WorldWideScience

Sample records for wales prospective derivation

  1. Koi herpesvirus: distribution and prospects for control in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N G H; Dixon, P F; Jeffery, K R; Peeler, E J; Denham, K L; Way, K

    2010-03-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a highly virulent disease affecting carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and poses a serious socio-economic threat to the UK carp industry. This study aimed to determine the geographic distribution and prevalence of KHV exposed fish in England and Wales through ELISA antibody testing. Only three of the 82 farms sampled produced positive results, suggesting fish farms provide a relatively safe source of fish. Of the 71 'high-risk' fisheries tested, 26 were positive. All eight geographic areas within England and Wales studied had at least one KHV positive site. Twelve consignments of imported koi carp from seven S.E. Asian countries were tested for KHV antibody. Six consignments from six different countries were positive. Although a high proportion of consignments were positive, the results indicate that lower risk stocks of fish exist that could be sourced by the ornamental carp sector. The study provides evidence that KHV is widespread and prevalent in 'high-risk' fisheries. There are, however, prospects for controlling KHV as English and Welsh farms appear to be relatively free of the virus, and in most cases fish are not moved from fisheries to other waters.

  2. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = −0.939, p coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228

  3. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = -0.939, p study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted.

  4. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Walijee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004 advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson’s r=0.762, p=0.010 and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r=0.825, p=0.003. In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r=-0.939, p<0.001. This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted.

  5. Deriving optimal exploration target zones on mineral prospectivity maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. The methodology is demonstrated in the Rodalquilar mineral district in Spain. A subset of known...

  6. Prospective use of skin-derived precursors in neural regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-cheng; TAO Yi; LI Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review recent studies concerning the origins of skin-derived precursors (SKPs),their differentiation characteristics,and their potential application in neural regenerative medicine.Data sources Data were retrieved from studies reported in PubMed published between April,1974 and June,2012.The search terms used were "skin-derived precursors","stem cells",and "neural diseases".Study selection Articles were included in the review if they were relevant to SKPs as stem cells,as well as their applications in neural regenerative medicine,such as in the treatment of spinal cord injury,Parkinson's disease,spinal muscular atrophy and Shah-Waardenburg syndrome.Results SKPs are a novel population of neural crest-derived precursors that arise during embryogenesis and persist into adulthood.They can generate both neural cells and mesodermal lineage cells (including smooth muscle cells and adipocytes).Compared with other stem cells,SKPs are abundant in adult skin,can differentiate easily into neural cells,and are not associated with any ethical controversies.Conclusion SKPs may provide an alternative source of stem cells to embryonic stem cells for transplantation therapy for neurological diseases.

  7. Evaluation of the national Cleanyourhands campaign to reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals in England and Wales by improved hand hygiene: four year, prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christopher; Savage, Joan; Cookson, Barry; Hayward, Andrew; Cooper, Ben; Duckworth, Georgia; Michie, Susan; Murray, Miranda; Jeanes, Annette; Roberts, J; Teare, Louise; Charlett, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the Cleanyourhands campaign on rates of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and soap, report trends in selected healthcare associated infections, and investigate the association between infections and procurement. Design Prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2008. Setting 187 acute trusts in England and Wales. Intervention Installation of bedside alcohol hand rub, materials promoting hand hygiene and institutional engagement, regular hand hygiene audits, rolled out nationally from 1 December 2004. Main outcome measures Quarterly (that is, every three months) rates for each trust of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and liquid soap; Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (meticillin resistant (MRSA) and meticillin sensitive (MSSA)) and Clostridium difficile infection for each trust. Associations between procurement and infection rates assessed by mixed effect Poisson regression model (which also accounted for effect of bed occupancy, hospital type, and timing of other national interventions targeting these infections). Results Combined procurement of soap and alcohol hand rub tripled from 21.8 to 59.8 mL per patient bed day; procurement rose in association with each phase of the campaign. Rates fell for MRSA bacteraemia (1.88 to 0.91 cases per 10 000 bed days) and C difficile infection (16.75 to 9.49 cases). MSSA bacteraemia rates did not fall. Increased procurement of soap was independently associated with reduced C difficile infection throughout the study (adjusted incidence rate ratio for 1 mL increase per patient bed day 0.993, 95% confidence interval 0.990 to 0.996; Psoap, which the results suggest has an important role in reducing rates of some healthcare associated infections. National interventions for infection control undertaken in the context of a high profile political drive can reduce selected healthcare associated infections. PMID:22556101

  8. Analysis of the learning curve for pre-cut corneal specimens in preparation for lamellar transplantation: a prospective, single-centre, consecutive case series prepared at the Lions New South Wales Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aifric Isabel; Devasahayam, Rajnesh; Hodge, Christopher; Cooper, Simon; Sutton, Gerard L

    2017-03-06

    This study is the first paper to establish a learning curve by a single technician. Preparation of pre-cut corneal endothelial grafts commenced at Lions New South Wales Eye Bank in December 2014. The primary objective of this study was to review the safety and reliability of the preparation method during the first year of production. This is a hospital-based, prospective case series. There were 234 consecutive donor corneal lenticules. Donor lenticules were prepared by a single operator using a linear cutting microkeratome. Immediately prior to cutting, central corneal thickness values were recorded. Measurements of the corneal bed were taken immediately following lenticule preparation. Outcomes were separated by blade sizes, and intended thickness was compared to actual thickness for each setting. Early specimens were compared to later ones to assess for a learning curve within the technique. The main parameter measured is the mean difference from intended lamellar cut thickness. The mean final cut thickness was 122.36 ± 20.35 μm, and the mean difference from intended cut was 30.17 ± 37.45 μm. No significant difference was found between results achieved with early specimens versus those achieved with later specimens (P = 0.425). Thin, reproducible endothelial grafts can routinely be produced by trained technicians at their respective eye banks without significant concerns for an extended learning curve. This service can reduce perioperative surgical complexity, required surgical paraphernalia and theatre times. The consistent preparation of single-pass, ultrathin pre-cut corneas may have additional advantages for surgeons seeking to introduce lamellar techniques. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Great Prospects for PAF-1 and its derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. In materials design and preparative chemistry, it is imperative to understand the thought and logic behind synthesizing a particular kind of material. Computational modelling can help in this regard by not only optimizing the materials but also by simulating their properties. Furthermore, the experimental results fill the gap addressing complicated practical conditions that can\\'t be covered using theoretical calculations. In this work, we focus on PAF-1 and its derivatives in order to analyse the correlations between the nature of the material (e.g. pore size, surface area, pore volume, functional groups, metal sites, interpenetrated frameworks) and their properties such as gas sorption capacity, molecular recognition and separation.

  10. Organic chemistry of fullerenes: the major reactions, types of fullerene derivatives and prospects for practical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troshin, P A; Lyubovskaya, R N [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2008-04-30

    Data on the methods of functionalisation of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} fullerenes published over the last 15 years are summarised. The general analysis of fullerene reactivity is performed. Nucleophilic and radical addition and cycloaddition reactions are considered in detail. The prospects of using fullerene derivatives as medical drug and photoactive materials for light converting devices are demonstrated.

  11. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive disease in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A J; Dunkin, K T; Musser, J M; Palmer, S R

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the epidemiology of invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b, the clones responsible, and the antibiotic resistance of the isolates. DESIGN--Prospective population based analysis of clinical and epidemiological data collected for Gwynedd during 1980-90 and in the whole of Wales during 1988-90. SETTING--19 hospitals in Wales; all medical microbiology laboratories in Wales participated. PATIENTS--82 patients with confirmed invasive infections caused by H influenzae type b in Gwynedd during 1980-90 and 207 in Wales during 1988-90. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Clinical and epidemiological measures; analysis of the clonal types of the isolates based on the electrophoretic mobilities of 17 metabolic enzymes; and antibiotic resistance. RESULTS--The annual incidence of H influenzae type b infections in Gwynedd was 3.2 cases/100,000 and in Wales was 2.5 cases/100,000. Most cases occurred in children aged under 5 years, the highest annual incidence being in those aged under 1 (84.6/100,000 and 56.9/100,000 in Wales). The cumulative risk of acquiring H influenzae type b disease by the fifth birthday was one in 456 in Gwynedd and one in 578 in Wales. Fifteen per cent of cases in Gwynedd and 7% of those in Wales occurred in adults. Predominant clinical conditions were meningitis in children and pneumonia in adults. In Gwynedd 2/70 (3%) children and 5/12 (42%) adults died. Long term neurological sequelae occurred in 8% (4/48) of children who survived haemophilus meningitis. Children presenting with infection were usually the youngest members of their family. No secondary household cases were identified. 100 of 128 (78%) strains were of a single clone, electrophoretic type 12.5, and 4/207 (1.9%) isolates from Wales were resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol. CONCLUSIONS--The annual rate of infection in children aged under 5 in four Welsh counties was 12-44% higher than that previously published for the United Kingdom. The study

  12. South Wales revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, M.

    2009-04-15

    The paper deals with the regeneration work in the Aberpergwm coal mine in South Wales and finds out more about the strategy for expansion. The mine is in the Nearth Valley, near to the retrofitted coal-powered plant at Aberthaw. It was shut down in September 1985 under British Coal's national closure programme and the underground workings were allowed to flood. It was reopened in 1996. Reserves are mainly located to the west of the Pentreclwydau fault. Beginning in 2003, Energybuild re-established the infrastructure at the mine including dewatering, ventilation and roadway recovery and repairs. The workforce increased from 45 in 2007 to 200 by Oct 2008. The plant is to increase production to 265,000 t of clean coal this year to June. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  13. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from castor oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get closet to the future, being the prospective the one that conceives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human beign future actions. For all this, the human being takes knowledge, the yearings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the oleochemical castor oil sector, because Colombia has resources to develop Ricinus comunnis cultivation and industrial uses of castor oil and its derivates. The study establishes the keys that define the current and future behaviour of the system, the position and the power of each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations with more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  14. The Conditions of Creation and Prospects of Weather Derivatives Development on the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the possibility of creations and prospects of weather derivatives development on the domestic market the first of all should be identify the business areas that are strongly exposed for weather risk, which are: energy, agricultural, building and transportation. The specificity of the Polish climate is the high volatility of the major weather factors like temperature or precipitations. Similar to other European countries where weather derivatives markets already exist (e.g.: Germany, France, and United Kingdom. Having in mind dynamic grow of companies with regards to management processes, used technologies and marketing strategies, the exposure for weather risk is getting higher. Therefore, there is a strong pressure for creation of mechanisms and instruments that will allow reducing that kind of risks. Currently in Poland there are no conditions for development of weather derivatives market due to lack of demand. That situation is caused by low level of awareness regarding to possibilities of reducing weather risks. Within a few years the demand for such the instruments will appear ñ together with growing awareness. Once the demand for weather derivative will appear, the existing infrastructure of financial sector is ready for its implementation. Of course it is hard to say what will be the direction of whether derivatives grow on the domestic financial market but taking into consideration its dynamic grow and strong correlations with global markets, there is a small probability that weather derivatives will not appear on the Polish market ñ it is only the matter of time.

  15. Education in Wales and Welsh Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    Brief annotations are presented for 72 entries on education in Wales and on teaching the Welsh language in Wales. Entries include books, government reports, and journal articles. Several citations compare bilingual teaching in Wales, Canada, the USSR, the United States, Scotland, Ireland, and the Province of Brittany in France. The collection…

  16. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from palm and palm kernel oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ibeth Jaimes Moreno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get close to the future, being the prospective the one that concives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human being future actions. For all this, the human being takes the knowledge, the yearnings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Keeping in mind the characteristic of the palm cultivation (pereninal, of late growth, with a 25 years productive horizon, and the future of the sector captured in "Visión y estrategias de la palmicultura colombiana 2000 - 2020" together with the economic tendencies of the world, the methodology of planning denominated prospective, becomes an appropriate tool to establish the future of the oleochemical sector derived from the palm and palmist oils, which is right now very incipient in our country. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the sector, starting from the definition of the keys that define the current and future behavior of the system, the position and the power that each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations will more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  17. Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Nanoporous Metal Oxides toward Supercapacitor Applications: Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Rahul R; Kaneti, Yusuf V; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-06-27

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) have attracted significant attention for energy storage applications such as supercapacitors due to their good electrical conductivity, high electrochemical response (by providing Faradaic reactions), low manufacturing costs, and easy processability. Despite exhibiting these attractive characteristics, the practical applications of TMOs for supercapacitors are still relatively limited. This is largely due to their continuous Faradaic reactions, which can lead to major changes or destruction of their structure as well phase changes (in some cases) during cycling, leading to the degradation in their capacitive performance over time. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop new synthesis methods, which will readily provide stable porous architectures, controlled phase, as well as useful control over dimensions (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) of the metal oxides for improving their performance in supercapacitor applications. Since its discovery in late 1990s, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have influenced many fields of material science. In recent years, they have gained significant attention as precursors or templates for the derivation of porous metal oxide nanostructures and nanocomposites for next-generation supercapacitor applications. Even though these materials have widespread applications and have been widely studied in terms of their structural features and synthesis, it is still not clear how these materials will play an important role in the development of the supercapacitor field. In this review, we will summarize the recent developments in the field of MOF-derived porous metal oxide nanostructures and nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications. Furthermore, the current challenges along with the future trends and prospects in the application of these materials for supercapacitors will also be discussed.

  18. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospective evaluation of a Holter-ECG derived severity index for screening of sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christoph; Friedrich, Jörg; Katus, Hugo; Dickhaus, Hartmut

    To prospectively evaluate the applicability of a method to screen overnight Holter-ECGs for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in an unselected clinical routine Holter sample. Holter-ECG recordings in 50 cardiologic inpatients were complemented with nocturnal respiratory polygraphy (PG). The respiratory event index (REI) and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) from the PG served as a reference for an ECG-derived SDB severity estimate using a previously developed method. Agreement with the PG was investigated using Bland-Altman plots color-coded by ectopy level, and screening accuracy for REI≥15/h and AHI≥15/h was assessed. Prevalence for REI≥15/h was 52%, and 32% for AHI≥15/h. We observed better agreement of the ECG-based estimate with the REI compared to the AHI. Ectopy did not limit the detection of SDB. Binary screening for REI≥15/h provided excellent specificity of 0.96 with a sensitivity of 0.77. Ternary screening for AHI≥15/h yielded 16% borderline classifications and specificity/sensitivity of 0.96/0.86 for the remaining data. Screening of routine Holter-ECGs for sleep disordered breathing is reasonable and promises earlier identification of a significant part of patients at no additional cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Current Challenges in Bilingual Education in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, W. Gwyn

    2008-01-01

    In Wales, bilingual education in Welsh and English has an increasingly high profile and Wales shares international leadership of bilingual education policies and practices alongside other countries where bilingual education flourishes. Ever since the first designated Welsh-medium primary school was opened in 1939, Welsh-medium and bilingual…

  1. Homocystinuria in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcken, B; Turner, G

    1978-03-01

    Homocystinuria was studied in 27 patients from 15 families in New South Wales. All 2 had biochemical findings consistent with cystathionine synthetase deficiency. One patient was ascertained by newborn screening, but the remaining index cases were detected because of symptoms: poor eyesight 6, mental retardation 3, thromboses 2, skeletal abnormalities 2, and urinary infection1. 9 patients, one-third of all cases, were mildly affected: either they had no features of the disease, or these did not occur until the late teens. Pyridoxine responsiveness was found in 8 sibships, and clinically there were two distinct kinds of response. For patients born in the decade 1960-69 the ascertainment rate for the total population was 1:58 000. The true incidence must be much higher. Our series indicates that homocystinuria occurs more frequently than has heretofore been thought, and that mild cases are common. It is likely that cases are often missed in current newborn screening programmes.

  2. The Lightening Veil: Language Revitalization in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin H.

    2014-01-01

    The Welsh language, which is indigenous to Wales, is one of six Celtic languages. It is spoken by 562,000 speakers, 19% of the population of Wales, according to the 2011 U.K. Census, and it is estimated that it is spoken by a further 200,000 residents elsewhere in the United Kingdom. No exact figures exist for the undoubted thousands of other…

  3. United Kingdom (Wales): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Marcus; Riley, Neil; Davies, Paul; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Wales is situated to the west of England, with a population of approximately 3 million (5% of the total for the United Kingdom), and a land mass of just over 20 000 km2. For several decades, Wales had a health system largely administered through the United Kingdom Governments Welsh Office, but responsibility for most aspects of health policy was devolved to Wales in a process beginning in 1999. Since then, differences between the policy approach and framework in England and Wales have widened. The internal market introduced in the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) has been abandoned in Wales, and seven local health boards (LHBs; supported by three specialist NHS trusts) now plan and provide all health services for their resident populations. Wales currently has more than 120 hospitals as part of an overall estate valued at 2.3 billion pounds. Total spending on health services increased in the first decade of the 21st century, but Wales now faces a period of financial retrenchment greater than in other parts of the United Kingdom as a result of the Welsh Governments decision not to afford the same degree of protection to health spending as that granted elsewhere. The health system in Wales continues to face some structural weaknesses that have proved resistant to reform for some time. However, there has been substantial improvement in service quality and outcomes since the end of the 1990s, in large part facilitated by substantial real growth in health spending. Life expectancy has continued to increase, but health inequalities have proved stubbornly resistant to improvement.

  4. Exploratory mapping of commuter flows in England and Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lassen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    within England and Wales and in more details around a number of cities. In the city “cases” specific attention is given to the “range of influence” of each metropolitan area, measured through the variation in commute distances and the directionality of commuting. The cities are London, Manchester...... and Birmingham. These are chosen for their size and differences in regional context. In the general analysis – at the country-wide scale - special emphasis is put on deriving a representation of the scale and the corridors of interaction from the relatively disaggregate data. A map of commuter flows in England...

  5. People's Collection Wales: Online Access to the Heritage of Wales from Museums, Archives and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedd, Lucy A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The People's Collection Wales aims to collect, interpret, distribute and discuss Wales' cultural heritage in an online environment. Individual users or local history societies are able to create their own digital collections, contribute relevant content, as well as access digital resources from heritage institutions. This paper aims to…

  6. Prospective isolation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitors that integrate into human fetal heart tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehali, Reza; Ali, Shah R; Inlay, Matthew A; Abilez, Oscar J; Chen, Michael Q; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Yazawa, Masayuki; Gong, Yongquan; Nusse, Roeland; Drukker, Micha; Weissman, Irving L

    2013-02-26

    A goal of regenerative medicine is to identify cardiovascular progenitors from human ES cells (hESCs) that can functionally integrate into the human heart. Previous studies to evaluate the developmental potential of candidate hESC-derived progenitors have delivered these cells into murine and porcine cardiac tissue, with inconclusive evidence regarding the capacity of these human cells to physiologically engraft in xenotransplantation assays. Further, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains untested and unknown. Here, we have prospectively identified a population of hESC-derived ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells that give rise to cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro at a clonal level. We observed rare clusters of ROR2(+) cells and diffuse expression of KDR and PDGFRα in first-trimester human fetal hearts. We then developed an in vivo transplantation model by transplanting second-trimester human fetal heart tissues s.c. into the ear pinna of a SCID mouse. ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells were delivered into these functioning fetal heart tissues: in contrast to traditional murine heart models for cell transplantation, we show structural and functional integration of hESC-derived cardiovascular progenitors into human heart.

  7. Patagonian road movies and migration from Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Whitfield

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two recent films, Patagonia (2011 and Separado! (2010, both produced in Wales and set in Patagonia. It proposes that both take advantage of the codes and tropes of the road movie genre, and of the history of Welsh emigration to Patagonia, to situate Welsh language and culture in both a local and global context.

  8. Hepatitis E in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah C; Boisson, Sophie; Ijaz, Samreen; Hewitt, Kirsten; Ngui, Siew Lin; Boxall, Elizabeth; Teo, Chong Gee; Morgan, Dilys

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 329 cases of hepatitis E virus infection were confirmed in England and Wales; 33 were confirmed indigenous infections, and a further 67 were estimated to be indigenous infections. Hepatitis E should be considered in the investigation of patients with hepatitis even if they have no history of travel.

