Sample records for walkways

  1. Walkways at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_walkways) (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 23 arcs representing the walkways (or sidewalks) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The walkways were collected by...

  2. Moving Walkways, Escalators, and Elevators

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, J; Hurtado, F; Langerman, S; Palop, B


    We study a simple geometric model of transportation facility that consists of two points between which the travel speed is high. This elementary definition can model shuttle services, tunnels, bridges, teleportation devices, escalators or moving walkways. The travel time between a pair of points is defined as a time distance, in such a way that a customer uses the transportation facility only if it is helpful. We give algorithms for finding the optimal location of such a transportation facility, where optimality is defined with respect to the maximum travel time between two points in a given set.

  3. Kinematic analysis of tandem gait on a sine wave walkway (United States)

    Kawakami, Shingo; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Tomizawa, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Kenichi


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to ascertain the kinematic characteristics on a horizontal plane, including knee joint rotation, when walking with a tandem gait on a sine wave walkway. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy adults were enrolled as subjects in this study. They walked with a tandem gait on a sine wave walkway. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to record data and calculate the trunk, hip joint, and knee joint rotation angles. [Results] The rotation angle ranges for the trunk, hip joint, and knee joint were 23.3°, 53.3°, and 47.3°, respectively. The trunk generally rotated towards the direction of movement, and when turning left using the left leg as the pivot, the hip joint was internally rotated and the knee joint was externally rotated. In contrast, when making a directional change to the right using the left leg as the pivot, the hip joint was externally rotated and the knee joint was internally rotated. [Conclusion] Through tandem gait analysis on a sine wave walkway, knee joint rotation was found to be important in changes of direction. PMID:27799663

  4. Motor patterns during walking on a slippery walkway. (United States)

    Cappellini, Germana; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco


    Friction and gravity represent two basic physical constraints of terrestrial locomotion that affect both motor patterns and the biomechanics of bipedal gait. To provide insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output in connection with ground contact forces, we studied adaptation of human gait to steady low-friction conditions. Subjects walked along a slippery walkway (7 m long; friction coefficient approximately 0.06) or a normal, nonslippery floor at a natural speed. We recorded gait kinematics, ground reaction forces, and bilateral electromyographic (EMG) activity of 16 leg and trunk muscles and we mapped the recorded EMG patterns onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the motoneuron (MN) pools to characterize the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output. The results revealed several idiosyncratic features of walking on the slippery surface. The step length, cycle duration, and horizontal shear forces were significantly smaller, the head orientation tended to be stabilized in space, whereas arm movements, trunk rotations, and lateral trunk inclinations considerably increased and foot motion and gait kinematics resembled those of a nonplantigrade gait. Furthermore, walking on the slippery surface required stabilization of the hip and of the center-of-body mass in the frontal plane, which significantly improved with practice. Motor patterns were characterized by an enhanced (roughly twofold) level of MN activity, substantial decoupling of anatomical synergists, and the absence of systematic displacements of the center of MN activity in the lumbosacral enlargement. Overall, the results show that when subjects are confronted with unsteady surface conditions, like the slippery floor, they adopt a gait mode that tends to keep the COM centered over the supporting limbs and to increase limb stiffness. We suggest that this behavior may represent a distinct gait mode that is particularly suited to uncertain surface

  5. Building a reliable measure for unobtrusive observations of street-connecting pedestrian walkways. (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Brander, Bill; Mansoor, Osman D; Pearson, Amber L


    There is evidence that good urban design, including street connectivity, facilitates walking for transport. We, therefore, piloted a short survey on 118 such walkways in nine suburbs in Wellington, New Zealand's capital. The instrument appeared feasible to use and performed well in terms of inter-rater reliability (median Kappa score for 15 items: 0.88). The study identified both favorable features (e.g., railings by steps), but also problematic ones (e.g., concerning graffiti, litter, and insufficient lighting and signage). There is scope for routinising the monitoring of walkway quality so that citizens and government agencies can work together to enhance urban walkability.

  6. Mind Your Step: Exploring aspects in the application of long accelerating moving walkways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningtyas, I.


    Accelerating Moving Walkways (AMWs) are conveyor systems that accelerate pedestrians from a low speed at the entrance to a higher speed at the middle section, and then decelerate them to a low speed again at the exit. It is envisaged they can be a potential transport mode to fill the gap between sho

  7. Mind Your Step: Exploring aspects in the application of long accelerating moving walkways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningtyas, I.


    Accelerating Moving Walkways (AMWs) are conveyor systems that accelerate pedestrians from a low speed at the entrance to a higher speed at the middle section, and then decelerate them to a low speed again at the exit. It is envisaged they can be a potential transport mode to fill the gap between

  8. Implications of Robotic Walkway Cleaning for Hoof Disorders in Dairy Cattle

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    R.L. Doerfler


    Full Text Available Infectious hoof disorders are a serious challenge for dairy production since they cause pain and discomfort in cows and can compromise the competitiveness of dairy farming. Robot scrapers are capable of frequently removing liquid manure from slatted floors and can contribute to improved hygiene of walkways. The aim of this study was to observe the implications of the robotic cleaning of walking areas for infectious hoof disorders in dairy cattle. A large herd ranging from 1,247 to 1,328 Holstein Friesian cows was monitored in two six-month periods in 2012 and in 2013. All animals were housed in a cubicle housing system with slatted floors in which walkways were cleaned using robot scrapers in 2013 but not in 2012. Statistical analysis was carried out with either the Chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact test in R. Results indicated that the presence of infectious hoof disorders declined after robot scrapers were used for the cleaning of walkways. While in the first investigation period 648 animals suffered from infectious hoof diseases, in the second period only 340 animals were affected. This study stresses the significance of environmental hygiene to improve hoof health in dairy cattle.

  9. Research on the Effects of Heterogeneity on Pedestrian Dynamics in Walkway of Subway Station

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    Haoling Wu


    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is to study the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics in walkway of subway station. We analyze the observed data of the selected facility and find that walking speed and occupied space were varied in the population. In reality, pedestrians are heterogeneous individuals with different attributes. However, the research on how the heterogeneity affects the pedestrian dynamics in facilities of subway stations is insufficient. The improved floor field model is therefore presented to explore the effects of heterogeneity. Pedestrians are classified into pedestrians walking in pairs, fast pedestrians, and ordinary pedestrians. For convenience, they are denoted as P-pedestrians, F-pedestrians, and O-pedestrians, respectively. The proposed model is validated under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. Three pedestrian compositions are simulated to analyze the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics. The results show that P-pedestrians have negative effect and F-pedestrians have positive effect. All of the results in this paper indicate that the capacity of walkway is not a constant value. It changes with different component proportions of heterogeneous pedestrians. The heterogeneity of pedestrian has an important influence on the pedestrian dynamics in the walkway of the subway station.

  10. Optimal speeds for walking and running, and walking on a moving walkway (United States)

    Srinivasan, Manoj


    Many aspects of steady human locomotion are thought to be constrained by a tendency to minimize the expenditure of metabolic cost. This paper has three parts related to the theme of energetic optimality: (1) a brief review of energetic optimality in legged locomotion, (2) an examination of the notion of optimal locomotion speed, and (3) an analysis of walking on moving walkways, such as those found in some airports. First, I describe two possible connotations of the term "optimal locomotion speed:" that which minimizes the total metabolic cost per unit distance and that which minimizes the net cost per unit distance (total minus resting cost). Minimizing the total cost per distance gives the maximum range speed and is a much better predictor of the speeds at which people and horses prefer to walk naturally. Minimizing the net cost per distance is equivalent to minimizing the total daily energy intake given an idealized modern lifestyle that requires one to walk a given distance every day—but it is not a good predictor of animals' walking speeds. Next, I critique the notion that there is no energy-optimal speed for running, making use of some recent experiments and a review of past literature. Finally, I consider the problem of predicting the speeds at which people walk on moving walkways—such as those found in some airports. I present two substantially different theories to make predictions. The first theory, minimizing total energy per distance, predicts that for a range of low walkway speeds, the optimal absolute speed of travel will be greater—but the speed relative to the walkway smaller—than the optimal walking speed on stationary ground. At higher walkway speeds, this theory predicts that the person will stand still. The second theory is based on the assumption that the human optimally reconciles the sensory conflict between the forward speed that the eye sees and the walking speed that the legs feel and tries to equate the best estimate of the

  11. Proposing a Revised Pedestrian Walkway Level of Service Based on Characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours in China

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    Xiaonian Shan


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours (PIBs in order to propose a revised pedestrian walkway Level of Service (LOS in China. Field data on overtaking and evasive behaviours were collected at a metro station walkway in Shanghai, China to calculate macro and micro indicators. Occurrence intensities of these two PIBs initially increased with moderate density and later decreased with high density that reduced available space. PIBs were also analysed in terms of sideways behaviours to account for the varying difficulties of PIBs at different densities. It was found that available space for PIBs was the main factor contributing to the intensity features. Moreover, the different space demands of the two PIBs resulted in different features between them. Finally, a revised pedestrian walkway LOS was proposed based on the macro and micro characteristics of PIBs in China.

  12. Walking-adaptability assessments with the Interactive Walkway: Between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations. (United States)

    Geerse, Daphne J; Coolen, Bert H; Roerdink, Melvyn


    The ability to adapt walking to environmental circumstances is an important aspect of walking, yet difficult to assess. The Interactive Walkway was developed to assess walking adaptability by augmenting a multi-Kinect-v2 10-m walkway with gait-dependent visual context (stepping targets, obstacles) using real-time processed markerless full-body kinematics. In this study we determined Interactive Walkway's usability for walking-adaptability assessments in terms of between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations. Under varying task constraints, 21 healthy subjects performed obstacle-avoidance, sudden-stops-and-starts and goal-directed-stepping tasks. Various continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures were concurrently determined with the Interactive Walkway and a gold-standard motion-registration system: available response time, obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stop margins, step length, stepping accuracy and walking speed. The same holds for dichotomous classifications of success and failure for obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stops tasks and performed short-stride versus long-stride obstacle-avoidance strategies. Continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures generally agreed well between systems (high intraclass correlation coefficients for absolute agreement, low biases and narrow limits of agreement) and were highly sensitive to task and subject variations. Success and failure ratings varied with available response times and obstacle types and agreed between systems for 85-96% of the trials while obstacle-avoidance strategies were always classified correctly. We conclude that Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability outcome measures are reliable and sensitive to task and subject variations, even in high-functioning subjects. We therefore deem Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability assessments usable for obtaining an objective and more task-specific examination of one's ability to walk, which may be feasible for both high

  13. Continuous measurements of real-life bidirectional pedestrian flows on a wide walkway

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Lee, Chung-min; Toschi, Federico


    Employing partially overlapping overhead \\kinectTMS sensors and automatic pedestrian tracking algorithms we recorded the crowd traffic in a rectilinear section of the main walkway of Eindhoven train station on a 24/7 basis. Beside giving access to the train platforms (it passes underneath the railways), the walkway plays an important connection role in the city. Several crowding scenarios occur during the day, including high- and low-density dynamics in uni- and bi-directional regimes. In this paper we discuss our recording technique and we illustrate preliminary data analyses. Via fundamental diagrams-like representations we report pedestrian velocities and fluxes vs. pedestrian density. Considering the density range $0$ - $1.1\\,$ped/m$^2$, we find that at densities lower than $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$ pedestrians in unidirectional flows walk faster than in bidirectional regimes. On the opposite, velocities and fluxes for even bidirectional flows are higher above $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$.

  14. Repeatability and reproducibility of the Tekscan HR-Walkway system in healthy children. (United States)

    Coda, Andrea; Carline, Tom; Santos, Derek


    This study investigated the repeatability and reproducibility of the HR Walkway system with regards to peak pressure values (PP) and pressure time integral (PTI) in healthy children, ranging between 5 and 18 years of age. Subjects recruited took part in two non-invasive clinical assessments, at baseline and 1 week later. Gait analysis was carried out using the PP box approach, and plantar foot recording was divided into 10 anatomical areas. The PP and PTI was investigated for the left, right and both feet accounted together. Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) test was adopted for statistical analysis. Overall, 30 healthy patients were recruited and 60 appointments were completed, 53.3% (n=16) were female and 46.7% (n=14) were male. Mean age was 13.3 years (SD=4.5), with an age-range of 5-18.6 years old. Results indicated that for all variables tested the repeatability data were 'good' ICC for 73.8% (n=121) and 'moderate' ICC for 26.2% (n=43). For all variables tested, the reproducibility data showed that 'good' ICC for 70.7% (n=58) and 'moderate' ICC for 29.3% (n=24). In conclusion, the HR Walkway system is able to provide repeatable and reproducible data.

  15. Validation of the kinect for gait analysis using the GAITRite walkway. (United States)

    Baldewijns, Greet; Verheyden, Geert; Vanrumste, Bart; Croonenborghs, Tom


    Accurate, non-intrusive and straightforward techniques for gait quality analysis can provide important information concerning the fall risk of a person. For this purpose an algorithm was developed which can measure step length and step time using the Kinect depth image. The validity of the measured step length and time is determined using the GAITRite walkway as a ground truth. The results of this validation confirm that the Kinect is well-suited for determining general parameters of a walking sequence (a Spearmans Correlation Coefficient (SCC) of 0.94 for average step length and 0.75 for average step time per walk), but we furthermore show that determining accurate results for single steps is more difficult (SCC of 0.74 for step length and 0.43 for step time for each step), making it harder to measure more complex gait parameters such as e.g. gait symmetry.

  16. Repeatability and accuracy testing of a weight distribution platform and comparison to a pressure sensitive walkway to assess static weight distribution. (United States)

    Bosscher, Georgia; Tomas, Andrea; Roe, Simon C; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Lascelles, B Duncan X


    To evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of measurements collected using a weight distribution platform and a pressure sensitive walkway using an inanimate object with known weight distribution. A custom-built jig with a range of weights was applied in a random order. Measurements were collected on both devices and compared to each other and to the known weight distribution. Weight distribution platform and pressure sensitive walkway measurements were highly correlated to each other (Pearson's correlation coefficient R = 0.98) and to actual weights (R = 0.99 for the weight distribution platform; 0.98 for the pressure sensitive walkway). Repeatability from day to day for both devices was greater than 0.99. For the weight distribution platform, the 95% confidence interval was ± 2.5% from the true percentage and ± 3.3% for the pressure sensitive walkway. The coefficient of variation (COV) was highest for both devices at the lightest weights (weight distribution platform 11.28%, pressure sensitive walkway 16.91%) and lowest with the heaviest weights (weight distribution platform 3.71%, pressure sensitive walkway 5.86%). Both the weight distribution platform and the pressure sensitive walkway provided accurate and consistent measures of weight distribution with no significant difference between devices. The rounded standard error was three percent for the weight distribution platform, and four percent for the pressure sensitive walkway. The higher variability when measuring the smallest weight suggests less accuracy at lower weights with both devices. The weight distribution platform is a repeatable and accessible device to measure static weight distribution, and if proven the same in a clinical setting, it will be a valuable addition to current objective measures of limb use.

  17. Epidemiologia e saúde bucal coletiva: um caminhar compartilhado Epidemiology and public health dentistry: a shared walkway

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    Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli


    Full Text Available A saúde bucal coletiva, na medida em que surge como um modo de trazer a saúde bucal para o SUS (e vice-versa, tem, na epidemiologia, um de seus mais contundentes aliados. Este artigo discute o modo como se deu esse caminhar, trilhado compartilhadamente, entre a saúde bucal coletiva e a epidemiologia. Analisa, inicialmente, os esforços na tentativa de estabelecer modelos metodológicos para pesquisas transversais, bem como a possibilidade da construção de uma base de dados nacional. Num segundo momento, discute-se como esse conjunto de conhecimentos tem se corporificado em uma produção científica qualificada e compartilhada com seus pares, refletindo sobre o modo como este processo vem contribuindo para a consolidação do campo da saúde bucal coletiva. Percebe-se que este caminhar compartilhado esteve e está condicionado pela conjuntura política que, em momentos distintos, proporcionou o crescimento da saúde bucal coletiva. A epidemiologia em saúde bucal, ao mesmo tempo em que se consolida como área de conhecimento no plano da produção científica no Brasil, articula-se com este movimento, proporcionando, de um lado, uma ferramenta que aproxima os modelos assistenciais em saúde bucal do ideário do SUS; e, de outro, aprofunda as discussões a respeito dos determinantes biopsicossociais das doenças bucais.The public health dentistry is a way to bring oral health to Brazilian National Health System (SUS and vice-versa. Thus, the epidemiology, in this context, it is one of the most important allies. In this article we intend to discuss the "shared walkway" between epidemiology and public health dentistry, through two views: first, we analyzed the efforts to establish methodological models for oral health sectional studies and the possibilities to construct a national data base. Second, we discussed how this knowledge has been transformed in a qualified scientific production presented in meetings and papers, which reflects, at the

  18. A rop net and removable walkway used to quantitatively sample fishes over wetland surfaces in the dwarf mangrove of the Southern Everglades (United States)

    Lorenz, J.J.; McIvor, C.C.; Powell, G.V.N.; Frederick, P.C.


    We describe a 9 m2 drop net and removable walkways designed to quantify densities of small fishes in wetland habitats with low to moderate vegetation density. The method permits the collection of small, quantitative, discrete samples in ecologically sensitive areas by combining rapid net deployment from fixed sites with the carefully contained use of the fish toxicant rotenone. This method requires very little contact with the substrate, causes minimal alteration to the habitat being sampled, samples small fishes in an unbiased manner, and allows for differential sampling of microhabitats within a wetland. When used in dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) habitat in southern Everglades National Park and adjacent areas (September 1990 to March 1993), we achieved high recovery efficiencies (78–90%) for five common species interior and coastal wetlands with either herbaceous or woody vegetation.

  19. Building Walkways: Observation on Nest Duplication of Stingless Bee Trigona iridipennins Smith (1854

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    Preeti S. Virkar


    Full Text Available Beekeeping for honey and other bee products is an age old practice. Besides the popular honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, stingless bees belonging to the tribe Meliponini, subfamily Apinae and family Apidae (Michener, 2007 are also reared for honey, having high medicinal value. Stingless bees are exclusive to tropics and their size ranges from 2mm to slightly bigger than the popular honeybee A. mellifera (O'Toole & Raw, 1999. The practice of keeping stingless bees is called meliponiculture, and once it was an integral part of the culture of indigenous people of South and Central America. It held a social and religious significance in the meso-American culture, mainly the ancient Mayans (Sommeijer, 1999. Stingless bee products such as honey, wax and propolis formed a small-scale economy in their livelihood as well (Cortopassi-Laurino et al., 2006. Although least explored, meliponiculture is an age old practice in India also. Kani tribe in Western Ghats is the only reported reference, keeping stingless bees (Kumar et al., 2012. Trigona iridipennis is the widespread stingless bee species in the Indian subcontinent and used for meliponiculture.

  20. Perception of Relative Motion between Two Systems through the Sense of Touch: The Example of the Moving Walkway (United States)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Yurumezoglu, Kemal


    Someone in a car moving at constant speed along a smooth, straight road cannot perceive movement unless he looks out a window. When the person looks out and sees another car traveling alongside, in the same direction and at an equal speed, he will think that the other car is not moving either. When we see a tree in the distance as we are driving…

  1. Kinematic Validation of a Multi-Kinect v2 Instrumented 10-Meter Walkway for Quantitative Gait Assessments. (United States)

    Geerse, Daphne J; Coolen, Bert H; Roerdink, Melvyn


    Walking ability is frequently assessed with the 10-meter walking test (10MWT), which may be instrumented with multiple Kinect v2 sensors to complement the typical stopwatch-based time to walk 10 meters with quantitative gait information derived from Kinect's 3D body point's time series. The current study aimed to evaluate a multi-Kinect v2 set-up for quantitative gait assessments during the 10MWT against a gold-standard motion-registration system by determining between-systems agreement for body point's time series, spatiotemporal gait parameters and the time to walk 10 meters. To this end, the 10MWT was conducted at comfortable and maximum walking speed, while 3D full-body kinematics was concurrently recorded with the multi-Kinect v2 set-up and the Optotrak motion-registration system (i.e., the gold standard). Between-systems agreement for body point's time series was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Between-systems agreement was similarly determined for the gait parameters' walking speed, cadence, step length, stride length, step width, step time, stride time (all obtained for the intermediate 6 meters) and the time to walk 10 meters, complemented by Bland-Altman's bias and limits of agreement. Body point's time series agreed well between the motion-registration systems, particularly so for body points in motion. For both comfortable and maximum walking speeds, the between-systems agreement for the time to walk 10 meters and all gait parameters except step width was high (ICC ≥ 0.888), with negligible biases and narrow limits of agreement. Hence, body point's time series and gait parameters obtained with a multi-Kinect v2 set-up match well with those derived with a gold standard in 3D measurement accuracy. Future studies are recommended to test the clinical utility of the multi-Kinect v2 set-up to automate 10MWT assessments, thereby complementing the time to walk 10 meters with reliable spatiotemporal gait parameters obtained objectively in a quick, unobtrusive and patient-friendly manner.

  2. Richland's Clinch River pedestrian walkway extension conceptual design : prepared for the Town of Richlands, VA, October, 2013


    Gilboy, Elizabeth Truex; Browning, Lara; Dunn, Matthew; Jessup, Jennifer; Malobicky, Alyssa


    Originally established as a planned community whose economy would be supported by mining of rich coal deposits, Richlands was intended to be the Pittsburgh (PA) of the South by the Clinch Valley Coal and Iron Company of Philadelphia. The coming of the Norfolk & Western Railroad supported the capital investment to create a town that would manufacture products such as steel, brick, and glass. It also showcased the deluxe Hotel Richlands and other businesses as well as residential areas. Because...

  3. Kinematic Validation of a Multi-Kinect v2 Instrumented 10-Meter Walkway for Quantitative Gait Assessments


    Daphne J Geerse; Bert H Coolen; Melvyn Roerdink


    Walking ability is frequently assessed with the 10-meter walking test (10MWT), which may be instrumented with multiple Kinect v2 sensors to complement the typical stopwatch-based time to walk 10 meters with quantitative gait information derived from Kinect's 3D body point's time series. The current study aimed to evaluate a multi-Kinect v2 set-up for quantitative gait assessments during the 10MWT against a gold-standard motion-registration system by determining between-systems agreement for b...

  4. Kinematic Validation of a Multi-Kinect v2 Instrumented 10-Meter Walkway for Quantitative Gait Assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J Geerse

    Full Text Available Walking ability is frequently assessed with the 10-meter walking test (10MWT, which may be instrumented with multiple Kinect v2 sensors to complement the typical stopwatch-based time to walk 10 meters with quantitative gait information derived from Kinect's 3D body point's time series. The current study aimed to evaluate a multi-Kinect v2 set-up for quantitative gait assessments during the 10MWT against a gold-standard motion-registration system by determining between-systems agreement for body point's time series, spatiotemporal gait parameters and the time to walk 10 meters. To this end, the 10MWT was conducted at comfortable and maximum walking speed, while 3D full-body kinematics was concurrently recorded with the multi-Kinect v2 set-up and the Optotrak motion-registration system (i.e., the gold standard. Between-systems agreement for body point's time series was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Between-systems agreement was similarly determined for the gait parameters' walking speed, cadence, step length, stride length, step width, step time, stride time (all obtained for the intermediate 6 meters and the time to walk 10 meters, complemented by Bland-Altman's bias and limits of agreement. Body point's time series agreed well between the motion-registration systems, particularly so for body points in motion. For both comfortable and maximum walking speeds, the between-systems agreement for the time to walk 10 meters and all gait parameters except step width was high (ICC ≥ 0.888, with negligible biases and narrow limits of agreement. Hence, body point's time series and gait parameters obtained with a multi-Kinect v2 set-up match well with those derived with a gold standard in 3D measurement accuracy. Future studies are recommended to test the clinical utility of the multi-Kinect v2 set-up to automate 10MWT assessments, thereby complementing the time to walk 10 meters with reliable spatiotemporal gait parameters obtained objectively in a quick, unobtrusive and patient-friendly manner.

  5. Land-use management system as a tool towards achieving low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    explores the contribution that spatial planning, land development and regulatory aspects of the land-use management system can make towards achieving lower carbon ... improve the quality of life of millions .... walkways and cycle paths.

  6. Evaluation of vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture


    Souza, Alexandre N A; Tatarunas, Angelica C; Matera,Julia M.


    Abstract Background Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most important stifle injuries and a common cause of lameness in dogs. Our objective was to measure the vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) using a pressure sensitive walkway. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to collect vertical force data from the pads of 10 Pitbulls affected with unilateral CCLR. Ten healthy...

  7. Protocol Variations and Six-Minute Walk Test Performance in Stroke Survivors: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Dunn, A.; Marsden, D. L.; Nugent, E.; Van Vliet, P.; Spratt, N. J.; Attia, J.; Callister, R.


    Objective. To investigate the use of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) for stroke survivors, including adherence to 6MWT protocol guidelines and distances achieved. Methods. A systematic search was conducted from inception to March 2014. Included studies reported a baseline (intervention studies) or first instance (observational studies) measure for the 6MWT performed by stroke survivors regardless of time after stroke.  Results. Of 127 studies (participants n = 6,012) that met the inclusion criteria, 64 were also suitable for meta-analysis. Only 25 studies made reference to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) standards for the 6MWT, and 28 reported using the protocol standard 30 m walkway. Thirty-nine studies modified the protocol walkway, while 60 studies did not specify the walkway used. On average, stroke survivors walked 284 ± 107 m during the 6MWT, which is substantially less than healthy age-matched individuals. The meta-analysis identified that changes to the ATS protocol walkway are associated with reductions in walking distances achieved. Conclusion. The 6MWT is now widely used in stroke studies. The distances achieved by stroke patients indicate substantially compromised walking ability. Variations to the standard 30 m walkway for the 6MWT are common and caution should be used when comparing the values achieved from studies using different walkway lengths. PMID:25685596

  8. Protocol Variations and Six-Minute Walk Test Performance in Stroke Survivors: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

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    A. Dunn


    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the use of the six-minute walk test (6MWT for stroke survivors, including adherence to 6MWT protocol guidelines and distances achieved. Methods. A systematic search was conducted from inception to March 2014. Included studies reported a baseline (intervention studies or first instance (observational studies measure for the 6MWT performed by stroke survivors regardless of time after stroke.  Results. Of 127 studies (participants n = 6,012 that met the inclusion criteria, 64 were also suitable for meta-analysis. Only 25 studies made reference to the American Thoracic Society (ATS standards for the 6MWT, and 28 reported using the protocol standard 30 m walkway. Thirty-nine studies modified the protocol walkway, while 60 studies did not specify the walkway used. On average, stroke survivors walked 284 ± 107 m during the 6MWT, which is substantially less than healthy age-matched individuals. The meta-analysis identified that changes to the ATS protocol walkway are associated with reductions in walking distances achieved. Conclusion. The 6MWT is now widely used in stroke studies. The distances achieved by stroke patients indicate substantially compromised walking ability. Variations to the standard 30 m walkway for the 6MWT are common and caution should be used when comparing the values achieved from studies using different walkway lengths.

  9. Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites in Bridges: A State-of-the-Art Report (United States)


    address FRP composite topics related to concrete such as research needs, repair, rebar, prestressing, and stay-in-place structural formwork . Several...two vehicular lanes, two bike lanes, a pedestrian walkway, and a utility service tunnel . As of 2005 the bridge had not been constructed. 27

  10. Crawling versus Walking Infants' Perception of Affordances for Locomotion over Sloping Surfaces. (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; And Others


    Examined the behavior of 8.5-month-old crawling infants and 14-month-old walking toddlers in ascending and descending sloping walkways. Both groups overestimated their ability to ascend slopes. Toddlers hesitated most before descending 10 and 20 degree slopes, whereas infants hesitated most before descending 30 and 40 degree slopes. (MDM)

  11. An Autonomous Mobile Robot for Tsukuba Challenge: JW-Future (United States)

    Fujimoto, Katsuharu; Kaji, Hirotaka; Negoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Makoto; Mizutani, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Tomoya; Nakamura, Katsu

    “Tsukuba Challenge” is the only of its kind to require mobile robots to work autonomously and safely on public walkways. In this paper, we introduce the outline of our robot “JW-Future”, developed for this experiment based on an electric wheel chair. Additionally, the significance of participation to such a technical trial is discussed from the viewpoint of industries.

  12. How Mothers Encourage and Discourage Infants' Motor Actions (United States)

    Karasik, Lana B.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Dimitropoulou, Katherine A.


    The content of mothers' emotional, verbal, and gestural communication to their infants was examined under conditions of potential physical risk in a laboratory motor task. Mothers encouraged and discouraged their 12- and 18-month-old infants to crawl or walk down a sloping walkway. Mothers expressed positive affect on nearly every trial. They…

  13. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Greenwater Pond Dam (MA 00204), Housatonic River Basin, Becket, Massachusetts. Greenwater Pond Dam (MA 00204) Phase I Inspection Report. (United States)


    bridae planking, wheel guards and railings on the bridge. The 4" x 4" trash rack walkway support posts were also replaced. Ilaintenance and repairs bridae seats at spillway walls. a. Super Structure Bearings None Anchor Bolts Yes, but not used. L Bridge Seat Accumulated d4rt and debris

  14. 29 CFR Appendix V to Part 1918 - Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non-mandatory) (United States)


    ... Slings .81(c) Safely Slung .81(a) Visibility .81(i) Drinking Water .95(b) Duckboards, Cleated .22(d..., Exemptions .11(b) Water, Drinking .95(b) Walkways: Barges or River Towboats .26(b) Barges .37(a) Decks .43(c... aid provider should be responsible for the type, amount, and maintenance of first aid supplies needed...

  15. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis


    Different phases of the PX 15 realisation to Point 1: zone of the ATLAS experiment 19-11-1998 Realisation of the Walkway for PX 15 and the putting up scaffolds 15-01-1999 Film from the surface of Point 1 and descent in the well of PX 15

  16. Vibration-induced changes in EMG during human locomotion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, S.M.P.; Swinnen, S.P.; Desloovere, K.; Duysens, J.E.J.


    The present study was set up to examine the contribution of Ia afferent input in the generation of electromyographic (EMG) activity. Subjects walked blindfolded along a walkway while tendon vibration was applied continuously to a leg muscle. The effects of vibration were measured on mean EMG

  17. Effects of tendon vibration on the spatiotemporal characteristics of human locomotion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, S.M.P.; Swinnen, S.P.; Desloovere, K.; Duysens, J.E.J.


    The present study addressed the involvement of proprioceptive input of the muscle spindles in the spatiotemporal control of human locomotion. Blindfolded subjects walked along a walkway while tendon vibration, a powerful stimulus of Ia afferents, was applied to various muscles of the lower limb. The

  18. Savannah, Georgia: The Lasting Legacy of Colonial City Planning. Teaching with Historic Places. (United States)

    Kratzer, Judson

    Strolling through the old city of Savannah, Georgia's rigid, grid pattern streets, down its linear brick walkways, past over 1,100 residential and public buildings of unparalleled architectural richness and diversity, visitors and residents come to appreciate the original plan that has existed intact since Savannah's founding in 1733. Twenty-four…

  19. Pedestrian Planning in City Centers: a Study of Guimarães and Braga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rubayet Rahaman


    Full Text Available People are walking in cities for different reasons. Some walkers walk for going to work, some are walking for shopping and some are for leisure during day and night hours. Medium sized cities like Braga and Guimarães in Portugal are depending on car for even shorter trips up to 2 kilometers. However, the walkways are allowing people to walk in convenient and safe way including late night environment. The pedestrians feel troublesome to walk on the footpaths because of illegal parking and discontinuation of walkways. Municipality transport plans and master plans do not incorporate pedestrians as a major component. But this egress mode of transportation is very important in medium sized city centers like Guimarães and Braga for the people to enjoy city centers’ activities. This paper focuses on the types of walkers who use the walkways on a regular basis. Usually, people are feeling comfortable to walk when they go to clubs and bars in a group in these small cities especially after work. This paper again tries to focus the varieties of problems on walkways and to present policies that can improve the situation. Municipal master plan and transportation plan have been studied carefully to see the provisions of pedestrian planning options. Field surveys have been conducted both in form of questionnaire and observation during the end of 2009 and results show different patterns of pedestrian behavior as well as evidence that people get different experiences with problems while walking on the walkways in both surveyed towns. Considering the issues of sustainable mobility, this paper also tries to suggest policies to motivate more people to walk especially in the medium-sized cities of Portugal.

  20. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking. (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C


    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  1. Pedestrian and traffic safety in parking lots at SNL/NM : audit background report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Paul Ernest


    This report supplements audit 2008-E-0009, conducted by the ES&H, Quality, Safeguards & Security Audits Department, 12870, during fall and winter of FY 2008. The study evaluates slips, trips and falls, the leading cause of reportable injuries at Sandia. In 2007, almost half of over 100 of such incidents occurred in parking lots. During the course of the audit, over 5000 observations were collected in 10 parking lots across SNL/NM. Based on benchmarks and trends of pedestrian behavior, the report proposes pedestrian-friendly features and attributes to improve pedestrian safety in parking lots. Less safe pedestrian behavior is associated with older parking lots lacking pedestrian-friendly features and attributes, like those for buildings 823, 887 and 811. Conversely, safer pedestrian behavior is associated with newer parking lots that have designated walkways, intra-lot walkways and sidewalks. Observations also revealed that motorists are in widespread noncompliance with parking lot speed limits and stop signs and markers.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Le Royal Meridien Shanghai Le Royal Meridien Shanghai is located in the center of Shanghai and is one of the city's tallest landmarks at 66 stories high. The iconic Bund is a short walk down the Nanjinglu Pedestrian Walkway, which is just beside the hotel. All rooms and suites provide a 42" plasma TV, DVD/CD player, rain shower system, wireless and high-speed Internet access, and floor-to-ceiling glass windows.

  3. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 12, 0.12 Sitework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for utility distribution systems, central heating, central cooling, electrical, utility support structures, paving roadways/walkways, and tunnels.

  4. Periodic Inspections of Hilo, Kahului, Laupahoehoe, and Nawiliwili Breakwaters, Hawaii (United States)


    breakwater. ...................... 99  Figure B9. Sta 26+26, harbor side, New Dolphin and walkway adjacent to breakwater; built 2005...LIDAR data were collected using a fixed wing Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with a scanning, pulsed, infrared (1064) laser ERDC/CHL TR-11-8 8...respectively. The mounted laser transmitter/receiver transmits a laser pulse, which travels to the air-water interface, where some of the energy is

  5. Effects of low light on the stability of the head and pelvis of the healthy elderly


    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in body stability of the elderly while walking on even surface ground under low light. [Subjects] Ten young males and ten elderly males participated in this experiment. [Methods] Each subject walked along a 7 m walkway five times at their preferred walking speed under normal (>300 lux, NORM) and low light conditions (

  6. A new twist on old ideas: How sitting reorients crawlers


    Soska, Kasey C.; Scott R. Robinson; Adolph, Karen E.


    Traditionally, crawling and sitting are considered distinct motor behaviors with different postures and functions. Ten- to 12-month-old infants were observed in the laboratory or in their homes while being coaxed to crawl continuously over long, straight walkways (Study 1; N = 20) and during spontaneous crawling during free play (Study 2; N = 20). In every context, infants stopped crawling to sit 3-6 times per minute. Transitions from crawling to sitting frequently turned infants’ bodies away...

  7. Locomotor Experience and Use of Social Information Are Posture Specific


    Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Ishak, Shaziela; Karasik, Lana B.; Lobo, Sharon A.


    The authors examined the effects of locomotor experience on infants’ perceptual judgments in a potentially risky situation—descending steep and shallow slopes—while manipulating social incentives to determine where perceptual judgments are most malleable. Twelve-month-old experienced crawlers and novice walkers were tested on an adjustable sloping walkway as their mothers encouraged and discouraged descent. A psychophysical procedure was used to estimate infants’ ability to crawl/walk down sl...

