people to walk especially in the medium-sized cities of Portugal.
Sreekumar, K.; Gangamohan, M.; Kannan, R.K.; Rajan, S.
Contamination check of floors and walkways in and around Reactor building areas forms an integral part of Radiation Protection Program in Power Stations. Though random swipe check method is adopted for the detection of loose contamination, this method has the disadvantage of leaving the fixed contamination and hotspots undetected. Hence, scanning the area with a sensitive detector, held close to the surface provides positive means for the detection of contamination. Checking large areas and walkways by holding the detector close to the surface involves physical work. Also, areas which are unapproachable due to congestion of equipment, may go uncovered by contamination monitoring in order to eliminate the physical strain involved in such contamination monitoring and to cover unapproachable areas, a small size prototype device that can be operated remotely was fabricated. This device detects contamination instantaneously and accurately. This paper describes design and fabrication of the device used for floor contamination monitoring. (author)
Ichikawa, Yujiro; Inoue, Tomohiro; Naito, Suekazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiko
The efficacy of decontamination methods was evaluated with the measurement of 1cm dose equivalent rate and concentration of radioactive caesium in the soil, plants and water of the pond before and after decontamination at Japanese garden located in Chiba Prefectural Kashiwa-no-ha Park. Examined decontamination methods were: 1) The topsoil of walkway was stripped and removed to the depth of 10mm. 2) Washing the stone pavement walkway using high-pressure water jet washer. At the height of 50cm, we observed 45% and 36% of 1cm dose rate equivalent dose reduction rate (the natural dose rate derived from the ground was subtracted) for 1) and 2) decontamination methods respectively. Due to the decontamination process, the measurement value of 1cm equivalent dose rate decreased below 0.23μSv/h at most of the examined sites, which showed significant efficacy of decontamination methods performed at this Japanese garden. (author)
Pairis-Garcia, M D; Johnson, A K; Abell, C A; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Millman, S T; Stalder, K J
Pain associated with lameness on farm is a negative affective state and has a detrimental impact on individual farm animal welfare. Animal pain can be managed utilizing husbandry tools and through pharmacological approaches. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including meloxicam and flunixin meglumine are compounds used in many species for pain management because they are easy to administer, long lasting, and cost-effective. Assessing an animal's biomechanical parameters using such tools as the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system provides an objective, sensitive, and precise means to detect animals in lame states. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine for pain mitigation in lame sows using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Lameness was induced in 24 mature mixed-parity sows using a chemical synovitis model and compared 3 treatments: meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg per os), flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg intramuscular) and sterile saline (intramuscular). Weight distribution (kg) for each foot was collected twice per second for a total of 5 min for each time point using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system. Stride time, stride length, maximum pressure, activated sensors, and stance time were collected using 3 quality walks (readings) for each time point using the GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Sows administered flunixin meglumine or meloxicam tolerated more weight on their lame leg compared with saline sows (P embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Analgesic drugs may be a key tool to manage negative pain affective states associated with lameness.
walkways, and superstructure which the US Navy has shown 1 for a Green Arctic Patrol Vessel can be supplied by waste heat recovery from engine...adhesion strength than the ice does, thus facilitating shear. It has been found that such treatments depend on the chemical nature and condition of...application. • Ablative or Depletion Coatings: where the coating fails cohesively as ice is sheared away, or where low surface energy or oily additives
housing, the other drones disperse throughout the neighborhood and settle out of sight near doors and walkways. They transition into ‘ sleep mode...strain genes . This new virus proved capable of spreading from one host to another and had more infectious properties than the original virus.12...bloodstream. Nanobots are either entirely constructed of DNA proteins, which are genetically programmed to perform specific functions, or they can be made
General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for utility distribution systems, central heating, central cooling, electrical, utility support structures, paving roadways/walkways, and tunnels.
rifles when these malfunctioned or broke. They relied on traders and settlers for all their metalworking needs, which of course, ceased when...History Center and the nearby Tampa Marriot Waterside Hotel have areas for bus drop off. In addition, there is parking available at the historic...center as well as across the street at the Tampa Bay Times Forum. On the west side of the park near the hotel , is a Fort Brooke Plaque in the walkway
measurements are made, these are collected electronically4 and automatically exported to local operation centers and incident command posts where the...economic, natural and built environments and a move to self-sufficiency, sustainability and resilience.” As can be seen in Figure 3-11, some long-term...Transportation and access routes Bridges Streets and thoroughfares Sidewalks and walkways Release of property from radiologically controlled areas
situational awareness resource that would automatically transmit this timely information to the mobilized workforce and rescuer professionals. AUTHOR...To the east were a small, tailored grassy area; a four-row parking lot with a dividing walkway between rows two and three; and a four- lane road...the west side of the subject building was an impediment and was moved . Once completed, the PI and Fire Chief initiated the fire alarm. The subject
Yang, Feng; Pai, Yi-Chung
Over-head-harness systems, equipped with load cell sensors, are essential to the participants’ safety and to the outcome assessment in perturbation training. The purpose of this study was to first develop an automatic outcome recognition criterion among young adults for gait-slip training and then verify such criterion among older adults. Each of 39 young and 71 older subjects, all protected by safety harness, experienced 8 unannounced, repeated slips, while walking on a 7-m walkway. Each tri...
Miles, James Edward; Vitger, Anne Désiré; Poulsen, Helle Harding
Objectives To describe the effect of direction of travel on measurements of peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) obtained using a Tekscan walkway system. Methods Following acclimatisation, recordings were obtained for six healthy dogs walking twice in in each direction along the wa...... between measurements at different times, and to compensate for the effect of direction of travel on outcome measures.......Objectives To describe the effect of direction of travel on measurements of peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) obtained using a Tekscan walkway system. Methods Following acclimatisation, recordings were obtained for six healthy dogs walking twice in in each direction along...... the walkway. PVF and VI measurements were normalised and used to calculate left:right symmetry ratios for forelimb and hindlimb loading in each travel direction and for all recordings. Results Mean walking speed was 1.2 ± 0.14 m/s. Mean body mass was 25 ± 5 kg. No gross evidence of pulling to left or right...
Giansanti, Daniele; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Grigioni, Mauro
When designing a complete process of daily telerehabilitation, it should be borne in mind that patients should be furnished with properly designed methodologies for executing specific motion tasks and the assessment of the relevant parameters. In general, such a process should comprehend three basic elements in both the hospital and the home: (a) instrumented walkways, (b) walking aids or supports, and (c) equipment for the assessment of parameters. The objective, with gait being the focus, of this study was thus to design a simple, portable kit-as an alternative to the complex and expensive instruments currently used-to be easily interfaced or integrated with the instrumented walkways and aids/supports both for self-monitoring while patients are exercising with their own aids and for clinical reporting. The proposed system is a portable kit that furnishes useful parameters with feedback to both the patient and the trainer/therapist. Capable of being integrated with the most common mechanical tools used in motion rehabilitation (handrail, scales, walkways, etc.), it constantly monitors and quantitatively assesses progress in rehabilitation care. It is composed of one step counter, photo-emitter detectors, one central unit for collecting and processing the telemetrically transmitted data, and a software interface. The system has been successfully validated on 16 subjects at the second level of the Tinetti test in a clinical application for both home and the hospital. The portable kit can be used with different rehabilitation tools and on varying ground rugosity. Advantages include (a) very low cost, when compared with optoelectronic solutions or other portable devices, (b) very high accuracy, also for subjects with imbalance problems, compared with other commercial solutions, and (c) integration (compatibility) with any rehabilitative tool.
Full Text Available “Historic Centre of Naples, World Heritage Site Enhancement” project has as its goal the rehabilitation of the oldest part of the historic center of Naples, one of the largest and most representative of Europe. The research reference field is placed on the level of strategic approach to the project and process management downstream of EU funding in large cities, with particular multidisciplinary relevance and urban issues of a complex nature. The scientific products of study, training and research were collected in Guidelines for the rehabilitation of public spaces and for sustainable performance of interventions on roads, walkways, squares and urban facilities.
PICNIC SHRIER MCE 327 C3 RECREATION COURTS 405 KS NEX COVERED WALKWAY ; 321 JJ RECREATION COURTS 40« F4 BRIG 330 K3 QUARTERS A 407 02 HAZARDOUS...B4. BirWand, David , "Mayors Sand Poin, Plan Hi, By Tribe, Mudtahoot. May Take Proposal To Navy." settle Times. August 31,1993, p. B1. -Clock Is...Division of Criminal Justice, 1978. "Rape Reduction: A Citywide Program" with David J. Sheppard and Thomas A. Giacinti in Sexual Assault, Marcia J
Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rosenfeld, A.H. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.
Drygala, I.; Dulinska, J.; Kondrat, K.
In the paper the dynamic analysis of a suspended reinforced concrete footbridge over a national road located in South Poland was carried out. Firstly, modes and values of natural frequencies of vibration of the structure were calculated. The results of the numerical modal investigation shown that the natural frequencies of the structure coincided with the frequency of human beings during motion steps (walking fast or running). Hence, to consider the comfort standards, the dynamic response of the footbridge to a runner dynamic motion should be calculated. Secondly, the dynamic response of the footbridge was calculated taking into consideration two models of dynamic forces produced by a single running pedestrian: a ‘sine’ and ‘half-sine’ model. It occurred that the values of accelerations and displacements obtained for the ‘half-sine’ model of dynamic forces were greater than those obtained for the ‘sine’ model up 20%. The ‘sine’ model is appropriate only for walking users of the walkways, because the nature of their motion has continues characteristic. In the case of running users of walkways this theory is unfitting, since the forces produced by a running pedestrian has a discontinuous nature. In this scenario of calculations, a ‘half-sine’ model seemed to be more effective. Finally, the comfort conditions for the footbridge were evaluated. The analysis proved that the vertical comfort criteria were not exceeded for a single user of footbridge running or walking fast.
Full Text Available In crisis situations in an urban environment, first responder teams often must deal with crowds of people. Consider the case of a building fire in a dense city environment. People may be injured; walkways may be blocked, with fire equipment attempting to reach the scene. Crowd behavior can become an issue when trying to reach the injured, ensure safety and restore conditions to normal. The motivations of pedestrians that form the crowd can vary. Some are there because they are curious about the crisis situation. Others, attending to their individual concerns, may have found themselves in the 'wrong' location. They may be trying to leave the area, but the density of people as well as the spatial layout of the walkways may be impeding their progress. Other individuals, unaware of the fire, may be attempting to reach their intended destinations that happen to be near the crisis area, thus adding to crowd congestion. With a model of crowd behavior, effective strategies for resource usage in managing crowd behavior can be developed. Our approach to this problem is that of agent-based modeling and simulation. We develop a cognitive pedestrian agent model. Utilizing this model, we simulate crowd behavior in a 'city fire' scenario. Characteristics of crowd behavior with different pedestrian personality mixes and a strategy for crowd management are investigated
Silver, A G; Zamboni, W A; Baynosa, R C
Acute burns suffered from contact with environmentally heated roadways and walkways are a rare entity. The aim of this report is to assess the information gained from the treatment of a series of patients. A retrospective review of a consecutive series of cases, where operative treatment was necessary, that occurred during July 2010 in southern Arizona. Seven patients were included, with an average total body surface area burn of 10.2%. Direct fascial excision and tangential excision were carried out on three and four patients, respectively. Although tangential excision was carried out to normal endpoints, there was commonly a need for repetitive debridement. The total hospital costs were over $4,400,000 (£2,730,000). Burns suffered from contact with roadways/walkways are often deeper than suggested by their appearance. Direct fascial excision minimises the number of debridement sessions. We hypothesise that the failure to offload pressure on these wounds may be a causative factor in their observed deepening.
Full Text Available We have investigated public preferences for use intensity and visual quality of forest recreational infrastructure. Forest infrastructure covers five classes, along a continuum from unmarked paths to paved walkways. Altogether, 39 sites were categorized into the five classes and measured with automatic counters. A sample of 545 respondents living in southeastern and middle Norway were asked to rate 15 forest scenes and 35 preconceptions of recreational settings. The path scenarios were depicted as digitally calibrated photos that systematically displayed physical path feature in boreal, semi-natural settings. Survey participants showed a clearly greater preference for photos and preconceptions of forests settings containing minor elements of forest infrastructure; unmarked paths received the highest score and forest roads/walkways/bikeways the lowest. We identified a clear mismatch between public preferences for forest infrastructure and the intensity of use; the less appreciated infrastructure was the most used. Planning and management has to consider these different needs for recreational infrastructure, and we propose an area zoning system that meets the different segments of forest visitors.
Enzo C. Jia
Full Text Available As urban planning becomes more sophisticated, the accurate detection and counting of pedestrians and cyclists become more important. Accurate counts can be used to determine the need for additional pedestrian walkways and intersection reorganization, among other planning initiatives. In this project, a camera-based approach is implemented to create a real-time pedestrian and cyclist counting system which is regularly accurate to 85% and often achieves higher accuracy. The approach retasks a state-of-the-art traffic camera, the Autoscope Solo Terra, for pedestrian and bicyclist counting. Object detection regions are sized to identify multiple pedestrians moving in either direction on an urban sidewalk and bicyclists in an adjacent bicycle lane. Collected results are processed in real time, eliminating the need for video storage and postprocessing. In this paper, results are presented for a pedestrian walkway for pedestrian flow up to 108 persons/min and the limitations of the implemented system are enumerated. Both pedestrian and cyclist counting accuracy of over 90% is achieved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliability of quantitative gait assessment while dual-tasking (walking while doing a secondary task such as talking in people with cognitive impairment is unknown. Dual-tasking gait assessment is becoming highly important for mobility research with older adults since better reflects their performance in the basic activities of daily living. Our purpose was to establish the test-retest reliability of assessing quantitative gait variables using an electronic walkway in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI under single and dual-task conditions. Methods The gait performance of 11 elderly individuals with MCI was evaluated using an electronic walkway (GAITRite® System in two sessions, one week apart. Six gait parameters (gait velocity, step length, stride length, step time, stride time, and double support time were assessed under two conditions: single-task (sG: usual walking and dual-task (dG: counting backwards from 100 while walking. Test-retest reliability was determined using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Gait variability was measured using coefficient of variation (CoV. Results Eleven participants (average age = 76.6 years, SD = 7.3 were assessed. They were high functioning (Clinical Dementia Rating Score = 0.5 with a mean Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE score of 28 (SD = 1.56, and a mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score of 22.8 (SD = 1.23. Under dual-task conditions, mean gait velocity (GV decreased significantly (sGV = 119.11 ± 20.20 cm/s; dGV = 110.88 ± 19.76 cm/s; p = 0.005. Additionally, under dual-task conditions, higher gait variability was found on stride time, step time, and double support time. Test-retest reliability was high (ICC>0.85 for the six parameters evaluated under both conditions. Conclusion In older people with MCI, variability of time-related gait parameters increased with dual-tasking suggesting cognitive control of gait performance. Assessment of quantitative gait
Designs to develop the grounds of the Globe of Science and Innovation have recently been unveiled. The plan is to extend the visitor activities on offer, transforming the area into a public arena for scientific exploration. Design for the new Globe Gardens. © Jencks Squared and Groupe H. After months of conceptual development, plans to develop the site around the Globe are taking shape. The innovative designs were drawn up for CERN by a unique collaboration consisting of landscape architects Charles and Lily Jencks, and "Groupe H", a group of architects headed by Globe designer Hervé Dessimoz. They comprise new venues, covered walkways, a café and gift shop, a separate VIP entrance and a physics-inspired garden for visitors. The landscape itself becomes a feature – dramatically altered to create a cosmic garden formed by shaped mounds, ponds, and a natural amphitheatre for public events. “The new exhibition in the G...
Vo, Mary L; Chin, Russell L; Miranda, Caroline; Latov, Norman
Gait impairment is a common presenting symptom in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, gait parameters have not previously been evaluated in detail as potential independent outcome measures. We prospectively measured changes in spatiotemporal gait parameters of 20 patients with CIDP at baseline and following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), using GAITRite® a computerized walkway system with embedded sensors. Overall, study patients showed significant improvements in gait velocity, cadence, stride length, double support time, stance phase, and swing phase following IVIG treatment. Mean changes in velocity, stance phase, and swing phase, exhibited the greatest statistical significance among the subgroup that exhibited clinically meaningful improvement in Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment disability score, Medical Research Council sum score, and grip strength. Assessment of gait parameters, in particular velocity, step phase and swing phase, is a potentially sensitive outcome measure for evaluating treatment response in CIDP. Muscle Nerve 56: 732-736, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ogunsanya, T J; Durborow, R M; Myers, M L; Cole, H P; Thompson, S L
The objective of this study was to identify and describe work-related safety hazards, injuries, and near-injury events (close calls) that occurred on trout farms in North Carolina and Kentucky. An interview instrument was used to collect information on occupational hazards, injuries, and near-injury events that resulted from work-related activities. Trout farmers reported occupational hazards including falling live tank lids, slippery surfaces on hauling trucks, lifting strains, falls from raceway walls and walkways, needlesticks while vaccinating fish, allergies, hypothermia/drowning, falls from cranes, chemical exposure, fire/explosions related to oxygen exposure, and electrical contact with overhead power lines. This study also reports solutions suggested by farm safety researchers or used by farmers to prevent the safety hazards found on trout farms.
Chang, Wen-Ruey; Lesch, Mary F; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon
Perceived slipperiness rating (PSR) has been widely used to assess walkway safety. In this experiment, 29 participants were exposed to 5 floor types under dry, wet and glycerol conditions. The relationship between their PSR and objective measurements, including utilized coefficient of friction (UCOF), gait kinematics and available coefficient of friction (ACOF), was explored with a regression analysis using step-wise backward elimination. The results showed that UCOF and ACOF, as well as their difference, were the major predictors of the PSR under wet and glycerol conditions. Under wet conditions, the participants appeared to rely on the potential for foot slip to form their PSR. Under glycerol conditions, some kinematic variables also became major predictors of PSR. The results show how different proprioceptive responses and ACOF contributed to the prediction of PSR under different surface conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This is an attempt to search for alternative eco-friendly earth paving material for public walkways with both the strength and durable properties of concrete while ensuring pedestrian comfort. Approaches were made to change the fine particle percentage while keeping the sand and gravel constant, once the optimum most practical mixture was known, the standard tests were done. The results obtained revealed that the proposed self-compacting block can be produced by using soil with less than 5% fine particles, 55% of 65% sand particles and 18% of 22% cement by weight together with the moisture content between 14% and 15%The tested mud concrete paving blocks were already used in practical application in Sri Lankan urban context.
Johnston, A. R.; Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P. L.
The design of an improved and enclosed Automated Mixed Traffic Transit (AMTT) vehicle is described. AMTT is an innovative concept for low-speed tram-type transit in which suitable vehicles are equipped with sensors and controls to permit them to operate in an automated mode on existing road or walkway surfaces. The vehicle chassis and body design are presented in terms of sketches and photographs. The functional design of the sensing and control system is presented, and modifications which could be made to the baseline design for improved performance, in particular to incorporate a 20-mph capability, are also discussed. The vehicle system is described at the block-diagram-level of detail. Specifications and parameter values are given where available.
Heredia-Jimenez, Jose M; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M
The aim of this study was to assess the kinematics disorder of gait in men with fibromyalgia. We studied 12 male with fibromyalgia and 14 healthy men. Each participant of the study walked five trials along a 18.6-m walkway. Fibromyalgia patients completed a Spanish version of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Significant differences between fibromyalgia and control groups were found in velocity, stride length, and cadence. Gait parameters of men affected by fibromyalgia were impaired when compared to those of healthy group due to bradykinesia. According to previous studies to assess gait variables in female patients, the male with fibromyalgia also showed lower values of velocity, cadence, and stride length than healthy group but not reported significant differences in swing, stance, single, or double support phase.
Heredia Jiménez, José María; Aparicio García-Molina, Virginia A; Porres Foulquie, Jesús M; Delgado Fernández, Manuel; Soto Hermoso, Victor M
The aim of the present study was to determine if there are differences in such parameters among patients affected by fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy subjects and whether the degree of affectation by FM can decrease the gait parameters. We studied 55 women with FM and 44 controls. Gait analysis was performed using an instrumented walkway for measurement of the kinematic parameters of gait (GAITRite system), and patients completed a Spanish version of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Significant differences (p Gait parameters of women affected by FM were severely impaired when compared to those of healthy women. Different factors such as lack of physical activity, bradikinesia, overweight, fatigue, and pain together with a lower isometric force in the legs can be responsible for the alterations in gait and poorer life quality of women with FM.
Funada, T.; Yamagishi, Y.
The amount of leaked sodium was estimated as approximately 640 kg during the 220 minute leak. The ventilation duct and the walkway grating under the leak site were severely damaged by Na-Fe-O reaction, but the floor liner and the concrete wall were not. A total 100 kg of sodium aerosol was deposited in the reactor auxiliary building and 230 kg was released to the atmosphere. The sodium concentration at the site boundary was calculated as 0.05 mg/m 3 , NaOH equivalent, which was low in comparison with the permitted level of 2 mg/m 3 . The tritium quantity released was estimated as 4.4 x 10 7 Bq, which was about 0.03% of the average released value per month for a LWR. (author)
Lockhart, Thurmon; Kim, Sukwon; Kapur, Radhika; Jarrott, Shannon
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between gait adaptation and slip/fall risk of older adults with cognitive impairments. The study investigated the gait characteristics of six healthy older adults and five older adults with dementia. Participants walked on an instrumented walkway at their preferred walking speeds. After ensuring that the preferred walking speeds were consistent, participants' natural posture and ground reaction forces were measured. The results suggested that participants with dementia walked more cautiously yet demanded more friction at the shoe/floor interface at the time of heel contact, increasing the risk of slip initiation. To reduce the risk of slip-induced falls among older adults with dementia, specific gait training to reduce friction demand requirements by increasing the transfer speed of the whole body mass is suggested.
Full Text Available The paper presents a method developed for the gait classification based on the analysis of the trajectory of the pressure centres (CoP extracted from the contact points of the feet with the ground during walking. The data acquirement is performed ba means of a walkway with embedded tactile sensors. The proposed method includes capturing procedures, standardization of data, creation of an organized repository (data warehouse, and development of a process mining. A graphical analysis is applied to looking at the footprint signature patterns. The aim is to obtain a visual interpretation of the grouping by situating it into the normal walking patterns or deviations associated with an individual way of walking. The method consists of data classification automation which divides them into healthy and non-healthy subjects in order to assist in rehabilitation treatments for the people with related mobility problems.
Downhill from a golf driving range on Maryland's Interstate 70 highway near the city of Frederick, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic technicians Richard Saffer and Robert Pentz strode along a short path and over a steel walkway for a site visit to a concrete gage house near the Monocacy River.Gage house #01643000 sits on top of a stilling well that reaches about 8.5 m above the normal flow stage of the river. Inside the house are floats to lower down the well shaft, a hand pump, pipes leading into the river, and other basic technology befitting a structure built in 1929. But the station also is equipped with a modern data collecting platform, an antenna link to transmit data to geostationary operations environmental satellites (GOES), a modem connection, and other high-tech tools of the trade.
The question of safety and the assessment of risk to personnel has been looked at from the point of view of life underwriting in the nuclear power industry, and the oil, gas and coal industries. Following a brief history of the energy industries and techniques of energy extraction, including reactor types, the medical aspects are considered for each industry. For nuclear energy workers these are exposure to radioactive material and deafness. The accident risks are then considered. For the nuclear industry particular areas of risk are identified as walkways, road traffic accidents, human error and radiation. Accident statistics for 1981-1985 in the UK are given. Safety aspects are then considered and accidents involving increased radiation exposure are mentioned. Suggested ratings are given. For the nuclear industry there is insufficient evidence to suggest that ratings should be imposed. (UK)
Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon; Lesch, Mary F
The required friction coefficient is defined as the minimum friction needed at the shoe and floor interface to support human locomotion. The available friction is the maximum friction coefficient that can be supported without a slip at the shoe and floor interface. A statistical model was recently introduced to estimate the probability of slip and fall incidents by comparing the available friction with the required friction, assuming that both the available and required friction coefficients have stochastic distributions. This paper presents a methodology to investigate the stochastic distributions of the required friction coefficient for level walking. In this experiment, a walkway with a layout of three force plates was specially designed in order to capture a large number of successful strikes without causing fatigue in participants. The required coefficient of friction data of one participant, who repeatedly walked on this walkway under four different walking conditions, is presented as an example of the readiness of the methodology examined in this paper. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test indicated that the required friction coefficient generated from each foot and walking condition by this participant appears to fit the normal, log-normal or Weibull distributions with few exceptions. Among these three distributions, the normal distribution appears to fit all the data generated with this participant. The average of successful strikes for each walk achieved with three force plates in this experiment was 2.49, ranging from 2.14 to 2.95 for each walking condition. The methodology and layout of the experimental apparatus presented in this paper are suitable for being applied to a full-scale study.
Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D
Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cole, Michael H; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kavanagh, Justin K; Morrison, Steven; Hodges, Paul W; Smeathers, James E; Kerr, Graham K
Although accelerometers are extensively used for assessing gait, limited research has evaluated the concurrent validity of these devices on less predictable walking surfaces or the comparability of different methods used for gravitational acceleration compensation. This study evaluated the concurrent validity of trunk accelerations derived from a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces and contrasted two methods used to remove gravitational accelerations; i) subtraction of the best linear fit from the data (detrending); and ii) use of orientation information (quaternions) from the inertial measurement unit. Twelve older and twelve younger adults walked at their preferred speed along firm, compliant and uneven walkways. Accelerations were evaluated for the thoracic spine (T12) using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit and an eleven-camera Vicon system. The findings demonstrated excellent agreement between accelerations derived from the inertial measurement unit and motion analysis system, including while walking on uneven surfaces that better approximate a real-world setting (all differences firm surfaces (delta range: -0.05 to 0.06 vs. 0.00 to 0.14 m.s(-2)), whereas the quaternion method performed better when walking on compliant and uneven walkways (delta range: -0.16 to -0.02 vs. -0.07 to 0.07 m.s(-2)). The technique used to compensate for gravitational accelerations requires consideration in future research, particularly when walking on compliant and uneven surfaces. These findings demonstrate trunk accelerations can be accurately measured using a wireless inertial measurement unit and are appropriate for research that evaluates healthy populations in complex environments.
Pasqualini, Osvaldo; Libener, Marcello; Farina, Elena; Bena, Antonella
To examine the usefulness for prevention of the National Surveillance System on occupational fatalities, which is based on the narrative description of the work accident collected by OSH inspectors and on the subsequent classification of the injury dynamics by means of a standardized model of analysis. The system ability of providing useful recommendations for prevention was evaluated on one hand by analyzing the effectiveness of inspections in preventing fatalities, on the other hand by identifying the most frequent accident mechanisms. Data analyzed consisted of investigation reports of construction fatalities occurred during 2002-2008 in the Piedmont Region, collected by surveillance system. The injury narrative description was used to assess whether the fatality would have been preventable by an inspection hypothetically conducted the day before the event; injuries were classified as probably preventable, probably not preventable, and uncertain. A standardized model of classification of injury dynamics was employed to identify mechanisms and circumstances related to the construction fatalities, and particularly those caused by falls from height. Among 122 construction fatalities occurred, 25%were considered probably preventable and 60%probably not preventable. Half of the construction fatalities was caused by fall from height, most of which were caused by sudden breaking of a surface walkway, and almost 20% by fall of objects, including burial. The analysis of the preventability of construction fatalities in Piedmont seems partly to rebut the assumption that more inspections are necessarily associated with a reduction in fatalities. The interpretation of the injury narrative descriptions, which are implemented by OHS inspectors as part of their usual activity, through a standardized model of analysis allows to identify the breaking of surface walkways as the most important mechanism of fatality among falls from height.
Thaler-Kall, Kathrin; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Grill, Eva; Autenrieth, Christine S; Horsch, Alexander; Meisinger, Christa
In this epidemiological study we described the characteristics of spatio-temporal gait parameters among a representative, population-based sample of 890 community-dwelling people aged 65 to 90 years. In addition, we investigated the associations between certain gait parameters and a history of falls in study participants. In descriptive analyses spatio-temporal gait parameters were assessed according to history of falls, frailty, multimorbidity, gender, multiple medication use, disability status, and age group. Logistic regression models were calculated to examine the association between gait velocity and stride length with a history of falls (at least one fall in the last 12 month). Data on gait were collected on an electronic walkway on which participants walked at their usual pace. We found significant differences within gait parameters when stratifying by frailty, multimorbidity, disability and multiple medication use as well as age (cut point 75 years) and sex, with p history of falls, only stride length showed a significant difference (p falls in men aged older than 74 years (OR 1.34 (CI: 1.05-1.70 per 10 cm decrease)), while this was neither the case for women of similar age nor for men or women aged 65 to 74 years. A decreased walking speed was not associated with falls. Age, frailty, multimorbidity, disability, history of falls, sex, and multiple medication use show an association with different gait parameters measured during gait assessment on an electronic walkway in elderly people. Furthermore, stride length is a good indicator to differentiate fallers from non-fallers in older men from the general population.