  9. Our Vision for a Sustainable Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The Welsh Assembly Government is committed to putting sustainable development at the heart of all it does. In May 2009, the Assembly launched its latest scheme, "One Wales: One Planet," which sets out a clear definition of sustainable development as enhancing the economic, social and environmental wellbeing of people and communities,…

  10. Waleli: Bringing Wireless Opportunities to Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirwan, P.M.; Gutierrez, Jairo

    2009-01-01

    This chapter tells the development story of Waleli, a high-tech company utilizing the latest proven developments in wireless communications to bring innovations to the market. It presents the journey of the firm through the entrepreneurial process, from initial idea right through to value creation.

  11. Waleli: Bringing Wireless Opportunities to Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirwan, P.M.; van der Sijde, Peter; Groen, Arend J.; Medina-Garrido, J.; Martinez-Fierro, S.; Ruiz-Navarro, J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter tells the development story of Waleli, a high-tech company utilizing the latest proven developments in wireless communications to bring innovations to the market. It presents the journey of the firm through the entrepreneurial process, from initial idea right through to value creation.

  12. Prospective of guar gum and its derivatives as controlled drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabaharan, M

    2011-08-01

    Guar gum is a non-ionic polysaccharide that is found abundantly in nature and has many properties desirable for drug delivery applications. However, due to its high swelling characteristics in aqueous solution, the use of guar gum as delivery carriers is limited. Guar gum can be modified by derivatization, grafting and network formation to improve its property profile for a wide spectrum of biomedical applications. This review article is aimed at focusing the recent efforts and developments on guar gum and its derivatives as colon-specific, antihypertensive, protein and transdermal drug delivery systems. Based on the literatures reviewed, it is concluded that guar gum and its derivatives in the various forms such as coatings, matrix tablets, hydrogels and nano/microparticles can be exploited as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery.

  13. Prospect of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Crest Stem Cells in Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs represent a transient and multipotent cell population that contributes to numerous anatomical structures such as peripheral nervous system, teeth, and cornea. NCSC maldevelopment is related to various human diseases including pigmentation abnormalities, disorders affecting autonomic nervous system, and malformations of teeth, eyes, and hearts. As human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs can serve as an unlimited cell source to generate NCSCs, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs can be a valuable tool to study the underlying mechanisms of NCSC-associated diseases, which paves the way for future therapies for these abnormalities. In addition, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs with the capability of differentiating to various cell types are highly promising for clinical organ repair and regeneration. In this review, we first discuss NCSC generation methods from human pluripotent stem cells and differentiation mechanism of NCSCs. Then we focus on the clinical application potential of hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs on peripheral nerve injuries, corneal blindness, tooth regeneration, pathological melanogenesis, Hirschsprung disease, and cardiac repair and regeneration.

  14. Prospect of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Crest Stem Cells in Clinical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian; Lu, Qiqi; Gao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) represent a transient and multipotent cell population that contributes to numerous anatomical structures such as peripheral nervous system, teeth, and cornea. NCSC maldevelopment is related to various human diseases including pigmentation abnormalities, disorders affecting autonomic nervous system, and malformations of teeth, eyes, and hearts. As human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can serve as an unlimited cell source to generate NCSCs, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs can be a valuable tool to study the underlying mechanisms of NCSC-associated diseases, which paves the way for future therapies for these abnormalities. In addition, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs with the capability of differentiating to various cell types are highly promising for clinical organ repair and regeneration. In this review, we first discuss NCSC generation methods from human pluripotent stem cells and differentiation mechanism of NCSCs. Then we focus on the clinical application potential of hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs on peripheral nerve injuries, corneal blindness, tooth regeneration, pathological melanogenesis, Hirschsprung disease, and cardiac repair and regeneration. PMID:28090209

  15. Cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and C-reactive protein in bipolar I disorder - Results from a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacoby, Anne Sophie; Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers may reflect key pathophysiological mechanisms in bipolar disorder in relation to disease activity and neuroprogression. AIMS: To investigate whether neutrophins and inflammatory marker vary with mood...... states and are increased in patients with bipolar disorder type I during euthymia as well as in all affective states as a group, compared to levels in healthy control subjects. METHODS: In a prospective 6-12 months follow-up study, we investigated state specific, intra-individual alterations in levels...... of BDNF, hsCRP, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18 and TNF-α in 60 patients with bipolar I disorder with an acute severe manic index episode and in subsequent euthymic and depressive and manic states and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Data were analysed with linear mixed effects...

  16. Follow-up: Prospective compound design using the 'SAR Matrix' method and matrix-derived conditional probabilities of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Hirose, Yoichiro; Odagami, Takenao; Kouji, Hiroyuki; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In a previous Method Article, we have presented the 'Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) Matrix' (SARM) approach. The SARM methodology is designed to systematically extract structurally related compound series from screening or chemical optimization data and organize these series and associated SAR information in matrices reminiscent of R-group tables. SARM calculations also yield many virtual candidate compounds that form a "chemical space envelope" around related series. To further extend the SARM approach, different methods are developed to predict the activity of virtual compounds. In this follow-up contribution, we describe an activity prediction method that derives conditional probabilities of activity from SARMs and report representative results of first prospective applications of this approach.

  17. Bronchoscopy-derived correlates of lung injury following inhalational injuries: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI is a major factor determining morbidity following burns and inhalational injury. In experimental models, factors potentially contributing to ALI risk include inhalation of toxins directly causing cell damage; inflammation; and infection. However, few studies have been done in humans. METHODS: We carried out a prospective observational study of patients admitted to the NC Jaycees Burn Center who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for burns and suspected inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over an 8-month period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically-indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of cell injury and inflammation. These markers were compared with clinical markers of ALI. RESULTS: Forty-three consecutive patients were studied, with a spectrum of burn and inhalation injury severity. Visible soot at initial bronchoscopy and gram negative bacteria in the lower respiratory tract were associated with ALI in univariate analyses. Subsequent multivariate analysis also controlled for % body surface area burns, infection, and inhalation severity. Elevated IL-10 and reduced IL-12p70 in bronchial washings were statistically significantly associated with ALI. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of several factors including initial inhalational injury severity, infection, and extent of surface burns, high early levels of IL-10 and low levels of IL-12p70 in the central airways are associated with ALI in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury. Lower airway secretions can be collected serially in critically ill burn/inhalation injury patients and may yield important clues to specific pathophysiologic pathways.

  18. [Application Prospect of Stem Cell-derived Microvesicles in Regeneration of Injured Tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huiqun; Jiang, Hong

    2015-06-01

    More and more evidence indicates that microvesicles (MVs) play a key role in cell-to-cell communication. The MVs are circular fragments of membrane released from the endosomal compartment as exosomes or shed from the cell surface membranes of most types. Components of donor cells are incorporated into MVs that contain bioactive lipids, proteins, genetic cargoes. MVs derived from stem cells may reprogram cells that survived in injury tissue and favor tissue regeneration by delivering their bioactive cargoes to influence the behaviors of recipient cells. Compared with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), MVs derived from MSCs were found to mimic the beneficial effects of these cells. These proregenerative effects mediated by MVs can be explained by the fact that MVs are enriched in bioactive lipids, anti-apoptotic and pro-stimulatory growth factors or cytokines, and deliver mRNAs, regulatory miRNAs and proteins that improve overall cell function. Therefore, it opens novel perspectives in exploiting these MVs in tissue regeneration and repair. In addition, the use of MVs instead of stem cells could represent a safe and potentially more advantageous alternative to cell-therapy approaches.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the prospects for use of refuse-derived fuel in Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.; Shyer, J.; Edgecomb, K.

    1979-02-01

    The deployment problems of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production in Maryland are examined. Problems experienced by the pyrolysis plant in Baltimore City and the resource recovery plant in Baltimore County are cited. Maryland's municipal solid waste problems are discussed with emphasis on the major components of the municipal solid waste stream, e.g., volume, composition, and location; collection methods used; present and long-range disposal methods; and regulations and ordinances. The generic social and legal constraints to RDF production are described. The problems of RDF technology deployment in Maryland, i.e., county and state RDF energy potential, institutional barriers to RDF production and use, remitting requirements for new RDF production and use facilities, water quality issues of RDF production and use, air quality issues of RDF production and use, and recommendations for initiating RDF production and use are discussed.

  20. Heterogeneous photocatalytic nanomaterials: prospects and challenges in selective transformations of biomass-derived compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Juan Carlos; Luque, Rafael

    2014-02-07

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis has become a comprehensively studied area of research during the past three decades due to its practical interest in applications including water-air depollution, cancer therapy, sterilization, artificial photosynthesis (CO2 photoreduction), anti-fogging surfaces, heat transfer and heat dissipation, anticorrosion, lithography, photochromism, solar chemicals production and many others. The utilization of solar irradiation to supply energy or to initiate chemical reactions is already an established idea. Excited electron-hole pairs are generated upon light irradiation of a wide-band gap semiconductor which can be applied to solar cells to generate electricity or in chemical processes to create/degrade specific compounds. While the field of heterogeneous photocatalysis for pollutant abatement and mineralisation of contaminants has been extensively investigated, a new research avenue related to the selective valorisation of residues has recently emerged as a promising alternative to utilise solar light for the production of valuable chemicals and fuels. This tutorial review will focus on the potential and applications of solid photonanocatalysts for the selective transformation of biomass-derived substrates.

  1. Enteromorpha intestinalis Derived Seaweed Liquid Fertilizers as Prospective Biostimulant for Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Mathur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, the potential of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF of marine algae Enteromorpha intestinalis was evaluated for its effect on seed germination, yield, biochemical parameters and pigment characteristics of Glycine maxE. intestinalis was collected form Mandapam coast of Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, and the dried seaweeds were used for the preparation of SLF. G. max seeds were germinated with four different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 100% of SLF; its growth and yield parameters were evaluated and compared with chemical fertilizer and control. The morphological and bio-chemical parameters such as seed germination (100%, root (6.6cm and shoot length (5.4 cm, carbohydrates (0.098 mg/g, protein (0.56 mg/g, pigment (0.444 mg/g chl a; 1.073 mg/g chl b; 3.70 mg/g carotenoids of the plant was found maximum at a concentration of 60% SLF. The phenol content (3.25 mg/g was maximum in 40% SLF. The GC-MS analysis of SLF revealed the presence of notable benzoic compounds involved in plant growth promotion. Results showed thatE. intestinalis derived SLF was potential biostimulant forG. max. Thus, marine algae based fertilizer could be an effective and alternate to the chemical fertilizers emphasizing the need for systematic evaluation programme for SLF on various crops.

  2. Bacterial symbionts: prospects for the sustainable production of invertebrate-derived pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, J

    2006-01-01

    Invertebrate animals, such as sponges, tunicates and bryozoans, are among the most important sources of biomedically relevant natural products. However, as these animals generally contain only low quantities of the compounds, further pharmacological development is in most cases difficult. There is increasing evidence that many metabolites, in particular polyketides and nonribosomally synthesized peptides, are not produced by the animals themselves but by associated bacterial symbionts. This symbiont hypothesis currently attracts considerable interest, since it implicates that animal-independent production systems based on bacterial fermentation processes could be created. This review gives an overview about recent developments in the research on natural product symbiosis. Different techniques will be discussed that have been employed to pinpoint the actual producer. Since bacterial symbionts are highly fastidious and have been generally resistant to cultivation attempts, emphasis will be laid on culture-independent strategies, such as cell separation approaches and the cloning of biosynthetic genes. These strategies have provided insights into possible sources of several natural products, e.g. the bryostatins, pederin, the onnamides, swinholide A and theopalauamide. Finally, potential techniques for the generation of renewable supplies of symbiont-derived drug candidates will be discussed. Cultivation approaches and the heterologous expression of cloned biosynthesis genes from uncultured symbionts could in future provide access to several important marine drug candidates, including bryostatin 1, halichondrin or ET-743.

  3. Landform-derived placement of electrical resistivity prospecting for paleotopography reconstruction in the loess landforms of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li-Yang; Tang, Guo-An; Zhu, A.-Xing; Li, Ji-Long; Duan, Jia-Zhen; Qian, Ye-Qing

    2016-08-01

    The paleotopography of loess landform represents the initial surface before the evolution of the Aeolian depositional process. This paleotopography served as an indicator of the paleo-geography and erosion base that restrained the evolution of the current landform. In this case study, a landform-derived placement method involving electrical resistivity prospecting is proposed for paleotopography reconstruction. The method consists of extracting terrain feature knowledge and terrain feature-based paleotopography prospecting and reconstruction. The field experiment is validated and used in three typical loess landform areas in the Chinese Loess Plateau. These typical loess landforms include loess hill, loess ridge, and loess tableland. Terrain features considered include peaks, saddles, ridges, and gullies. The results show significant electrical resistivity difference between the paleotopography and loess strata. The electrical resistivity method could effectively detect the paleotopography and different loess layers. The reconstructed paleotopography using the feature-based method could effectively represent the morphology of the paleosurface compared to the result of the interpolation method. The reconstructed paleotopography also appears as a coincident terrain relief compared to modern topography; such a relief demonstrates significant landform inheritance between modern terrain and paleotopography. In the loess hill and ridge landform areas, the relative elevation difference of paleotopography is approximately 50 m whereas that of the modern terrain is roughly 150 m, indicating that the loess deposition process increased the topographic relief from paleotopography to modern terrain by approximately 100 m. Similar altitude of the paleotopographic peaks (roughly 10 m height difference) appears in the two nearby loess ridge and hill areas. The results indicate that paleo-geography of this area should be a landform of peneplain and almost a planation surface.

  4. POLICE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM IN ENGLAND AND WALES

    OpenAIRE

    Balcıoğlu, Ercan; Pala, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the reader with a literature review with the aim of finding out about the origin and system of police accountability in England and Wales. It is hoped that the article will help to identify some important conceptual considerations that ought to betaken into account by any professional and responsible police departments seeking to embrace accountability in its policing procedures.This article explores the sensitive issue of police accountability to civilian oversight bodi...

  5. Aetiology of hyperthyroidism in Canada and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, I; Ankrett, V O; Lazarus, J. H.; Volpe, R.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective, comparative review of 100 consecutive new outpatients presenting with hyperthyroidism in Cardiff, South Wales, and in Toronto, Canada, was performed. The aim was to quantify the causes of hyperthyroidism with particular emphasis on the prevalence of viral thyroiditis and "silent" thyroiditis. The proportional morbidity of Graves' disease (approximately 70%) was similar in the two groups. Toxic multinodular goitre and toxic adenoma (Plummers' disease) occurred significantly mo...

  6. Early Jurassic allotherians from South Wales (United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Clemens

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossils from two fissure fillings in Pant Quarry (designated Pant 4 and Pant 5, South Wales, United Kingdom, probably of Early Jurassic age document a taxonomically diverse vertebrate fauna, the Morganucodon-sphenodont fauna, composed of several kinds of reptiles, non-mammalian synapsids, and mammals. Six isolated molariform teeth from Pant 4 and 5 fissures clearly record the presence of Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, a genus previously known only from purported Late Triassic faunas of southwestern England, France, Belgium, Luxemburg, Germany, and Switzerland. Small morphological differences from teeth in the larger English and continental European samples warrant identification of the Welsh material as Thomasia cf. moorei. The highly derived morphology of an isolated molariform tooth from Pant 5 fissure indicates the presence of another, possibly allotherian, taxon. Fossilien aus zwei wahrscheinlich unterjurassischen Spaltenfüllungen (Pant 4 und Pant 5 im Steinbruch Pant in Süd-Wales dokumentieren eine taxonomisch diverse Wirbeltierfauna. Diese Morganucodon-Sphenodontiden-Fauna besteht aus verschiedenen Formen von Reptilien, Synapsiden und Säugetieren. Sechs isolierte molariforme Zähne aus den Spaltenfüllungen Pant 4 und Pant 5 belegen eindeutig das Vorkommen von Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, einer bisher nur aus vermutlich obertriassischen Faunen Südwest-Englands, Frankreichs, Belgiens, Luxemburgs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz bekannten Gattung. Geringe morphologische Unterschiede zu dem umfangreicheren Material aus England und Kontinental-Europa sprechen für die Identifikation des neuen Materials als Thomasia cf. moorei. Die stark abgeleitete Morphologie eines isolierten molariformen Zahnes aus der Spalte Pant 5 belegt das Vorkommen eines anderen Taxons, das möglicherweise auch den Allotheria zuzuordnen ist. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600018

  7. Trends in community violence in England and Wales 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarajasingam, Vaseekaran; Page, Nicholas; Morgan, Peter; Matthews, Kent; Moore, Simon; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    Injury records from Emergency Departments (EDs) have been studied over the last decade as part of the work of the National Violence Surveillance Network (NVSN) and provide information about local, regional and national violence levels and trends in England and Wales. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate overall, gender, age-specific and regional trends in community violence in England and Wales from an ED perspective from January 2005 to December 2009. Violence-related injury data were collected prospectively in a stratified sample of 77 EDs (Types 1, 3 and 4) in the nine Government Office Regions in England and in Wales. All 77 EDs were recruited on the basis that they had implemented and continued to comply with the provisions of the 1998 Data Protection Act and Caldicott guidance. Attendance date, age and gender of patients who reported injury in violence were identified using assault-related attendance codes, specified at the local level. Time series statistical methods were used to detect both regional and national trends. In total 221,673 (163,384 males: 74%) violence-related attendances were identified. Overall estimated annual injury rate was 6.5 per 1000 resident population (males 9.8 and females 3.4 per 1000). Violence affecting males and females decreased significantly in England and Wales over the 5-year period, with an overall estimated annual decrease of 3% (95% CI: 1.8-4.1%, pdata. Causes of decreases in violence in regions need to be identified and shared with regions where violence increased. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. English in Wales and a "Welsh Valleys" Accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, J. Roderick

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on Welsh English, providing a brief historical account of the growth of English in Wales, which has only recently supplanted Welsh as the dominant language. Describes an accent in the industrialized "Valleys" area of South Wales, where less than 10% of the population speaks Welsh. Examines its phonology to see what the defining…

  9. Intracoronary cardiosphere-derived cells for heart regeneration after myocardial infarction (CADUCEUS): a prospective, randomised phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Raj R; Smith, Rachel R; Cheng, Ke; Malliaras, Konstantinos; Thomson, Louise E J; Berman, Daniel; Czer, Lawrence S C; Marbán, Linda; Mendizabal, Adam; Johnston, Peter V; Russell, Stuart D; Schuleri, Karl H; Lardo, Albert C; Gerstenblith, Gary; Marbán, Eduardo

    2012-03-10

    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) reduce scarring after myocardial infarction, increase viable myocardium, and boost cardiac function in preclinical models. We aimed to assess safety of such an approach in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. In the prospective, randomised CArdiosphere-Derived aUtologous stem CElls to reverse ventricUlar dySfunction (CADUCEUS) trial, we enrolled patients 2-4 weeks after myocardial infarction (with left ventricular ejection fraction of 25-45%) at two medical centres in the USA. An independent data coordinating centre randomly allocated patients in a 2:1 ratio to receive CDCs or standard care. For patients assigned to receive CDCs, autologous cells grown from endomyocardial biopsy specimens were infused into the infarct-related artery 1·5-3 months after myocardial infarction. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients at 6 months who died due to ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or sudden unexpected death, or had myocardial infarction after cell infusion, new cardiac tumour formation on MRI, or a major adverse cardiac event (MACE; composite of death and hospital admission for heart failure or non-fatal recurrent myocardial infarction). We also assessed preliminary efficacy endpoints on MRI by 6 months. Data analysers were masked to group assignment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00893360. Between May 5, 2009, and Dec 16, 2010, we randomly allocated 31 eligible participants of whom 25 were included in a per-protocol analysis (17 to CDC group and eight to standard of care). Mean baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 39% (SD 12) and scar occupied 24% (10) of left ventricular mass. Biopsy samples yielded prescribed cell doses within 36 days (SD 6). No complications were reported within 24 h of CDC infusion. By 6 months, no patients had died, developed cardiac tumours, or MACE in either group. Four patients (24%) in the CDC group had serious

  10. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access.