  8. A Human Factors Evaluation of Exoskeleton Boot Interface Sole Thickness (United States)


    participant began and ended in a standing position with his right foot flat on the force plate and left foot flat on the walkway. When kneeling on the...Anterioposterior axis Mediolateral axis Sagittal plane Transverse plane 22 Hip Knee Ankle Sa gi tta l P la ne Fr on ta l P la ne T...LABORATORY - HRED ATTN AMSRD ARL HR MG R SPINE BUILDING 333 PICATINNY ARSENAL NJ 07806-5000 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY - HRED ATTN

  9. Changes in Gait symmetry, Gait velocity and self-reported function following total hip replacement


    Hodt-Billington, Caroline; Jorunn L. Helbostad; Vervaat, Willemijn; Rognsvåg, Turid; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf


    Objective: To investigate the magnitude of change at different time points in measures of gait symmetry, gait velocity and self-reported function following total hip replacement. Design: Longitudinal with test occasions pre-surgery and 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Subjects: Thirty-four patients with hip osteoarthritis (mean age 63 years, standard deviation 11 years). Methods: Subjects walked back and forth along a 7-m walkway at slow, preferred and fast speed. Ante...

  10. Army LEED-Certified Projects, August 2008 - January 2011 (United States)


    efficient vehicles and carpool vehicles. Additionally, the project provides secure locations for bicycles as well as showers and changing facilities...walkways, bicycle paths, and preferred parking for both fuel-efficient vehicles and carpools . 59% of the previously developed site has been restored with...for carpool parking which are clearly marked by signs. u.S. Army Engineer District, Los Angeles Architect: RQ Construction, Inc. Civil Engineer

  11. General Plan Environmental Assessment for Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility, Washington, Maryland (United States)


    housing/office space above, creating a pleasant and more walkable downtown atmosphere. The 33-plus-foot-wide area along Main Street provides walkways...1.1 and 1.2 and actions to promote walkability , reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT), promote sustainable practices, and account for the...approximately five miles from Washington, D.C., is part of an inner suburb of a large city . The communities of Camp Springs, Morningside, Woodyard

  12. Basrah Modern Slaughterhouse, Basrah, Iraq (United States)


    or Summary of Report: PA-09-189 Why SIGIR Did this Study SIGIR is charged to conduct assessments of Iraq reconstruction...there are few asphalt roads in the area and the network of stabilized earth tracks that run along raised berms in the area are difficult to navigate...tank systems guard houses electrical, mechanical, water, and sewerage utilities walkways and sidewalks garden area landscaping perimeter

  13. Biogas production from municipal organic waste, a process of sustainable development in Lahore (a review)


    Abbas, Muhammad


    Proper disposal of municipal solid waste of Lahore is one of the major challenges for responsible waste management authorities. Various studies reveal that about 50 to 70% of the generated waste is collected in Lahore while the rest of the waste lies in the street, walkways and in vacant plots. The collected waste is dumped in the open and uncontrolled landfills without any energy recovery. The present study is a literature review study where an attempt is made to find out sust...

  14. Effects of roughness and compressibility of flooring on cow locomotion. (United States)

    Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M


    We examined the effects of roughness and degree of compressibility of flooring on the locomotion of dairy cows. We observed 16 cows walking down specially constructed walkways with materials that differed in surface roughness and degree of compressibility. Use of a commercially available soft rubber flooring material decreased slipping, number of strides, and time to traverse the corridor. These effects were most apparent at difficult sections of the corridor, such as at the start, at a right-angle turn, and across a gutter. Covering the walkway with a thin layer of slurry increased frequency of slipping, number of strides, and time taken to traverse the walkway. Effects of adding slurry were not overcome by increasing surface roughness or compressibility. Placing more compressible materials under a slip-resistant material reduced the time and number of steps needed to traverse the corridor but did not reduce slips, and the effects on cow locomotion varied nonlinearly with the degree of compressibility of the floor. Use of commercially available rubber floors improved cow locomotion compared with concrete floors. However, standard engineering measures of the floor properties may not predict effects of the floor on cow behavior well. Increasing compressibility of the flooring on which cows walk, independently of the roughness of the surface, can improve cow locomotion.

  15. Incorporating a disturbance observer with direct velocity feedback for control of human-induced vibrations (United States)

    Nyawako, Donald; Reynolds, Paul; Hudson, Emma


    Feedback control strategies are desirable for disturbance rejection of human-induced vibrations in civil engineering structures as human walking forces cannot easily be measured. In relation to human-induced vibration control studies, most past researches have focused on floors and footbridges and the widely used linear controller implemented in the trials has been the direct velocity feedback (DVF) scheme. With appropriate compensation to enhance its robustness, it has been shown to be effective at damping out the problematic modes of vibration of the structures in which the active vibration control systems have been implemented. The work presented here introduces a disturbance observer (DOB) that is used with an outer-loop DVF controller. Results of analytical studies presented in this work based on the dynamic properties of a walkway bridge structure demonstrate the potential of this approach for enhancing the vibration mitigation performance offered by a purely DVF controller. For example, estimates of controlled frequency response functions indicate improved attenuation of vibration around the dominant frequency of the walkway bridge structure as well as at higher resonant frequencies. Controlled responses from three synthesized walking excitation forces on a walkway bridge structure model show that the inclusion of the disturbance observer with an outer loop DVF has potential to improve on the vibration mitigation performance by about 3.5% at resonance and 6-10% off-resonance. These are realised with hard constraints being imposed on the low frequency actuator displacements.

  16. Model identification of terfenol-D magnetostrictive actuator for precise positioning control (United States)

    Saleem, Ashraf; Ghodsi, Mojtaba; Mesbah, Mostefa; Ozer, Abdullah


    Feedback control strategies are desirable for disturbance rejection of human-induced vibrations in civil engineering structures as human walking forces cannot easily be measured. In relation to human-induced vibration control studies, most past researches have focused on floors and footbridges and the widely used linear controller implemented in the trials has been the direct velocity feedback (DVF) scheme. With appropriate compensation to enhance its robustness, it has been shown to be effective at damping out the problematic modes of vibration of the structures in which the active vibration control systems have been implemented. The work presented here introduces a disturbance observer (DOB) that is used with an outer-loop DVF controller. Results of analytical studies presented in this work based on the dynamic properties of a walkway bridge structure demonstrate the potential of this approach for enhancing the vibration mitigation performance offered by a purely DVF controller. For example, estimates of controlled frequency response functions indicate improved attenuation of vibration around the dominant frequency of the walkway bridge structure as well as at higher resonant frequencies. Controlled responses from three synthesized walking excitation forces on a walkway bridge structure model show that the inclusion of the disturbance observer with an outer loop DVF has potential to improve on the vibration mitigation performance by about 3.5% at resonance and 6-10% off-resonance. These are realised with hard constraints being imposed on the low frequency actuator displacements.

  17. Vegetation associated with different walking track types in the Kosciuszko alpine area, Australia. (United States)

    Hill, Wendy; Pickering, Catherine Marina


    Tourism infrastructure such as walking tracks can have negative effects on vegetation including in mountain regions. In the alpine area around continental Australia's highest mountain, Mt Kosciuszko (2228 m), there is a range of walking tracks (paved, gravel and raised steel mesh surfaces) in addition to an extensive network of informal/non-hardened tracks. Vegetation characteristics were compared between track types on/under tracks, on the track verge, and in the adjacent native vegetation. For a raised steel mesh walkway there was no difference in vegetation under the walkway, on the verge, and 3m away. In contrast, for a non-hardened track there was 35% bare ground on the track surface but no other detectable impacts. Gravel and paved tracks had distinct verges largely comprising bare ground and exotic species. For non-hardened tracks there was an estimated 270 m2 of disturbance per km of track. For wide gravel tracks the combined area of bare ground, exotic plants and gravel was estimated as 4290 m2 per km, while for narrow gravel tracks it was estimated as 2940 m2 per km. For paved tracks there was around 2680 m2 per km of damage. In contrast, there was no detectable effect of raised steel mesh walkway on vegetation highlighting some of the benefits of this surface over other track types.

  18. Evaluation of vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre Navarro Alves; Tatarunas, Angelica Cecilia; Matera, Julia Maria


    Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most important stifle injuries and a common cause of lameness in dogs. Our objective was to measure the vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) using a pressure sensitive walkway. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to collect vertical force data from the pads of 10 Pitbulls affected with unilateral CCLR. Ten healthy Pitbulls were included in the study as controls. Velocity varied between 1.3 and 1.6 m/s and acceleration was kept below ± 0.1 m/s2. Differences between groups and between pads in the same limb within groups were investigated using ANOVA and the Tukey test. The paired Student t-test was employed to assess gait symmetry (p < 0.05). Peak vertical forces (PVF) were lower in the affected limb, particularly in the metatarsal pad. Increased PVF values in the forelimb and the contralateral hind limb pads of affected dogs suggest a compensatory effect. A consistent pattern of vertical force distribution was observed in the pads of dogs with CCLR. These data are important for increased understanding of vertical force distribution in the limb of dogs with CCLR disease. Kinetic analysis using pressure sensitive walkways can be useful in follow-up assessment of surgically treated dogs regardless of the surgical technique employed.

  19. Validity of a wearable accelerometer to quantify gait in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6. (United States)

    Hickey, Aodhán; Gunn, Eleanor; Alcock, Lisa; Del Din, Silvia; Godfrey, Alan; Rochester, Lynn; Galna, Brook


    Biomarkers are required to track disease progression and measure the effectiveness of interventions for people with spinocerebellar ataxia type-6 (SCA6). Gait is a potential biomarker that is sensitive to SCA6 which can be measured using wearable technology, reducing the need for expensive specialist facilities. However, algorithms used to calculate gait using data from wearables have not been validated in SCA6. This study sought to examine the validity of a single wearable for deriving 14 spatio-temporal gait characteristics in SCA6 and control cohorts. Participants performed eight intermittent walks along a 7 m instrumented walkway at their preferred walking pace while also wearing a single accelerometer-based wearable on L5. Gait algorithms previously validated in neurological populations and controls were used to derive gait characteristics. We assessed the bias, agreement and sensitivity of gait characteristics derived using the instrumented walkway and the wearable. Mean gait characteristics showed good to excellent agreement for both groups, although gait variability and asymmetry showed poor agreement between the two systems. Agreement improved considerably in the SCA6 group when people who used walking sticks were excluded from the analysis, suggesting poorer agreement in people with more severe gait impairment. Despite poor agreement for some characteristics, gait measured using the wearable was generally more sensitive to group differences than the instrumented walkway. Our findings indicate mean gait characteristics can be accurately measured using an accelerometer-based wearable in people SCA6 with mild-to-moderately severe gait impairment yet further development of algorithms are required for people with more severe symptoms.

  20. Random Walks Estimate Land Value

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Ph


    Expected urban population doubling calls for a compelling theory of the city. Random walks and diffusions defined on spatial city graphs spot hidden areas of geographical isolation in the urban landscape going downhill. First--passage time to a place correlates with assessed value of land in that. The method accounting the average number of random turns at junctions on the way to reach any particular place in the city from various starting points could be used to identify isolated neighborhoods in big cities with a complex web of roads, walkways and public transport systems.

  1. Guerrilla warriors on the Brooklyn Bridge: a case-study of the Unbearables' poetic terrorism (1994-2001)


    Bollen, Katrien


    On 13 September 1994, a loose collective of Downtown poets known as the Unbearables lined up on the Brooklyn Bridge pedestrian walkway, all the way from Manhattan to Brooklyn. During rush hour, they simultaneously ranted erotic poems in six-minute loops, so that, at least theoretically, "a few words from each reader would have reached each pedestrian's ear, and the whole string of phrases would add up to a single 'stochastic' poem, a different version for each and every passerby" (Bey 1994, n...

  2. Measuring the efficacy of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam for lame sows using a GAITFour pressure mat and an embedded microcomputer-based force plate system. (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M D; Johnson, A K; Abell, C A; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Millman, S T; Stalder, K J


    Pain associated with lameness on farm is a negative affective state and has a detrimental impact on individual farm animal welfare. Animal pain can be managed utilizing husbandry tools and through pharmacological approaches. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including meloxicam and flunixin meglumine are compounds used in many species for pain management because they are easy to administer, long lasting, and cost-effective. Assessing an animal's biomechanical parameters using such tools as the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system provides an objective, sensitive, and precise means to detect animals in lame states. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine for pain mitigation in lame sows using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Lameness was induced in 24 mature mixed-parity sows using a chemical synovitis model and compared 3 treatments: meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg per os), flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg intramuscular) and sterile saline (intramuscular). Weight distribution (kg) for each foot was collected twice per second for a total of 5 min for each time point using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system. Stride time, stride length, maximum pressure, activated sensors, and stance time were collected using 3 quality walks (readings) for each time point using the GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Sows administered flunixin meglumine or meloxicam tolerated more weight on their lame leg compared with saline sows (P meloxicam had smaller differences in stance time, maximum pressure, and activated sensors between the sound and lame legs compared with saline-treated sows between 37 and 60 h after lameness induction (P meloxicam administration mitigated pain sensitivity in sows after lameness induction when pain sensitivity was evaluated with the embedded

  3. Paving materials for heat island mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rosenfeld, A.H. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

  4. Characterization of ankle function during stair ambulation


    Gates, Deanna H.; Lelas, Jennifer L.; Della Croce, Ugo; Herr, Hugh; Bonato, Paolo


    The aim of this study was to examine the ankle joint during level walking, stair ascent, and stair descent to determine models for use in the design of prosthetic and orthotic systems. Ten healthy subjects were asked to walk (1) across a level walkway, (2) up, and (3) down an instrumented stairway. Sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic data were analyzed to obtain ankle biomechanics during the stance phase of each task. Each stance phase was broken down into sub-phases based on the power traje...

  5. From individual behaviors to an evaluation of the collective evolution of crowds along footbridges

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Bruno, Luca


    In the present work a mathematical model aimed at evaluating the dynamics of crowds is derived and discussed. In particular, on the basis of some phenomenological considerations focused on pedestrians' individual behavior, a model dealing with the collective evolution of the crowd, formalized in terms of a conservation law for a crowding measure, is obtained. To suit engineering needs, modeling efforts are made toward the simulation of real world crowd events specifically happening along pedestrian walkways. The response of the model as well as its tunability are studied in some computational domains inspired by existing footbridges.

  6. Effects of low light on the stability of the head and pelvis of the healthy elderly. (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in body stability of the elderly while walking on even surface ground under low light. [Subjects] Ten young males and ten elderly males participated in this experiment. [Methods] Each subject walked along a 7 m walkway five times at their preferred walking speed under normal (>300 lux, NORM) and low light conditions (LOW). To compare the changes in body stability, the root mean square of acceleration (RMSacc) at the head and pelvis was used. [Results] The results show that the body stability of young adults showed a similar RMSacc in all directions at the head and pelvis between the normal and low light walking conditions. In contrast, the RMSacc in all directions at the head and pelvis during low light walking by elderly adults was significantly greater than that of normal light walking. [Conclusion] It was confirmed that, despite walking on even ground, low light condition affects the body stability of the elderly. To clearly evaluate the effect of low light with aging on gait pattern, further study will be necessary to perform additional experiments under various environmental conditions to investigate walking speed, multi-tasking, stairs, and uneven walkway performance.

  7. An Efficient Methodology for Calibrating Traffic Flow Models Based on Bisection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo C. Jia


    Full Text Available As urban planning becomes more sophisticated, the accurate detection and counting of pedestrians and cyclists become more important. Accurate counts can be used to determine the need for additional pedestrian walkways and intersection reorganization, among other planning initiatives. In this project, a camera-based approach is implemented to create a real-time pedestrian and cyclist counting system which is regularly accurate to 85% and often achieves higher accuracy. The approach retasks a state-of-the-art traffic camera, the Autoscope Solo Terra, for pedestrian and bicyclist counting. Object detection regions are sized to identify multiple pedestrians moving in either direction on an urban sidewalk and bicyclists in an adjacent bicycle lane. Collected results are processed in real time, eliminating the need for video storage and postprocessing. In this paper, results are presented for a pedestrian walkway for pedestrian flow up to 108 persons/min and the limitations of the implemented system are enumerated. Both pedestrian and cyclist counting accuracy of over 90% is achieved.

  8. Towards an inclusive society in Ghana: An analysis of challenges persons with disabilities face in participating in tourism in Ashanti region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussan Aggrey Mensah


    Full Text Available Participation in tourism brings individuals, families and communities together, making it an important social inclusion strategy. Negative perceptions about persons with disabilities could make it difficult for them to access public places. Therefore, this study served to examine tourism challenges for persons with disabilities (PwDs in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A cross sectional study with quantitative data collection was conducted with PwDs. Structured questionnaires were administered to 120 PwDs using a convenience sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were explored using SPSS version 20. The study found that PwDs faced barriers to facilities and structures at tourist destinations. The barriers to tourism included lack of income, negative attitudes of the public and physical barriers such as a lack of adapted toilet facilities, tables and chairs, inaccessible routes for wheel chair users, inability to climb walkways and an absence of canopy walk-ways. The study supports the evidence of challenges faced by PwDs at tourism destinations. Redesigning and resourcing tourism facilities to be more PwD friendly could remove barriers faced by PwDs in tourism, creating greater social inclusion for this population. Keywords: tourism, persons with disabilities, participation, accessibility, inclusion

  9. A Pilot Study of Gait Function in Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina. (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Foxworth, Judy L; Quandt, Sara A; Summers, Phillip; Walker, Francis O; Arcury, Thomas A


    Farmworkers endure many job-related hazards, including fall-related work injuries. Gait analysis may be useful in identifying potential fallers. The goal of this pilot study was to explore differences in gait between farmworkers and non-farmworkers. The sample included 16 farmworkers and 24 non-farmworkers. Gait variables were collected using the portable GAITRite system, a 16-foot computerized walkway. Generalized linear regression models were used to examine group differences. All models were adjusted for two established confounders, age and body mass index. There were no significant differences in stride length, step length, double support time, and base of support; but farmworkers had greater irregularity of stride length (P = .01) and step length (P = .08). Farmworkers performed significantly worse on gait velocity (P = .003) and cadence (P < .001) relative to non-farmworkers. We found differences in gait function between farmworkers and non-farmworkers. These findings suggest that measuring gait with a portable walkway system is feasible and informative in farmworkers and may possibly be of use in assessing fall risk.

  10. The effects of shoes with a rounded soft sole in the anterior-posterior direction on leg joint angle and muscle activity. (United States)

    Demura, Tomohiro; Demura, Shin-ichi


    This study examines the effect of these shoes on the leg joint angle and muscle activity during walking. Ten healthy young male adults (mean age: 24.1±4.3 years) walked on a walkway while wearing one of three kinds of shoes with a rounded soft sole in the anterior-posterior direction (Stretch Walker: SW, mass: 440 g), MBT (Masai Barefoot Technology; similar to the SW in form and material, mass: 600 g), and flat-bottomed shoes (FS, mass: 420 g)). After familiarizing themselves with the shoes, subjects walked twenty laps on the walkway, which was about 40 m long (mean speed: 4.1 km/h). After a sufficient rest, they repeated this with the other shoes. During walking, the volume of muscle discharge was measured once every 2 laps. The mean value of the 10 measurements was used as the evaluation variable for integral values and joint angle, while the right foot touched the ground twice. In conclusion, the range of leg movement during walking was smaller when wearing shoes with a rounded soft sole in the anterior-posterior direction (SW and MBT) than when wearing normal shoes (FS). However, the effects of the SW and MBT on leg muscle activity during walking differ little from wearing the normal shoes during a leisurely 10-min walk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Obstacle crossing among people with Parkinson disease is influenced by concurrent music. (United States)

    Brown, Lesley A; de Bruin, Natalie; Doan, Jon; Suchowersky, Oksana; Hu, Bin


    Multitasking situations exacerbate gait impairments and increase the risk of falling among people with Parkinson disease (PD). This study compared obstacle negotiation among 10 subjects with PD and 10 nonparkinsonian control (CTRL) subjects in two test conditions differentiated by the presence of music played through a personal music player. Subjects walked the length of a 10 m walkway at a self-selected pace, crossing a 0.15 m obstacle placed at the midpoint of the walkway. The results indicated that subjects with PD crossed the obstacle slower than CTRL subjects and that concurrent music differentially altered obstacle crossing behaviors for the CTRL subjects and subjects with PD. Subjects with PD further decreased obstacle-crossing velocities and maintained spatial parameters in the music condition. In contrast, CTRL subjects maintained all spatiotemporal parameters of obstacle crossing with music. The alterations to crossing behaviors observed among the subjects with PD support our previous suggestion that listening to music while walking may be an attentionally demanding task.

  12. Step-length variability in minimally disabled women with multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome. (United States)

    Flegel, Melanie; Knox, Katherine; Nickel, Darren


    Gait is one of the most frequently impaired bodily functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Determining abnormal parameters of gait in early MS could influence MS treatment and rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased step-length variability could be detected in minimally disabled patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) using a sensored walkway gait analysis system. Nine participants with MS/CIS and nine age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for this study. MS/CIS participants underwent a neurologic examination, and all participants completed a screening interview. Each participant completed three walks at a self-selected pace and three walks at a brisk pace across the GAITRite walkway (MAP/CIR Inc, Havertown, PA). Mean values for step-length variability, step length, and velocity were calculated for each participant's self-selected and brisk trials. Independent t tests were used to compare MS/CIS participants with controls, and effect sizes were calculated. Step-length variability in the left leg at the self-selected pace was found to be greater in participants with MS/CIS than in controls, although no significant differences were found in velocity or step length. Step-length variability measurement shows promise in detecting subtle gait dysfunction. Larger, prospective studies exploring step-length variability may determine its clinical viability for detecting subtle gait dysfunction and could lead to improved prognostication of disability progression in MS.

  13. Step-length biofeedback device for walk rehabilitation. (United States)

    Montoya, R; Dupui, P; Pagès, B; Bessou, P


    A biofeedback gait training system for step length is proposed, adapted to the correction of spatial walking asymmetries by means of a simple, quick and reliable method for daily clinical use. The system is composed of a walkway and a gait analysis device (locometer) measuring the main temporal and distance factors of gait. The step length is imposed on the subject by lighted targets appearing on the walkway, alternately on the right and left side; the subject is asked to place a swinging foot on the lighted target. Feedback to the subject is supplied by direct visual information (the subject looking at the movement and the position of the foot with respect to the lighted target) and an acoustic signal delivered in real time when the length step error is greater than an allowed value. The method is validated on a population of hemiparetic patients who have suffered from a stroke and who have been reeducated with traditional rehabilitation methods. The patients were divided into two groups; one group following a gait training with biofeedback (BFB group) and one group following a gait training without biofeedback (reference group). Preliminary results are presented, showing a significant beneficial effect of the biofeedback method in increasing the step length of paretic limbs and in correcting step-length asymmetry.

  14. Simulation of Cognitive Pedestrian Agents Crowds in Crisis Situations

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    Margaret Lyell


    Full Text Available In crisis situations in an urban environment, first responder teams often must deal with crowds of people. Consider the case of a building fire in a dense city environment. People may be injured; walkways may be blocked, with fire equipment attempting to reach the scene. Crowd behavior can become an issue when trying to reach the injured, ensure safety and restore conditions to normal. The motivations of pedestrians that form the crowd can vary. Some are there because they are curious about the crisis situation. Others, attending to their individual concerns, may have found themselves in the 'wrong' location. They may be trying to leave the area, but the density of people as well as the spatial layout of the walkways may be impeding their progress. Other individuals, unaware of the fire, may be attempting to reach their intended destinations that happen to be near the crisis area, thus adding to crowd congestion. With a model of crowd behavior, effective strategies for resource usage in managing crowd behavior can be developed. Our approach to this problem is that of agent-based modeling and simulation. We develop a cognitive pedestrian agent model. Utilizing this model, we simulate crowd behavior in a 'city fire' scenario. Characteristics of crowd behavior with different pedestrian personality mixes and a strategy for crowd management are investigated

  15. Quantitative gait analysis under dual-task in older people with mild cognitive impairment: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutmanis Iris


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliability of quantitative gait assessment while dual-tasking (walking while doing a secondary task such as talking in people with cognitive impairment is unknown. Dual-tasking gait assessment is becoming highly important for mobility research with older adults since better reflects their performance in the basic activities of daily living. Our purpose was to establish the test-retest reliability of assessing quantitative gait variables using an electronic walkway in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI under single and dual-task conditions. Methods The gait performance of 11 elderly individuals with MCI was evaluated using an electronic walkway (GAITRite® System in two sessions, one week apart. Six gait parameters (gait velocity, step length, stride length, step time, stride time, and double support time were assessed under two conditions: single-task (sG: usual walking and dual-task (dG: counting backwards from 100 while walking. Test-retest reliability was determined using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Gait variability was measured using coefficient of variation (CoV. Results Eleven participants (average age = 76.6 years, SD = 7.3 were assessed. They were high functioning (Clinical Dementia Rating Score = 0.5 with a mean Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE score of 28 (SD = 1.56, and a mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score of 22.8 (SD = 1.23. Under dual-task conditions, mean gait velocity (GV decreased significantly (sGV = 119.11 ± 20.20 cm/s; dGV = 110.88 ± 19.76 cm/s; p = 0.005. Additionally, under dual-task conditions, higher gait variability was found on stride time, step time, and double support time. Test-retest reliability was high (ICC>0.85 for the six parameters evaluated under both conditions. Conclusion In older people with MCI, variability of time-related gait parameters increased with dual-tasking suggesting cognitive control of gait performance. Assessment of quantitative gait

  16. A Study on the Effect of Exit Widths and Crowd Sizes in the Formation of Arch in Clogged Crowds

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G


    The arching phenomenon is an emergent pattern formed by a $c$-sized crowd of intelligent, goal-oriented, autonomous, heterogeneous individuals moving towards a $w$-wide exit along a long $W$-wide corridor, where $W>w$. We collected empirical data from microsimulations to identify the combination effects of~$c$ and~$w$ to the time~$T$ of the onset of and the size~$S$ of the formation of the arch. The arch takes on the form of the perimeter of a half ellipse halved along the minor axis. We measured the~$S$ with respect to the lengths of the major~$M$ and minor~$m$ axes of the ellipse, respectively. The mathematical description of the formation of this phenomenon will be an important information in the design of walkways to control and easily direct the flow of large crowds, especially during panic egress conditions.

  17. A New Look for the Globe Gardens

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    Designs to develop the grounds of the Globe of Science and Innovation have recently been unveiled. The plan is to extend the visitor activities on offer, transforming the area into a public arena for scientific exploration.   Design for the new Globe Gardens. © Jencks Squared and Groupe H. After months of conceptual development, plans to develop the site around the Globe are taking shape. The innovative designs were drawn up for CERN by a unique collaboration consisting of landscape architects Charles and Lily Jencks, and "Groupe H", a group of architects headed by Globe designer Hervé Dessimoz. They comprise new venues, covered walkways, a café and gift shop, a separate VIP entrance and a physics-inspired garden for visitors. The landscape itself becomes a feature – dramatically altered to create a cosmic garden formed by shaped mounds, ponds, and a natural amphitheatre for public events. “The new exhibition in the G...

  18. Remote sensing of voids in large concrete structures: runways, taxiways, bridges, and building walls and roofs (United States)

    Weil, Gary J.


    Maintenance of our world's infrastructure presents many unique challenges. Engineering and maintenance personnel must maintain around the clock service to millions of people each year while maintaining millions of cubic meters of concrete distributed throughout facilities. This infrastructure includes runways, taxiways, roadways, walkways, bridges, building walls and roofs. Presently only a limited number of accurate and economical techniques exist to test this myriad of concrete structures for integrity and safety as well as insure that they meet original design specifications. Remote sensing, non-destructive testing techniques, such as Infrared Thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar, Magnetometer and Pachometer, measure physical properties affected by the various materials and conditions found within, and under, concrete infrastructure. These techniques have established reputations for accurate investigations of concrete anomalies. This paper will review the applications of different non- destructive testing techniques on many concrete infrastructure components.

  19. Nondestructive testing of airport concrete structures: runways, taxiways, roads, bridges, building walls, and roofs (United States)

    Weil, Gary J.


    Maintenance of airport infrastructure presents many unique challenges. Airport engineering and maintenance personnel must maintain around the clock service to millions of people each year while maintaining millions of cubic meters of concrete distributed throughout the facilities. This infrastructure includes runways, taxiways, roadways, walkways, bridges, building walls and roofs. Presently only a limited number of accurate and economical techniques exist to test this myriad of concrete structures for integrity and safety as well as insure that they meet original design specifications. Remote sensing, non-destructive testing techniques, such as IR thermography, ground penetrating radar, magnetometer and pachometer, measure physical properties affected by the various materials and conditions found within, and under, concrete infrastructure. These techniques have established reputations for accurate investigations of concrete anomalies.

  20. Influence of walking with talus taping on the ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion. (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Park, Tae-Jin; Park, Ji-Hyuk; Oh, Jae-Seop


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of walking with talus taping on the ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF PROM) in individuals with limited ankle DF PROM. [Subjects] Fifteen ankles with limited DF PROM were examined. [Methods] After rigid strapping tape was applied to the ankles from the talus to the calcaneus, progressing posteriorly and inferiorly, the subjects walked on a walkway for 10 min. Using a goniometer, the ankle DF PROM was measured with the knee extended before and after walking with talus taping. The difference in ankle DF PROM between before and after walking with talus taping was analyzed using the paired t-test. [Results] The ankle DF PROM was significantly increased after walking with talus taping. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that walking with talus taping is effective for increasing the ankle DF PROM in individuals with limited ankle DF PROM.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rudek


    Full Text Available The paper presents a method developed for the gait classification based on the analysis of the trajectory of the pressure centres (CoP extracted from the contact points of the feet with the ground during walking. The data acquirement is performed ba means of a walkway with embedded tactile sensors. The proposed method includes capturing procedures, standardization of data, creation of an organized repository (data warehouse, and development of a process mining. A graphical analysis is applied to looking at the footprint signature patterns. The aim is to obtain a visual interpretation of the grouping by situating it into the normal walking patterns or deviations associated with an individual way of walking. The method consists of data classification automation which divides them into healthy and non-healthy subjects in order to assist in rehabilitation treatments for the people with related mobility problems.

  2. Gait changes following myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) observed in 2 children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Hansen, Alexis B; Price, Karen S; Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Feldman, Heidi M


    Children with spastic cerebral palsy experience difficulty with ambulation. Structural changes in muscle and fascia may play a role in abnormal gait. Myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) is a manual therapy that manipulates muscle and soft tissues to loosen fascia layers, reposition muscles, and facilitate alignment. This study aimed to document (1) gait characteristics of 2 children with cerebral palsy and (2) effects of myofascial structural integration on their gait. Children received 3 months of weekly therapy sessions by an experienced practitioner. Gait parameters were recorded at baseline and after treatment using an electronic walkway. Children with cerebral palsy demonstrated abnormal velocity and cadence, decreased step length and single support times, and increased double support time. After treatment, both children demonstrated improvement for 3 months in cadence and double support time. The objective gait analyses demonstrated temporary improvements after myofascial structural integration in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

  3. An autopsy case of otogenic intracranial abscess and meningitis with Bezold's abscess: evaluation of inflammatory bone destruction by postmortem cone-beam CT. (United States)

    Kanawaku, Yoshimasa; Yanase, Takeshi; Hayashi, Kino; Harada, Kazuki; Kanetake, Jun; Fukunaga, Tatsushige


    The deceased was an unidentified young male found unconscious on a walkway. On autopsy, outer and inner fistulae of the left temporal bone, subcutaneous abscess in the left side of the neck and head, and an intracranial abscess were noted. A portion of the left temporal bone was removed and scanned by cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (normally used for dentistry applications) to evaluate the lesion. The cone-beam CT image revealed roughening of the bone wall and hypolucency of the mastoid air cells, consistent with an inflammatory bone lesion. According to autopsy and imaging findings, the cause of death was diagnosed as intracranial abscess with Bezold's abscess secondary to left mastoiditis as a complication of otitis media. Although determining the histopathology of bone specimens is time-consuming and costly work, we believe that use of cone-beam CT for hard tissue specimens can be useful in forensic practice.

  4. Effect of triceps surae and quadriceps muscle fatigue on the mechanics of landing in stepping down in ongoing gait. (United States)

    Barbieri, F A; Gobbi, L T B; Lee, Y J; Pijnappels, M; van Dieën, J H


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue of triceps surae and quadriceps muscles in stepping down in ongoing gait. We expected that the subjects would compensate for muscle fatigue to prevent potential loss of balance in stepping down. A total of 10 young participants walked over a walkway at a self-selected velocity to step down a height difference of 10-cm halfway. Five trials were performed before and after a muscle fatigue protocol. Participants performed two fatigue protocols: one for ankle muscle fatigue and another for knee muscle fatigue. Kinematics of and ground reaction forces on the leading leg were recorded. Fatigue did not cause a change in the frequency of heel or toe landing. Our results indicate that in stepping down fatigue effects are compensated by redistributing work to unfatigued muscle groups and by gait changes aimed at enhancing balance control, which was however only partially successful.

  5. Use of Functional Ambulation Performance Score as measurement of gait ability: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gouelle, PhD


    Full Text Available Gait analysis systems are widely used for the assessment of gait disabilities and provide more accurate and detailed information than clinical tests. Scores and indexes have been proposed to summarize the large volume of data produced, each emphasizing different aspects of gait. Based on specific spatiotemporal gait parameters, the Functional Ambulation Performance Score (FAPS quantifies gait at a self-selected speed. Integrated within electronic walkways, the FAPS is commonly used for clinical evaluations and has been used in an increasing number of publications over the past few years. However, its use is sometimes distorted by misunderstandings of its composition and calculation, practical and/or conceptual limits, and even the meaning of the score. This technical report reviews the use of the FAPS for the evaluation of gait based on peer-reviewed articles and clinical experience and addresses important issues that must be considered for an optimal unbiased understanding and analysis of the score.

  6. Jorge Gaitán Cortés y la introducción del urbanismo moderno en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Goossens


    Full Text Available The article describes several urban planning projects developed in Colombia, with the participation of architect Jorge Gaitán Cortés: the campus of the Universidad Industrial de Santander (1946-1947, the proposal for a Working Class City (1947, the reconstruction project in Tumaco (1948, the Los Alcázares neighbourhood (1947-1949, the Muzú housing project (1948-1949, and the Cabecera del Llano housing project (1949. This article concludes that Gaitan´s work is an important point of reference for the understanding of Colombia’s adaptation to modern town planning. This is at the forefront of international discussion regarding the use of techniques such as the creation of networks of pedestrian walkways, limiting traffic, and characteristics of residential projects.

  7. The Forgotten Asclepieion of Peparithos and the Islander Worshippers of the Snake God. (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Laios, Konstantinos; Sgantzos, Markos; Androutsos, George


    The ancient Asclepieion of the island of Peparithos, modern Skopelos, had been build in an ideal position, one kilometer from the ancient city of Peparithos. The angry north Aegean Sea brought in the surface its north wall at the beginning of the 60s decade. The monument was identified as an Asclepieion from one partially saved ceramic inscription "ASCL…" (Greek: ΑΣΚΛ…). The sanctuary was surrounded by covered walkway (Greek: στοά) and it is dated at the early years of the fourth century BC. It is possible that god Apollo and goddess Artemis were worshiped in parallel. The monument reflects the culture of Peparitheans and the importance given toward the holistic treatment for the patients.

  8. [Bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in Hangzhou]. (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Xin; Wang, Ru-Song; Mao, Chun-Hong


    By the methods of site investigation, data collection and correlation analysis, the bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in 2006 were studied. The occurrence probabilities of three bad tourist behaviors, i.e., picking, trampling, and littering were 6.5%, 10.3% and 12.6%, respectively. Picking probability was primarily related to the vegetation types along walkways, while the scale of heavy trampling was negatively correlated with tour distance from the entrance. Waste production by each tourist was 782 g x d(-1) on average. The waste from littering amounted for 13.6% of the total. Tourist flow fluctuations of daily, weekly, and monthly perspectives for the study area showed high seasonality and successive days of overloaded tourist flows during peak seasons, which caused an increase of bad tourist behaviors. However, the water quality in the Park was not affected because of the improvement of dredging facilities.

  9. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha


    The information presented in this manual is solely for the purpose of operating the POC-scale equipment for fine coal processing as described herein. This manual provides a general description of the process technology and guidelines for plant operating procedures. It is intended for use by the operators and maintenance personnel who will be responsible for the operations of the plant. No attempt should be made to operate the plant until the principles of the process and operating instructions contained in this manual are fully understood. Operating personnel should thoroughly familiarize themselves with all processing equipment prior to commencing plant operation. All equipment is skid mounted to provide a self-contained unit. The dimensions of the unit are comply with standard guidelines. A minimum distance of 2 feet is provided between equipment for walkway and maintenance.