Ross, Sandy A; Rice, Clinton; Von Behren, Kristyn; Meyer, April; Alexander, Rachel; Murfin, Scott
The purpose of this study was to establish intra-rater, intra-session, and inter-rater, reliability of sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle angles with and without reflective markers using the GAITRite walkway and single video camera between student physical therapists and an experienced physical therapist. This study included thirty-two healthy participants age 20-59, stratified by age and gender. Participants performed three successful walks with and without markers applied to anatomical landmarks. GAITRite software was used to digitize sagittal hip, knee, and ankle angles at two phases of gait: (1) initial contact; and (2) mid-stance. Intra-rater reliability was more consistent for the experienced physical therapist, regardless of joint or phase of gait. Intra-session reliability was variable, the experienced physical therapist showed moderate to high reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.50-0.89) and the student physical therapist showed very poor to high reliability (ICC = 0.07-0.85). Inter-rater reliability was highest during mid-stance at the knee with markers (ICC = 0.86) and lowest during mid-stance at the hip without markers (ICC = 0.25). Reliability of a single camera system, especially at the knee joint shows promise. Depending on the specific type of reliability, error can be attributed to the testers (e.g. lack of digitization practice and marker placement), participants (e.g. loose fitting clothing) and camera systems (e.g. frame rate and resolution). However, until the camera technology can be upgraded to a higher frame rate and resolution, and the software can be linked to the GAITRite walkway, the clinical utility for pre/post measures is limited.
Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P
To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.
In this comparative study concerning characteristics of independent walking by visually impaired persons, we used a motion analyser system to perform gait analysis of 15 late blind (age 36-54, mean 44.3 years), 15 congenitally blind (age 39-48, mean 43.8 years) and 15 sighted persons (age 40-50, mean 44.4 years) while walking a 10-m walkway. All subjects were male. Compared to the sighted, late blind and congenitally blind persons had a significantly slower walking speed, shorter stride length and longer time in the stance phase of gait. However, the relationships between gait parameters in the late and congenitally blind groups were maintained, as in the sighted group. In addition, the gait of the late blind showed a tendency to approximate the gait patterns of the congenitally blind as the duration of visual loss progressed. Based on these results we concluded that the gait of visually impaired persons, through its active use of non-visual sensory input, represents an attempt to adapt to various environmental conditions in order to maintain a more stable posture and to effect safe walking.
Brittany Jean Carr
Full Text Available Objective: To assess weight bearing of dogs treated for unilateral cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency with a custom stifle orthotic.Background: Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL insufficiency is the most common cause of hind limb lameness in dogs. While there are numerous options for surgical management, surgery is not always an option. Recently, the use of canine stifle orthotics has also emerged as a means to non-surgically manage patients with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency. Evidentiary value: This is a retrospective study of ten dogs treated for unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture with a stifle orthotic.Methods: Medical records (January 2005- December 2012 of ten dogs treated for unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture with a stifle orthotic were reviewed. Temporospatial gait analysis was performed using a pressure sensing walkway at baseline and 90 days or greater post orthotic placement to identify weight bearing with total pressure index % (TPI%.Results: TPI% improved significantly by 5.1% in the affected limb when compared to baseline (p = 0.0020. At final gait analysis, TPI% significantly improved by 3% in the affected limb with the orthotic off when compared to the unaffected limb (p = 0.0020.Conclusion: Custom canine stifle orthotics allow for improved weight bearing in the affected limb.Application: Custom canine stifle orthotics should be considered for cases with concurrent medical conditions or financial constraints that do not allow for surgical intervention.
Full Text Available Way-finding is the ability of people to perceive routes, flow patterns, or passageways inside and/or around a building. In other words, it is the capability of a person to know their whereabouts in a space. Modular buildings and complex spatial plan structure, in general, can be very confusing, especially from a way-finding point of view. This research attempts to measure the way-finding performance of a modular building by assessing the users’ experience in finding their way inside the Male Engineering Building at Qatar University. The study involved students, faculty, and staff members that utilize that space daily. The research focused on accessing indoor spaces as well as the walkways and spaces connected to the building. Results show that parameters as the use of colours and numbers can improve capability and swiftness in way-finding. In future research, several types of signage and visual elements will be tested, in order to understand how they can enhance way-finding efficiency and user performance within indoor spaces.
Menegon, Fabrício Augusto; Rodrigues, Daniela da Silva; Fontes, Andréa Regina Martins; Menegon, Nilton Luiz
This paper aims to discuss the role of ergonomics in design process using the dialogue developed by designers, implementers and users in an oil refinery. It was possible to identify the need of minimizing the postural constraints, risk of accidents, mechanical shocks and to enlarge safety perception in the access and permanency of the users at the workspace. It has been determined and validated by workers and managers to implement different deadlines depending on programming, viability and execution time for the improvements proposed. In a long-term: it was proposed the substitution of the ladders with time planning according to the maintenance program of the tanks; in a short-time: it was suggested the expansion of the existing platforms, implementation of a walkway connection provided with guardrails between the upper access of the side ladder and the repositioning of radar set and aerial aiming at the usage by workers at the workstation of the new platform. It was also elaborated eight typologies of intervention, according to the request, type of tank, material stored, and its setting place. The design process arises from ergonomics workplace analysis that presents concepts for solutions which was a mediator tool to be settled between users and implementers.
Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi
The available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion is the maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported without a slip at the shoe and floor interface. A statistical model was introduced to estimate the probability of slip by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction, assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. This paper presents an investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of quarry tiles under dry, water and glycerol conditions. One hundred friction measurements were performed on a walkway under the surface conditions of dry, water and 45% glycerol concentration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF appears to fit the normal and log-normal distributions better than the Weibull distribution for the water and glycerol conditions. However, no match was found between the distribution of ACOF under the dry condition and any of the three continuous distributions evaluated. Based on limited data, a normal distribution might be more appropriate due to its simplicity, practicality and familiarity among the three distributions evaluated.
Hartkopf, V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics
The potential cost-benefits for quality construction of office buildings were discussed with particular reference to sick building costs and health building gains. Cost-benefits were indicated in terms of first cost, operational energy costs, individual productivity, organizational productivity, health, attraction, taxation, and waste. The measures of human response in buildings were also discussed with reference to comfort and satisfaction, individual productivity, health and absenteeism, attraction, spatial flexibility, motivation and collaboration. The building attributes that have the greatest impact include air, light, thermal control, ergonomics, privacy and interaction, access to nature, land use and mobility. It was suggested that natural ventilation should be maximized with mixed-mode heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and that ventilation air should be separate from thermal conditioning. It was also suggested that temperature control can increase productivity and reduce energy consumption. Several international case studies have shown that acoustic privacy also increases individual productivity at complex tasks. The presentation concluded by indicating that healthy and sustainable design also depends on changing approaches to land use and community planning in terms of pedestrian walkways, maximized loading of infrastructure and buildings, minimized abandonment and green roof development to reduce annual cooling loads. tabs., figs.
McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua
The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3-101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed ® platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3-9 years, adolescents aged 10-19 years, adults aged 20-59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ЛАЗАРЕВА ОЛЬГА ЮРЬЕВНА; ЛОЖКИНА ДАРЬЯ ДМИТРИЕВНА
Gerstle, Emily E; O'Connor, Kristian; Keenan, Kevin G; Cobb, Stephen C
In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause of injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A 7-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm), and continued walking. As step height increased, landing strategy transitioned from the rearfoot to the forefoot, and the rearfoot, lateral and medial midfoot, and medial forefoot became more plantar flexed. During weight acceptance, sagittal plane range of motion of the rearfoot, lateral midfoot, and medial and lateral forefoot increased as step height increased. The changes in landing strategy and distal foot function suggest a less stable ankle position at initial contact and increased demand on the distal foot at initial contact and through the weight acceptance phase of transition step negotiation as step height increases.
Najafi, Bijan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Aminian, Kamiar
This study investigates whether the spatio-temporal parameters of gait in the elderly vary as a function of walking distance. The gait pattern of older subjects (n=27) over both short (SWDLWD>20 m) walking was evaluated using an ambulatory device consisting of body-worn sensors (Physilog). The stride velocity (SV), gait cycle time (GCT), and inter-cycle variability of each parameter (CV) were evaluated for each subject. Analysis was undertaken after evaluating the errors and the test-retest reliability of the Physilog device compared with an electronic walkway system (GaitRite) over the SWD with different walking speeds. While both systems were highly reliable with respect to the SV and GCT parameters (ICC>0.82), agreement for the gait variability was poor. Interestingly, our data revealed that the measured gait parameters over SWD and LWD were significantly different. LWD trials had a mean increase of 5.2% (pLWD trials decreased by an average of 1% relative to the SWD case, the drop was not significant. Moreover, reliability for gait variability measures was poor, irrespective of the instrument and despite a moderate improvement for LWD trials. Taken together, our findings indicate that for valid and reliable comparisons, test and retest should be performed under identical distance conditions. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the older subjects may choose different walking strategies for SWD and LWD conditions.
Between 10 April and 19 April 2010 a number of roads on the Meyrin site and at the entrance of the Prévessin site will be resurfaced. The work will be done by zones, as shown below: 12-14 April Intersection of Route Fermi and Route Gregory. Route Fermi, between Building 268 and Route Jentschke Route Fermi, Route Jentschke and Route Einstein, up to Building 593 and between Buildings 194 and 555. Plus Route Oppenheimer. 15 April Intersection of Route Bloch and Route Maxwell, and Route Maxwell itself. Route Sherrer between the overhead walkway (Building 50) and the exit from the carpark behind Building 4. 16 April and 19 April Route Fermi, Route Jentschke and Route Einstein, up to Building 593 and between Buildings 194 and 555. Prévessin site: from Route Adams to the access control Building. The construction works may result in some disruption to traffic. Users are requested to comply with the temporary traffic signs and arrangements. Thank you for your understanding. GS/...
Almarwani, Maha; Van Swearingen, Jessie M; Perera, Subashan; Sparto, Patrick J; Brach, Jennifer S
Walk ratio, defined as step length divided by cadence, indicates the coordination of gait. During free walking, deviation from the preferential walk ratio may reveal abnormalities of walking patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of rhythmic auditory cueing (metronome) on the neuromotor control of gait at different walking speeds. Forty adults (mean age 26.6 ± 6.0 years) participated in the study. Gait characteristics were collected using a computerized walkway. In the preferred walking speed, there was no significant difference in walk ratio between uncued (walk ratio = .0064 ± .0007 m/steps/min) and metronome-cued walking (walk ratio = .0064 ± .0007 m/steps/min; p = .791). A higher value of walk ratio at the slower speed was observed with metronome-cued (walk ratio = .0071 ± .0008 m/steps/min) compared to uncued walking (walk ratio = .0068 ± .0007 m/steps/min; p metronome-cued (walk ratio = .0060 ± .0009 m/steps/min) compared to uncued walking (walk ratio = .0062 ± .0009 m/steps/min; p = .005). In healthy adults, the metronome cues may become an attentional demanding task, and thereby disrupt the spatial and temporal integration of gait at nonpreferred speeds.
Roerdink, Melvyn; Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Beek, Peter J
Acoustic rhythms are frequently used in gait rehabilitation, with positive instantaneous and prolonged transfer effects on various gait characteristics. The gait modifying ability of acoustic rhythms depends on how well gait is tied to the beat, which can be assessed with measures of relative timing of auditory-motor coordination. We examined auditory-motor coordination in 20 healthy elderly individuals walking to metronome beats with pacing frequencies slower than, equal to, and faster than their preferred cadence. We found that more steps were required to adjust gait to the beat, the more the metronome rate deviated from the preferred cadence. Furthermore, participants anticipated the beat with their footfalls to various degrees, depending on the metronome rate; the faster the tempo, the smaller the phase advance or phase lead. Finally, the variability in the relative timing between footfalls and the beat was smaller for metronome rates closer to the preferred cadence, reflecting superior auditory-motor coordination. These observations have three practical implications. First, instantaneous effects of acoustic stimuli on gait characteristics may typically be underestimated given the considerable number of steps required to attune gait to the beat in combination with the usual short walkways. Second, a systematic phase lead of footfalls to the beat does not necessarily reflect a reduced ability to couple gait to the metronome. Third, the efficacy of acoustic rhythms to modify gait depends on metronome rate. Gait is coupled best to the beat for metronome rates near the preferred cadence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Throughout its life-cycle, wood contributes to climate change mitigation through carbon storage and material and energy substitution. Focusing on wood use for piles, check dams, paved walkways, guardrails, and noise barriers, we quantified the nationwide potential for climate change mitigation in civil engineering in Japan through 2050. To assess mitigation potential, we examined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions that are avoided by storing carbon in wood and forests, substituting wooden materials for non-wooden materials (cement, concrete, steel, and asphalt, and substituting processing residue and waste wood salvaged from defunct civil engineering structures for fossil fuels (heavy oil. Our projections suggest that there will be a maximum potential domestic log volume of 6.80 million m3/year available for civil engineering use in Japan in 2050, and that it would be possible to produce this volume while increasing Japan’s forest resources over the long term. A maximum nationwide avoided GHG emissions potential of 9.63 million t-CO2eq/year could be achieved in 2050, which is equivalent to 0.7% of Japan’s current GHG emissions. The breakdown of avoided emissions is 73%, 19%, and 8% for carbon storage, material substitution, and energy substitution, respectively, with the greatest contributions coming from carbon storage through the use of log piles.
Ezzati, Ali [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Katz, Mindy J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Michael L. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center and Departments of Radiology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, The Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Richard B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Verghese, Joe [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Division of Cognitive and Motor Aging, Bronx, NY (United States)
While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)
Lowry, Kristin A; Vanswearingen, Jessie M; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A; Brach, Jennifer S
Gait speed has shown to be an indicator of functional status in older adults; however, there may be aspects of physical function not represented by speed but by the quality of movement. The purpose of this study was to determine the relations between walking smoothness, an indicator of the quality of movement based on trunk accelerations, and physical function. Thirty older adults (mean age, 77.7±5.1 years) participated. Usual gait speed was measured using an instrumented walkway. Walking smoothness was quantified by harmonic ratios derived from anteroposterior, vertical, and mediolateral trunk accelerations recorded during overground walking. Self-reported physical function was recorded using the function subscales of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument. Anteroposterior smoothness was positively associated with all function components of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument, whereas mediolateral smoothness exhibited negative associations. Adjusting for gait speed, anteroposterior smoothness remained associated with the overall and lower extremity function subscales, whereas mediolateral smoothness remained associated with only the advanced lower extremity subscale. These findings indicate that walking smoothness, particularly the smoothness of forward progression, represents aspects of the motor control of walking important for physical function not represented by gait speed alone.
de Oriol e Ybarra, M.
Full Text Available This building is located in San Agustín de Guadalix, next to the N-I highway and consists of four well-defined parts designed for classes, theoretical as well as practical, for residences and restaurant, and for athletics, and all united by a covered pedestrian walkway. The building has been carefully adapted to the topography of the land, conserving, as much in the formal appearance as in the choice of materials, the architecture and character of the area and, likewise, bearing the dignity of a work of eminently social importance.El edificio está emplazado en San Agustín de Guadalix, junte a la carretera general N-I. Se compone de cuatro partes bien diferenciadas: clases teóricas, residencia y restaurante, clases prácticas y zona deportiva, ligadas por una calle cubierta, para uso de peatones. La construcción se ha adaptado cuidadosamente a la topografía del solar, respetando, tanto en el aspecto formal como en el uso de los materiales, la fisonomía y carácter de la zona, e imprimiéndole, asimismo, la sobriedad propia de una obra eminentemente social.
This article discussed the everyday lives of workers in Canada's oil sands industry. The remoteness of the oil sands camps and the typical schedule of 24 days on, followed by 7 days off, can create stresses on oil sands workers. Although the industry continues to grow and recruit more employees, many workers are unaccustomed to living in work camps and employee turnover rates are high. Recreational facilities at Shell's Albian Village work camp were designed to provide city amenities not typically associated with work camp life. The facilities boast an ice hockey rink and other sports facilities, as well as a baseball field, pub, a coffee shop, and a cafeteria. The facilities are interconnected by enclosed walkways to hotel-like residences, where rooms are equipped with flat-screen televisions. A private airstrip has also been installed to ensure that workers spend less time travelling and can avoid congestion in the busy Fort McMurray area. Workers at the camp come from different provinces in Canada as well as countries as diverse as Algeria and Germany. The safety and comfort of its employees is a priority for Shell's oil sands division. 13 figs.
As you have probably seen, the corridor collage for Building 49 (the glass walkway between buildings 513 and 31) is finally being installed. It is one of the projects that was developed as part of the CERN IT Create event that took place over two days in March 2016 at IdeaSquare. The objective of this workshop was to brainstorm and work in teams (IT department people, specialists and experts of the ECO group, and external designers – Laura Couto Rosado and Nadezda Suvorova– linked to the Arts@CERN programme) to design and produce the first prototypes of an exhibit to enhance the experience of the public visitors to the CERN data centre building. Five projects were developed at this occasion (and presented at an IT technical forum): the ‘Timeframe’ one is the first one being finalised. More information about this project can be read in the attached document. The small inauguration of this installation will take place on 28/06/17 at 10:00 in front of the glass corridor (building 49). The ribbon will be ...
Major industries as pollution sources include aluminium smelting and processing, petroleum refining and processing, steel works, manufacturing of dry cell batteries, cement. Vegetables considered are cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion and Sweet pepper . Areas used for cultivation are backyard gardens, along drains, walkways, and streets. Urban markets Vegetables are liable to contamination from pollutants emitted into the environment. MAIN OBJECTIVES: Determine the extent to which toxic element levels in foods are affected by surrounding industrial activities, Assess the human exposure to such contaminated foodstuffs. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Monitor As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Se, Sn and Mo in vegetables grown in the Tema Municipal District, due to pollution from industrial activity, Assess human exposure to such contaminated foods through monitoring of the distribution and marketing channels. METHODS: Identify sampling areas within the Tema municipality including (a) Identification of the growers and their marketing outlets and (b) Identifying the sources of water used for cultivation by means of a questionnaire; Quantify the level of toxic elements in the soil and water bodies used for the cultivation of vegetables, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Analyse foods from the farms at the selected sampling areas using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis
Heredia-Jimenez, J; Orantes-Gonzalez, E; Soto-Hermoso, V M
To analyze how fibromyalgia affected the variability, asymmetry, and bilateral coordination of gait walking at comfortable and fast speeds. 65 fibromyalgia (FM) patients and 50 healthy women were analyzed. Gait analysis was performed using an instrumented walkway (GAITRite system). Average walking speed, coefficient of variation (CV) of stride length, swing time, and step width data were obtained and bilateral coordination and gait asymmetry were analyzed. FM patients presented significantly lower speeds than the healthy group. FM patients obtained significantly higher values of CV_StrideLength (p=0.04; pGait asymmetry only showed significant differences in the fast condition. FM patients walked more slowly and presented a greater variability of gait and worse bilateral coordination than healthy subjects. Gait asymmetry only showed differences in the fast condition. The variability and the bilateral coordination were particularly affected by FM in women. Therefore, variability and bilateral coordination of gait could be analyzed to complement the gait evaluation of FM patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Silva, Ana Paula; Chagas, Daniel das Virgens; Cavaliere, Maria Lúcia; Pinto, Sérgio; de Oliveira Barbosa, José Silvio; Batista, Luiz Alberto
To analyse the subtalar eversion range of motion during walking in women with fibromyalgia. Twenty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia were directed to walk barefoot at comfortable and self-paced speed on a 7m walkway. Subtalar eversion range of motion was measured using the difference between the maximum and minimum values of subtalar eversion in stance phase. A range of motion between 4°-6° was considered as reference values for subtalar eversion during gait. Descriptive statistics were performed. In both right and left lower limb analysis of subtalar eversion range of motion, five women showed joint hypomobility, and twelve showed hypermobility. Only one patient performed unaltered subtalar eversion range of motion in both lower limbs. Both joints expressed high variability, and there were no significant differences between the right and left sides. The findings suggest that biomechanical function of the subtalar joint eversion during the loading response phase of gait in women with fibromyalgia, by excessive rigidity or complacency joint, tends to be impaired. This finding suggests that the indication of walking as an auxiliary strategy in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia should be preceded by thorough examination of the mechanical conditions of the subtalar joint of the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Souza, Alexandre N A; Ferreira, Marcio P; Hagen, Stefano C F; Patrício, Geni C F; Matera, Julia M
The study aims were to evaluate the effects of radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA) using clinical assessment and kinetic analysis. Thirty dogs diagnosed with bilateral hip OA and 30 healthy dogs were used. In OA dogs, one limb was randomly selected for treatment with RSWT while the contralateral limb served as an untreated control. Dogs were evaluated while walking on a pressure walkway. Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were documented; symmetry index (SI) was also calculated. Blinded clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Owner perception data regarding levels of physical activity were also collected. The RSWT protocol (2000 pulses, 10 Hz, 2-3.4 bars) consisted of three weekly treatment sessions (days 1, 8 and 16). Follow-up data were collected 30, 60 and 90 days after the first session. Data were compared between time points, groups and limbs pairs. At the end of the experimental period, mean PVF and VI values had increased (25.9 to 27.6%BW and 2.1 to 12.7%BW × s respectively) in treated limbs, with no significant differences in control limbs; SI values suggest improvement. Mean PVF and VI remained lower in the treated compared to the healthy group following treatment. The VAS scores suggested improvement in pain and lameness in treated dogs. Owner perception data suggested improved levels of physical activity following treatment. Outcomes of this study suggested beneficial effects of RSWT in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of head and trunk acceleration measured by MTx sensors during walking on Level and Irregular surfaces and to compare the differences between healthy young and old adults. Methods: Participants were 20 young female university students and 20 non-faller elderly women in Iran, 2013. Two MTX sensors were used to measure head and trunk accelerations in the vertical (VT, anterior-posterior (AP, and medial-lateral (ML directions while participants walked on a 7-meter walkway. Results: ICC values in young group were higher as compared to non- faller elderly group; ICC was greater than 0.7 for 89.47%(34.38 of variables in young group and for 60.52%(23.38 in non- faller. Intersession reliability for upper trunk coordination indices in regular surface and in young group showed highest values as compared with other conditions in both groups, whereas the lowest intersession reliability was found in irregular floor surface indices in non-faller elderly group. Discussion: The calculated ICC, SEM, CV%, MDC values suggest that the MTX sensors provide precise recordings and detect small changes in upper trunk accelerometric parameters. ICC values were influenced by the age and the floor condition. In healthy young, all ICC values in regular surface were higher than 0.7. Floor condition effect was noticeable in elderly especially in ML direction. During walking on irregular surface, ML acceleration, velocity and harmonic ratio in elderly showed lower repeatability.
Cook, Nigel B; Nordlund, Kenneth V
Free stall housing increases the exposure of dairy cows' claws to concrete walk-ways and to manure between periods of rest, and generally shows the highest rate of lameness compared with other dairy management systems. However, there is great variation within a system, and the rate of new cases of lameness can be reduced to very low levels provided time spent resting per day is maximized through good stall design, access to stalls through stocking density control and comfortable transition cow facilities, limiting the time spent milking, provision of adequate heat abatement, and good leg hygiene. Sand bedded stalls are useful as they also permit lame cows to maintain adequate daily rest. Rubberized alley flooring surfaces benefit the cow by reducing claw wear and trauma compared to concrete, making them ideal for parlor holding areas and long transfer lanes and walk ways. However, caution is required when using rubber floors in pens with uncomfortable stalls due to apparent adverse effects on cow time budgets, which may in turn have a detrimental effect on lameness.
Lu, Chiahao; Amundsen Huffmaster, Sommer L; Harvey, Jack C; MacKinnon, Colum D
Gait initiation involves a complex sequence of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during the transition from steady state standing to forward locomotion. APAs have four core components that function to accelerate the center of mass forwards and towards the initial single-support stance limb. These components include loading of the initial step leg, unloading of the initial stance leg, and excursion of the center of pressure in the posterior and lateral (towards the stepping leg) directions. This study examined the incidence, magnitude, and timing of these components and how they change across the lifespan (ages 20-79). 157 individuals performed five trials of self-paced, non-cued gait initiation on an instrumented walkway. At least one component of the APA was absent in 24% of all trials. The component most commonly absent was loading of the initial step leg (absent in 10% of all trials in isolation, absent in 10% of trials in conjunction with another missing component). Trials missing all four components were rare (1%) and were observed in both younger and older adults. There was no significant difference across decades in the incidence of trials without an APA, the number or type of APA components absent, or the magnitude or timing of the APA components. These data demonstrate that one or more components of the APA sequence are commonly absent in the general population and the spatiotemporal profile of the APA does not markedly change with ageing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wilmut, Kate; Du, Wenchong; Barnett, Anna L
Obstacles often appear unexpectedly in our pathway and these require us to make immediate adjustments. Despite how regularly we encounter such situations only few studies have considered how we adjust to unexpected obstacles in the pathway that require us to walk around them. The authors considered how adults adjust to the possibility of an obstacle appearing and then also how foot placement is adjusted to circumvent an obstacle. Fifteen healthy adults walked down an 11-m walkway, initially they were told this was a clear pathway and nothing in the environment would change (no gate), they then performed a series of trials in which a gate may (gate close) or may not (gate open) partially obstruct their pathway. The authors found that mediolateral trunk velocity and acceleration was significantly increased when there was the possibility of an obstacle but before the obstacle appeared. This demonstrates an adaptive walking strategy that seems to enable healthy young adults to successfully circumvent obstacles. The authors also categorized foot placement adjustments and found that adults favored making shorter and wider steps away from the obstacle. They suggest this combination of adjustments allows participants to maintain stability while successfully circumventing the obstacle.
Much work has been devoted to high consequence events with low frequency of occurrence. Characteristic of these events are bridge failure (such as that of the Tacoma Narrows), building failure (such as the collapse of a walkway at a Kansas City hotel), or compromise of a major chemical containment system (such as at Bhopal, India). Such events, although rare, have an extreme personal, societal, and financial impact. An interesting variation is demonstrated by financial losses due to fraud and abuse in the money management system. The impact can be huge, entailing very high aggregate costs, but these are a result of the contribution of many small attacks and not the result of a single (or few) massive events. Public awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milikin or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These event,s although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. This paper explores the magnitude of financial system losses and identifies new areas for analysis of high consequence events including the potential effect of malevolent intent.
Full Text Available Analysis of physiological and economical impacts of the roadside trees pruning. The management of the roadside trees requires special care. Several factors interact with their growth and development, many trees presenting decay. In addition of aesthetic impact, this decay leads to high pruning costs, or even costs of replacing trees, and serious risk of tree fall. Although the situations are more and more complicated, an increasing lack in trees monitoring is observed. Due to neglected plantations, overpruning is very often adopted, although researchers have demonstrated for several years the damage of this practice. An economic study is here proposed and concerns a walkway of common limes (Tilia X europaea L.. It constituted a landscape reference mark of high patrimonial value. Trees were topped and their crowns were overpruned. The comparison of costs between crown thinning at regular intervals and topping shows a ratio of one to two or more and a patrimonial value loss of trees of nearly 85/. Customer education and teaching managers are the best ways to stop drastic pruning, due only to easier alternative and a lack of professionalism.
Peurala, Sinikka H; Titianova, Ekaterina B; Mateev, Plamen; Pitkänen, Kauko; Sivenius, Juhani; Tarkka, Ina M
To assess the effects of rehabilitation in thirty-seven ambulatory patients with chronic stroke during three weeks in-patient rehabilitation period. In the intervention group, each patient received 75 min physiotherapy daily every workday including 20 minutes in the electromechanical gait trainer with body-weight support (BWS). In the control group, each patient participated in 45 min conventional physiotherapy daily. Motor ability was assessed with the first five items of the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS1-5) and ten meters walking speed. Spatio-temporal gait characteristics were recorded with an electrical walkway. The MMAS1-5 (pgait characteristics improved only in the intervention group, as seen in increased Functional Ambulation Profile score (p=0.023), velocity (p=0.023), the step lengths (affected side, p=0.011, non-affected side p=0.040), the stride lengths (p=0.018, p=0.006) and decreased step-time differential (p=0.043). Furthermore, all gait characteristics and other motor abilities remained in the discharge level at the six months in the intervention group. It appears that BWS training gives a long-lasting benefit in gait qualities even in chronic stroke patients.
Bergmann, G; Kölbel, R; Rauschenbach, N; Rohlmann, A
Partial weight bearing is frequently prescribed but cannot be controlled adequately. In a previous paper the change of forces at the hip joint as effected by a one sided cane was determined by instrumentation of the cane and a mechanical analysis of gait on a walkway. In the present study we looked at the conditions for control of partial weightbearing when two forearm crutches are used. Instrumented crutches and a forceplate were used. In walking with two forearm crutches the total of the ground reaction forces and the force pattern differ from those in free walking. The total of two crutch forces plus the force at the leg with partial weightbearing exceeds that caused by body weight alone. This is due to mass accelerations in a changed gait pattern. When the maximal leg force is reduced from 100% body weight to zero, the additional dynamic forces exceed those caused by body weight alone by 4%-19%. Only 2% of the additional dynamic forces act on the controlateral crutch while the rest is transmitted through the ipsilateral crutch. The crutch force pattern on the ipsilateral side depends more on individual gait characteristics than does that on the controlateral side. Load reduction is more pronounced in the late stages of the stand phase than in the early ones.