  11. Unothering" Wales. Domestication as a tourist marketing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Arranz, José Igor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourists in Wales are overwhelmingly British and its national tourist organisation, Wales Tourist Board, although certainly attempting to widen its share of foreign visitors, does pay special attention to those promotional materials designed to target the domestic British readership. Such award-winning materials will be analysed in the present work, which places special emphasis on their two main features: on the one hand, their embedded intertextual nature; on the other, the obvious taming or domestication of Welshness. As a result, Wales is turned into a "gratifyingly dissimilar", even perfected version of England, mostly catering for the potential English tourist

  12. Long-term trends of men's co-residence with children in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Henz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing numbers of childless men as well as fathers with reduced or no contact with their children have sparked concern about an erosion of fatherhood. Although the general trend is undisputed, claims about men's decreasing family involvement lack a sound empirical basis that enables comparisons between countries and sub-groups of society. Objective: This study derives long-term trends in father-child co-residence over the life course in England and Wales, and provides comparisons of these trends by level of education and ethnic origin. Methods: The paper calculates shares of father-child co-residence from the National Statistics Longitudinal Study (LS and the British Labour-Force Surveys (LFS. Results: There has been a decline of father-child co-residence in England and Wales for men in their thirties, an even greater decline for men in their twenties, and a small increase in the shares of father-child co-residence at higher ages. The trends for different educational groups were similar, but men with a degree had particularly low rates of father-child co-residence at younger ages, and relatively high ones at older ages. Neither less-educated men, nor men from Black-Caribbean and Black-African origins showed rates of father-child co-residence as low as one might have expected. Conclusions: The steady decline of father-child co-residence among men born between 1930 and 1979 in England and Wales lends support to claims about an erosion of fatherhood. However, it is unwarranted to generalize findings from other countries about particularly low levels of father-child co-residence among less-educated men to men in England and Wales.

  13. 1980 walrus harvest and welfare study, Wales, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Narrative of monitoring walrus harvest in Wales, 1980, including suggestions for future monitoring efforts. Results: Specimens: 68 Total Sex: 37 Male, 31 Female....

  14. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Lake Wales Ridge NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  15. Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. This peculiar edge-effect is shown in this paper having a predominant topological origin, leaving to future experimental investigations the task of verifying the occurrence in nature of wave-like defects similar to the ones proposed here. Graph-theoretical tools used in this paper for the generation and the propagation of the Stone-Wales defects waves are applicable to investigate isomeric modifications of chemical structures with various dimensionality like fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenic layers, schwarzites, zeolites.

  16. Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Ottorino; Cataldo, Franco; Putz, Mihai V.

    2011-01-01

    Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. This peculiar edge-effect is shown in this paper having a predominant topological origin, leaving to future experimental investigations the task of verifying the occurrence in nature of wave-like defects similar to the ones proposed here. Graph-theoretical tools used in this paper for the generation and the propagation of the Stone-Wales defects waves are applicable to investigate isomeric modifications of chemical structures with various dimensionality like fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenic layers, schwarzites, zeolites. PMID:22174641

  17. Background exposure rates of terrestrial wildlife in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Jones, D.G. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wood, M.D. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER), Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Appleton, J.D.; Breward, N. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    It has been suggested that, when assessing radiation impacts on non-human biota, estimated dose rates due to anthropogenically released radionuclides should be put in context by comparison to dose rates from natural background radiation. In order to make these comparisons, we need data on the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental media and organisms of interest. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the exposure of terrestrial organisms in England and Wales to naturally occurring radionuclides, specifically {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U series and {sup 232}Th series radionuclides. Whole-body activity concentrations for the reference animals and plants (RAPs) as proposed by the ICRP have been collated from literature review, data archives and a targeted sampling campaign. Data specifically for the proposed RAP are sparse. Soil activity concentrations have been derived from an extensive geochemical survey of the UK. Unweighted and weighted absorbed dose rates were estimated using the ERICA Tool. Mean total weighted whole-body absorbed dose rates estimated for the selected terrestrial organisms was in the range 6.9 x 10{sup -2} to 6.1 x 10{sup -1} {mu}Gy h{sup -1}.

  18. Online chilling effects in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Townend

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Open and free internet-based platforms are seen as an enabler of global free expression, releasing writers from commercial and space constraints. However, many are working without the assistance of an in-house lawyer, or other legal resources. This may lead to undue suppression of public interest material, with important implications for freedom of expression and the democratic function of media. Two online surveys among digital and online journalists in England and Wales in 2013 indicated that the majority of encounters with defamation and privacy law take place outside the courts, with few formally recorded legal actions. This was particularly evident in a sample of ‘hyperlocal’ and local community publishers. In light of the results, this paper calls for a reappraisal of overly simplistic judicial and media applications of the ‘chilling effect’ doctrine, in order to expose its subjectivities and complexities. Additionally, attention needs to be paid to global and cross-jurisdictional media-legal environments, in order to help develop better internet policy and legal frameworks for protecting legitimate expression.

  19. The Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K. R.; Reis, J.; Hall, I. R.

    2011-12-01

    In response to the complexity and multidisciplinary nature of climate change research, the Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W) was formed in 2009 by the Welsh universities of Aberystwyth, Bangor, Cardiff and Swansea. Initially funded by Welsh Government, through the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, the Countryside Council for Wales and the universities, C3W aims to bring together climate change researchers from a wide range of disciplines to explore scientific and sociological drivers, impacts and implications at local, national and international scale. The specific aims are to i) improve our fundamental understanding of the causes, nature, timing and consequences of climate change on Planet Earth's environment and on humanity, and ii) to reconfigure climate research in Wales as a recognisable centre of excellence on the world stage. In addition to improving the infrastructure for climate change research, we aim to improve communication, networking, collaborative research, and multidisciplinary data assimilation within and between the Welsh universities, and other UK and international institutions. Furthermore, C3W aims to apply its research by actively contributing towards national policy development, business development and formal and informal education activities within and beyond Wales.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NOVEL β LACTAM CONDENSED BIOACTIVE 2-AZETIDINONE DERIVATIVES AS PROSPECTIVE ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is worthwhile to synthesize some novel series of β- lactam, 2-azetidinone derivatives carrying quinoline moiety. Structures of these 2-azetidinone derivatives have been characterized by spectral data like IR, 1HNMR & Mass spectroscopy. Compounds 4a,4b,4f,4g and 4h has been found extremely significant anti bacterial activity against four different strains like Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2079, Bacillus subtilius (NCIM 2708, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM 2242 and Escherichia coli (NCIM 2685 as compared to ampicillin antibiotic, while compound 4f was found extremely significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans(NCIM 22491 as compared to griseofulvin.

  1. A Multi-Center Prospective Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Tool for Severe Clostridium difficile Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Na, Xi

    2015-04-23

    Prediction of severe clinical outcomes in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is important to inform management decisions for optimum patient care. Currently, treatment recommendations for CDI vary based on disease severity but validated methods to predict severe disease are lacking. The aim of the study was to derive and validate a clinical prediction tool for severe outcomes in CDI.

  2. Private sector coal mining in South Wales 1991-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.C. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom). HM Inspectorate of Mines, Wales and West England District

    1997-09-01

    The paper reviews the significant changes that have taken place in private sector coal mines, in South Wales, over a five year period, together with details of individual mine activity. Due consideration is given to health and safety initiative raised at the quarterly held meetings of the Joint Advisory Committee formed by the Mines Inspectorate in 1990. Privatisation, during this period, brought The Coal Authority into being and the new arrangements are briefly reviewed. The role of the Mines Inspectorate is clearly outlined in terms of investigating accidents and incidents, reviewing The Employers` Lability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969, formalising lines of communication with the industry and highlighting both its advisory and enforcement roles. The paper was presented to the Wales Branch of the Institution of Mining Engineers, held in Llandarcy, Wales on 5 December 1996. Discussions held after the lecture are included. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Selling an/other Wales. A deconstructive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Arranz, José Igor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As opposed to the Welsh tourist materials addressing a British readership, which excel in creating a gratifyingly dissimilar although mainly anglicised image of Wales (Prieto, 2004, those others targeting foreign markets struggle to create a culturally distinct nation. The present work will focus on the latter in order to analyze the strategies used by the Wales Tourist Board to appeal to the international visitor. Following Halliday (1994 and Kress & Leeuwen (1999 in the analysis of the verbal and visual components, respectively, this study will bear witness to the use of heritage as an identity-creation tool, our ultimate aim being the deconstruction of such an image, possibly resulting from the delicate situation of Wales within what seems an increasingly (disUnited Kingdom

  4. Sunshine, Sea, and Season of Birth: MS Incidence in Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd D Balbuena

    Full Text Available Maternal sun exposure in gestation and throughout the lifetime is necessary for vitamin D synthesis, and living near the sea is a population level index of seafood consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS in Wales and examine its association with sun exposure, coastal living, and latitude. The study used a database of MS hospital visits and admissions in Wales between 2002 and 2013. For the 1,909 lower layer super output areas (LSOAs in Wales, coastal status, population, longitude/latitude, and average sunshine hours per day were obtained. Age-specific and age-standardised MS incidence were calculated and modelled using Poisson regression. The distribution of births by month was compared between MS cases and the combined England and Wales population. There were 3,557 new MS cases between 2002 and 2013, with an average annual incidence of 8.14 (95% CI: 7.69-8.59 among males and 12.97 (95% CI: 12.44-13.50 among females per 100,000 population. The female-to-male ratio was 1.86:1. For both sexes combined, the average annual incidence rate was 9.10 (95% CI: 8.80-9.40. All figures are age-standardized to the 1976 European standard population. Compared to the combined England and Wales population, more people with MS were born in April, observed-to-expected ratio: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08-1.36. MS incidence varied directly with latitude and inversely with sunshine hours. Proximity to the coast was associated with lower MS incidence only in easterly areas. This study shows that MS incidence rate in Wales is comparable to the rate in Scotland and is associated with environmental factors that probably represent levels of vitamin D.

  5. Market Review of the Organic Dairy Sector in Wales, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Carolyn; Frost, David; van Diepen, Pauline; Chrisholm, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In the UK, in January 2006, the total area of organic and in-conversion land was 619,852 ha. This represents a decrease of 8% compared to January 2005. In Wales, in January 2006, the area of fully organic land increased to 5% of the total area of agricultural land. The number of organic producers and growers, including those in-conversion, increased from 618 in 2003 to 688 in 2006. Organic producers represent approximately 4% of all farmers in Wales. Welsh organic producers represent...

  6. A generalised framework for large-scale evaluation of discharge uncertainties across England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim; Westerberg, Ida; Woods, Ross; Smith, Paul; Wagener, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    Benchmarking the information content and quality of discharge data in England and Wales is essential for analyses of catchment behaviour and modelling results for research and water management. This is particularly pertinent for comparative hydrological analysis and modelling performance conducted over regional and national scales to ensure the information content of discharge data is effectively characterised. In this study, the first country-wide assessment of discharge uncertainty in England and Wales is undertaken. We analyse rating-curve data and stage-discharge measurements for over 700 gauging stations and present a novel, generalised framework for quantifying discharge uncertainty that is readily applicable to many gauging stations. Our methodology utilises a non-parametric regression technique for fitting the rating curve, specifically accounting for measurement error by bootstrap sampling from derived measurement uncertainties and for scatter in the stage-discharge relationship. Additionally, the framework incorporates techniques to account for different types of stage-discharge relationships, including time-variable rating curves, gauging station changes and outliers in the stage-discharge measurement data. Results for all gauging stations across England and Wales are presented demonstrating (1) how discharge uncertainty varies spatially for low, mean and high flows, (2) how the framework captures place-specific uncertainties for a number of case studies and (3) the links that can be drawn between catchment characteristics and discharge uncertainty. We also analyse changes in the official rating curves to deduce the stability of the stage-discharge relationship and find this is dependent on catchment dynamics. Finally, we discuss the significance of these results for national scale uncertainty analyses and comparative hydrological assessments. This methodology is applicable to any catchment with comparable stage-discharge information.

  7. Molybdenum distributions and variability in drinking water from England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, P L; Cooper, D M; Lapworth, D J

    2014-10-01

    An investigation has been carried out of molybdenum in drinking water from a selection of public supply sources and domestic taps across England and Wales. This was to assess concentrations in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) health-based value for Mo in drinking water of 70 μg/l and the decision to remove the element from the list of formal guideline values. Samples of treated drinking water from 12 water supply works were monitored up to four times over an 18-month period, and 24 domestic taps were sampled from three of their supply areas. Significant (p  0.05) were detected. Tap water samples collected from three towns (North Wales, the English Midlands, and South East England) supplied uniquely by upland reservoir water, river water, and Chalk groundwater, respectively, also showed a remarkable uniformity in Mo concentrations at each location. Within each, the variability was very small between houses (old and new), between pre-flush and post-flush samples, and between the tap water and respective source water samples. The results indicate that water distribution pipework has a negligible effect on supplied tap water Mo concentrations. The findings contrast with those for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd, which showed significant differences (p water samples. In two pre-flush samples, concentrations of Ni or Pb were above drinking water limits, although in all cases, post-flush waters were compliant. The high concentrations, most likely derived from metal pipework in the domestic distribution system, accumulated during overnight stagnation. The concentrations of Mo observed in British drinking water, in all cases less than 2 μg/l, were more than an order of magnitude below the WHO health-based value and suggest that Mo is unlikely to pose a significant health or water supply problem in England and Wales.

  8. Follow-up: Prospective compound design using the ‘SAR Matrix’ method and matrix-derived conditional probabilities of activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Hirose, Yoichiro; Odagami, Takenao; Kouji, Hiroyuki; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In a previous Method Article, we have presented the ‘Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) Matrix’ (SARM) approach. The SARM methodology is designed to systematically extract structurally related compound series from screening or chemical optimization data and organize these series and associated SAR information in matrices reminiscent of R-group tables. SARM calculations also yield many virtual candidate compounds that form a “chemical space envelope” around related series. To further extend the SARM approach, different methods are developed to predict the activity of virtual compounds. In this follow-up contribution, we describe an activity prediction method that derives conditional probabilities of activity from SARMs and report representative results of first prospective applications of this approach. PMID:25949808

  9. REPROVIS-DB: a benchmark system for ligand-based virtual screening derived from reproducible prospective applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripphausen, Peter; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2011-10-24

    Benchmark calculations are essential for the evaluation of virtual screening (VS) methods. Typically, classes of known active compounds taken from the medicinal chemistry literature are divided into reference molecules (search templates) and potential hits that are added to background databases assumed to consist of compounds not sharing this activity. Then VS calculations are carried out, and the recall of known active compounds is determined. However, conventional benchmarking is affected by a number of problems that reduce its value for method evaluation. In addition to often insufficient statistical validation and the lack of generally accepted evaluation standards, the artificial nature of typical benchmark settings is often criticized. Retrospective benchmark calculations generally overestimate the potential of VS methods and do not scale with their performance in prospective applications. In order to provide additional opportunities for benchmarking that more closely resemble practical VS conditions, we have designed a publicly available compound database (DB) of reproducible virtual screens (REPROVIS-DB) that organizes information from successful ligand-based VS applications including reference compounds, screening databases, compound selection criteria, and experimentally confirmed hits. Using the currently available 25 hand-selected compound data sets, one can attempt to reproduce successful virtual screens with other than the originally applied methods and assess their potential for practical applications.

  10. Integrating a prospective pilot trial and patient-derived xenografts to trace metabolic changes associated with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrabba, Matteo G; Tavel, Laurette; Oliveira, Giacomo; Forcina, Alessandra; Quilici, Giacomo; Nardelli, Francesca; Tresoldi, Cristina; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Ciceri, Fabio; Bernardi, Massimo; Vago, Luca; Musco, Giovanna

    2016-10-28

    Despite the considerable progress in understanding the molecular bases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), new tools to link disease biology to the unpredictable patient clinical course are still needed. Herein, high-throughput metabolomics, combined with the other "-omics" disciplines, holds promise in identifying disease-specific and clinically relevant features.In this study, we took advantage of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to trace AML-associated metabolic trajectory employing two complementary strategies. On the one hand, we performed a prospective observational clinical trial to identify metabolic changes associated with blast clearance during the first two cycles of intensive chemotherapy in nine adult patients. On the other hand, to reduce the intrinsic variability associated with human samples and AML genetic heterogeneity, we analyzed the metabolic changes in the plasma of immunocompromised mice upon engraftment of primary human AML blasts.Combining the two longitudinal approaches, we narrowed our screen to seven common metabolites, for which we observed a mirror-like trajectory in mice and humans, tracing AML progression and remission, respectively. We interpreted this set of metabolites as a dynamic fingerprint of AML evolution.Overall, these NMR-based metabolomic data, to be consolidated in larger cohorts and integrated in more comprehensive system biology approaches, hold promise for providing valuable and non-redundant information on the systemic effects of leukemia.

  11. Integrating a prospective pilot trial and patient-derived xenografts to trace metabolic changes associated with acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo G. Carrabba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the considerable progress in understanding the molecular bases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML, new tools to link disease biology to the unpredictable patient clinical course are still needed. Herein, high-throughput metabolomics, combined with the other “-omics” disciplines, holds promise in identifying disease-specific and clinically relevant features. In this study, we took advantage of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR to trace AML-associated metabolic trajectory employing two complementary strategies. On the one hand, we performed a prospective observational clinical trial to identify metabolic changes associated with blast clearance during the first two cycles of intensive chemotherapy in nine adult patients. On the other hand, to reduce the intrinsic variability associated with human samples and AML genetic heterogeneity, we analyzed the metabolic changes in the plasma of immunocompromised mice upon engraftment of primary human AML blasts. Combining the two longitudinal approaches, we narrowed our screen to seven common metabolites, for which we observed a mirror-like trajectory in mice and humans, tracing AML progression and remission, respectively. We interpreted this set of metabolites as a dynamic fingerprint of AML evolution. Overall, these NMR-based metabolomic data, to be consolidated in larger cohorts and integrated in more comprehensive system biology approaches, hold promise for providing valuable and non-redundant information on the systemic effects of leukemia.

  12. Thermobarometry of mantle-derived garnets and pyroxenes of Kola region (NW Russia: lithosphere composition, thermal regime and diamond prospectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry R. Zozulya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 700 pyrope, chrome diopside and chromite grains recovered from Quaternary sediments of the Kola craton, and from the Ermakovsky kimberlite in the Terskii Coast field were analyzed in order to determine their P-T parameters. Ni-thermometry on pyropes from SE Kola gives a range of temperatures between 650–1250 °C, corresponding to a sampling interval of c. 75–190 km. Pyrope compositions imply a stratified structure to the SE Kola lithospheric mantle, with G10-pyropes absent in the shallow mantle (75–110 km where the bulk of the G9-pyropes are sourced, while a deeper mantle horizon, between110 and 190 km, has contributed abundant G10-pyropes. Approximately 16 % of all these pyropes are derived from the diamond stability field. The Ni-temperatures of garnets from the Ermakovsky kimberlite reveal a relatively shallow sampling interval of the mantle (c.75–140 km, dominantly within the graphite-stability field. P-T values for peridotitic chrome diopsides imply that most grains from SE Kola were derived from the graphite stability field, apparently originating from non-diamondiferous alkaline-ultramafic dykes. Nevertheless, c. 15 % of SE Kola diopsides have been derived from the stability field of diamond. Diopsides from SW Kola mostly plot in the diamond stability field. 20 % of diopsides from central Kolaare derived from the diamond stability field, whereas diopsides from northern Kola region all fall within the stability field of graphite. The maximum depth of diopside xenocryst sampling varies from up to 200 km in SE and SW Kola, to 170 km in central Kola, and only to 140 km in the northern Kola region. The P-T values for chrome diopsides imply significant regional differences in heat flow: 38–44 mW/m^2 within the southern part of Kola adjacent to the Kandalaksha graben; 35–38 mW/m^2 towards the SE and SW away from the graben; 38–44 mW/m^2 in central Kola; and up to 50 mW/m^2 in northernmost Kola. These data indicate that

  13. Use of the SONET Score to Evaluate High Volume Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Prospective Derivation and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000. Patient care outcomes including the number of left without being seen (LWBS patients, average length of ED stay, ED 72-hour returns, and mortality were compared under the different crowding statuses. Results. The total number of ED patients, the number of mechanically ventilated patients, and patient acuity levels were independent risk factors affecting ED overcrowding. SONET was derived and found to better differentiate severely overcrowded, overcrowded, and not overcrowded statuses with similar results validated externally. In addition, SONET scores correlated with increased length of ED stay, number of LWBS patients, and ED 72-hour returns. Conclusions. SONET might be a better fit to determine high volume ED overcrowding. ED overcrowding negatively impacts patient care operations and often produces poor patient perceptions of standardized care delivery.