  10. Effects of mental fatigue on biomechanics of slips. (United States)

    Lew, Fui Ling; Qu, Xingda


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mental fatigue on biomechanics of slips. A total of 44 healthy young participants were evenly categorised into two groups: no fatigue and mental fatigue. Mental fatigue was induced by performing an AX-continuous performance test. The participants in both groups were instructed to walk on a linear walkway, and slips were induced unexpectedly during walking. We found that mental fatigue has adverse effects in all the three phases of slips. In particular, it leads to increased likelihood of slip initiation, poorer slip detection and a more insufficient reactive recovery response to slips. Based on the findings from the present study, we can conclude that mental fatigue is a risk factor for slips and falls. In order to prevent slip-induced falls, interventions, such as providing frequent rest breaks, could be applied in the workplace to avoid prolonged exposures to cognitively demanding activities.

  11. Un Sistema Informativo Territoriale per la gestione della sicurezza pedonale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo D'Agostino


    Full Text Available A GIS for pedestrian safety managementThe improvement of pedestrian safety can be pursued through an innovative management system that can drive them through the safest pedestrian footpaths. Thanks to the support of GIS, one can now project future scenarios where pedestrians are warned in real time about the network elements offering the best safety performance. In this paper the characteristics of a GIS created for the dynamic characterization of level of safety provided by walkways will be explained. All the elements of an urban road network have been linked with attributes used to define the level of safety. The query space allows to identify the safest pedestrian route between origin and destination choices. Selecting the best route, the GIS also impute any barriers in the network.

  12. 某楼改造加固设计实例%Design and analysis about a building converted into shopping malls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞生; 詹德勇


    本文介绍了某多层办公楼改造成商场的工程案例,改造内容多样:增设扶梯、自行人梯、升降机,对原楼梁板凿除、加固,增设梁板等,为类似工程中较为典型的工程实例,对相关改造工程具有一定的参考价值。%This article describes a multi-storey office building converted into shopping malls case.Including additional escalator,walkways,lifts,cut and firm the original beam and slap,additional beam and slap and so on.It's the typical case of the similar works,it can be referred to the similar constructions.

  13. Next generation of dock safety equipment. (United States)

    Swietlik, Walt


    OSHA and forklift manufacturers have made extensive efforts to improve the safety of forklift operation in and around industrial facilities and warehouses. However, the use of next-generation vehicle restraint and light communications technology will go much farther toward protecting forklift operators and pedestrians, reducing accidents, and improving productivity at the loading dock. While these new technologies mark a significant advance in loading dock safety, they cannot replace forklift and loading dock safety policies. Employers must continue to focus on forklift safety training and consider the use of multiple safety devices, such as strategically placed signs, painted aisles, and guarded walkways. The best practice is to seek the advice of safety consultants and qualified loading dock equipment representatives.

  14. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis of stride time data in Parkinson's disease: stitching together short gait trials. (United States)

    Kirchner, Marietta; Schubert, Patric; Liebherr, Magnus; Haas, Christian T


    Variability indicates motor control disturbances and is suitable to identify gait pathologies. It can be quantified by linear parameters (amplitude estimators) and more sophisticated nonlinear methods (structural information). Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is one method to measure structural information, e.g., from stride time series. Recently, an improved method, Adaptive Fractal Analysis (AFA), has been proposed. This method has not been applied to gait data before. Fractal scaling methods (FS) require long stride-to-stride data to obtain valid results. However, in clinical studies, it is not usual to measure a large number of strides (e.g., [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] strides). Amongst others, clinical gait analysis is limited due to short walkways, thus, FS seem to be inapplicable. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate FS under clinical conditions. Stride time data of five self-paced walking trials ([Formula: see text] strides each) of subjects with PD and a healthy control group (CG) was measured. To generate longer time series, stride time sequences were stitched together. The coefficient of variation (CV), fractal scaling exponents [Formula: see text] (DFA) and [Formula: see text] (AFA) were calculated. Two surrogate tests were performed: A) the whole time series was randomly shuffled; B) the single trials were randomly shuffled separately and afterwards stitched together. CV did not discriminate between PD and CG. However, significant differences between PD and CG were found concerning [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Surrogate version B yielded a higher mean squared error and empirical quantiles than version A. Hence, we conclude that the stitching procedure creates an artificial structure resulting in an overestimation of true [Formula: see text]. The method of stitching together sections of gait seems to be appropriate in order to distinguish between PD and CG with FS. It provides an approach to integrate FS as

  15. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response. (United States)

    Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D


    Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance.

  16. Concurrent Validity of Accelerations Measured Using a Tri-Axial Inertial Measurement Unit while Walking on Firm, Compliant and Uneven Surfaces (United States)

    Cole, Michael H.; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kavanagh, Justin K.; Morrison, Steven; Hodges, Paul W.; Smeathers, James E.; Kerr, Graham K.


    Although accelerometers are extensively used for assessing gait, limited research has evaluated the concurrent validity of these devices on less predictable walking surfaces or the comparability of different methods used for gravitational acceleration compensation. This study evaluated the concurrent validity of trunk accelerations derived from a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces and contrasted two methods used to remove gravitational accelerations; i) subtraction of the best linear fit from the data (detrending); and ii) use of orientation information (quaternions) from the inertial measurement unit. Twelve older and twelve younger adults walked at their preferred speed along firm, compliant and uneven walkways. Accelerations were evaluated for the thoracic spine (T12) using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit and an eleven-camera Vicon system. The findings demonstrated excellent agreement between accelerations derived from the inertial measurement unit and motion analysis system, including while walking on uneven surfaces that better approximate a real-world setting (all differences <0.16 m.s−2). Detrending produced slightly better agreement between the inertial measurement unit and Vicon system on firm surfaces (delta range: −0.05 to 0.06 vs. 0.00 to 0.14 m.s−2), whereas the quaternion method performed better when walking on compliant and uneven walkways (delta range: −0.16 to −0.02 vs. −0.07 to 0.07 m.s−2). The technique used to compensate for gravitational accelerations requires consideration in future research, particularly when walking on compliant and uneven surfaces. These findings demonstrate trunk accelerations can be accurately measured using a wireless inertial measurement unit and are appropriate for research that evaluates healthy populations in complex environments. PMID:24866262

  17. Test-Retest Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a Single Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Based Gait Analysis in Older Adults with Normal Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonjeong Byun

    Full Text Available We investigated the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of spatio-temporal gait parameters measured with a single tri-axial accelerometer (TAA, determined the optimal number of steps required for obtaining acceptable levels of reliability, and compared the validity and reliability of the estimated gait parameters across the three reference axes of the TAA.A total of 82 cognitively normal elderly participants walked around a 40-m long round walkway twice wearing a TAA at their center of body mass. Gait parameters such as cadence, gait velocity, step time, step length, step time variability, and step time asymmetry were estimated from the low pass-filtered signal of the TAA. The test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with the GAITRite® system were evaluated for the estimated gait parameters.Gait parameters using signals from the vertical axis showed excellent reliability for all gait parameters; the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.79-0.90. A minimum of 26 steps and 14 steps were needed to achieve excellent reliability in step time variability and step time asymmetry, respectively. A strong level of agreement was seen for the basic gait parameters between the TAA and GAITRiteⓇ (ICC = 0.91-0.96.The measurement of gait parameters of elderly individuals with normal cognition using a TAA placed on the body's center of mass was reliable and showed superiority over the GAITRiteⓇ with regard to gait variability and asymmetry. The TAA system was a valid tool for measuring basic gait parameters. Considering its wearability and low price, the TAA system may be a promising alternative to the pressure sensor walkway system for measuring gait parameters.

  18. Concurrent validity of accelerations measured using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Cole

    Full Text Available Although accelerometers are extensively used for assessing gait, limited research has evaluated the concurrent validity of these devices on less predictable walking surfaces or the comparability of different methods used for gravitational acceleration compensation. This study evaluated the concurrent validity of trunk accelerations derived from a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces and contrasted two methods used to remove gravitational accelerations; i subtraction of the best linear fit from the data (detrending; and ii use of orientation information (quaternions from the inertial measurement unit. Twelve older and twelve younger adults walked at their preferred speed along firm, compliant and uneven walkways. Accelerations were evaluated for the thoracic spine (T12 using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit and an eleven-camera Vicon system. The findings demonstrated excellent agreement between accelerations derived from the inertial measurement unit and motion analysis system, including while walking on uneven surfaces that better approximate a real-world setting (all differences <0.16 m.s(-2. Detrending produced slightly better agreement between the inertial measurement unit and Vicon system on firm surfaces (delta range: -0.05 to 0.06 vs. 0.00 to 0.14 m.s(-2, whereas the quaternion method performed better when walking on compliant and uneven walkways (delta range: -0.16 to -0.02 vs. -0.07 to 0.07 m.s(-2. The technique used to compensate for gravitational accelerations requires consideration in future research, particularly when walking on compliant and uneven surfaces. These findings demonstrate trunk accelerations can be accurately measured using a wireless inertial measurement unit and are appropriate for research that evaluates healthy populations in complex environments.

  19. Reliability of sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle joint angles from a single frame of video data using the GAITRite camera system. (United States)

    Ross, Sandy A; Rice, Clinton; Von Behren, Kristyn; Meyer, April; Alexander, Rachel; Murfin, Scott


    The purpose of this study was to establish intra-rater, intra-session, and inter-rater, reliability of sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle angles with and without reflective markers using the GAITRite walkway and single video camera between student physical therapists and an experienced physical therapist. This study included thirty-two healthy participants age 20-59, stratified by age and gender. Participants performed three successful walks with and without markers applied to anatomical landmarks. GAITRite software was used to digitize sagittal hip, knee, and ankle angles at two phases of gait: (1) initial contact; and (2) mid-stance. Intra-rater reliability was more consistent for the experienced physical therapist, regardless of joint or phase of gait. Intra-session reliability was variable, the experienced physical therapist showed moderate to high reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.50-0.89) and the student physical therapist showed very poor to high reliability (ICC = 0.07-0.85). Inter-rater reliability was highest during mid-stance at the knee with markers (ICC = 0.86) and lowest during mid-stance at the hip without markers (ICC = 0.25). Reliability of a single camera system, especially at the knee joint shows promise. Depending on the specific type of reliability, error can be attributed to the testers (e.g. lack of digitization practice and marker placement), participants (e.g. loose fitting clothing) and camera systems (e.g. frame rate and resolution). However, until the camera technology can be upgraded to a higher frame rate and resolution, and the software can be linked to the GAITRite walkway, the clinical utility for pre/post measures is limited.

  20. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae, a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

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    Guo-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw. Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a.

  1. Determination of The Walkability Comfort For Urban Green Space Using GIS (United States)

    Unal, M.; Uslu, C.; Altunkasa, M. F.


    Walkability relates to the ability of the places to connect people with varied destinations within a reasonable amount of time and effort, and to offer visual interest in journeys throughout the network. So, the good quality of the physical environment and arrangement of walkway and sidewalk appear to be more crucial in influencing the pedestrian route choice. Also, proximity, connectivity, and accessibility are significant factor for walkability in terms of an equal opportunity for using public spaces. As a result, there are two important points for walkability. Firstly the place should have a well-planned street network for accessible and secondly facilitate the pedestrian need for comfort. In this respect, this study aims to examine the both physical and bioclimatic comfort levels of the current condition of pedestrian route with reference to design criteria of a street to access the urban green spaces. These aspects have been identified as the main indicators for walkable streets such as continuity, materials, slope, bioclimatic condition, walkway width, greenery, and surface. Additionally, the aim was to identify the factors that need to be considered in future guidelines and policies for planning and design in urban spaces especially streets. So, a popular and most densely used neighbourhood park (Hayal Park) in Adana city were chosen as a study area. Adana is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. With a population of 2.2 million, it is the sixth most populous province in Turkey. This study workflow can be summarized in four stages: (1) environmental and physical data were collected by referred to literature and used in a weighted criteria method to determine the importance level of these data , (2) environmental characteristics of pedestrian routes gained from survey studies are evaluated to hierarchies these criteria of the collected information, (3) and then each pedestrian routes will have a score that provides comfortable access to the

  2. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand. (United States)

    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P


    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  3. Characterisation of foot clearance during gait in people with early Parkinson׳s disease: Deficits associated with a dual task. (United States)

    Alcock, Lisa; Galna, Brook; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn


    Tripping is a common cause of falls in older adults and people with Parkinson׳s disease (PD). Foot clearance during gait may be impaired when distracted by a dual task and thus inform trip risk. This study aimed to evaluate whether foot clearance is impaired in PD and is adversely affected by a dual task. 81 older adults and 76 PD walked at a comfortable pace for two minutes under single and dual task conditions (digit recall). Temporal spatial gait was measured using an instrumented walkway. Heel and toe trajectories were obtained bilaterally using 3-dimensional motion capture. Foot clearance was reduced in PD (pclearance in late swing) and gait velocity (landing gradient). Distinct differences in foot clearance were observed even in the early clinical stages of PD. Dual tasking may increase trip risk due to insufficient toe clearance (early swing) for both older adults and PD. Inadequate heel clearance (late swing) may increase falls risk in PD. Clearance deficits in PD are partially related to a reduced gait velocity and step length which may be targeted in tailored therapies. Further work is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying this pathology-associated deficit.

  4. Biomechanical model for evaluation of pediatric upper extremity joint dynamics during wheelchair mobility. (United States)

    Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Slavens, Brooke A; Wang, Mei; Vogel, Lawrence C; Smith, Peter A; Harris, Gerald F


    Pediatric manual wheelchair users (MWU) require high joint demands on their upper extremity (UE) during wheelchair mobility, leading them to be at risk of developing pain and pathology. Studies have examined UE biomechanics during wheelchair mobility in the adult population; however, current methods for evaluating UE joint dynamics of pediatric MWU are limited. An inverse dynamics model is proposed to characterize three-dimensional UE joint kinematics and kinetics during pediatric wheelchair mobility using a SmartWheel instrumented handrim system. The bilateral model comprises thorax, clavicle, scapula, upper arm, forearm, and hand segments and includes the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, elbow and wrist joints. A single 17 year-old male with a C7 spinal cord injury (SCI) was evaluated while propelling his wheelchair across a 15-meter walkway. The subject exhibited wrist extension angles up to 60°, large elbow ranges of motion and peak glenohumeral joint forces up to 10% body weight. Statistically significant asymmetry of the wrist, elbow, glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints was detected by the model. As demonstrated, the custom bilateral UE pediatric model may provide considerable quantitative insight into UE joint dynamics to improve wheelchair prescription, training, rehabilitation and long-term care of children with orthopedic disabilities. Further research is warranted to evaluate pediatric wheelchair mobility in a larger population of children with SCI to investigate correlations to pain, function and transitional changes to adulthood. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. State-of-the-art sports facility's HVAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, M.K. (Gateway Sports Complex, Cleveland, OH (United States))


    This article describes the HVAC systems design to keep Cleveland's new Gateway sports and entertainment complex comfortable. This magnificent new facility embraces the 42,000-seat Jacobs Field, with its natural grass playing surface, and the 21,000-seat Arena at Gateway (the official name will be announced at its August 1 opening). The Arena is the new home of the Cleveland Cavaliers NBA basketball team and the Lumberjacks IHL ice hockey team. Other events that will be held here include arena football, circuses, ice shows, and concerts. It is anticipated that the Arena will be in use in excess of 200 days a year for these and other functions. The ballpark and the arena are separated by Gateway Plaza, a large illuminated public space that also will be the site of various entertainment events. An air conditioned pedestrian bridge, approximately 0.7 miles in length, connects the Arena with the Regional Transit Authority's downtown rapid transit station. Other enclosed walkways connect the Arena with two parking garages (3,158 vehicles total) and the larger garage with Jacobs Field.

  6. Myofascial Structural Integration Therapy on Gross Motor Function and Gait of Young Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Price, Karen S; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Hansen, Alexis B; Feldman, Heidi M


    Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether myofascial structural integration therapy, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n = 8) was assessed using the GAITRite(®) electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion. Comparing Treatment (n = 15) and Waitlist-Control groups (n = 9), we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or time × group interaction. The pooled sample (n = 27) showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children's ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  7. Myofascial structural integration therapy on gross motor function and gait of young children with spastic cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Loi


    Full Text Available Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether Myofascial Structural Integration therapy (MSI, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children < 4 years with cerebral palsy. Participants (N=29 were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT: NCT01815814, or Open Label Extension. The main outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n=8 was assessed using the GAITRite® electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion.Comparing Treatment (n=15 and Waitlist-Control Groups (n=9, we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or timeXgroup interaction. The pooled sample (n=27 showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children’s ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  8. Quantitative Comparison of the Walk and Trot of Border Collies and Labrador Retrievers, Breeds with Different Performance Requirements (United States)

    Carr, Brittany Jean; Canapp, Sherman O; Zink, M. Christine


    Introduction We hypothesized that breed differences of Border Collies and Labrador Retrievers would be reflected in the temporospatial characteristics of the walk and trot. Materials and Methods Twenty healthy Border Collies and 20 healthy Labrador Retrievers made three passes across a pressure sensing walkway system that recorded quantitative temporospatial information at a walk and a trot. The following variables were measured for each dog: velocity, total pressure index percentage (TPI%), ratio of weight borne on the thoracic vs. pelvic limbs (T/P TPI%), stance time percentage (ST%), and thoracic limb stride length (TSrL). Results The mean T/P TPI% for Border Collies at a walk and at a trot were significantly lower than for Labrador Retrievers (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0003). Border Collies had a significantly lower ST% than Labrador Retrievers for the thoracic limbs and pelvic limbs at a walk (p = 0.0058 and 0.0003) and the trot (p = 0.0280 and 0.0448). There was no relationship between ST% and TSrL in Border Collies and an inverse correlation between ST% and TSrL in Labrador Retrievers (p = 0.0002). Discussion Key quantitative gait differences were identified in Border Collies and Labrador Retrievers, which could potentially provide each breed with an advantage for their working function. PMID:26689372

  9. Financial system loss as an example of high consequence, high frequency events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, D.E.


    Much work has been devoted to high consequence events with low frequency of occurrence. Characteristic of these events are bridge failure (such as that of the Tacoma Narrows), building failure (such as the collapse of a walkway at a Kansas City hotel), or compromise of a major chemical containment system (such as at Bhopal, India). Such events, although rare, have an extreme personal, societal, and financial impact. An interesting variation is demonstrated by financial losses due to fraud and abuse in the money management system. The impact can be huge, entailing very high aggregate costs, but these are a result of the contribution of many small attacks and not the result of a single (or few) massive events. Public awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milikin or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These event,s although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. This paper explores the magnitude of financial system losses and identifies new areas for analysis of high consequence events including the potential effect of malevolent intent.

  10. Function after pelvic tumour resection involving the acetabular ring. (United States)

    Nilsonne, U; Kreicbergs, A; Olsson, E; Stark, A


    Seven patients subjected to pelvic tumour resection involving the acetabular ring were analyzed with respect to function. In addition to conventional clinical assessment gait was analyzed objectively by means of an electronic walk-way and residual hip-muscle power tested by means of a Cybex II dynamometer. Functional results reported by the patients with respect to pain, walking and working capacity appeared better than those elicited by clinical examination. All patients exhibited a marked pelvic tilt and a positive Trendelenburg sign. Only one patient walked without any kind of support. Leg-length discrepancy was on an average 6 cm. Objective gait analysis disclosed that all patients had reduced weight-bearing time on the operated side as compared to the non-operated. This, however, was clearly less pronounced for those patients who appeared best with respect to pain, walking and working capacity. These patients also showed the best hip extension power which appeared more important from a functional point of view than hip flexion and, surprisingly, hip abduction power. Radiographic examination showed that bony support for the proximal femur, provided either by the formation of a bone shelf from the remaining iliac bone or by the remaining iliac bone itself, was of decisive importance for function. The results of the present study show that pelvic tumour resection involving the acetabular ring, provided radical tumour removal can be achieved, constitutes a feasible alternative to hemipelvectomy from a functional point of view.

  11. The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics. (United States)

    Cook, Nigel B; Nordlund, Kenneth V


    Free stall housing increases the exposure of dairy cows' claws to concrete walk-ways and to manure between periods of rest, and generally shows the highest rate of lameness compared with other dairy management systems. However, there is great variation within a system, and the rate of new cases of lameness can be reduced to very low levels provided time spent resting per day is maximized through good stall design, access to stalls through stocking density control and comfortable transition cow facilities, limiting the time spent milking, provision of adequate heat abatement, and good leg hygiene. Sand bedded stalls are useful as they also permit lame cows to maintain adequate daily rest. Rubberized alley flooring surfaces benefit the cow by reducing claw wear and trauma compared to concrete, making them ideal for parlor holding areas and long transfer lanes and walk ways. However, caution is required when using rubber floors in pens with uncomfortable stalls due to apparent adverse effects on cow time budgets, which may in turn have a detrimental effect on lameness.

  12. Walking to the beat of different drums: practical implications for the use of acoustic rhythms in gait rehabilitation. (United States)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Beek, Peter J


    Acoustic rhythms are frequently used in gait rehabilitation, with positive instantaneous and prolonged transfer effects on various gait characteristics. The gait modifying ability of acoustic rhythms depends on how well gait is tied to the beat, which can be assessed with measures of relative timing of auditory-motor coordination. We examined auditory-motor coordination in 20 healthy elderly individuals walking to metronome beats with pacing frequencies slower than, equal to, and faster than their preferred cadence. We found that more steps were required to adjust gait to the beat, the more the metronome rate deviated from the preferred cadence. Furthermore, participants anticipated the beat with their footfalls to various degrees, depending on the metronome rate; the faster the tempo, the smaller the phase advance or phase lead. Finally, the variability in the relative timing between footfalls and the beat was smaller for metronome rates closer to the preferred cadence, reflecting superior auditory-motor coordination. These observations have three practical implications. First, instantaneous effects of acoustic stimuli on gait characteristics may typically be underestimated given the considerable number of steps required to attune gait to the beat in combination with the usual short walkways. Second, a systematic phase lead of footfalls to the beat does not necessarily reflect a reduced ability to couple gait to the metronome. Third, the efficacy of acoustic rhythms to modify gait depends on metronome rate. Gait is coupled best to the beat for metronome rates near the preferred cadence.

  13. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  14. Escuela para Hidroeléctrica Española, S. A., en San Agustín de Guadalix, Madrid (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oriol e Ybarra, M.


    Full Text Available This building is located in San Agustín de Guadalix, next to the N-I highway and consists of four well-defined parts designed for classes, theoretical as well as practical, for residences and restaurant, and for athletics, and all united by a covered pedestrian walkway. The building has been carefully adapted to the topography of the land, conserving, as much in the formal appearance as in the choice of materials, the architecture and character of the area and, likewise, bearing the dignity of a work of eminently social importance.El edificio está emplazado en San Agustín de Guadalix, junte a la carretera general N-I. Se compone de cuatro partes bien diferenciadas: clases teóricas, residencia y restaurante, clases prácticas y zona deportiva, ligadas por una calle cubierta, para uso de peatones. La construcción se ha adaptado cuidadosamente a la topografía del solar, respetando, tanto en el aspecto formal como en el uso de los materiales, la fisonomía y carácter de la zona, e imprimiéndole, asimismo, la sobriedad propia de una obra eminentemente social.

  15. I-5/Gilman advanced technology bridge project (United States)

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Karbhari, Vistasp M.; Seible, Frieder


    The UCSD led I-5/Gilman Advanced Technology Bridge Project will design and construct a fully functional traffic bridge of advanced composite materials across Interstate 5 in La Jolla, California. Its objective is to demonstrate the use of advanced composite technologies developed by the aerospace industry in commercial applications to increase the life expectancy of new structures and for the rehabilitation of aging infrastructure components. The structure will be a 450 ft long, 60 ft wide cable-stayed bridge supported by a 150 ft A-frame pylon with two vehicular lanes, two bicycle lanes, pedestrian walkways and utility tunnels. The longitudinal girders and pylon will be carbon fiber shells filled with concrete. The transverse deck system will consist of hollow glass/carbon hybrid tubes and a polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete deck with an arch action. Selected cables will be composite. The bridge's structural behavior will be monitored to determine how advanced composite materials perform in civil infrastructure applications. The bridge will be instrumented to obtain performance and structural health data in real time and, where possible, in a remote fashion. The sensors applied to the bridge will include electrical resistance strain gages, fiberoptic Bragg gratings and accelerometers.

  16. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats. (United States)

    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B


    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat.

  17. Function of the triceps surae muscle group in low and high arched feet: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Branthwaite, Helen; Pandyan, Anand; Chockalingam, Nachiappan


    The Achilles tendon has been shown to be comprised of segmental components of tendon arising from the tricpes surae muscle group. Motion of the foot joints in low and high arched feet may induce a change in behaviour of the triceps surae muscle group due to altered strain on the tendon. Surface electromyogram of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle from 12 subjects (with 6 low arched and 6 high arched feet) (1:1) was recorded whilst walking at a self selected speed along a 10m walkway. The results showed a high variability in muscle activity between groups with patterns emerging within groups. Soleus was more active in 50% of the low arch feet at forefoot loading and there was a crescendo of activity towards heel lift in 58% of all subjects. This observed variability between groups and foot types emphasises the need for further work on individual anatomical variation and foot function to help in the understanding and management of Achilles tendon pathologies and triceps surae dysfunction.

  18. Gait patterns in COPD: the Rotterdam Study. (United States)

    Lahousse, Lies; Verlinden, Vincentius J A; van der Geest, Jos N; Joos, Guy F; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H C; Brusselle, Guy G; Ikram, M Arfan


    Gait disturbances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may lead to disability and falls. As studies assessing gait kinematics in COPD are sparse, we investigated associations of COPD with various gait domains and explored a potential link with falling. Gait was measured within the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study (age ≥55 years) using an electronic walkway and summarised into seven gait domains: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace, Tandem, Turning and Base of Support. Rhythm is a temporal gait aspect that includes cadence and reflects how quickly steps are taken. Persons with COPD (n=196) exhibited worse Rhythm (-0.21 SD, 95% CI -0.36- -0.06 SD) compared with persons with normal lung function (n=898), independent of age, sex, height, education, smoking or analgesic use, especially when dyspnoea and severe airflow limitation or frequent exacerbations (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease group D: -0.83 SD, 95% CI -1.25- -0.41 SD) were present. A lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s was associated with worse Rhythm and Pace, including lower cadence and gait velocity, respectively. Importantly, fallers with COPD had significantly worse Rhythm than nonfallers with COPD. This study demonstrates that persons with COPD exhibit worse Rhythm, especially fallers with COPD. The degree of Rhythm deterioration was associated with the degree of airflow limitation, symptoms and frequency of exacerbations.

  19. Enhanced data consistency of a portable gait measurement system (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-I.; Chiang, Y. P.


    A gait measurement system is a useful tool for rehabilitation applications. Such a system is used to conduct gait experiments in large workplaces such as laboratories where gait measurement equipment can be permanently installed. However, a gait measurement system should be portable if it is to be used in clinics or community centers for aged people. In a portable gait measurement system, the workspace is limited and landmarks on a subject may not be visible to the cameras during experiments. Thus, we propose a virtual-marker function to obtain positions of unseen landmarks for maintaining data consistency. This work develops a portable clinical gait measurement system consisting of lightweight motion capture devices, force plates, and a walkway assembled from plywood boards. We evaluated the portable clinic gait system with 11 normal subjects in three consecutive days in a limited experimental space. Results of gait analysis based on the verification of within-day and between-day coefficients of multiple correlations show that the proposed portable gait system is reliable.

  20. Assessing interactions among multiple physiological systems during walking outside a laboratory: An Android based gait monitor. (United States)

    Sejdić, E; Millecamps, A; Teoli, J; Rothfuss, M A; Franconi, N G; Perera, S; Jones, A K; Brach, J S; Mickle, M H


    Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18-35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardiovascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults.

  1. Traffic restrictions: Meyrin site and entrance of Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    Between 10 April and 19 April 2010 a number of roads on the Meyrin site and at the entrance of the Prévessin site will be resurfaced. The work will be done by zones, as shown below: 12-14 April Intersection of Route Fermi and Route Gregory. Route Fermi, between Building 268 and Route Jentschke Route Fermi, Route Jentschke and Route Einstein, up to Building 593 and between Buildings 194 and 555. Plus Route Oppenheimer. 15 April Intersection of Route Bloch and Route Maxwell, and Route Maxwell itself. Route Sherrer between the overhead walkway (Building 50) and the exit from the carpark behind Building 4. 16 April and 19 April Route Fermi, Route Jentschke and Route Einstein, up to Building 593 and between Buildings 194 and 555. Prévessin site: from Route Adams to the access control Building. The construction works may result in some disruption to traffic. Users are requested to comply with the temporary traffic signs and arrangements.  Thank you for your understanding. GS/...

  2. Ergonomics in designing process: dialogue between designers, executors and users in the maintenance activity of radars in an oil refinery. (United States)

    Menegon, Fabrício Augusto; Rodrigues, Daniela da Silva; Fontes, Andréa Regina Martins; Menegon, Nilton Luiz


    This paper aims to discuss the role of ergonomics in design process using the dialogue developed by designers, implementers and users in an oil refinery. It was possible to identify the need of minimizing the postural constraints, risk of accidents, mechanical shocks and to enlarge safety perception in the access and permanency of the users at the workspace. It has been determined and validated by workers and managers to implement different deadlines depending on programming, viability and execution time for the improvements proposed. In a long-term: it was proposed the substitution of the ladders with time planning according to the maintenance program of the tanks; in a short-time: it was suggested the expansion of the existing platforms, implementation of a walkway connection provided with guardrails between the upper access of the side ladder and the repositioning of radar set and aerial aiming at the usage by workers at the workstation of the new platform. It was also elaborated eight typologies of intervention, according to the request, type of tank, material stored, and its setting place. The design process arises from ergonomics workplace analysis that presents concepts for solutions which was a mediator tool to be settled between users and implementers.

  3. Comparison of forward walking and backward walking in stroke hemiplegia patients focusing on the paretic side (United States)

    Makino, Misato; Takami, Akiyoshi; Oda, Atsushi


    [Purpose] To investigate the features of backward walking in stroke patients with hemiplegia by focusing on the joint movements and moments of the paretic side, walking speed, stride length, and cadence. [Subjects and Methods] Nine stroke patients performed forward walking and backward walking along a 5-m walkway. Walking speed and stride length were self-selected. Movements were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and a force plate. One walking cycle of the paretic side was analyzed. [Results] Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were significantly lower in backward walking than in forward walking. Peak hip extension was significantly lower in backward walking and peak hip flexion moment, knee extension moment, and ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion moments were lower in backward walking. [Conclusion] Unlike forward walking, backward walking requires conscious hip joint extension. Conscious extension of the hip joint is hard for stroke patients with hemiplegia. Therefore, the range of hip joint movement declined in backward walking, and walking speed and stride length also declined. The peak ankle plantar flexion moment was significantly lower in backward walking than in forward walking, and it was hard to generate propulsion power in backward walking. These difficulties also affected the walking speed. PMID:28265136

  4. Environmentally friendly anti-icing (United States)

    Lockyer, Robert T. (Inventor); Zuk, John (Inventor); Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)


    The present invention describes an aqueous, non-electrolytic, non-toxic, biodegradable, continuous single phase liquid anti-icing or deicing composition for use on the surfaces of, for example, aircraft, airport pavements, roadways, walkways, bridges, entrances, structures, canals, locks, components, vessels, nautical components, railroad switches, and motor vehicles. The anti-icing or deicing composition comprises: (a) water; (b) a non-toxic freezing point depressant selected from the group consisting of monohydric alcohols having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, polyhydric alcohols having from 3 to 12 carbon atoms, monomethyl or ethyl ethers of polyhydric alcohols having from 3 to 12 atoms or mixtures thereof, wherein the freezing point depressant present is between about 14 to 60 percent by weight; (c) a thickener which is present in between about 0.01 and 10 percent by weight; and (d) optionally a corrosion inhibitor which is present in between about 0.01 and 0.1 percent by weight of the total composition. In one embodiment, the deicing composition further includes (e) a monohydric primary aliphatic unbranched alcohol as a means of forming a thin layer of the composition on the surface of the structure to be given ice protection, and/or as means of forming a homogenized foam with xanthan thickener; which alcohol is selected from the group consisting of alcohols having between 8 to 24 carbon atoms, preferably, 1-dodecanol. Compositions of water, propylene glycol, and/or propanol and xanthan are preferred.

  5. Level walking in adults with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder: An analysis of movement variability. (United States)

    Du, Wenchong; Wilmut, Kate; Barnett, Anna L


    Several studies have shown that Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a condition that continues beyond childhood. Although adults with DCD report difficulties with dynamic balance, as well as frequent tripping and bumping into objects, there have been no specific studies on walking in this population. Some previous work has focused on walking in children with DCD but variation in the tasks and measures used has led to inconsistent findings. The aim of the current study therefore was to examine the characteristics of level walking in adults with and without DCD. Fifteen adults with DCD and 15 typically developing (TD) controls walked barefoot at a natural pace up and down an 11 m walkway for one minute. Foot placement measures and velocity and acceleration of the body were recorded, as well as measures of movement variability. The adults with DCD showed similar gait patterns to the TD group in terms of step length, step width, double support time and stride time. The DCD group also showed similar velocity and acceleration to the TD group in the medio-lateral, anterior-posterior and vertical direction. However, the DCD group exhibited greater variability in all foot placement and some body movement measures. The finding that adults with DCD have a reduced ability to produce consistent movement patterns is discussed in relation to postural control limitations and compared to variability of walking measures found in elderly populations.

  6. Adaptations to walking on an uneven terrain for individuals with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder. (United States)

    Gentle, J; Barnett, A L; Wilmut, K


    Given the importance of walking in everyday life, understanding why this is challenging for some populations is particularly important. Studies focusing on gait patterns of individuals with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have shown that whilst increased variability is characteristic of walking patterns for this group, differences in spatio-temporal gait variables seem only to arise when task demands increase. However, these differences occur under rather artificial conditions, for example using a treadmill. The aim of this study, therefore was to examine the step characteristics of individuals with and without DCD whilst walking along an irregular terrain. Thirty-five individuals with DCD aged 8-32years and 35 age and gender-matched controls participated in this study. Participants were divided into 3 age groups; 8-12years (n=12), 13-17years (n=12) and 18-32years (n=11). Participants walked up and down a 6m walkway for two minutes on two terrains: level and irregular. VICON 3D motion analysis was used to extract measures of foot placement, velocity and angle of the head and trunk. Results showed that both groups adapted their gait to negotiate the irregular terrain, but the DCD group was more affected than their TD peers; walking significantly slower with shorter, wider steps and inclining their head more towards the ground. This suggests an adaptive approach used by individuals with DCD to preserve stability and increase visual sampling whilst negotiating an irregular terrain.

  7. The effect of vision on walking in children with different levels of motor competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Palomo Nieto


    Full Text Available Background: Motor coordination problems of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD have been frequently associated with poor visuospatial processing. Objective: The aim this study has been to investigate a role of the vision in the motor control of walking between typical developing children (TD and children at risk of DCD (DCDR. Methods: Participants included 16 TD (mean age 9.1, SD 1.0 years, and 16 DCDR, (mean age 8.7, SD 0.8 years who walked along a 10 meter walkway using the Optojump instrument to assess the spatio-temporal variables of the gait pattern in full vision (FV and non-vision (NV conditions. Data was analyzed in a two-way mixed-effect ANOVA (2 groups - TD vs. DCDR, 2 visual conditions - FV vs. NV with repeated measurement on the last factor (p ≤ .05. Results: The results demonstrated that DCDR children walked slower and with shorter steps than their TD peers. Also, withdrawing the vision affects some parameters of the gait cycle including the stance-phase, single-support, load-response and pre-swing regardless of the level of motor coordination of the children. Conclusions: A higher dependency on visual information or impaired utilization of proprioceptive inputs for execution of simple walk in the stable environment were not confirmed in the children with motor difficulties.