Hong, Shih-Wun; Leu, Tsai-Hsueh; Li, Jia-Da; Wang, Ting-Ming; Ho, Wei-Ping; Lu, Tung-Wu
Uphill walking is an inevitable part of daily living, placing more challenges on the locomotor system with greater risk of falls than level walking does. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of inclination angles on the inter-joint and inter-limb load-sharing during uphill walking in terms of total support moment and contributions of individual joint moments to the total support moment. Fifteen young adults walked up walkways with 0°, 5°, 10° and 15° of slope while kinematic and kinetic data were collected and analyzed. With increasing inclination angles, the first peak of the total support moment was increased with unaltered individual joint contributions, suggesting an unaltered inter-joint control pattern in the leading limb to meet the increased demands. The second peak of the total support moment remained unchanged with increasing inclination angles primarily through a compensatory redistribution of the hip and knee moments. During DLS, the leading limb shared the majority of the whole body support moments. The current results reveal basic intra- and inter-limb load-sharing patterns of uphill walking, which will be helpful for a better understanding of the control strategies adopted and for subsequent clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R; Fitzpatrick, Richard C
Many falls in older people occur while walking, however the mechanisms responsible for gait instability are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a plausible model describing the relationships between impaired sensorimotor function, fear of falling and gait patterns in older people. Temporo-spatial gait parameters and acceleration patterns of the head and pelvis were obtained from 100 community-dwelling older people aged between 75 and 93 years while walking on an irregular walkway. A theoretical model was developed to explain the relationships between these variables, assuming that head stability is a primary output of the postural control system when walking. This model was then tested using structural equation modeling, a statistical technique which enables the testing of a set of regression equations simultaneously. The structural equation model indicated that: (i) reduced step length has a significant direct and indirect association with reduced head stability; (ii) impaired sensorimotor function is significantly associated with reduced head stability, but this effect is largely indirect, mediated by reduced step length, and; (iii) fear of falling is significantly associated with reduced step length, but has little direct influence on head stability. These findings provide useful insights into the possible mechanisms underlying gait characteristics and risk of falling in older people. Particularly important is the indication that fear-related step length shortening may be maladaptive.
Morgan, P; Murphy, A; Opheim, A; McGinley, J
The relationship between spatiotemporal gait parameters, balance performance and falls history was investigated in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants completed a single assessment of gait using an instrumented walkway at preferred and fast speeds, balance testing (Balance Evaluation Systems Test; BESTest), and reported falls history. Seventeen ambulatory adults with CP, mean age 37 years, participated. Gait speed was typically slow at both preferred and fast speeds (mean 0.97 and 1.21m/s, respectively), with short stride length and high cadence relative to speed. There was a significant, large positive relationship between preferred gait speed and BESTest total score (ρ=0.573; pfalls taking shorter strides. Faster gait speed was associated with better performance on tests of anticipatory and postural response components of the BESTest, suggesting potential therapeutic training targets to address either gait speed or balance performance. Future exploration of the implications of slow walking speed and reduced stride length on falls and community engagement, and the potential prognostic value of stride length on identifying falls risk is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hollands, K L; Agnihotri, D; Tyson, S F
Turning is an integral component of independent mobility in which stroke survivors frequently fall. This study sought to measure the effects of competing cognitive demands on the stepping patterns of stroke survivors, compared to healthy age-match adults, during turning as a putative mechanism for falls. Walking and turning (90°) was assessed under single (walking and turning alone) and dual task (subtracting serial 3s while walking and turning) conditions using an electronic, pressure-sensitive walkway. Dependent measures were time to turn, variability in time to turn, step length, step width and single support time during three steps of the turn. Turning ability in single and dual task conditions was compared between stroke survivors (n=17, mean ± SD: 59 ± 113 months post-stroke, 64 ± 10 years of age) and age-matched healthy counterparts (n=15). Both groups took longer, were more variable, tended to widen the second step and, crucially, increased single support time on the inside leg of the turn while turning and distracted. Increased single support time during turning may represent biomechanical mechanism, within stepping patterns of turning under distraction, for increased risk of falls for both stroke survivors and older adults. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Roberts, R M; Gierasch, A
Previous research has found that people with visible differences are granted more physical space than people without visible differences during encounters with the general public. This study aimed to examine whether given significant sociocultural changes, this remains the case in contemporary Australia. The personal space afforded to a person with a visible difference (with a temporary difference--a scar and a permanent difference--a strawberry hemangioma) or a person without a visible difference by 408 pedestrians on a busy pedestrian walkway in the central business district of Adelaide, Australia, was measured. This was a replication and extension of a study by N. Rumsey, R. Bull, and D. Gahagan (1982). Pedestrians stood no further away from the model in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. Pedestrians stood an average of 128 cm away in the control condition, 120 cm away in the scar condition, and 140 cm away in the birthmark condition. People did not stand to the nonvisibly different (left) side of the model more frequently in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. As the original research by N. Rumsey et al. is frequently cited as representing the current situation for people with visible differences, failing to replicate the result is significant. Changes may be due to either recent sociocultural changes promoting inclusion of disability or increasing social taboo against expressing overt prejudice.
Zhang, Qiuyi; Northridge, Mary E; Jin, Zhu; Metcalf, Sara S
Increased lifespans and population growth have resulted in an older U.S. society that must reckon with the complex oral health needs that arise as adults age. Understanding accessibility to screening and treatment facilities for older adults is necessary in order to provide them with preventive and restorative services. This study uses an agent-based model to examine the accessibility of screening and treatment facilities via transportation networks for older adults living in the neighborhoods of northern Manhattan, New York City. Older adults are simulated as socioeconomically distinct agents who move along a GIS-based transportation network using transportation modes that mediate their access to screening and treatment facilities. This simulation model includes four types of mobile agents as a simplifying assumption: walk, by car, by bus, or by van (i.e., a form of transportation assistance for older adults). These mobile agents follow particular routes: older adults who travel by car, bus, and van follow street roads, whereas pedestrians follow walkways. The model enables the user to focus on one neighborhood at a time for analysis. The spatial dimension of an older adult's accessibility to screening and treatment facilities is simulated through the travel costs (indicated by travel time or distance) incurred in the GIS-based model environment, where lower travel costs to screening and treatment facilities imply better access. This model provides a framework for representing health-seeking behavior that is contextualized by a transportation network in a GIS environment.
Galna, Brook; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn
Despite the widespread use of gait variability in research and clinical studies, testing protocols designed to optimise its reliability have not been established. This study evaluates the impact of testing protocol and pathology on the reliability of gait variability. To (i) estimate the reliability of gait variability during continuous and intermittent walking protocols in older adults and people with Parkinson's disease (PD), (ii) determine optimal number of steps for acceptable levels of reliability of gait variability and (iii) provide sample size estimates for use in clinical trials. Gait variability was measured twice, one week apart, in 27 older adults and 25 PD participants. Participants walked at their preferred pace during: (i) a continuous 2 min walk and (ii) 3 intermittent walks over a 12 m walkway. Gait variability was calculated as the within-person standard deviation for step velocity, length and width, and step, stance and swing duration. Reliability of gait variability ranged from poor to excellent (intra class correlations .041-.860; relative limits of agreement 34-89%). Gait variability was more reliable during continuous walks. Control and PD participants demonstrated similar reliability. Increasing the number of steps improved reliability, with most improvement seen across the first 30 steps. In this study, we identified testing protocols that improve the reliability of measuring gait variability. We recommend using a continuous walking protocol and to collect no fewer than 30 steps. Early PD does not appear to impact negatively on the reliability of gait variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chung, Eunjung; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Hwang, Sujin
The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of core stabilization exercise with real-time feedback on balance and gait function in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Nineteen stroke subjects were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the experimental (n = 10) and control groups (n = 9). Subjects in the experimental group performed core stabilization exercise with real-time feedback training for 30 minutes per day during a period of six weeks. Subjects in the control group performed core stabilization exercise during the same period. This study assessed the kinematic parameters using a portable walkway system, and timed up-and-go test. Gait velocity showed significantly greater improvement in the experimental group (7.3 ± 5.0 sec) than in the control group (-0.7 ± 10.6). Stride length showed significantly greater increase in the experimental group (13.2 ± 7.9 on the affected side and 12.6 ± 8.0 on the less affected side) than the control group (3.5 ± 8.7 on the affected side and 3.4 ± 8.5 on the less affected side). After training, change in results on the timed up and go test was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group. Core stabilization exercise using real-time feedback produces greater improvement in gait performance in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients than core stabilization exercise only.
Diversions will be in place on Route Scherrer and Route Bohr from 4 to 31 July. As we announced in a previous article, the SMB department is currently installing vehicle registration plate readers at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. Please note that, due to the installation work involved: access to Buildings 50 and 52 via Route Scherrer (passing under the Building 50 walkway) will be closed from 4 to 8 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Scherrer will be closed from 4 to 14 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Bohr will be closed from 16 to 31 July, Route Bohr will be closed between Route Greinacher and Route Bell from 16 to 31 July. Please also note that, following the completion of the work, the Les Cèdres car park will operate as a one-way system, with entry only from Route Scherrer and exit only onto Route Bohr. Thank you for your understand...
Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique
During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.
Anne D Kloos
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gait and balance impairments lead to frequent falls and injuries in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD. Assistive devices (ADs such as canes and walkers are often prescribed to prevent falls, but their efficacy is unknown. We systematically examined the effects of different types of ADs on quantitative gait measures during walking in a straight path and around obstacles. METHODS: Spatial and temporal gait parameters were measured in 21 subjects with HD as they walked across a GAITRite walkway under 7 conditions (i.e., using no AD and 6 commonly prescribed ADs: a cane, a weighted cane, a standard walker, and a 2, 3 or 4 wheeled walker. Subjects also were timed and observed for number of stumbles and falls while walking around two obstacles in a figure-of-eight pattern. RESULTS: Gait measure variability (i.e., coefficient of variation, an indicator of fall risk, was consistently better when using the 4WW compared to other ADs. Subjects also walked the fastest and had the fewest number of stumbles and falls when using the 4WW in the figure-of-eight course. Subjects walked significantly slower using ADs compared to no AD both across the GAITRite and in the figure-of-eight. Measures reflecting gait stability and safety improved with the 4WW but were made worse by some other ADs.
Kloos, Anne D; Kegelmeyer, Deborah A; White, Susan E; Kostyk, Sandra K
Gait and balance impairments lead to frequent falls and injuries in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). Assistive devices (ADs) such as canes and walkers are often prescribed to prevent falls, but their efficacy is unknown. We systematically examined the effects of different types of ADs on quantitative gait measures during walking in a straight path and around obstacles. Spatial and temporal gait parameters were measured in 21 subjects with HD as they walked across a GAITRite walkway under 7 conditions (i.e., using no AD and 6 commonly prescribed ADs: a cane, a weighted cane, a standard walker, and a 2, 3 or 4 wheeled walker). Subjects also were timed and observed for number of stumbles and falls while walking around two obstacles in a figure-of-eight pattern. Gait measure variability (i.e., coefficient of variation), an indicator of fall risk, was consistently better when using the 4WW compared to other ADs. Subjects also walked the fastest and had the fewest number of stumbles and falls when using the 4WW in the figure-of-eight course. Subjects walked significantly slower using ADs compared to no AD both across the GAITRite and in the figure-of-eight. Measures reflecting gait stability and safety improved with the 4WW but were made worse by some other ADs.
Full Text Available Reports outlining the association between gait and cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD are limited because of methodological issues and a bias towards studying advanced disease. This study examines the association between gait and cognition in 121 early PD who were characterized according to motor phenotype, and 184 healthy older adults. Quantitative gait was captured using a 7m GAITrite walkway whilst walking for two minutes under single task conditions and described by five domains (pace, rhythm, variability, asymmetry and postural control. Cognitive outcomes were summarized by six domains (attention, working memory, visual memory, executive function, visuospatial function and global cognition. Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression were used to determine independent associations for all participants and for PD tremor-dominant (TD and postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD phenotypes, controlling for age, sex, and premorbid intelligence using the National Adult Reading Test (NART. Cognitive and gait outcomes were significantly worse for PD. Gait, but not cognitive outcomes, were selectively worse for the PIGD phenotype. Significant associations emerged for two gait domains for controls (pace and postural control and four gait domains for PD (pace, rhythm, variability, and postural control.The strongest correlation was for pace and attention for PD and controls. Associations were not significant for participants with the TD phenotype. In early PD the cognitive correlates of gait are predominantly with fronto-executive functions, and are determined by the PIGD PD phenotype. These associations provide a basis for understanding the complex role of cognition in Parkinsonian gait.
De Mits, Sophie; Segers, Veerle; Woodburn, Jim; Elewaut, Dirk; De Clercq, Dirk; Roosen, Philip
We describe a multi-segmented foot model comprising lower leg, rearfoot, midfoot, lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, and hallux for routine use in a clinical setting. The Ghent Foot Model describes the kinematic patterns of functional units of the foot, especially the midfoot, to investigate patient populations where midfoot deformation or dysfunction is an important feature, for example, rheumatoid arthritis patients. Data were obtained from surface markers by a 6 camera motion capture system at 500 Hz. Ten healthy subjects walked barefoot along a 12 m walkway at self-selected speed. Joint angles (rearfoot to shank, midfoot to rearfoot, lateral and medial forefoot to midfoot, and hallux to medial forefoot) in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane are reported according to anatomically based reference frames. These angles were calculated and reported during the foot rollover phases in stance, detected by synchronized plantar pressure measurements. Repeated measurements of each subject revealed low intra-subject variability, varying between 0.7° and 2.3° for the minimum values, between 0.5° and 2.1° for the maximum values, and between 0.8° and 5.8° for the ROM. The described movement patterns were repeatable and consistent with biomechanical and clinical knowledge. As such, the Ghent Foot model permits intersegment, in vivo motion measurement of the foot, which is crucial for both clinical and research applications. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Guadagnin, Eliane C; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P
Physical exercise improves walking in the elderly but much less is known about its effect on more challenged gait, such as obstacle negotiation. We conducted a systematic review to discuss the effects of regular physical exercise on kinematics and kinetics of obstacle negotiation in the elderly. A comprehensive literature search revealed 859 citations for review, whereof 206 studies entered the full-text analysis. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 studies were included in this systematic review. Most of them presented a reasonable quality (average 0.68) but none of them reached the level of a randomized control trial. Interventions were heterogeneous, with training periods lasting from 5 days to 10 months. Studies assessed obstacle negotiation basically considering 3 types of testing paradigm, namely a walkway with either a single obstacle crossing, or with multiple obstacles, or else a treadmill with an obstacle avoidance task under time pressure. In general, longer training programs had better results and very short ones were not effective. A weekly frequency of 2-3 times was the most common among the studies showing positive effects. Regardless of exercises types performed, most of them were effective and so far, there is no consensus about the best exercise for improving obstacle negotiation. A lack of studies on this topic still is evident. Including a record of fall score can further help in deciding which programs are to be preferred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Michael L.; Lipton, Richard B.; Verghese, Joe
While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)
Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.
The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319
Barela, Ana M. F.; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Celestino, Melissa L.; Camargo, Marcela R.; Barela, José A.
Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate. PMID:25590450
Smith, Sheryl M; Coleman, Scott C; Bacon, Stacy A; Polo, Fabian E; Brodsky, James W
There is limited objective scientific information on the functional effects of cheilectomy. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that cheilectomy for hallux rigidus improves gait by increasing ankle push-off power. Seventeen patients with symptomatic Stage 1 or Stage 2 hallux rigidus were studied. Pre- and postoperative first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) range of motion and AOFAS hallux scores were recorded. A gait analysis was performed within 4 weeks prior to surgery and repeated at a minimum of 1 year after surgery. Gait analysis was done using a three-dimensional motion capture system and a force platform embedded in a 10-m walkway. Gait velocity sagittal plane ankle range of motion and peak sagittal plane ankle push-off power were analyzed. Following cheilectomy, significant increases were noted for first MTP range of motion and AOFAS hallux score. First MTP motion improved an average of 16.7 degrees, from means of 33.9 degrees preoperatively to 50.6 degrees postoperatively (ppush-off power from 1.71±0.92 W/kg to 2.05±0.75 W/kg (ppush-off power.
Ana M. F. Barela
Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.
Camille J. Shanahan
Full Text Available Subtle gait and balance dysfunction is a precursor to loss of mobility in multiple sclerosis (MS. Biomechanical assessments using advanced gait and balance analysis technologies can identify these subtle changes and could be used to predict mobility loss early in the disease. This update critically evaluates advanced gait and balance analysis technologies and their applicability to identifying early lower limb dysfunction in people with MS. Non-wearable (motion capture systems, force platforms, and sensor-embedded walkways and wearable (pressure and inertial sensors biomechanical analysis systems have been developed to provide quantitative gait and balance assessments. Non-wearable systems are highly accurate, reliable and provide detailed outcomes, but require cumbersome and expensive equipment. Wearable systems provide less detail but can be used in community settings and can provide real-time feedback to patients and clinicians. Biomechanical analysis using advanced gait and balance analysis technologies can identify changes in gait and balance in early MS and consequently have the potential to significantly improve monitoring of mobility changes in MS.
Manicolo, Olivia; Grob, Alexander; Lemola, Sakari; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska
Previous findings showed a tendency toward higher gait variability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to controls. This study examined whether gait variability in children with ADHD eventually approaches normality with increasing age (delay hypothesis) or whether these gait alterations represent a persistent deviation from typical development (deviation hypothesis). This cross-sectional study compared 30 children with ADHD (25 boys; Mage=10 years 11 months, range 8-13 years; n=21 off medication, n=9 without medication) to 28 controls (25 boys; Mage=10 years 10 months, range 8-13 years). Gait parameters (i.e. velocity and variability in stride length and stride time) were assessed using an electronic walkway system (GAITRite) while children walked at their own pace. Children with ADHD walked with significantly higher variability in stride time compared to controls. Age was negatively associated with gait variability in children with ADHD such that children with higher age walked with lower variability, whereas in controls there was no such association. Children with ADHD displayed a less regular gait pattern than controls, indicated by their higher variability in stride time. The age-dependent decrease of gait variability in children with ADHD showed that gait performance became more regular with age and converged toward that of typically developing children. These results may reflect a maturational delay rather than a persistent deviation of gait regularity among children with ADHD compared to typically developing children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ujjawal Singh Tomar
Full Text Available Background: Specific information regarding obstacle-clearance strategies used by community-dwelling young and elderly is scant in the literature, and physical barriers encountered in real-life situations have not been used in most of the studies. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine foot lift asymmetry during obstacle avoidance in young and elderly subjects. Settings and Design: This was an observational study. Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly and 30 young individuals were taken for the study. All the subjects were evaluated using different scales and foot lift asymmetry was measured on a walkway using three obstacles of different heights. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD value of the asymmetric index of the young was 3.25±0.28 and the mean and SD value of the asymmetric index of the elderly was 3.53±0.47. The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population. Conclusion: The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population, though it is not clinically significant.
Yu Xinian; Liu Xiao; Wang Jianguo
The use of the steel frame in the integral hosting of nuclear island steel lining cylinder module made a breakthrough in China's nuclear power construction. The deformation of the cylinder wall is the key issue in the integral lifting process of the nuclear island steel lining. Using the frame in lifting large and thin steel cylinder, the form of frame structure and its deformation will directly affect the radial deformation of the lifted cylinder, the buckling deformation of the distal cylinder, and the cylinder's deformation surround the penetrations. The diameter of nuclear island steel liner is 44 meters. The wall of the cylinder is thin, and the total weight of the cylinder itself and its attached penetrations, walkways and lifting tools, etc. is up to 120 tons, which not only increase the difficulty of lifting, but also have some risks. To ensure the cylinder deformation within the limits, this thesis establishes the parameter structure for the lifting frame, calculates the displacement and analyzes the axial stresses, based on the ANSYS finite element analysis software. The results showed that the models and parameters for integral hosting of the steel lining cylinder modular frame structure is reasonable and feasible, and analyzing the hosting-frame data is necessary, which lay the foundation for the design of the hosting frame and the eventual implementation of the integral hosting scheme of the steel lining cylinder module. (authors)
Mathews, S.; Wilson, K.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet sand. The sand is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste sand is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses for the spent garnet sand: backfill in utility trenches; and as a concrete constituent. In both applications, garnet waste would replace the sand formerly purchased by LLNL for these purposes. Findings supported the reuse of waste garnet sand in concrete, but disqualified its proposed application as trench backfill. Waste sand stabilized in a concrete matrix appeared to present no metals-leaching hazard; however, unconsolidated sand in trenches could potentially leach metals in concentrations high enough to threaten ground water quality. A technical report submitted to the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board was reviewed and accepted by that body. Reuse of waste garnet cutting sand as a constituent in concrete poured to form walkways and patios at LLNL was approved
Liu, Zhong-Qi; Yang, Feng
Obesity has been related to postural instability during static standing. It remains unknown how obesity influences stability during dynamic movements like gait. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on dynamic gait stability control in young adults during gait. Forty-four young adults (21 normal-weight and 23 obese) participated in this study. Participants walked five times at their self-selected gait speeds on a linear walkway. Their full-body kinematics were gathered by a motion capture system. Compared with normal-weight group, individuals with obesity walked more slowly with a shorter but wider step. People with obesity also spent an elongated double stance phase than those with normal weight. A reduced gait speed decreases the body center of mass's velocity relative to the base of support, leading to a reduction in dynamic stability. On the other hand, a shortened step in accompanying with a less backward-leaning trunk has the potential to bring the center of mass closer to the base of support, resulting in an increase in dynamic stability. As the result of these adaptive changes to the gait pattern, dynamic gait stability among people with obesity did not significantly differ from the one among people with normal weight. Obesity seems to not be inducing dynamic stability disadvantage in young adults during level overground walking. These findings could provide insight into the mechanisms of stability control among people affected by obesity during dynamic locomotion.
Weng, W. G.; Chen, T.; Yuan, H. Y.; Fan, W. C.
This paper presents a cellular automaton model without step back for pedestrian dynamics considering the human behaviors which can make judgments in some complex situations. This model can simulate pedestrian movement with different walk velocities through update at different time-step intervals. Two kinds of boundary conditions including periodic and open boundary for pedestrian counter flow are considered, and their dynamical characteristics are discussed. Simulation results show that for periodic boundary condition there are three phases of pedestrian patterns, i.e., freely moving phase, lane formation phase, and perfectly stopped phase at some certain total density ranges. In the stage of lane formation, the phenomenon that pedestrians exceed those with lower walk velocity through a narrow walkway can be found. For open boundary condition, at some certain entrance densities, there are two steady states of pedestrian patterns; but the first is metastable. Spontaneous fluctuations can break the first steady state, i.e., freely moving phase, and run into the second steady state, i.e., perfectly stopped phase
Full Text Available Objective. Barefoot technology shoes are becoming increasingly popular, yet modifications are still needed. The present study aims to gain valuable insights by comparing barefoot walking to neutral shoe walking in a healthy youth population. Methods. 28 healthy university students (22 females and 6 males were recruited to walk on a 10-meter walkway both barefoot and in neutral running shoes at their comfortable walking speed. Full step cycle kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an 8-camera motion capture system. Results. In the early stance phase, the knee extension moment (MK1, the first peak absorbed joint power at the knee joint (PK1, and the flexion angle of knee/dorsiflexion angle of the ankle were significantly reduced when walking in neutral running shoes. However, in the late stance, barefoot walking resulted in decreased hip joint flexion moment (MH2, second peak extension knee moment (MK3, hip flexors absorbed power (PH2, hip flexors generated power (PH3, second peak absorbed power by knee flexors (PK2, and second peak anterior-posterior component of joint force at the hip (APFH2, knee (APFK2, and ankle (APFA2. Conclusions. These results indicate that it should be cautious to discard conventional elements from future running shoe designs and rush to embrace the barefoot technology fashion.
Sande, Tonje A.; Scott, Angela C.; Laird, Barry J.A.; Wan, Hong I.; Fleetwood-Walker, Susan M.; Kaasa, Stein; Klepstad, Pål; Mitchell, Rory; Murray, Gordon D.; Colvin, Lesley A.; Fallon, Marie T.
Background and purpose: An objective measure of pain relief may add important information to patients’ self assessment, particularly after a treatment. The study aims were to determine whether measures of physical activity and/or gait can be used in characterizing cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) and whether these biomarkers are sensitive to treatment response, in patients receiving radiotherapy (XRT) for CIBP. Materials and methods: Patients were assessed before (baseline) and 6–8 weeks after XRT (follow up). The following assessments were done: Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), activPAL™ activity meter, and GAITRite® electronic walkway (measure of gait). Wilcoxon, Mann–Whitney and Pearson statistical analyses were done. Results: Sixty patients were assessed at baseline; median worst pain was 7 and walking interference was 5. At follow up 42 patients were assessed. BPI worst pain, average pain, walking interference and total functional interference all improved (p < 0.001). An improvement in functional interference correlated with aspects of physical activity (daily hours standing r = 0.469, p = 0.002) and gait (cadence r = 0.341, p = 0.03). The activPAL and GAITRite parameters did not change following XRT (p > 0.05). In responder analyses there were no differences in activPAL and GAITRite parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Assessment of physical activity and gait allow a characterization of the functional aspects of CIBP, but not in the evaluation of XRT
Hollands, K L; Pelton, T A; van der Veen, S; Alharbi, S; Hollands, M A
Although there is evidence that stroke survivors have reduced gait adaptability, the underlying mechanisms and the relationship to functional recovery are largely unknown. We explored the relationships between walking adaptability and clinical measures of balance, motor recovery and functional ability in stroke survivors. Stroke survivors (n=42) stepped to targets, on a 6m walkway, placed to elicit step lengthening, shortening and narrowing on paretic and non-paretic sides. The number of targets missed during six walks and target stepping speed was recorded. Fugl-Meyer (FM), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), self-selected walking speed (SWWS) and single support (SS) and step length (SL) symmetry (using GaitRite when not walking to targets) were also assessed. Stepwise multiple-linear regression was used to model the relationships between: total targets missed, number missed with paretic and non-paretic legs, target stepping speed, and each clinical measure. Regression revealed a significant model for each outcome variable that included only one independent variable. Targets missed by the paretic limb, was a significant predictor of FM (F(1,40)=6.54, p=0.014,). Speed of target stepping was a significant predictor of each of BBS (F(1,40)=26.36, padaptability is a clinically meaningful target for measurement and treatment of functionally adaptive walking ability in stroke survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Miriam Palomo Nieto
Full Text Available Background: Motor coordination problems of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD have been frequently associated with poor visuospatial processing. Objective: The aim this study has been to investigate a role of the vision in the motor control of walking between typical developing children (TD and children at risk of DCD (DCDR. Methods: Participants included 16 TD (mean age 9.1, SD 1.0 years, and 16 DCDR, (mean age 8.7, SD 0.8 years who walked along a 10 meter walkway using the Optojump instrument to assess the spatio-temporal variables of the gait pattern in full vision (FV and non-vision (NV conditions. Data was analyzed in a two-way mixed-effect ANOVA (2 groups - TD vs. DCDR, 2 visual conditions - FV vs. NV with repeated measurement on the last factor (p ≤ .05. Results: The results demonstrated that DCDR children walked slower and with shorter steps than their TD peers. Also, withdrawing the vision affects some parameters of the gait cycle including the stance-phase, single-support, load-response and pre-swing regardless of the level of motor coordination of the children. Conclusions: A higher dependency on visual information or impaired utilization of proprioceptive inputs for execution of simple walk in the stable environment were not confirmed in the children with motor difficulties.
Sejdić, E.; Millecamps, A.; Teoli, J.; Rothfuss, M. A.; Franconi, N. G.; Perera, S.; Jones, A. K.; Brach, J. S.; Mickle, M. H.
Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18 to 35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardivascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults. PMID:26390946
Yu, Ruifeng; Li, Kai Way
Slips and falls contribute to occupational injuries and fatalities globally. Both floor slipperiness and floor roughness affect the occurrence of slipping and falling. Investigations on fall-related phenomena are important for the safety and health of workers. The purposes of this study were to: compare the perceived floor slipperiness before and after walking on the floor; compare the perceived floor slipperiness with and without shoes for males and females; discuss the perceived floor roughness based on barefoot walking; and establish regression models to describe the relationship between perceived floor slipperiness and actual friction of the floors. Male and female subjects walked on 3 m walkways with or without shoes. The perceived floor slipperiness ratings both before and after their walk were collected. The perceived floor slipperiness both before and after walking were significantly affected by both floor and surface conditions. Gender, floor, surface, and footwear conditions were all significant factors affecting the adjustment of perceived floor slipperiness. The subjects made more adjustment on perceived floor slipperiness rating when they had shoes on than when they were barefooted. Regression models were established to describe the relationship between perceived floor slipperiness and floor coefficient of friction. These models may be used to estimate perceived floor slipperiness, or in reverse, the coefficient of friction of the floor, so as to prevent slipping and falling in workplaces.
Full Text Available A gait experiment was conducted under two shoe sole and three floor conditions. The shoe soles and floors were characterized by the tread and groove designs on the surface. The coefficients of friction (COF on the floor in the target area were measured. The subjects were required to walk on a walkway and stepping on a target area covered with glycerol. The motions of the feet of the subjects were captured. Gait parameters were calculated based on the motion data. Among the 240 trials, there were 37 no-slips, 81 microslips, 45 slides, and 77 slips. It was found that the condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves perpendicular to the walking direction had the highest COF, the shortest slip distance, and the lowest percentages of slide and slip. The condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves parallel to the walking direction had the lowest COF and the longest slip distance among all experimental conditions. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between slip distance and slip velocity, time to foot flat, foot angle, and compensatory step length were 0.82 (p<0.0001, 0.33 (p<0.0001, -0.54 (p<0.0001, and -0.51 (p<0.0001, respectively.