  14. Accommodating and Resisting Minority Language Policy: The Case of Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Explores institutional and attitudinal difficulties faced by minority language policies and discusses the potential for resolving these problems. Focuses on recent institutional developments in Welsh language policy in Wales and examines the attitudes toward such developments of a cohort of Welsh teacher trainees. (Author/VWL)

  15. The Wales Region: Microelectronics Education to the Mid Eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lionel

    1982-01-01

    Discusses developments which should occur in the Wales region by the end of the Microelectronics Education Programme (1984). Indicates that a major curriculum project has been started to enable developments in information technology to be reflected in classrooms, focusing on the production of software and resource materials. (Author/JN)

  16. Language Policy, In-Migration and Discursive Debates in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Catrin Wyn

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on theory from critical language policy literature, this article explores the impact of discourses on in-migration on Welsh language policy. By focussing on discursive debates surrounding the subject of in-migration, the article analyses how a range of actors produce and reproduce discourses on in-migration in Wales and how these…

  17. Inclusive Policy and Exclusionary Practice in Secondary Education in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Charlotte L. R.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study of two contrasting secondary schools, serving the same "community" in south-west Wales; a bilingual school (Welsh and English) and an English-medium school (English only). Data were gathered using ethnographic methods, with this study focusing primarily on data elicited through "ethnographic…

  18. Malleefowl conservation in New South Wales: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priddel, D.; Wheeler, R.

    1999-01-01

    Together with land clearance, grazing by stock and inappropriate fire regimes, predation by the introduced European red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) has decimated populations of malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould, 1840. The decline of the malleefowl has been most pronounced in New South Wales, w

  19. Bondonic Effects in Group-IV Honeycomb Nanoribbons with Stone-Wales Topological Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work advances the modeling of bondonic effects on graphenic and honeycomb structures, with an original two-fold generalization: (i by employing the fourth order path integral bondonic formalism in considering the high order derivatives of the Wiener topological potential of those 1D systems; and (ii by modeling a class of honeycomb defective structures starting from graphene, the carbon-based reference case, and then generalizing the treatment to Si (silicene, Ge (germanene, Sn (stannene by using the fermionic two-degenerate statistical states function in terms of electronegativity. The honeycomb nanostructures present η-sized Stone-Wales topological defects, the isomeric dislocation dipoles originally called by authors Stone-Wales wave or SWw. For these defective nanoribbons the bondonic formalism foresees a specific phase-transition whose critical behavior shows typical bondonic fast critical time and bonding energies. The quantum transition of the ideal-to-defect structural transformations is fully described by computing the caloric capacities for nanostructures triggered by η-sized topological isomerisations. Present model may be easily applied to hetero-combinations of Group-IV elements like C-Si, C-Ge, C-Sn, Si-Ge, Si-Sn, Ge-Sn.

  20. Epidemiological evidence that garden birds are a source of human salmonellosis in England and Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available The importance of wild bird populations as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens is well established. Salmonellosis is a frequently diagnosed infectious cause of mortality of garden birds in England and Wales, predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage types 40, 56(v and 160. In Britain, these phage types are considered highly host-adapted with a high degree of genetic similarity amongst isolates, and in some instances are clonal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, however, demonstrated minimal variation amongst matched DT40 and DT56(v isolates derived from passerine and human incidents of salmonellosis across England in 2000-2007. Also, during the period 1993-2012, similar temporal and spatial trends of infection with these S. Typhimurium phage types occurred in both the British garden bird and human populations; 1.6% of all S. Typhimurium (0.2% of all Salmonella isolates from humans in England and Wales over the period 2000-2010. These findings support the hypothesis that garden birds act as the primary reservoir of infection for these zoonotic bacteria. Most passerine salmonellosis outbreaks identified occurred at and around feeding stations, which are likely sites of public exposure to sick or dead garden birds and their faeces. We, therefore, advise the public to practise routine personal hygiene measures when feeding wild birds and especially when handling sick wild birds.

  1. Open innovation: the activities and views of companies in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhisiart, Martin; Djebarni, Rami; Thomas, Andrew

    favoured by companies are: 1) Financial support for collaboration, 2) Increase co-funding schemes for SMEs’ R&D, 3) Improve the institutional framework for collaboration, 4) Improve access to governmental support, 5) Foster networks and clusters The report sets out seven key recommendations for promoting......This is the Final Report of a study conducted on open innovation in companies in Wales. The programme of research included a review of global literature, interviews with 15 companies, a survey and a focus group.The study discusses Government support measures for open innovation.  Those most...... open innovation and the economic benefits that it can deliver in Wales. These depend on collaboration between business, government and academia. We indicate the organisations that should take these actions forward (business/government/academia/combination). This study was funded by the Welsh Government...

  2. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, England and Wales, 1945-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Christopher R; LeBaigue, Susan; Esan, Oluwaseun B; Awofisyo, Adedoyin A; Adams, Natalie L; Fisher, Ian S T; Grant, Kathie A; Peters, Tansy M; Larkin, Lesley; Davies, Robert H; Adak, Goutam K

    2014-07-01

    In England and Wales, the emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis resulted in the largest and most persistent epidemic of foodborne infection attributable to a single subtype of any pathogen since systematic national microbiological surveillance was established. We reviewed 67 years of surveillance data to examine the features, underlying causes, and overall effects of S. enterica ser. Enteritidis. The epidemic was associated with the consumption of contaminated chicken meat and eggs, and a decline in the number of infections began after the adoption of vaccination and other measures in production and distribution of chicken meat and eggs. We estimate that >525,000 persons became ill during the course of the epidemic, which caused a total of 6,750,000 days of illness, 27,000 hospitalizations, and 2,000 deaths. Measures undertaken to control the epidemic have resulted in a major reduction in foodborne disease in England and Wales.

  3. Prediction of Buckling of Plain Knitted Fabric Sheets Subjected to Simple Shear in Wale Direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yitong; AO Tao; XU Jiafu

    2007-01-01

    Knitted fabric is very different from woven fabric due to its more complicated knitting structures. The buckling of knitted fabric sheets subjected to simple shear in the wale direction is investigated analytically in consideration of the large deformation of fabric sheet in critical configuration. The theory on instability of finite deformation is applied to the analysis. All the stress boundary conditions of knitted fabric sheet are satisfied. An equation to determine the buckling direction angle is de-rived. It is shown that there are two possible buckling modes, flexural mode and barreling mode. The buckling condition equations for the flexural mode and barreling mode are also obtained respectively. Numerical illustrations reveal that only the flexural mode can actually occur and the barreling mode cannot, which agrees with the experimental observations. For a permitted buckling mode on margin boundaries, the critical value of shear amount and the buckling direction angle can be deter-mined.

  4. Empirical determinants of measles metapopulation dynamics in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkenstädt, B; Grenfell, B.

    1998-01-01

    A key issue in metapopulation dynamics is the relative impact of internal patch dynamics and coupling between patches. This problem can be addressed by analysing large spatiotemporal data sets, recording the local and global dynamics of metapopulations. In this paper, we analyse the dynamics of measles meta-populations in a large spatiotemporal case notification data set, collected during the pre-vaccination era in England and Wales. Specifically, we use generalized linear statistical models ...

  5. Variations in prison mental health services in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Andrew; Exworthy, Tim; Olumoroti, Olumuyiwa; Sessay, Mohammed; Parrott, Janet; Spencer, Sarah-Jane; Whyte, Sean

    2013-01-01

    In responding to high levels of psychiatric morbidity amongst prisoners and recognising earlier poor quality prison mental health care, prison mental health in-reach teams have been established in England and Wales over the last decade. They are mostly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), which provides the majority of UK healthcare services. Over the same period, the prison population has grown to record levels, such that prisons in England and Wales now contain almost 90,000 of the world's overall prison population of over 10 million people (roughly the size of Paris or Istanbul). This study provides an overview of mental health in-reach services in prisons in England and Wales, including variations between them, through a telephone survey of senior staff in all prisons and young offender institutions in England and Wales. 73% of prisons took part; of them 13% had no in-reach team at all (usually low security establishments) and the majority of services were run by NHS teams, usually according to a generic community mental health team (CMHT) model rather than other specialist models. Team size was unrelated to prison size. Each nurse covered around 500 prisoners, each doctor over 3700. Many provided few or no healthcare cells and 24-h psychiatric cover (including on-call cover) was uncommon. Despite developments in recent years, mental health in-reach services still fall short of community equivalence and there is wide variation in service arrangements that cannot be explained by prison size or function. The aim of community equivalence has not yet been reached in prison healthcare and a more sophisticated measure of service improvement and standardisation would now be useful to drive and monitor future development.

  6. Euthanasia: a summary of the law in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simillis, Constantinos

    2008-07-01

    When medical treatment becomes futile, or the patient's suffering is intractable, doctors face the agonising dilemma of whether to proceed with euthanasia. It is important for a doctor to be familiar with the law surrounding euthanasia, in order to avoid prosecution. This paper explores the law in England and Wales regarding the different categories of euthanasia: voluntary euthanasia, nonvoluntary euthanasia, passive euthanasia, and active euthanasia.

  7. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  8. MONITORING THE DISTRIBUTION OF CRAYFISH IN ENGLAND AND WALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of crayfish in England and Wales is described for the period 1997 to 2001 inclusive and is illustrated using a catchment based classification scheme and 10-km square maps. Comparison with previous data from the period 1990 to 1996 shows a decrease in the number of catchments where the native crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, is present. Conversely there has been an increase in the distribution of non-native species, notably Pacifastacus leniusculus, which is now more widely distributed than A. pallipes (according to presence within 10-km squares of the Ordnance Survey National Grid of England and Wales. The Environment Agency is the main environmental regulator in England and Wales, and plays a key role in gathering crayfish survey data. A co-ordinated programme of monitoring and reporting, ideally involving partner organisations, should be utilised to accurately reflect the changing status of crayfish in these countries. Crayfish survey data is currently recorded on a series of local databases within the Agency, and records are also stored on a national freshwater invertebrate archive used primarily for water quality monitoring purposes. Records generated by other groups and individuals are collated by the Biological Records Centre, with whom the Environment Agency has established links, and the need for a dedicated national database has been expressed by many workers. One area currently under development involves the National Biodiversity Network, a medium for sharing wildlife information via the internet, founded by a consortium of statutory and conservation organisations.

  9. Performance of the New South Wales Ambulance Service major trauma transport protocol (T1) at an inner city trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Michael M; Oliver, Matthew; Bein, Kendall J; Roncal, Susan; Byrne, Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the performance of a newly implemented prehospital trauma triage (T1) protocol in New South Wales for patients transported to an inner city major trauma centre. An observational study was conducted over 1 year. Prehospital data and injury characteristics were collected prospectively for all hospital trauma team activations and injury presentations transported by Ambulance Service of New South Wales. Univariate comparison of T1- and non-T1-transported patients was performed and sensitivity, specificity, overtriage and undertriage rates were calculated. The outcomes studied were Injury Severity Score >15 and major outcome (composite of in-hospital death and/or transferred from the ED to operating theatre or intensive care unit). Factors associated with undertriage were determined with univariate analysis. A total of 2664 ambulance arrivals for trauma were studied with 767(29%) transported on the T1 protocol. T1-transported patients were associated with more severe injury (23% vs 6%, P protocol for severe injury was 63% with a positive predictive value of 23%. The undertriage and overtriage rates for severe injury were 12% and 77%, respectively. Undertriaged patients were elderly with falls as the predominant mechanism of injury. The sensitivity and undertriage rates associated with the T1 protocol indicate the ongoing need for secondary triage at designated trauma centres and refinement of the protocol to include age as a criterion. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Identifying probable suicide clusters in wales using national mortality data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Up to 2% of suicides in young people may occur in clusters i.e., close together in time and space. In early 2008 unprecedented attention was given by national and international news media to a suspected suicide cluster among young people living in Bridgend, Wales. This paper investigates the strength of statistical evidence for this apparent cluster, its size, and temporal and geographical limits. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The analysis is based on official mortality statistics for Wales for 2000-2009 provided by the UK's Office for National Statistics (ONS. Temporo-spatial analysis was performed using Space Time Permutation Scan Statistics with SaTScan v9.1 for suicide deaths aged 15 and over, with a sub-group analysis focussing on cases aged 15-34 years. These analyses were conducted for deaths coded by ONS as: (i suicide or of undetermined intent (probable suicides and (ii for a combination of suicide, undetermined, and accidental poisoning and hanging (possible suicides. The temporo-spatial analysis did not identify any clusters of suicide or undetermined intent deaths (probable suicides. However, analysis of all deaths by suicide, undetermined intent, accidental poisoning and accidental hanging (possible suicides identified a temporo-spatial cluster (p = 0.029 involving 10 deaths amongst 15-34 year olds centred on the County Borough of Bridgend for the period 27(th December 2007 to 19(th February 2008. Less than 1% of possible suicides in younger people in Wales in the ten year period were identified as being cluster-related. CONCLUSIONS: There was a possible suicide cluster in young people in Bridgend between December 2007 and February 2008. This cluster was smaller, shorter in duration, and predominantly later than the phenomenon that was reported in national and international print media. Further investigation of factors leading to the onset and termination of this series of deaths, in particular the role of the media, is

  11. Domestic-fridge recycling in Wales: mountains or mole hills?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florence, Z.; Price, T.J. [University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom). School of Technology

    2005-02-01

    Much media attention has been paid of late to stockpiles of domestic fridges awaiting recycling. If the media is to be believed, the way in which domestic fridges are managed and recycled is questionable. However, a survey of those responsible for waste fridge management in Wales has found that a series of events initiated by the UK government agreeing to the Montreal Protocol and a misunderstanding of European regulatory language by national government as the root cause. However, Welsh local authorities have adequate systems in place to deal with the discarded appliances and are, on the whole, complying with mandatory obligations. (author)

  12. Mosses, liverworts and hornworts of Mount Canobolas, New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Alison; Oldfield, Ron; Fairbairn-Wilson, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    A surprising number of endemic species of plants and animals are found within Mount Canobolas State Recreation Area (33°21’ S, 148°59’ E, 1395 m asl) 15 km SW of Orange in the Central West of New South Wales. During this survey of bryophytes on Mount Canobolas, 75 species, including 60 moss species, 13 liverwort species and two hornwort species were identified. Although no endemic bryophyte species were recorded, the assemblage included an unusual combination of alpine, arid zone and rainfore...

  13. Estimation of migration profiles in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J; Bracken, I

    1982-07-01

    "Migration profiles by age have been increasingly used in the analysis of migration data, and a theoretical function has been developed by researchers at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). This paper refines the approach by applying the principles of maximum likelihood to the estimation of the coefficients for the function. This enhances the statistical basis and in particular enables [the authors] to carry out tests of similarity between different areas on the basis of the calibrated coefficients. The method is applied to 1971 Census data for the local authorities of England and Wales."

  14. The abortion-crime link: evidence from England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We use panel data from 1983 to 1997 for the 42 police force areas in England and Wales to test the hypothesis that legalizing abortion contributes to lower crime rates. We provide an advance on previous work by focusing on the impact of possible endogeneity of effective abortion rates with respect to crime. Our use of U.K. data allows us to exploit regional differences in the provision of free abortions to identify abortion rates. When we use a similar model and estimation methodology, we are...

  15. NATO’s Wales Summit: Expected Outcomes and Key Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-26

    September 4-5, the leaders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s ( NATO ) 28 member states will meet in Wales for the alliance’s 2014 summit. This...the planned completion by the end of 2014 of NATO’s mission in Afghanistan, the longest and most ambitious operation in NATO history. As such, some...analysts portray the summit as an opportunity to consider a possible strategic shift for NATO , away from the broad, “out of area” focus embodied by

  16. Discourses, Decisions, Designs: "Special" Education Policy-Making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative analysis investigates the influence of neo-liberal and inclusive discourses in "special" education policy-making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia. The centrality of competition, selectivity and accountability in the discourses used in New South Wales and Malaysia suggests a system preference for…

  17. An Integrated Library Platform: Wales' Approach to Delivering Digital Information and Resources Nationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Paul; Tyler, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the developments and strategies employed to supply online library services in Wales through a national platform: library.wales.org These services include: the "Cat Cymru" cross-catalogue search, centrally procured subscription resources and local library microsites. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  18. Harbingers of Feminism? Gender, Cultural Capital and Education in Mid-Twentieth-Century Rural Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sally; Brown, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a small-scale narrative study of men and women who grew up in mid-twentieth-century rural Wales, and their reminiscences regarding women and education. Although the dominant image of Wales during that era is that of a male-dominated society, all of our participants remembered influential independent women and…

  19. The Next Stage of Devolution? A (Devolving Criminal Justice System for Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Jones

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The coalition government in Wales has committed itself to seriously consider devolving the criminal justice system for Wales. It is seen as the next possible step in the devolution process. To some extent many of the structures for a devolved criminal justice system are already being put in place to support devolved policy making and provision of criminal justice services in Wales. However, the One Wales agreement proposes to place the most emphasis on a devolved criminal justice system on youth justice and the prevention of re-offending. This is problematic in a number of ways explored in the paper, not least because the duties in the Welsh Constitution obligate the Welsh Assembly Government to ensure equality of opportunity for all and equality of treatment of both Welsh and English. Can a successful devolved fit-for-purpose criminal justice system for Wales be created?

  20. Botulism in New South Wales, 1980-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, W G; Stewart, B J

    1983-01-08

    The isolation of Clostridium botulinum from the home environment of New South Wales patients with infant botulism is reported. Of the three cases of infant botulism type B, the bacteria were isolated from soil around the dwelling in one, and from tank rainwater in another. In one case with type A, the bacteria were present in the soil, vacuum-cleaner dust, and tank rainwater. The bacteria were not detected in the environment of two adult patients and a child with C. botulinum in their stools. The home location of the patients with infant botulism, and the frequency of isolation of the bacteria from rainwater, soil and vacuum-cleaner dust in Cobar, Nyngan, some Sydney suburbs, and at five pastoral homesteads suggest that infants in rural areas are more at risk than those in large metropolitan areas. The age of the infants with diagnosed botulism in New South Wales, compared with those reported in the United States data, strongly suggests that the disease is not being fully recognised in younger infants.

  1. Pregnancy-associated listeriosis in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofisayo, A; Amar, C; Ruggles, R; Elson, R; Adak, G K; Mook, P; Grant, K A

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne disease with low morbidity and high case-fatality rates. Pregnant women, unborn and newborn babies are among the high-risk groups for listeriosis. We examined listeriosis cases reported to the enhanced surveillance system in England and Wales from 1990 to 2010 to identify risk factors influencing outcome. Cases were defined as pregnancy-associated if Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from a pregnant woman or newborn infants aged listeriosis accounted for 462 (15%) cases and 315 cases resulted in a live birth. Several factors were identified as affecting the severity and outcome of listeriosis in pregnancy in both mother and child including: presence or absence of maternal symptoms, gestational age at onset of symptoms, and clinical presentation in the infant (meningitis or septicaemia). Deprivation, ethnicity and molecular serotype had no effect on outcome.