  8. A new twist on old ideas: how sitting reorients crawlers. (United States)

    Soska, Kasey C; Robinson, Scott R; Adolph, Karen E


    Traditionally, crawling and sitting are considered distinct motor behaviors with different postures and functions. Ten- to 12-month-old infants were observed in the laboratory or in their homes while being coaxed to crawl continuously over long, straight walkways (Study 1; N = 20) and during spontaneous crawling during free play (Study 2; N = 20). In every context, infants stopped crawling to sit 3-6 times per minute. Transitions from crawling to sitting frequently turned infants' bodies away from the direction of heading; subsequent transitions back to crawling were offset by as much as 180° from the original direction of heading. Apparently, body reorientations result from the biomechanics of transitioning between crawling and sitting. Findings indicate that sustained, linear crawling is likely an epiphenomenon of how gait is studied in standard paradigms. Postural transitions between crawling and sitting are ubiquitous and can represent a functional unit of action. These transitions and the accompanying body reorientations likely have cascading effects for infants' exploration, visual perception, and spatial cognition.

  9. Meeting report: 2012 Caenorhabditis elegans Neurobiology meeting, EMBL Advanced Training Centre, Germany. (United States)

    Kearn, James; Dallière, Nicolas; Dillon, James


    Some of the finest minds in the field of Caenorhabditis elegans neurobiology were brought together from 14 June to 17 June 2012 in the small, quaint and picturesque German city of Heidelberg for the biannual C. elegans neurobiology conference. Held at the EMBL Advanced Training Centre and wonderfully organised by Diah Yulianti, Jean-Louis Bessereau, Gert Jansen and William Schafer, the meeting contained 62 verbal presentations and hundreds of posters that were displayed around the double-helical walkways that looped throughout the conference centre. Presentations on recent advances in microfluidics, cell ablation and targeted gene expression exemplified the strengths of C. elegans as a model organism, with these advances allowing detailed high-throughput analysis and study. Interesting behaviours that were previously poorly characterised were widely discussed, as were the advantages of C. elegans as a model for neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration and the investigation of neuropeptide function. The examples discussed in this meeting report seek to illustrate the breadth and depth of presentations given on these recurring topics.

  10. Inauguration of the "Timeframe" Building 49

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien


    As you have probably seen, the corridor collage for Building 49 (the glass walkway between buildings 513 and 31) is finally being installed. It is one of the projects that was developed as part of the CERN IT Create event that took place over two days in March 2016 at IdeaSquare. The objective of this workshop was to brainstorm and work in teams (IT department people, specialists and experts of the ECO group, and external designers – Laura Couto Rosado and Nadezda Suvorova– linked to the Arts@CERN programme) to design and produce the first prototypes of an exhibit to enhance the experience of the public visitors to the CERN data centre building. Five projects were developed at this occasion (and presented at an IT technical forum): the ‘Timeframe’ one is the first one being finalised. More information about this project can be read in the attached document. The small inauguration of this installation will take place on 28/06/17 at 10:00 in front of the glass corridor (building 49). The ribbon will be ...

  11. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, Steven A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, Cezary [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of foot motion after uphill walking with mobilization with movement using tape applied to the talocrural joint in women with limited ankle dorsiflexion. (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-yeon; Oh, Jae-seop; An, Duk-hyun


    Previous studies that investigated mobilization with movement (MWM) treatment assessed only improvements in passive range of motion (ROM). No information is currently available regarding the efficacy of modified MWM by application of tape. Therefore, we investigated the effect of uphill walking with modified MWM using tape applied to the talocrural joint (uphill walking with MWM taping) in women with limited ankle dorsiflexion. Twelve feet of 12 women with ankle dorsiflexion < 8 degrees were studied. Passive ROM measured using a goniometer was used to select participants. Participants walked on a level walkway under 3 conditions: before exercise, after uphill walking, and after uphill walking with MWM taping. The Oxford Foot Model using 3D motion analysis system was used to examine dynamic foot kinematics, and statistical significance was determined by 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. After uphill walking with MWM taping, peak hindfoot dorsiflexion relative to the tibia was significantly greater than that before exercise and after uphill walking. Furthermore, peak forefoot plantarflexion relative to the hindfoot, peak hindfoot plantarflexion relative to the tibia, and backward tilt of the tibia were greater than those before exercise. Uphill walking with MWM taping resulted in an immediate alteration in foot motion during walking, increasing hindfoot dorsiflexion in particular. Further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of uphill walking with MWM taping and its potential use in rehabilitation training. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The effect of visible facial difference on personal space during encounters with the general public. (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Gierasch, A


    Previous research has found that people with visible differences are granted more physical space than people without visible differences during encounters with the general public. This study aimed to examine whether given significant sociocultural changes, this remains the case in contemporary Australia. The personal space afforded to a person with a visible difference (with a temporary difference--a scar and a permanent difference--a strawberry hemangioma) or a person without a visible difference by 408 pedestrians on a busy pedestrian walkway in the central business district of Adelaide, Australia, was measured. This was a replication and extension of a study by N. Rumsey, R. Bull, and D. Gahagan (1982). Pedestrians stood no further away from the model in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. Pedestrians stood an average of 128 cm away in the control condition, 120 cm away in the scar condition, and 140 cm away in the birthmark condition. People did not stand to the nonvisibly different (left) side of the model more frequently in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. As the original research by N. Rumsey et al. is frequently cited as representing the current situation for people with visible differences, failing to replicate the result is significant. Changes may be due to either recent sociocultural changes promoting inclusion of disability or increasing social taboo against expressing overt prejudice.

  14. Effects of shoe sole hardness on plantar pressure and comfort in older people with forefoot pain. (United States)

    Lane, Tamara J; Landorf, Karl B; Bonanno, Daniel R; Raspovic, Anita; Menz, Hylton B


    Plantar forefoot pain is common in older people and is related to increased peak pressures under the foot during gait. Variations in the hardness of the shoe sole may therefore influence both the magnitude of loading under the foot and the perceived comfort of the shoe in this population. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of varying shoe sole hardness on plantar pressures and comfort in older people with forefoot pain. In-shoe plantar pressures under the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot were recorded from 35 older people (mean age 73.2, SD 4.5 years) with current or previous forefoot pain using the pedar-X(®) system. Participants walked at their normal comfortable speed along an 8m walkway in shoes with three different levels of sole hardness: soft (Shore A25), medium (Shore A40) and hard (Shore A58). Shoe comfort was measured on a 100mm visual analogue scale. There were statistically significant differences in peak pressure of between 5% and 23% across the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot (phard-soled shoe registered the highest peak pressures and the soft-soled shoe the lowest peak pressures. However, no differences in comfort scores across the three shoe conditions were observed. These findings demonstrate that as shoe sole hardness increases, plantar pressure increases, however this does not appear to have a significant effect on shoe comfort.

  15. Centro Sabbag - Beirut – Líbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth, Alfred


    Full Text Available The complex consists of: five garage basements —movie theater for 300 cars, metal— clad bank chamber, and bar; one 9-story structure and another of 15 stories, to be used for offices and like rooms; a three-story block used by a bank. The ground floor has a landscaped plaza, several stores, a restaurant and a covered walkway, which is connected to another one on the top floor by escalators. General structure of reinforced concrete, except the bank which is constructed of metal. Outer shell: aluminum and white marble. Inner facing: travertine, granite, ceramic and walnut.El complejo edificado comprende: cinco sótanos de garaje —300 plazas—, cine, cámara acorazada del banco, y bar; un cuerpo, de nueve plantas, y otro, de quince, destinados a oficinas y despachos; bloque, de tres plantas, ocupado por un banco. La planta baja comprende una plaza ajardinada, varias tiendas, un restaurante y un pasaje cubierto, comunicado con otro en la planta alta mediante escaleras mecánicas. Estructura general de hormigón armado, salvo en el banco, que es metálica. Revestimientos exteriores: aluminio y mármol blanco. Revestimientos interiores: travertine, granito, cerámica y madera de nogal.

  16. The dynamic balance of the children with cerebral palsy and typical developing during gait. Part I: Spatial relationship between COM and COP trajectories. (United States)

    Hsue, Bih-Jen; Miller, Freeman; Su, Fong-Chin


    Analysis of the COM or COP movement has been a simplified method to illustrate the balance disorders in static stance and gait, but has its limitation when examined alone. Dynamic stability of 32 children with cerebral palsy (CP) was examined and compared with 10 typically developing (TD) children by measuring the displacement of center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP) and their spatial relationship. The children with CP were further divided into two groups based on topographical involvement, hemiplegia (Hemi) and diplegia (Di). The participants walked with their preferred speed at least 5 successful trials on a walkway with two force plates mounted in the middle. An eight-camera motion analysis was used to capture 26 reflective markers secured at the bony landmarks of the participant. The data obtained from motion analysis and force plates was used to calculate COM and COP. The results showed either of two CP groups demonstrated significantly greater peak-to-peak COM and COP displacement in medio-lateral (ML) and lower peak-to-peak COM and COP displacement in anterio-posterior (AP) direction than TD group. The root mean square (RMS) of COM-COP divergence of Hemi and Di groups were higher than that of TD group in AP and ML direction, but only the difference in ML direction was significant. Present study demonstrates that COM-COP divergence can characterize the dynamic balance of the CP children in walking, and thus assist in comparing and differentiating balance patterns.

  17. Walking ability following knee arthroplasty: a prospective pilot study of factors affecting the maximal walking distance in 18 patients before and 6 months after total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Rosenberg, N; Nierenberg, G; Lenger, R; Soudry, M


    Functional assessment of patients before and after prosthetic knee arthroplasty is based on clinical examination, which is usually summarized in various knee scores. The present study proposes a different and more subject orientated assessment for functional grading of these patients by measuring their maximal distance of walking ability, which is not apparent from the conventional outcome scores. Eighteen consecutive patients with knee osteoarthritis were evaluated for their knee and knee functional scores (The Knee Society clinical rating system) and for the maximal distance of their walking ability before and 6 months after knee arthroplasty. Specially designed walking ability grading was used for evaluation of walking on walkway. The pre- and post-operative knee scores and maximal walking distance and grading were statistically compared. A significant improvement in the knee and functional scores following surgery was observed. But the maximal walking ability grades and distances did not change significantly following surgery, showing a high relation between pre- and post-operative values. The limitation in post-operative walking was due to the revealed additional health disabilities, not related to the affected knee. Therefore we suggest that pre-operative evaluation of walking abilities should be taken into consideration both for patients' selection and timing of surgery and also for matching of patients' expectation from outcome of prosthetic knee arthroplasty.

  18. Changes in Policy Maker Attitudes Toward Active Living Communities Issues in Hawaii, 2007-2013. (United States)

    McGurk, Meghan; Maddock, Jay


    Obesity and lack of physical activity are major public health problems in the United States. Well-designed, active living communities (ALCs) can help support physically active lifestyles. This study assessed attitudes of Hawaii decision makers in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities toward ALCs changed. Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys both years. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, which included 1 obesity variable and 5 ALC variables. The survey was completed by 126 (70.4%) respondents in 2007 and 117 (60.9%) in 2013. Among the specific problems, only obesity increased in rank from 14th to ninth place. Three variables fell more than 2 places: increasing traffic (fifth to seventh place), poorly planned development and sprawl (seventh to 11th place) and pedestrian safety (12th to 17th place). The other 2 stayed relatively the same: lack of pedestrian walkways, sidewalks, and crosswalks (16th to 15th place) and lack of recreational activities (22nd to 23rd place). Across years, obesity concerns have increased but do not appear to be tied to increases in concern for ALC variables. More education for policymakers on the link between obesity, physical activity, and the built environment is necessary.

  19. Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia (United States)

    Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Mushahwar, V. K.; Stein, R. B.


    Objective. The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach. In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the DRG. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modelled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main results. Overall, firing-rate-based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48 ± 13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance. Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development.

  20. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait. (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven


    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p'syoung adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p'sadults remained less than fully braced young adults (p'syoung individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  1. The effects of a simple intervention on exposures to low back pain risk factors during traditional posterior load carriage. (United States)

    Muslim, Khoirul; Nussbaum, Maury A


    Traditional posterior load carriage (PLC), typically performed without the use of an assistive device, is associated with a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). However, there are few studies that have evaluated potential interventions to reduce exposures to LBP risk factors. This work examined the effects of a simple, potentially low-cost intervention using an assistive device (i.e., carrying aid) on exposures to factors related to LBP risk during PLC. Torso kinematics and kinetics, slip risk, and ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) were obtained during simulated PLC on a walkway. Consistent with earlier results, increasing load mass substantially increased torso flexion and lumbosacral flexion moment, as well as RPDs in all anatomical regions evaluated. Using the carrying aid with a higher load placement resulted in substantially lower mean lumbosacral moments when carrying the heaviest load. In contrast, using the carrying aid with a lower load placement resulted in substantially higher torso flexion angles, higher mean lumbosacral moments when carrying heavier loads, and higher peak lumbosacral moments across all load masses. With use of the carrying aid, both higher and lower load placement resulted in significantly lower RPDs in the elbows and hands compared to the control condition. In summary, use of a carrying aid with higher load placement may be beneficial in reducing the risk of LBP during PLC. Future studies are needed, though, to improve the device design and to enhance external validity.

  2. The Association between High Neuroticism-Low Extraversion and Dual-Task Performance during Walking While Talking in Non-demented Older Adults. (United States)

    LeMonda, Brittany C; Mahoney, Jeannette R; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee


    The Walking While Talking (WWT) dual-task paradigm is a mobility stress test that predicts major outcomes, including falls, frailty, disability, and mortality in aging. Certain personality traits, such as neuroticism, extraversion, and their combination, have been linked to both cognitive and motor outcomes. We examined whether individual differences in personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion predicted dual-task performance decrements (both motor and cognitive) on a WWT task in non-demented older adults. We hypothesized that the combined effect of high neuroticism-low extraversion would be related to greater dual-task costs in gait velocity and cognitive performance in non-demented older adults. Participants (N=295; age range,=65-95 years; female=164) completed the Big Five Inventory and WWT task involving concurrent gait and a serial 7's subtraction task. Gait velocity was obtained using an instrumented walkway. The high neuroticism-low extraversion group incurred greater dual-task costs (i.e., worse performance) in both gait velocity {95% confidence interval (CI) [-17.68 to -3.07]} and cognitive performance (95% CI [-19.34 to -2.44]) compared to the low neuroticism-high extraversion group, suggesting that high neuroticism-low extraversion interferes with the allocation of attentional resources to competing task demands during the WWT task. Older individuals with high neuroticism-low extraversion may be at higher risk for falls, mobility decline and other adverse outcomes in aging.

  3. Large Sound Barrier Outside the Window was Used to Solve the Contradiction Between Restaurants and Residential%窗外大型声屏障解决餐饮与居民住宅矛盾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉恒; 冯苗锋; 黄青青


    Most restaurants was disposed on downtown or residential areas in large city. The noise and fumes are one of the factors affecting the surrounding environment. This article described the noise intensity of the restaurant about Emerald Square, put forward to install a large sound barrier outside the window on the second floor walkway and install muffler outside more than 120 air conditioner outdoor units. After these measures, it achieved the sound environmental standards for Class 2, and solved the long-term problem for noise between restaurants and residential.%大城市餐饮业多数设在闹市区或居民住宅区,其噪声和油烟是影响周围环境的因素之一。本文以上海浦东翡翠坊大型餐饮业为例,测试分析了餐饮噪声源特性,采取在二楼走道窗外安装大型隔声吸声屏障,对120余台空调室外机组加装出风消声器等措施,达到了声环境2类区标准规定,解决了长期投诉餐饮噪声扰民的问题。

  4. Safety and accessibility effects of code modifications and traffic calming of an arterial road. (United States)

    Leden, Lars; Wikström, Per-Erik; Gårder, Per; Rosander, Peter


    The European Road E12 through the community center of Storuman, Sweden was reconstructed in 1999 and 2000. Pedestrian walkways, traffic islands, chicanes of a type referred to as "Danish buns", a roundabout and a two-directional cycle track along the E12 were installed. The purpose of the reconstruction was to improve safety for pedestrians and bicyclists, primarily for children, the elderly and the disabled, and to reduce the barrier effect of the E12 thoroughfare. In May 2000, the code governing the conduct of drivers at marked crosswalks in Sweden became stricter to improve safety and mobility for pedestrians. The combined effect of reconstructions and change of code was analyzed. Traffic behavior was studied at the intersection where the roundabout was constructed. Yield behavior towards pedestrians changed significantly. The difference was even greater with respect to yielding to child bicyclists - from 6% before to 84% after - even though the code change only related to pedestrians. Crash data analysis suggests a minor increase in fall injuries after reconstructions and change of code. Measures of speed, behavioral studies, questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and crash data analysis suggest that safety has increased not only along the E12 but also along adjacent roads. The final conclusion is that a bypass is not needed in a case like Storuman. Traffic calming of the main arterial through the town seems sufficient.

  5. Results after one year from a Hydrostatic Levelling System installed at Diamond Light Source (United States)

    Kay, James; Baker, Keith A.; Hoffman, William J.


    A Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) has been installed at Diamond Light Source. 8 sensors have been positioned along a 60 metre portion of the floor of the Storage Ring and the Experimental Hall, stretching out along a typical beamline route from Insertion Device to sample. 7 of the sensors are installed on the thick, reinforced concrete floor of the Experimental Hall which is supported on piles and the last sensor is mounted on the much thinner concrete floor of the peripheral walkway which has no piles. The foundations and floor were designed to achieve settlements measuring 1 micron per 10 metres per hour and 10 microns per 10 metres per day. A larger range was specified of 250 microns per 10 metres per year on the Experimental Hall floor and 100 microns per 10 metres per year in the Storage Ring to account for longer term settlement effects and seasonal variation and the HLS has been installed to try and measure these very small movements. Results after one year of operation are presented.

  6. New Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS) Instrument (United States)

    Van Every, E.; Deyhim, A.; Kulesza, J.


    The design of a new Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS) Instrument for use in National Institute of Standards And Technology (NIST) will be discussed. This instrument is similar to a shorter instrument we designed and delivered to ANSTO in Australia called the Bilby SANS instrument. The NIST VSANS and the ANSTO Bilby SANS instruments have very similar dimensions for length and diameter and have similar requirements for internal detector motion, top access port, walkway supports, and ports; however, the Bilby SANS instrument vacuum requirement was lower (7.5×10-5 Torr) and the entire (60,000 pound) vessel was required to move 1.5 meters on external rails with a repeatability of 100 um, which ADC achieved. The NIST VSANS length is 24 meter, internal diameter 2.3 meter with three internal carriages. The NIST VSANS instrument, which covers the usual SANS range will also allow configuration to cover the range between q ∼⃒ 10-4 A-1 to 10-3 A-1 with a sample beam current of (104 neutrons/s). The key requirements are a second position-sensitive detector system having a 1 mm pixel size and a longer sample-detector flight path of 20 m (i.e., a 40 m instrument).

  7. Analyse de l' impact physiologique et economique de l' elagage des arbres d' alignement en port libre

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    Baudoin J.P.


    Full Text Available Analysis of physiological and economical impacts of the roadside trees pruning. The management of the roadside trees requires special care. Several factors interact with their growth and development, many trees presenting decay. In addition of aesthetic impact, this decay leads to high pruning costs, or even costs of replacing trees, and serious risk of tree fall. Although the situations are more and more complicated, an increasing lack in trees monitoring is observed. Due to neglected plantations, overpruning is very often adopted, although researchers have demonstrated for several years the damage of this practice. An economic study is here proposed and concerns a walkway of common limes (Tilia X europaea L.. It constituted a landscape reference mark of high patrimonial value. Trees were topped and their crowns were overpruned. The comparison of costs between crown thinning at regular intervals and topping shows a ratio of one to two or more and a patrimonial value loss of trees of nearly 85/. Customer education and teaching managers are the best ways to stop drastic pruning, due only to easier alternative and a lack of professionalism.

  8. Orthotic Heel Wedges Do Not Alter Hindfoot Kinematics and Achilles Tendon Force During Level and Inclined Walking in Healthy Individuals. (United States)

    Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H


    Conservative treatments such as in-shoe orthotic heel wedges to treat musculoskeletal injuries are not new. However, weak evidence supporting their use in the management of Achilles tendonitis suggests the mechanism by which these heel wedges works remains poorly understood. It was the aim of this study to test the underlying hypothesis that heel wedges can reduce Achilles tendon load. A musculoskeletal modeling approach was used to quantify changes in lower limb mechanics when walking due to the introduction of 12-mm orthotic heel wedges. Nineteen healthy volunteers walked on an inclinable walkway while optical motion, force plate, and plantar pressure data were recorded. Walking with heel wedges increased ankle dorsiflexion moments and reduced plantar flexion moments; this resulted in increased peak ankle dorsiflexor muscle forces during early stance and reduced tibialis posterior and toe flexor muscle forces during late stance. Heel wedges did not reduce overall Achilles tendon force during any walking condition, but did redistribute load from the medial to lateral triceps surae during inclined walking. These results add to the body of clinical evidence confirming that heel wedges do not reduce Achilles tendon load and our findings provide an explanation as to why this may be the case.

  9. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

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    Ezzati, Ali [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Katz, Mindy J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Michael L. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center and Departments of Radiology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, The Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Richard B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Verghese, Joe [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Division of Cognitive and Motor Aging, Bronx, NY (United States)


    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  10. Detecting knee osteoarthritis and its discriminating parameters using random forests. (United States)

    Kotti, Margarita; Duffell, Lynsey D; Faisal, Aldo A; McGregor, Alison H


    This paper tackles the problem of automatic detection of knee osteoarthritis. A computer system is built that takes as input the body kinetics and produces as output not only an estimation of presence of the knee osteoarthritis, as previously done in the literature, but also the most discriminating parameters along with a set of rules on how this decision was reached. This fills the gap of interpretability between the medical and the engineering approaches. We collected locomotion data from 47 subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 47 healthy subjects. Osteoarthritis subjects were recruited from hospital clinics and GP surgeries, and age and sex matched healthy subjects from the local community. Subjects walked on a walkway equipped with two force plates with piezoelectric 3-component force sensors. Parameters of the vertical, anterior-posterior, and medio-lateral ground reaction forces, such as mean value, push-off time, and slope, were extracted. Then random forest regressors map those parameters via rule induction to the degree of knee osteoarthritis. To boost generalisation ability, a subject-independent protocol is employed. The 5-fold cross-validated accuracy is 72.61%±4.24%. We show that with 3 steps or less a reliable clinical measure can be extracted in a rule-based approach when the dataset is analysed appropriately.

  11. Effect of the modulation of optic flow speed on gait parameters in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Lim, Hyungwon


    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of modulation of the optic flow speed on gait parameters in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. [Methods] We examined 10 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. The children underwent gait analysis under 3 different conditions of optic flow speed: slow, normal, and fast optic flow speed. The children walked across the walkway of a GAITRite system, while watching a virtual reality screen, and walking velocity, cadence, stride length, step length, single support time, and double support time were recorded. [Results] Compared with the other applied flow speed conditions, the fast optic flow speed (2 times the normal speed) significantly increased walking velocity, cadence, normalized step length, base of support, and single support cycle of both the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs. Moreover, compared with the other applied flow speed conditions, the slow optic flow speed (0.25 times the normal speed) yielded a significantly decreased walking velocity, cadence, normalized step length, base of support, and single support cycle for both the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs. [Conclusion] The gait parameters of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy are altered by modulation of the optic flow speed. Thus, we believe that gait training involving modulation of the optic flow speed is feasible and suitable for resolving abnormal gait patterns in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

  12. Concurrent validity of accelerations measured using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces. (United States)

    Cole, Michael H; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kavanagh, Justin K; Morrison, Steven; Hodges, Paul W; Smeathers, James E; Kerr, Graham K


    Although accelerometers are extensively used for assessing gait, limited research has evaluated the concurrent validity of these devices on less predictable walking surfaces or the comparability of different methods used for gravitational acceleration compensation. This study evaluated the concurrent validity of trunk accelerations derived from a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces and contrasted two methods used to remove gravitational accelerations; i) subtraction of the best linear fit from the data (detrending); and ii) use of orientation information (quaternions) from the inertial measurement unit. Twelve older and twelve younger adults walked at their preferred speed along firm, compliant and uneven walkways. Accelerations were evaluated for the thoracic spine (T12) using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit and an eleven-camera Vicon system. The findings demonstrated excellent agreement between accelerations derived from the inertial measurement unit and motion analysis system, including while walking on uneven surfaces that better approximate a real-world setting (all differences accelerations requires consideration in future research, particularly when walking on compliant and uneven surfaces. These findings demonstrate trunk accelerations can be accurately measured using a wireless inertial measurement unit and are appropriate for research that evaluates healthy populations in complex environments.

  13. Validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand performance power in older people. (United States)

    Lindemann, U; Farahmand, P; Klenk, J; Blatzonis, K; Becker, C


    To investigate construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand performance power in older people by showing associations with relevant functional performance and physiological parameters. Cross-sectional study. Movement laboratory of a geriatric rehabilitation clinic. Eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). Sit-to-stand performance power and leg power were assessed using a linear encoder and the Nottingham Power Rig, respectively. Gait speed was measured on an instrumented walkway. Maximum quadriceps and hand grip strength were assessed using dynamometers. Mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area of both legs was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Associations of sit-to-stand performance power with power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig, maximum gait speed and muscle cross-sectional area were r=0.646, r=0.536 and r=0.514, respectively. A linear regression model explained 50% of the variance in sit-to-stand performance power including muscle cross-sectional area (p=0.001), maximum gait speed (p=0.002), and power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig (p=0.006). Construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand power was shown at functional level and morphological level for older women. This measure could be used in routine clinical practice as well as in large-scale studies. DRKS00003622. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan. (United States)

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique


    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice.

  15. The stochastic distribution of available coefficient of friction on quarry tiles for human locomotion. (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi


    The available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion is the maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported without a slip at the shoe and floor interface. A statistical model was introduced to estimate the probability of slip by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction, assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. This paper presents an investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of quarry tiles under dry, water and glycerol conditions. One hundred friction measurements were performed on a walkway under the surface conditions of dry, water and 45% glycerol concentration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF appears to fit the normal and log-normal distributions better than the Weibull distribution for the water and glycerol conditions. However, no match was found between the distribution of ACOF under the dry condition and any of the three continuous distributions evaluated. Based on limited data, a normal distribution might be more appropriate due to its simplicity, practicality and familiarity among the three distributions evaluated.

  16. The mental representation of the human gait in patients with severe knee osteoarthrosis: a clinical study to aid understanding of impairment and disability. (United States)

    Jacksteit, Robert; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Behrens, Martin; Bader, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Skripitz, Ralf; Stöckel, Tino


    Objectives were (1) to explore differences in gait-specific long-term memory structures and gait performance between knee osteoarthrosis patients and healthy subjects and (2) to identify the extent to which the gait-specific mental representation is associated with gait performance. Cross-sectional study. In total, 18 knee osteoarthrosis patients and 18 control subjects. Spatio-temporal (gait speed, step length) and temporophasic (stance time, swing time, single support time, total double support time) gait parameters and gait variability were measured with an electronic walkway (OptoGait). The mental representation was assessed using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representations (SDA-M). (1) Patients showed significantly longer stance times ( P representation as compared with the healthy controls. (2) Correlation analyses revealed the mental representation of the human gait to be associated with actual gait performance in osteoarthrosis patients. Double support times were positively associated with the structural quality of the mental representation and step length variability was positively associated with the number of sequencing errors in the representation. The gait-specific mental representation and actual gait performance differ between patients with severe knee osteoarthrosis and healthy controls, and both are linked to one another. This finding suggests that musculoskeletal disorders can lead to changes in the mental representation of the gait, and as such the SDA-M could provide useful information to improve the rehabilitation following osteoarthrosis.

  17. Effects of multi-joint muscular fatigue on biomechanics of slips. (United States)

    Lew, Fui Ling; Qu, Xingda


    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of multi-joint muscular fatigue on biomechanics of slips. Both lower-limb fatigue and upper-limb fatigue were examined, and the fatiguing exercises involved multi-joint movements to replicate muscular fatigue in realistic scenarios. Sixty healthy young adults participated in the study, and were evenly categorized into three groups: no fatigue, lower-limb fatigue, and upper-limb fatigue. These participants were instructed to walk on a linear walkway, and slips were induced unexpectedly during walking. The results showed that multi-joint muscular fatigue affects biomechanics of slips in all three phases of slips (i.e. initiation, detection, and recovery). In particular, adaptive safer postural control strategies were adopted with the application of both lower-limb fatigue and upper-limb fatigue to maintain the likelihood of slip initiation as in the no fatigue condition. In the phases of detection and recovery, lower-limb fatigue was found to compromise biomechanics of slips while upper-limb fatigue did not show any effects. Based on these findings, minimizing exposures to lower-limb fatigue should be given higher priority compared to upper-limb fatigue when developing interventions to prevent slip-induced falls. In addition, these findings also suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing proprioceptive acuity and increasing muscular strength in the lower limb could also be effective in slip-induced fall prevention.

  18. Thermomechanical analysis of a composite grating

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    Cid, Jose [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Araujo, Marcia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); DeJoode, Alex; Abd, Imad [Reverse Engineering Ltd, Didsbury, Manchester (United Kingdom)


    The aim of the work carried out was to assess the structural performance of polymer composite gratings during a fire. The gratings are made from Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GRP) and are proposed for use as walkways on offshore platforms. During a fire, the gratings are subjected to high temperatures which reduce their structural performance. A numerical model based on experimental results, as well as data published in the literature was developed. The investigation focused on assessing the grating load capacity to carry a fire-fighter and fire-fighting equipment during a fire situation. It was assumed that 120 deg C would be the highest practical temperature for a fire-fighter to attack a fire. Subsequently, the grating performance was investigated for a range of temperatures from ambient to 120 deg C with the temperatures 60, 90 and 120 deg C representing the key targets for lower middle and upper limits. The requirements to assess the mechanical performance of the grating at the local level and global levels necessitated the need to develop a numerical technique to enhance the conventional functionality of the finite element code. The developed material model and the associated numerical technique produced a sophisticated numerical tool capable of assessing the structural response of the gratings at elevated temperatures up to 120 deg C. The comparison between the numerical results and the measured data illustrates robustness of the developed numerical tools, although certain predictions showed relatively poorer agreement than anticipated. (author)

  19. Overground walking speed changes when subjected to body weight support conditions for nonimpaired and post stroke individuals

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    Weibel Gwendolyn C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that body weight support (BWS has the potential to improve gait speed for individuals post-stroke. However, body weight support also reduces the optimal walking speed at which energy use is minimized over the gait cycle indicating that BWS should reduce walking speed capability. Methods Nonimpaired subjects and subjects post-stroke walked at a self-selected speed over a 15 m walkway. Body weight support (BWS was provided to subjects at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the subject's weight while they walked overground using a robotic body weight support system. Gait speed, cadence, and average step length were calculated for each subject using recorded data on their time to walk 10 m and the number of steps taken. Results When subjected to greater levels of BWS, self-selected walking speed decreased for the nonimpaired subjects. However, subjects post-stroke showed an average increase of 17% in self-selected walking speed when subjected to some level of BWS compared to the 0% BWS condition. Most subjects showed this increase at the 10% BWS level. Gait speed increases corresponded to an increase in step length, but not cadence. Conclusions The BWS training environment results in decreased self-selected walking speed in nonimpaired individuals, however self-selected overground walking speed is facilitated when provided with a small percentage of body weight support for people post-stroke.

  20. Does the six-minute walk test measure walking performance or physical fitness in persons with multiple sclerosis? (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Pilutti, Lara A; Motl, Robert W


    There is psychometric evidence that supports the six-minute walk (6MW) as a measure of walking performance, whereas other psychometric data support it as a submaximal measure of physical fitness in persons with MS. The current cross-sectional study compared measures of walking performance and physical fitness as head-to-head predictors of 6MW distance in a sample of persons with MS across the disability spectrum. All participants completed the 6MW test, as well as other measures of walking performance (i.e., timed-25 foot walk, gait velocity captured by a GaitRite electronic walkway) and physical fitness (i.e., peak aerobic capacity, lower limb muscular strength). 6MW distance was strongly associated with measures of walking performance and physical fitness, though the correlations were significantly stronger for measures of walking performance than physical fitness (z >  4.04, p   0.85), and measures of physical fitness explained minimal variance in 6MW distance over-and-above that of measures of walking performance (ΔR2 fitness in MS.

  1. Ground reaction forces and lower-limb joint kinetics of turning gait in typically developing children. (United States)

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B


    Turning is a common locomotor task essential to daily activity; however, very little is known about the forces and moments responsible for the kinematic adaptations occurring relative to straight-line gait in typically developing children. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyse ground reaction forces (GRFs), ground reaction free vertical torque (TZ), and the lower-limb joint kinetics of 90° outside (step) and inside (spin) limb turns. Step, spin, and straight walking trials from fifty-four typically developing children were analysed. All children were fit with the Plug-in Gait and Oxford Foot Model marker sets while walking over force plates embedded in the walkway. Net internal joint moments and power were computed via a standard inverse dynamics approach. All dependent variables were statistically analysed over the entire curves using the mean difference 95% bootstrap confidence band approach. GRFs were directed medially for step turns and laterally for spin turns during the turning phase. Directions were reversed and magnitudes decreased during the approach phase. Step turns showed reduced ankle power generation, while spin turns showed large TZ. Both strategies required large knee and hip coronal and transverse plane moments during swing. These kinetic differences highlight adaptations required to maintain stability and reorient the body towards the new walking direction during turning. From a clinical perspective, turning gait may better reveal weaknesses and motor control deficits than straight walking in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy, and could potentially be implemented in standard gait analysis sessions.

  2. Comparing Three Dual-Task Methods and the Relationship to Physical and Cognitive Impairment in People with Multiple Sclerosis and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C. Kirkland


    Full Text Available Dual-tasking (DT is a measure to detect impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (MS. We compared three DT methods to determine whether cognitive (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA or physical disability (Expanded Disease Severity Scale; EDSS was related to DT performance. We recruited MS participants with low disability (<3 EDSS, n=13 and high disability (≥3 EDSS, n=9 and matched controls (n=13. Participants walked at self-selected (SS speed on an instrumented walkway (Protokinetics, Havertown, USA, followed by DT walks in randomized order: DT ABC (reciting every second letter of the alphabet, DT 7 (serially subtracting 7’s from 100, and DT 3 (counting upwards, leaving out multiples and numbers that include 3. DT 7 resulted in the most consistent changes in performance. Both MS and control groups reduced velocity and cadence and shortened step length during DT with no significant differences between groups. Control subjects widened stride width by about 1 cm while MS subjects (collapsed as one group did not. MS subjects with higher disability significantly increased percentage time in double support during DT compared to SS (F=12.95, p<0.001. The change in DS was related to cognitive and not physical disability (r=0.54,  p<0.05.

  3. Domestic cat walking parallels human constrained optimization: optimization strategies and the comparison of normal and sensory deficient individuals. (United States)

    Bertram, John E A; Gutmann, Anne; Randev, Jabina; Hulliger, Manuel


    To evaluate how fundamental gait parameters used in walking (stride length, frequency, speed) are selected by cats we compared stride characteristics selected when walking on a solid surface to those selected when they were constrained to specific stride lengths using a pedestal walkway. Humans spontaneously select substantially different stride length-stride frequency-speed relationships in walking when each of these parameters is constrained, as in walking to a metronome beat (frequency constrained), evenly spaced floor markers (stride length constrained) or on a treadmill (speed constrained). In humans such adjustments largely provide energetic economy under the prescribed walking conditions. Cats show a similar shift in gait parameter selection between conditions as observed in humans. This suggests that cats (and by extension, quadrupedal mammals) also select gait parameters to optimize walking cost-effectiveness. Cats with a profound peripheral sensory deficit (from pyridoxine overdose) appeared to parallel the optimization seen in healthy cats, but without the same level of precision. Recent studies in humans suggest that gait optimization may proceed in two stages - a fast perception-based stage that provides the initial gait selection strategy which is then fine-tuned by feedback. The sensory deficit cats appeared unable to accomplish the feedback-dependent aspect of this process.

  4. Facultad de Derecho en la Universidad de Minnesota, en Minneapolis EE. UU.

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    Parker, Leonard


    Full Text Available This building stands by main western access, on the West Bank Campus of this University. With the new Auditorium-Assembly Hall in a separate building, the Law School forms the beginning of an ambitious construction programmed which will eventually comprise the entire University compound supported by a complex and complete network of pedestrian walkways. The building design shows a unique plasticity of outstanding visual effects, using exposed concrete and brickwork. The capacity is for one thousand students plus the required teaching and management staff and occupies a 23,000 M2 plot. The library contains about 600,000 books.