Lindemann, U; Farahmand, P; Klenk, J; Blatzonis, K; Becker, C
To investigate construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand performance power in older people by showing associations with relevant functional performance and physiological parameters. Cross-sectional study. Movement laboratory of a geriatric rehabilitation clinic. Eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). Sit-to-stand performance power and leg power were assessed using a linear encoder and the Nottingham Power Rig, respectively. Gait speed was measured on an instrumented walkway. Maximum quadriceps and hand grip strength were assessed using dynamometers. Mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area of both legs was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Associations of sit-to-stand performance power with power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig, maximum gait speed and muscle cross-sectional area were r=0.646, r=0.536 and r=0.514, respectively. A linear regression model explained 50% of the variance in sit-to-stand performance power including muscle cross-sectional area (p=0.001), maximum gait speed (p=0.002), and power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig (p=0.006). Construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand power was shown at functional level and morphological level for older women. This measure could be used in routine clinical practice as well as in large-scale studies. DRKS00003622. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Megan C. Kirkland
Full Text Available Dual-tasking (DT is a measure to detect impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (MS. We compared three DT methods to determine whether cognitive (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA or physical disability (Expanded Disease Severity Scale; EDSS was related to DT performance. We recruited MS participants with low disability (<3 EDSS, n=13 and high disability (≥3 EDSS, n=9 and matched controls (n=13. Participants walked at self-selected (SS speed on an instrumented walkway (Protokinetics, Havertown, USA, followed by DT walks in randomized order: DT ABC (reciting every second letter of the alphabet, DT 7 (serially subtracting 7’s from 100, and DT 3 (counting upwards, leaving out multiples and numbers that include 3. DT 7 resulted in the most consistent changes in performance. Both MS and control groups reduced velocity and cadence and shortened step length during DT with no significant differences between groups. Control subjects widened stride width by about 1 cm while MS subjects (collapsed as one group did not. MS subjects with higher disability significantly increased percentage time in double support during DT compared to SS (F=12.95, p<0.001. The change in DS was related to cognitive and not physical disability (r=0.54, p<0.05.
Pramodhyakul, N; Amatachaya, P; Sooknuan, T; Arayawichanon, P; Amatachaya, S
An experimental, cross-sectional study. To investigate effects of using a visuotemporal cue on the walking ability of independent ambulatory subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) as compared with healthy subjects. A tertiary rehabilitation center, Thailand. Forty independent ambulatory subjects with SCI and healthy subjects participated in the study (20 subjects per group). All of them were assessed for their walking speed, stride length, cadence and percents of step symmetry under two conditions, including walking at their fastest speed with and without a visuotemporal cue along a 10 m walkway. When walking with a visuotemporal cue, walking speed, stride length and cadence of the subjects were significantly increased from the uncued condition (Pwalking speed and cadence, whereas, subjects with SCI demonstrated significantly higher improvement in stride length as compared with the other group (Pbenefits of using a visuotemporal cue to improve variables relating to walking ability in subjects with intact integrative capability of the brain but with different levels of sensorimotor deterioration. The findings suggest the use of a visuotemporal cue to improve the effectiveness of programs in sport and exercise sciences, and rehabilitation treatments.
Carr, Brittany Jean; Canapp, Sherman O; Zink, M. Christine
Introduction We hypothesized that breed differences of Border Collies and Labrador Retrievers would be reflected in the temporospatial characteristics of the walk and trot. Materials and Methods Twenty healthy Border Collies and 20 healthy Labrador Retrievers made three passes across a pressure sensing walkway system that recorded quantitative temporospatial information at a walk and a trot. The following variables were measured for each dog: velocity, total pressure index percentage (TPI%), ratio of weight borne on the thoracic vs. pelvic limbs (T/P TPI%), stance time percentage (ST%), and thoracic limb stride length (TSrL). Results The mean T/P TPI% for Border Collies at a walk and at a trot were significantly lower than for Labrador Retrievers (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0003). Border Collies had a significantly lower ST% than Labrador Retrievers for the thoracic limbs and pelvic limbs at a walk (p = 0.0058 and 0.0003) and the trot (p = 0.0280 and 0.0448). There was no relationship between ST% and TSrL in Border Collies and an inverse correlation between ST% and TSrL in Labrador Retrievers (p = 0.0002). Discussion Key quantitative gait differences were identified in Border Collies and Labrador Retrievers, which could potentially provide each breed with an advantage for their working function. PMID:26689372
Irenilza de Alencar Nääs
Full Text Available Locomotion deficiencies in broiler production cause poor welfare and lead to change in drinking and feeding behavior with consequent loss in weight gain. This research aimed to assess locomotion deficiencies in broiler chicken by analyzing the vertical peak force on both feet during walk. A chamber was built with an inlet ramp, a horizontal walkway in the middle and an outlet ramp. In the walkway a thin mat with piezoelectric crystal sensors was placed to record the step vertical peak force of the feet while walking on the force platform. The measurement system consisted of a mat with electronic sensors and software that allowed real time recording of the forces and the processing and analysis of data. Footage was taken from two digital video cameras and used for gait scoring. Forty male broilers were chosen at random, grown under similar rearing conditions and farms, with age varying from 49 to 28 days (ten birds of same age to be used in the trial. Measurement consisted of inducing the bird to walk on the force platform which automatically registered the peak vertical force of the steps. Results showed that the gait score increased with the weight and age of the birds. Peak force asymmetry was found for each foot, independent of age or gait score. Although not identified visually in the broilers, the peak vertical force values differed in both right and left feet leading to slow and uneven walking. Walking deficiency was more severe in older birds.Deficiência em locomoção é hoje um dos problemas mais importantes na produção de frangos de corte. É causa de baixo bem-estar e leva a alteração no comportamento de bebida e alimentação, com conseqüente perda de ganho de peso. Mediram-se deficiências locomotoras em frango de corte por meio da análise do pico de força plantar vertical em ambas as patas, durante a caminhada. Foi construída uma câmara com uma rampa de entrada, uma área horizontal de passagem e uma rampa de saída. Na
Arazpour, Mokhtar; Moradi, Alireza; Samadian, Mohammad; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Hutchins, Stephen W; Mardani, Mohammad A
Traditionally, the anatomical knee joint is locked in extension when walking with a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine differences of the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis compared to a locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis in kinematic data and temporospatial parameters during ambulation. Quasi-experimental design. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n = 7) volunteered for this study and undertook gait analysis with both the powered and the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Three trials per orthosis were collected while each subject walked along a 6-m walkway using a calibrated six-camera three-dimensional video-based motion analysis system. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis resulted in a significant reduction in both walking speed and step length (both 18%), but a significant increase in stance phase percentage compared to walking with the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Cadence was not significantly different between the two test conditions (p = 0.751). There was significantly higher knee flexion during swing phase and increased hip hiking when using the powered orthosis. The new powered orthosis permitted improved knee joint kinematic for knee-ankle-foot orthosis users while providing knee support in stance and active knee motion in swing in the gait cycle. Therefore, the new powered orthosis provided more natural knee flexion during swing for orthosis users compared to the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. This orthosis has the potential to improve knee joint kinematics and gait pattern in poliomyelitis subjects during walking activities. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.
Psarakis, Michael; Greene, David; Moresi, Mark; Baker, Michael; Stubbs, Peter; Brodie, Matthew; Lord, Stephen; Hoang, Phu
Gait impairment in people with Multiple Sclerosis results from neurological impairment, muscle weakness and reduced range of motion. Restrictions in passive ankle range of motion can result in abnormal heel-to-toe progression (weight transfer) and inefficient gait patterns in people with Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between gait impairment, heel-to-toe progression and ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Twelve participants with Multiple Sclerosis and twelve healthy age-matched participants were assessed. Spatiotemporal parameters of gait and individual footprint data were used to investigate group differences. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to divide each footprint into three phases (contact, mid-stance, propulsive) and calculate the heel-to-toe progression during the stance phase of gait. Compared to healthy controls, people with Multiple Sclerosis spent relatively less time in contact phase (7.8% vs 25.1%) and more time in the mid stance phase of gait (57.3% vs 33.7%). Inter-limb differences were observed in people with Multiple Sclerosis between the affected and non-affected sides for contact (7.8% vs 15.3%) and mid stance (57.3% and 47.1%) phases. Differences in heel-to-toe progression remained significant after adjusting for walking speed and were correlated with walking distance and ankle range of motion. Impaired heel-to-toe progression was related to poor ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Heel-to-toe progression provided a sensitive measure for assessing gait impairments that were not detectable using standard spatiotemporal gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sakurai, Ryota; Montero-Odasso, Manuel
The apolipoprotein E polymorphism ε4 allele (ApoE4) and gait impairment are both known risk factors for developing cognitive decline and dementia. However, it is unclear the interrelationship between these factors, particularly among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are considered as prodromal for Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to determine whether ApoE4 carrier individuals with MCI may experience greater impairment in gait performance. Fifty-six older adults with MCI from the "Gait and Brain Study" who were identified as either ApoE4 carriers (n = 20) or non-ApoE4 carriers (n = 36) with 1 year of follow-up were included. Gait variability, the main outcome variable, was assessed as stride time variability with an electronic walkway. Additional gait variables and cognitive performance (mini-mental state examination [MMSE] and Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) were also recorded. Covariates included age, sex, education level, body mass index, and number of comorbidities. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed that gait stride time and stride length variabilities significantly increased in ApoE4 carriers but was maintained in the non-ApoE4 carriers. Similarly, ApoE4 carriers showed greater decrease in MMSE score at follow-up. In this sample of older adults with MCI, the presence of at least one copy of ApoE4 was associated with the development of both increased gait variability and cognitive decline during 1 year of follow-up. ApoE4 genotype might be considered as a potential mediator of decline in mobility function in MCI; future studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our preliminary findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hicks, Gregory E; Sions, J Megan; Coyle, Peter C; Pohlig, Ryan T
Previous studies in older adults have identified that chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with slower gait speed. Given that slower gait speed is a predictor of greater morbidity and mortality among older adults, it is important to understand the underlying spatiotemporal characteristics of gait among older adults with CLBP. The purposes of this study were to determine (1) if there are differences in spatiotemporal parameters of gait between older adults with and without CLBP during self-selected and fast walking and (2) whether any of these gait characteristics are correlated with performance of a challenging walking task, e.g. stair negotiation. Spatiotemporal characteristics of gait were evaluated using a computerized walkway in 54 community-dwelling older adults with CLBP and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Older adults with CLBP walked slower than their pain-free peers during self-selected and fast walking. After controlling for body mass index and gait speed, step width was significantly greater in the CLBP group during the fast walking condition. Within the CLBP group, step width and double limb support time are significantly correlated with stair ascent/descent times. From a clinical perspective, these gait characteristics, which may be indicative of balance performance, may need to be addressed to improve overall gait speed, as well as stair-climbing performance. Future longitudinal studies confirming our findings are needed, as well as investigations focused on developing interventions to improve gait speed and decrease subsequent risk of mobility decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Urban green spaces are essential element of urban life which, due to their structure and multi functionality, can play an exemplary role in the vitality and quality of urban life. Urban Parks are not only used as active recreational and leisure areas for its citizens but also an important catalyst for community development and enhancement. These spaces in the city act like its lungs and play a critical role in supporting the ecological and environmental system. In the dense urban areas, even Small Parks (less than one acre in size) can also contribute a lot to improve environmental quality of city life. In a populated city where it is difficult to incorporate large Public Parks, these small green area can complement large Public Park system. Accordingly the study is concerned to evaluate the environmental performances of Small Parks on the built environments of urban Dhaka. The analysis identifies that Small Parks has strong environmental impact, the intensity of which depends on the type and quality of its vegetation, its design parameters, connectivity and of course on surrounding urban morphology. And it is confirmed that park with more canopy tree is suitable for our environment and therefore a good combination of vegetation (wide canopy trees at periphery, medium canopy trees beside internal walkway and small canopy tree, shrub and grass cover elsewhere) are recommended for better environmental performance of Small Parks. The research will be an approach to find the ways and means to restore the Small Parks of Dhaka city to ensure the livability of the city and enhance the quality of city image.
Samuel N. Forjuoh
Full Text Available Background. This study examined the association between selected sociodemographic, health, and built environmental factors and walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight/obese adults. Methods. Subjective data were obtained from surveys administered to community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged ≥50 years residing in four Texas cities from October 2013 to June 2014, along with objective data on neighborhood walkability (Walk Score™. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors predicting the odds of walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose. Results. Of 253 participants, the majority were non-Hispanic white (81.8%, married (74.5%, and male (53.4% and reported an annual income of ≥$50,000 (65.5%. Approximately, half were employed (49.6% or had at least a college degree (51.6%. Walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose (n=57, 22.5% was significantly associated with having at least a college degree (OR=5.55, 95% CI = 1.79–17.25, having no difficulty walking a quarter of a mile (OR=5.18, 95% CI = 1.30–20.83, and being unemployed (OR=3.25, 95% CI = 1.18–8.93 as well as perceived presence of sidewalks/protected walkways (OR=3.56, 95% CI = 1.10–11.50 and perceived absence of distracted drivers in the neighborhood (OR=4.08, 95% CI = 1.47–11.36. Conclusion. Addressing neighborhood conditions related to distracted drivers and pedestrian infrastructure may promote walking among middle-aged and older overweight/obese individuals.
Nishiyori, Ryota; Lai, Byron; Lee, Do Kyeong; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos; Jung, Taeyou
This study aimed to examine how spatiotemporal and kinematic gait variables are influenced by the application of a cuff weight during aquatic walking in people post-stroke. The secondary purpose was to compare the differences in gait responses between the placements of cuff weights on the proximal (knee weight) and distal end (ankle weight) of the shank. Twenty-one participants post-stroke with hemiparesis aged 66.3 ± 11.3 years participated in a cross-sectional comparative study. Participants completed two aquatic walking trials at their self-selected maximum walking speed across an 8-m walkway under each of the three conditions: 1) walking with a knee weight; 2) walking with an ankle weight; and 3) walking with no weight. Cuff weights were worn on the paretic leg of each participant. Gait speed, cadence, step width and joint kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints were recorded by a customized three-dimensional underwater motion analysis system. Mean aquatic walking speeds significantly increased with the use of cuff weights when compared to walking with no weight. Changes in gait variables were found in the non-paretic leg with the addition of weight, while no significant changes were found in the paretic leg. The results suggest that the use of additional weight can be helpful if the goal of gait training is to improve walking speed of people post-stroke during pool floor walking. However, it is interesting to note that changes in gait variables were not found in the paretic limb where favourable responses were expected to occur. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chantraine, Frédéric; Filipetti, Paul; Schreiber, Céline; Remacle, Angélique; Kolanowski, Elisabeth; Moissenet, Florent
Patients who have developed hemiparesis as a result of a central nervous system lesion, often experience reduced walking capacity and worse gait quality. Although clinically, similar gait patterns have been observed, presently, no clinically driven classification has been validated to group these patients' gait abnormalities at the level of the hip, knee and ankle joints. This study has thus intended to put forward a new gait classification for adult patients with hemiparesis in chronic phase, and to validate its discriminatory capacity. Twenty-six patients with hemiparesis were included in this observational study. Following a clinical examination, a clinical gait analysis, complemented by a video analysis, was performed whereby participants were requested to walk spontaneously on a 10m walkway. A patient's classification was established from clinical examination data and video analysis. This classification was made up of three groups, including two sub-groups, defined with key abnormalities observed whilst walking. Statistical analysis was achieved on the basis of 25 parameters resulting from the clinical gait analysis in order to assess the discriminatory characteristic of the classification as displayed by the walking speed and kinematic parameters. Results revealed that the parameters related to the discriminant criteria of the proposed classification were all significantly different between groups and subgroups. More generally, nearly two thirds of the 25 parameters showed significant differences (p<0.05) between the groups and sub-groups. However, prior to being fully validated, this classification must still be tested on a larger number of patients, and the repeatability of inter-operator measures must be assessed. This classification enables patients to be grouped on the basis of key abnormalities observed whilst walking and has the advantage of being able to be used in clinical routines without necessitating complex apparatus. In the midterm, this
Cho, Ki Hun; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Lee, Wan Hee
Virtual reality training is considered as an effective intervention method of stroke patients, and the virtual reality system for therapeutic rehabilitation has emphasized the cognitive factors to improve walking function. The purpose of current study was to investigate the effect of virtual reality training with cognitive load (VRTCL) on walking function of chronic stroke. Chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to the VRTCL group (11 patients, including 5 men; mean age, 60.0 years; post-stroke duration, 273.9 days) or control group (11 patients, including 2 men; mean age, 58.6 years; post-stroke duration, 263.9 days). All subjects participated in the standard rehabilitation program that consisted of physical and occupational therapies. In addition, VRTCL group participated in the VRTCL for 4 weeks (30 min per day and five times a week), while those in the control group participated in virtual reality treadmill training. Walking function under single (walking alone) and dual task (walking with cognitive tasks) conditions was assessed using an electrical walkway system. After the 4-week intervention, under both single and dual task conditions, significant improvement on walking function was observed in VRTCL and control groups (P < 0.05). In addition, in the dual task condition, greater improvement on walking function was observed in the VRTCL group, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated the efficacy of VRTCL on the walking function under the dual task condition. Therefore, we suggest that VRTCL may be an effective method for the achievement of independent walking in chronic stroke patients.
Fernandez, Lara; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Kirkovski, Melissa; McGinley, Jennifer L; Murphy, Anna T; Hyde, Christian; Stokes, Mark A; Rinehart, Nicole J; Enticott, Peter G
The cerebellum appears to play a key role in the development of internal rules that allow fast, predictive adjustments to novel stimuli. This is crucial for adaptive motor processes, such as those involved in walking, where cerebellar dysfunction has been found to increase variability in gait parameters. Motor adaptation is a process that results in a progressive reduction in errors as movements are adjusted to meet demands, and within the cerebellum, this seems to be localised primarily within the right hemisphere. To examine the role of the right cerebellar hemisphere in adaptive gait, cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was administered to the right cerebellar hemisphere of 14 healthy adults in a randomised, double-blind, crossover study. Adaptation to a series of distinct spatial and temporal templates was assessed across tDCS condition via a pressure-sensitive gait mat (ProtoKinetics Zeno walkway), on which participants walked with an induced 'limp' at a non-preferred pace. Variability was assessed across key spatial-temporal gait parameters. It was hypothesised that cathodal tDCS to the right cerebellar hemisphere would disrupt adaptation to the templates, reflected in a failure to reduce variability following stimulation. In partial support, adaptation was disrupted following tDCS on one of the four spatial-temporal templates used. However, there was no evidence for general effects on either the spatial or temporal domain. This suggests, under specific conditions, a coupling of spatial and temporal processing in the right cerebellar hemisphere and highlights the potential importance of task complexity in cerebellar function.
Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Munteanu, Shannon E
Footwear has the potential to influence balance in either a detrimental or beneficial manner, and is therefore an important consideration in relation to falls prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve balance. Older women (n = 30) aged 65 - 83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway on a foam rubber mat, limits of stability and tandem walking, measured with the Neurocom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, step length and step width at preferred speed, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (i) flexible footwear (Dunlop Volley™), (ii) their own footwear, and (iii) prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve dynamic balance. Perceptions of the footwear were also documented using a structured questionnaire. There was no difference in postural sway, limits of stability or gait patterns between the footwear conditions. However, when performing the tandem walking test, there was a significant reduction in step width and end sway when wearing the prototype footwear compared to both the flexible footwear and participants' own footwear. Participants perceived their own footwear to be more attractive, comfortable, well-fitted and easier to put on and off compared to the prototype footwear. Despite this, most participants (n = 18, 60%) reported that they would consider wearing the prototype footwear to reduce their risk of falling. The prototype footwear and insoles used in this study improve balance when performing a tandem walk test, as evidenced by a narrower step width and decreased sway at completion of the task. However, further development of the design is required to make the footwear acceptable to older women from the perspective of aesthetics and comfort. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12617001128381 , 01
Lawrence, Daniel; Domone, Sarah; Heller, Ben; Hendra, Timothy; Mawson, Susan; Wheat, Jon
Falls that occur as a result of a slip are one of the leading causes of injuries, particularly in the elderly population. Previous studies have focused on slips that occur on a flat surface. Slips on a laterally sloping surface are important and may be related to different mechanisms of balance recovery. This type of slip might result in different gait adaptations to those previously described on a flat surface, but these adaptations have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess whether, when walking on a cross-slope, young adults adapted their gait when made aware of a potential slip, and having experienced a slip. Gait parameters were compared for three conditions--(1) Normal walking; (2) Walking after being made aware of a potential slip (participants were told that a slip may occur); (3) Walking after experiencing a slip (Participants had already experienced at least one slip induced using a soapy contaminant). Gait parameters were only analysed for trials in which there was no slippery contaminant present on the walkway. Stride length and walking velocity were significantly reduced, and stance duration was significantly greater in the awareness and experience conditions compared to normal walking, with no significant differences in any gait parameters between the awareness and experience conditions. In addition, 46.7% of the slip trials resulted in a fall. This is higher than reported for slips induced on a flat surface, suggesting slips on a cross-slope are more hazardous. This would help explain the more cautious gait patterns observed in both the awareness and experience conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bajelan, Soheil; Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, Tony; Begg, Rezaul K
Human walking can be viewed essentially as a continuum of anterior balance loss followed by a step that re-stabilizes balance. To secure balance an extended base of support can be assistive but healthy young adults tend to walk with relatively narrower steps compared to vulnerable populations (e.g. older adults and patients). It was, therefore, hypothesized that wide step walking may enhance dynamic balance at the cost of disturbed optimum coupling of muscle functions, leading to additional muscle work and associated reduction of gait economy. Young healthy adults may select relatively narrow steps for a more efficient gait. The current study focused on the effects of wide step walking on hip abductor and adductor muscles and spatio-temporal gait parameters. To this end, lower body kinematic data and ground reaction forces were obtained using an Optotrak motion capture system and AMTI force plates, respectively, while AnyBody software was employed for muscle force simulation. A single step of four healthy young male adults was captured during preferred walking and wide step walking. Based on preferred walking data, two parallel lines were drawn on the walkway to indicate 50% larger step width and participants targeted the lines with their heels as they walked. In addition to step width that defined walking conditions, other spatio-temporal gait parameters including step length, double support time and single support time were obtained. Average hip muscle forces during swing were modeled. Results showed that in wide step walking step length increased, Gluteus Minimus muscles were more active while Gracilis and Adductor Longus revealed considerably reduced forces. In conclusion, greater use of abductors and loss of adductor forces were found in wide step walking. Further validation is needed in future studies involving older adults and other pathological populations.
Full Text Available The gold standards for gait analysis are instrumented walkways and marker-based motion capture systems, which require costly infrastructure and are only available in hospitals and specialized gait clinics. Even though the completeness and the accuracy of these systems are unquestionable, a mobile and pervasive gait analysis alternative suitable for non-hospital settings is a clinical necessity. Using inertial sensors for gait analysis has been well explored in the literature with promising results. However, the majority of the existing work does not consider realistic conditions where data collection and sensor placement imperfections are imminent. Moreover, some of the underlying assumptions of the existing work are not compatible with pathological gait, decreasing the accuracy. To overcome these challenges, we propose a foot-mounted inertial sensor-based gait analysis system that extends the well-established zero-velocity update and Kalman filtering methodology. Our system copes with various cases of data collection difficulties and relaxes some of the assumptions invalid for pathological gait (e.g., the assumption of observing a heel strike during a gait cycle. The system is able to extract a rich set of standard gait metrics, including stride length, cadence, cycle time, stance time, swing time, stance ratio, speed, maximum/minimum clearance and turning rate. We validated the spatio-temporal accuracy of the proposed system by comparing the stride length and swing time output with an IR depth-camera-based reference system on a dataset comprised of 22 subjects. Furthermore, to highlight the clinical applicability of the system, we present a clinical discussion of the extracted metrics on a disjoint dataset of 17 subjects with various neurological conditions.
Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith
To determine whether rhythmic music and metronome cues alter spatiotemporal gait measures and gait variability in people with Alzheimer disease (AD). A repeated-measures study requiring participants to walk under different cueing conditions. University movement laboratory. Of the people (N=46) who met study criteria (a diagnosis of probable AD and ability to walk 100m) at routine medical review, 30 (16 men; mean age ± SD, 80±6y; revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination range, 26-79) volunteered to participate. Participants walked 4 times over an electronic walkway synchronizing to (1) rhythmic music and (2) a metronome set at individual mean baseline comfortable speed cadence. Gait spatiotemporal measures and gait variability (coefficient of variation [CV]). Data from individual walks under each condition were combined. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare uncued baseline, cued, and retest measures. Gait velocity decreased with both music and metronome cues compared with baseline (baseline, 110.5cm/s; music, 103.4cm/s; metronome, 105.4cm/s), primarily because of significant decreases in stride length (baseline, 120.9cm; music, 112.5cm; metronome, 114.8cm) with both cue types. This was coupled with increased stride length variability compared with baseline (baseline CV, 3.4%; music CV, 4.3%; metronome CV, 4.5%) with both cue types. These changes did not persist at (uncued) retest. Temporal variability was unchanged. Rhythmic auditory cueing at comfortable speed tempo produced deleterious effects on gait in a single session in this group with AD. The deterioration in spatial gait parameters may result from impaired executive function associated with AD. Further research should investigate whether these instantaneous cue effects are altered with more practice or with learning methods tailored to people with cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith
Rhythmic auditory cues including music and metronome beats have been used, sometimes interchangeably, to improve disordered gait arising from a range of clinical conditions. There has been limited investigation into whether there are optimal cue types. Different cue types have produced inconsistent effects across groups which differed in both age and clinical condition. The possible effect of normal ageing on response to different cue types has not been reported for gait. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of both rhythmic music and metronome cues on gait spatiotemporal measures (including variability) in healthy older people. Twelve women and seven men (>65 years) walked on an instrumented walkway at comfortable pace and then in time to each of rhythmic music and metronome cues at comfortable pace stepping frequency. Music but not metronome cues produced a significant increase in group mean gait velocity of 4.6 cm/s, due mostly to a significant increase in group mean stride length of 3.1cm. Both cue types produced a significant but small increase in cadence of 1 step/min. Mean spatio-temporal variability was low at baseline and did not increase with either cue type suggesting cues did not disrupt gait timing. Study findings suggest music and metronome cues may not be used interchangeably and cue type as well as frequency should be considered when evaluating effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait. Further work is required to determine whether optimal cue types and frequencies to improve walking in different clinical groups can be identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fabio A Storm
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts, Up (Jawbone, One (Fitbit, ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc., Tractivity (Kineteks Corp. and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia. Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.
Baetens, Tina; De Kegel, Alexandra; Palmans, Tanneke; Oostra, Kristine; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Cambier, Dirk
To evaluate fall risk in stroke patients based on single- and dual-task gait analyses, and to investigate the difference between 2 cognitive tasks in the dual-task paradigm. Prospective cohort study. Rehabilitation hospitals. Subacute stroke patients (N=32), able to walk without physical/manual help with or without walking aids, while performing a verbal task. Not applicable. Functional gait measures were Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC) and use of a walking aid. Gait measures were evaluated by an electronic walkway system under single- and dual-task (DT) conditions. For the single-task, subjects were instructed to walk at their usual speed. One of the DTs was a verbal fluency dual task, whereby subjects had to walk while simultaneously enumerating as many different animals as possible. For the other DT (counting dual task), participants had to walk while performing serial subtractions. After inclusion, participants kept a 6-month falls diary. Eighteen (56.3%) of the 32 included patients fell. Ten (31.3%) were single fallers (SFs), and 8 (25%) were multiple fallers (MFs). Fallers (Fs) more frequently used a walking aid and more frequently needed an observatory person for walking safely (FAC score of 3) than nonfallers (NFs). Two gait decrement parameters in counting dual task could distinguish potential Fs from NFs: decrement in stride length percentage (P=.043) and nonparetic step length percentage (P=.047). Regarding the division in 3 groups (NFs, SFs, and MFs), only MFs had a significantly higher percentage of decrement for paretic step length (P=.023) than SFs. Examining the decrement of spatial gait characteristics (stride length and paretic and nonparetic step length) during a DT addressing working memory can identify fall-prone subacute stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oatis, Carol A; Wolff, Edward F; Lockard, Margery A; Michener, Lori A; Robbins, Steven J
Stiffness is a common complaint in individuals with knee osteoarthritis and is a component of the osteoarthritis diagnosis. Yet the relationship between stiffness and function is poorly understood and methods to quantify stiffness are limited. Using a cross-sectional observational design with 66 subjects with knee osteoarthritis, stiffness and damping coefficients were calculated from a relaxed knee oscillation procedure. Gait parameters were measured using an electronic walkway. Self-reported pain, stiffness, and function were measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index. Correlation and Alexander's normalized-t approximation analyses were used to assess associations among the variables. Subset analysis was performed on subjects with and without tibiofemoral joint crepitus. Slight to moderate correlations existed between stiffness and damping coefficients and most gait parameters ((| r |=0.30-0.56; PMcMaster Osteoarthritis Index scores and all gait parameters (| r |=0.35-0.62; Pcoefficient was only slightly associated with patient-rated Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index stiffness subscale scores. Subset analysis revealed significant correlations that differed between those with and without crepitus. These findings suggest that laboratory measured stiffness and damping coefficients, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index scores and gait-related measurements assess different aspects related to movement in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Stiffness and damping coefficients may offer the ability to explain gait changes in the knee that are independent of a person's perceptions particularly in the early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boersma, D; Demontiero, O; Mohtasham Amiri, Z; Hassan, S; Suarez, H; Geisinger, D; Suriyaarachchi, P; Sharma, A; Duque, G
Postural instability (PI) is an important risk factor for falls, especially in the frail older population. In this study, we investigated the impact of vitamin D deficiency on PI in a sample of community dwelling older subjects. Our objective was to determine the potential association between vitamin D deficiency and PI in older fallers. Cross-sectional study. Falls and Fractures Clinic, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Nepean Hospital, Penrith, Australia. One hundred and forty-five adults aged 65 years and older who have had at least one episode of a fall within the six months prior to assessment at the Falls and Fractures Clinic. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and parathyroid hormone concentrations were determined at baseline. Subjects were separated into 3 groups based on serum 25(OH)D3 levels with the following cut-off values: 50 nmol/L (normal). Other baseline measurements included body mass index, mini-nutritional assessment, grip strength, serum calcium concentration and creatinine clearance, which were used as covariables. PI was assessed using a computerized virtual reality system (Medicaa, Uruguay). Measured parameters included limits of stability (LOS) and centre of pressure (COP) under eyes closed on foam (ECF) and visio-vestibular stimulation. The estimated swaying area, computed from the ellipse of confidence under eyes closed standing on foam (ECF), was also used as a PI parameter. Gait velocity (GV) was measured using a GaitRITE walkway system. Posture was impaired in vitamin D deficiency (falls. In conclusion, using an objective method to measure balance in older fallers we have identified a novel role of vitamin D in balance control. Prospective studies are required to confirm the effect of vitamin D on PI and elucidate the mechanisms of this association.