  2. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave......This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....

  3. The Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 come into force on the 1st August 2000. They define the maximum permissible release into the environment from activities, mobile and stationary installations of a range of pollutants including sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, organic compounds and partial oxidation products, metals, metalloids and their compounds, asbestos, glass and mineral fibres; halogens and phosphorus and their compounds, and particulate matter. The Regulations apply to activities in the following industries: energy, metal, mineral, ceramics, chemical, paper, timber, rubber, carbon, bitumen, coating, printing and textiles, intensive farming and waste processing. The Regulations define procedures for permits, enforcement, appeals, information and publicity and offences, and define the Secretary of State's powers. Details are contained in Schedule 1 to 10.

  4. Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulation 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 come into force on the 1st August 2000. They define the maximum permissible release into the environment from activities, mobile and stationary installations of a range of pollutants including sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, organic compounds and partial oxidation products, metals, metalloids and their compounds, asbestos, glass and mineral fibres; halogens and phosphorus and their compounds, and particulate matter. The Regulations apply to activities in the following industries: energy, metal, mineral, ceramics, chemical, paper, timber, rubber, carbon, bitumen, coating, printing and textiles, intensive farming and waste processing. The Regulations define procedures for permits, enforcement, appeals, information and publicity and offences, and define the Secretary of State's powers. Details are contained in Schedule 1 to 10.

  5. A mysterious giant ichthyosaur from the lowermost Jurassic of Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyosaurs rapidly diversified and colonised a wide range of ecological niches during the Early and Middle Triassic period, but experienced a major decline in diversity near the end of the Triassic. Timing and causes of this demise and the subsequent rapid radiation of the diverse, but less disparate, parvipelvian ichthyosaurs are still unknown, notably because of inadequate sampling in strata of latest Triassic age. Here, we describe an exceptionally large radius from Lower Jurassic deposits at Penarth near Cardiff, south Wales (UK the morphology of which places it within the giant Triassic shastasaurids. A tentative total body size estimate, based on a regression analysis of various complete ichthyosaur skeletons, yields a value of 12–15 m. The specimen is substantially younger than any previously reported last known occurrences of shastasaurids and implies a Lazarus range in the lowermost Jurassic for this ichthyosaur morphotype.

  6. Automated biosurveillance data from England and Wales, 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enki, Doyo G; Noufaily, Angela; Garthwaite, Paul H; Andrews, Nick J; Charlett, André; Lane, Chris; Farrington, C Paddy

    2013-01-01

    Outbreak detection systems for use with very large multiple surveillance databases must be suited both to the data available and to the requirements of full automation. To inform the development of more effective outbreak detection algorithms, we analyzed 20 years of data (1991-2011) from a large laboratory surveillance database used for outbreak detection in England and Wales. The data relate to 3,303 distinct types of infectious pathogens, with a frequency range spanning 6 orders of magnitude. Several hundred organism types were reported each week. We describe the diversity of seasonal patterns, trends, artifacts, and extra-Poisson variability to which an effective multiple laboratory-based outbreak detection system must adjust. We provide empirical information to guide the selection of simple statistical models for automated surveillance of multiple organisms, in the light of the key requirements of such outbreak detection systems, namely, robustness, flexibility, and sensitivity.

  7. Orientations of linear stone arrangements in New South Wales

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W; Norris, Ray P

    2012-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that Aboriginal linear stone arrangements in New South Wales (NSW) are oriented to cardinal directions. We accomplish this by measuring the azimuths of stone arrangements described in site cards from the NSW Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System. We then survey a subset of these sites to test the accuracy of information recorded on the site cards. We find a preference recorded in the site cards for cardinal orientations among azimuths. The field surveys show that the site cards are reasonably accurate, but the surveyors probably did not correct for magnetic declinations. Using Monte Carlo statistics, we show that these preferred orientations did not occur by chance and that Aboriginal people deliberately aligned these arrangements to the approximate cardinal directions. We briefly explore possible reasons for these preferred orientations and highlight the need for future work.

  8. Damages in medical litigation in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntz, Harold

    2005-02-01

    In the period 2001 to 2003, the New South Wales legislature enacted four Acts that impinge on the assessment of damages in litigation against health professionals. They are the Health Care Liability Act 2001 (NSW), the Civil Liability Act 2002 (NSW) (as originally enacted), the Civil Liability Amendment (Personal Responsibility) Act 2002 (NSW) and the Civil Liability Amendment Act 2003 (NSW). This article considers the principles on which damages are assessed in medical litigation and how those principles have been affected by these four enactments. It points out that each piece of legislation was retrospective in applying to events that occurred both before and after its commencement. However, proceedings already issued before a particular date were excluded in each case from the retrospective operation of the legislation. The article provides details of the relevant dates of operation of each of the statutes.

  9. Zigzag graphene nanoribbon edge reconstruction with Stone-Wales defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Gonçalves, P. A. D; Rodrigues, N. F. G.;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with Stone-Wales defects, by means of an empirical (first-neighbor) tight-binding method, with parameters determined by ab initio calculations of very narrow ribbons. We explore the characteristics of the electronic band...... structure with a focus on the nature of edge states. Edge reconstruction allows the appearance of a new type of edge states. They are dispersive, with nonzero amplitudes in both sublattices; furthermore, the amplitudes have two components that decrease with different decay lengths with the distance from...... the edge; at the Dirac points one of these lengths diverges, whereas the other remains finite, of the order of the lattice parameter. We trace this curious effect to the doubling of the unit cell along the edge, brought about by the edge reconstruction. In the presence of a magnetic field, the zero...

  10. Developing and implementing the community nursing research strategy for Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkre, Joyce; Wallace, Carolyn; Davies, Robyn; Bale, Sue; Thomas, Sue

    2013-11-01

    In order to obtain the best patient outcomes in community nursing, practice needs to be underpinned by robust research-based evidence. This article describes a Community Nursing Research Strategy developed and implemented in Wales to provide the nursing profession with the evidence to support future organisational and professional change in achieving excellence in the community. This was developed in partnership with education, research, health services, workforce planning and Government using consensus methodology (specifically, a nominal group technique). Consequently, the process was inclusive and included three steps: escalating presentation of ideas, topic debate and topic rating. The result was a strategy with four implementation strands, including a virtual network, research portfolio, application to practice and leadership.

  11. Linguistic sensitivity, indigenous peoples and the mental health system in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoc-Jones, Iolo

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a pilot research project to explore the significance and availability of mental health services in the medium of Welsh in Wales, UK. Based on small-scale research with Welsh-speaking mental health service users this article argues that being bilingual can be a significant factor in the complex biopsychosocial matrix that underpins mental health problems amongst Welsh speakers. It also argues that the destructive effects of linguistic oppression, and the difficulties of second language communication for mental health service users, are such that an appropriate health and social care response in Wales involves providing services in a user's preferred language. Service users' views about the current state of bilingual service provision in Wales are presented, which suggests that insufficient attention is being paid to the linguistic needs of Welsh speakers. Eight principles are proposed for mental health service policy and practice in Wales.

  12. Walrus harvest, health/welfare study, Wales, Alaska: Progress report 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Charles Adsit was the FIVS representative stationed in Wales, Alaska to collect walrus harvest information during a period extending from May 11 to June 22, 1981....

  13. 1984 walrus harvest health and welfare study at Wales, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service contracted a local individual to monitor the walrus harvest at Wales in 1984. The recorded harvest between 21 May and 30 June in...

  14. 1982 walrus harvest, health and welfare study at Wales, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The total documented retrieved harvest at Wales for the spring of 1982 was 119 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus), including 43 adult males, 58 adult females, 15 adults of...

  15. Widespread copper and lead contamination of household drinking water, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P J; Handley, H K; Taylor, M P

    2016-11-01

    This study examines arsenic, copper, lead and manganese drinking water contamination at the domestic consumer's kitchen tap in homes of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of 212 first draw drinking water samples shows that almost 100% and 56% of samples contain detectable concentrations of copper and lead, respectively. Of these detectable concentrations, copper exceeds Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) in 5% of samples and lead in 8%. By contrast, no samples contained arsenic and manganese water concentrations in excess of the ADWG. Analysis of household plumbing fittings (taps and connecting pipework) show that these are a significant source of drinking water lead contamination. Water lead concentrations derived for plumbing components range from 108µg/L to 1440µg/L (n=28, mean - 328µg/L, median - 225µg/L). Analysis of kitchen tap fittings demonstrates these are a primary source of drinking water lead contamination (n=9, mean - 63.4µg/L, median - 59.0µg/L). The results of this study demonstrate that along with other potential sources of contamination in households, plumbing products that contain detectable lead up to 2.84% are contributing to contamination of household drinking water. Given that both copper and lead are known to cause significant health detriments, products for use in contact with drinking water should be manufactured free from copper and lead. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protocol for a population-based Ankylosing Spondylitis (PAS cohort in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Mark D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop a population-based cohort of people with ankylosing spondylitis (AS in Wales using (1 secondary care clinical datasets, (2 patient-derived questionnaire data and (3 routinely-collected information in order to examine disease history and the health economic cost of AS. Methods This data model will include and link (1 secondary care clinician datasets (i.e. electronic patient notes from the rheumatologist (2 patient completed questionnaires (giving information on disease activity, medication, function, quality of life, work limitations and health service utilisation and (3 a broad range of routinely collected data (including; GP records, in-patient hospital admission data, emergency department data, laboratory/pathology data and social services databases. The protocol involves the use of a unique and powerful data linkage system which allows datasets to be interlinked and to complement each other. Discussion This cohort can integrate patient supplied, primary and secondary care data into a unified data model. This can be used to study a range of issues such as; the true economic costs to the health care system and the patient, factors associated with the development of severe disease, long term adverse events of new and existing medication and to understand the disease history of this condition. It will benefit patients, clinicians and health care managers. This study forms a pilot project for the use of routine data/patient data linked cohorts for other chronic conditions.

  17. Speech and language therapy services to education in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Soloff, Nina; Law, James; Band, Sue; Peacey, Nick; Gascoigne, Marie; Radford, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Services for children with speech and language needs in England and Wales are in a period of change. The context is subject to major systemic pressures deriving from government policies. These include the development of inclusive education and encouragement of multiprofessional collaboration in policy development and practice ('joined up thinking'). In addition, structures at local level are changing with the establishment of unitary authorities and the change from Health Trusts to Primary Care Trusts. Professional practice is also changing with a shift from clinical to community settings for speech and language therapists working with children. The present study reports on a survey sponsored by the Department for Education and Employment, Department of Health and the Welsh Assembly to identify the nature of speech and language therapy (SLT) services provided to education in England and Wales. The sample comprised all SLT service managers (n = 133, response rate 74%). The results indicate that services vary greatly in size and in their SLT: child ratio, with a mean of one SLT to 4257 child population. The caseload was highest for the 5-10 age group, and service delivery was targeted at these children, with low levels of work with secondary aged pupils. Most provision in educational settings was made to mainstream schools, but the provision of SLT time per child was substantially higher in specialist language resources. Apart from the preschool phase, most SLT provision was for children with statements of special educational needs. Prioritization of service delivery was usually by severity of need. The provision of bilingual SLT services was very limited, with only 14.0 full-time equivalents SLTs fluent in a community language, other than Welsh, where proportionately availability was much greater. Most LEAs funded SLT posts, although these were usually employed as part of the SLT service, with only about 10% of LEAs employing SLTs direct. However, 55.5% of SLT

  18. Further evidence of a fall in blood lead levels in Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Elwood, P; Toothill, C

    1986-01-01

    Random samples of residents in North Wales, some of whom had been seen in 1976 and others in 1981, were seen again in 1984. Blood lead estimations indicated that there had been a fall of about 5% per year. This is similar to the fall we estimated from two previous studies in Wales and is comparable to changes described in the USA and New Zealand.

  19. The history of a unique South Wales coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.

    2006-07-01

    During 1914 the Coppee Company was contracted to build two batteries of 30 coke ovens, a washery and by-product plant at Coed Ely in the Ely Valley, South Wales, near to a productive colliery. The coal was formed into a cake by stamping it into a mould slightly smaller than the oven. Straw was used as a binder. The coke produced was ideal for iron making. The article describes the stamp charging process, the cooling process, and the by-product plant producing a 'tar oil winter wash' (ammonium sulphateude benzol and coal gas). It describes the construction and later extensions of the batteries. It recounts the history of the rail system linking the coking plant and the mine and has illustrated descriptions of Locomotive Coedely, Locomotive Ferndale, Locomotive Tynycoed and Locomotive Austerity 0-6-OST. The coking works was finally closed in October 1983, following the 1979 change of government which shut the industry from all sides. Today the hillside is landscaped and grass is beginning to grow where the works once was. This article was fist published in the Archive Magazine, No. 41, of March 2004, pp 3-26. 25 figs.

  20. Empirical determinants of measles metapopulation dynamics in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenstädt, B; Grenfell, B

    1998-02-07

    A key issue in metapopulation dynamics is the relative impact of internal patch dynamics and coupling between patches. This problem can be addressed by analysing large spatiotemporal data sets, recording the local and global dynamics of metapopulations. In this paper, we analyse the dynamics of measles meta-populations in a large spatiotemporal case notification data set, collected during the pre-vaccination era in England and Wales. Specifically, we use generalized linear statistical models to quantify the relative importance of local influences (birth rate and population size) and regional coupling on local epidemic dynamics. Apart from the proportional effect of local population size on case totals, the models indicate patterns of local and regional dynamic influences which depend on the current state of epidemics. Birth rate and geographic coupling are not associated with the size of major epidemics. By contrast, minor epidemics--and especially the incidence of local extinction of infection--are influenced both by birth rate and geographical coupling. Birth rate at a lag of four years provides the best fit, reflecting the delayed recruitment of susceptibles to school cohorts. A hierarchical index of spatial coupling to large centres provides the best spatial model. The model also indicates that minor epidemics and extinction patterns are more strongly influenced by this regional effect than the local impact of birth rate.

  1. New South Wales annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rosewell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aim to describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales (NSW for 2012. Data from the NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System were analysed by: local health district of residence, age, Aboriginality, vaccination status and organism, where available. Risk factor and vaccination status data were collected by public health units for cases following notification under the NSW Public Health Act 2010. The largest outbreak of measles since 1998 was reported in 2012. Pacific Islander and Aboriginal people were at higher risk as were infants less than 12 months of age. Notifications of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in children less than five years declined; however, the overall number of notifications for IPD increased. Mumps case notifications were also elevated. There were no Haemophilus influenzae type b case notifications in children less than five years of age for the first time since the vaccine was introduced. Invasive meningococcal disease case notifications were at their lowest rates since case notification began in 1991. Case notification rates for other selected vaccine-preventable diseases remained stable. Vaccine-preventable disease control is continually strengthening in NSW with notable successes in invasive bacterial infections. However, strengthening measles immunization in Pacific Islander and Aboriginal communities remains essential to maintain measles elimination.

  2. Lichenometric dating of slope movements, Nant Ffrancon, North Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Vanessa; Chaujar, Ravinder K.

    2002-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, frequent debris flows on the oversteepened slopes crossed by the main A5 road in Nant Ffrancon, North Wales, have presented a significant traffic hazard. This study uses two approaches to lichenometry to date earlier debris flows. The first approach provides dating estimates based on size/age correlations of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum subspecies prospectans growing in two local churchyards. The correlations supplied a growth rate of 1.47 mm year -1 for the species over a 140-year period, with a delay before colonization of 18 years. Remeasurement of the same lichens after a 4.25-year interval confirmed the growth and colonization rates in the churchyards. The second lichenometric approach, based on population size frequency distributions with size increments dated using the churchyard growth rate, provided controls for the Nant Ffrancon study site, with peaks in Rhizocarpon population size frequency distributions correlating with debris flow dates recorded by Gwynedd Council Highways Department. Circumstantial evidence supporting adoption of the growth rate on the Nant Ffrancon slopes was also supplied by data from archival and meteorological sources. The lichenometric dating estimates suggest that these slopes have a history of periodic debris flows covering at least the last 110 years, with major flows occurring in the 1890s followed by further flows in the early decades of the twentieth century.

  3. An Ethnopharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants in New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Randall

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Aboriginal people have used plants as medicine and food for thousands of years, however, this traditional knowledge is documented only to a limited extent, and is in danger of being lost. The Indigenous Bioresources Research Group (IBRG aims to help Australian Aboriginal communities to preserve their customary medicinal knowledge, and to provide information that can be used for their cultural or educational purposes, as well as for scientific advancement. This work is undertaken in close collaboration with Australian Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. The project is multidisciplinary, combining an ethnobotanical and an ethnopharmacological approach, which includes biological and chemical investigations, as well as developing best practices for protecting traditional knowledge. This paper describes the general strategy of the project as well as methods used in the ethnopharmacological study. Ethnobotanical databases are set up for each participating community. Plant material is collected, extracted, and active compounds are isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. All extracts and compounds are tested for biological activity in antimicrobial assays (disc diffusion, resazurin, fluorescein diacetate, neurological assays or anti-inflammatory assays, depending on their traditional use.

  4. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  5. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  6. The cost of teaching an intern in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R Kim; Goulston, Kerry J; Bingham, Craig M; Dent, Owen F

    2014-02-03

    To determine the cost of formal and informal teaching specifically provided for interns and to determine how much of an intern's time is spent in these activities. Costs of formal teaching for 2012 were obtained from the New South Wales Health Education and Training Institute (HETI) and costs of informal teaching by a survey of all interns in a random sample of prevocational networks. The cost of formal intern education provided by HETI; the number of hours of formal teaching provided to interns in hospital; intern estimates of the amount of non-timetabled teaching received in a typical week. The cost of formal teaching was $11 892 per intern per year and the cost of informal teaching was $2965 per intern per year (survey response rate, 63%) - a total of $14 857. Interns spent 2 hours per week in formal teaching and 28 minutes per week in informal teaching, representing 6.2% of a 40-hour week. The time of professionals paid by NSW Health represents most of the expenditure on teaching interns. An increase in time spent on intern teaching beyond the current 6.2% of an intern's 40-hour week would be an investment in better health care.

  7. Comparing the Injury Profile, Service Use, Outcomes, and Comorbidities of People With Severe TBI Across Urban, Regional, and Remote Populations in New South Wales: A Multicentre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Grahame K; Daher, Maysaa; Hodgkinson, Adeline; Strettles, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    To compare the demographic/injury profile, outcomes, service utilization, and unmet service needs of individuals with severe traumatic brain injury across urban, regional, and remote areas of New South Wales. The 11 community-based rehabilitation teams of the New South Wales Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program. Active clients (N = 503) with severe traumatic brain injury. A prospective cross-sectional multicenter study. Overt Behaviour Scale, Health of the Nation Outcome Scale-Acquired Brain Injury, Disability Rating Scale, Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale-2, Care and Needs Scale, data protocol on service utilization, and unmet needs. There were no differences in injury severity or functional outcomes across the 3 locations. However, clients in regional and remote areas had significantly higher levels of premorbid and postinjury comorbidities and lower levels of participation in comparison to urban clients. Although accessing the same number of services as their urban counterparts, clients in regional and remote areas had significantly higher levels of unmet needs suggesting problems with under-servicing. Geographical location had a significant impact on service access and outcomes.

  8. Follow-up: Prospective compound design using the ‘SAR Matrix’ method and matrix-derived conditional probabilities of activity [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/56v

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Gupta-Ostermann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a previous Method Article, we have presented the ‘Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR Matrix’ (SARM approach. The SARM methodology is designed to systematically extract structurally related compound series from screening or chemical optimization data and organize these series and associated SAR information in matrices reminiscent of R-group tables. SARM calculations also yield many virtual candidate compounds that form a “chemical space envelope” around related series. To further extend the SARM approach, different methods are developed to predict the activity of virtual compounds. In this follow-up contribution, we describe an activity prediction method that derives conditional probabilities of activity from SARMs and report representative results of first prospective applications of this approach.