    El edificio ha sido construido en el acceso principal occidental, sobre el Campus West Bank de la citada Universidad. Junto con un nuevo auditorio-aula magna, en edificio independiente, constituye el comienzo de un ambicioso programa de construcciones destinadas a alojar todo el complejo universitario con el auxilio de una complicada y completa red de caminos peatonales. Construcción de curiosa plástica y de gran efecto visual, a base de hormigón armado visto y fábrica de ladrillo. Tiene una capacidad para un millar de alumnos, dirección y profesorado correspondientes y ocupa una parcela de más de 23.000 m2. La biblioteca contiene unos 600.000 volúmenes.


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    Abbas Divan Mohaideen


    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is the leading cause of death and the most common cause of disability. This study determined the effects of Treadmill Aerobic Exercise on spatial and temporal gait parameters among stroke patients. Materials & Methods: In this study, Thirty -nine subjects with hemiparetic stroke underwent Treadmill Aerobic Exercise four times weekly for six months from December 2006 to June 2007. This study has taken place in Department of Physical therapy and Rehabilitation, GSN multi Specialty hospital and research Centre, Hyderabad, India. We measured the spatial and temporal gait parameters of the subjects before and after Treadmill Aerobic Exercise training by the means of 30-foot timed walks, 6 minute distance walks with usual assistive devices and 8metre instrumented walkway without assistive devices. Pre and post training results were compared and contrast. Results: This study results that the Treadmill Aerobic Exercise improved 30-foot walks by 17% and 6 minute walk by 23%. Unassisted walking velocity increased 22%, stride length increased 13% and cadence increased 7%. Paretic and non-paretic step lengths increased significantly, and respective step times increased significantly. Discussion: Large study should be done with treadmill exercise training along with other skills for the better results to improve the gait parameters in chronic stroke cases. Conclusion: This study shows the evidence for positive changes in spatial and temporal gait parameters of subjects with stroke after Treadmill Aerobic Exercise.

  6. Biomechanical characteristics of adults walking in shallow water and on land. (United States)

    Barela, Ana M F; Stolf, Sandro F; Duarte, Marcos


    Although water environment has been employed for different physical activities, there is little available information regarding the biomechanical characteristics of walking in shallow water. In the present study, we investigated the kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and electromyographic (EMG) activation patterns of eight selected muscles of adults walking in shallow water and on land. Ten healthy adults were videotaped while walking at self-selected comfortable speeds on land and in water (at the Xiphoid process level). In both conditions there was a force plate embedded in the middle of each walkway to register the GRF components. Reflective markers were placed over main anatomical landmarks and they were digitalized later to obtain stride characteristics and joint angle information. In general, walking in water was different to walking on land in many aspects and these differences were attributed to the drag force, the apparent body weight reduction, and the lower comfortable speed during walking in shallow water. The joint range of motions (ROM) were not different, the segment ROM, magnitudes of GRF components, impact force, and impulse were different between the two conditions. The present results will contribute to a better understanding of this activity in the context of training and rehabilitation.

  7. Ankle and midfoot kinetics during normal gait: a multi-segment approach. (United States)

    Dixon, Philippe C; Böhm, Harald; Döderlein, Leonhard


    Multi-segment foot models are increasingly being used to evaluate intra and inter-segment foot kinematics such as the motion between the hindfoot/tibia (ankle) and the forefoot/hindfoot (midfoot) during walking. However, kinetic analysis have been mainly restricted to one-segment foot models and could be improved by considering a multi-segment approach. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) implement a kinetic analysis of the ankle and theoretical midfoot joints using the existing Oxford Foot Model (OFM) through a standard inverse dynamics approach using only marker, force plate and anthropometric data and (2) to compare OFM ankle joint kinetics to those output by the one-segment foot plugin-gait model (PIG). 10 healthy adolescents fitted with both the OFM and PIG markers performed barefoot comfortable speed walking trials over an instrumented walkway. The maximum ankle power generation was significantly reduced by approximately 40% through OFM calculations compared to PIG estimates (psegment foot models overestimate ankle power, and may also overestimate the contribution of the triceps surae. A multi-segment approach may help quantify the important contribution of the midfoot ligaments and musculature to power generation. We therefore recommend the use of multi-segment foot models to estimate ankle and midfoot kinetics, especially when surgical decision-making is based on the results of three-dimensional gait analysis.

  8. Roadworks around the "Les Cèdres" car park

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department


    Diversions will be in place on Route Scherrer and Route Bohr from 4 to 31 July.   As we announced in a previous article, the SMB department is currently installing vehicle registration plate readers at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. Please note that, due to the installation work involved: access to Buildings 50 and 52 via Route Scherrer (passing under the Building 50 walkway) will be closed from 4 to 8 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Scherrer will be closed from 4 to 14 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Bohr will be closed from 16 to 31 July, Route Bohr will be closed between Route Greinacher and Route Bell from 16 to 31 July. Please also note that, following the completion of the work, the Les Cèdres car park will operate as a one-way system, with entry only from Route Scherrer and exit only onto Route Bohr. Thank you for your understand...

  9. Comparing executive function, evoked hemodynamic response, and gait as predictors of variations in mobility for older adults. (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; Hundza, Sandra R; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Klimstra, Marc; Commandeur, Drew; Lukyn, Timothy V; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S


    Falls represent a major concern for older adults and may serve as clinically salient index events for those presenting in the prodromal stages of mild cognitive impairment. Declines in executive function performance and in gait consistency have shown promise in predicting fall risk; however, associated neurophysiological underpinnings have received less attention. In this study, we used a multimodal approach to assess fall risk in a group of older adults with and without a previous fall history. Processing speed, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency, crystallized ability, episodic memory, and executive functioning were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests. Cognitive interference was assessed using the Multi-Source Interference Task. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were assessed with and without cognitive load using a 6.4-m instrumented walkway. Hemodynamic responses were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Whereas no group differences were observed in cognitive behavioral performance, during a cognitive interference task fallers displayed more oxygenated hemoglobin across the prefrontal cortex than nonfallers, suggesting that engaging in the cognitive task was more effortful for them overall, therefore eliciting greater cortical activation. Between-group differences in spatial as well as temporal gait parameters were also observed. These results are in keeping with assertions that diminished executive control is related to fall risk. Notably, the group differences observed in prefrontal cortical activation and in gait parameters may ultimately precede those observed in cognitive behavioral performance, with implications for measurement sensitivity and early identification.

  10. Assessing Tourist Resorts Surrounding Metropolitans Applying SWOT- AHP Models Case study: Malaga Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Movahed


    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, the urban concept is not understandable without resorts in different forms and the results of urban development and environmental problems have made the development ad existence of resorts unavoidable.Ahvaz is one of the metropolitan cities. For the reason of its pollution, oil-dependent industries, hot and humid weather, having a long hot and dusty season, the citizens have been encouraged to travel to other areas with better climate. Therefore, it is necessary to locate a place with appropriate climate in the province. In this study, we use the descriptive combination and analytical method and this research is applied. We aim to examine three patterns: the final level pattern walkway areas of major cities, Robert pattern and standard distance pattern. Results show that, because of the long distance between Ahvaz and Malaga, the above-mentioned models could not determine Ahvaz walkway field.2- Theoretical basesThe Tourism has expressed as the specific spatial patterns. One of them is spatial patterns of urban tourism. Urban areas are important tourism places because they have historical and cultural attractions. The major cities have many diverse attractions, including museums, monuments, theaters, sports stadiums, parks, toy city, Shopping centers, and places of historical and architectural sites of important events with famous people. Moreover, if the tourist attractions are located in rural areas, urban movement supports the objective location.To examine the influence of large urban parks, three methods are used that are: A - The final model of the metropolitan parkB - Robert patternC - Standard distance model3– DiscussionThere are three different variations of climate in Khuzestan province: desert climate, semi desert climate and mountainous climate that are suitable for tourism. Ahvaz city has taken in desert climatology; therefore, there is a need for amusement places at mountainous climates. As map

  11. Assessing locomotion deficiency in broiler chicken Medida de deficiência locomotora em frango de corte

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    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs


    Full Text Available Locomotion deficiencies in broiler production cause poor welfare and lead to change in drinking and feeding behavior with consequent loss in weight gain. This research aimed to assess locomotion deficiencies in broiler chicken by analyzing the vertical peak force on both feet during walk. A chamber was built with an inlet ramp, a horizontal walkway in the middle and an outlet ramp. In the walkway a thin mat with piezoelectric crystal sensors was placed to record the step vertical peak force of the feet while walking on the force platform. The measurement system consisted of a mat with electronic sensors and software that allowed real time recording of the forces and the processing and analysis of data. Footage was taken from two digital video cameras and used for gait scoring. Forty male broilers were chosen at random, grown under similar rearing conditions and farms, with age varying from 49 to 28 days (ten birds of same age to be used in the trial. Measurement consisted of inducing the bird to walk on the force platform which automatically registered the peak vertical force of the steps. Results showed that the gait score increased with the weight and age of the birds. Peak force asymmetry was found for each foot, independent of age or gait score. Although not identified visually in the broilers, the peak vertical force values differed in both right and left feet leading to slow and uneven walking. Walking deficiency was more severe in older birds.Deficiência em locomoção é hoje um dos problemas mais importantes na produção de frangos de corte. É causa de baixo bem-estar e leva a alteração no comportamento de bebida e alimentação, com conseqüente perda de ganho de peso. Mediram-se deficiências locomotoras em frango de corte por meio da análise do pico de força plantar vertical em ambas as patas, durante a caminhada. Foi construída uma câmara com uma rampa de entrada, uma área horizontal de passagem e uma rampa de saída. Na


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalath J.L.R


    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is one of the most common chronic diseases which increase the individual’s disability and affects the patients gait as the disease progress. Thus identifying the changes in gait variables in knee osteoarthritis patients is important. Objectives: To compare the gait variables such as walking velocity, cadence, step length, walking base, and single support time, in both control group of people and in the disease group. Method: This descriptive cross sectional study conducted at physical therapy department National Hospital Sri Lanka. 120 participants were included for the study if they fulfill the inclusion criteria. The participants were divided in to Osteoarthritis and a control group. A walk way was used to collect data from the subjects. Participants were asked to walk once in a single direction in the walkway in their normal speed. Results: The group of females with knee osteoarthritis had significant levels between means of single support time, step length, walking velocity and cadence. Males with osteoarthritis showed significance in walking velocity. Healthy males and females showed a significant gait variation in step length and walking velocity. Osteoarthritis has an effect on the group of patients compared to healthy females. The single support time (15.62%, step length (8.5%, walking velocity (15.19% and cadence (9.25% showed reductions in gait parameters. Males with osteoarthritis showed a significant reduction in walking velocity (10.91%. Females with osteoarthritis has reduce single support time, step length, walking velocity and cadence and increase walking base compared to healthy control group of females. In the comparison among males, males with osteoarthritis have reduced step length, walking velocity, cadence and walking base but have same single support time, compared to healthy control group of males Conclusion: Osteoarthritis shows different patterns of affection in gait between genders.

  13. Spatial and temporal gait characteristics of elderly individuals during backward and forward walking with shoes and barefoot. (United States)

    Elboim-Gabyzon, Michal; Rotchild, Shira


    Backward walking (BW) is an inherent component of mobility and function in daily activities, particularly indoors, when it is more likely that a person is barefoot. No studies to date have compared the spatio-temporal characteristics of BW with and without shoes in elderly individuals. This study compared spatio-temporal measures of BW and forward walking (FW) among elderly individuals while barefoot or wearing shoes. Forty-seven elderly individuals (13 men and 34 women, 76.7±7.7years of age) were evaluated. Participants were requested to walk at a comfortable, self-selected pace across the GAITRite(®) walkway for three trials under each of four conditions: walking forward (FW) and BW wearing their own comfortable low-heeled walking shoes and FW and BW walking without shoes. Gait speed, stride length and cadence were significantly reduced in BW versus FW, with an increase in double limb support (DLS), both with and without shoes. Barefoot BW resulted in significantly increased gait speed and cadence, and decreased DLS compared to BW with shoes. BW stride length was not affected by footwear. While barefoot FW was also associated with a significant increase in cadence and decrease in DLS time compared to walking with shoes, it decreased stride length and had no detrimental effect on gait speed. Assessment of the spatio-temporal parameters of walking barefoot and with shoes during FW and BW can contribute to our understanding of the ability of elderly individuals to adapt to changing walking conditions, and should be included in the assessment of functional mobility of elderly individuals.

  14. The complexity of human walking: a knee osteoarthritis study.

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    Margarita Kotti

    Full Text Available This study proposes a framework for deconstructing complex walking patterns to create a simple principal component space before checking whether the projection to this space is suitable for identifying changes from the normality. We focus on knee osteoarthritis, the most common knee joint disease and the second leading cause of disability. Knee osteoarthritis affects over 250 million people worldwide. The motivation for projecting the highly dimensional movements to a lower dimensional and simpler space is our belief that motor behaviour can be understood by identifying a simplicity via projection to a low principal component space, which may reflect upon the underlying mechanism. To study this, we recruited 180 subjects, 47 of which reported that they had knee osteoarthritis. They were asked to walk several times along a walkway equipped with two force plates that capture their ground reaction forces along 3 axes, namely vertical, anterior-posterior, and medio-lateral, at 1000 Hz. Data when the subject does not clearly strike the force plate were excluded, leaving 1-3 gait cycles per subject. To examine the complexity of human walking, we applied dimensionality reduction via Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis. The first principal component explains 34% of the variance in the data, whereas over 80% of the variance is explained by 8 principal components or more. This proves the complexity of the underlying structure of the ground reaction forces. To examine if our musculoskeletal system generates movements that are distinguishable between normal and pathological subjects in a low dimensional principal component space, we applied a Bayes classifier. For the tested cross-validated, subject-independent experimental protocol, the classification accuracy equals 82.62%. Also, a novel complexity measure is proposed, which can be used as an objective index to facilitate clinical decision making. This measure proves that knee osteoarthritis

  15. Biplane fluoroscopy for hindfoot motion analysis during gait: A model-based evaluation. (United States)

    Cross, Janelle A; McHenry, Benjamin D; Molthen, Robert; Exten, Emily; Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Harris, Gerald F


    The purpose of this study was to quantify the accuracy and precision of a biplane fluoroscopy system for model-based tracking of in vivo hindfoot motion during over-ground gait. Gait was simulated by manually manipulating a cadaver foot specimen through a biplane fluoroscopy system attached to a walkway. Three 1.6-mm diameter steel beads were implanted into the specimen to provide marker-based tracking measurements for comparison to model-based tracking. A CT scan was acquired to define a gold standard of implanted bead positions and to create 3D models for model-based tracking. Static and dynamic trials manipulating the specimen through the capture volume were performed. Marker-based tracking error was calculated relative to the gold standard implanted bead positions. The bias, precision, and root-mean-squared (RMS) error of model-based tracking was calculated relative to the marker-based measurements. The overall RMS error of the model-based tracking method averaged 0.43 ± 0.22mm and 0.66 ± 0.43° for static and 0.59 ± 0.10mm and 0.71 ± 0.12° for dynamic trials. The model-based tracking approach represents a non-invasive technique for accurately measuring dynamic hindfoot joint motion during in vivo, weight bearing conditions. The model-based tracking method is recommended for application on the basis of the study results.

  16. Messages from a medical library in the earthquake-prone zone. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kayo; Minamidate, Yoshitaka; Nagai, Takayuki


    On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), a massive magnitude-9.0 earthquake attacked large areas of northeastern Japan, including Sendai City. The huge earthquake generated catastrophic tsunamis, leading to unprecedented disasters in the seacoast areas of the Tohoku region (about 20,000 dead and missing persons). Upon this earthquake, in Tohoku University Medical Library, a 3-storey earthquake-resistant building, most of books fell down from bookshelves on the second and third floors, but the bookshelves remained steady because of the effective fixation. Many piles of fallen books blocked up the walkways and the narrow passages between the bookshelves; namely, books are easily transformed to dangerous weapons in a shaking building. Fortunately, all library staffs and users evacuated outside the building without even a scratch. Importantly, we were able to open the first floor of the Medical Library on March 14 (Monday), because the first floor has been used for the Learning Commons, with open space for group meetings. We thus provided students, medical staffs, and faculty members with the comfortable place during the early stage of the disasters. In fact, medical staffs and faculty members worked hard over weekend to deal with many patients and clear the post-quake confusions. Moreover, electricity, gas, or water supply was not yet restored in most areas of Sendai City. In the earthquake-prone zones, the Medical Library should function as a facility that not only enhances information gathering but also provides the place like an oasis of relaxation for students and medical staffs upon great earthquakes.

  17. Novel challenges to gait in Parkinson's disease: the effect of concurrent music in single- and dual-task contexts. (United States)

    Brown, Lesley A; de Bruin, Natalie; Doan, Jon B; Suchowersky, Oksana; Hu, Bin


    To investigate the effect of concurrent music on parkinsonian gait in single- and dual-task contexts. A counterbalanced repeated-measure design. A university balance research laboratory. People with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) (n=10) (67+/-7 y) and healthy age-matched (65+/-6 y) control subjects (n=10). Subjects walked at a self-selected pace along an unobstructed walkway in 4 differing test conditions. Test conditions were differentiated by the presence of music accompaniment (no music/music) and the presence of a secondary cognitive task (single/dual). Single- and dual-task conditions were randomized; trials were blocked by the presence of music and counterbalanced between subjects. Music was self-selected by subjects. The cognitive task consisted of serial subtractions (3's). Subjects were not instructed to attend to the music nor were they provided with instructions regarding task prioritization. Mean gait velocity, stride length, and the percentage of the gait cycle spent in double-limb support. Gait among the PD patients was adversely affected by concurrent music. In contrast, gait performance in the control subjects showed no significant difference between no music and music conditions. The added requirement of a cognitive task differentially influenced gait performance in PD patients and control subjects, with PD patients displaying a further decrease in spatiotemporal parameters of gait and control subjects displaying a marginal improvement. Gait impairments associated with PD are exacerbated in the presence of concurrent music, an effect that is further exaggerated by the addition of a cognitive task. These results have implications for patient safety in multitasking situations.

  18. Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats (United States)

    Mazurek, K. A.; Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Stein, R. B.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Mushahwar, V. K.


    The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.

  19. Global and regional associations of smaller cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait in older people.

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    Michele L Callisaya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gait impairments increase with advancing age and can lead to falls and loss of independence. Brain atrophy also occurs in older age and may contribute to gait decline. We aimed to investigate global and regional relationships of cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait speed, and its determinants step length and cadence, in older people. METHODS: In a population-based study, participants aged >60 years without Parkinson's disease or brain infarcts underwent magnetic resonance imaging and gait measurements using a computerized walkway. Linear regression was used to study associations of total gray and white matter volumes with gait, adjusting for each other, age, sex, height and white matter hyperintensity volume. Other covariates considered in analyses included weight and vascular disease history. Voxel-based morphometry was used to study regional relationships of gray and white matter with gait. RESULTS: There were 305 participants, mean age 71.4 (6.9 years, 54% male, mean gait speed 1.16 (0.22 m/s. Smaller total gray matter volume was independently associated with poorer gait speed (p = 0.001 and step length (p<0.001, but not cadence. Smaller volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter in bilateral regions important for motor control, vision, perception and memory were independently associated with slower gait speed and shorter steps. No global or regional associations were observed between white matter volume and gait independent of gray matter volume, white matter hyperintensity volume and other covariates. CONCLUSION: Smaller gray matter volume in bilaterally distributed brain networks serving motor control was associated with slower gait speed and step length, but not cadence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swatia Bhise


    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy of rehabilitation program for subjects with orthosis with objective measurement. The study aiming to objectively compare the PCI and walking speed of normal children with ambulatory spastic diaplegic. Also we aimed to analyze whether BMIhad impact on energy cost. Methods: 41 normal children and 41 community walking spastic diaplegic aged between 6 to 18 yrs. were assessed to compare the PCI. Speed of walking and heart rate were checked constantlyboth barefoot and in shoes in normal children and with and without conventional AFO in children with spastic diaplegic at their chosen velocities over four consecutive lengths of a 12.5m walkway i.e. total 50m.,Pre and Post readings are taken. Heart rate is affected by speed; PCI with speed of walking and heart rate was calculated for each child. Results: The mean PCI in shoes and barefoot was same in normal children i.e. 0.05 ±0.039beats/meter. The PCI for children with pathological gait i.e. spastic diaplegic without orthosis and with orthosis is 0.199 ±0.176 and 0.104± 0.093beats/meter appreciably greater than that for normal children(p less than 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that walking with orthosis in spastic diplegic CP children showed higher costs of energy and slower walking speed compared normal children with age matched. The PCI of walking, with orthosis in children with spastic Diplegic cerebral palsy is less as compared to without orthosis i.e. gait is more energy efficient with orthosis. BMI doesn’t show any correlation with PCI further study may require.

  1. Gait parameters associated with balance in healthy 2- to 4-year-old children. (United States)

    Guffey, Keegan; Regier, Michael; Mancinelli, Corrie; Pergami, Paola


    The use of validated measurements of gait and balance are crucial to establish baseline function and assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Gait in children changes with motor development requiring frequent observations to effectively track progress. Standardized baseline spatiotemporal measurements and a greater understanding of the relationship between gait and balance would provide important feedback to clinicians regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation and guide treatment modifications. 84 subjects (2.0-4.9 years) walked along the GAITRite(®), a walkway that records spatiotemporal parameters. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was administered to assess balance. Comparison of spatiotemporal parameter means between age groups showed trends associated with motor development similar to the ones described in the literature such as decreased cadence and increased step/stride length with increasing age. However, no significant differences in normalized spatiotemporal parameters were found between age groups. Age, leg length, cadence, step/stride length, step/stance time, and single/double support time showed significant correlation with balance scores. When the parameters were grouped into spatial, temporal, and age-related components using principal components analysis and included in a multiple regression model, they significantly predicted 51% of the balance score variance. Age-related components most strongly predicted balance outcomes. We suggest that balance can potentially be evaluated by assessment of spatial, temporal, and age-related characteristics of gait such as step length, cadence, and leg length. This suggests the possibility of developing new gait measurement technology that could provide functional assessment and track improvements during rehabilitation regimens. If the same model can be applied to monitor treatment efficacy in children with gait abnormalities remains to be addressed.

  2. The effects of age on stabilization of the mediolateral trajectory of the swing foot. (United States)

    Krishnan, Vennila; Rosenblatt, Noah J; Latash, Mark L; Grabiner, Mark D


    To ensure stability during gait, mediolateral placement of the swinging foot must be actively regulated. Logically this occurs through end-point control of the swing limb trajectory, the precision of which is quantified as step-width variability (SWV). Increased SWV with age may reflect reduced precision of this control, but cannot describe if, and how, age-related changes in lower limb kinematic synergies account for reduced precision. We analyzed joint configuration variance across steps within the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis, which assumes that redundant sets of elemental variables are organized by the central nervous system to stabilize important performance variables. We tested whether: (1) regardless of age, the swing limb trajectory would be stabilized by a kinematic synergy of the lower limbs, and (2) the strength of the synergy would be weaker in older adults. Ten younger and ten older adults (65+ years) walked on a laboratory walkway at their preferred speed while kinematic data were collected. UCM analysis of segmental configuration variance was performed with respect to the mediolateral trajectory of the swing-limb ankle joint center. Throughout most of swing, the trajectory was stabilized by a kinematic synergy. Despite the greater segmental configuration variance of older adults, the strength of the synergy was not significantly different between groups. Moreover, the synergy index became negative during terminal swing and was not significantly correlated with SWV. Accordingly, co-variation among individual segmental trajectories is more important for stabilization of the swing trajectory during mid-swing, and, throughout swing, aging does not appear to affect this stabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gait patterns in a community-dwelling population aged 50 years and older. (United States)

    Verlinden, V J A; van der Geest, J N; Hoogendam, Y Y; Hofman, A; Breteler, M M B; Ikram, M A


    Poor gait is an important risk factor for falls and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. It is well established that older age is associated with worse gait, but it remains unclear at what age this association is first seen. Moreover, previous studies focused mainly on normal walking, but gait also encompasses turning and tandem walking. In a large study of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons we investigated the association of age with gait, focusing on normal walking, turning and tandem walking. In 1500 persons aged 50 years and over, we measured gait using an electronic walkway. Participants performed normal walks, turning and a tandem walk. With principal components analysis of 30 variables we summarized gait into five known gait factors: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace and Base of Support; and uncovered two novel gait factors: Tandem and Turning. The strongest associations with age were found for Variability (difference in Z-score -0.29 per 10 years increase (95% confidence interval: -0.34; -0.24)), Phases (-0.31 per 10 years (-0.36; -0.27)) and Tandem (-0.25 per 10 years (-0.30; -0.20)). Additionally, these factors already showed association with the youngest age groups, from 55 to 60 years of age and older. Our study shows that Variability, Phases and Tandem have the strongest association with age and are the earliest to demonstrate a poorer gait pattern with higher age. Future research should further investigate how these gait factors relate with gait-related diseases in their earliest stages.

  4. Gait phase varies over velocities. (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan


    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification.

  5. Chronic joint pain in the lower body is associated with gait differences independent from radiographic osteoarthritis. (United States)

    de Kruijf, Marjolein; Verlinden, Vincentius J A; Huygen, Frank J P M; Hofman, Albert; van der Geest, Jos N; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Ikram, M Arfan; van Meurs, Joyce B J


    Gait is an important indicator of health. Chronic lower body pain may impair gait and lead to morbidity and mortality. We investigated the associations between lower body pain and gait in community-dwelling individuals, independent from osteoarthritis (OA). This population based cohort study included 2304 Rotterdam Study participants who underwent electronic walkway gait assessment. Thirty different variables resulting from gait assessment were summarized into seven gait domains using principle components analysis: i.e. Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace, Tandem, Turning, and Base of Support. Chronic lower body pain was assessed using pain drawings. OA was defined as a Kellgren & Lawrence score of 2 or higher on radiographs of the hip and/or knee. Linear regression analysis was used to study associations. Participants with chronic pain in the leg and hip, had lower Rhythm, Phases, and Pace, independent from OA. Additionally, we found unilateral pain to associate with larger gait asymmetry. No associations were found between chronic pain and the other gait domains, including gait variability. However, within individuals with hip pain, gait variability was higher in individuals with radiographic OA compared to those without OA. This is the first population based study showing chronic lower body pain associates with gait differences independent from OA. Participants with pain were found to walk with slower and smaller steps, longer double support and more asymmetry. Proper care and treatment of chronic pain could be a way of reducing gait problems and thereby fall risk and associated mortality. In addition, gait assessment may help identifying individuals with OA from those having pain due to other causes.

  6. Gait analysis of teenagers and young adults diagnosed with autism & severe verbal communication disorders

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    Michael J. Weiss


    Full Text Available Both movement differences and disorders are common within autism spectrum disorders (ASD. These differences have wide and heterogeneous variability among different ages and sub-groups all diagnosed with ASD. Gait was studied in a more homogeneously identified group of nine teenagers and young adults who scored as severe in both measures of verbal communication and overall rating of Autism on the Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS. The ASD individuals were compared to a group of typically developing university undergraduates of similar ages. All participants walked a distance of 6-meters across a GAITRite electronic walkway for six trials. The ASD and comparison groups differed widely on many spatiotemporal aspects of gait including: step and stride length, foot positioning, cadence, velocity, step time, gait cycle time, swing time, stance time, and single and double support time. Moreover, the two groups differed in the percentage of the total gait cycle in each of these phases. The qualitative rating of Body Use on the CARS also indicated severe levels of unusual body movement for all of the ASD participants. These findings demonstrate that older teens and young adults with severe forms of Verbal Communication Impairments and Autism differ widely in their gait from typically developing individuals. The differences found in the current investigation are far more pronounced compared to previous findings with younger and/or less severely involved individuals diagnosed with ASD as compared to typically developing controls. As such, these data may be a useful anchor-point in understanding the trajectory of development of gait specifically and motor functions generally.

  7. SMARTWheel: From concept to clinical practice. (United States)

    Cooper, Rory A


    Wheelchair prescription is complex with thousands of choices and options. Theoretically, a higher quality or innovative wheelchair that is appropriately matched to the user and their unique needs will increase participation. It is well accepted that there is an alarmingly high incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome, and rotator cuff injuries among manual wheelchair users. Since the initial conceptualization, the SMART(Wheel) was intended to better understand the physiological and physical effects of wheelchair propulsion on the body. Initially, little was known about wheelchair propulsion and the SMART(Wheel) transformed the nascent field of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics. Although still an important area of clinical research, the SMART(Wheel) has been critical to the study of the relationship between the type of wheelchair, set-up, activity, technique, anatomy, and physiology and repetitive strain injury. There has been growing evidence that the wheelchair-user interaction explains a substantial portion of the risk of developing a degenerative injury and on community participation. A noteworthy contribution of this work was the release of the clinical practice guideline, entitled, Preservation of Upper Limb Function Following Spinal Cord Injury in 2005. The SMART(Wheel) has been used by other scientists in areas that were not originally envisioned to be applications. It has been used to support the design of tools for developing a trail mapping rating and description system. It has also supported the design of accessible pedestrian walkways standards, accessible playground surfaces, and to evaluate carpets for wheelchair accessibility. It is likely that there are more new areas of exploration to emerge. This article describes the evolution of the SMART(Wheel) as new technologies became available and its applications in the field of wheelchair biomechanics and clinical service delivery.

  8. The impact of restless legs syndrome on physical functioning in a community-dwelling population of middle-aged and elderly people. (United States)

    Hanewinckel, Rens; Maksimovic, Ana; Verlinden, Vincent J A; van der Geest, Jos N; Hofman, Albert; van Doorn, Pieter A; Boon, Agnita J W; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan


    To investigate whether restless legs syndrome (RLS) is associated with impaired physical functioning using subjective and objective assessments. From 2006-2013, 5,960 participants (mean age 67.2; 57.5% females) of the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, aged 45 years and over, were cross-sectionally investigated for presence of restless legs syndrome using a questionnaire. Physical functioning was assessed subjectively with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (basic activities of daily living) and the Instrumental Activities of Daily living scale (instrumental activities of daily living). Additionally, physical functioning was assessed objectively by quantifying fine motor performance with the Purdue Pegboard Test and by quantifying gait with an electronic walkway. Restless legs syndrome was present in 13.7% of the participants. Persons with restless legs had more impairment in basic (difference in score 0.65, 95% CI 0.41;0.90) and instrumental activities of daily living (difference in score 0.28, 95% CI 0.09;0.48) than persons without restless legs. This association was strongest when symptoms were present two or more times a week (basic activities of daily living score difference 1.69, 95% CI 1.28;2.09). The association between restless legs syndrome and activities of daily living attenuated after adjusting for sleep quality or depressive symptoms. There was no association with the Purdue Pegboard Test score nor with gait. Individuals with restless legs syndrome experienced significantly more impairment in activities of daily function than persons without restless legs. This seemed to be (partly) mediated by poor sleep quality and depressive symptoms. No association was found with objectively assessed physical functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A modified social force model for crowd dynamics (United States)

    Hassan, Ummi Nurmasyitah; Zainuddin, Zarita; Abu-Sulyman, Ibtesam M.


    The Social Force Model (SFM) is one of the most successful models in microscopic pedestrian studies that is used to study the movement of pedestrians. Many modifications have been done to improvise the SFM by earlier researchers such as the incorporation of a constant respect factor into the self-stopping mechanism. Before the new mechanism is introduced, the researchers found out that a pedestrian will immediately come to a halt if other pedestrians are near to him, which seems to be an unrealistic behavior. Therefore, researchers introduce a self-slowing mechanism to gradually stop a pedestrian when he is approaching other pedestrians. Subsequently, the dynamic respect factor is introduced into the self-slowing mechanism based on the density of the pedestrians to make the model even more realistic. In real life situations, the respect factor of the pedestrians should be dynamic values instead of a constant value. However, when we reproduce the simulation of the dynamic respect factor, we found that the movement of the pedestrians are unrealistic because the pedestrians are lacking perception of the pedestrians in front of him. In this paper, we adopted both dynamic respect factor and dynamic angular parameter, called modified dynamic respect factor, which is dependent on the density of the pedestrians. Simulations are performed in a normal unidirectional walkway to compare the simulated pedestrians' movements produced by both models. The results obtained showed that the modified dynamic respect factor produces more realistic movement of the pedestrians which conform to the real situation. Moreover, we also found that the simulations endow the pedestrian with a self-slowing mechanism and a perception of other pedestrians in front of him.

  10. The effect of different depths of medial heel skive on plantar pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonanno Daniel R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot orthoses are often used to treat lower limb injuries associated with excessive pronation. There are many orthotic modifications available for this purpose, with one being the medial heel skive. However, empirical evidence for the mechanical effects of the medial heel skive modification is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect that different depths of medial heel skive have on plantar pressures. Methods Thirty healthy adults (mean age 24 years, range 18–46 with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture and no current foot pain or deformity participated in this study. Using the in-shoe pedar-X® system, plantar pressure data were collected for the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot while participants walked along an 8 metre walkway wearing a standardised shoe. Experimental conditions included a customised foot orthosis with the following 4 orthotic modifications: (i no medial heel skive, (ii a 2 mm medial heel skive, (iii a 4 mm medial heel skive and (iv a 6 mm medial heel skive. Results Compared to the foot orthosis with no medial heel skive, statistically significant increases in peak pressure were observed at the medial rearfoot – there was a 15% increase (p = 0.001 with the 4 mm skive and a 29% increase (p  Conclusions This study found that a medial heel skive of 4 mm or 6 mm increases peak pressure under the medial rearfoot in asymptomatic adults with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture. Plantar pressures at the midfoot and forefoot were not altered by a medial heel skive of 2, 4 or 6 mm. These findings provide some evidence for the effects of the medial heel skive orthotic modification.

  11. The Use of Cuff Weights for Aquatic Gait Training in People Post-Stroke with Hemiparesis. (United States)

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Lai, Byron; Lee, Do Kyeong; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos; Jung, Taeyou


    This study aimed to examine how spatiotemporal and kinematic gait variables are influenced by the application of a cuff weight during aquatic walking in people post-stroke. The secondary purpose was to compare the differences in gait responses between the placements of cuff weights on the proximal (knee weight) and distal end (ankle weight) of the shank. Twenty-one participants post-stroke with hemiparesis aged 66.3 ± 11.3 years participated in a cross-sectional comparative study. Participants completed two aquatic walking trials at their self-selected maximum walking speed across an 8-m walkway under each of the three conditions: 1) walking with a knee weight; 2) walking with an ankle weight; and 3) walking with no weight. Cuff weights were worn on the paretic leg of each participant. Gait speed, cadence, step width and joint kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints were recorded by a customized three-dimensional underwater motion analysis system. Mean aquatic walking speeds significantly increased with the use of cuff weights when compared to walking with no weight. Changes in gait variables were found in the non-paretic leg with the addition of weight, while no significant changes were found in the paretic leg. The results suggest that the use of additional weight can be helpful if the goal of gait training is to improve walking speed of people post-stroke during pool floor walking. However, it is interesting to note that changes in gait variables were not found in the paretic limb where favourable responses were expected to occur. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Proposition of a Classification of Adult Patients with Hemiparesis in Chronic Phase. (United States)

    Chantraine, Frédéric; Filipetti, Paul; Schreiber, Céline; Remacle, Angélique; Kolanowski, Elisabeth; Moissenet, Florent


    Patients who have developed hemiparesis as a result of a central nervous system lesion, often experience reduced walking capacity and worse gait quality. Although clinically, similar gait patterns have been observed, presently, no clinically driven classification has been validated to group these patients' gait abnormalities at the level of the hip, knee and ankle joints. This study has thus intended to put forward a new gait classification for adult patients with hemiparesis in chronic phase, and to validate its discriminatory capacity. Twenty-six patients with hemiparesis were included in this observational study. Following a clinical examination, a clinical gait analysis, complemented by a video analysis, was performed whereby participants were requested to walk spontaneously on a 10m walkway. A patient's classification was established from clinical examination data and video analysis. This classification was made up of three groups, including two sub-groups, defined with key abnormalities observed whilst walking. Statistical analysis was achieved on the basis of 25 parameters resulting from the clinical gait analysis in order to assess the discriminatory characteristic of the classification as displayed by the walking speed and kinematic parameters. Results revealed that the parameters related to the discriminant criteria of the proposed classification were all significantly different between groups and subgroups. More generally, nearly two thirds of the 25 parameters showed significant differences (p<0.05) between the groups and sub-groups. However, prior to being fully validated, this classification must still be tested on a larger number of patients, and the repeatability of inter-operator measures must be assessed. This classification enables patients to be grouped on the basis of key abnormalities observed whilst walking and has the advantage of being able to be used in clinical routines without necessitating complex apparatus. In the midterm, this

  13. Kansas legislators prioritize obesity but overlook nutrition and physical activity issues. (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Stephen, Mellina O; Vaughan, Katherine B; Kellogg, Melinda


    State-level policymakers play an important role in the fight against obesity because of their ability to create policies that influence opportunities for physical activity and nutrition. In 2011, we investigated how Kansas policymakers regarded obesity, nutrition, and physical activity in comparison to other issues. This study used a cross-sectional design. This study was conducted in Kansas, a predominately rural and Republican Midwestern state. All 181 state-level policymakers in Kansas were mailed a cover letter and survey. Policymakers were asked to identify and rate the importance of issues or problems in need of attention for Kansas. The 2011 state legislative report was content analyzed and coded to match the survey. Comparisons were made by political party. Of the 49 policymakers who completed a survey, 37 were Republicans and 43 were elected to their position. Although obesity-related issues were rated second highest after jobs, physical activity- and nutrition-related issues were not seen as important problems; moreover, little corresponding legislation was introduced. Other key issues identified by policymakers included budget/spending/taxes, education, jobs/economy, and drug abuse, with more legislation reflecting these problems. The Democrats ranked 11 issues as more significant problems than did the Republicans: quality of public education, poverty, access to health care, lack of affordable housing, ethics in government, lack of public health training, access to healthy groceries, lack of pedestrian walkways/crosswalks/sidewalks, pedestrian safety, air pollution, and global warming (P Kansas policymakers. Issues identified may be similar for other predominately rural and Republican states.