Full Text Available Background: Efficacy of rehabilitation program for subjects with orthosis with objective measurement. The study aiming to objectively compare the PCI and walking speed of normal children with ambulatory spastic diaplegic. Also we aimed to analyze whether BMIhad impact on energy cost. Methods: 41 normal children and 41 community walking spastic diaplegic aged between 6 to 18 yrs. were assessed to compare the PCI. Speed of walking and heart rate were checked constantlyboth barefoot and in shoes in normal children and with and without conventional AFO in children with spastic diaplegic at their chosen velocities over four consecutive lengths of a 12.5m walkway i.e. total 50m.,Pre and Post readings are taken. Heart rate is affected by speed; PCI with speed of walking and heart rate was calculated for each child. Results: The mean PCI in shoes and barefoot was same in normal children i.e. 0.05 ±0.039beats/meter. The PCI for children with pathological gait i.e. spastic diaplegic without orthosis and with orthosis is 0.199 ±0.176 and 0.104± 0.093beats/meter appreciably greater than that for normal children(p less than 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that walking with orthosis in spastic diplegic CP children showed higher costs of energy and slower walking speed compared normal children with age matched. The PCI of walking, with orthosis in children with spastic Diplegic cerebral palsy is less as compared to without orthosis i.e. gait is more energy efficient with orthosis. BMI doesn’t show any correlation with PCI further study may require.
Howard, Charla L; Wallace, Chris; Abbas, James; Stokic, Dobrivoje S
We developed and evaluated properties of a new measure of variability in stride length and cadence, termed residual standard deviation (RSD). To calculate RSD, stride length and cadence are regressed against velocity to derive the best fit line from which the variability (SD) of the distance between the actual and predicted data points is calculated. We examined construct, concurrent, and discriminative validity of RSD using dual-task paradigm in 14 below-knee prosthesis users and 13 age- and education-matched controls. Subjects walked first over an electronic walkway while performing separately a serial subtraction and backwards spelling task, and then at self-selected slow, normal, and fast speeds used to derive the best fit line for stride length and cadence against velocity. Construct validity was demonstrated by significantly greater increase in RSD during dual-task gait in prosthesis users than controls (group-by-condition interaction, stride length p=0.0006, cadence p=0.009). Concurrent validity was established against coefficient of variation (CV) by moderate-to-high correlations (r=0.50-0.87) between dual-task cost RSD and dual-task cost CV for both stride length and cadence in prosthesis users and controls. Discriminative validity was documented by the ability of dual-task cost calculated from RSD to effectively differentiate prosthesis users from controls (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, stride length 0.863, p=0.001, cadence 0.808, p=0.007), which was better than the ability of dual-task cost CV (0.692, 0.648, respectively, not significant). These results validate RSD as a new measure of variability in below-knee prosthesis users. Future studies should include larger cohorts and other populations to ascertain its generalizability. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.
Hickey, Aodhán; Del Din, Silvia; Rochester, Lynn; Godfrey, Alan
Research suggests wearables and not instrumented walkways are better suited to quantify gait outcomes in clinic and free-living environments, providing a more comprehensive overview of walking due to continuous monitoring. Numerous validation studies in controlled settings exist, but few have examined the validity of wearables and associated algorithms for identifying and quantifying step counts and walking bouts in uncontrolled (free-living) environments. Studies which have examined free-living step and bout count validity found limited agreement due to variations in walking speed, changing terrain or task. Here we present a gait segmentation algorithm to define free-living step count and walking bouts from an open-source, high-resolution, accelerometer-based wearable (AX3, Axivity). Ten healthy participants (20-33 years) wore two portable gait measurement systems; a wearable accelerometer on the lower-back and a wearable body-mounted camera (GoPro HERO) on the chest, for 1 h on two separate occasions (24 h apart) during free-living activities. Step count and walking bouts were derived for both measurement systems and compared. For all participants during a total of almost 20 h of uncontrolled and unscripted free-living activity data, excellent relative (rho ⩾ 0.941) and absolute (ICC (2,1) ⩾ 0.975) agreement with no presence of bias were identified for step count compared to the camera (gold standard reference). Walking bout identification showed excellent relative (rho ⩾ 0.909) and absolute agreement (ICC (2,1) ⩾ 0.941) but demonstrated significant bias. The algorithm employed for identifying and quantifying steps and bouts from a single wearable accelerometer worn on the lower-back has been demonstrated to be valid and could be used for pragmatic gait analysis in prolonged uncontrolled free-living environments.
Full Text Available In our country, disabled people encounter many problems in integrating with the city and city life. The most important one is the "accessibility" in the physical space. Providing accessibility require disabled to move without being in need of any help, without any prevention and to participate in the life activities. It is seen in our country that the obstacle-free walkways for the disabled do not exist in the cities including the pedestrian areas, the legal arrangements with respect thereto are not yet able to achieve the required conditions in the physical environment, and the required sanctions and controls are not sufficient. Moreover, inability to present accurately the difference in the needs as based on the disability type is exposed in the problems that occur in the arrangements realized. The basic needs of "visually-impaired" people in the urban space, which constitutes the subject matter of the study can be listed as; safety, to understand where s/he is going, to know where s/he is and to obtain information about the surrounding. For the visually-impaired people to obtain such needs depends on their ability to move alone in the urban space. One of the most important issues in achieving this is "orientation". "Orientation" involves the process of determination of the person's own position and relation with the important objects around. It is known that the "accessibility" of a visually-impaired person is based on orientation and the arrangements in the physical environment in achieving this are very important. In this study, the purpose is to present the significance of "orientation" directed to increase the accessibility of the "visually-impaired" people in the urban space and as based on this, to discuss "the arrangements required to be realized in the physical environment”.
Silsupadol, Patima; Teja, Kunlanan; Lugade, Vipul
The assessment of spatiotemporal gait parameters is a useful clinical indicator of health status. Unfortunately, most assessment tools require controlled laboratory environments which can be expensive and time consuming. As smartphones with embedded sensors are becoming ubiquitous, this technology can provide a cost-effective, easily deployable method for assessing gait. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a smartphone-based accelerometer in quantifying spatiotemporal gait parameters when attached to the body or in a bag, belt, hand, and pocket. Thirty-four healthy adults were asked to walk at self-selected comfortable, slow, and fast speeds over a 10-m walkway while carrying a smartphone. Step length, step time, gait velocity, and cadence were computed from smartphone-based accelerometers and validated with GAITRite. Across all walking speeds, smartphone data had excellent reliability (ICC 2,1 ≥0.90) for the body and belt locations, with bag, hand, and pocket locations having good to excellent reliability (ICC 2,1 ≥0.69). Correlations between the smartphone-based and GAITRite-based systems were very high for the body (r=0.89, 0.98, 0.96, and 0.87 for step length, step time, gait velocity, and cadence, respectively). Similarly, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that the bias approached zero, particularly in the body, bag, and belt conditions under comfortable and fast speeds. Thus, smartphone-based assessments of gait are most valid when placed on the body, in a bag, or on a belt. The use of a smartphone to assess gait can provide relevant data to clinicians without encumbering the user and allow for data collection in the free-living environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martin, Albert C.
Full Text Available This building, situated in a 17,000 m2 block in Los Angeles, consists of a 55 storeyed tower, in the lower part of which are the offices and the parkingplace with room for 2,500 cars. The complex has a total surface of 260,000 m2. The sides of the square ground plan of the tower make a 45° angle with the adjoining streets whereby the orientation in relation to the sun provides better possibilities for the use of solar energy. Within this complex much attention has been paid to the pedestrians in the form of futuristic innovations such as, for example: moving ramps and above-street pedestrian walkways which provide access to the other buildings. On the rooftop a heliport has been constructed.Este edificio, situado en una manzana de 17.000 m2 en la ciudad de Los Angeles, está constituido por una alta torre de 55 plantas levantada sobre una base en la que se encuentran la zona de oficinas y el aparcamiento. El conjunto posee una superficie de más de 260.000 m2. La planta de la torre, de forma cuadrada, tiene sus lados dispuestos según un ángulo de 45° respecto a las calles adyacentes, con lo que, al mejorar la orientación, se logra un mayor control solar y un gran ahorro de energía. En el interior se han tenido muy en cuenta los sistemas de circulación peatonal, mediante innovaciones de tipo futurista tales como: pasillos mecánicos rodantes, una plataforma móvil elevada y pasos elevados que conectan con los edificios vecinos. En la coronación del edificio se ha dispuesto un helipuerto, y en la base, un aparcamiento de 2.500 plazas de capacidad.
Branthwaite, Helen; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Pandyan, Anand; Khatri, Gaurav
Unstable shoes, which have recently become popular, claim to provide additional physiological and biomechanical advantages to people who wear them. Alterations in postural stability have been shown when using the shoe after training. However, the immediate effect on muscle activity when walking in unstable shoes for the first time has not been investigated. To evaluate muscle activity and temporal parameters of gait when wearing Masai Barefoot Technology shoes(®) for the first time compared to the subject's own regular trainer shoes. A pilot repeated-measures quasi control trial. Electromyographic measurements of lower leg muscles (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gluteus medius) were measured in 15 healthy participants using Masai Barefoot Technology shoes and trainer shoes over a 10-m walkway. Muscle activity of the third and sixth steps was used to study the difference in behaviour of the muscles under the two shoe conditions. Temporal parameters were captured with footswitches to highlight heel strike, heel lift and toe off. Paired samples t-test was completed to compare mean muscle activity for Masai Barefoot Technology and trainer shoes. Indicated that the use of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes increased the intensity of the magnitude of muscle activity. While this increase in the activity was not significant across the subjects, there were inter-individual differences in muscle activity. This variance between the participants demonstrates that some subjects do alter muscle behaviour while wearing such shoes. A more rigorous and specific assessment is required when advising patients to purchase the Masai Barefoot Technology shoe. Not all subjects respond positively to using unstable shoes, and the point in time when muscle behaviour can change is variable. Use of Masai Barefoot Technology shoe in patient management should be monitored closely as the individual muscle
Giansanti, Daniele; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Brocco, Monica
When designing a complete system of daily-telerehabilitation it should be borne in mind that properly designed methodologies should be furnished for patients to execute specific motion tasks and for care givers to assess the relevant parameters. Whether in hospital or at home, the system should feature two basic elements: (a) instrumented and walking aids or supports, (b) equipment for the assessment of parameters. Being gait the focus, the idea was to design, construct and validate - as an alternative to the complex and expensive instruments currently used - a simple, portable kit that may be easily interfaced/integrated with the most common mechanical tools used in motion rehabilitation (instrumented walkways, aids, supports), with feedback to both patient for self-monitoring and trainer/therapist (present or remote) for clinical reporting. The proposed system consists of: one step-counter, three couples of photo-emitter detectors, one central unit for collecting and processing the telemetrically transmitted data; a software interface on a dedicated PC and a network adapter. The system has been successfully validated in a clinical application on two groups of 16 subjects at the 1st and 2nd level of the Tinetti test. The degree of acceptance by subjects and care-givers was high. The system was also successfully compared with an Inertial Measurement Unit, a de facto standard. The portable kit can be used with different rehabilitation tools and different ground rugosity. The advantages are: (a) very low costs when compared with optoelectronic solutions and other portable solutions; (b) very high accuracy, also for subjects with imbalance problems; (c) good compatibility with any rehabilitative tool. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holtzer, Roee; Mahoney, Jeannette; Verghese, Joe
The relationship between executive functions (EF) and gait speed is well established. However, with the exception of dual tasking, the key components of EF that predict differences in gait performance have not been determined. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine whether processing speed, conflict resolution, and intraindividual variability in EF predicted variance in gait performance in single- and dual-task conditions. Participants were 234 nondemented older adults (mean age 76.48 years; 55% women) enrolled in a community-based cohort study. Gait speed was assessed using an instrumented walkway during single- and dual-task conditions. The flanker task was used to assess EF. Results from the linear mixed effects model showed that (a) dual-task interference caused a significant dual-task cost in gait speed (estimate = 35.99; 95% CI = 33.19-38.80) and (b) of the cognitive predictors, only intraindividual variability was associated with gait speed (estimate = -.606; 95% CI = -1.11 to -.10). In unadjusted analyses, the three EF measures were related to gait speed in single- and dual-task conditions. However, in fully adjusted linear regression analysis, only intraindividual variability predicted performance differences in gait speed during dual tasking (B = -.901; 95% CI = -1.557 to -.245). Among the three EF measures assessed, intraindividual variability but not speed of processing or conflict resolution predicted performance differences in gait speed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mazurek, K. A.; Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Stein, R. B.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Mushahwar, V. K.
The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.
Kalron, Alon; Allali, Gilles; Achiron, Anat
Investigate the association between step time variability and related brain structures in accordance with fall status in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The study included 225 PwMS. A whole-brain MRI was performed by a high-resolution 3.0-Telsa MR scanner in addition to volumetric analysis based on 3D T1-weighted images using the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. Step time variability was measured by an electronic walkway. Participants were defined as "fallers" (at least two falls during the previous year) and "non-fallers". One hundred and five PwMS were defined as fallers and had a greater step time variability compared to non-fallers (5.6% (S.D.=3.4) vs. 3.4% (S.D.=1.5); p=0.001). MS fallers exhibited a reduced volume in the left caudate and both cerebellum hemispheres compared to non-fallers. By using a linear regression analysis no association was found between gait variability and related brain structures in the total cohort and non-fallers group. However, the analysis found an association between the left hippocampus and left putamen volumes with step time variability in the faller group; p=0.031, 0.048, respectively, controlling for total cranial volume, walking speed, disability, age and gender. Nevertheless, according to the hierarchical regression model, the contribution of these brain measures to predict gait variability was relatively small compared to walking speed. An association between low left hippocampal, putamen volumes and step time variability was found in PwMS with a history of falls, suggesting brain structural characteristics may be related to falls and increased gait variability in PwMS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Upchurch, David A; Renberg, Walter C; Roush, James K; Milliken, George A; Weiss, Mark L
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of simultaneous intra-articular and IV injection of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints. ANIMALS 22 client-owned dogs (12 placebo-treated [control] dogs and 10 treated dogs). PROCEDURES Dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints that caused signs of lameness or discomfort were characterized on the basis of results of orthopedic examination, goniometry, lameness score, the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), a visual analogue scale, and results obtained by use of a pressure-sensing walkway at week 0 (baseline). Dogs received a simultaneous intraarticular and IV injection of SVF and PRP or a placebo. Dogs were examined again 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. RESULTS CBPI scores were significantly lower for the treatment group at week 24, compared with scores for the control group. Mean visual analogue scale score for the treatment group was significantly higher at week 0 than at weeks 4, 8, or 24. Dogs with baseline peak vertical force (PVF) in the lowest 25th percentile were compared, and the treatment group had a significantly higher PVF than did the control group. After the SVF-PRP injection, fewer dogs in the treated group than in the control group had lameness confirmed during examination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints treated with SVF and PRP, improvements in CBPI and PVF were evident at some time points, compared with results for the control group.
Damavandi, Mohsen; Dixon, Philippe C; Pearsall, David J
Despite cross-slope surfaces being a regular feature of our environment, little is known about segmental adaptations required to maintain both balance and forward locomotion. The purpose of this study was to determine kinematic adaptations of the foot segments in relation to transverse (cross-sloped) walking surfaces. Ten young adult males walked barefoot along an inclinable walkway (level, 0° and cross-slope, 10°). Kinematic adaptations of hindfoot with respect to tibia (HF/TB), forefoot with respect to hindfoot (FF/HF), and hallux with respect to forefoot (HX/FF) in level walking (LW), inclined walking up-slope (IWU), i.e., the foot at the higher elevation, and inclined walking down-slope (IWD), i.e., the foot at the lower elevation, were measured. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. In the sagittal plane, the relative FF/HF and HX/FF plantar/dorsiflexion angles differed across conditions (p=0.024 and p=0.026, respectively). More importantly, numerous frontal plane alterations occurred. For the HF/TB angle, inversion of IWU and eversion of IWD was seen at heel-strike (p<0.001). This pattern reversed with IWU showing eversion and IWD inversion in early stance (p=0.024). For the FF/HF angle, significant differences were observed in mid-stance with IWD revealing inversion while IWU was everted (p<0.004). At toe-off, the pattern switched to eversion of IWD and inversion of IWU (p=0.032). The information obtained from this study enhances our understanding of the kinematics of the human foot in stance during level and cross-slope walking. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Arazpour, M; Bani, M A; Hutchins, S W; Curran, S; Javanshir, M A
Perceived risk of falling is an important factor for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the influence of ankle joint motion on postural stability and walking in people with SCI when using an orthosis. Volunteer subjects with SCI (n=5) participated in this study. Each subject was fitted with an advanced reciprocating gait orthosis (ARGO) equipped with either solid or dorsiflexion-assist type ankle-foot orthosis (AFOs) and walked at their self-selected speed along a flat walkway to enable the comparison of walking speed, cadence and endurance. A force plate system and a modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) were utilized to measure postural sway and the perceived fear of falling, respectively. There were significant differences in the mean MFES scores between two types of orthosis (P=0.023). When using two crutches, there was no significant difference in static standing postural sway in the medio-lateral (M/L) direction (P=0.799), but significant difference in the antero-posterior (A/P) direction (P=0.014). However, during single crutch support, there was a significant difference in both M/L (P=0.019) and A/P (P=0.022) directions. Walking speed (7%) and endurance (5%) significantly increased when using the ARGO with dorsi flexion assisted AFOs. There was no significant deference between two types of orthoses in cadence (P=0.54). Using an ARGO with dorsiflexion-assisted AFOs increased the fear of falling, but improved static postural stability and increased walking speed and endurance, and should therefore be considered as an effective orthosis during the rehabilitation of people with SCI.
Callisaya, M L; Blizzard, L; McGinley, J L; Srikanth, V K
To investigate the relationship between fast-walking and falls in older people. Individuals aged 60-86 years were randomly selected from the electoral roll (n=176). Gait speed, step length, cadence and a walk ratio were recorded during preferred- and fast-walking using an instrumented walkway. Falls were recorded prospectively over 12 months. Log multinomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk of single and multiple falls associated with gait variables during fast-walking and change between preferred- and fast-walking. Covariates included age, sex, mood, physical activity, sensorimotor and cognitive measures. The risk of multiple falls was increased for those with a smaller walk ratio (shorter steps, faster cadence) during fast-walking (RR 0.92, CI 0.87, 0.97) and greater reduction in the walk ratio (smaller increase in step length, larger increase in cadence) when changing to fast-walking (RR 0.73, CI 0.63, 0.85). These gait patterns were associated with poorer physiological and cognitive function (prisk of multiple falls was also seen for those in the fastest quarter of gait speed (p=0.01) at fast-walking. A trend for better reaction time, balance, memory and physical activity for higher categories of gait speed was stronger for fallers than non-fallers (prisk of multiple falls. There may be two distinct groups at risk--the frail person with short shuffling steps, and the healthy person exposed to greater risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nordin, E; Moe-Nilssen, R; Ramnemark, A; Lundin-Olsson, L
The aim was to evaluate whether gait pattern changes between single- and dual-task conditions were associated with risk of falling in older people. Dual-task cost (DTC) of 230 community living, physically independent people, 75 years or older, was determined with an electronic walkway. Participants were followed up each month for 1 year to record falls. Mean and variability measures of gait characteristics for 5 dual-task conditions were compared to single-task walking for each participant. Almost half (48%) of the participants fell at least once during follow-up. Risk of falling increased in individuals where DTC for performing a subtraction task demonstrated change in mean step-width compared to single-task walking. Risk of falling decreased in individuals where DTC for carrying a cup and saucer demonstrated change compared to single-task walking in mean step-width, mean step-time, and step-length variability. Degree of change in gait characteristics related to a change in risk of falling differed between measures. Prognostic guidance for fall risk was found for the above DTCs in mean step-width with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 and a positive likelihood ratio of 2.3, respectively. Findings suggest that changes in step-width, step-time, and step-length with dual tasking may be related to future risk of falling. Depending on the nature of the second task, DTC may indicate either an increased risk of falling, or a protective strategy to avoid falling. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Paterson, Kade; Hill, Keith; Lythgo, Noel
Measures of walking instability such as stride dynamics and gait variability have been shown to identify future fallers in older adult populations with gait limitations or mobility disorders. This study investigated whether measures of walking instability can predict future fallers (over a prospective 12 month period) in a group of healthy and active older women. Ninety-seven healthy active women aged between 55 and 90 years walked for 7 min around a continuous walking circuit. Gait data recorded by a GAITRite(®) walkway and foot-mounted accelerometers were used to calculate measures of stride dynamics and gait variability. The participant's physical function and balance were assessed. Fall incidence was monitored over the following 12 months. Inter-limb differences (p≤0.04) in stride dynamics were found for fallers (one or more falls) aged over 70 years, and multiple fallers (two or more falls) aged over 55 years, but not in non-fallers or a combined group of single and non-fallers. No group differences were found in the measures of physical function, balance or gait, including variability. Additionally, no gait variable predicted falls. Reduced coordination of inter-limb dynamics was found in active healthy older fallers and multiple fallers despite no difference in other measures of intrinsic falls risk. Evaluating inter-limb dynamics may be a clinically sensitive technique to detect early gait instability and falls risk in high functioning older adults, prior to change in other measures of physical function, balance and gait. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Taofeek Oluwole Awotidebe
Full Text Available AIM: Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB tends to have limited exercise tolerance and a significant disability affecting their activities of daily living. The importance of exercise in the management of these patients has not been well investigated. This study was designed to assess the cardiovascular fitness of patients with pulmonary TB using the six-minute walk test (6-MWT. METHOD: Sixty five consented patients with Pulmonary TB were consecutively recruited into the study. The patients performed 6-MWT over a 30 meter course on a level walkway at a speed as fast as they could. Data were obtained on participants’ physical characteristics, pre and post exercise blood pressure and heart rate, and maximum oxygen consumption. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and paired t-test. RESULTS: The post walk test cardiovascular parameters were significantly higher than the resting cardiovascular parameters. The mean VO2 max and MET of the participants were 11.7±0.97 (ml O2kg -1min-1 and 3.35±0.28 (mL/Kg respectively. The means 6-MWT distance for male and female participants were 502.0±43.0m 481.7±68.3m respectively. CONCLUSION: The result implies that the 6-MWT is capable of evoking a significant cardiovascular change among patients with pulmonary TB. The 6-MWT may be useful in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with pulmonary TB. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 99-106
Andel, Steven van; Cole, Michael H; Pepping, Gert-Jan
Locomotor pointing is a task that has been the focus of research in the context of sport (e.g. long jumping and cricket) as well as normal walking. Collectively, these studies have produced a broad understanding of locomotor pointing, but generalizability has been limited to laboratory type tasks and/or tasks with high spatial demands. The current study aimed to generalize previous findings in locomotor pointing to the common daily task of approaching and stepping on to a curb. Sixteen people completed 33 repetitions of a task that required them to walk up to and step onto a curb. Information about their foot placement was collected using a combination of measures derived from a pressure-sensitive walkway and video data. Variables related to perceptual-motor regulation were analyzed on an inter-trial, intra-step and inter-step level. Similar to previous studies, analysis of the foot placements showed that, variability in foot placement decreased as the participants drew closer to the curb. Regulation seemed to be initiated earlier in this study compared to previous studies, as shown by a decreasing variability in foot placement as early as eight steps before reaching the curb. Furthermore, it was shown that when walking up to the curb, most people regulated their walk in a way so as to achieve minimal variability in the foot placement on top of the curb, rather than a placement in front of the curb. Combined, these results showed a strong perceptual-motor coupling in the task of approaching and stepping up a curb, rendering this task a suitable test for perceptual-motor regulation in walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W; Oteng-Amoako, Afua; Gopaul, Karen; Islam, Anam; Borrie, Michael; Wells, Jennie; Speechley, Mark
Gait deficits are prevalent in people with dementia and increase their fall risk and future disability. Few treatments exist for gait impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but preliminary studies have shown that cognitive enhancers may improve gait in this population. To determine the efficacy of donepezil, a cognitive enhancer that improves cholinergic activity, on gait in older adults newly diagnosed with AD. Phase II clinical trial in 43 seniors with mild AD who received donepezil. Participants had not previously received treatment with cognitive enhancers. Primary outcome variables were gait velocity (GV) and stride time variability (STV) under single and dual-task conditions measured using an electronic walkway. Secondary outcomes included attention and executive function. After four months of treatment, participants with mild AD improved their GV from 108.4 ± 18.6 to 113.3 ± 19.5 cm/s, p = 0.010; dual-task GV from 80.6 ± 23.0 to 85.3 ± 22.3 cm/s, p = 0.028. Changes in STV were in the expected direction although not statistically significant. Participants also showed improvements in Trail Making Tests A (p = 0.030), B (p = 0.001), and B-A (p = 0.042). Donepezil improved gait in participants with mild AD. The enhancement of dual-task gait suggests the positive changes achieved in executive function as a possible causal mechanism. This study yielded a clinically significant estimate of effect size; as well, the findings are relevant to the feasibility and ethics considerations for the design of a Phase III clinical trial.