  9. Follow-up: Prospective compound design using the ‘SAR Matrix’ method and matrix-derived conditional probabilities of activity [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/59v

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Gupta-Ostermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous Method Article, we have presented the ‘Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR Matrix’ (SARM approach. The SARM methodology is designed to systematically extract structurally related compound series from screening or chemical optimization data and organize these series and associated SAR information in matrices reminiscent of R-group tables. SARM calculations also yield many virtual candidate compounds that form a “chemical space envelope” around related series. To further extend the SARM approach, different methods are developed to predict the activity of virtual compounds. In this follow-up contribution, we describe an activity prediction method that derives conditional probabilities of activity from SARMs and report representative results of first prospective applications of this approach.

  10. DNA barcoding the native flowering plants and conifers of Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha de Vere

    Full Text Available We present the first national DNA barcode resource that covers the native flowering plants and conifers for the nation of Wales (1143 species. Using the plant DNA barcode markers rbcL and matK, we have assembled 97.7% coverage for rbcL, 90.2% for matK, and a dual-locus barcode for 89.7% of the native Welsh flora. We have sampled multiple individuals for each species, resulting in 3304 rbcL and 2419 matK sequences. The majority of our samples (85% are from DNA extracted from herbarium specimens. Recoverability of DNA barcodes is lower using herbarium specimens, compared to freshly collected material, mostly due to lower amplification success, but this is balanced by the increased efficiency of sampling species that have already been collected, identified, and verified by taxonomic experts. The effectiveness of the DNA barcodes for identification (level of discrimination is assessed using four approaches: the presence of a barcode gap (using pairwise and multiple alignments, formation of monophyletic groups using Neighbour-Joining trees, and sequence similarity in BLASTn searches. These approaches yield similar results, providing relative discrimination levels of 69.4 to 74.9% of all species and 98.6 to 99.8% of genera using both markers. Species discrimination can be further improved using spatially explicit sampling. Mean species discrimination using barcode gap analysis (with a multiple alignment is 81.6% within 10×10 km squares and 93.3% for 2×2 km squares. Our database of DNA barcodes for Welsh native flowering plants and conifers represents the most complete coverage of any national flora, and offers a valuable platform for a wide range of applications that require accurate species identification.

  11. DNA barcoding the native flowering plants and conifers of Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Natasha; Rich, Tim C G; Ford, Col R; Trinder, Sarah A; Long, Charlotte; Moore, Chris W; Satterthwaite, Danielle; Davies, Helena; Allainguillaume, Joel; Ronca, Sandra; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Garbett, Hannah; Walker, Kevin; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2012-01-01

    We present the first national DNA barcode resource that covers the native flowering plants and conifers for the nation of Wales (1143 species). Using the plant DNA barcode markers rbcL and matK, we have assembled 97.7% coverage for rbcL, 90.2% for matK, and a dual-locus barcode for 89.7% of the native Welsh flora. We have sampled multiple individuals for each species, resulting in 3304 rbcL and 2419 matK sequences. The majority of our samples (85%) are from DNA extracted from herbarium specimens. Recoverability of DNA barcodes is lower using herbarium specimens, compared to freshly collected material, mostly due to lower amplification success, but this is balanced by the increased efficiency of sampling species that have already been collected, identified, and verified by taxonomic experts. The effectiveness of the DNA barcodes for identification (level of discrimination) is assessed using four approaches: the presence of a barcode gap (using pairwise and multiple alignments), formation of monophyletic groups using Neighbour-Joining trees, and sequence similarity in BLASTn searches. These approaches yield similar results, providing relative discrimination levels of 69.4 to 74.9% of all species and 98.6 to 99.8% of genera using both markers. Species discrimination can be further improved using spatially explicit sampling. Mean species discrimination using barcode gap analysis (with a multiple alignment) is 81.6% within 10×10 km squares and 93.3% for 2×2 km squares. Our database of DNA barcodes for Welsh native flowering plants and conifers represents the most complete coverage of any national flora, and offers a valuable platform for a wide range of applications that require accurate species identification.

  12. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  13. Interpreting measurements of cardiac function using vendor-independent speckle tracking echocardiography in children: a prospective, blinded comparison with catheter-derived measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudar, Suma P; Baker, G Hamilton; Chowdhury, Shahryar M; Reid, Kimberly J; Shirali, Girish; Scheurer, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Adult studies demonstrate that echocardiographic measurements of cardiac function using speckle tracking correlate with invasive measurements, but such data in the pediatric population are sparse. Our aim was to compare speckle-derived measures of cardiac function to measurements routinely obtained by cardiac catheterization in children. Echocardiograms were performed on the day of cardiac catheterization. Using Tomtec 2D Cardiac Performance Analysis, longitudinal strain (LS), longitudinal strain rate (LSR), early diastolic LSR, and ejection fraction (EF) for the right and left ventricle (RV and LV) were calculated via speckle tracking. Global LS and LSR were calculated for the LV. These results were compared to cardiac index, maximum ventricular dp/dt (max dp/dt), ventricular end-diastolic pressure (EDP), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) obtained by fluid-filled catheters. A blinded observer performed all echo measurements. Fifty studies were performed on 28 patients ages 4 months to 20 years old. Their diagnoses included cardiac transplant (48 studies), repaired AV septal defect (1), and dilated cardiomyopathy (1). RVEDP ranged from 2 to 22 mm Hg (median=6) and PCWP ranged from 6 to 32 mmHg (median 10). LV global LS and LV 2-chamber LSR by speckle-tracking negatively correlated with LV max dp/dt (LV global LS R=-.83, P=.001; LV 2-chamber LSR R=-.69, P=.009). RV LS weakly correlated with max dp/dt (R=.363, P=.002). Early diastolic strain rate did not correlate with EDP in either ventricle. Speckle-derived measurements of function in the LV have stronger correlation than the RV to catheter-derived measures. LV global LS has the strongest correlation with invasive function measures in children. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  15. Empirical and targeted therapy of candidemia with fluconazole versus echinocandins: a propensity score-derived analysis of a population-based, multicentre prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cortés, L E; Almirante, B; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Garnacho-Montero, J; Padilla, B; Puig-Asensio, M; Ruiz-Camps, I; Rodríguez-Baño, J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the clinical efficacy of fluconazole and echinocandins in the treatment of candidemia in real practice. The CANDIPOP study is a prospective, population-based cohort study on candidemia carried out between May 2010 and April 2011 in 29 Spanish hospitals. Using strict inclusion criteria, we separately compared the impact of empirical and targeted therapy with fluconazole or echinocandins on 30-day mortality. Cox regression, including a propensity score (PS) for receiving echinocandins, stratified analysis on the PS quartiles and PS-based matched analyses, were performed. The empirical and targeted therapy cohorts comprised 316 and 421 cases, respectively; 30-day mortality was 18.7% with fluconazole and 33.9% with echinocandins (p 0.02) in the empirical therapy group and 19.8% with fluconazole and 27.7% with echinocandins (p 0.06) in the targeted therapy group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis including PS showed that empirical therapy with fluconazole was associated with better prognosis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.81; p 0.01); no differences were found within each PS quartile or in cases matched according to PS. Targeted therapy with fluconazole did not show a significant association with mortality in the Cox regression analysis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.77; 95% confidence interval 0.41-1.46; p 0.63), in the PS quartiles or in PS-matched cases. The results were similar among patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Empirical or targeted treatment with fluconazole was not associated with increased 30-day mortality compared to echinocandins among adults with candidemia.

  16. A strategic conservation assessment of heathland and associated habitats on the coal spoils of South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The coal spoils of the South Wales Valleys provide a unique environment for a range of habitats some of which are restricted to the harsh, bare spoil environment such as the unusual and distinctive lichen-rich heaths and areas of open flower-rich vegetation. Previous work has shown that coal spoil habitats do not fit well with the National Vegetation Classification (NVC). Coal waste sites were examined in the Country Boroughs of Caerphilly, Merthyr Tydfil, Rhondda Cynon Taff and Torfaen. The results have shown that none of the NVC communities present on the site are especially rare or restricted to coal waste. The communities noted reflect the geographic locality and range of soil moisture conditions found in the areas sampled and may be expected to occur elsewhere. The presence of U1 is of note however in being also characteristic of certain Breckland communities where lichen heaths develop. The study has however shown similarities between the lower plant floras of the coal waste sites and those of other anthropogenic habitats such as the Breckland Heaths and the Greenham Common airfields. Survey has indicated that botanically the 'best' coal waste sites are those which include topographical complexity, areas of bare ground, edifice complexity and lack of nutrient application. These four characteristics lead to the likelihood of a fifth, i.e. the presence of one or more of an assemblage of conspicuous and characteristic coal-waste plant species. From this data, a 'traffic-light' botanical assessment tool has been derived which allows a preliminary assessment of sites into those of low, medium and high conservation interest respectively by workers with some ecological expertise but without the need for detailed NVC or lower plant identification skills.

  17. Factors associated with the recruitment and retention of social workers in Wales: employer and employee perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sherrill; Huxley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Despite acute staffing shortages in social work, workforce planning within the UK social care sector is compromised by poor workforce intelligence. This study aimed to inform the evidence base providing new data on recruitment and retention in Wales, examining what personal and organizational characteristics are associated with intentions to leave, and what initiatives or incentives might mediate that effect. A multi-method design facilitated comparisons between two data sources--a census of all 22 Welsh local authority employers about recruitment and retention practices and a survey of all social workers and senior practitioners employed in social services (n = 998; response rate 45.9%) about demography, workforce characteristics, working patterns, morale and plans and reasons for leaving one's job. Vacancy (mean 14.4%) and turnover (mean 15%) rates were statistically significantly higher in children's services than in adult services; vacancy rates were also higher in authorities that offered higher starting salaries. The provision of certain types of traineeship might also be associated with higher vacancy rates but these results should be treated with some caution. There was little evidence that recruitment and retention initiatives were associated with lower vacancy or turnover rates, despite employers' perceptions about their effectiveness. Social workers derived a lot of satisfaction from their work, but more than a quarter wanted to leave their job within 6 months, and almost as many were actively seeking alternative employment. Intention to leave was explained by job and employer satisfaction, and negative feelings about pay. Senior practitioners and staff members with longer lengths of service were less likely to want to leave, even if they were dissatisfied with their job or employer. Job and employer dissatisfaction was associated with retention initiatives related to facilities, good caseload management and home-working, suggesting that dissatisfied

  18. The direct cost of intravenous insulin infusions to the NHS in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Rajesh; Scott, Anne; Rayman, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    The cost of intravenous insulin infusion to the NHS is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct cost of insulin infusions to the NHS in England and Wales in the first 24-hour period of infusion. Data from the National Inpatient Diabetes Audit 2013 in the UK were used to estimate the number of insulin infusions in use across England and Wales. Costs were calculated for six models for setting up and maintenance of insulin infusions, depending on the extent of involvement of different healthcare professionals in the UK. In this study, the direct costs of intravenous insulin infusions to the NHS in England and Wales have been estimated to vary from £6.4-8.5 million in the first 24-hour period on infusion. More appropriate use of these infusions could result in substantial cost savings.

  19. Short-term international migration trends in England and Wales from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Simon; Loukas, Konstantinos; McGregor, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Short-term migration estimates for England and Wales are the latest addition to the Office for National Statistics (ONS) migration statistics. This article discusses definitions of short-term migration and the methodology that is used to produce the estimates. Some of the estimates and the changes in the estimates over time are then discussed. The article includes previously unpublished short-term migration statistics and therefore helps to give a more complete picture of the size and characteristics of short-term international migration for England and Wales than has previously been possible. ONS have identified a clear user requirement for short-term migration estimates at local authority (LA) level. Consequently, attention is also paid to the progress that has been made and future work that is planned to distribute England and Wales short-term migration estimates to LA level.

  20. Memory, Television and the Making of the BBC’s 'The Story Of Wales'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Blandford

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of television history programming is a rich site for examining the dynamic relationship between history and memory. This article approaches these dynamics through original, empirical research of a specific case study, BBC Wales’ The Story of Wales (Green Bay for BBC Wales 2012. It analyses the commissioning, production and presentation of a landmark national history programme within the specific context of a small nation (Wales and provides insights into how television intervenes in the construction, revision and remembering of the national past. The role of national histories in the construction of memory and national identity is importance at a time when the legitimacy of nations and states is under question and when governmental and political settlements are under construction as is the case in the post-devolutionary United Kingdom.

  1. Parechovirus Genotype 3 Outbreak among Infants, New South Wales, Australia, 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; McMullan, Brendan J.; Musto, Jennie; Leung, Kit; Nguyen, Oanh; Ferson, Mark J.; Papadakis, Georgina; Sheppeard, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    From October 2013 through February 2014, human parechovirus genotype 3 infection was identified in 183 infants in New South Wales, Australia. Of those infants, 57% were male and 95% required hospitalization. Common signs and symptoms were fever >38°C (86%), irritability (80%), tachycardia (68%), and rash (62%). Compared with affected infants in the Northern Hemisphere, infants in New South Wales were slightly older, both sexes were affected more equally, and rash occurred with considerably higher frequency. The New South Wales syndromic surveillance system, which uses near real-time emergency department and ambulance data, was useful for monitoring the outbreak. An alert distributed to clinicians reduced unnecessary hospitalization for patients with suspected sepsis. PMID:26082289

  2. Plant species first recognised as naturalised or naturalising for New South Wales in 2004 and 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, John R.; Conn, Barry J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.; Barker, Clive H.

    2013-01-01

    Information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of 62 taxa of naturalised or naturalising plantsm newly recorded for the state of New South Wales during the period 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2005 and 1 species treated in the 2002 revised Flora of New South Wales Volume 2 but overlooked in an earlier paper of this series. Of these taxa, 17 are new records for Australia (prefaced with a †). The 62 taxa are: Acer palmatum, †Acer saccharinum, Achillea filipendulina, Acokanthera oblon...

  3. International Study of Health Care Organization and Financing of renal services in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tricia; Roderick, Paul

    2007-12-01

    In England and Wales, the quantity and quality of renal services have improved significantly in the last decade. While acceptance rates for renal replacement therapy appear low by international standards, they are now commensurate with many other northern European countries. The major growth in renal services has been in hemodialysis, especially at satellite units. Health care is predominantly publicly funded through a tax-based National Health Service, and such funding has increased in the last 10 years. Improvements in health outcomes in England and Wales are expected to continue due to the recent implementation of standards, initiatives, and monitoring mechanisms for renal transplantation, vascular access, and patient transport.

  4. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082879 Chen Yaoyu(No.3 Geology and Mineral Exploration Team,Gansu Provincial Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development,Lanzhou 730050,China); Gong Quansheng Discussion on the Division of Deposit Scale and the Index of Ore Prospecting(Gansu Geology,ISSN 1004—4116,CN62—1191/P,16(3),2007,p.6—11,4 tables,6 refs.) Key words:prospecting and exploration of mineral

  5. Respiratory rate and pulse oximetry derived information as predictors of hospital admission in young children in Bangladesh: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Ainara; Zhou, Guohai; Raihana, Shahreen; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Karlen, Walter; Dekhordi, Parastoo; Huda, Tanvir; Arifeen, Shams El; Larson, Charles; Kissoon, Niranjan; Dumont, Guy A; Ansermino, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypoxaemia is a strong predictor of mortality in children. Early detection of deteriorating condition is vital to timely intervention. We hypothesise that measures of pulse oximetry dynamics may identify children requiring hospitalisation. Our aim was to develop a predictive tool using only objective data derived from pulse oximetry and observed respiratory rate to identify children at increased risk of hospital admission. Setting Tertiary-level hospital emergency department in Bangladesh. Participants Children under 5 years (n=3374) presenting at the facility (October 2012–April 2013) without documented chronic diseases were recruited. 1-minute segments of pulse oximetry (photoplethysmogram (PPG), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR)) and respiratory rate were collected with a mobile app. Primary outcome The need for hospitalisation based on expert physician review and follow-up. Methods Pulse rate variability (PRV) using pulse peak intervals of the PPG signal and features extracted from the SpO2 signal, all derived from pulse oximetry recordings, were studied. A univariate age-adjusted logistic regression was applied to evaluate differences between admitted and non-admitted children. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed using a stepwise selection of predictors and was internally validated using bootstrapping. Results Children admitted to hospital showed significantly (p<0.01) decreased PRV and higher SpO2 variability compared to non-admitted children. The strongest predictors of hospitalisation were reduced PRV-power in the low frequency band (OR associated with a 0.01 unit increase, 0.93; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98), greater time spent below an SpO2 of 98% and 94% (OR associated with 10 s increase, 1.4; 95% CI 1.3 to 1.4 and 1.5; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.6, respectively), high respiratory rate, high HR, low SpO2, young age and male sex. These variables provided a bootstrap-corrected AUC of the receiver operating characteristic

  6. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). Updates and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizejewski, Gerald J. [Division of Translational Medicine, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2011-06-20

    The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K{sup +} ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1) tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2) Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest) arrhythmias; and (3) doxorubicin's bystander cell toxicity.

  7. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP: Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep. Updates and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald J. Mizejewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1 cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2 prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3 protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4 blockage of K+ ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF. The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1 tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2 Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest arrhythmias; and (3 doxorubicin’s bystander cell toxicity.

  8. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  9. Local application of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells supports the healing of fistula: prospective randomised study on rat model of fistulising Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryska, Ondrej; Serclova, Zuzana; Mestak, Ondrej; Matouskova, Eva; Vesely, Pavel; Mrazova, Iveta

    2017-05-01

    Local application of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) represents a novel approach for the management of perianal fistula in patients with Crohn's disease. A randomised study on an animal model was performed to investigate the efficacy and to detect the distribution of implanted ADSCs by bioluminescence (BLI). A caecostomy was used as a fistula model in 32 Lewis rats. The ADSCs were isolated from transgenic donor expressing firefly luciferase. Animals were randomly assigned to groups given injections of 4 × 10(6) cells (n = 16, group A) or placebo (n = 16, group B) in the perifistular tissue. Fistula drainage assessment was used to evaluate the fistula healing. After application of D-luciferin, cell viability and distribution was detected using an IVIS Lumina XR camera on days 0, 2, 7, 14 and 30. The fistula was identified as healed in 6 (38%) animals in group A vs. 1 case (6.3%) in group B (p = .033). The BLI was strongest immediately after administration of ADSCs 31.2 × 10(4) (6.09-111 × 10(4)) p/s/cm(2)/sr. The fastest decrease was observed within the first 2 days when values fell by 50.2%. The BLI 30 days after injection was significantly higher in animals with healed fistulas - 8.23 × 10(4) (1.18-16.9 × 10(4)) vs. 1.74 × 10(4) (0.156-6.88 × 10(4)); p = .0393. Local application of ADSCs resulted in significantly higher fistula closure rate on an animal model. BLI monitoring was proved to be feasible and showed rapid reduction of the ADSC mass after application. More viable cells were detected in animals with healed fistula at the end of the follow-up.

  10. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  11. Numbers Talk--Words Count: Language Policy and Adult Numeracy Education in Wales and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coben, Diana; Miller-Reilly, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review and compare language policy in relation to adult numeracy education in Wales and New Zealand with respect to the Maori and Welsh languages in the latest stage of our international comparative study of adult numeracy education. While much has been written about the relationship between language and literacy, the relationship…

  12. Becoming a Social Worker in Wales: Language, Teaching, and Inclusivity in Professional Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakeford, Mark; Lynn, Elisabeth

    1999-01-01

    Explores education and training issues related to preparing (Welsh) social workers for practice in a bilingual community. Traces official language use in Wales, draws on authors' personal histories, considers Welsh-language status, and explores connections between language and social work. Training is inclusive, but needs improvement. Contains 28…

  13. When School Is Not Enough: New Initiatives in Intergenerational Language Transmission in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Viv; Newcombe, Lynda Prichard

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines language reproduction in the family in the context of a highly innovative project in Wales, where the Welsh language has been in decline for over a century. Although Welsh-medium schooling has played a pivotal role in slowing and even reversing language shift in recent decades, there is mounting evidence of the dangers of …

  14. Wha's Like Us? Post-16 Transitions in Scotland and England and Wales Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffe, David; Courtenay, Gill

    1987-01-01

    Data on post-16 transitions from the 1985 Scottish Young Peoples Survey and from the England and Wales Youth Cohort Study reveal several differences reflecting institutional differences between the two systems. Data also reveal sociological similarities. Those who develop policy initiatives at a British level must respect both similarities and…

  15. A comparison of disease prevalence in general practice in the Netherlands and in England & Wales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.; Schellevis, F.; Linden, M. van der; Westert, G.