  14. Altered spatiotemporal characteristics of gait in older adults with chronic low back pain. (United States)

    Hicks, Gregory E; Sions, J Megan; Coyle, Peter C; Pohlig, Ryan T


    Previous studies in older adults have identified that chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with slower gait speed. Given that slower gait speed is a predictor of greater morbidity and mortality among older adults, it is important to understand the underlying spatiotemporal characteristics of gait among older adults with CLBP. The purposes of this study were to determine (1) if there are differences in spatiotemporal parameters of gait between older adults with and without CLBP during self-selected and fast walking and (2) whether any of these gait characteristics are correlated with performance of a challenging walking task, e.g. stair negotiation. Spatiotemporal characteristics of gait were evaluated using a computerized walkway in 54 community-dwelling older adults with CLBP and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Older adults with CLBP walked slower than their pain-free peers during self-selected and fast walking. After controlling for body mass index and gait speed, step width was significantly greater in the CLBP group during the fast walking condition. Within the CLBP group, step width and double limb support time are significantly correlated with stair ascent/descent times. From a clinical perspective, these gait characteristics, which may be indicative of balance performance, may need to be addressed to improve overall gait speed, as well as stair-climbing performance. Future longitudinal studies confirming our findings are needed, as well as investigations focused on developing interventions to improve gait speed and decrease subsequent risk of mobility decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pressure distribution at the stump/socket interface in transtibial amputees during walking on stairs, slope and non-flat road. (United States)

    Dou, Peng; Jia, Xiaohong; Suo, Shuangfu; Wang, Rencheng; Zhang, Ming


    Studies examining the stump/socket interface stresses have been restricted to unsupported stance and natural gait, i.e. walking at a comfortable speed on flat and straight walkway. However, the pressure behaviour as to the interface in unilateral transtibial amputees during walking on stairs, slope and non-flat road is unclear. Pressure distribution changes at multiple points, expressed as mean peak stump/socket interface pressure, mean pressure level over 90% of peak pressure, time in which pressure exceeded 90% of peak pressure and time-pressure integral at the period of sustained sub-maximal load, were measured during natural ambulating and walking on stairs, slope and non-flat road. Compared with natural gait, the mean peak pressure and sustained sub-maximal load increase notably over the patellar tendon during walking on stairs and non-flat road, and however decrease or change insignificantly at the patellar tendon on slope and over other measured areas in all conditions; moreover the time period of sustained sub-maximal load changes remarkably, except over the patellar tendon during walking up slope and over the popliteal area on non-flat road; finally, the time-pressure integral in the time period of sustained sub-maximal load changes considerably, except at the patellar tendon during walking up slope. The pressure characteristics during natural ambulating seem not to be highly predictive of what occurs in the conditions of walking on stairs, slope and non-flat road, which leads to significant increase in amplitude domain of tissue loading only at the patellar tendon, and however to remarkable changes in temporal sequences of tissue (un-)loading almost in all measured regions.

  16. Stress and gender effects on prefrontal cortex oxygenation levels assessed during single and dual-task walking conditions. (United States)

    Holtzer, Roee; Schoen, Chelsea; Demetriou, Eleni; Mahoney, Jeannette R; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Wang, Cuiling; Verghese, Joe


    The ability to walk is critical for functional independence and wellbeing. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in cognitive control of locomotion, notably under attention-demanding conditions. Factors that influence brain responses to cognitive demands of locomotion, however, are poorly understood. Herein, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of gender and perceived stress on stride velocity and PFC Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2 ) assessed during single and dual-task walking conditions. The experimental paradigm included Normal Walk (NW); Cognitive Interference (Alpha); and Walk-While-Talk (WWT) tasks. An instrumented walkway was used to assess stride velocity in NW and WWT conditions. Functional Near-Infrared-Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to quantify PFC HbO2 levels during NW, Alpha and WWT. Perceived task-related stress was evaluated with a single 11-point scale item. Participants were community residing older adults (age = 76.8 ± 6.7 years; %female = 56). Results revealed that higher perceived stress was associated with greater decline in stride velocity from single to dual-task conditions among men. Three-way interactions revealed that gender moderated the effect of perceived stress on changes in HbO2 levels comparing WWT to NW and Alpha. Attenuation in the increase in HbO2 levels, in high compared to low perceived stress levels, from the two single task conditions to WWT was observed only in men. Thus, older men may be more vulnerable to the effect of perceived stress on the change in PFC oxygenation levels across walking conditions that vary in terms of cognitive demands. These findings confer important implications for assessment and treatment of individuals at risk of mobility impairments. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of visual biofeedback cycling training on gait in patients with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Hochsprung, A; Granja Domínguez, A; Magni, E; Escudero Uribe, S; Moreno García, A


    Gait alterations are present in a high percentage of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). They appear from early stages of the disease and can limit patients' capacity to perform basic activities of daily living, affecting their quality of life. Visual biofeedback cycling training appears to be a useful tool in treating these impairments. This study aims to evaluate the short-term effect of visual biofeedback cycling training on gait in patients with MS. A total of 61 patients with mild to moderate MS were randomly assigned to a control group and an intervention group. The intervention group received visual biofeedback cycling training (MOTOmed viva2 system) once per week for 3 months, and a home exercise program. The control group only received the home exercise program. Both groups were evaluated using the GAITRite(®) Walkway gait assessment system before the intervention, during the first month of the programme, and after the intervention. In the intervention group, the analysis revealed statistically significant differences between Functional Ambulation Profile (FAP) scores before and during the intervention (P=.014), and before and after the intervention (P=.002). A statistically significant improvement was observed in step length in the intervention group between pre- and post-intervention scores (P=.001) and between first-month and post-intervention scores (P=.004). Visual biofeedback cycling training improved specific gait parameters in the short term and appears to be a therapeutic option for gait retraining in patients with MS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of Walking among Middle-Aged and Older Overweight and Obese Adults: Sociodemographic, Health, and Built Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Forjuoh


    Full Text Available Background. This study examined the association between selected sociodemographic, health, and built environmental factors and walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight/obese adults. Methods. Subjective data were obtained from surveys administered to community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged ≥50 years residing in four Texas cities from October 2013 to June 2014, along with objective data on neighborhood walkability (Walk Score™. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors predicting the odds of walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose. Results. Of 253 participants, the majority were non-Hispanic white (81.8%, married (74.5%, and male (53.4% and reported an annual income of ≥$50,000 (65.5%. Approximately, half were employed (49.6% or had at least a college degree (51.6%. Walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose (n=57, 22.5% was significantly associated with having at least a college degree (OR=5.55, 95% CI = 1.79–17.25, having no difficulty walking a quarter of a mile (OR=5.18, 95% CI = 1.30–20.83, and being unemployed (OR=3.25, 95% CI = 1.18–8.93 as well as perceived presence of sidewalks/protected walkways (OR=3.56, 95% CI = 1.10–11.50 and perceived absence of distracted drivers in the neighborhood (OR=4.08, 95% CI = 1.47–11.36. Conclusion. Addressing neighborhood conditions related to distracted drivers and pedestrian infrastructure may promote walking among middle-aged and older overweight/obese individuals.

  19. Study on smooth blasting parameter optimization of medium-length hole in hard rock inclined roadway drivage%硬岩斜巷掘进中深孔光爆参数优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为提高硬岩斜巷成型质量和施工效率,以桃园煤矿人行上山爆破施工为背景,分析了造成炮眼利用率较低、巷道超欠挖严重及施工效率较低的原因,结合理论计算和工程前期施工经验对各爆破参数进行优化.结果表明:优化后的爆破方案采用全断面一次起爆,掏槽选用三级楔形掏槽,周边眼炮眼密集系数取0.89,底板眼呈双排梅花型布置,可使炮眼利用率提高到90.5%,巷道成型质量显著提高,每爆破循环节约用时1 h.%To improve the forming quality and construction efficiency of hard rock inclined roadway,taking the blasting construction of walkway rise in Taoyuan Coal Mine as the back-ground,the reasons for low use ratio of blast hole,serious back break of roadway and low con-struction efficiency were analyzed,and the blasting parameters was optimized by combining with theoretical calculation and previous construction experience. The results showed that the opti-mized blasting scheme with full section one-time blasting method,three-level wedge cut,inten-sive coefficient of periphery hole adopting 0.89 and double-row quincunx type distributed floor hole could increase the use ratio of blast hole to 90.5%. The roadway forming quality improved significantly and the time of each blasting cycle decreased to 1 h.

  20. Effect of Age on the Ability to Recover from a Single Unexpected Underfoot Perturbation during Gait: Kinematic Responses (United States)

    Nnodim, Joseph O.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.


    A sudden underfoot perturbation can present a serious threat to balance during gait, but little is known about how humans recover from such perturbations or whether their response is affected by age. We tested the hypothesis that age would not affect the stepping responses to a nominal 10 degree inversion or eversion of the stance foot during gait. Twenty-three healthy young (22.7 ± 3.35 yrs) and 18 healthy old adults (68.0 ± 7.19 yrs) performed 60 walking trials along a 6-m level walkway at a normal gait speed. In 16 of these trials, a single medial (MP) or lateral (LP) perturbation was randomly administered once under the left or right foot. Recovery step width (SW), step length (SL), trunk kinematics and walking speed were measured optoelectronically. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and post-hoc t-tests were used to test the hypotheses. The results show that a MP or LP altered the recovery SL (p = 0.005) and age affected the number of recovery steps (p = 0.017), as well as the first recovery SW and SL (p = 0.013 and p = 0.031, respectively). Both MP and LP caused young adults to have wider SW (p < 0.02) and shorter SL (p < 0.005) without changing trunk movement during their first recovery step. Older adults, however, significantly changed lateral trunk inclination during the first recovery step, decreased their fourth recovery SL (p < 0.001). We conclude that young adults adjust the step kinematics of as many as four recovery steps following this perturbation, a response that was delayed and significantly weaker in older adults who instead exhibited an immediate torso inclination consistent with a hip response strategy. PMID:23680425

  1. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio A Storm

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts, Up (Jawbone, One (Fitbit, ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc., Tractivity (Kineteks Corp. and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia. Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  2. The effect of an arm sling on energy consumption while walking in hemiplegic patients: a randomized comparison (United States)

    Han, Seung Hoon; Kim, Taikon; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Mi Jung; Park, Si-bog; Yoon, Seoung Ic; Choi, Bong-Kun; Lee, Michael Y


    Objective: To evaluate the effect of an arm sling on gait speed and energy efficiency of patients with hemiplegia. Design: A randomized crossover design. Setting: A rehabilitation department of a university hospital. Subjects: Thirty-seven outpatients with hemiplegia were included in this study. Interventions: All patients walked on a 20-m walkway twice on the same day, randomly with and without an arm sling, at a self selected speed. Main measures: The heart rate, gait speed, oxygen cost and oxygen rate were measured on all patients. We analysed all values with and without an arm sling and also compared them after all patients being stratified according to demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: When we compared the heart rate between walking with (90.7 ± 17.2 beats/min) and without (91.2 ± 18.6 beats/min) the arm sling, it was significantly decreased while walking with the arm sling. When we compared the gait speed between walking with (32.8 m/min) and without (30.1 m/min), it was significantly increased with the arm sling walking. The O2 rate in hemiplegic patients walking with the arm sling was significantly decreased by 7%, compared to walking without arm sling (5.8 mL/kg min and 6.2 mL/kg min, respectively). The O2 cost in hemiplegic patients walking without arm sling was significantly 1.4 times greater than walking with it (0.2 mL/kg m and 0.3 mL/kg m, respectively). Conclusion: An arm sling can be used to improve the gait efficiency. PMID:21059662

  3. The foraging tunnel system of the Namibian desert termite, Baucaliotermes hainesi. (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R


    The harvester termite, Baucaliotermes hainesi (Fuller) (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae), is an endemic in southern Namibia, where it collects and eats dry grass. At the eastern, landward edge of the Namib Desert, the nests of these termites are sometimes visible above ground surface, and extend at least 60 cm below ground. The termites gain access to foraging areas through underground foraging tunnels that emanate from the nest. The looseness of the desert sand, combined with the hardness of the cemented sand tunnels allowed the use of a gasoline-powered blower and soft brushes to expose tunnels lying 5 to 15 cm below the surface. The tunnels form a complex system that radiates at least 10 to 15 m from the nest with cross-connections between major tunnels. At 50 to 75 cm intervals, the tunnels are connected to the surface by vertical risers that can be opened to gain foraging access to the surrounding area. Foraging termites rarely need to travel more than a meter on the ground surface. The tunnels swoop up and down forming high points at riser locations, and they have a complex architecture. In the center runs a smooth, raised walkway along which termites travel, and along the sides lie pockets that act as depots where foragers deposit grass pieces harvested from the surface. Presumably, these pieces are transported to the nest by a second group of termites. There are also several structures that seem to act as vertical highways to greater depths, possibly even to moist soil. A census of a single nest revealed about 45,000 termites, of which 71% were workers, 9% soldiers and 6% neotenic supplementary reproductives. The nest consisted of a hard outer "carapace" of cemented sand, with a central living space of smooth, sweeping arches and surfaces. A second species of termite, Promirotermes sp. nested in the outer carapace.

  4. The Effects of Music Salience on the Gait Performance of Young Adults. (United States)

    de Bruin, Natalie; Kempster, Cody; Doucette, Angelica; Doan, Jon B; Hu, Bin; Brown, Lesley A


    The presence of a rhythmic beat in the form of a metronome tone or beat-accentuated original music can modulate gait performance; however, it has yet to be determined whether gait modulation can be achieved using commercially available music. The current study investigated the effects of commercially available music on the walking of healthy young adults. Specific aims were (a) to determine whether commercially available music can be used to influence gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability), (b) to establish the effect of music salience on gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability), and (c) to examine whether music tempi differentially effected gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability). Twenty-five participants walked the length of an unobstructed walkway while listening to music. Music selections differed with respect to the salience or the tempo of the music. The genre of music and artists were self-selected by participants. Listening to music while walking was an enjoyable activity that influenced gait. Specifically, salient music selections increased measures of cadence, velocity, and stride length; in contrast, gait was unaltered by the presence of non-salient music. Music tempo did not differentially affect gait performance (gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability) in these participants. Gait performance was differentially influenced by music salience. These results have implications for clinicians considering the use of commercially available music as an alternative to the traditional rhythmic auditory cues used in rehabilitation programs. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Adaptive feedback potential in dynamic stability during disturbed walking in the elderly. (United States)

    Bierbaum, Stefanie; Peper, Andreas; Karamanidis, Kiros; Arampatzis, Adamantios


    After perturbation of the gait, feedback information may help regaining balance adequately, but it remains unknown whether adaptive feedback responses are possible after repetitive and unexpected perturbations during gait and if there are age-related differences. Prior experience may contribute to improved reactive behavior. Fourteen old (59-73 yrs) and fourteen young (22-31 yrs) males walked on a walkway which included one covered element. By exchanging this element participants either stepped on hard surface or unexpectedly on soft surface which caused a perturbation in gait. The gait protocol contained 5 unexpected soft trials to quantify the reactive adaptation. Each soft trial was followed by 4-8 hard trials to generate a wash-out effect. The dynamic stability was investigated by using the margin of stability (MoS), which was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support and the extrapolated position of the center of mass in the anterior-posterior direction. MoS at recovery leg touchdown were significantly lower in the unexpected soft trials compared to the baseline, indicating a less stable posture. However, MoS increased (p<0.05) in both groups within the disturbed trials, indicating feedback adaptive improvements. Young and old participants showed differences in the handling of the perturbation in the course of several trials. The magnitude of the reactive adaptation after the fifth unexpected perturbation was significantly different compared to the first unexpected perturbation (old: 49±30%; young: 77±40%), showing a tendency (p=0.065) for higher values in the young participants. Old individuals maintain the ability to adapt to feedback controlled perturbations. However, the locomotor behavior is more conservative compared to the young ones, leading to disadvantages in the reactive adaptation during disturbed walking.

  6. Whole-genome resequencing of two elite sires for the detection of haplotypes under selection in dairy cattle. (United States)

    Larkin, Denis M; Daetwyler, Hans D; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Hetrick, Lorie A; Boucek, Lisa; Bachman, Sharon L; Band, Mark R; Akraiko, Tatsiana V; Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Macleod, Iona M; Harkins, Timothy T; McCague, Jennifer E; Goddard, Michael E; Hayes, Ben J; Lewin, Harris A


    Using a combination of whole-genome resequencing and high-density genotyping arrays, genome-wide haplotypes were reconstructed for two of the most important bulls in the history of the dairy cattle industry, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief ("Chief") and his son Walkway Chief Mark ("Mark"), each accounting for ∼7% of all current genomes. We aligned 20.5 Gbp (∼7.3× coverage) and 37.9 Gbp (∼13.5× coverage) of the Chief and Mark genomic sequences, respectively. More than 1.3 million high-quality SNPs were detected in Chief and Mark sequences. The genome-wide haplotypes inherited by Mark from Chief were reconstructed using ∼1 million informative SNPs. Comparison of a set of 15,826 SNPs that overlapped in the sequence-based and BovineSNP50 SNPs showed the accuracy of the sequence-based haplotype reconstruction to be as high as 97%. By using the BovineSNP50 genotypes, the frequencies of Chief alleles on his two haplotypes then were determined in 1,149 of his descendants, and the distribution was compared with the frequencies that would be expected assuming no selection. We identified 49 chromosomal segments in which Chief alleles showed strong evidence of selection. Candidate polymorphisms for traits that have been under selection in the dairy cattle population then were identified by referencing Chief's DNA sequence within these selected chromosome blocks. Eleven candidate genes were identified with functions related to milk-production, fertility, and disease-resistance traits. These data demonstrate that haplotype reconstruction of an ancestral proband by whole-genome resequencing in combination with high-density SNP genotyping of descendants can be used for rapid, genome-wide identification of the ancestor's alleles that have been subjected to artificial selection.

  7. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong (United States)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.


    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  8. Influence of the Lower Jaw Position on the Running Pattern.

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    Christian Maurer

    Full Text Available The effects of manipulated dental occlusion on body posture has been investigated quite often and discussed controversially in the literature. Far less attention has been paid to the influence of dental occlusion position on human movement. If human movement was analysed, it was mostly while walking and not while running. This study was therefore designed to identify the effect of lower jaw positions on running behaviour according to different dental occlusion positions.Twenty healthy young recreational runners (mean age = 33.9±5.8 years participated in this study. Kinematic data were collected using an eight-camera Vicon motion capture system (VICON Motion Systems, Oxford, UK. Subjects were consecutively prepared with four different dental occlusion conditions in random order and performed five running trials per test condition on a level walkway with their preferred running shoes. Vector based pattern recognition methods, in particular cluster analysis and support vector machines (SVM were used for movement pattern identification.Subjects exhibited unique movement patterns leading to 18 clusters for the 20 subjects. No overall classification of the splint condition could be observed. Within individual subjects different running patterns could be identified for the four splint conditions. The splint conditions lead to a more symmetrical running pattern than the control condition.The influence of an occlusal splint on running pattern can be confirmed in this study. Wearing a splint increases the symmetry of the running pattern. A more symmetrical running pattern might help to reduce the risk of injuries or help in performance. The change of the movement pattern between the neutral condition and any of the three splint conditions was significant within subjects but not across subjects. Therefore the dental splint has a measureable influence on the running pattern of subjects, however subjects individuality has to be considered when choosing the

  9. 某高层住宅建筑外墙外保温系统火灾技术调查%Investigation and lessons learned upon a high-rise residential building fire involving external insulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈纹; 刘激扬; 倪照鹏; 黄鑫


    对某高层住宅建筑外墙外保温系统火灾进行了调查并分析了火灾发生的原因.火灾时部分保温材料表面受热剥落而未发挥保护作用,外墙玻璃破裂后火势通过窗口进入建筑内部.建筑内的自动喷水灭火系统在火灾初期正常运行,走道部位的机械排烟系统因部分排烟阀机械故障未能发挥作用.建筑的外墙外保温系统施工改造应采用不燃保温材料;疏散楼梯间应设置在建筑的不同方位;高层建筑的施工用脚手架和踏板等应采用不燃材料.%An investigation has been carried out to study a high-rise residential building fire case involving external insulation system. Part of the external insulation materials dropped in the fire because of heat and fail to protect the building, and the fire spread into the building after the broking of glass of windows. The automatic sprinkler system operating normally at the beginning of the fire, but the malfunction of part of the exhaust value lead to the failure of mechanical smoke exhaust system at the walkway. The external insulation system must use the non-combustible materials: the evacuation stairwell must set at the different position of building; the scaffold and footboard used at the construction of high-rise building must be non-combustible.

  10. Assessment of Cardiovascular Fitness of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Six Minute Walk Test

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    Taofeek Oluwole Awotidebe


    Full Text Available AIM: Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB tends to have limited exercise tolerance and a significant disability affecting their activities of daily living. The importance of exercise in the management of these patients has not been well investigated. This study was designed to assess the cardiovascular fitness of patients with pulmonary TB using the six-minute walk test (6-MWT. METHOD: Sixty five consented patients with Pulmonary TB were consecutively recruited into the study. The patients performed 6-MWT over a 30 meter course on a level walkway at a speed as fast as they could. Data were obtained on participants’ physical characteristics, pre and post exercise blood pressure and heart rate, and maximum oxygen consumption. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and paired t-test. RESULTS: The post walk test cardiovascular parameters were significantly higher than the resting cardiovascular parameters. The mean VO2 max and MET of the participants were 11.7±0.97 (ml O2kg -1min-1 and 3.35±0.28 (mL/Kg respectively. The means 6-MWT distance for male and female participants were 502.0±43.0m 481.7±68.3m respectively. CONCLUSION: The result implies that the 6-MWT is capable of evoking a significant cardiovascular change among patients with pulmonary TB. The 6-MWT may be useful in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with pulmonary TB. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 99-106

  11. Trunk motion and gait characteristics of pregnant women when walking: report of a longitudinal study with a control group. (United States)

    Gilleard, Wendy L


    A longitudinal repeated measures design over pregnancy and post-birth, with a control group would provide insight into the mechanical adaptations of the body under conditions of changing load during a common female human lifespan condition, while minimizing the influences of inter human differences. The objective was to investigate systematic changes in the range of motion for the pelvic and thoracic segments of the spine, the motion between these segments (thoracolumbar spine) and temporospatial characteristics of step width, stride length and velocity during walking as pregnancy progresses and post-birth. Nine pregnant women were investigated when walking along a walkway at a self-selected velocity using an 8 camera motion analysis system on four occasions throughout pregnancy and once post birth. A control group of twelve non-pregnant nulliparous women were tested on three occasions over the same time period. The existence of linear trends for change was investigated. As pregnancy progresses there was a significant linear trend for increase in step width (p = 0.05) and a significant linear trend for decrease in stride length (p = 0.05). Concurrently there was a significant linear trend for decrease in the range of motion of the pelvic segment (p = 0.03) and thoracolumbar spine (p = 0.01) about a vertical axis (side to side rotation), and the pelvic segment (p = 0.04) range of motion around an anterio-posterior axis (side tilt). Post-birth, step width readapted whereas pelvic (p = 0.02) and thoracic (p changes was greater than that accounted for with natural variability with re testing. As pregnancy progressed and post-birth there were significant linear trends seen in biomechanical changes when walking at a self-determined natural speed that were greater than that accounted for by natural variability with repeated testing. Not all adaptations were resolved by eight weeks post birth.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of prototype footwear and insoles to optimise balance and gait in older people. (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Munteanu, Shannon E


    Footwear has the potential to influence balance in either a detrimental or beneficial manner, and is therefore an important consideration in relation to falls prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve balance. Older women (n = 30) aged 65 - 83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway on a foam rubber mat, limits of stability and tandem walking, measured with the Neurocom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, step length and step width at preferred speed, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (i) flexible footwear (Dunlop Volley™), (ii) their own footwear, and (iii) prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve dynamic balance. Perceptions of the footwear were also documented using a structured questionnaire. There was no difference in postural sway, limits of stability or gait patterns between the footwear conditions. However, when performing the tandem walking test, there was a significant reduction in step width and end sway when wearing the prototype footwear compared to both the flexible footwear and participants' own footwear. Participants perceived their own footwear to be more attractive, comfortable, well-fitted and easier to put on and off compared to the prototype footwear. Despite this, most participants (n = 18, 60%) reported that they would consider wearing the prototype footwear to reduce their risk of falling. The prototype footwear and insoles used in this study improve balance when performing a tandem walk test, as evidenced by a narrower step width and decreased sway at completion of the task. However, further development of the design is required to make the footwear acceptable to older women from the perspective of aesthetics and comfort. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12617001128381 , 01

  13. Age-related differences when walking downhill on different sloped terrains. (United States)

    Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando


    Despite the common situation of walking on different sloped terrains, previous work on gait has focused on level terrain. This study aims to assess whether any age-related differences exist in spatiotemporal and stability parameters when walking downhill on three different sloped walkways. Two tri-axial accelerometers were used at the levels of head and pelvis to investigate spatiotemporal parameters, magnitude (root mean square, RMS), harmonic content of accelerations (harmonic ratios, HR) and attenuation between body levels (ATT) in 35 older adults (OA, 69 ± 4.5 y.o.) and 22 young adults (YA, 22.1 ± 1.9 y.o.). Older adults walked at the same speed and cadence as young adults in flat terrain (FL, 0%) and moderate hill (MH, 8%). In the highest slope (PH, 20%), older adults reduced speed and step length and both groups increased cadence. Age had no effect on attenuation and RMS profiles. RMS increased with slope in all directions at both head and pelvis, except, for medio-lateral direction (ML), with similar head RMS in all slopes. There is an important shift in ATT from anteroposterior direction (AP) to ML at the highest slope, resulting in smaller antero-posterior attenuation and greater medio-lateral attenuation. Age differences appeared in the smoothness (HR) at the flat terrain, with increased vertical and antero-posterior values for young adults. As slope increased, group differences disappeared and HR decreased for all directions of motion. In general, spatiotemporal adaptations to increased slope seem to be part of a mechanism to improve ML attenuation, in both young and old adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of prefrontal cortex during postural control in Parkinsonian syndromes a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Holtzer, Roee; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Zemon, Vance; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles


    Postural instability represents a main source of disability in Parkinsonian syndromes and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Indirect probes (i.e., mental imagery) of brain involvement support the role of prefrontal cortex as a key cortical region for postural control in older adults with and without Parkinsonian syndromes. Using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRs) as a direct online cortical probe, this study aimed to compare neural activation patterns in prefrontal cortex, postural stability, and their respective interactions, in (1) patients with Parkinsonian syndromes; (2) those with mild parkinsonian signs; (3) and healthy older adults. Among 269 non-demented older adults (76.41 ± 6.70 years, 56% women), 26 individuals presented with Parkinsonian syndromes (Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS): 11.08 ± 3.60), 117 had mild parkinsonian signs (UPDRS: 3.21 ± 2.49), and 126 individuals were included as a healthy control group. Participants were asked to stand upright and count silently for ten seconds while changes in oxygenated hemoglobin levels over prefrontal cortex were measured using fNIRs. We simultaneously evaluated postural stability with center of pressure velocity data recorded on an instrumented walkway. Compared to healthy controls and patients with mild parkinsonian signs, patients with Parkinsonian syndromes demonstrated significantly higher prefrontal oxygenation levels to maintain postural stability. The pattern of brain activation and postural control of participants with mild parkinsonian signs were similar to that of normal controls. These findings highlight the online role of the prefrontal cortex in postural control in patients with Parkinsonian syndromes and afford the opportunity to improve therapeutic options for postural instability.

  15. Bracing of the trunk and neck has a differential effect on head control during gait. (United States)

    Morrison, S; Russell, D M; Kelleran, K; Walker, M L


    During gait, the trunk and neck are believed to play an important role in dissipating the transmission of forces from the ground to the head. This attenuation process is important to ensure head control is maintained. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of externally restricting the motion of the trunk and/or neck segments on acceleration patterns of the upper body and head and related trunk muscle activity. Twelve healthy adults performed three walking trials on a flat, straight 65-m walkway, under four different bracing conditions: 1) control-no brace; 2) neck-braced; 3) trunk-braced; and 4) neck-trunk braced. Three-dimensional acceleration from the head, neck (C7) and lower trunk (L3) were collected, as was muscle activity from trunk. Results revealed that, when the neck and/or trunk were singularly braced, an overall decrease in the ability of the trunk to attenuate gait-related oscillations was observed, which led to increases in the amplitude of vertical acceleration for all segments. However, when the trunk and neck were braced together, acceleration amplitude across all segments decreased in line with increased attenuation from the neck to the head. Bracing was also reflected by increased activity in erector spinae, decreased abdominal muscle activity and lower trunk muscle coactivation. Overall, it would appear that the neuromuscular system of young, healthy individuals was able to maintain a consistent pattern of head acceleration, irrespective of the level of bracing, and that priority was placed over the control of vertical head accelerations during these gait tasks. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Design, construction and validation of a portable care system for the daily telerehabiliatation of gait. (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Brocco, Monica


    When designing a complete system of daily-telerehabilitation it should be borne in mind that properly designed methodologies should be furnished for patients to execute specific motion tasks and for care givers to assess the relevant parameters. Whether in hospital or at home, the system should feature two basic elements: (a) instrumented and walking aids or supports, (b) equipment for the assessment of parameters. Being gait the focus, the idea was to design, construct and validate - as an alternative to the complex and expensive instruments currently used - a simple, portable kit that may be easily interfaced/integrated with the most common mechanical tools used in motion rehabilitation (instrumented walkways, aids, supports), with feedback to both patient for self-monitoring and trainer/therapist (present or remote) for clinical reporting. The proposed system consists of: one step-counter, three couples of photo-emitter detectors, one central unit for collecting and processing the telemetrically transmitted data; a software interface on a dedicated PC and a network adapter. The system has been successfully validated in a clinical application on two groups of 16 subjects at the 1st and 2nd level of the Tinetti test. The degree of acceptance by subjects and care-givers was high. The system was also successfully compared with an Inertial Measurement Unit, a de facto standard. The portable kit can be used with different rehabilitation tools and different ground rugosity. The advantages are: (a) very low costs when compared with optoelectronic solutions and other portable solutions; (b) very high accuracy, also for subjects with imbalance problems; (c) good compatibility with any rehabilitative tool.

  17. Security Pacific National Bank - Los Ángeles - California (EE. UU.

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    Martin, Albert C.


    Full Text Available This building, situated in a 17,000 m2 block in Los Angeles, consists of a 55 storeyed tower, in the lower part of which are the offices and the parkingplace with room for 2,500 cars. The complex has a total surface of 260,000 m2. The sides of the square ground plan of the tower make a 45° angle with the adjoining streets whereby the orientation in relation to the sun provides better possibilities for the use of solar energy. Within this complex much attention has been paid to the pedestrians in the form of futuristic innovations such as, for example: moving ramps and above-street pedestrian walkways which provide access to the other buildings. On the rooftop a heliport has been constructed.Este edificio, situado en una manzana de 17.000 m2 en la ciudad de Los Angeles, está constituido por una alta torre de 55 plantas levantada sobre una base en la que se encuentran la zona de oficinas y el aparcamiento. El conjunto posee una superficie de más de 260.000 m2. La planta de la torre, de forma cuadrada, tiene sus lados dispuestos según un ángulo de 45° respecto a las calles adyacentes, con lo que, al mejorar la orientación, se logra un mayor control solar y un gran ahorro de energía. En el interior se han tenido muy en cuenta los sistemas de circulación peatonal, mediante innovaciones de tipo futurista tales como: pasillos mecánicos rodantes, una plataforma móvil elevada y pasos elevados que conectan con los edificios vecinos. En la coronación del edificio se ha dispuesto un helipuerto, y en la base, un aparcamiento de 2.500 plazas de capacidad.

  18. Prevention of Cartilage Degeneration and Gait Asymmetry by Lubricin Tribosupplementation in the Rat Following ACL Transection (United States)

    Jay, Gregory D.; Elsaid, Khaled A.; Kelly, Karen A.; Anderson, Scott C.; Zhang, Ling; Teeple, Erin; Waller, Kimberly; Fleming, Braden C.


    Objective To investigate whether cartilage degeneration is prevented or minimized in an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rat model following a single dose-escalated intra-articular injection of lubricin derived from human synoviocytes in culture (HSL). Methods Unilateral ACL transection (ACLT) of the right hindlimb was performed in Lewis rats (N = 56). Control animals underwent a capsulotomy alone leaving the ACL intact (N = 11). Intra-articular injections (50μl/injection) of PBS (N = 14) and HSL (N = 14; 1600μg/ml) were performed on day 7 post-surgery. Animals were euthanized on day 70 post-surgery. Histological specimens were immunoprobed for lubricin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Urinary CTX-II (uCTX-II) levels were measured on day 35 and 70 post-surgery. Hindlimb maximum applied force was determined using a variable resistor walkway to monitor quadruped gait asymmetries. Results Increased immunostaining for lubricin in the superficial zone and on the surface of cartilage was observed in lubricin-treated and control animals but not the PBS-treated nor the untreated ACLT animals. On post-operative day 35 and 70, uCTXII levels of HSL-treated animals were lower than corresponding untreated and PBS-treated (p=0.005; p<0.001 respectively) animals. ACLT animals treated with HSL and control animals distributed their weight equally between hindlimbs compared to PBS treated or untreated animals (p<0.01). Conclusion A single intra-articular injection of concentrated lubricin, following ACLT, reduced collagen type II degradation and improved weight bearing in the affected joint. This study supports the practice of tribosupplementation with lubricin in retarding cartilage degeneration and possibly the development of post-traumatic OA. PMID:22127873

  19. Effects of administration of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and platelet-rich plasma to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints. (United States)

    Upchurch, David A; Renberg, Walter C; Roush, James K; Milliken, George A; Weiss, Mark L


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of simultaneous intra-articular and IV injection of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints. ANIMALS 22 client-owned dogs (12 placebo-treated [control] dogs and 10 treated dogs). PROCEDURES Dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints that caused signs of lameness or discomfort were characterized on the basis of results of orthopedic examination, goniometry, lameness score, the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), a visual analogue scale, and results obtained by use of a pressure-sensing walkway at week 0 (baseline). Dogs received a simultaneous intraarticular and IV injection of SVF and PRP or a placebo. Dogs were examined again 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. RESULTS CBPI scores were significantly lower for the treatment group at week 24, compared with scores for the control group. Mean visual analogue scale score for the treatment group was significantly higher at week 0 than at weeks 4, 8, or 24. Dogs with baseline peak vertical force (PVF) in the lowest 25th percentile were compared, and the treatment group had a significantly higher PVF than did the control group. After the SVF-PRP injection, fewer dogs in the treated group than in the control group had lameness confirmed during examination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints treated with SVF and PRP, improvements in CBPI and PVF were evident at some time points, compared with results for the control group.