Hochsprung, A; Granja Domínguez, A; Magni, E; Escudero Uribe, S; Moreno García, A
Gait alterations are present in a high percentage of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). They appear from early stages of the disease and can limit patients' capacity to perform basic activities of daily living, affecting their quality of life. Visual biofeedback cycling training appears to be a useful tool in treating these impairments. This study aims to evaluate the short-term effect of visual biofeedback cycling training on gait in patients with MS. A total of 61 patients with mild to moderate MS were randomly assigned to a control group and an intervention group. The intervention group received visual biofeedback cycling training (MOTOmed viva2 system) once per week for 3 months, and a home exercise program. The control group only received the home exercise program. Both groups were evaluated using the GAITRite ® Walkway gait assessment system before the intervention, during the first month of the programme, and after the intervention. In the intervention group, the analysis revealed statistically significant differences between Functional Ambulation Profile (FAP) scores before and during the intervention (P=.014), and before and after the intervention (P=.002). A statistically significant improvement was observed in step length in the intervention group between pre- and post-intervention scores (P=.001) and between first-month and post-intervention scores (P=.004). Visual biofeedback cycling training improved specific gait parameters in the short term and appears to be a therapeutic option for gait retraining in patients with MS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert
Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p velocity (9%, p velocity (31%, p training regimen could be used as an adjunct or even alternative to traditional balance and/or resistance training. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Makino, Keitaro; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki
Fear of falling (FOF) is associated with spatial and temporal gait parameters in older adults. FOF is prevalent among older adults, both those with and without fall history. It is still unclear whether the relationships between FOF and gait parameters are affected by fall history. The aim of the present study was to compare gait parameters by the presence of FOF and fall history. A total of 3575 older adults (mean age 71.7 years, 49.7% female) met the inclusion criteria for the present study. We assessed the presence of fall history and FOF by face-to-face interview, and gait parameters (gait speed, stride length, step rate, double support time and variation of stride length) at a comfortable speed using a computerized electronic walkway. Prevalences of fall history and FOF were as follows: non-fallers without FOF 52.6% (n = 1881); fallers without FOF 6.3% (n = 227); non-fallers with FOF 34.4% (n = 1229); and fallers with FOF 6.7% (n = 238). Analysis of covariance showed significant differences among the four groups in all gait variables even after adjusting for age, sex and number of medications used. It should be noted that non-fallers with FOF showed significantly slower gait speed, shorter stride length and longer double support time than did non-fallers without FOF (P fall history. The assessment of FOF might be helpful for better understanding of age-related changes in gait control. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2455-2459. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Granacher, Urs; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wehrle, Anja; Kressig, Reto W
Changes in postural sway and gait patterns due to simultaneously performed cognitive (CI) and/or motor interference (MI) tasks have previously been reported and are associated with an increased risk of falling in older adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a CI and/or MI task on static and dynamic postural control in young and elderly subjects, and to find out whether there is an association between measures of static and dynamic postural control while concurrently performing the CI and/or MI task. A total of 36 healthy young (n = 18; age: 22.3 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) and elderly adults (n = 18; age: 73.5 ± 5.5 years; BMI: 24.2 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) participated in this study. Static postural control was measured during bipedal stance, and dynamic postural control was obtained while walking on an instrumented walkway. Irrespective of the task condition, i.e. single-task or multiple tasks, elderly participants showed larger center-of-pressure displacements and greater stride-to-stride variability than younger participants. Associations between measures of static and dynamic postural control were found only under the single-task condition in the elderly. Age-related deficits in the postural control system seem to be primarily responsible for the observed results. The weak correlations detected between static and dynamic measures could indicate that fall-risk assessment should incorporate dynamic measures under multi-task conditions, and that skills like erect standing and walking are independent of each other and may have to be trained complementarily. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Swenor, Bonnielin K; Friedman, David S; West, Sheila K; Gitlin, Laura N; Ramulu, Pradeep Y
To evaluate fall-relevant gait features in older glaucoma patients. The GAITRite Electronic Walkway was used to define fall-related gait parameters in 239 patients with suspected or manifest glaucoma under normal usual-pace walking conditions and while carrying a cup or tray. Multiple linear regression models assessed the association between gait parameters and integrated visual field (IVF) sensitivity after controlling for age, race, sex, medications, and comorbid illness. Under normal walking conditions, worse IVF sensitivity was associated with a wider base of support (β = 0.60 cm/5 dB IVF sensitivity decrement, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-1.09, P = 0.016). Worse IVF sensitivity was not associated with slower gait speed, shorter step or stride length, or greater left-right drift under normal walking conditions ( P > 0.05 for all), but was during cup and/or tray carrying conditions ( P < 0.05 for all). Worse IVF sensitivity was positively associated with greater stride-to-stride variability in step length, stride length, and stride velocity ( P < 0.005 for all). Inferior and superior IVF sensitivity demonstrated associations with each of the above gait parameters as well, though these associations were consistently similar to, or weaker than, the associations noted for overall IVF sensitivity. Glaucoma severity was associated with several gait parameters predictive of higher fall risk in prior studies, particularly measures of stride-to-stride variability. Gait may be useful in identifying glaucoma patients at higher risk of falls, and in designing and testing interventions to prevent falls in this high-risk group. These findings could serve to inform the development of the interventions for falls prevention in glaucoma patients.
Bürki, Céline N; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Reinhardt, Julia; Stippich, Christoph; Kressig, Reto W; Blatow, Maria
In geriatric clinical diagnostics, gait analysis with cognitive-motor dual tasking is used to predict fall risk and cognitive decline. To date, the neural correlates of cognitive-motor dual tasking processes are not fully understood. To investigate these underlying neural mechanisms, we designed an fMRI paradigm to reproduce the gait analysis. We tested the fMRI paradigm's feasibility in a substudy with fifteen young adults and assessed 31 healthy older adults in the main study. First, gait speed and variability were quantified using the GAITRite © electronic walkway. Then, participants lying in the MRI-scanner were stepping on pedals of an MRI-compatible stepping device used to imitate gait during functional imaging. In each session, participants performed cognitive and motor single tasks as well as cognitive-motor dual tasks. Behavioral results showed that the parameters of both gait analyses, GAITRite © and fMRI, were significantly positively correlated. FMRI results revealed significantly reduced brain activation during dual task compared to single task conditions. Functional ROI analysis showed that activation in the superior parietal lobe (SPL) decreased less from single to dual task condition than activation in primary motor cortex and in supplementary motor areas. Moreover, SPL activation was increased during dual tasks in subjects exhibiting lower stepping speed and lower executive control. We were able to simulate walking during functional imaging with valid results that reproduce those from the GAITRite © gait analysis. On the neural level, SPL seems to play a crucial role in cognitive-motor dual tasking and to be linked to divided attention processes, particularly when motor activity is involved.
Härdi, Irene; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Gschwind, Yves J; Kressig, Reto W
Gait and balance impairments lead to falls and injuries in older people. Walking aids are meant to increase gait safety and prevent falls, yet little is known about how their use alters gait parameters. This study aimed to quantify gait in older adults during walking without and with different walking aids and to compare gait parameters to matched controls. This retrospective study included 65 older (≥60 years) community dwellers who used a cane, crutch or walker and 195 independently mobile-matched controls. Spatio-temporal gait parameters were measured with an electronic walkway system during normal walking. When walking unaided or aided, walking aid users had significantly worse gait than matched controls. Significant differences between the walking aid groups were found for stride time variability (cane vs. walker) in walking unaided only. Gait performances significantly improved when assessed with vs. without the walking aid for the cane (increased stride time and length, decreased cadence and stride length variability), crutch (increased stride time and length, decreased cadence, stride length variability and double support) and walker (increased gait speed and stride length, decreased base of support and double support) users. Gait in older adults who use a walking aid is more irregular and unstable than gait in independently mobile older adults. Walking aid users have better gait when using their walking aid than when walking without it. The changes in gait were different for the different types of walking aids used. These study results may help better understand gait in older adults and differentiate between pathological gait changes and compensatory gait changes due to the use of a walking aid.
Eliza C. de Souza
Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that variability of walking is related to fall risk similarly as postural control and muscle strength. Joint potential of this group of variables for fall risk assessment is promising, however research interested in relations between them is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between knee extensors' strength, centre of pressure (COP velocity during one-leg stance and variability of COP displacement during various phases of gait cycle in middle-age women. Methods: A single group of 40 healthy women (age 56 ± 4.2 years took part in the study. For assessment of knee extensors' strength (peak torque and average work during concentric and eccentric contractions an isokinetic dynamometer was used. Mean velocity of COP during one-leg stance in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions was assessed on a force plate on a rigid surface with eyes open (two 30 s trials. Variability of COP displacement was assessed for loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing gait cycle phases (determined by vertical ground reaction force in AP and ML directions. It was measured by two force plates positioned in the middle of an 8 m walkway (5 trials at a self-selected speed. For statistical analysis of relationships between variables Pearson correlation was applied. Results: Our results showed significant correlations between eccentric peak torque and COP velocity in AP direction during one-leg stance, eccentric and concentric peak torque and COP variability during loading response in both ML and AP directions and during terminal stance in AP direction. Conclusion: Loading response and terminal stance seems to be more related to knee extensors' strength. Variables derived from postural stability assessment during one-leg stance are independent from variables derived from assessment of COP displacement variability during walking.
Full Text Available De la porte d’eau de la Basse Deûle jusqu’au fort Saint-Sauveur, le front oriental de Lille, fortifié à l’époque espagnole, glisse ses courtines dans les entrelacs du périphérique et des gares. L’enjeu urbain actuel consiste à s’appuyer sur ces murs historiques pour « passer malgré tout » à travers cet écheveau urbain et retisser les fils de la continuité des promenades au cœur de la ville. Moins connus que le front occidental de la reine des citadelles, ces anciens espaces militaires sont une chance pour l’urbanisme de demain dont les opérations en cours de la Porte de Gand et de la Basse Deûle témoignent déjà.The east wall, at Lille, fortified during the period of Spanish occupation, extends from the Porte d'Eau de la Basse-Deûle to the Saint-Sauveur fort. Its curtain walls emerge today in a landscape of ring roads and railway territories. The issue today is to profit from these historic walls in order to make some sense of the urban chaos and to reinstate some urban continuity in the city-centre walkways. Although they are not as well known as the western wall of this major fortified city, these former military properties are an exciting opportunity for tomorrow's town-planners, as the operations already underway at the Porte de Gand et de la Basse Deûle suggest.
Storm, Fabio A; Heller, Ben W; Mazzà, Claudia
The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.
Smedal, Tori; Lygren, Hildegunn; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Gjelsvik, Bente; Gjelsvik, Olav; Strand, Liv Inger; Inger, Liv
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) tend to have movement difficulties, and the effect of physiotherapy for this group of patients has been subjected to limited systematic research. In the present study physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept, applied to MS patients with balance and gait problems, was evaluated. The ability of different functional tests to demonstrate change was evaluated. A single-subject experimental study design with ABAA phases was used, and two patients with relapsing-remitting MS in stable phase were treated. Tests were performed 12 times, three at each phase: A (at baseline); B (during treatment); A (immediately after treatment); and A (after two months). The key feature of treatment was facilitation of postural activity and selective control of movement. Several performance and self report measures and interviews were used. After intervention, improved balance was shown by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) in both patients, and improved quality of gait was indicated by the Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment (RVGA). The patients also reported improved balance and gait function in the interviews and scored their condition as 'much improved'. Gait parameters, recorded by an electronic walkway, changed, but differently in the two patients. Among the physical performance tests the BBS and the RVGA demonstrated the highest change, while no or minimal change was demonstrated by the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE). The findings indicate that balance and gait can be improved after physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept, but this should be further evaluated in larger controlled trials of patients with MS.
Oygard, Kjellaug; Haestad, Helge; Jørgensen, Lone
There are few studies on possible effects of physiotherapy for adults with muscular dystrophy. The aim of this study was to examine if treatment based on the Bobath concept may influence specific gait parameters in some of these patients. A single-subject experimental design with A-B-A-A phases was used, and four patients, three with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and one with fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), were included. The patients had 1 hour of individually tailored physiotherapy at each working day for a period of 3 weeks. Step length, step width and gait velocity were measured during the A-B-A-A phases by use of an electronic walkway. Walking distance and endurance were measured by use of the '6 minute walk test'. . The three LGMD patients, who initially walked with a wide base of support, had a narrower, velocity-adjusted step width after treatment, accompanied with the same or even longer step length. These changes lasted throughout follow-up. Moreover, two of the patients were able to walk a longer distance within 6 minutes after the treatment period. The fourth patient (with FSHD) had a normal step width at baseline, which did not change during the study. The results indicate that physiotherapy treatment based on the Bobath concept may influence the gait pattern in patients with LGMD. However, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy to patients with muscular dystrophies, we call for larger studies and controlled trials. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Van de Velde, Maarten; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Wuite, Sander; Roels, Charlotte; Staes, Filip; Deschamps, Kevin
Classification systems developed in the field of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction omit to include dynamic measurements. Since this may negatively affect the selection of the most appropriate treatment modality, studies on foot kinematics are highly recommended. Previous research characterised the foot kinematics in patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction. However, none of the studies analysed foot segmental motion synchrony during stance phase, nor compared the kinematic behaviour of the foot in presence of different posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stages. Therefore, we aimed at comparing foot segmental motion and coupling in patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction grade 2 and 3 to those of asymptomatic subjects. Foot segmental motion of 11 patients suffering from posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stage 2, 4 patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stage 3 and 15 asymptomatic subjects was objectively quantified with the Rizzoli foot model using an instrumented walkway and a 3D passive motion capture system. Dependent variables were the range of motion occurring at the different inter-segment angles during subphases of stance and swing phase as well as the cross-correlation coefficient between a number of segments. Significant differences in range of motion were predominantly found during the forefoot push off phase and swing phase. In general, both patient cohorts demonstrated a reduced range of motion compared to the control group. This hypomobility occurred predominantly in the rearfoot and midfoot (pfoot which should be considered in the decision making process since it may help explaining the success and failure of certain conservative and surgical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique
Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kalron, Alon; Aloni, Roy; Dolev, Mark; Frid, Lior; Givon, Uri; Menascu, Shay
The objective of the study was to determine if cognitive function is associated with step time variability in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The study included 355 PwMS (218 women), average age 41.1 (SD = 13.5), disease duration 5.9 (SD = 7.3) years, and a median expanded disability status scale score of 2.5. We separately analyzed the sample group of fallers and non-fallers based on their fall history. Gait variability was measured by an electronic walkway and all participants completed a computerized cognitive test battery designed to evaluate multiple cognitive domains. Fallers (43.7%) demonstrated elevated step time variability (%CV), 5.0 (SD = 3.4) vs. 3.5 (SD = 1.6), P < 0.001 compared to the non-faller subjects. According to the regression analysis in the non-fallers' group, step time variability was found significantly associated with the global cognitive score (P = 0.001), executive function subcategory (P = 0.038), and motor skills subcategory (P < 0.001). No relationship between step time variability and any cognitive domain was demonstrated in the faller group. This study illustrated that the association between gait variability and cognition occurs only in PwMS without a fall history. From a clinical standpoint, these findings might help medical professionals to create improved assessment tests and rehabilitation strategies in the MS population.
Michele L Callisaya
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gait impairments increase with advancing age and can lead to falls and loss of independence. Brain atrophy also occurs in older age and may contribute to gait decline. We aimed to investigate global and regional relationships of cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait speed, and its determinants step length and cadence, in older people. METHODS: In a population-based study, participants aged >60 years without Parkinson's disease or brain infarcts underwent magnetic resonance imaging and gait measurements using a computerized walkway. Linear regression was used to study associations of total gray and white matter volumes with gait, adjusting for each other, age, sex, height and white matter hyperintensity volume. Other covariates considered in analyses included weight and vascular disease history. Voxel-based morphometry was used to study regional relationships of gray and white matter with gait. RESULTS: There were 305 participants, mean age 71.4 (6.9 years, 54% male, mean gait speed 1.16 (0.22 m/s. Smaller total gray matter volume was independently associated with poorer gait speed (p = 0.001 and step length (p<0.001, but not cadence. Smaller volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter in bilateral regions important for motor control, vision, perception and memory were independently associated with slower gait speed and shorter steps. No global or regional associations were observed between white matter volume and gait independent of gray matter volume, white matter hyperintensity volume and other covariates. CONCLUSION: Smaller gray matter volume in bilaterally distributed brain networks serving motor control was associated with slower gait speed and step length, but not cadence.
Fraldi, Massimiliano; Carotenuto, Angelo R.
Growth of biological tissues has been recently treated within the framework of Continuum Mechanics, by adopting heterogeneous poroelastic models where the interaction between soft matrix and interstitial fluid flow is coupled with inelastic effects ad hoc introduced to simulate the macroscopic volumetric growth determined by cells division, cells growth and extracellular matrix changes occurring at the micro-scale level. These continuum models seem to overcome some limitations intrinsically associated to other alternative approaches based on mass balances in multiphase systems, because the crucial role played by residual stresses accompanying growth and nutrients walkway is preserved. Nevertheless, when these strategies are applied to analyze solid tumors, mass growth is usually assigned in a prescribed form that essentially copies the in vitro measured intrinsic growth rates of the cell species. As a consequence, some important cell-cell dynamics governing mass evolution and invasion rates of cancer cells, as well as their coupling with feedback mechanisms associated to in situ stresses, are inevitably lost and thus the spatial distribution and the evolution with time of the growth inside the tumor -which would be results rather than inputs- are forced to enter in the model simply as data. In order to solve this paradox, it is here proposed an enhanced multi-scale poroelastic model undergoing large deformations and embodying inelastic growth, where the net growth terms directly result from the "interspecific" predator-prey (Volterra/Lotka-like) competition occurring at the micro-scale level between healthy and abnormal cell species. In this way, a system of fully-coupled non-linear PDEs is derived to describe how the fight among cell species to grab the available common resources, stress field, pressure gradients, interstitial fluid flows driving nutrients and inhomogeneous growth all simultaneously interact to decide the tumor fate.
Shabiev, S. G.
The article deals with the vital problem of the implementation of the Program to enhance the competitiveness of the South Ural State University (SUSU) among other scientific and educational centers, which defines the main objective - to form a world-class university. According to the set objective, the most important task is to build a landscaped campus, which can be efficiently solved by the architectural means. The solution of this task is based on the scientific methods of the territorial and architectural improvement of the main university building complex development in the northern academic area and the architectural and aesthetic improvement of the space structural arrangement of the buildings. The author analyzes the global practice of modern campuses in Russia and abroad based on the Internet resources. The author carried out some additional on-site surveys of foreign campuses in Australia, Canada and China. The essence of the architectural concept of the first university campus development stage lies in the science-based achievement of a harmonious architectural and space unity of solid and plane elements of the site development, landscape arrangement of the main building’s courtyard and the adjacent territories with an efficient use of the relief, water areas and planting, allotment of additional spaces for landscaped areas due to a split-level arrangement, including a landscaped platform, increase of the underground space utilization share with the arrangement of an underground car parking and an underground walkway considering the environmental requirements. Further, it is planned to use the author’s methodological approach for the southern academic and the northern residential university areas, which will allow to create a duly completed landscaped SUSU campus with a developed infrastructure according to the international standards.
Wilmut, K; Barnett, A L
Obstacles often appear unexpectedly in our pathway and these require us to make adjustments to avoid collision. Previous research has demonstrated that healthy adults will make anticipatory adjustments to gait where they have been told there is the possibility of an obstacle appearing. One population that may find this type of anticipatory movement difficult is individuals with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The current study considered how individuals with and without DCD adjust to the possibility of an obstacle appearing which would require circumvention. Fortyfour individuals with DCD and 44 age-matched controls (aged from 7 to 34 years of age) walked down an 11 m walkway under three conditions. Initially they were told this was a clear pathway and nothing in the environment would change (1, no possibility of an obstacle, no obstacle). They then performed a series of trials in which a gate may (2, possibility of an obstacle, obstacle) or may not (3, possibility of an obstacle, no obstacle) partially obstruct their pathway. We found that all participants increased medio-lateral trunk acceleration when there was the possibility of an obstacle but before the obstacle appeared, in addition the typical adults and older children also increased step width. When describing circumvention we found that the younger children showed an increase in trunk velocity and acceleration in all three directions compared to older children and adults. We also found that the individuals with DCD adjusted their path sooner and deviated more than their peers. The degree of adjustment to step width in anticipation of an obstacle was related to later medio-lateral velocity and timing of the deviation. Therefore, the lack of 'readying' the system where there is the possibility of an obstacle appearing seen in the individuals with DCD and the younger typical children may explain the increased medio-lateral velocity seen during circumvention.
Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, it has been focused much attention on gait analysis. Factors such as speed, age and gender affect gait parameters. The purpose of the present study was to compare the electromyographic activity pattern of knee two-joint muscles between younger and older subjects in different gait speeds. Matterials & Methods: The method of current study was analytical cross-sectional method in which 15 healthy young men and 15 old men, were selected conveniently. Electromyographic activity of rectus femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinus and gastrocenemius were recorded during walking with preferred (100%, slow (80% and fast (120% speeds in a 10 meter walkway. Normalized RMSs of muscles were compared using RM-ANOVA and Tokey’s tests by SPSS 18 software. Results: According to results, RMSs of rectus femoris in midstance (P<0.01 and gastrocenemius in loading response (P=0.02 phases in all walking speeds were higher in older subjects than in younger ones, and it increased with speed in both age groups (P<0.01. Biceps femoris RMS in terminal stance at 80% speed, was lower in older subjects than in younger ones (P=0.01 and it increased with walking speed (P=0.01. Semitendinus activity in loading and midstance phases at 120% speed was higher in older subjects than in younger ones (P<0.01, and it increased with speed in both age groups in swing phase (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, older subjects have more muscle co-contraction around knee at high speed in midstance phase than younger subjects. These age-related changes in muscle activity, leads to increase in joint stiffness and stability during single support, and probably play a role in reducing push off power at faster speeds.
Hamatani, Masako; Mori, Taketoshi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Amemiya, Ayumi; Ohashi, Yumiko; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi
The aim of this study is to identify whether plantar shear stress in neuropathic patients with diabetes with callus is increased compared with those without callus. The differences in foot deformity, limited joint mobility, repetitive stress of walking, and ill-fitting shoes between patients with callus and those without callus were also determined. Subjects were recruited from the Diabetic Foot Outpatient Clinic. A newly developed in-shoe measurement system, which has flexible and thin insoles, enabled measurement of both plantar pressure and shear stress simultaneously when subjects walked as usual on a 10 m walkway. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased by 1.32 times in patients with callus compared with those without callus (mean ± SD: 0.0500 ± 0.0160 vs 0.0380 ± 0.0144, P = .031). Moreover, hallux valgus deformity, reduction in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and increase in plantar flexion were showed in feet with callus. Increased plantar shear stress may be caused by gait change that patients having callus push off with the metatarsal head instead of the toe as a result of foot deformity and limited joint mobility. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased in patients with callus compared with those without callus by using the newly developed measurement system. These results suggest that reduction of plantar shear stress during the push-off phase can prevent callus formation in neuropathic patients with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.
Robert J Ellis
Full Text Available A well-established connection exists between increased gait variability and greater fall likelihood in Parkinson's disease (PD; however, a portable, validated means of quantifying gait variability (and testing the efficacy of any intervention remains lacking. Furthermore, although rhythmic auditory cueing continues to receive attention as a promising gait therapy for PD, its widespread delivery remains bottlenecked. The present paper describes a smartphone-based mobile application ("SmartMOVE" to address both needs.The accuracy of smartphone-based gait analysis (utilizing the smartphone's built-in tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope to calculate successive step times and step lengths was validated against two heel contact-based measurement devices: heel-mounted footswitch sensors (to capture step times and an instrumented pressure sensor mat (to capture step lengths. 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls walked along a 26-m path during self-paced and metronome-cued conditions, with all three devices recording simultaneously.Four outcome measures of gait and gait variability were calculated. Mixed-factorial analysis of variance revealed several instances in which between-group differences (e.g., increased gait variability in PD patients relative to healthy controls yielded medium-to-large effect sizes (eta-squared values, and cueing-mediated changes (e.g., decreased gait variability when PD patients walked with auditory cues yielded small-to-medium effect sizes-while at the same time, device-related measurement error yielded small-to-negligible effect sizes.These findings highlight specific opportunities for smartphone-based gait analysis to serve as an alternative to conventional gait analysis methods (e.g., footswitch systems or sensor-embedded walkways, particularly when those methods are cost-prohibitive, cumbersome, or inconvenient.
Full Text Available This study proposes a framework for deconstructing complex walking patterns to create a simple principal component space before checking whether the projection to this space is suitable for identifying changes from the normality. We focus on knee osteoarthritis, the most common knee joint disease and the second leading cause of disability. Knee osteoarthritis affects over 250 million people worldwide. The motivation for projecting the highly dimensional movements to a lower dimensional and simpler space is our belief that motor behaviour can be understood by identifying a simplicity via projection to a low principal component space, which may reflect upon the underlying mechanism. To study this, we recruited 180 subjects, 47 of which reported that they had knee osteoarthritis. They were asked to walk several times along a walkway equipped with two force plates that capture their ground reaction forces along 3 axes, namely vertical, anterior-posterior, and medio-lateral, at 1000 Hz. Data when the subject does not clearly strike the force plate were excluded, leaving 1-3 gait cycles per subject. To examine the complexity of human walking, we applied dimensionality reduction via Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis. The first principal component explains 34% of the variance in the data, whereas over 80% of the variance is explained by 8 principal components or more. This proves the complexity of the underlying structure of the ground reaction forces. To examine if our musculoskeletal system generates movements that are distinguishable between normal and pathological subjects in a low dimensional principal component space, we applied a Bayes classifier. For the tested cross-validated, subject-independent experimental protocol, the classification accuracy equals 82.62%. Also, a novel complexity measure is proposed, which can be used as an objective index to facilitate clinical decision making. This measure proves that knee osteoarthritis
The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements
Kajrolkar, Tejal; Bhatt, Tanvi
Community-dwelling stroke survivors show a high incidence of falls with unexpected external perturbations during dynamic activities like walking. Previous evidence has demonstrated the importance of compensatory stepping to restore dynamic stability in response to perturbations in hemiparetic stroke survivors. However, these studies were limited to either stance perturbations or perturbation induced under the unaffected limb. This study aimed to compare the differences, if any, between the non-paretic and paretic sides in dynamic stability and protective stepping strategies when exposed to unexpected external perturbation during walking. Twenty hemiparetic subjects experienced an unexpected forward slip during walking on the laboratory walkway either on the paretic (n=10) or the nonparetic limb (n=10). Both groups demonstrated a backward loss of balance with a compensatory stepping response, with the nonparetic-side slip group resorting mainly to an aborted step response (60%) and the paretic-side slip group mainly exhibiting a recovery step response (90%). Although both groups showed an equal incidence of falls, the nonparetic-side slip group demonstrated a higher stability at recovery step touchdown, resulting from lower perturbation magnitudes (slip displacement and velocity) compared to the paretic-side slip group. The results indicate that the paretic side had difficulty initiating and executing a successful stepping response (nonparetic-side slip) and also in reactive limb control while in stance (paretic-side slip). Based on these results it is suggested that intervention strategies for fall-prevention in chronic stroke survivors should focus on paretic limb training for both reactive stepping and weight bearing for improving balance control for recovery from unpredictable perturbations during dynamic activities such as walking. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Del Din, Silvia; Godfrey, Alan; Rochester, Lynn
Measurement of gait is becoming important as a tool to identify disease and disease progression, yet to date its application is limited largely to specialist centers. Wearable devices enables gait to be measured in naturalistic environments, however questions remain regarding validity. Previous research suggests that when compared with a laboratory reference, measurement accuracy is acceptable for mean but not variability or asymmetry gait characteristics. Some fundamental reasons for this have been presented, (e.g., synchronization, different sampling frequencies) but to date this has not been systematically examined. The aims of this study were to: 1) quantify a comprehensive range of gait characteristics measured using a single triaxial accelerometer-based monitor; 2) examine outcomes and monitor performance in measuring gait in older adults and those with Parkinson's disease (PD); and 3) carry out a detailed comparison with those derived from an instrumented walkway to account for any discrepancies. Fourteen gait characteristics were quantified in 30 people with incident PD and 30 healthy age-matched controls. Of the 14 gait characteristics compared, agreement between instruments was excellent for four (ICCs 0.913-0.983); moderate for four (ICCs 0.508-0.766); and poor for six characteristics (ICCs 0.637-0.370). Further analysis revealed that differences reflect an increased sensitivity of accelerometry to detect motion, rather than measurement error. This is most likely because accelerometry measures gait as a continuous activity rather than discrete footfall events, per instrumented tools. The increased sensitivity shown for these characteristics will be of particular interest to researchers keen to interpret "real-world" gait data. In conclusion, use of a body-worn monitor is recommended for the measurement of gait but is likely to yield more sensitive data for asymmetry and variability features.
Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Pieruccini-Faria, Frederico; Bartha, Robert; Black, Sandra E; Finger, Elizabeth; Freedman, Morris; Greenberg, Barry; Grimes, David A; Hegele, Robert A; Hudson, Christopher; Kleinstiver, Peter W; Lang, Anthony E; Masellis, Mario; McLaughlin, Paula M; Munoz, Douglas P; Strother, Stephen; Swartz, Richard H; Symons, Sean; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Zinman, Lorne; Strong, Michael J; McIlroy, William
The association of cognitive and motor impairments in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is thought to be related to damage in the common brain networks shared by cognitive and cortical motor control processes. These common brain networks play a pivotal role in selecting movements and postural synergies that meet an individual's needs. Pathology in this "highest level" of motor control produces abnormalities of gait and posture referred to as highest-level gait disorders. Impairments in cognition and mobility, including falls, are present in almost all neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting common mechanisms that still need to be unraveled. To identify motor-cognitive profiles across neurodegenerative diseases in a large cohort of patients. Cohort study that includes up to 500 participants, followed every year for three years, across five neurodegenerative disease groups: Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment, frontotemporal degeneration, vascular cognitive impairment, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Gait and balance will be assessed using accelerometers and electronic walkways, evaluated at different levels of cognitive and sensory complexity, using the dual-task paradigm. Comparison of cognitive and motor performances across neurodegenerative groups will allow the identification of motor-cognitive phenotypes through the standardized evaluation of gait and balance characteristics. As part of the Ontario Neurodegenerative Research Initiative (ONDRI), the gait and balance platform aims to identify motor-cognitive profiles across neurodegenerative diseases. Gait assessment, particularly while dual-tasking, will help dissect the cognitive and motor contribution in mobility and cognitive decline, progression to dementia syndromes, and future adverse outcomes including falls and mortality.
Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Munteanu, Shannon E
Footwear worn indoors is generally less supportive than outdoor footwear and may increase the risk of falls. To evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing different styles of indoor footwear: a backless slipper and an enclosed slipper designed to optimise balance. Older women (n = 30) aged 65-83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway, limits of stability, and tandem walking, measured with the NeuroCom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, and step length, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (1) socks, (2) backless slippers with a soft sole, and (3) enclosed slippers with a firm sole and Velcro® fastening. Perceptions of the footwear were also documented using a structured questionnaire. Significant overall effects of footwear were observed for postural sway, the limits of stability test (directional control), the tandem walk test (step width and end sway), and temporospatial gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, and step length). No footwear effects were observed for maximum excursion when performing the limits of stability test or for speed when performing the tandem walk test. Post hoc tests indicated that performances were best while wearing the enclosed slippers, intermediate with socks, and worst with backless slippers. The enclosed slippers were perceived to be more attractive, comfortable, and well fitted, but heavier than the backless slippers. Most participants (n = 23; 77%) reported that they would consider wearing the enclosed slippers to reduce their risk of falling. Indoor footwear with an enclosed heel, Velcro® fastening, and a firm sole optimises balance and gait compared to backless slippers, and is therefore recommended to reduce the risk of falling. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kennedy, Rachel A; McGinley, Jennifer L; Paterson, Kade L; Ryan, Monique M; Carroll, Kate
Children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) report problems with gait and footwear. We evaluated differences in spatio-temporal gait variables and gait variability between children with CMT and typically developing (TD) children, and investigated the effect of footwear upon gait. A cross-sectional study of 30 children with CMT and 30 age- and gender-matched TD children aged 4-18 years. Gait was assessed at self-selected speed on an electronic walkway while barefoot and in two types of the child's own footwear; optimal (e.g., athletic-type runners) and suboptimal (e.g., flip-flops). Children with CMT walked more slowly (mean (SD) -13.81 (3.61) cm/s), with shorter steps (-6.28 (1.37) cm), wider base of support (+2.47 (0.66) cm; all p footwear than suboptimal (-7.55 (1.31) cm/s) and barefoot (-7.42 (1.07) cm/sec; both p footwear was more variable compared to barefoot and optimal footwear. Greater base of support variability and reduced balance was moderately correlated for both groups (CMT and TD). Gait is slower with shorter, wider steps and greater base of support variability in children with CMT. Poor balance is associated with greater base of support gait variability. Suboptimal footwear negatively affects gait in all children (CMT and TD), which has clinical implications for children and adolescents with CMT who have weaker feet and ankles, and poor balance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Killane, Isabelle; Donoghue, Orna A; Savva, George M; Cronin, Hilary; Kenny, Rose Anne; Reilly, Richard B
For single gait tasks, associations have been reported between gait speed and cognitive domains. However, few studies have evaluated if this association is altered in dual gait tasks given gait speed changes with complexity and nature of task. We evaluated relative contributions of specific elements of cognitive function (including sustained attention and processing speed) to dual task gait speed in a nationally representative population of community-dwelling adults over 50 years. Gait speed was obtained using the GaitRite walkway during three gait tasks: single, cognitive (alternate letters), and motor (carrying a filled glass). Linear regression models, adjusted for covariates, were constructed to predict the relative contributions of seven neuropsychological tests to gait speed differences and to investigate gait task effects. The mean age and gait speed of the population (n = 4,431, 55% women) was 62.4 years (SD = 8.2) and 135.85 cm/s (SD = 20.20, single task), respectively. Poorer processing speed, short-term memory, and sustained attention were major cognitive contributors to slower gait speed for all gait tasks. Both dual gait tasks were robust to covariate adjustment and had a significant additional executive function element not found for the single gait task. For community-dwelling older adults processing speed, short-term memory and sustained attention were independently associated with gait speed for all gait tasks. Dual gait tasks were found to highlight specific executive function elements. This result forms a baseline value for dual task gait speed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Yang, Feng; Pai, Yi-Chung
Over-head-harness systems, equipped with load cell sensors, are essential to the participants' safety and to the outcome assessment in perturbation training. The purpose of this study was to first develop an automatic outcome recognition criterion among young adults for gait-slip training and then verify such criterion among older adults. Each of 39 young and 71 older subjects, all protected by safety harness, experienced 8 unannounced, repeated slips, while walking on a 7m walkway. Each trial was monitored with a motion capture system, bilateral ground reaction force (GRF), harness force, and video recording. The fall trials were first unambiguously indentified with careful visual inspection of all video records. The recoveries without balance loss (in which subjects' trailing foot landed anteriorly to the slipping foot) were also first fully recognized from motion and GRF analyses. These analyses then set the gold standard for the outcome recognition with load cell measurements. Logistic regression analyses based on young subjects' data revealed that the peak load cell force was the best predictor of falls (with 100% accuracy) at the threshold of 30% body weight. On the other hand, the peak moving average force of load cell across 1s period, was the best predictor (with 100% accuracy) separating recoveries with backward balance loss (in which the recovery step landed posterior to slipping foot) from harness assistance at the threshold of 4.5% body weight. These threshold values were fully verified using the data from older adults (100% accuracy in recognizing falls). Because of the increasing popularity in the perturbation training coupling with the protective over-head-harness system, this new criterion could have far reaching implications in automatic outcome recognition during the movement therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Feng; Pai, Yi-Chung
Over-head-harness systems, equipped with load cell sensors, are essential to the participants’ safety and to the outcome assessment in perturbation training. The purpose of this study was to first develop an automatic outcome recognition criterion among young adults for gait-slip training and then verify such criterion among older adults. Each of 39 young and 71 older subjects, all protected by safety harness, experienced 8 unannounced, repeated slips, while walking on a 7-m walkway. Each trial was monitored with a motion capture system, bilateral ground reaction force (GRF), harness force and video recording. The fall trials were first unambiguously indentified with careful visual inspection of all video records. The recoveries without balance loss (in which subjects’ trailing foot landed anteriorly to the slipping foot) were also first fully recognized from motion and GRF analyses. These analyses then set the gold standard for the outcome recognition with load cell measurements. Logistic regression analyses based on young subjects’ data revealed that peak load cell force was the best predictor of falls (with 100% accuracy) at the threshold of 30% body weight. On the other hand, the peak moving average force of load cell across 1-s period, was the best predictor (with 100% accuracy) separating recoveries with backward balance loss (in which the recovery step landed posterior to slipping foot) from harness assistance at the threshold of 4.5% body weight. These threshold values were fully verified using the data from older adults (100% accuracy in recognizing falls). Because of the increasing popularity in the perturbation training coupling with the protective over-head-harness system, this new criterion could have far reaching implications in automatic outcome recognition during the movement therapy. PMID:21696744
Full Text Available The effects of manipulated dental occlusion on body posture has been investigated quite often and discussed controversially in the literature. Far less attention has been paid to the influence of dental occlusion position on human movement. If human movement was analysed, it was mostly while walking and not while running. This study was therefore designed to identify the effect of lower jaw positions on running behaviour according to different dental occlusion positions.Twenty healthy young recreational runners (mean age = 33.9±5.8 years participated in this study. Kinematic data were collected using an eight-camera Vicon motion capture system (VICON Motion Systems, Oxford, UK. Subjects were consecutively prepared with four different dental occlusion conditions in random order and performed five running trials per test condition on a level walkway with their preferred running shoes. Vector based pattern recognition methods, in particular cluster analysis and support vector machines (SVM were used for movement pattern identification.Subjects exhibited unique movement patterns leading to 18 clusters for the 20 subjects. No overall classification of the splint condition could be observed. Within individual subjects different running patterns could be identified for the four splint conditions. The splint conditions lead to a more symmetrical running pattern than the control condition.The influence of an occlusal splint on running pattern can be confirmed in this study. Wearing a splint increases the symmetry of the running pattern. A more symmetrical running pattern might help to reduce the risk of injuries or help in performance. The change of the movement pattern between the neutral condition and any of the three splint conditions was significant within subjects but not across subjects. Therefore the dental splint has a measureable influence on the running pattern of subjects, however subjects individuality has to be considered when choosing the
Whicker, J J; Rodgers, J C; Lopez, R C
Aerosol transport tubes are often used to draw aerosol from desirable sampling locations to nearby air sampling equipment that cannot be placed at that location. In many plutonium laboratories at Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerosol transport tubes are used to transport aerosol from the front of room ventilation exhaust registers to continuous air monitors (CAMs) that are mounted on nearby walls. Transport tubes are used because past guidance suggests that extraction of aerosol samples from exhaust locations provides the most sensitive and reliable detection under conditions where the rooms have unpredictable release locations and significant spatial variability in aerosol concentrations after releases, and where CAMs cannot be located in front of exhaust registers without blocking worker walkways. Despite designs to minimize particle loss in tubes, aerosol transport model predictions suggest losses occur lowering the sensitivity of CAMs to accidentally released plutonium aerosol. The goal of this study was to test the hypotheses that the reliability, speed, and sensitivity of aerosol detection would be equal whether the sample was extracted from the front of the exhaust register or from the wall location of CAMs. Polydisperse oil aerosols were released from multiple locations in two plutonium laboratories to simulate plutonium aerosol releases. Networked laser particle counters (LPCs) were positioned to simultaneously measure time-resolved aerosol concentrations at each exhaust register (representative of sampling with transport tubes) and at each wall-mounted CAM location (representative of sampling without transport tubes). Results showed no significant differences in detection reliability, speed, or sensitivity for LPCs positioned at exhaust locations when compared to LPCs positioned at the CAM wall location. Therefore, elimination of transport tubes would likely improve CAM performance.
Nagano, Hanatsu; Tatsumi, Ichiroh; Sarashina, Eri; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K
Knee osteoarthritis is commonly associated with ageing and long-term walking. In this study the effects of flexing motions on knee kinetics during stance were simulated. Extended knees do not facilitate efficient loading. It was therefore, hypothesised that knee flexion would promote power absorption and negative work, while possibly reducing knee adduction moment. Three-dimensional (3D) position and ground reaction forces were collected from the right lower limb stance phase of one healthy young male subject. 3D position was sampled at 100 Hz using three Optotrak Certus (Northern Digital Inc.) motion analysis camera units, set up around an eight metre walkway. Force plates (AMTI) recorded ground reaction forces for inverse dynamics calculations. The Visual 3D (C-motion) 'Landmark' function was used to change knee joint positions to simulate three knee flexion angles during static standing. Effects of the flexion angles on joint kinetics during the stance phase were then modelled. The static modelling showed that each 2.7° increment in knee flexion angle produced 2.74°-2.76° increments in knee flexion during stance. Increased peak extension moment was 6.61 Nm per 2.7° of increased knee flexion. Knee flexion enhanced peak power absorption and negative work, while decreasing adduction moment. Excessive knee extension impairs quadriceps' power absorption and reduces eccentric muscle activity, potentially leading to knee osteoarthritis. A more flexed knee is accompanied by reduced adduction moment. Research is required to determine the optimum knee flexion to prevent further damage to knee-joint structures affected by osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C
Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caetano, Maria Joana D; Menant, Jasmine C; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Lord, Stephen R
The ability to adapt gait when negotiating unexpected hazards is crucial to maintain stability and avoid falling. This study investigated whether impaired gait adaptability in a task including obstacle and stepping targets is associated with cognitive and sensorimotor capacities in older adults. Fifty healthy older adults (74±7 years) were instructed to either (a) avoid an obstacle at usual step distance or (b) step onto a target at either a short or long step distance projected on a walkway two heel strikes ahead and then continue walking. Participants also completed cognitive and sensorimotor function assessments. Stroop test and reaction time performance significantly discriminated between participants who did and did not make stepping errors, and poorer Trail-Making test performance predicted shorter penultimate step length in the obstacle avoidance condition. Slower reaction time predicted poorer stepping accuracy; increased postural sway, weaker quadriceps strength, and poorer Stroop and Trail-Making test performances predicted increased number of steps taken to approach the target/obstacle and shorter step length; and increased postural sway and higher concern about falling predicted slower step velocity. Superior executive function, fast processing speed, and good muscle strength and balance were all associated with successful gait adaptability. Processing speed appears particularly important for precise foot placements; cognitive capacity for step length adjustments; and early and/or additional cognitive processing involving the inhibition of a stepping pattern for obstacle avoidance. This information may facilitate fall risk assessments and fall prevention strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
De Nunzio, Alessandro M; Grasso, Margherita; Nardone, Antonio; Godi, Marco; Schieppati, Marco
During the administration of timed bilateral alternate vibration to homonymous leg or trunk muscles during quiet upright stance, Parkinsonian (PD) patients undergo cyclic antero-posterior and medio-lateral transfers of the centre of foot pressure. This event might be potentially exploited for improving gait in these patients. Here, we tested this hypothesis by applying alternate muscle vibration during walking in PD. Fifteen patients and 15 healthy subjects walked on an instrumented walkway under four conditions: no vibration (no-Vib), and vibration of tibialis anterior (TA-Vib), soleus (Sol-Vib) and erector spinae (ES-Vib) muscles of both sides. Trains of vibration (internal frequency 100 Hz) were delivered to right and left side at alternating frequency of 10% above preferred step cadence. During vibration, stride length, cadence and velocity increased in both patients and healthy subjects, significantly so for ES-Vib. Stance and swing time tended to decrease. Width of support base increased with Sol-Vib or TA-Vib, but was unaffected by ES-Vib. Alternate ES vibration enhances gait velocity in PD. The stronger effect of ES over leg muscle vibration might depend on the relevance of the proprioceptive inflow from the trunk muscles and on the absence of adverse effects on the support base width. Trunk control is defective in PD. The effect of timed vibratory stimulation on gait suggests the potential use of trunk proprioceptive stimulation for tuning the central pattern generators for locomotion in PD. Copyright (c) 2009 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hassan, Ummi Nurmasyitah; Zainuddin, Zarita; Abu-Sulyman, Ibtesam M.
The Social Force Model (SFM) is one of the most successful models in microscopic pedestrian studies that is used to study the movement of pedestrians. Many modifications have been done to improvise the SFM by earlier researchers such as the incorporation of a constant respect factor into the self-stopping mechanism. Before the new mechanism is introduced, the researchers found out that a pedestrian will immediately come to a halt if other pedestrians are near to him, which seems to be an unrealistic behavior. Therefore, researchers introduce a self-slowing mechanism to gradually stop a pedestrian when he is approaching other pedestrians. Subsequently, the dynamic respect factor is introduced into the self-slowing mechanism based on the density of the pedestrians to make the model even more realistic. In real life situations, the respect factor of the pedestrians should be dynamic values instead of a constant value. However, when we reproduce the simulation of the dynamic respect factor, we found that the movement of the pedestrians are unrealistic because the pedestrians are lacking perception of the pedestrians in front of him. In this paper, we adopted both dynamic respect factor and dynamic angular parameter, called modified dynamic respect factor, which is dependent on the density of the pedestrians. Simulations are performed in a normal unidirectional walkway to compare the simulated pedestrians' movements produced by both models. The results obtained showed that the modified dynamic respect factor produces more realistic movement of the pedestrians which conform to the real situation. Moreover, we also found that the simulations endow the pedestrian with a self-slowing mechanism and a perception of other pedestrians in front of him.
Bonanno Daniel R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot orthoses are often used to treat lower limb injuries associated with excessive pronation. There are many orthotic modifications available for this purpose, with one being the medial heel skive. However, empirical evidence for the mechanical effects of the medial heel skive modification is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect that different depths of medial heel skive have on plantar pressures. Methods Thirty healthy adults (mean age 24 years, range 18–46 with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture and no current foot pain or deformity participated in this study. Using the in-shoe pedar-X® system, plantar pressure data were collected for the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot while participants walked along an 8 metre walkway wearing a standardised shoe. Experimental conditions included a customised foot orthosis with the following 4 orthotic modifications: (i no medial heel skive, (ii a 2 mm medial heel skive, (iii a 4 mm medial heel skive and (iv a 6 mm medial heel skive. Results Compared to the foot orthosis with no medial heel skive, statistically significant increases in peak pressure were observed at the medial rearfoot – there was a 15% increase (p = 0.001 with the 4 mm skive and a 29% increase (p Conclusions This study found that a medial heel skive of 4 mm or 6 mm increases peak pressure under the medial rearfoot in asymptomatic adults with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture. Plantar pressures at the midfoot and forefoot were not altered by a medial heel skive of 2, 4 or 6 mm. These findings provide some evidence for the effects of the medial heel skive orthotic modification.
de Bruin, Natalie; Kempster, Cody; Doucette, Angelica; Doan, Jon B; Hu, Bin; Brown, Lesley A
The presence of a rhythmic beat in the form of a metronome tone or beat-accentuated original music can modulate gait performance; however, it has yet to be determined whether gait modulation can be achieved using commercially available music. The current study investigated the effects of commercially available music on the walking of healthy young adults. Specific aims were (a) to determine whether commercially available music can be used to influence gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability), (b) to establish the effect of music salience on gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability), and (c) to examine whether music tempi differentially effected gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability). Twenty-five participants walked the length of an unobstructed walkway while listening to music. Music selections differed with respect to the salience or the tempo of the music. The genre of music and artists were self-selected by participants. Listening to music while walking was an enjoyable activity that influenced gait. Specifically, salient music selections increased measures of cadence, velocity, and stride length; in contrast, gait was unaltered by the presence of non-salient music. Music tempo did not differentially affect gait performance (gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability) in these participants. Gait performance was differentially influenced by music salience. These results have implications for clinicians considering the use of commercially available music as an alternative to the traditional rhythmic auditory cues used in rehabilitation programs. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Montero-Odasso, Manuel M; Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina; Speechley, Mark; Borrie, Michael J; Hachinski, Vladimir C; Wells, Jennie; Riccio, Patricia M; Schapira, Marcelo; Sejdic, Ervin; Camicioli, Richard M; Bartha, Robert; McIlroy, William E; Muir-Hunter, Susan
Gait performance is affected by neurodegeneration in aging and has the potential to be used as a clinical marker for progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. A dual-task gait test evaluating the cognitive-motor interface may predict dementia progression in older adults with MCI. To determine whether a dual-task gait test is associated with incident dementia in MCI. The Gait and Brain Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults that enrolled 112 older adults with MCI. Participants were followed up for 6 years, with biannual visits including neurologic, cognitive, and gait assessments. Data were collected from July 2007 to March 2016. Incident all-cause dementia was the main outcome measure, and single- and dual-task gait velocity and dual-task gait costs were the independent variables. A neuropsychological test battery was used to assess cognition. Gait velocity was recorded under single-task and 3 separate dual-task conditions using an electronic walkway. Dual-task gait cost was defined as the percentage change between single- and dual-task gait velocities: ([single-task gait velocity - dual-task gait velocity]/ single-task gait velocity) × 100. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between risk of progression to dementia and the independent variables, adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidities, and cognition. Among 112 study participants with MCI, mean (SD) age was 76.6 (6.9) years, 55 were women (49.1%), and 27 progressed to dementia (24.1%), with an incidence rate of 121 per 1000 person-years. Slow single-task gait velocity (gait cost while counting backward (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.57-9.15; P = .003) and naming animals (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.04-5.59; P = .04) were associated with dementia progression (incidence rate, 155 per 1000 person-years). The models remained robust after adjusting by baseline cognition except for dual-task gait cost when dichotomized. Dual
, trash collection, and paved roads and walkways. Border areas such as Juarez attract 200 unemployed daily. Unregulated growth will turn these border cities into densely populated areas. About 40% of the economically active population work in the informal sector. Much of the vendor merchandise is illegal contraband, and intricate handicrafts are sold next to electronic games, cosmetics, and silk-screened T shirts. Informal work is also available for women in cottage industries at home. The Agro-Industrial Women's Unit in Buenavista helps to secure agricultural land holdings for women.
Parra-Rodríguez, Lorena; Szlejf, Claudia; García-González, Ana Isabel; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Cruz-Arenas, Esteban; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar
To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Spanish-language version of the SARC-F in Mexican community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. Participants were 487 men and women older than 60 years, living in the designated area in Mexico City. Information from questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental status, nutritional status, dependence in activities of daily living, frailty, and quality of life. Objective measurements of muscle mass, strength and function were as follows: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was taken using dual-energy x-ray, grip strength using a hand dynamometer, 6-meter gait speed using a GAIT Rite instrumented walkway, peak torque and power for knee extension using a isokinetic dynamometer, lower extremity functioning measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and balance using evaluation on a foam surface, with closed eyes, in the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration. The SARC-F scale translated to Spanish and the consensus panels' criteria from European, international, and Asian sarcopenia working groups were applied to evaluate sarcopenia. The Spanish language version of the SARC-F scale showed reliability (Cronbach alfa = 0.641. All items in the scale correlated to the scale's total score, rho = 0.43 to 0.76), temporal consistency evaluated by test-retest (CCI = 0.80), criterion validity when compared to the consensus panels' criteria (high specificity and negative predictive values). The scale was also correlated to other measures related to sarcopenia (such as age, quality of life, self-rated health status, cognition, dependence in activities of daily living, nutritional status, depression, gait speed, grip strength, peak torque and power for knee extension, SPPB, balance, SMI, and frailty). The SARC-F scale was successfully adapted to
Farrell, E.; Lynch, K.; Wilkes Orozco, S.; Castro Camba, G.; Scullion, A.
This two year field monitoring project examines the response and recovery of 1.2km of a coastal beach-dune system in the west coast of Ireland (The Maharees, Brandon Bay, Co. Kerry) to storms. The results from this project initiated a larger scale study to assess the long term evolution of Brandon Bay (12km) and patterns of meso-scale rotation. On a bay scale historic shoreline analyses were completed using historic Ordnance Survey maps, aerial photography, and DGPS surveys inputted to the Digital Shoreline Analysis System. These were coupled with a GSTA-wavemeter experiment that collected 410 sediment samples along the beach and nearshore to identify preferred sediment transport pathways along the bay. On a local scale (1.2km) geomorphological changes of the beach and nearshore were monitored using repeated monthly DGPS surveys and drone technology. Topographical data were correlated with atmospheric data obtained from a locally installed automatic weather station, oceanographic data from secondary sources, and photogrammetry using a camera installed at the site collecting pictures every 10 minutes during daylight hours. Changes in surface elevation landward of the foredune from aeolian processes were measured using five pin transects across the dune. The contribution of local blowout dynamics were measured using drone imagery and structure-from-motion technology. The results establish that the average shoreline recession along the 1.2 km site is 72 m during the past 115 years. The topographic surveys illustrate that natural beach building processes initiate system recovery post storms including elevated foreshores and backshores and nearshore sand bar migration across the entire 1.2 km stretch of coastline. In parallel with the scientific work, the local community have mobilized and are working closely with the lead scientists to implement short term coastal management strategies such as signage, information booklets, sand trap fencing, walkways, wooden
Isabella Brandão Lara
of Glory, Walkway, College Our Lady of Sorrows.Recebido em: 23/05/2015 – Aceito em 19/06/2015
Kirkland, Megan C; Chen, Alice; Downer, Matthew B; Holloway, Brett J; Wallack, Elizabeth M; Lockyer, Evan J; Buckle, Natasha C M; Abbott, Courtney L; Ploughman, Michelle
People with mild multiple sclerosis (MS) often report subtle deficits in balance and cognition but display no measurable impairment on clinical assessments. We examined whether hopping to a metronome beat had the potential to detect anticipatory motor control deficits among people with mild MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤ 3.5). Participants with MS (n = 13), matched controls (n = 9), and elderly subjects (n = 13) completed tests of cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)) and motor performance (Timed 25 Foot Walk Test (T25FWT)). Participants performed two bipedal hopping tasks: at 40 beats/min (bpm) and 60-bpm in random order. Hop characteristics (length, symmetry, variability) and delay from the metronome beat were extracted from an instrumented walkway and compared between groups. The MS group became more delayed from the metronome beat over time whereas elderly subjects tended to hop closer to the beat (F = 4.52, p = 0.02). Delay of the first hop during 60-bpm predicted cognition in people with MS (R = 0.55, β = 4.64 (SD 4.63), F = 4.85, p = 0.05) but not among control (R = 0.07, p = 0.86) or elderly subjects (R = 0.17, p = 0.57). In terms of hopping characteristics, at 60-bpm, people with MS and matched controls were significantly different from the elderly group. However, at 40-bpm, the MS group was no longer significantly different from the elderly group, even though matched controls and elderly still differed significantly. This new timed hopping test may be able to detect both physical ability, and feed-forward anticipatory control impairments in people with mild MS. Hopping at a frequency of 40-bpm seemed more challenging. Several aspects of anticipatory motor control can be measured: including reaction time to the first metronome cue and the ability to adapt and anticipate the beat over time. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johansson, Jonas; Nordström, Anna; Nordström, Peter
As 90% of fractures are caused by falls, and as fractures are more common in elderly women than in elderly men, a better understanding of potential sex differences in fall rates and underlying mechanisms is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether women are more prone than men to falling, and to evaluate whether the risk of falling is associated with variations in gait patterns. The cohort for this prospective observational study consisted of 1390 community-dwelling men and women aged 70 years, examined in a health survey between July 2012 and November 2014. Gait patterns were measured using a computerized walkway system during normal-speed, fast-speed, and dual-task trials. Triaxial accelerometers were used to collect objective data on physical activity, and self-reported fall data were collected by telephone 6 and 12 months after examination. Incident low-energy falls were defined as unexpected events in which participants came to rest on the ground. During the follow-up period, 148 study participants (88 women, 60 men; P = .01) reported falls. After adjusting for multiple confounders, including objective measures of physical activity, socioeconomic factors, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive function, the odds ratio for falling in women was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.19). Variations in gait pattern were significantly (20%-40%) increased in fallers compared with nonfallers during the dual-task trial for step width, step length, stride length, step time, stance time, stride velocity, and single support time (all P women showed 15% to 35% increased variability in all of these gait parameters during the dual-task trial compared with men (all P women were at greater risk of falls compared with their male counterparts. This increased risk was associated with increased variation in gait pattern during dual-task activities, and may contribute to women's greater fracture risk compared with men. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The
Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Nilsson, C
The effect of different flooring surfaces in walking and standing areas on claw conformation, claw horn growth, and wear was studied in 2 experiments during 2 consecutive housing seasons in a research dairy herd of 170 cows. In experiment 1, the flooring systems tested were solid rubber mats, mastic asphalt with and without rubber-matted feed-stalls, and aged concrete slats. In experiment 2, slatted concrete flooring was compared with slatted rubber flooring. The cows were introduced to the respective flooring systems in early lactation and their claws were trimmed before the exposure period. Toe length, toe angle, sole concavity, and claw width, as well as claw growth and wear rates were recorded for lateral and medial claws of the left hind limb. Claw asymmetry calculations were based on these claw measurements and on differences in sole protrusion between lateral and medial soles. Asphalt floors caused shorter toe length and steeper toe angle. They also increased wear on rear claws (5.30 +/- 0.31 and 5.95 +/- 0.33 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively; LSM +/- SE) and horn growth rate (5.12 +/- 0.36 and 5.83 +/- 0.31 mm/mo of lateral and medial claws, respectively). Rubber mats instead of asphalt in walking areas reduced wear (1.36 +/- 0.19 and 2.02 +/- 0.20 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively) and claw growth (3.83 +/- 0.23 and 3.94 +/- 0.17 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). Rubber-matted feed-stalls together with asphalt walkways decreased claw wear (3.29 +/- 0.31 and 4.10 +/- 0.32 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). The concavity of claw soles was reduced on asphalt, especially in the lateral rear claws. Rubber matting in feed-stalls prevented loss of sole concavity compared with asphalt. Claw asymmetry did not differ between flooring systems. While different access to abrasive flooring affected claw conformation, there was no evidence that flooring system influenced the disproportion between lateral and
Wilmut, K; Barnett, A L
Adjustments to locomotion to avoid an obstacle require a change to the usual pattern of foot placement, i.e. changes to step length and/or step width. Previous studies have demonstrated a difficulty in individuals with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in controlling stability while both stepping over and while circumventing an obstacle. In a previous study, we have considered the way in which individuals with DCD prepare for the possibility of an obstacle appearing (Wilmut and Barnett in Exp Brain Res 235:1531-1340, 2017). Using a parallel data set from this same task on the same individuals, the aim of the current study was to investigate the exact nature of changes in foot placement during obstacle avoidance, as this was not clear from previous work. Children and adults aged from 7 to 34 years of age took part in the study. Forty-four met the criteria for a diagnosis of DCD and there were 44 typically developing (TD) age and gender-matched controls. Participants walked at a comfortable pace down an 11 m walkway; on 6 out of 36 trials a 'gate' closed across their pathway which required circumvention. These 6 'gate close' trials were analysed for this study. The number and magnitude of step length and step width adjustments were similar across the DCD and TD groups, however, the younger children (7-11 years) made a greater number of early adjustments compared to the older children and adults (12-34 years of age). In contrast the adults made a greater number of adjustments later in the movement compared to the children. In terms of foot placement adjustments a clear preference was seen across all participants to use adjustments which resulted in reducing step length, stepping away from the obstacle and a combination of these. Apart from subtle differences, the individuals with DCD make step placements to circumvent an obstacle in line with their peers. It is suggested that the choice of foot placement strategy in individuals with DCD, although in line