    2006-01-01

    General practice-based morbidity surveys have been conducted in the Netherlands and in England and Wales primarily to estimate disease prevalence and examine health inequalities. We have compared disease prevalence in general practice reported in the second Dutch Natinal Survey of General Practice (

  16. The Dark Figure of Infanticide in England and Wales: Complexities of Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Fiona; Nolan, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Infants aged younger than 12 months have the highest homicide victimization rate of any single age group in England and Wales. In addition, there are good grounds for believing that the official homicide statistics for this particular age group are an underestimate and subject to distortion. At the same time there is evidence mounting in the…

  17. Theoretical Framework of Leadership in Higher Education of England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Havrylyuk, Marianna; Stolyarchuk, Lesia

    2015-01-01

    In the article the theoretical framework of leadership in higher education of England and Wales has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of the theoretical fundamentals of educational…

  18. Historical Child Sexual Abuse in England and Wales: The Role of Historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Adrian; Delap, Lucy; Jackson, Louise; Settle, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on methodological and ethical issues that have shaped a collaborative project which aims to chart social, legal and political responses to child sexual abuse in England and Wales across the twentieth century. The etymological problem of searching for child sexual abuse in the historical archive is discussed, given that the…

  19. Hydraulic characterisation of the tailings associated with the abandoned mine at Frongoch, Mid-Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, V.J.; Kirkham, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the material classification and results of field and laboratory hydraulic testing of tailings from the Frongoch Tailings Lagoon, situated immediately to the south of the abandoned Frongoch mine site in mid-Wales. The results are considered in the context of the conceptual site model.

  20. Social Class and Educational Attainment: A Comparative Study of England, Wales, and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay; Iannelli, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This article examines variations among England, Wales, and Scotland in the association between social origin and educational attainment and the role that different national educational policies may have played in shaping these variations. The findings show that country variation in the association between origins and attainment was mostly or…

  1. Historical Child Sexual Abuse in England and Wales: The Role of Historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Adrian; Delap, Lucy; Jackson, Louise; Settle, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on methodological and ethical issues that have shaped a collaborative project which aims to chart social, legal and political responses to child sexual abuse in England and Wales across the twentieth century. The etymological problem of searching for child sexual abuse in the historical archive is discussed, given that the…

  2. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  3. Refugee Children in Wales: Coping and Adaptation in the Face of Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maegusuku-Hewett, Tracey; Dunkerley, David; Scourfield, Jonathan; Smalley, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to makes a contribution to redressing a methodological and theoretical imbalance in existing research on refugee and asylum-seeking children. It draws on two qualitative studies from Wales with children and young people. The samples include unaccompanied minors and children living with families as well as both children who are…

  4. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  5. Young Offenders in New South Wales, Australia and the Need for Remedial Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistler, Grant; Kirkwood, Kristie; Potter, Emily; Cashin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The 2005-2008 Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy identifies young people as a key target group in need of sexual health education, screening and management. For young people who are in contact with the New South Wales (NSW) juvenile justice system, a dire need for remedial sexual health education exists. NSW young…

  6. Children of the Killing Fields: Cambodian Adolescents in New South Wales. Occasional Paper No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boua, Chanthou

    This study investigates the settlement of Cambodian adolescents in New South Wales (Australia). It looks at their participation in education and employment, the effects the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia had on those who lived through it, and the identity problems that usually occur in young people as a result of migration. According to the 1986…

  7. A comparison of disease prevalence in general practice in the Netherlands and in England & Wales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.; Schellevis, F.; Linden, M. van der; Westert, G.

    2006-01-01

    General practice-based morbidity surveys have been conducted in the Netherlands and in England and Wales primarily to estimate disease prevalence and examine health inequalities. We have compared disease prevalence in general practice reported in the second Dutch Natinal Survey of General Practice (

  8. Diagnostic Trends in Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the South Wales Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A. H. A.; Williams, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the diagnostic trends in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for children aged under 17 years in the Rhondda and Taff Ely districts of South Wales. In the period 1988-2004, 336 children received a diagnosis of ASD and represent the case registry data of one community pediatric team. For the period 1994-2003, the…

  9. The Significance of Contemporary Contradiction in Educational Assessment Policies in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadfoot, Patricia

    Some of the assumptions underlying educational assessment policies in England and Wales are discussed in terms of contradictions in the aims of those policies. Two key initiatives--the national "bench-mark" testing and records of achievement--provide the focus for illustrating the potentially fundamental change of emphasis in the nature…

  10. Remove, Rehabilitate, Return? The Use and Effectiveness of Behaviour Schools in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Elizabeth; Graham, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that enrolments in separate special educational settings for students with disruptive behaviour have increased in a number of educational jurisdictions internationally. Recent analysis of school enrolment data has identified a similar increase in the New South Wales (NSW) government school sector; however, questions have been…

  11. Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Higher Education and Economic Regeneration in Wales: A Policy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brychan; Packham, Gary; Miller, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the views of key policy makers concerning innovation and entrepreneurship in Wales. The development of innovation in SMEs and the policy implications for economic regeneration are also analysed. The role of a variety of actors (including users and suppliers) is considered, as is the impact of networks of SMEs linked together in…

  12. Improvements to Suicide Prevention Training for Prison Staff in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Adrian J.; Shaw, Jenny J.; Lever-Green, Gillian; Parker, Dianne; Gask, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Suicide prevention training for the prison service in England and Wales has been criticized. STORM is a package emphasizing the practice and review of interactions with suicidal persons and was evaluated in a pilot study for use in prisons. Trainees completed questionnaires immediately before and after training and at 6 to 8 months follow-up.…

  13. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  14. Knowledge for What? Wales, Militarisation and the Endless Promotion of the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has become the buzzword of development policy in the early twenty-first century. Nations and regions around the world are all told that they must transform themselves into knowledge economies to survive and prosper. This article uses the example of Wales and its recent embrace of a massive military privatisation project in…

  15. The Communities Providing Religious Education and Catechesis to Polish Immigrants in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makosa, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Since Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004, hundreds of thousands of Polish citizens have arrived in the UK in search of work, of which the majority landed in England and Wales. This process, although not as fast now, is still ongoing. The majority of immigrants from Poland are young people who start families and have children. Many of…

  16. Sustainability of Curriculum Development for Enterprise Education: Observations on Cases from Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the variety of approaches to curriculum development for enterprise education developed for schools, further, and higher education under an Entrepreneurship Action Plan in Wales and to consider the sustainability issues for delivery in these sectors. Design/methodology/approach: This investigation adopted a case…

  17. Language Policy and Governmentality in Businesses in Wales: A Continuum of Empowerment and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakos, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how language policy acts as a means of both empowering the Welsh language and the minority language worker and as a means of exerting power over them. For this purpose, the study focuses on a particular site: private sector businesses in Wales. Therein, I trace two major discursive processes: first, the Welsh Government's…

  18. Implementation of an Integrated Information Management System at the National Library of Wales: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Manon Foster; Thomas, Sian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the experiences of the National Library of Wales in implementing an integrated information management system. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses the stages involved in the procurement process, data migration and general system implementation. Findings: Emphasises the need for a well-prepared yet flexible…

  19. The Role of Trust in the Development of Connectivities amongst Rural Elders in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nigel; Fisher, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    Using Simmel's notion of sociation, the way in which rural elders in England and Wales relate to, or connect with, each other and others within their community, can be seen to be conflictual as well as consensual. As a vehicle for exploiting this relationship, social capital also can be antithetic as well as convergent and an important element of…

  20. Fatal methadone and heroin overdoses : Time trends in England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Farrell, M

    1997-01-01

    Study objective-Although the total number of self poisonings in England and Wales has dropped by 32%, the number involving methadone and/or heroin rose by 900% in 1974-92. Because of concern about the role of methadone in this increase, the part played by methadone and heroin in poisoning deaths in

  1. The Individual Inventor and the Implications for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A View of Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brychan; Gornall, Lynne; Packham, Gary; Miller, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, inventive activity in the modern technological setting of Wales in the 21st century. The paper reports on the barriers, motivations and drivers to inventors becoming entrepreneurs in exploiting their ideas and taking them to market, and indicates the outcomes of a pilot phase…

  2. Sustainability of Curriculum Development for Enterprise Education: Observations on Cases from Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the variety of approaches to curriculum development for enterprise education developed for schools, further, and higher education under an Entrepreneurship Action Plan in Wales and to consider the sustainability issues for delivery in these sectors. Design/methodology/approach: This investigation adopted a case…

  3. Petrographic analysis of igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Fishguard 1:50000 sheet, south Wales

    OpenAIRE

    McKervey, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the results of petrographic analysis of samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks collected as part of a mapping survey of the Fishguard 1:50000 sheet, south Wales. The objective of the report is to provide petrographic descriptions of the rocks and to discuss the origin of the fabrics present.

  4. Ethical analysis of the new proposed mental health legislation in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepping Peter

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper ethically analyses arising out the proposed changes to the Mental Health Act for England and Wales. It looks in particular at thea shift in philosophy that the author claims has occurred with the proposals away from rights-focused principles to more utilitarian or outcome-focused principles. It gives examples of these changes and explores itstheir consequences.

  5. Ethical analysis of the new proposed mental health legislation in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, Peter

    2007-04-12

    This paper ethically analyses arising out the proposed changes to the Mental Health Act for England and Wales. It looks in particular at thea shift in philosophy that the author claims has occurred with the proposals away from rights-focused principles to more utilitarian or outcome-focused principles. It gives examples of these changes and explores its their consequences.

  6. School Expenditure and School Performance: Evidence from New South Wales Schools Using a Dynamic Panel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, G.; Mangan, J.; Blackburn, V.; Radicic, D.

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of school expenditure on school performance in government secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2006-2010. It uses dynamic panel analysis to exploit time series data on individual schools that only recently has become available. We find a significant but small effect of expenditure on…

  7. Changes in Academic Library Space: A Case Study at the University of New South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailin, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    As the digital environment continues to become more pervasive in our lives, academic libraries have had to adapt to ensure that services remain relevant to users' needs. Research was conducted to examine the 2009-2011 refurbishment at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) Library and evaluate its success in meeting users' needs in terms of…

  8. Addressing water resources risk in England and Wales: Long term infrastructure planning in a private, regulated industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Water resources planning is a complex and challenging discipline in which decision makers must deal with conflicting objectives, contested socio-economic values and vast uncertainties, including long term hydrological variability. The task is arguably more demanding in England and Wales, where private water companies must adhere to a rigid set of regulatory planning guidelines in order to justify new infrastructural investments. These guidelines prescribe a "capacity expansion" approach to planning: ensure that a deterministic measure of supply, known as "Deployable Output," meets projected demand over a 25-year planning horizon. Deployable Output is derived using a method akin to yield analysis and is commensurate with the maximum rate of supply that a water resources system can sustain without incurring failure under a simulation of historical recorded hydrological conditions. This study examines whether Deployable Output analysis is fit to serve an industry in which: water companies are seeking to invest in cross-company water transfer schemes to deal with loss of water availability brought about by European environmental legislation and an increase in demand driven by population growth; water companies are expected address potential climate change impacts through their planning activities; and regulators wish to benchmark water resource system performance across the separate companies. Of particular interest, then, is the adequacy of Deployable Output analysis as a means to measuring current and future water shortage risk and comparing across supply systems. Data from the UK National River Flow Archive are used to develop a series of hypothetical reservoir systems in two hydrologically contrasting regions -- northwest England/north Wales and Southeast England. The systems are varied by adjusting the draft ratio (ratio of target annual demand to mean annual inflow), the inflow diversity (covariance of streamflow sequences supplying the system), the strength of

  9. A mixed-methods evaluation of the Educational Supervision Agreement for Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Katie Louise; Bullock, Alison; Groves, Caroline; Saayman, Anton Gerhard

    2017-06-08

    In a bid to promote high-quality postgraduate education and training and support the General Medical Council's (GMC) implementation plan for trainer recognition, the Wales Deanery developed the Educational Supervision Agreement (EdSA). This is a three-way agreement between Educational Supervisors, Local Education Providers and the Wales Deanery which clarifies roles, responsibilities and expectations for all. This paper reports on the formative evaluation of the EdSA after 1 year. Evaluation of pan-Wales EdSA roll-out (2013-2015) employed a mixed-methods approach: questionnaires (n=191), interviews (n=11) with educational supervisors and discussion with key stakeholders (GMC, All-Wales Trainer Recognition Group, Clinical Directors). Numerical data were analysed in SPSS V.20; open comments underwent thematic content analysis. The study involved Educational Supervisors working in different specialties across Wales, UK. At the point of data collection, survey respondents represented 14% of signed agreements. Respondents believed the Agreement professionalises the Educational Supervisor role (85%, n=159 agreed), increases the accountability of Educational Supervisors (87%; n=160) and health boards (72%, n=131), provides leverage to negotiate supporting professional activities' (SPA) time (76%, n=142) and continuing professional development (CPD) activities (71%, n=131). Factor analysis identified three principal factors: professionalisation of the educational supervisor role, supporting practice through training and feedback and implementation of the Agreement. Our evidence suggests that respondents believed the Agreement would professionalise and support their Educational Supervisor role. Respondents showed enthusiasm for the Agreement and its role in maintaining high standards of training. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  10. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  11. 'The edge effect': an exploratory study of some factors affecting referrals to cancer genetic services in rural Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, Rachel; Jones, Lesley; Gray, Jonathon; Deaville, Jenny

    2005-09-01

    This exploratory study examines the role of rurality in referrals from primary care to the Cancer Genetics Service for Wales (CGSW) through a case study of referrals from Montgomeryshire, a predominantly rural area in mid-Wales located adjacent to the English border. Awareness of CGSW amongst practitioners is low. We found that rurality plays a role in referral behaviour as distance, time travelling and accessibility by car and public transport are all perceived to have an impact on the patient's decision to attend a clinic appointment. Some patients are being referred outside Wales as ease of access to services is considered more important than distance.

  12. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Antidepressants in Pregnancy and Congenital Anomalies: Analysis of Linked Databases in Wales, Norway and Funen, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K.; Davies, Gareth I.; Tucker, David; Thayer, Daniel S.; Luteijn, Johannes M.; Morgan, Margery; Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne V.; Klungsøyr, Kari; Engeland, Anders; Boyle, Breidge; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypothesised associations between in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and congenital anomalies, particularly congenital heart defects (CHD), remain controversial. We investigated the putative teratogenicity of SSRI prescription in the 91 days either side of first day of last menstrual period (LMP). Methods and Findings Three population-based EUROCAT congenital anomaly registries- Norway (2004–2010), Wales (2000–2010) and Funen, Denmark (2000–2010)—were linked to the electronic healthcare databases holding prospectively collected prescription information for all pregnancies in the timeframes available. We included 519,117 deliveries, including foetuses terminated for congenital anomalies, with data covering pregnancy and the preceding quarter, including 462,641 with data covering pregnancy and one year either side. For SSRI exposures 91 days either side of LMP, separately and together, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (ORs, 95%CI) for all major anomalies were estimated. We also explored: pausing or discontinuing SSRIs preconception, confounding, high dose regimens, and, in Wales, diagnosis of depression. Results were combined in meta-analyses. SSRI prescription 91 days either side of LMP was associated with increased prevalence of severe congenital heart defects (CHD) (as defined by EUROCAT guide 1.3, 2005) (34/12,962 [0.26%] vs. 865/506,155 [0.17%] OR 1.50, 1.06–2.11), and the composite adverse outcome of 'anomaly or stillbirth' (473/12962, 3.65% vs. 15829/506,155, 3.13%, OR 1.13, 1.03–1.24). The increased prevalence of all major anomalies combined did not reach statistical significance (3.09% [400/12,962] vs. 2.67% [13,536/506,155] OR 1.09, 0.99–1.21). Adjusting for socio-economic status left ORs largely unchanged. The prevalence of anomalies and severe CHD was reduced when SSRI prescriptions were stopped or paused preconception, and increased when >1 prescription was recorded, but differences were

  13. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  14. Risk factors for low birthweight based on birth registration and census information, England and Wales, 1981-2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collingwood Bakeo, Aleks; Clarke, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether there are socio-demographic factors (collected at census) that are not routinely available at birth registration that help to explain low birthweight in England and Wales in the 1980s and 1990s...

  15. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Horse Creek and Snell Creek Units) [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  16. Modelling the force of infection for hepatitis B and hepatitis C in injecting drug users in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope VD

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injecting drug use is a key risk factor, for several infections of public health importance, especially hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C (HCV. In England and Wales, where less than 1% of the population are likely to be injecting drug users (IDUs, approximately 38% of laboratory reports of HBV, and 95% of HCV reports are attributed to injecting drug use. Methods Voluntary unlinked anonymous surveys have been performed on IDUs in contact with specialist agencies throughout England and Wales. Since 1990 more than 20,000 saliva samples from current IDUs have been tested for markers of infection for HBV, HCV testing has been included since 1998. The analysis here considers those IDUs tested for HBV and HCV (n = 5,682 from 1998–2003. This study derives maximum likelihood estimates of the force of infection (the rate at which susceptible IDUs acquire infection for HBV and HCV in the IDU population and their trends over time and injecting career length. The presence of individual heterogeneity of risk behaviour and background HBV prevalence due to routes of transmission other than injecting are also considered. Results For both HBV and HCV, IDUs are at greatest risk from infection in their first year of injecting (Forces of infection in new initiates 1999–2003: HBV = 0.1076 95% C.I: 0.0840–0.1327 HCV = 0.1608 95% C.I: 0.1314–0.1942 compared to experienced IDUs (Force of infection in experienced IDUs 1999–2003: HBV = 0.0353 95% C.I: 0.0198–0.0596, HCV = 0.0526 95% C.I: 0.0310–0.0863 although independently of this there is evidence of heterogeneity of risk behaviour with a small number of IDUs at increased risk of infection. No trends in the FOI over time were detected. There was only limited evidence of background HBV infection due to factors other than injecting. Conclusion The models highlight the need to increase interventions that target new initiates to injecting to reduce the transmission of blood-borne viruses

  17. Building Effective Responses: An Independent Review of Violence against Women, Domestic Abuse and Sexual Violence Services in Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Vashti Louise; Stanley, Nicky; Radford, Lorraine; McCarry, Melanie; Larkins, Cath

    2014-01-01

    Independent researchers from the Connect Centre for International Research on Interpersonal Violence based in the School of Social Work at the University of Central Lancashire were commissioned by the Welsh Government in 2013 to conduct research into violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence services in Wales. The research aimed to inform the forthcoming Ending Violence Against Women and Domestic Abuse (Wales) Bill, implementation of the legislation and future policy more gen...

  18. The silviculture, nutrition and economics of short rotation willow coppice in the uplands of mid-Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.J.; Randerson, P.F.; Slater, F.M.

    2000-07-01

    The potential of short rotation coppice as a biomass crop on land over 250m (the uplands) of mid Wales was studied. The results found in this study indicate that growing short rotation coppice willow in the uplands is a viable proposition with regard to establishment success and yields. In the event of a secure wood chip market in Wales, returns to the grower would be comparable to those from sheep production. (author)

  19. Developing a historical climatology of Wales from Welsh and English language sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, N.; Davies, S. J.; Jones, C. A.; Charnell-White, C.