  20. The complexity of human walking: a knee osteoarthritis study. (United States)

    Kotti, Margarita; Duffell, Lynsey D; Faisal, Aldo A; McGregor, Alison H


    This study proposes a framework for deconstructing complex walking patterns to create a simple principal component space before checking whether the projection to this space is suitable for identifying changes from the normality. We focus on knee osteoarthritis, the most common knee joint disease and the second leading cause of disability. Knee osteoarthritis affects over 250 million people worldwide. The motivation for projecting the highly dimensional movements to a lower dimensional and simpler space is our belief that motor behaviour can be understood by identifying a simplicity via projection to a low principal component space, which may reflect upon the underlying mechanism. To study this, we recruited 180 subjects, 47 of which reported that they had knee osteoarthritis. They were asked to walk several times along a walkway equipped with two force plates that capture their ground reaction forces along 3 axes, namely vertical, anterior-posterior, and medio-lateral, at 1000 Hz. Data when the subject does not clearly strike the force plate were excluded, leaving 1-3 gait cycles per subject. To examine the complexity of human walking, we applied dimensionality reduction via Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis. The first principal component explains 34% of the variance in the data, whereas over 80% of the variance is explained by 8 principal components or more. This proves the complexity of the underlying structure of the ground reaction forces. To examine if our musculoskeletal system generates movements that are distinguishable between normal and pathological subjects in a low dimensional principal component space, we applied a Bayes classifier. For the tested cross-validated, subject-independent experimental protocol, the classification accuracy equals 82.62%. Also, a novel complexity measure is proposed, which can be used as an objective index to facilitate clinical decision making. This measure proves that knee osteoarthritis subjects exhibit more

  1. Visuospatial tasks affect locomotor control more than nonspatial tasks in older people.

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    Jasmine C Menant

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that visuospatial processing requiring working memory is particularly important for balance control during standing and stepping, and that limited spatial encoding contributes to increased interference in postural control dual tasks. However, visuospatial involvement during locomotion has not been directly determined. This study examined the effects of a visuospatial cognitive task versus a nonspatial cognitive task on gait speed, smoothness and variability in older people, while controlling for task difficulty.Thirty-six people aged ≥75 years performed three walking trials along a 20 m walkway under the following conditions: (i an easy nonspatial task; (ii a difficult nonspatial task; (iii an easy visuospatial task; and (iv a difficult visuospatial task. Gait parameters were computed from a tri-axial accelerometer attached to the sacrum. The cognitive task response times and percentage of correct answers during walking and seated trials were also computed.No significant differences in either cognitive task type error rates or response times were evident in the seated conditions, indicating equivalent task difficulty. In the walking trials, participants responded faster to the visuospatial tasks than the nonspatial tasks but at the cost of making significantly more cognitive task errors. Participants also walked slower, took shorter steps, had greater step time variability and less smooth pelvis accelerations when concurrently performing the visuospatial tasks compared with the nonspatial tasks and when performing the difficult compared with the easy cognitive tasks.Compared with nonspatial cognitive tasks, visuospatial cognitive tasks led to a slower, more variable and less smooth gait pattern. These findings suggest that visuospatial processing might share common networks with locomotor control, further supporting the hypothesis that gait changes during dual task paradigms are not simply due to limited attentional

  2. Concurrent validity of a trunk tri-axial accelerometer system for gait analysis in older adults. (United States)

    Hartmann, Antonia; Luzi, Susanna; Murer, Kurt; de Bie, Rob A; de Bruin, Eling D


    The aim of this study was (1) to determine the concurrent validity of a trunk tri-axial accelerometer system (DynaPort) with the GAITRite system for spatio-temporal gait parameters at preferred, slow and fast self-selected walking speed that were recorded for averaged and individual step data in an older adult population and (2) to compare the levels of agreement for averaged step data from different walking distances and individual step data. The levels of agreement between the two systems for averaged step data was excellent for walking speed, cadence, step duration and step length (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between 0.99 and 1.00, ratios limits of agreement (RLOA) between 0.7% and 3.3%), moderate for variability of step duration (ICCs between 0.88 and 0.98 and RLOAs between 19% and 34%) and low for variability of step length (ICCs between 0.24 and 0.33 and RLOAs between 73% and 87%). The levels of agreement for individual step duration and step length were moderate with ICCs between 0.81 and 0.89 and with RLOAs between 9% and 13%. Comparing RLOAs from averaged step data across the different walking distances and individual step data, the RLOAs decreased with increased number of steps. The results of this study demonstrate that the DynaPort system, which allows measurements in real life conditions, is a highly valid tool for assessment of spatio-temporal gait parameters for averaged step data across a walkway length of approximately 20m in independent living elderly. Gait variability measures and individual step data need to be viewed with caution because of the moderate to low levels of agreement between the two systems.

  3. A novel approach to mapping load transfer from the plantar surface of the foot to the walls of the total contact cast: a proof of concept study

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    Begg Lindy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total contact casting is regarded as the gold standard treatment for plantar foot ulcers. Load transfer from the plantar surface of the foot to the walls of the total contact cast has previously been assessed indirectly. The aim of this proof of concept study was to determine the feasibility of a new method to directly measure the load between the cast wall and the lower leg interface using capacitance sensors. Methods Plantar load was measured with pedar® sensor insoles and cast wall load with pliance® sensor strips as participants (n=2 walked along a 9 m walkway at 0.4±0.04 m/sec. The relative force (% on the cast wall was calculated by dividing the mean cast wall force (N per step by the mean plantar force (N per step in the shoe-cast condition. Results The combined average measured load per step upon the walls of the TCC equated to 23-34% of the average plantar load on the opposite foot. The highest areas of load on the lower leg were located at the posterior margin of the lateral malleolus and at the anterior ankle/extensor retinaculum. Conclusions These direct measurements of cast wall load are similar to previous indirect assessment of load transfer (30-36% to the cast walls. This new methodology may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of load transfer from the plantar surface of the foot to the cast walls of the total contact cast.

  4. Accuracy of StepWatch™ and ActiGraph accelerometers for measuring steps taken among persons with multiple sclerosis.

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    Brian M Sandroff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There has been increased interest in the objective monitoring of free-living walking behavior using accelerometers in clinical research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. The current investigation examined and compared the accuracy of the StepWatch activity monitor and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer for capturing steps taken during various speeds of prolonged, over-ground ambulation in persons with MS who had mild, moderate, and severe disability. METHODS: Sixty-three persons with MS underwent a neurological examination for generation of an EDSS score and undertook two trials of walking on the GAITRite electronic walkway. Participants were fitted with accelerometers, and undertook three modified six-minute walk (6MW tests that were interspersed with 10-15 minutes of rest. The first 6MW was undertaken at a comfortable walking speed (CWS, and the two remaining 6MW tests were undertaken above (faster walking speed; FWS or below (slower walking speed; SWS the participant's CWS. The actual number of steps taken was counted through direct observation using hand-tally counters. RESULTS: The StepWatch activity monitor (99.8%-99.9% and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer (95.6%-97.4% both demonstrated highly accurate measurement of steps taken under CWS and FWS conditions. The StepWatch had better accuracy (99.0% than the ActiGraph (95.5% in the overall sample under the SWS condition, and this was particularly apparent in those with severe disability (StepWatch: 95.7%; ActiGraph: 87.3%. The inaccuracy in measurement for the ActiGraph was associated with alterations of gait (e.g., slower gait velocity, shorter step length, wider base of support. CONCLUSIONS: This research will help inform the choice of accelerometer to be adopted in clinical trials of MS wherein the monitoring of free-living walking behavior is of particular value.

  5. Gait characteristics according to pyramidal, sensory and cerebellar EDSS subcategories in people with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Givon, Uri


    Walking deterioration is a common problem in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). However, there are only scarce data examining the contribution of specific neurological functional systems on gait performance in multiple sclerosis (MS). Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the differences in spatio-temporal parameters of gait according to the pyramidal, cerebellar and sensory functional systems. The cross-sectional study included 289 PwMS with mean disease duration of 8.0 (SD = 8.2) years. Spatio-temporal parameters of gait were studied using an electronic walkway. The sample pool was divided into six groups according to the scores of the pyramidal, cerebellar and sensory functional systems, derived from the expanded disability status scale data. Findings indicated that asymmetry of the step time and asymmetry of the single support were significantly elevated in the pyramidal group compared to the sensory group; 9.4 (SD = 10.6) vs. 3.1 (SD = 6.7), P value = 0.004; 9.3 (SD = 10.4) vs. 2.7 (2.1), P value = 0.001, respectively. Additionally, patients in the pure sensory group walked significantly faster with longer strides and less asymmetry compared to the pyramidal-cerebellar-sensory group. Moreover, patients in the sensory group walked with longer steps/strides and symmetry compared to the patients in the pyramidal-cerebellar group. This study confirms that pyramidal disorders are main contributors of gait impairments in the MS population. Furthermore, patients with sensory impairments have a relatively preserved gait pattern compared to patients affected by the pyramidal system.

  6. Associations between Muscle Strength Asymmetry and Impairments in Gait and Posture in Young Brain-Injured Patients. (United States)

    Drijkoningen, David; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Vander Linden, Catharine; Van Herpe, Katrin; Duysens, Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to deficits in gait and posture, which are often asymmetric. A possible factor mediating these deficits may be asymmetry in strength of the leg muscles. However, muscle strength in the lower extremities has rarely been investigated in (young) TBI patients. Here, we investigated associations between lower-extremity muscle weakness, strength asymmetry, and impairments in gait and posture in young TBI patients. A group of young patients with moderate-to-severe TBI (n=19; age, 14 years 11 months ±2 years) and a group of typically developing subjects (n=31; age, 14 years 1 month±3 years) participated in this study. A force platform was used to measure postural sway to quantify balance control during normal standing and during conditions of compromised visual and/or somatosensory feedback. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were assessed during comfortable and fast-speed walking, using an electronic walkway. Muscle strength in four lower-extremity muscle groups was measured bilaterally using a handheld dynamometer. Findings revealed that TBI patients had poorer postural balance scores across all sensory conditions, as compared to typically developing subjects. During comfortable and fast gait, TBI patients demonstrated a lower gait velocity, longer double-support phase, and increased step-length asymmetry. Further, TBI patients had a reduced strength of leg muscles and an increased strength asymmetry. Correlation analyses revealed that asymmetry in muscle strength was predictive of a poorer balance control and a more variable and asymmetric gait. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to measure strength asymmetry in leg muscles of a sample of TBI patients and illustrate the importance of muscular asymmetry as a potential marker and possible risk factor of impairments in control of posture and gait.

  7. Inertial Sensor-Based Robust Gait Analysis in Non-Hospital Settings for Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Tunca


    Full Text Available The gold standards for gait analysis are instrumented walkways and marker-based motion capture systems, which require costly infrastructure and are only available in hospitals and specialized gait clinics. Even though the completeness and the accuracy of these systems are unquestionable, a mobile and pervasive gait analysis alternative suitable for non-hospital settings is a clinical necessity. Using inertial sensors for gait analysis has been well explored in the literature with promising results. However, the majority of the existing work does not consider realistic conditions where data collection and sensor placement imperfections are imminent. Moreover, some of the underlying assumptions of the existing work are not compatible with pathological gait, decreasing the accuracy. To overcome these challenges, we propose a foot-mounted inertial sensor-based gait analysis system that extends the well-established zero-velocity update and Kalman filtering methodology. Our system copes with various cases of data collection difficulties and relaxes some of the assumptions invalid for pathological gait (e.g., the assumption of observing a heel strike during a gait cycle. The system is able to extract a rich set of standard gait metrics, including stride length, cadence, cycle time, stance time, swing time, stance ratio, speed, maximum/minimum clearance and turning rate. We validated the spatio-temporal accuracy of the proposed system by comparing the stride length and swing time output with an IR depth-camera-based reference system on a dataset comprised of 22 subjects. Furthermore, to highlight the clinical applicability of the system, we present a clinical discussion of the extracted metrics on a disjoint dataset of 17 subjects with various neurological conditions.

  8. Relation between knee extensors' strength, postural stability and variability of centre of pressure displacement during gait in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza C. de Souza


    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that variability of walking is related to fall risk similarly as postural control and muscle strength. Joint potential of this group of variables for fall risk assessment is promising, however research interested in relations between them is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between knee extensors' strength, centre of pressure (COP velocity during one-leg stance and variability of COP displacement during various phases of gait cycle in middle-age women. Methods: A single group of 40 healthy women (age 56 ± 4.2 years took part in the study. For assessment of knee extensors' strength (peak torque and average work during concentric and eccentric contractions an isokinetic dynamometer was used. Mean velocity of COP during one-leg stance in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions was assessed on a force plate on a rigid surface with eyes open (two 30 s trials. Variability of COP displacement was assessed for loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing gait cycle phases (determined by vertical ground reaction force in AP and ML directions. It was measured by two force plates positioned in the middle of an 8 m walkway (5 trials at a self-selected speed. For statistical analysis of relationships between variables Pearson correlation was applied. Results: Our results showed significant correlations between eccentric peak torque and COP velocity in AP direction during one-leg stance, eccentric and concentric peak torque and COP variability during loading response in both ML and AP directions and during terminal stance in AP direction. Conclusion: Loading response and terminal stance seems to be more related to knee extensors' strength. Variables derived from postural stability assessment during one-leg stance are independent from variables derived from assessment of COP displacement variability during walking.

  9. Effects of Walking Speed and Visual-Target Distance on Toe Trajectory During Swing Phase (United States)

    Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Brady, Rachel; Warren, Liz; Richards, Jason; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Sung, Hsi-Guang; Bloomberg, Jacob


    After spaceflight, astronauts experience disturbances in their ability to walk and maintain postural stability (Bloomberg, et al., 1997). One of the post-flight neurovestibular assessments requires that the astronaut walk on a treadmill at 1.8 m/sec (4.0 mph), while performing a visual acuity test, set at two different distances ( far and near ). For the first few days after landing, some crewmembers can not maintain the required pace, so a lower speed may be used. The slower velocity must be considered in the kinematic analysis, because Andriacchi, et al. (1977) showed that in clinical populations, changes in gait parameters may be attributable more to slower gait speed than pathology. Studying toe trajectory gives a global view of control of the leg, since it involves coordination of muscles and joints in both the swing and stance legs (Karst, et al., 1999). Winter (1992) and Murray, et al. (1984) reported that toe clearance during overground walking increased slightly as speed increased, but not significantly. Also, toe vertical peaks in both early and late swing phase did increase significantly with increasing speed. During conventional testing of overground locomotion, subjects are usually asked to fix their gaze on the end of the walkway a far target. But target (i.e., visual fixation) distance has been shown to affect head and trunk motion during treadmill walking (Bloomberg, et al., 1992; Peters, et al., in review). Since the head and trunk can not maintain stable gaze without proper coordination with the lower body (Mulavara & Bloomberg, 2003), it would stand to reason that lower body kinematics may be altered as well when target distance is modified. The purpose of this study was to determine changes in toe vertical trajectory during treadmill walking due to changes in walking speed and target distance.

  10. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults. (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert


    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility can be mitigated by CIT. This training regimen could be used as an adjunct or even alternative to traditional balance and/or resistance training. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Design Process of a Campus Plan: A Case Study of Duzce University Konuralp Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yerli


    Full Text Available Humanity have always felt the need to alter the environment they inhabit. In our modern era, this desire continues to exhibit itself in more urban landscapes. As a microcosm of the cityscape, university campuses contribute many cultural and economic advantages to the urban population. Moreover they bring under control to the urban growth and generally provides open and green spaces to the city. In this paper, Düzce University Konuralp Campus, located north of the Düzce City, was considered as our study area. Here we describe the Konuralp campus design which was developed in "Duzce University Konuralp Campus Development Plan Urban Design Competition". The method of the study consist of three steps. Some analyses like location, topography (ecological wind corridors and the meeting point of the valleys, spatial zoning, design axes and circulation were performed at the first step. In the second step it has been tried to specify how to apply the steps for designing kind of these campus projects. The concept of the design was created and constructed for the project. In the last step the design was visualized with 3D aplications and presented here. The aim of the study is how to design a campus which is sustainable and accessible. Consequently, the campus design was realized which had some design principles based on pedestrian priority. Educational buildings were separated from social buildings, sports center and cultural centers by using a-pedestrian walkways. In the middle of the working area campus square was designed which contains some land uses such as ceremony area, student center, amphitheatre and library. Finally a sustainable and accessible campus design was developed for Duzce University.

  12. Laboratory review: the role of gait analysis in seniors' mobility and fall prevention. (United States)

    Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Kressig, Reto W


    Walking is a complex motor task generally performed automatically by healthy adults. Yet, by the elderly, walking is often no longer performed automatically. Older adults require more attention for motor control while walking than younger adults. Falls, often with serious consequences, can be the result. Gait impairments are one of the biggest risk factors for falls. Several studies have identified changes in certain gait parameters as independent predictors of fall risk. Such gait changes are often too discrete to be detected by clinical observation alone. At the Basel Mobility Center, we employ the GAITRite electronic walkway system for spatial-temporal gait analysis. Although we have a large range of indications for gait analyses and several areas of clinical research, our focus is on the association between gait and cognition. Gait analysis with walking as a single-task condition alone is often insufficient to reveal underlying gait disorders present during normal, everyday activities. We use a dual-task paradigm, walking while simultaneously performing a second cognitive task, to assess the effects of divided attention on motor performance and gait control. Objective quantification of such clinically relevant gait changes is necessary to determine fall risk. Early detection of gait disorders and fall risk permits early intervention and, in the best-case scenario, fall prevention. We and others have shown that rhythmic movement training such as Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics, tai chi and social dancing can improve gait regularity and automaticity, thus increasing gait safety and reducing fall risk. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Time-dependent loss of mitochondrial function precedes progressive histologic cartilage degeneration in a rabbit meniscal destabilization model. (United States)

    Goetz, Jessica E; Coleman, Mitchell C; Fredericks, Douglas C; Petersen, Emily; Martin, James A; McKinley, Todd O; Tochigi, Yuki


    The goals of this work were to characterize progression of osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration in a rabbit medial meniscus destabilization (MMD) model and then to use the model to identify pre-histologic disruptions in chondrocyte metabolism under chronically elevated joint contact stresses in vivo. To characterize PTOA progression, 24 rabbits received either MMD or sham surgery. Limb loading was analyzed preoperatively and at regular postoperative intervals using a Tekscan pressure-sensitive walkway. Animals were euthanized 8 (n = 8 MMD; n = 8 sham) or 26 weeks (n = 8 MMD) postoperatively for histological cartilage evaluation by an objective, semi-automated Mankin scoring routine. To examine pre-histologic pathology, MMD was performed on an additional 20 rabbits, euthanized 1 (n = 9) or 4 weeks (n = 10) postoperatively. Chondrocytes were harvested fresh for measurement of mitochondrial function, an intracellular indicator of pathology after mechanical injury. Both MMD and sham surgery caused slight decreases in limb loading which returned to preoperative levels after 2 weeks. Histologically apparent cartilage damage progressed from 8 to 26 weeks after MMD. Changes in chondrocyte respiration were variable at 1 week, but by 4 weeks postoperatively chondrocyte mitochondrial function was significantly reduced. Many human injuries that lead to PTOA are relatively mild, and the cell-level mechanisms leading to disease remain unclear. We have documented PTOA progression in an animal model of subtle joint injury under continued use, and demonstrated that this model provides a realistic environment for investigation of multi-stage cellular pathology that develops prior to overt tissue degeneration and which could be targeted for disease modifying treatments. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:590-599, 2017.

  14. Virtual Reality Training with Cognitive Load Improves Walking Function in Chronic Stroke Patients. (United States)

    Cho, Ki Hun; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Lee, Wan Hee


    Virtual reality training is considered as an effective intervention method of stroke patients, and the virtual reality system for therapeutic rehabilitation has emphasized the cognitive factors to improve walking function. The purpose of current study was to investigate the effect of virtual reality training with cognitive load (VRTCL) on walking function of chronic stroke. Chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to the VRTCL group (11 patients, including 5 men; mean age, 60.0 years; post-stroke duration, 273.9 days) or control group (11 patients, including 2 men; mean age, 58.6 years; post-stroke duration, 263.9 days). All subjects participated in the standard rehabilitation program that consisted of physical and occupational therapies. In addition, VRTCL group participated in the VRTCL for 4 weeks (30 min per day and five times a week), while those in the control group participated in virtual reality treadmill training. Walking function under single (walking alone) and dual task (walking with cognitive tasks) conditions was assessed using an electrical walkway system. After the 4-week intervention, under both single and dual task conditions, significant improvement on walking function was observed in VRTCL and control groups (P < 0.05). In addition, in the dual task condition, greater improvement on walking function was observed in the VRTCL group, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated the efficacy of VRTCL on the walking function under the dual task condition. Therefore, we suggest that VRTCL may be an effective method for the achievement of independent walking in chronic stroke patients.

  15. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

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    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.

  16. Chlamydophila species in dairy farms: polymerase chain reaction prevalence, disease association, and risk factors identified in a cross-sectional study in western Germany. (United States)

    Kemmerling, K; Müller, U; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H


    The prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. was determined in a cross-sectional study carried out in 2007 using 100 randomly selected dairy herds in the western part of Germany. Ten dairy cows per herd were sampled in herds with fewer than 100 cows; in bigger herds, 10% of the cows were sampled. For the detection of Chlamydophila spp., vaginal swabs from early lactating dairy cows were analyzed using an established highly sensitive genus-specific real-time PCR. In consideration of the discontinuous shedding of the pathogen, a herd was classified as positive if at least 1 animal per herd tested positive for Chlamydophila spp. By use of these methods and definitions, 61% of the dairy herds and 13.5% of the cows were detected as PCR-positive for Chlamydophila spp., which is indicative for ongoing infections. To compare herd health and herd performance between herds testing positive or negative and to identify risk factors for the presence of Chlamydophila spp., a questionnaire was designed to evaluate farm characteristics and management practices. In addition, the performance recordings of the state dairy recording organization were used for these purposes. Milk yield, number of lactations, and calving to first-service interval were lower in herds testing positive for Chlamydophila spp. compared with negative herds. For all these variables, there was no interaction between Chlamydophila status and lactation number. Replacement of animals from outside sources, use of breeding bulls, lack of separate calving pens, and low scores for cleanliness of beddings, walkways, and cows were identified as the main risk factors for Chlamydophila spp.

  17. Physiotherapy, based on the Bobath concept, may influence the gait pattern in persons with limb-girdle muscle dystrophy: a multiple case series study. (United States)

    Oygard, Kjellaug; Haestad, Helge; Jørgensen, Lone


     There are few studies on possible effects of physiotherapy for adults with muscular dystrophy. The aim of this study was to examine if treatment based on the Bobath concept may influence specific gait parameters in some of these patients.   A single-subject experimental design with A-B-A-A phases was used, and four patients, three with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and one with fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), were included. The patients had 1 hour of individually tailored physiotherapy at each working day for a period of 3 weeks. Step length, step width and gait velocity were measured during the A-B-A-A phases by use of an electronic walkway. Walking distance and endurance were measured by use of the '6 minute walk test'.  . The three LGMD patients, who initially walked with a wide base of support, had a narrower, velocity-adjusted step width after treatment, accompanied with the same or even longer step length. These changes lasted throughout follow-up. Moreover, two of the patients were able to walk a longer distance within 6 minutes after the treatment period. The fourth patient (with FSHD) had a normal step width at baseline, which did not change during the study.   The results indicate that physiotherapy treatment based on the Bobath concept may influence the gait pattern in patients with LGMD. However, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy to patients with muscular dystrophies, we call for larger studies and controlled trials. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Balance and gait improved in patients with MS after physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept. (United States)

    Smedal, Tori; Lygren, Hildegunn; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Gjelsvik, Bente; Gjelsvik, Olav; Strand, Liv Inger; Inger, Liv


    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) tend to have movement difficulties, and the effect of physiotherapy for this group of patients has been subjected to limited systematic research. In the present study physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept, applied to MS patients with balance and gait problems, was evaluated. The ability of different functional tests to demonstrate change was evaluated. A single-subject experimental study design with ABAA phases was used, and two patients with relapsing-remitting MS in stable phase were treated. Tests were performed 12 times, three at each phase: A (at baseline); B (during treatment); A (immediately after treatment); and A (after two months). The key feature of treatment was facilitation of postural activity and selective control of movement. Several performance and self report measures and interviews were used. After intervention, improved balance was shown by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) in both patients, and improved quality of gait was indicated by the Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment (RVGA). The patients also reported improved balance and gait function in the interviews and scored their condition as 'much improved'. Gait parameters, recorded by an electronic walkway, changed, but differently in the two patients. Among the physical performance tests the BBS and the RVGA demonstrated the highest change, while no or minimal change was demonstrated by the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE). The findings indicate that balance and gait can be improved after physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept, but this should be further evaluated in larger controlled trials of patients with MS.

  19. Physical activity, functional capacity, and step variability during walking in people with lower-limb amputation. (United States)

    Lin, Suh-Jen; Winston, Katie D; Mitchell, Jill; Girlinghouse, Jacob; Crochet, Karleigh


    Physical activity is important for general health. For an individual with amputation to sustain physical activity, certain functional capacity might be needed. Gait variability is related to the incidence of falls. This study explored the relationship between physical activity and a few common performance measures (six-minute walk test, step length variability, step width variability, and comfortable walking speed) in individuals with unilateral lower-limb amputation. Twenty individuals completed the study (age: 50±11yrs). Twelve of them had transtibial amputation, seven had transfemoral amputation, and one had through-knee amputation. Gait data was collected by the GaitRite instrumented walkway while participants performed a 3-min comfortable walking trial followed by a six-minute walk test. Physical activity was indicated by the mean of 7-day step counts via a pedometer. Gait variability was calculated by the coefficient of variation. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted between physical activity level and the 4 performance measures. Significance level was set at 0.05. Physical activity correlates strongly to comfortable walking speed (r=0.76), six-minute walk distance (r=0.67), and correlates fairly to step width variability (r=0.44). On the contrary, physical activity is inversely related to step length variability of the prosthetic leg (r=-0.46) and of the sound leg (r=-0.47). Having better functional capacity and lateral stability might enable an individual with lower-limb amputation to engage in a higher physical activity level, or vise versa. However, our conclusions are only preliminary as limited by the small sample size.

  20. The role of the neck and trunk in facilitating head stability during walking. (United States)

    Kavanagh, Justin; Barrett, Rod; Morrison, Steven


    An apparent goal of the human postural system is to maintain head stability during walking. Although much is known about sensory-motor stabilising mechanisms associated with the head and neck, less is known about how the postural system attenuates motion between the trunk and neck segments in order to regulate head motion. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the role that the neck and the trunk play in stabilising the head at a range of walking speeds. Eight healthy male subjects (age: 23+/-4 years) performed self-selected slow, preferred, and fast walking speed trials along a 30 m walkway. Four custom-designed wireless triaxial accelerometers were attached to the head, upper trunk, lower trunk, and shank of each subject to measure vertical (VT), anterior-posterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) accelerations. Acceleration data were examined in each direction using RMS, power spectral, harmonic, and regularity measures. Signal regularity was increased from the lower to upper trunk for all walking speeds and directions with the exception of the slow speed in the AP direction. Evidence from analysis of power spectral and amplitude characteristics of acceleration signals was suggestive that accelerations are also attenuated from the lower to upper trunk by dynamics of the intervening trunk segment. Differences in selected power spectral and amplitude characteristics between the accelerations of the upper trunk and head due to the intervening neck segment were only detected in the AP direction at preferred and fast walking speeds. Overall the findings of the present study suggest that the trunk segment plays a critical role in regulating gait-related oscillations in all directions. Only accelerations in the direction of travel at preferred and fast speeds required additional control from the neck segment in order to enhance head stability during walking.

  1. A comparison between joint coordinate system and attitude vector for multi-segment foot kinematics. (United States)

    Rouhani, H; Favre, J; Crevoisier, X; Jolles, B M; Aminian, K


    The joint angles of multi-segment foot models have been primarily described using two mathematical methods: the joint coordinate system and the attitude vector. This study aimed to determine whether the angles obtained through these two descriptors are comparable, and whether these descriptors have similar sensitivity to experimental errors. Six subjects walked eight times on an instrumented walkway while the joint angles among shank, hindfoot, medial forefoot, and lateral forefoot were measured. The angles obtained using both descriptors and their sensitivity to experimental errors were compared. There was no overall significant difference between the ranges of motion obtained using both descriptors. However, median differences of more than 6° were noticed for the medial-lateral forefoot joint. For all joints and rotation planes, both descriptors provided highly similar angle patterns (median correlation coefficient: R>0.90), except for the medial-lateral forefoot angle in the transverse plane (median R=0.77). The joint coordinate system was significantly more sensitive to anatomical landmarks misplacement errors. However, the absolute differences of sensitivity were small relative to the joints ranges of motion. In conclusion, the angles obtained using these two descriptors were not identical, but were similar for at least the shank-hindfoot and hindfoot-medial forefoot joints. Therefore, the angle comparison across descriptors is possible for these two joints. Comparison should be done more carefully for the medial-lateral forefoot joint. Moreover, despite different sensitivities to experimental errors, the effects of the experimental errors on the angles were small for both descriptors suggesting that both descriptors can be considered for multi-segment foot models.

  2. The role of vision in obese and normal-weight children's gait control. (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Segers, Veerle; Deforche, Benedicte; Shultz, Sarah P; Tanghe, Ann; Gentier, Ilse; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Clercq, Dirk; Lenoir, Matthieu


    Previous research has suggested that perceptual-motor difficulties may account for obese children's lower motor competence; however, specific evidence is currently lacking. Therefore, this study examined the effect of altered visual conditions on spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters in obese versus normal-weight children. Thirty-two obese and normal-weight children (11.2±1.5 years) walked barefoot on an instrumented walkway at constant self-selected speed during LIGHT and DARK conditions. Three-dimensional motion analysis was performed to calculate spatiotemporal parameters, as well as sagittal trunk segment and lower extremity joint angles at heel-strike and toe-off. Self-selected speed did not significantly differ between groups. In the DARK condition, all participants walked at a significantly slower speed, decreased stride length, and increased stride width. Without normal vision, obese children had a more pronounced increase in relative double support time compared to the normal-weight group, resulting in a significantly greater percentage of the gait cycle spent in stance. Walking in the DARK, both groups showed greater forward tilt of the trunk and restricted hip movement. All participants had increased knee flexion at heel-strike, as well as decreased knee extension and ankle plantarflexion at toe-off in the DARK condition. The removal of normal vision affected obese children's temporal gait pattern to a larger extent than that of normal-weight peers. Results suggest an increased dependency on vision in obese children to control locomotion. Next to the mechanical problem of moving excess mass, a different coupling between perception and action appears to be governing obese children's motor coordination and control.

  3. The evaluation of an inexpensive, 2D, video based gait assessment system for clinical use. (United States)

    Ugbolue, U Chris; Papi, Enrica; Kaliarntas, Konstantinos T; Kerr, Andrew; Earl, Leo; Pomeroy, Valerie M; Rowe, Philip J


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical potential of an augmented-video-based-portable-system (AVPS). The AVPS included a walkway grid mat made of vinyl flooring, flat paper bull's eye markers, four photoswitches mounted on tripods, a light-indicator, a video camera, and a computer with ProTrainer System software. The AVPS output was compared to a "gold standard" 3D Vicon Motion Analysis System both statically and dynamically over a fixed range (-90° to +90°) using a two-segment-goniometric-rig marked with both bull's eye and retroreflective markers. At each segment angle position, three trials of data were captured. The reliability of the AVPS was also tested using three raters. Further twelve, young, healthy subjects participated in a concurrent validity study in which they performed six gait trials which were simultaneously recorded by both systems. Both motion analysis systems showed low levels of intra subject variability in all kinematic variables indicated by the size of the standard deviations across the six trials. There were no significant differences between the motion systems with respect to the kinematic variables (P>0.05). The results showed a high intra- and inter-rater reliability for both the kinematic and temporo-spatial parameters. With respect to gait events the lowest ICC value for the intra-rater reliability test was 0.993 for the kinematic variables, and ranged from 0.941 to 0.956 for the temporo-spatial variables and 0.731 to 0.954 for the tibia inclination angles. The validation data suggest the AVPS is capable of generating highly reliable and repeatable data when applied to normal subjects and could be used within the clinical setting.

  4. Minimum toe clearance adaptations to floor surface irregularity and gait speed. (United States)

    Schulz, Brian W


    Toe speed during gait generally nears its maximum while its height reaches a local minima approximately halfway through swing phase. Trips are thought to frequently occur at these local minima (minimum toe clearance or MTC events) and trip risk has been quantified using the minimum distance between the toe and ground here (MTC). This study investigated MTC on floor surfaces with and without multiple small obstacles. After shoes and floor surfaces were digitized, 14 unimpaired subjects (half women) each traversed a 4.88 m walkway 4 times at slow, preferred, and fast speeds across surfaces with no obstacles, visible obstacles, and hidden obstacles. Both surfaces with obstacles had the same random obstacle configuration. Shoe and body segment motions were tracked using passive markers and MTC and joint kinematics calculated. All MTC and kinematic variables tested significantly increased with faster instructed gait speed except the likelihood of MTC event occurrence (local minima in minimum toe clearance trajectory when foot is in upper quartile of speed). MTC events were less frequent for swing phases on surfaces with obstacles (80% vs. 98% for no obstacles). MTC values, when present, were doubled by the presence of visible obstacles (22.2 ± 7.3mm vs. 11.1 ± 5.7 mm) and further increased to 26.8 ± 7.1mm when these obstacles were hidden from view (all comparisons p ≤ 0.0003). These substantial floor surface-related changes in MTC event occurrences and values resulted from alterations in toe- and heel-clearance trajectories caused by subtle but significant changes in joint kinematics that did not exceed 10% each joint's swing phase range of motion.

  5. Initial evaluation of a canine stifle arthrotomy post-operative pain model. (United States)

    Tomas, A; Bledsoe, D; Wall, S; Davidson, G; Lascelles, B D X


    Most models of acute post-operative orthopedic pain involve the injection of a clinically irrelevant pro-inflammatory agent. The ideal model should, however, be clinically relevant and allow full functional recovery of enrolled animals after research is completed. This study explored the validity of a model employing arthrotomy and objectively measured limb use. Six purpose-bred Beagles underwent arthrotomies on each stifle with a washout period in between. Using a randomized crossover design, each dog received placebo and an extended-release buprenorphine (ER-Bup) preparation. Static and dynamic ground reaction forces (GRFs) were measured prior to and for 72 h following surgery using a pressure sensitive walkway (PSW). GRFs for each hind limb were compared using difference (delta), and symmetry indices (SI). The effects of surgery and of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures ANCOVA. The results indicated significantly decreased limb use compared to baseline for placebo, and significantly increased limb use in the ER-Bup group over placebo at all times for % bodyweight distribution (%BWdistrib), peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI). There was a significant treatment by time interaction for velocity (P = 0.03) and %BWdistrib (P = 0.01, 0.003). Overall, the data show that reduced limb use was present for at least 72 h following arthrotomy. In addition, the use of the ER-Bup analgesic decreased lameness, confirming the validity of this approach as a model of post-operative pain. Subjective assessments did not detect the pain-inducing effects of arthrotomy or pain-alleviating effects of treatment, and subjective measures of procedural pain in research dogs need to be developed.

  6. The response and recovery of coastal beach-dune systems to storms (United States)

    Farrell, Eugene; Lynch, Kevin; Wilkes Orozco, Sinead; Castro Camba, Guillermo


    This two year field monitoring project examines the response and recovery of a coastal beach-dune system in the west coast of Ireland (The Maharees, Co. Kerry) to storms. Historic analyses were completed using maps, aerial photography, and DGPS surveys with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System. The results establish that the average shoreline recession along the 1.2 km site is 72 m during the past 115 years. The coastal monitoring experiment aims to link micro-scale aeolian processes and meso-scale beach-dune behaviour to identify and quantify sediment exchange between the beach and dune under different meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions. Geomorphological changes on the beach and near-shore bar migration were monitored using repeated monthly DGPS surveys and drone technology. Topographical data were correlated with atmospheric data obtained from a locally installed Campbell Scientific automatic weather station, oceanographic data from secondary sources, and photogrammetry using a camera installed at the site collecting pictures every 10 minutes during daylight hours. Changes in surface elevation on the top of the foredune caused by aeolian processes are measured using erosion pin transects. The preliminary results illustrate that natural beach building processes initiate system recovery post storms including elevated foreshores and backshores and nearshore sand bar migration across the entire 1.2 km stretch of coastline. In parallel with the scientific work, the local community have mobilized and are working closely with the lead scientists to implement short term coastal management strategies such as signage, information booklets, sand trap fencing, walkways, wooden revetments, dune planting in order to support the end goal of obtaining financial support from government for a larger, long term coastal protection plan.