Pickett Kristen A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Classically characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities, Wolfram syndrome (WFS is also associated with atypical brainstem and cerebellar findings in the first decade of life. As such, we hypothesized that gait differences between individuals with WFS and typically developing (TD individuals may be detectable across the course of the disease. Methods Gait was assessed for 13 individuals with WFS (min 6.4 yrs, max 25.8 yrs and 29 age-matched, typically developing individuals (min 5.6 yrs, max 28.5 yrs using a GAITRite ® walkway system. Velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and double support time were compared between groups. Results Across all tasks, individuals with WFS walked slower (p = 0.03, took shorter (p ≤ 0.001 and wider (p ≤ 0.001 steps and spent a greater proportion of the gait cycle in double support (p = 0.03 compared to TD individuals. Cadence did not differ between groups (p = 0.62. Across all tasks, age was significantly correlated with cadence and double support time in the TD group but only double support time was correlated with age in the WFS group and only during preferred pace forward (rs= 0.564, p = 0.045 and dual task forward walking (rs= 0.720, p = 0.006 tasks. Individuals with WFS also had a greater number of missteps during tandem walking (p ≤ 0.001. Within the WFS group, spatiotemporal measures of gait did not correlate with measures of visual acuity. Balance measures negatively correlated with normalized gait velocity during fast forward walking (rs = −0.59, p = 0.03 and percent of gait cycle in double support during backward walking (rs = −0.64, p = 0.03. Conclusions Quantifiable gait impairments can be detected in individuals with WFS earlier than previous clinical observations suggested. These impairments are not fully accounted for by the visual or balance deficits
Szlejf, Claudia; Parra-Rodríguez, Lorena; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar
The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and to investigate its association with frailty and physical performance in Mexican community-dwelling middle-aged and older women. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. Participants were 434 women aged 50 years or older, living in the designated area in Mexico City. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and OSO was defined by the coexistence of sarcopenia, osteopenia, or osteoporosis and obesity. Information regarding demographic characteristics; comorbidities; mental status; nutritional status; and history of falls, fractures, and hospitalization was obtained from questionnaires. Objective measurements of muscle strength and function were grip strength using a hand dynamometer, 6-meter gait speed using a GAIT Rite instrumented walkway, and lower extremity functioning measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Frailty was assessed using the Frailty Phenotype (Fried criteria), the Gerontopole Frailty Screening Tool (GFST), and the FRAIL scale, to build 3 logistic regression models. The prevalence of OSO was 19% (n = 81). Frailty (according to the Frailty Phenotype and the GFST) and poor physical performance measured by the SPPB were independently associated with OSO, controlled by age. In the logistic regression model assessing frailty with the Frailty Phenotype, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for frailty was 4.86 (2.47-9.55), and for poor physical performance it was 2.11 (1.15-3.89). In the model assessing frailty with the GFST, it was 2.12 (1.10-4.11), and for poor physical performance it was 2.15 (1.18-3.92). Finally, in the model with the FRAIL scale, it was 1.69 (0.85-3.36) for frailty and 2.29 (1.27-4.15) for poor physical performance. OSO is a frequent condition in middle-aged and older women
Newman Anne B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased gait speed and increased stride time, stride length, double support time, and stance time variability have consistently been associated with falling whereas step width variability has not been strongly related to falls. The purpose was to examine the linear and nonlinear associations between gait variability and fall history in older persons and to examine the influence of gait speed. Methods Gait characteristics and fall history were obtained in 503 older adults (mean age = 79; 61% female participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study who could ambulate independently. Gait characteristics were recorded from two trials on a 4 meter computerized walkway at the subject's self-selected walking speed. Gait variability was calculated as the coefficient of variation. The presence of a fall in the past 12 months was determined by interview. The nonlinear association between gait variability and fall history was examined using a simple three level classification derived from the distribution of the data and from literature based cut-points. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between step width variability (extreme or moderate and fall history stratifying by gait speed (1.0 m/s and controlling for age and gender. Results Step length, stance time, and step time variability did not differ with respect to fall history (p > .33. Individuals with extreme step width variability (either low or high step width variability were more likely to report a fall in the past year than individuals with moderate step width variability. In individuals who walked ≥ 1.0 m/s (n = 281, after controlling for age, gender, and gait speed, compared to individuals with moderate step width variability individuals with either low or high step width variability were more likely to have fallen in the past year (OR and 95% CI 4.38 [1.79–10.72]. The association between step width variability and fall history was not
Klein, Sandrina; Patzkéwitsch, Dorian; Reese, Sven; Erhard, Michael
The aim of this study was to determine whether early socialising of piglets influences the later behaviour and the risk of tail biting in growing and finishing pigs. The behaviour of 183 animals (divided in three successive runs) was recorded from birth until the end of the fattening period. Furthermore, the condition of the teats of the sows as well as the integument and tails of the growing and finishing pigs were evaluated. To socialize the piglets, four litters of the experimental group (V) were provided with additional space (walkway) by opening "piglet-doors" (day 10 postpartum of the youngest litter). The piglets of the control group (K) were reared in conventional farrowing crates located in the same compartment of the stable. Post-weaning, the piglets were assigned to three groups: the experimental group (V/V, two litters of group V), the control group (K/K, two litters of group K) and the mixed group (V/K, one litter of group V and one litter of group K). After opening the "piglet-doors", piglets of group V displayed significantly more playing behaviour than piglets of group K. Additionally, the agonistic behaviour increased in group V. Post-weaning, at allocation and mixing, animals of group V/V showed significantly less agonistic behaviour than pigs of group K/K. Tail-biting behaviour occurred in all three groups, but only in runs two and three. On the 100th day of the fattening period, 58.7% of the pigs of group V/V, 51.7% of group V/K and 43.3% of group K/K still had intact tails. In pigs of group K/K, the tails were significantly shorter compared to the other two groups. Early socialization enhances piglet welfare in farrowing pens by encouraging playing behaviour. Less agonistic behaviour at allocation could furthermore reduce stress at mixing and allocation. The aim to reduce the incidence of tail-biting could not be achieved. However, socializing piglets in lactation could contribute, in accordance with other measures, to an influence on biting
Hunter, Susan W; Frengopoulos, Courtney; Holmes, Jeffrey; Viana, Ricardo; Payne, Michael W C
The improvement of gait and mobility are major rehabilitation goals following lower extremity amputations. However, when living in the community many daily activities require the multitasking of motor and cognitive tasks. The dual-task paradigm can be used to evaluate the concurrent performance of mobility and cognitive tasks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual-task gait testing in older adults with trans-tibial amputations. Twenty-four people (15 men, mean age ± SD, 62.72 ± 8.59) with trans-tibial amputation walked on an electronic walkway at i) self-selected comfortable pace and ii) self-selected comfortable pace while counting backwards by threes from a number randomly selected between 100 and 150. Cognitive performance, in the form of corrected response rate, was also evaluated as a single-task. The dual-task testing produced poorer performance in velocity (single-task = 58.15 ± 23.16 cm/s, dual-task = 50.92 ± 21.16 cm/s, p = 0.008), cadence (single-task = 76.65 ± 15.84 steps/min, dual-task = 67.85 ± 15.76 steps/min, p = 0.002) and stride time (single-task = 1094 ± 458.28 ms, dual-task = 1241.44 ± 513.73 ms, p = 0.005). Step length, stance time and single limb support time symmetry were also affected, such that less time was spent on the amputated limb during the dual-task testing. Dual-task testing demonstrated interference resulting in a poor performance in both gait and cognitive performance in trans-tibial amputees. Further research is suggested to evaluate the change in cognition-mobility effects over time and the relationship of this value to future adverse events such as falls and successful outcomes such as community ambulation and reintegration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Scott, David; McLaughlin, Patrick; Nicholson, Geoff C; Ebeling, Peter R; Stuart, Amanda L; Kay, Deborah; Sanders, Kerrie M
Gait analysis is a recommended geriatric assessment for falls risk and sarcopenia; however, previous research utilises measurements at a single time point only. It is presently unclear how changes in gait over several years influence risk of recurrent falls in older adults. We investigated 135 female volunteers (mean age±SD: 76.7±5.0 years; range: 70-92 years) at high risk of fracture. Gait parameters (speed, cadence, step length, step width, swing time and double support phase) were assessed using the GAITRite Electronic Walkway System at four annual clinics over ∼3.7±0.5 years. Participants reported incident falls monthly for 3.7±1.2 years. Increasing gait speed (odds ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.93, 0.99) and step length (0.87; 0.77, 0.98) from baseline to final follow-up was associated with reduced likelihood of being a recurrent faller over the study period. No significant associations were observed for baseline gait parameters (all P≥0.05). At the second follow-up (2.8±0.6 years), an increase in swing time (0.65; 0.43, 0.98) was associated with reduced likelihood, while an increase in double support phase (1.31; 1.04, 1.66) was associated with increased likelihood, for being a recurrent faller in the subsequent 1.3 years following this time point. Changes in gait parameters over several years are significantly associated with the likelihood of being a recurrent faller among community-dwelling older women at high risk of fracture. Further research is required to develop gait monitoring guidelines and gait parameter decline cut points that may be utilised by clinicians to identify older adults at risk of incident falls and sarcopenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Quality attributes of LED lighting. Current state-of-the-art , advantages, problem areas and potential for development - Final report; Qualitaetsmerkmale der LED-Beleuchtung. Aktueller Stand der Technik, Vorteile, Problempunkte und Entwicklungspotential - Schlussbericht
radiation, instant start up, brilliant light). (iii) Street lighting: Today LED already is the best solution for a high number of applications (highly precise illumination of streets and walkways without diffused light, less light necessary thanks to better colour rendering). (author)
Full Text Available The urban transfer by using ropeways can produce impacts and externalities which, if well-managed, can trigger processes reliever, sustainable development and promoting tourism inside the city. The article starts from the consideration of urban transport by ropeways as a viable, effective alternative to the collective transfer among different areas of the city, particularly in those cities characterized by unique morphological or hydrographic territory which are fit for being overcome by mobility systems at high altitude. These features, in many international urban contexts, also contribute to enhance the amenity and the urban appeal. The paper intends to underline how the ropeways can become an efficient urban transport system between urban sites, often placed at different heights and for which there is a less accessibility by ground, and at the same time, a fascinating way of tourist mobility that allow people to observe the city from above (moving on it, in a sort of dynamic view. This interesting functional convergence has been often highlighted in the studies conducted on this mode of transportation, ,which in the past was considered one of the real possibilities for urban moving. Many cities are characterized by this type of mobility and within which existing systems of lifts, oblique connections between parts of the city are provided by urbansystems, lifts, cable cars, escalators, moving walkways, etc.. A focus is also provided in relation to the ropeways, currently operating in many cities around the world, highlighting the effectiveness of mobility solutions at high altitude, although not necessarily intended for the slope, taken in metropolitan contexts outside of Europe since the Seventies. Furthermore a specific attention it is payed to the plants currently disused in Turin and in Naples with a special regard to the possible recovery prospects in a new urban mobility system. For the city of Naples it is presented also a new project
Hurst, Bessie; Branthwaite, Helen; Greenhalgh, Andrew; Chockalingam, Nachiappan
Pressure-related skin lesions on the digits are a significant cause of discomfort. Most foot pain related to ill-fitting shoes occurs in the forefoot and digital areas. Pain has been associated with poor shoe fit, reduced toe box volume, as well as contour and shape of the shoe Off-the-shelf medical-grade footwear is designed as an intervention for chronic lesions on the digits. These shoes are designed with a flexible neoprene fabric upper that is thought to reduce pressure on the forefoot and reduce discomfort associated with ill-fitting shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an off-the-shelf, medical-grade shoe on dorsal digital pressure and perceived comfort when compared to participant's own preferred shoe. Thirty participants (18 females, 12 males) scored their perceived comfort whilst wearing each footwear style using a visual analog comfort scale. Dorsal digital and interdigital pressures were measured in using the WalkinSense® in-shoe pressure system. Sensors were placed on predetermined anatomical landmarks on the digits. Participants were randomly assigned the test shoe and their own shoe. Once wearing the shoe, the participants walked across a 6 m walkway and pressure data from each sensor was collected and processed to obtain peak pressure, time to peak pressure and contact time. Participants scored the test shoe with higher comfort points than their own footwear. Overall peak pressure, pressure time integral and contact time decreased, whilst the time taken to reach peak pressure increased across all anatomical landmarks whilst wearing the test shoe. Statistically significant changes were observed for all of the measured variables relating to pressure on the medial border of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The test shoe provided greater comfort and reduced the amount of pressure on the forefoot. The medical-grade footwear therefore, is a viable alternative to custom made prescription footwear and is more suitable than a
Samotus, Olivia; Parrent, Andrew; Jog, Mandar
Benefits of dopaminergic therapy and deep brain stimulation are limited and unpredictable for axial symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Dorsal spinal cord stimulation may be a new therapeutic approach. The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of spinal cord stimulation on gait including freezing of gait in advanced PD patients. Five male PD participants with significant gait disturbances and freezing of gait underwent midthoracic spinal cord stimulation. Spinal cord stimulation combinations (200-500 μs/30-130 Hz) at suprathreshold intensity were tested over a 1- to 4-month period, and the effects of spinal cord stimulation were studied 6 months after spinal cord stimulation surgery. Protokinetics Walkway measured gait parameters. Z scores per gait variable established each participant's best spinal cord stimulation setting. Timed sit-to-stand and automated freezing-of-gait detection using foot pressures were analyzed. Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q), UPDRS motor items, and activities-specific balance confidence scale were completed at each study visit. Spinal cord stimulation setting combinations of 300-400 μs/30-130 Hz provided gait improvements. Although on-medication/on-stimulation at 6 months, mean step length, stride velocity, and sit-to-stand improved by 38.8%, 42.3%, and 50.3%, respectively, mean UPDRS, Freezing of Gait Questionnaire, and activities-specific balance confidence scale scores improved by 33.5%, 26.8%, and 71.4%, respectively. The mean number of freezing-of-gait episodes reduced significantly from 16 presurgery to 0 at 6 months while patients were on levodopa and off stimulation. By using objective measures to detect dynamic gait characteristics, the therapeutic potential of spinal cord stimulation was optimized to each participant's characteristics. This pilot study demonstrated the safety and significant therapeutic outcome of spinal cord stimulation in advanced PD patients, and thus a larger and longer
Pickett, Kristen A; Duncan, Ryan P; Hoekel, James; Marshall, Bess; Hershey, Tamara; Earhart, Gammon M
Classically characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities, Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is also associated with atypical brainstem and cerebellar findings in the first decade of life. As such, we hypothesized that gait differences between individuals with WFS and typically developing (TD) individuals may be detectable across the course of the disease. Gait was assessed for 13 individuals with WFS (min 6.4 yrs, max 25.8 yrs) and 29 age-matched, typically developing individuals (min 5.6 yrs, max 28.5 yrs) using a GAITRite ® walkway system. Velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and double support time were compared between groups. Across all tasks, individuals with WFS walked slower (p = 0.03), took shorter (p ≤ 0.001) and wider (p ≤ 0.001) steps and spent a greater proportion of the gait cycle in double support (p = 0.03) compared to TD individuals. Cadence did not differ between groups (p = 0.62). Across all tasks, age was significantly correlated with cadence and double support time in the TD group but only double support time was correlated with age in the WFS group and only during preferred pace forward (rs = 0.564, p = 0.045) and dual task forward walking (rs = 0.720, p = 0.006) tasks. Individuals with WFS also had a greater number of missteps during tandem walking (p ≤ 0.001). Within the WFS group, spatiotemporal measures of gait did not correlate with measures of visual acuity. Balance measures negatively correlated with normalized gait velocity during fast forward walking (rs = -0.59, p = 0.03) and percent of gait cycle in double support during backward walking (rs = -0.64, p = 0.03). Quantifiable gait impairments can be detected in individuals with WFS earlier than previous clinical observations suggested. These impairments are not fully accounted for by the visual or balance deficits associated with WFS, and may be a reflection of early cerebellar and
Timmermans, Celine; Roerdink, Melvyn; van Ooijen, Marielle W; Meskers, Carel G; Janssen, Thomas W; Beek, Peter J
Walking in everyday life requires the ability to adapt walking to the environment. This adaptability is often impaired after stroke, and this might contribute to the increased fall risk after stroke. To improve safe community ambulation, walking adaptability training might be beneficial after stroke. This study is designed to compare the effects of two interventions for improving walking speed and walking adaptability: treadmill-based C-Mill therapy (therapy with augmented reality) and the overground FALLS program (a conventional therapy program). We hypothesize that C-Mill therapy will result in better outcomes than the FALLS program, owing to its expected greater amount of walking practice. This is a single-center parallel group randomized controlled trial with pre-intervention, post-intervention, retention, and follow-up tests. Forty persons after stroke (≥3 months) with deficits in walking or balance will be included. Participants will be randomly allocated to either C-Mill therapy or the overground FALLS program for 5 weeks. Both interventions will incorporate practice of walking adaptability and will be matched in terms of frequency, duration, and therapist attention. Walking speed, as determined by the 10 Meter Walking Test, will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures will pertain to walking adaptability (10 Meter Walking Test with context or cognitive dual-task and Interactive Walkway assessments). Furthermore, commonly used clinical measures to determine walking ability (Timed Up-and-Go test), walking independence (Functional Ambulation Category), balance (Berg Balance Scale), and balance confidence (Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale) will be used, as well as a complementary set of walking-related assessments. The amount of walking practice (the number of steps taken per session) will be registered using the treadmill's inbuilt step counter (C-Mill therapy) and video recordings (FALLS program). This process measure will
Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao; Yoshida, Hideyo; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yamashiro, Yukari; Sudo, Motoki; Niki, Yoshifumi
To examine the association between gait parameters and knee pain, urinary incontinence, and a history of falls. Comprehensive health examinations were conducted in 2009 among 971 elderly women over 70 years of age, in which the questionnaire and gait parameter results of 870 participants were analyzed. Knee pain, urinary incontinence and a history of falls were assessed through face-to-face interview surveys. Gait parameters were measured using a walk-way to assess walking speed, cadence, stride, stride length, step width, walking angle, toe angle and the differences in each parameter between the right and left foot. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between the gait parameters and knee pain, urinary incontinence and a history of falls. The elderly women with knee pain, urinary incontinence and a history of falls had slower walking speeds, smaller strides and strides length, and wider step width and walking angles. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed the walking speed to be significantly associated with mild knee pain and urinary incontinence and single a history of fall; moderate/severe knee pain was significantly associated with step width (OR=0.58, 95%CI=0.40-0.84) and walking angle (OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.30-2.01); moderate/severe urinary incontinence was significantly associated with walking speed (OR=0.97, 95%CI=0.96-0.99), walking angle (OR=1.14, 95%CI=1.02-1.26), and difference in walking angle between the right and left foot (OR=1.43, 95%CI=1.09-1.86); multiple a history of falls was significantly associated with stride length (OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.79-0.93) and the difference in walking angle between the right and left foot (OR=1.36, 95%CI=1.01-1.85). The data suggest that combining assessments of walking speed and other gait parameters may be an effective screening method for the early detection of geriatric syndromes.
Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina
be occurring as the loss of nurse shrubs alters the wind profile of the ridgeline and therefore succession. The use of a steel mesh walkway along the trail may facilitate the regeneration of nurse shrubs and other plants that require protection from wind. Our results highlight the importance of diversifying recreation ecology research to assess how trails affect important ecological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Freqüência e percentual de suscetibilidade de bactérias isoladas em pacientes atendidos na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza Frequency and susceptibility percentile of bacteria isolated in patients assisted in the intensive care unit of the General Hospital of Fortaleza
Everardo Albuquerque Menezes
Full Text Available INTRODUÇAO: As infecções hospitalares, hoje, são motivo de grande preocupação no âmbito hospitalar, principalmente nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs, nas quais encontramos uma associação de fatores propícios ao surgimento de infecções. Objetivos: Verificar a freqüência e o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos das bactérias isoladas de pacientes da UTI do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza (HGF. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: As bactérias foram isoladas em meio de cultura e a identificação e o teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos realizados por meio do sistema de automação MicroScan WalkWay. RESULTADOS: No período de janeiro a dezembro de 2002 houve 34% de positividade de bactérias no aspirado traqueal de pacientes da UTI; 10% de positividade no cateter; 26% de positividade na urina; e 30% de positividade no sangue. As bactérias mais freqüentes do aspirado traqueal foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16% e Klebsiella pneumoniae (15%. Em cateteres, houve maior freqüência de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN (25% e Staphylococcus aureus (25%; na urina, predominaram Klebsiella pneumoniae (16% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14%. Em hemoculturas, as bactérias mais isoladas foram SCN (41% e Staphylococcus aureus (17%. Foi observado, em relação ao perfil de suscetibilidade, que as Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de aspirado traqueal apresentaram total suscetibilidade à piperacilina e resistência total à ceftriaxona e à cefotaxima. A Klebsiella pneumoniae isolada de aspirados traqueais foi totalmente sensível ao imipenem, não apresentando resistência total a nenhum antimicrobiano testado, e apresentou suscetibilidade de 54% à ceftazidima. Em cateter ela apresentou resistência a ampicilina/sulbactam, cefepima, cefotaxima, ceftazidima, ceftriaxona, cefuroxima, gentamicina, piperacilina/tazobactam, piperacilina, ticarcilina/clavulanato e tobramicina, bem como suscetibilidade ao imipenem. Na urina, observamos 55% de
Preditores espaço-temporais do andar para testes de capacidade funcional em pacientes com doença de Parkinson Gait spatial and temporal predictors for functional capacity tests in Parkinson's disease patients
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar quais parâmetros espaço-temporais são preditores do andar de indivíduos com doença de Parkinson idiopática para os testes de resistência aeróbia e agilidade, propostos pela bateria de testes da American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados seis homens e seis mulheres com comprometimento e estágio da doença em níveis leve e moderado, que realizaram os testes de agilidade e resistência aeróbia, conforme o protocolo da AAHPERD, e andaram 8m sobre uma passarela. Uma câmera digital registrou uma passada central. Marcadores foram fixados no quinto metatarso e na face lateral do calcâneo do membro inferior direito e no primeiro metatarso e na face medial do calcâneo do membro inferior esquerdo. As variáveis dependentes selecionadas foram: tempo nos testes de agilidade e resistência e as variáveis cinemáticas (comprimento da passada - CP, cadência - CAD, duração da passada - DP, duração da fase de duplo suporte - DDS, duração do suporte simples - SS, duração da fase de balanço - DB e velocidade da passada - VP. RESULTADOS: Para agilidade, o teste de Pearson apontou correlação estatisticamente significativa entre as variáveis CP (r=-0,70; pOBJECTIVE: To determine which spatial and temporal parameters are predictors of the gait pattern of individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, for the aerobic endurance and agility tests included in the battery of tests of the AAHPERD protocol. METHODS: Six men and six women with mild and moderate impairment and disease stage were selected. They performed agility and aerobic endurance test in accordance with the AAHPERD protocol, and walked 8 m on a walkway. A digital video camera recorded one central stride. Markers were attached to the fifth metatarsal and lateral face of the calcaneus of the right leg and to the first metatarsal and medial face of the calcaneus of the left leg. The
Sokolova, Tatiana; Lygin, Ivan; Fadeev, Alexander
internal convergence are independent on transportation mode. Actually, measurements differ just by the processing time and appropriate number of readings. Important, that the internal convergence is the individual attribute of particular device. For the investigated gravimeters it varies from ±3 up to ±8 μGals. Various stability of the gravimeters location base. The most stable basis (minimum microseisms) in this experiment was a concrete pedestal, the least stable - point on the 28th floor. There is no direct dependence of the measurement results variance at the external noise level. Moreover, the external dispersion between different gravimeters is minimal in the point of the highest microseisms. Conclusions. The quality of the modern high-precision gravimeters Scintrex CG-5 Autograv measurements is determined by stability of the particular device, its standard deviation value and the nonlinearity drift degree. Despite the fact, that mentioned parameters of the tested gravimeters, generally corresponded to the factory characters, for the surveys required accuracy ±2-5 μGals, the best gravimeters should be selected. Practical gravimetric survey with such accuracy allowed reliable determination of the position of technical communication boxes and underground walkway in the urban area, indicated by gravity minimums with the amplitudes from 6-8 μGals and 1 - 15 meters width. The holes' parameters, obtained as the result of interpretationare well aligned with priori data.
Características cinemáticas, cinéticas e eletromiográficas do andar de adultos jovens com e sem suporte parcial de peso corporal Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic characteristics of young adults walking with and without partial body weight support
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as características cinemáticas, cinéticas e eletromiográficas do andar de adultos jovens em piso fixo sem colete e com suporte parcial de peso (SPP de 0, 10, 20 e 30% do peso corporal. MÉTODO: Oito jovens com idade média de 22,2 anos foram filmados andando sobre uma passarela que continha uma plataforma de força na região central para registro das componentes da força de reação do solo. Marcadores refletivos foram posicionados nos principais pontos anatômicos dos membros inferiores para registro dos dados cinemáticos, e eletrodos de superfície foram afixados nos músculos tibial anterior e gastrocnêmio medial para registro da atividade elétrica muscular. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significantes entre as cinco condições experimentais foram constatadas nas variáveis espaço-temporal, nos ângulos máximos e mínimos da coxa, joelho e tornozelo e nas amplitudes das componentes horizontal ântero-posterior e vertical da força de reação do solo. De forma geral, as maiores mudanças ocorreram na condição de SPP de 30% do peso corporal. CONCLUSÃO: É importante considerar as compensações que ocorrem no padrão do andar com SPP no planejamento das intervenções terapêuticas. Ainda, para melhor definir a utilização dos sistemas de suspensão de peso na reabilitação, estudos futuros precisam ser realizados para verificar o comportamento do andar em populações com alteração de movimento em piso fixo.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic characteristics of young adults walking on a fixed platform without a vest and with partial body weight support (PBWS of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. METHOD: Eight young adults (mean age: 22.2 years were videotaped walking on a walkway that contained a force plate embedded in its middle portion, to record the ground reaction force (GRF components. Reflective markers were placed on the main anatomical
Spittle, Alicia J; McGinley, Jennifer L; Thompson, Deanne; Clark, Ross; FitzGerald, Tara L; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Lee, Katherine J; Olsen, Joy E; Burnett, Alice; Treyvaud, Karli; Josev, Elisha; Alexander, Bonnie; Kelly, Claire E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J; Cheong, Jeanie Ly
, and structural and functional brain MRI images. At 5 years, preterm and term, children will be examined using comprehensive motor assessments, including: the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (2nd edition) and measures of gait function through spatiotemporal (assessed with the GAITRite® Walkway) and dynamic postural control (assessed with Microsoft Kinect) variables; and hand grip strength (assessed with a dynamometer); and measures of physical activity (assessed using accelerometry), cognitive development (assessed with Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), and emotional and behavioural status (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Developmental and Wellbeing Assessment). At the 5-year assessment, parents/caregivers will be asked to complete questionnaires on demographics, physical activity, activities of daily living, behaviour, additional therapy (eg, physiotherapy and occupational therapy), and motor function (assessed with Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Little Developmental Co-ordination Questionnaire and an activity diary). For the primary aim, the prevalence of motor impairment from birth to 5 years will be compared between children born at motor impairments during the neonatal period will be assessed as a predictor of severity of motor impairment at 5 years of age in children born motor outcome, including additional therapy, sex, brain injury and chronic lung disease. Understanding the developmental precursors of motor impairment in children born before 30 weeks is essential for limiting disruption to skill development, and potential secondary impacts on physical activity, participation, academic achievement, self-esteem and associated outcomes (such as obesity, poor physical fitness and social isolation). An improved understanding of motor skill development will enable targeting of interventions and streamlining of services to children at highest
The effects of various visual conditions on the gait cycle in children with different level of motor coordination-a pilot study. [Cómo afectan diferentes condiciones visuales a la marcha en niños con diferente nivel de coordinación motriz- un studio piloto].
Full Text Available The importance of vision and the visual control of movement have been addressed in the literature related to motor control. Many studies have demonstrated that children with low motor competence in comparison to their typically developing peers may rely more heavily on vision to perform movements. The aim of the study was to highlight the effects of different visual conditions on motor performance during walking in children with different levels of motor coordination. Participants (n=8, Mean age = 8.5±.5 years were divided into typical development (TD and low motor coordination (LMC group. They were asked to walk along a 10-meter walkway provided by Optojump-Next instrument that was placed in a portable construction (15 x 3 x 2.5m. This construction was surrounded by dark blue fibers in which all participants perceived the same visual information. They walked in a self-selected speed under four visual conditions: full vision (FV, limited vision 150 ms (LV-150, limited vision 100 ms (LV-100 and non-vision (NV. For visual occlusion during walking in LV-150 and LV-100, participants were equipped with Plato Goggles that opened for 150 and 100 ms, respectively, within each 2 sec. Data were analyzed in a two-way mixed between-within ANOVA including 2 (groups: TD vs. LMC x 4 (visual condition: FV, LV-150, LV-100 & NV with repeated-measures on the last factor (p≤.05. Results indicated that TD children walked faster and with longer strides than LMC children in which these parameters can influence on different periods of gait cycle including stance and swing phases. Also, perceiving visual information for 150 ms in comparison to 100 ms while walking was enough for similar performance in FV condition. The present findings highlight underlying parameters of gait cycle for walking in TD compared to LMC children are different. Resumen La importancia de la visión y del control visual en el movimiento es un asunto ampliamente abordado y tratado en la
Mariana Capacci Gasparoto
both from the interaction between dysfunction, limitation of activities and the individual's social participation constraints as environmental factors. The absence of appropriate environmental adjustments affects accessibility, performance and participation of individuals with physical disabilities (PD. The main objective of this study consisted in evaluating the home accessibility of children with PD. A checklist elaborated by the researchers was used in order to investigate architectural barriers, adaptations in the home and the children's needs for support. The checklist was filled in upon visits to the homes of five children who had limited mobility and used a wheelchair or walker. The reviews took an average of 50 minutes and enabled the researchers to see the children's accessibility and participation conditions at home. An absence of furniture and/or features adapted for children was identified, despite frequent indications of need for aid for locomotion, hygiene and clothing. Among the universal barriers that were evaluated, the predominant issues included uneven walkways, upward pathways and slick walking surfaces on the access routes, and inadequate door width to the bathroom. There was only one house in which circulation space was appropriate in all rooms. The knowledge of accessibility conditions and participation of the children enabled the researchers to propose relevant modifications/adaptations to those environments. Although the literature highlights the close relationship between accessibility, functionality, participation and life quality of people with physical disabilities, the study revealed the lack of surveys and specific instruments of evaluation related to accessibility of the home environment.