  7. Force plate targeting has no effect on spatiotemporal gait measures and their variability in young and healthy population. (United States)

    Verniba, Dmitry; Vergara, Martin E; Gage, William H


    Force plate targeting has been referenced as a confounding factor in gait research, but the literature is sparse. Asking participants to target force plates is a convenient strategy to increase the number of acceptable trials, but may inadvertently alter the motor control of gait and limit external validity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of visual targeting on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic measures of gait and their variability. Young healthy participants were asked to traverse a walkway with three embedded hidden force plates. Starting from a participant-specific initial position and leading with the same foot each time, participants performed series of natural walking trials (no targeting and unaware of the hidden force plates), followed by targeting walking trials. For the targeting trials, participants were asked to step completely within the bounds of a tape outline (∼50cm×45cm), which coincided with the position of the last hidden force plate. The results demonstrated evidence of targeting during targeting trials; compared to natural walking trials, mean heel-target distance variability for targeting trials decreased progressively for the steps approaching the targeting step, reaching significance (ptarget (41%), and post-target steps (39%). Despite visual targeting, no significant differences between targeting and natural trials were detected in spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait measures, or the variability of the measures. When the experimental set-up was tailored to the individual participant's gait variables (step/stride length), visual targeting of the force plates appeared to have no effect on the magnitude or variability of any gait measures.

  8. [Healing gardens: recommendations and criteria for design]. (United States)

    Rivasseau-Jonveaux, Thérèse; Pop, Alina; Fescharek, Reinhard; Chuzeville, Stanislas Bah; Jacob, Christel; Demarche, Laëtitia; Soulon, Laure; Malerba, Gabriel


    The French Alzheimer plan anticipates new specialized structures for cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-behavioural therapy of Alzheimer's patients: the cognitive-behavioural units as follow-care units, the units of reinforced hospitalization inside the long term care units and the adapted activities units. this plan indicates the need to make healing gardens integral parts of these units. The benefits of green space in urban environments has been demonstrated with regards to physical, psychological and sociological effects and similarly studies in hospitals have revealed objective and measurable improvements of patients well being. Although green spaces and gardens are available in many French care units, they are rarely specifically adapted to the needs of Alzheimer's patients. For the garden "art, memory and life" a specific concept guided by a neuropsychological approach was developed, complemented by an artistic vision based on cultural invariants. It is already used in the frame of non-pharmacological therapies to improve symptoms such as deambulation, sleep disorders, apathy and aggressive behaviors. Based on the literature, and our experience and research, recommendations for the design of such gardens dedicated to Alzheimer's patients can be proposed. Beyond taking into account obvious aspects relating to security, allowing for free access, a careful design of walk-ways and a conscious choice of plants is needed. A systematic analysis of the existing green spaces or garden must be conducted in order to pinpoint the weakness of the space and identify the potential for developing it into a real healing garden. Evaluation of adapted questionnaires for users and professionals allow to establish a list of requirements combining both user requests and therapeutic needs as basis for the design of the garden as well as to evaluate during the course of the project, whether the needs of the various stakeholders have been met or if adjustments are necessary.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Brandão Lara


    of Glory, Walkway, College Our Lady of Sorrows.Recebido em: 23/05/2015 – Aceito em 19/06/2015

  10. Longitudinal gait development and variability of growing pigs reared on three different floor types. (United States)

    Stavrakakis, S; Guy, J H; Warlow, O M E; Johnson, G R; Edwards, S A


    Biomechanical investigation into locomotor pathology in commercial pigs is lacking despite this being a major concern for the industry. Different floor types are used in modern, intensive pig production systems at different stages of the pigs' production cycle. The general perception holds that slatted and/or hard solid concrete surfaces are inferior to soft straw-covered floors regarding healthy musculoskeletal development. Previous studies have compared pigs housed on different floor types using clinical, subjective assessment of leg weakness and lameness. However, reliability studies generally report a low repeatability of clinical lameness scoring. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the long-term effect of pen floors, reflected in the biomechanical gait characteristics and associated welfare of the pigs. A cohort of 24 pigs housed on one of three different floor types was followed from 37 to 90 kg average liveweight, with gait analysis (motion capture) starting at 63 kg. The three floor types were fully slatted concrete, partly slatted concrete and deep straw-bedded surfaces, all located within the same building. Pigs underwent five repeated camera-based motion captures, 7 to 10 days apart, during which 3D coordinate data of reflective skin markers attached to leg anatomical landmarks were collected. Pigs walked on the same solid concrete walkway during captures. One-way ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyse the gait data. Results revealed changes over time in the spatiotemporal gait pattern which were similar in magnitude and direction for the pigs from different floor types. Significant increases in elbow joint flexion with age were observed in all pigs (P⩽0.050; +6°). There were few differences between floor groups, except for the step-to-stride ratio in the hind legs being more irregular in pigs housed on partly slatted floors (P=0.012; 3.6 times higher s.d.) compared with those on 5 to 10 cm straw-bedding in all

  11. Quality attributes of LED lighting. Current state-of-the-art , advantages, problem areas and potential for development - Final report; Qualitaetsmerkmale der LED-Beleuchtung. Aktueller Stand der Technik, Vorteile, Problempunkte und Entwicklungspotential - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, S.


    radiation, instant start up, brilliant light). (iii) Street lighting: Today LED already is the best solution for a high number of applications (highly precise illumination of streets and walkways without diffused light, less light necessary thanks to better colour rendering). (author)

  12. The City from the Wire the Aerial Cable Transport for the Urban Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola


    Full Text Available The urban transfer by using ropeways can produce impacts and externalities which, if well-managed, can trigger processes reliever, sustainable development and promoting tourism inside the city. The article starts from the consideration of urban transport by ropeways as a viable, effective alternative to the collective transfer among different areas of the city, particularly in those cities characterized by unique morphological or hydrographic territory which are fit for being overcome by mobility systems at high altitude. These features, in many international urban contexts, also contribute to enhance the amenity and the urban appeal. The paper intends to underline how the ropeways can become an efficient urban transport system between urban sites, often placed at different heights and for which there is a less accessibility by ground, and at the same time, a fascinating way of tourist mobility that allow people to observe the city from above (moving on it, in a sort of dynamic view. This interesting functional convergence has been often highlighted in the studies conducted on this mode of transportation, ,which in the past was considered one  of the real possibilities for urban moving. Many cities are characterized by this type of mobility and within which existing systems of lifts, oblique connections between parts of the city are provided by urbansystems, lifts, cable cars, escalators, moving walkways, etc.. A focus is also provided in relation to the ropeways, currently operating in many cities around the world, highlighting the effectiveness of mobility solutions at high altitude, although not necessarily intended for the slope, taken in metropolitan contexts outside of Europe since the Seventies. Furthermore a specific attention it is payed to the plants currently disused in Turin and in Naples with a special regard to the possible recovery prospects in a new urban mobility system. For the city of Naples it is presented also a new project

  13. Effect of different flooring systems on claw conformation of dairy cows. (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Nilsson, C


    The effect of different flooring surfaces in walking and standing areas on claw conformation, claw horn growth, and wear was studied in 2 experiments during 2 consecutive housing seasons in a research dairy herd of 170 cows. In experiment 1, the flooring systems tested were solid rubber mats, mastic asphalt with and without rubber-matted feed-stalls, and aged concrete slats. In experiment 2, slatted concrete flooring was compared with slatted rubber flooring. The cows were introduced to the respective flooring systems in early lactation and their claws were trimmed before the exposure period. Toe length, toe angle, sole concavity, and claw width, as well as claw growth and wear rates were recorded for lateral and medial claws of the left hind limb. Claw asymmetry calculations were based on these claw measurements and on differences in sole protrusion between lateral and medial soles. Asphalt floors caused shorter toe length and steeper toe angle. They also increased wear on rear claws (5.30 +/- 0.31 and 5.95 +/- 0.33 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively; LSM +/- SE) and horn growth rate (5.12 +/- 0.36 and 5.83 +/- 0.31 mm/mo of lateral and medial claws, respectively). Rubber mats instead of asphalt in walking areas reduced wear (1.36 +/- 0.19 and 2.02 +/- 0.20 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively) and claw growth (3.83 +/- 0.23 and 3.94 +/- 0.17 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). Rubber-matted feed-stalls together with asphalt walkways decreased claw wear (3.29 +/- 0.31 and 4.10 +/- 0.32 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). The concavity of claw soles was reduced on asphalt, especially in the lateral rear claws. Rubber matting in feed-stalls prevented loss of sole concavity compared with asphalt. Claw asymmetry did not differ between flooring systems. While different access to abrasive flooring affected claw conformation, there was no evidence that flooring system influenced the disproportion between lateral and

  14. Recreational trails as a source of negative impacts on the persistence of keystone species and facilitation. (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina


    be occurring as the loss of nurse shrubs alters the wind profile of the ridgeline and therefore succession. The use of a steel mesh walkway along the trail may facilitate the regeneration of nurse shrubs and other plants that require protection from wind. Our results highlight the importance of diversifying recreation ecology research to assess how trails affect important ecological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. No going back. Mexican women find opportunity and obstacles in a changing economy. (United States)

    Cabral, E


    , trash collection, and paved roads and walkways. Border areas such as Juarez attract 200 unemployed daily. Unregulated growth will turn these border cities into densely populated areas. About 40% of the economically active population work in the informal sector. Much of the vendor merchandise is illegal contraband, and intricate handicrafts are sold next to electronic games, cosmetics, and silk-screened T shirts. Informal work is also available for women in cottage industries at home. The Agro-Industrial Women's Unit in Buenavista helps to secure agricultural land holdings for women.

  16. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan


    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  17. Association between dual task-related decrease in walking speed and real versus imagined Timed Up and Go test performance. (United States)

    Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Allali, Gilles; Herrmann, François; Kressig, Reto W


    To examine whether older people with markedly dual task-related decreases in walking speed - a marker of disturbed higher-level gait control and falls - have a larger discrepancy between real and imagined Timed Up and Go (TUG) test times than those with less dual task-related decreases in walking speed. Based on a prospective cross-sectional study, 193 older adults (mean age 77.4 ± 5.9 years; 44.0 % women) referred to and consecutively assessed at a Swiss university clinic for a gait analysis to assess either gait disorders, fall risk or memory disorders were included. For all participants, walking speed was measured using a GAITRite(®) electronic walkway system during usual walking at self-selected pace and while dual tasking (i.e., usual walking and simultaneously counting backwards out loud). In addition, real Timed Up and Go (TUGr) and imagined Timed Up and Go (TUGi) (i.e., the time needed to imagine performing the TUGr) times were measured with a stopwatch. Differences between both walking conditions for walking speed (delta of walking speed) and both TUG conditions (delta of TUG time) were calculated. Age, gender, height, total number drugs taken per day, daily use of psychoactive drugs, use of walking aid, history of falls, Mini-Mental State Examination score, near vision and education level were used as covariables in this analysis. Participants were categorized into two groups based on being in the lowest tertian (i.e., times were similar (P = .169 and P = .839). In both groups, TUGi was faster than TUGr (P time was significantly greater in group B compared to group A (P time (P = time, whereas an increased MMSE score (P = .030) was associated with a decrease in delta of TUG time. These findings show that a large discrepancy between real and imagined TUG performances is significantly correlated with a decrease in walking speed while dual tasking, and thus may also be a surrogate marker of disturbed higher-level gait control. The

  18. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output (United States)

    Dinetta, L. C.; Hannon, M. H.


    -use applications can include battery chargers and remote power supplies for consumer electronics products such as portable telephones/beepers, portable radios, CD players, dashboard radar detectors, remote walkway lighting, etc.

  19. Early presentation of gait impairment in Wolfram Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickett Kristen A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classically characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities, Wolfram syndrome (WFS is also associated with atypical brainstem and cerebellar findings in the first decade of life. As such, we hypothesized that gait differences between individuals with WFS and typically developing (TD individuals may be detectable across the course of the disease. Methods Gait was assessed for 13 individuals with WFS (min 6.4 yrs, max 25.8 yrs and 29 age-matched, typically developing individuals (min 5.6 yrs, max 28.5 yrs using a GAITRite ® walkway system. Velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and double support time were compared between groups. Results Across all tasks, individuals with WFS walked slower (p = 0.03, took shorter (p ≤ 0.001 and wider (p ≤ 0.001 steps and spent a greater proportion of the gait cycle in double support (p = 0.03 compared to TD individuals. Cadence did not differ between groups (p = 0.62. Across all tasks, age was significantly correlated with cadence and double support time in the TD group but only double support time was correlated with age in the WFS group and only during preferred pace forward (rs= 0.564, p = 0.045 and dual task forward walking (rs= 0.720, p = 0.006 tasks. Individuals with WFS also had a greater number of missteps during tandem walking (p ≤ 0.001. Within the WFS group, spatiotemporal measures of gait did not correlate with measures of visual acuity. Balance measures negatively correlated with normalized gait velocity during fast forward walking (rs = −0.59, p = 0.03 and percent of gait cycle in double support during backward walking (rs = −0.64, p = 0.03. Conclusions Quantifiable gait impairments can be detected in individuals with WFS earlier than previous clinical observations suggested. These impairments are not fully accounted for by the visual or balance deficits

  20. Intraspinal microstimulation produces over-ground walking in anesthetized cats (United States)

    Holinski, B. J.; Mazurek, K. A.; Everaert, D. G.; Toossi, A.; Lucas-Osma, A. M.; Troyk, P.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Stein, R. B.; Mushahwar, V. K.


    Objective. Spinal cord injury causes a drastic loss of motor, sensory and autonomic function. The goal of this project was to investigate the use of intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) for producing long distances of walking over ground. ISMS is an electrical stimulation method developed for restoring motor function by activating spinal networks below the level of an injury. It produces movements of the legs by stimulating the ventral horn of the lumbar enlargement using fine penetrating electrodes (≤50 μm diameter). Approach. In each of five adult cats (4.2-5.5 kg), ISMS was applied through 16 electrodes implanted with tips targeting lamina IX in the ventral horn bilaterally. A desktop system implemented a physiologically-based control strategy that delivered different stimulation patterns through groups of electrodes to evoke walking movements with appropriate limb kinematics and forces corresponding to swing and stance. Each cat walked over an instrumented 2.9 m walkway and limb kinematics and forces were recorded. Main results. Both propulsive and supportive forces were required for over-ground walking. Cumulative walking distances ranging from 609 to 835 m (longest tested) were achieved in three animals. In these three cats, the mean peak supportive force was 3.5 ± 0.6 N corresponding to full-weight-support of the hind legs, while the angular range of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were 23.1 ± 2.0°, 29.1 ± 0.2°, and 60.3 ± 5.2°, respectively. To further demonstrate the viability of ISMS for future clinical use, a prototype implantable module was successfully implemented in a subset of trials and produced comparable walking performance. Significance. By activating inherent locomotor networks within the lumbosacral spinal cord, ISMS was capable of producing bilaterally coordinated and functional over-ground walking with current amplitudes <100 μA. These exciting results suggest that ISMS may be an effective intervention for restoring functional

  1. Reconstructing sacred landscapes from soils-based records (United States)

    Simpson, Ian; Gilliland, Krista; Coningham, Robin; Manuel, Mark; Davis, Christopher; Strickland, Keir; Acharya, Kosh; Hyland, Katherine; Bull, Ian; Kinnaird, Timothy; Sanderson, David


    well established by the time of the Buddha's birth. Dating of the early and previously unknown temple site indicates a birth date of ca. 550 BC. Reconstruction of the early temple site indicates an enclosed open space with tree cover that was further elaborated with a surrounding walkway and cover during a later phase of construction. Triterpeniod and wax ester soil biomarkers indicate that the tree cover was most likely Ficus religiosa (Pipal). The study offers the first geoarchaeological investigation of Lumbini and the implications this carries for the understanding of international heritage and its conservation.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of a Single Intra-articular Injection of Allogeneic Neonatal Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Compared to Oral Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Treatment on the Postoperative Musculoskeletal Status and Gait of Dogs over a 6-Month Period after Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Taroni


    Full Text Available ObjectiveCompare the clinical and pressure walkway gait evolution of dogs after a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO for a cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR and treatment with either a 1-month course of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs or a single postoperative intra-articular (IA injection of allogeneic neonatal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs.Study designProspective, double-blinded, randomized, controlled, monocentric clinical study.AnimalsSixteen client-owned dogs.Materials and methodsDogs with unilateral CrCLR confirmed by arthroscopy were included. Allogeneic neonatal canine MSCs were obtained from fetal adnexa retrieved after C-section performed on healthy pregnant bitches. The dogs were randomly allocated to either the “MSCs group,” receiving an IA injection of MSCs after TPLO, followed by placebo for 1 month, or the “NSAIDs group,” receiving IA equivalent volume of MSCs vehicle after TPLO, followed by oral NSAID for 1 month. One of the three blinded evaluators assessed the dogs in each group before and after surgery (1, 3, and 6 months. Clinical score and gait and bone healing process were assessed. The data were statistically compared between the two groups for pre- and postoperative evaluations.ResultsFourteen dogs (nine in the MSCs group, five in the NSAIDs group completed the present study. No significant difference was observed between the groups preoperatively. No local or systemic adverse effect was observed after MSCs injection at any time point considered. At 1 month after surgery, bone healing scores were significantly higher in the MSCs group. At 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, no significant difference was observed between the two groups for clinical scores and gait evaluation.ConclusionA single IA injection of allogeneic neonatal MSCs could be a safe and valuable postoperative alternative to NSAIDs for dogs requiring TPLO surgery, particularly for dogs intolerant to this class of

  3. Freqüência e percentual de suscetibilidade de bactérias isoladas em pacientes atendidos na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza Frequency and susceptibility percentile of bacteria isolated in patients assisted in the intensive care unit of the General Hospital of Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇAO: As infecções hospitalares, hoje, são motivo de grande preocupação no âmbito hospitalar, principalmente nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs, nas quais encontramos uma associação de fatores propícios ao surgimento de infecções. Objetivos: Verificar a freqüência e o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos das bactérias isoladas de pacientes da UTI do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza (HGF. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: As bactérias foram isoladas em meio de cultura e a identificação e o teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos realizados por meio do sistema de automação MicroScan WalkWay. RESULTADOS: No período de janeiro a dezembro de 2002 houve 34% de positividade de bactérias no aspirado traqueal de pacientes da UTI; 10% de positividade no cateter; 26% de positividade na urina; e 30% de positividade no sangue. As bactérias mais freqüentes do aspirado traqueal foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16% e Klebsiella pneumoniae (15%. Em cateteres, houve maior freqüência de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN (25% e Staphylococcus aureus (25%; na urina, predominaram Klebsiella pneumoniae (16% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14%. Em hemoculturas, as bactérias mais isoladas foram SCN (41% e Staphylococcus aureus (17%. Foi observado, em relação ao perfil de suscetibilidade, que as Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de aspirado traqueal apresentaram total suscetibilidade à piperacilina e resistência total à ceftriaxona e à cefotaxima. A Klebsiella pneumoniae isolada de aspirados traqueais foi totalmente sensível ao imipenem, não apresentando resistência total a nenhum antimicrobiano testado, e apresentou suscetibilidade de 54% à ceftazidima. Em cateter ela apresentou resistência a ampicilina/sulbactam, cefepima, cefotaxima, ceftazidima, ceftriaxona, cefuroxima, gentamicina, piperacilina/tazobactam, piperacilina, ticarcilina/clavulanato e tobramicina, bem como suscetibilidade ao imipenem. Na urina, observamos 55% de

  4. Características cinemáticas, cinéticas e eletromiográficas do andar de adultos jovens com e sem suporte parcial de peso corporal Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic characteristics of young adults walking with and without partial body weight support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Patiño


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as características cinemáticas, cinéticas e eletromiográficas do andar de adultos jovens em piso fixo sem colete e com suporte parcial de peso (SPP de 0, 10, 20 e 30% do peso corporal. MÉTODO: Oito jovens com idade média de 22,2 anos foram filmados andando sobre uma passarela que continha uma plataforma de força na região central para registro das componentes da força de reação do solo. Marcadores refletivos foram posicionados nos principais pontos anatômicos dos membros inferiores para registro dos dados cinemáticos, e eletrodos de superfície foram afixados nos músculos tibial anterior e gastrocnêmio medial para registro da atividade elétrica muscular. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significantes entre as cinco condições experimentais foram constatadas nas variáveis espaço-temporal, nos ângulos máximos e mínimos da coxa, joelho e tornozelo e nas amplitudes das componentes horizontal ântero-posterior e vertical da força de reação do solo. De forma geral, as maiores mudanças ocorreram na condição de SPP de 30% do peso corporal. CONCLUSÃO: É importante considerar as compensações que ocorrem no padrão do andar com SPP no planejamento das intervenções terapêuticas. Ainda, para melhor definir a utilização dos sistemas de suspensão de peso na reabilitação, estudos futuros precisam ser realizados para verificar o comportamento do andar em populações com alteração de movimento em piso fixo.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic characteristics of young adults walking on a fixed platform without a vest and with partial body weight support (PBWS of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. METHOD: Eight young adults (mean age: 22.2 years were videotaped walking on a walkway that contained a force plate embedded in its middle portion, to record the ground reaction force (GRF components. Reflective markers were placed on the main anatomical

  5. Monitoring of stage and velocity, for computation of discharge in the Summit Conduit near Summit, Illinois, 2010-2012 (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin K.; Goodwin, Greg E.


    example of a nonstandard stream gage. Traditional methods of equating stage to discharge historically were not effective. Examples of the nonstandard conditions include the converging tributary flows directly upstream of the gage; the trash rack and walkway near the opening of the conduit introducing turbulence and occasionally entraining air bubbles into the flow; debris within the conduit creating conditions of variable backwater and the constant influx of smaller debris that escapes the trash rack and catches or settles in the conduit and on the equipment. An acoustic Doppler velocity meter was installed to measure stage and velocity to compute discharge. The stage is used to calculate area based the stage-area rating. The index-velocity from the acoustic Doppler velocity meter is applied to the velocity-velocity rating and the product of the two rated values is a rated discharge by the index-velocity method. Nonstandard site conditions prevalent at the Summit Conduit stream gaging station generally are overcome through the index-velocity method. Despite the difficulties in gaging and measurements, improvements continue to be made in data collection, transmission, and measurements. Efforts to improve the site and to improve the ratings continue to improve the quality and quantity of the data available for Lake Michigan diversion accounting.

  6. Preditores espaço-temporais do andar para testes de capacidade funcional em pacientes com doença de Parkinson Gait spatial and temporal predictors for functional capacity tests in Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MDR Sánchez-Arias


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar quais parâmetros espaço-temporais são preditores do andar de indivíduos com doença de Parkinson idiopática para os testes de resistência aeróbia e agilidade, propostos pela bateria de testes da American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados seis homens e seis mulheres com comprometimento e estágio da doença em níveis leve e moderado, que realizaram os testes de agilidade e resistência aeróbia, conforme o protocolo da AAHPERD, e andaram 8m sobre uma passarela. Uma câmera digital registrou uma passada central. Marcadores foram fixados no quinto metatarso e na face lateral do calcâneo do membro inferior direito e no primeiro metatarso e na face medial do calcâneo do membro inferior esquerdo. As variáveis dependentes selecionadas foram: tempo nos testes de agilidade e resistência e as variáveis cinemáticas (comprimento da passada - CP, cadência - CAD, duração da passada - DP, duração da fase de duplo suporte - DDS, duração do suporte simples - SS, duração da fase de balanço - DB e velocidade da passada - VP. RESULTADOS: Para agilidade, o teste de Pearson apontou correlação estatisticamente significativa entre as variáveis CP (r=-0,70; pOBJECTIVE: To determine which spatial and temporal parameters are predictors of the gait pattern of individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, for the aerobic endurance and agility tests included in the battery of tests of the AAHPERD protocol. METHODS: Six men and six women with mild and moderate impairment and disease stage were selected. They performed agility and aerobic endurance test in accordance with the AAHPERD protocol, and walked 8 m on a walkway. A digital video camera recorded one central stride. Markers were attached to the fifth metatarsal and lateral face of the calcaneus of the right leg and to the first metatarsal and medial face of the calcaneus of the left leg. The

  7. The design of the frame structure used in integral hosting of the nuclear island steel lining cylinder module and problems analysis%核岛钢衬里筒体模块整体吊装网架结构设计及问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于喜年; 刘晓; 王建国


    The use of the steel frame in the integral hosting of nuclear island steel lining cylinder module made a breakthrough in China's nuclear power construction. The deformation of the cylinder wall is the key issue in the integral lifting process of the nuclear island steel lining. Using the frame in lifting large and thin steel cylinder, the form of frame structure and its deformation will directly affect the radial deformation of the lifted cylinder, the buckling deformation of the distal cylinder, and the cylinder's deformation surround the penetrations. The diameter of nuclear island steel liner is 44 meters. The wall of the cylinder is thin,and the total weight of the cylinder itself and its attached penetrations, walkways and lifting tools,etc. Is up to 120 tons, which not only increase the difficulty of lifting, but also have some risks. To ensure the cylinder deformation within the limits, this thesis establishes the parameter structure for the lifting frame, calculates the displacement and analyzes the axial stresses, based on the ANSYS finite element analysis software. The results showed that the models and parameters for integral hosting of the steel lining cylinder modular frame structure is reasonable and feasible,and analyzing the hosting-frame data is necessary,which lay the foundation for the design of the hosting frame and the eventual implementation of the integral hosting scheme of the steel lining cylinder module.%利用钢构网架对核岛钢衬里筒体模块整体吊装,在我国核电建设领域尚无先例.核岛钢衬里筒体模块整体吊装过程中的筒壁变形问题,是其关键.利用网架吊装大型壁薄筒体时,网架的结构形式及其变形将直接影响到被吊装筒体径向变形、筒体端部翘曲变形以及贯穿件周边的筒体变形.核岛钢衬里筒体直径达44 m,不仅壁薄,而且筒体自身重量以及附属的贯穿件、安装走道和吊具等总重量达120 t,这不仅增加了吊装的难度,而

  8. Impact of exercise to improve gait efficiency on activity and participation in older adults with mobility limitations: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Perera, Subashan; Brach, Jennifer S; Wert, David; Studenski, Stephanie A


    Definitive evidence that exercise interventions that improve gait also reduce disability is lacking. A task-oriented, motor sequence learning exercise intervention has been shown to reduce the energy cost of walking and improve gait speed, but whether the intervention also improves activity and participation has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of a task-oriented, motor sequence learning exercise (TO) intervention and the impact of an impairment-oriented, multicomponent exercise (IO) intervention on activity and participation outcomes in older adults with mobility limitations. The mediating effects of a change in the energy cost of walking on changes in activity and participation also were determined. This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting The study was conducted in an ambulatory clinical research training center. The study participants were 47 older adults (mean age=77.2 years, SD=5.5) with slow and variable gait. Intervention The intervention was a 12-week, physical therapist-guided program of TO or IO. Measures of activity (gait speed over an instrumented walkway; daily physical activity measured with an accelerometer; confidence in walking determined with the Gait Efficacy Scale; and physical function determined with the total, basic lower-extremity, and advanced lower-extremity components of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument [Late-Life FDI]) and participation (disability limitation dimension and instrumental role [home and community task performance] domain components of the Late-Life FDI) were recorded before and after the intervention. The energy cost of walking was determined from the rate of oxygen consumption during self-paced treadmill walking at the physiological steady state standardized by walking speed. An adjusted comparison of activity and participation outcomes in the treatment arms was made by use of an analysis of covariance model, with baseline and change in

  9. Precision gravimetric survey at the conditions of urban agglomerations (United States)

    Sokolova, Tatiana; Lygin, Ivan; Fadeev, Alexander


    internal convergence are independent on transportation mode. Actually, measurements differ just by the processing time and appropriate number of readings. Important, that the internal convergence is the individual attribute of particular device. For the investigated gravimeters it varies from ±3 up to ±8 μGals. Various stability of the gravimeters location base. The most stable basis (minimum microseisms) in this experiment was a concrete pedestal, the least stable - point on the 28th floor. There is no direct dependence of the measurement results variance at the external noise level. Moreover, the external dispersion between different gravimeters is minimal in the point of the highest microseisms. Conclusions. The quality of the modern high-precision gravimeters Scintrex CG-5 Autograv measurements is determined by stability of the particular device, its standard deviation value and the nonlinearity drift degree. Despite the fact, that mentioned parameters of the tested gravimeters, generally corresponded to the factory characters, for the surveys required accuracy ±2-5 μGals, the best gravimeters should be selected. Practical gravimetric survey with such accuracy allowed reliable determination of the position of technical communication boxes and underground walkway in the urban area, indicated by gravity minimums with the amplitudes from 6-8 μGals and 1 - 15 meters width. The holes' parameters, obtained as the result of interpretationare well aligned with priori data.

  10. Avaliação da acessibilidade domiciliar de crianças com deficiência física Home accessibility assessment of children with physical disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Capacci Gasparoto


    both from the interaction between dysfunction, limitation of activities and the individual's social participation constraints as environmental factors. The absence of appropriate environmental adjustments affects accessibility, performance and participation of individuals with physical disabilities (PD. The main objective of this study consisted in evaluating the home accessibility of children with PD. A checklist elaborated by the researchers was used in order to investigate architectural barriers, adaptations in the home and the children's needs for support. The checklist was filled in upon visits to the homes of five children who had limited mobility and used a wheelchair or walker. The reviews took an average of 50 minutes and enabled the researchers to see the children's accessibility and participation conditions at home. An absence of furniture and/or features adapted for children was identified, despite frequent indications of need for aid for locomotion, hygiene and clothing. Among the universal barriers that were evaluated, the predominant issues included uneven walkways, upward pathways and slick walking surfaces on the access routes, and inadequate door width to the bathroom. There was only one house in which circulation space was appropriate in all rooms. The knowledge of accessibility conditions and participation of the children enabled the researchers to propose relevant modifications/adaptations to those environments. Although the literature highlights the close relationship between accessibility, functionality, participation and life quality of people with physical disabilities, the study revealed the lack of surveys and specific instruments of evaluation related to accessibility of the home environment.

  11. Os efeitos do ultra-som terapêutico nas lesões por esmagamento do nervo ciático de ratos: análise funcional da marcha Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on injuries due to crushing of the sciatic nerve in rats: functional evaluation of gait

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    VV Monte-Raso


    primeira medida e a última. As diferenças entre os grupos foram significativas no 14º e no 21º dia (p=0,02 e p=0,002, respectivamente. Conclusão: O ultra-som terapêutico de baixa intensidade acelerou a regeneração do nervo ciático do rato, demonstrável com maior significância no 21º dia pós-operatório.Background: The effects of therapeutic ultrasound irradiation on peripheral nerve regeneration are not well known, particularly regarding functional recovery. However, in rats, footprint evaluation is a well-systematized method for measuring the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI, showing close correlation with morphological regeneration of damaged sciatic nerves. Objective: To analyze the influence of therapeutic ultrasound on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to controlled crushing. Method: 20 Wistar rats (mean body weight: 300 g were divided into two experimental groups: 1 crushing only (n=10; 2 crushing followed by ultrasound irradiation (n=10. Under general anesthesia, a 5-mm segment of sciatic nerve proximal to its bifurcation in the right thigh was exposed and crushed with constant loading of 15 kg for 10 minutes, using a specially-built device. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound irradiation (1:5, 0.4 W/cm², 1 MHz, 2 minutes was started on the first postoperative day and administered for ten consecutive days. Footprints were obtained weekly (postoperative weeks 13 using a specially-designed walkway, and evaluated using specifically-developed software, according to a previously-tested method, with automatic SFI calculation. Results: The SFI progressively increased in both groups: Group 2, from 101 in the first week to 59.21 (second and 26.68 (third, i.e. 73% improvement overall; Group 1, from 98.2 (first to 79.5 (second and 44 (third, i.e. 55% improvement overall. The differences between the groups were significant for the second and third weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound accelerates the

  12. Analysis of clinical characteristics and drug resistance of 224 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii infection%224例鲍曼不动杆菌感染的临床特征及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐薛芬; 徐爱晖


    目的 了解我院224例鲍曼不动杆菌感染的临床特征及耐药性.方法 采用常规方法进行细菌培养、菌株鉴定及药敏检测.结果 201名患者共分离出224株鲍曼不动杆菌,患者主要集中在ICU(33.8%)、外科(25.9%)、呼吸内科(14.4%)、骨科(6.1%),基础疾病以呼吸系统疾病(64.2%)、心血管系统疾病(30.8%)、神经系统疾病(29.8%)及糖尿病(22.9%)多见,与手术治疗及有创检查治疗(56.7%)、联合使用≥2种抗生素(80.6%)及使用时间≥15天(38.8%)可能存在相关性.224株鲍曼不动杆菌对米诺环素敏感性最高(66.1%),对美罗培南、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦敏感性超过55%.结论 鲍曼不动杆菌感染与患者有基础疾病、有创性检查治疗及使用广谱抗生素及时间过长有关,其耐药情况严重,多重耐药及泛耐药菌株日益增多,目前对米诺环素、舒巴坦、碳青酶烯类抗生素仍保持相对敏感性,临床应根据药敏结果合理选择使用抗生素.%Objective To investigate the clinical charateristics of infection of 224 Acinetobacter baumannii strains, and to analyze drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Methods The isolation of the bacterium was conducted according to the microorganical method of CLSI ( Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ). American DATE Company MicroScan Walkway-40 automatic analyzer was applied to identification and drug susceptibility test. Drug resistance was calculated with WH0NET5. 4 soitware. Results A total of 224 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated from 201 patients. The patients were mainly from ICU( intensive care uint) ( 33. 8% ), department of surgery ( 25. 9% ), department of respiratory medicine ( 14. 4% ), department of orthopedics ( 6. 1% ). Common underlying diseases were pulmonary diseases ( 64. 2% ), cardiovascular diseases ( 30. 8% ), diseases of nervous system ( 29. 8% ) and diabetes ( 22. 9% ). 56. 7% of the patients had

  13. The effects of various visual conditions on the gait cycle in children with different level of motor coordination-a pilot study. [Cómo afectan diferentes condiciones visuales a la marcha en niños con diferente nivel de coordinación motriz- un studio piloto].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Palomo-Nieto


    Full Text Available The importance of vision and the visual control of movement have been addressed in the literature related to motor control. Many studies have demonstrated that children with low motor competence in comparison to their typically developing peers may rely more heavily on vision to perform movements. The aim of the study was to highlight the effects of different visual conditions on motor performance during walking in children with different levels of motor coordination. Participants (n=8, Mean age = 8.5±.5 years were divided into typical development (TD and low motor coordination (LMC group. They were asked to walk along a 10-meter walkway provided by Optojump-Next instrument that was placed in a portable construction (15 x 3 x 2.5m. This construction was surrounded by dark blue fibers in which all participants perceived the same visual information. They walked in a self-selected speed under four visual conditions: full vision (FV, limited vision 150 ms (LV-150, limited vision 100 ms (LV-100 and non-vision (NV. For visual occlusion during walking in LV-150 and LV-100, participants were equipped with Plato Goggles that opened for 150 and 100 ms, respectively, within each 2 sec. Data were analyzed in a two-way mixed between-within ANOVA including 2 (groups: TD vs. LMC x 4 (visual condition: FV, LV-150, LV-100 & NV with repeated-measures on the last factor (p≤.05. Results indicated that TD children walked faster and with longer strides than LMC children in which these parameters can influence on different periods of gait cycle including stance and swing phases. Also, perceiving visual information for 150 ms in comparison to 100 ms while walking was enough for similar performance in FV condition. The present findings highlight underlying parameters of gait cycle for walking in TD compared to LMC children are different. Resumen La importancia de la visión y del control visual en el movimiento es un asunto ampliamente abordado y tratado en la