    2009-04-01

    Historical documentary records are recognised as valuable in understanding long term climate variability. In the UK, the Central England Temperature Series (1772- ) and the Lamb weather catalogue (1861- ) provide a detailed climate record for England, but the value of these archives in Wales and Scotland is more limited, though some long term instrumental series exist, particularly for cities such as Cardiff. The spatial distance from the central England area and a lower density of instrumental stations in Wales has limited understanding of climate variability during the instrumental period (~1750- ). This paper illustrates that historical documentary records represent a considerable resource, that to date have been underutilised in developing a more complete understanding of past weather and climate within many parts of Western Europe.

  20. Enhanced surveillance for toxoplasmosis in England and Wales, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsby, K; Guy, E; Said, B; Francis, J; O'Connor, C; Kirkbride, H; Morgan, D

    2014-08-01

    A report on Toxoplasma gondii by the UK Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food recommended that more accurate figures on the burden of disease in the UK are needed. We present the first 5 years of data from an enhanced surveillance scheme for toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. Between 2008 and 2012, 1824 cases were reported, with an average of 365 each year. There were 1109 immunocompetent cases, the majority presenting with lymphadenopathy, and 364 immunosuppressed cases, with central nervous system and systemic symptoms most frequently reported. There were also 190 pregnant and 33 congenital cases. Of the pregnant cases, 148 were asymptomatic (probably detected during screening), while 28 suffered a fetal loss or stillbirth. The enhanced surveillance system has led to an improvement in the detection of toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. However, numbers are still likely to be an underestimate, biasing towards the more severe infections.

  1. Away from the mainstream: medical women in one region of rural New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent research on the difficulties associated with attracting women to the rural medical workforce, and the perception that the image of the rural doctor is male, women have had a history in rural medicine in southwest New South Wales that spans a century. This paper explores the contribution to medicine of women medical practitioners working within one geographical area of rural New South Wales. It traces these women, documenting the diversity of women's medical work and some of the challenges faced. Based largely on data from contemporary reports in two local newspapers, the Daily Express and The Daily Advertiser, this paper shows that some of the silence associated with the role of women in rural medicine could be attributed to them holding positions at the margins of what is depicted as 'real' medicine, in fields that include public health and education.

  2. GIS Applied to Landslide Hazard Mapping and Evaluation in North-East Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. A.; Degg, M.

    2009-04-01

    Slope instability is a significant environmental hazard in North-East Wales, responsible for important damage to roads and built-up areas. During the late 1980s and the 1990s, systematic landslide mapping and hazard modelling was completed for a number of landslide prone areas within Great Britain, but no such study has to date been carried out for North Wales. This research reports on the creation of a digital landslide inventory for North-East Wales and the use of a Geographical Information System (GIS) to create the first landslide susceptibility models for the area. The research has resulted in the most comprehensive landslide inventory of North-East Wales completed to date. This was accomplished through a combination of aerial photograph interpretation, field mapping and data collection from secondary sources (e.g. consultancy reports, newspapers), yielding a database that records 430 landslides for the area. This represents a 76% (186 landslides) increase on the number of landslides recorded for the area in the UK national landslides database. The landslides in North-East Wales are almost entirely situated inland, with less than 1% on the coast. Approximately 84% of the landslides occur within drift geology and 16% in solid geology. For the slides of known type, 46% are translational slides, 47% rotational slides, 3% flows, 3% falls and 1% complex failures. The type and distribution of landsliding in the area shows notable differences to that found in areas of similar bedrock geology elsewhere in the UK (e.g. Derbyshire and South Wales). Analysis shows that the main landslide controlling parameters in North-East Wales are: lithology, drift material, slope angle, proximity to known faults (structural weaknesses) and proximity to fluvial channels (undercutting). These factors were weighted statistically based on their estimated contribution to slope instability, and combined to create the landslide susceptibility models using a statistical (multiple logistic

  3. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157, England and Wales, 1983-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Natalie L; Byrne, Lisa; Smith, Geraldine A; Elson, Richard; Harris, John P; Salmon, Roland; Smith, Robert; O'Brien, Sarah J; Adak, Goutam K; Jenkins, Claire

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated clinical Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infections in England and Wales during 1983-2012 to describe changes in microbiological and surveillance methods. A strain replacement event was captured; phage type (PT) 2 decreased to account for just 3% of cases by 2012, whereas PT8 and PT21/28 strains concurrently emerged, constituting almost two thirds of cases by 2012. Despite interventions to control and reduce transmission, incidence remained constant. However, sources of infection changed over time; outbreaks caused by contaminated meat and milk declined, suggesting that interventions aimed at reducing meat cross-contamination were effective. Petting farm and school and nursery outbreaks increased, suggesting the emergence of other modes of transmission and potentially contributing to the sustained incidence over time. Studies assessing interventions and consideration of policies and guidance should be undertaken to reduce Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 infections in England and Wales in line with the latest epidemiologic findings.

  4. WRONGFUL TRADING: COMPARATIVE APPROACH (ENGLAND AND WALES, RUSSIA AND THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Konstantinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is designed to discover legal rules addressing insolvency trading in three jurisdictions: England and Wales, Russia and the USA. Originally it was a master’s dissertation written under supervision of Ms. Sarah Paterson, who was extremely helpful and patient. The key jurisdiction for the research is England and Wales, whose wrongful trading provision apparently was the very first insolvency regulation in the field. Here, we will give particular attention to the factual circumstances of insolvency trading and research how the concept of wrongful trading addresses them. The next question will be how the American concept of deepening insolvency and the Russian concept of subsidiary liability are comparable with wrongful trading. Later, we will focus on the functions that should be performed by the regulations. Also, the effectiveness of wrongful trading and similar overseas provisions will be examined. Finally, this paper attempts to find obstacles to the wide application of wrongful trading provision.

  5. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Hepatitis B Virus Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Treated with Plasma Exchange and Entecavir: a 24-Month Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Hua; Xu, Ying; Wu, Hua-Mei; Yang, Jing; Yang, Li-Hong; Yue-Meng, Wan

    2016-12-01

    Search for an effective therapy for patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) remains an important issue. This study investigated the efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantation in patients with HBV-ACLF. 45 consecutive entecavir-treated HBV-ACLF patients were prospectively studied. Among these patients, 11 received both plasma exchange (PE) and a single transplantation of UC-MSCs (group A), while 34 received only PE (group B). The primary endpoint was survival at 24 months. Compared with group B, levels of albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease score in group A improved significantly at 4 weeks after transplantation (p < 0.05). Levels of albumin, PT and INR in group A were also markedly improved at 24 months (p < 0.05). Group A had significantly higher cumulative survival rate at 24 months (54.5 % v.s. 26.5 %, p = 0.015 by log rank test). Between the two groups, levels of creatinine, White blood cell, hemoglobin and platelet were similar. HBeAg loss and hepatocellular carcinoma incidence were similar at 24 months. Group assignment (relative risk: 2.926, 95%confidence interval: 1.043-8.203, p = 0.041) was an independent predictor for survival at 24 months. Success rate of UC-MSC transplantation was 100 % in group A. No severe adverse event was observed in any patient. UC-MSC transplantation is safe and effective for HBV-ACLF patients treated with PE and entecavir. It further improves the hepatic function and survival.

  6. The cost-effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccination in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Katherine E; Shim, Eunha; Carroll, Stuart; Quilici, Sibilia; Galvani, Alison P

    2012-11-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have shown great potential for reducing the disease burden of the major cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. The decision regarding whether rotavirus vaccination will be introduced into the national immunization program is currently being reviewed. The conclusions of previous evaluations of rotavirus vaccination cost-effectiveness contradict each other. This is the first analysis to incorporate a dynamic transmission model to assess the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in England and Wales. Most previously reported models do not include herd protection, and thus may underestimate the cost-effectiveness of vaccination against rotavirus. We incorporate a dynamic model of rotavirus transmission in England and Wales into a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine the probability that the pentavalent rotavirus vaccination will be cost-effective over a range of full-course vaccine prices. This novel approach allows the cost-effectiveness analysis to include a feasible level of herd protection provided by a vaccination program. Our base case model predicts that pentavalent rotavirus vaccination is likely to be cost-effective in England and Wales at £ 60 per course. In some scenarios the vaccination is predicted to be not only cost-effective but also cost-saving. These savings could be generated within ten years after vaccine introduction. Our budget impact analysis demonstrates that for the realistic base case scenarios, 58-96% of the cost outlay for vaccination will be recouped within the first four years of a program. Our results indicate that rotavirus vaccination would be beneficial to public health and could be economically sound. Since rotavirus vaccination is not presently on the immunization schedule for England and Wales but is currently under review, this study can inform policymakers of the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of implementing a mass rotavirus vaccine strategy.

  7. Changes in birth-cohort pattern of peptic ulcer mortality in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Katschinski, B. D.; Logan, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have described the secular trends in peptic ulcer mortality in England and Wales as being characteristic of a cohort phenomenon. The most recent data on ulcer mortality, however, show increasing mortality rates from duodenal ulcer in women over 65 and from gastric ulcer in women over 75 years. While the rise in mortality rates in the oldest age groups is partly explained by their greater life expectancy, the increase in mortality from duodenal ulcer in older w...

  8. Anisotropic mechanical properties and Stone-Wales defects in graphene monolayer: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, B.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001 (China); Yang, X.B. [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, R., E-mail: zhangray@zzu.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001 (China); Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management, Henan 450046 (China)

    2010-06-14

    We investigate the mechanical properties of graphene monolayer via the density functional theoretical (DFT) method. We find that the strain energies are anisotropic for the graphene under large strain. We attribute the anisotropic feature to the anisotropic sp{sup 2} hybridization in the hexagonal lattice. We further identify that the formation energies of Stone-Wales (SW) defects in the graphene monolayer are determined by the defect concentration and also the direction of applied tensile strain, correlating with the anisotropic feature.

  9. Are women birthing in New South Wales hospitals satisfied with their care?

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Jane B.; Hindmarsh, Diane M; Browne, Kim M; Todd, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveys of satisfaction with maternity care have been conducted using overnight inpatient surveys and dedicated maternity surveys in a number of Australian settings, however none have been used to report on satisfaction with maternity care among women in New South Wales. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between: 1) parity (first and subsequent births) and patient experience of hospital care at birth, and 2) other patient, birth and hospital characteristics...

  10. An Examination of the Factors Associated with the ‘Crime Drop’ in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatans, Dainis

    2015-01-01

    The explanations of the remarkable decrease in crime that has been reported over the last two decades in a number of western countries thus far are assessed here as having been limited and unconvincing. In the light of these limitations, this thesis explores three under researched factors and their potential impact on recorded and reported crime rates in England and Wales. First, the contribution of security measures to the fall in crime is evaluated. The likely impact of security measures is...

  11. A survey of local health promotion initiatives for older people in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nefyn H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the demographic profile of the UK changes, policy makers and practitioners have to respond to health challenges presented by a progressively ageing population. The health promotion plan for older people, aged over 50 years, in Wales included eight key areas: physical activity, healthy eating, home safety and warmth, emotional health, health protection, smoking, alcohol and sexual health. The aim of this study was to describe the extent, content and regional variation of existing health promotion initiatives for older people in Wales, provided by statutory, voluntary and private sector agencies. Method A questionnaire was sent to senior health promotion specialists employed in the 22 local authority areas in Wales to ascertain details of all projects promoting health and wellbeing in the eight key areas where the priority population was aged over 50, or the majority of users were older people. Additional information was sought from project leads and websites. Results Eighteen questionnaires were returned; not all were fully completed. Four areas did not return a questionnaire. Additional information was obtained from internet searches but this mainly concerned national initiatives rather than local projects. In all, 120 projects were included, 11 were throughout Wales. Best provision was for physical activity, with 3 national and 42 local initiatives, but local provision was patchy. Healthy eating, and home safety and warmth had far fewer initiatives, as did health protection, which comprised two national immunisation campaigns. Smoking and alcohol misuse were poorly provided for, and there was no provision for older people's sexual health. Evaluation arrangements were poorly described. Half of those who responded identified unmet training needs. Conclusion The reasons for patchy provision of services were not clear. Increased efforts to improve the coverage of interventions known to be effective should be made. Rigorous

  12. The implications of a changing climate on agricultural land classification in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Keay, C. A.; Jones, Robert J.A.; Hannam, J A; Barrie, I. A.

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural land classification (ALC) of England and Wales is a formal method of assessing the quality of agricultural land and guiding future land use. It assesses several soil, site and climate criteria and classifies land according to whichever is the most limiting. A common approach is required for calculating the necessary agroclimatic parameters over time in order to determine the effects of changes in the climate on land grading. In the present paper, climatic parameters required ...

  13. Life Lost Due to Premature Deaths in New South Wales, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Weerasinghe, Daminda P.; Farhat Yusuf; Nicholas J. Parr

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to measure premature mortality, in addition to overall death rates, in order to provide more information that can be used to develop and monitor health programmes that are aimed at reducing premature (often preventable) mortality in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Premature years of potential life lost (PYPLL) and valued years of potential life lost methods are applied for mortality data in NSW from 1990 to 2002. Variations in these measures for 2001 are studied further ...

  14. International trends in health science librarianship Part 9: the UK - Scotland and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Ann; Bruch, Sarah; Foster, Wendy; Gorman, Meg; Peters, Janet

    2014-03-01

    This is the 9th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. The previous article in this series looked at Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In this issue the focus is Scotland and Wales. There will be three or four more articles this year tracking trends in the Far East, Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. JM.

  15. Trends in teenage pregnancy in England and Wales: how can we explain them?

    OpenAIRE

    Wellings, K; Kane, R

    1999-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with adverse social and physical outcomes for both mother and child. We drew on various sources--birth and abortion statistics from the Office for National Statistics, data from the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, and routinely collected data from family planning clinics--to identify trends in England and Wales and their possible determinants. The rate of teenage sexual activity has increased steadily and consistently over the past four deca...

  16. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to flood risk in England and Wales in autumn 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Pardeep; Aina, Tolu; Stone, Dáithí A; Stott, Peter A; Nozawa, Toru; Hilberts, Arno G J; Lohmann, Dag; Allen, Myles R

    2011-02-17

    Interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing. Yet climate models used to study the attribution problem typically do not resolve the weather systems associated with damaging events such as the UK floods of October and November 2000. Occurring during the wettest autumn in England and Wales since records began in 1766, these floods damaged nearly 10,000 properties across that region, disrupted services severely, and caused insured losses estimated at £1.3 billion (refs 5, 6). Although the flooding was deemed a 'wake-up call' to the impacts of climate change at the time, such claims are typically supported only by general thermodynamic arguments that suggest increased extreme precipitation under global warming, but fail to account fully for the complex hydrometeorology associated with flooding. Here we present a multi-step, physically based 'probabilistic event attribution' framework showing that it is very likely that global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions substantially increased the risk of flood occurrence in England and Wales in autumn 2000. Using publicly volunteered distributed computing, we generate several thousand seasonal-forecast-resolution climate model simulations of autumn 2000 weather, both under realistic conditions, and under conditions as they might have been had these greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting large-scale warming never occurred. Results are fed into a precipitation-runoff model that is used to simulate severe daily river runoff events in England and Wales (proxy indicators of flood events). The precise magnitude of the anthropogenic contribution remains uncertain, but in nine out of ten cases our model results indicate that twentieth-century anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions increased the risk of floods occurring in England and Wales in autumn 2000 by more than 20%, and in two out of three cases by more than 90%.

  17. Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Lim...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Limited Data Set This file contains select claim level data and is derived from 2010 hospital outpatient PPS...

  18. Deprivation and self-reported health: are there 'Scottish effects' in England and Wales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, David K

    2009-03-01

    Although the association between poor health and deprivation is well-founded, a 'Scottish effect' has been observed, whereby the level of health appears even poorer than Scotland's higher level of deprivation should warrant. We consider whether 'Scottish effects' also occur within the regions of England and Wales. Using ward-level data from the national census, we regress healthy life expectancies relative to total life expectancies on Carstairs deprivation scores, households' average disposable incomes, geo-spatial characteristics and regional dummy variables. Higher incomes and lower Carstairs scores are each associated with longer proportions of lives expected to be spent in good health or without long-standing illness. Relative to the London region, the coefficients on the regional dummies are uniformly negative and mostly significant. There exist differences in relative health expectancies between the regions of England and Wales, which are not fully explained by the differences in socio-economic circumstances. Conventional deprivation measures tend to understate the poorer health performances of the more deprived regions (Wales and the north of England), and the understatement increases with deprivation. The exception to the rule is London, where health expectancies are superior to those which deprivation leads us to expect.

  19. Estimates of mortality and population changes in England and Wales over the two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Andreev

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost one million soldiers from England and Wales died during the First and Second World War whilst serving in the British Armed Forces. Although many articles and books have been published that commemorate the military efforts of the British Armed Forces, data on the demographic aspects of British army losses remain fragmentary. Official population statistics on England and Wales have provided continuous series on the civilian population, including mortality and fertility over the two war periods. The combatant population and combatant mortality have not been incorporated in the official statistics, which shows large out-migration at the beginning and large in-migration towards the end of the war periods. In order to estimate the dynamics of the total population and its excess mortality, we introduce in this paper a model of population flows and mortality in times of war operations. The model can be applied to a detailed reconstruction of war losses, using various shapes of the input data. This enables us to arrive at detailed estimates of war-related losses in England and Wales during the two world wars. Our results agree with elements of data provided by prior studies.

  20. Where to Draw the Line: Scheduled Ancient Monuments and Historic Landscape Characterisation in Wales

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    Oliver Davis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some of the ways that monuments and sites that receive statutory protection (Scheduled Ancient Monuments are recorded in Wales and in particular examines some of the limitations of the current UK legislation designed to protect monuments and sites. It explores the concept of the type-site and considers the implications of using monument or site typologies to classify and characterise the past. The purpose of scheduling is to prevent unwarranted development at defined locations. This makes sense at a site level, but is a nonsense for large areas. It is suggested that in order to protect the historic environment in the 21st century we require an approach that looks beyond the rigid boundaries of defined sites and considers inhabitation of whole landscapes. In particular, this article considers the rolling out of a uniform landscape characterisation process in Wales as a first step for protecting landscapes. Principally the examples used in this article will be drawn from Wales, but the same concerns are likely to be paralleled in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

  1. Birthweight and gestational age by ethnic group, England and Wales 2005: introducing new data on births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kath; Stanfield, Kristina M; Leon, David A

    2008-01-01

    Low birthweight babies and babies born preterm are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality in the first year of life, as well as in the longer-term. Since information on ethnic group is not recorded at birth registration in England and Wales, it has not been possible to produce routine statistics on birthweight or gestational age by ethnic group. A new system, introduced in 2002, for allocating NHS numbers at birth (NN4B) provided the opportunity to obtain ethnic group information. The NN4B record includes information on the ethnic group of the baby classified according to the 2001 Census categories. This paper presents the first analyses of ethnic differences in birthweight and gestational age at birth for England and Wales as a whole. Utilising NN4B records linked with birth registration records for all births occurring in England and Wales in 2005, birthweight and gestational age distributions, including the percentages low birthweight and preterm, are compared between ethnic groups. The paper also examines how parental socio-demographic circumstances vary by ethnic group.

  2. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Results Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. Conclusions We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance. PMID:24302503

  3. Status of eel fisheries, stocks and their management in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprahamian M.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available All continental life stages of eel are exploited in England and Wales. The main fisheries for glass eel are by estuarine dip-nets in the southwest. The main fisheries for yellow and silver eel occur in southern and eastern England, with fyke nets being the preferred instrument. Fishing effort is not directly recorded but is inferred from licence sales. Around 1100 glass eel licenses were sold annually from 1980 to 1994, increasing to around 2500 in 1998, but declined to about 800 per annum since 2001. Declared catches of glass eel have been below 1–2 t since 2001, compared to 10–70 t in the 1970s and 1980s. Licence sales for yellow and silver eel fisheries (combined varied from around 1100 to 2900 over the period 1983–2007, peaking in the mid-1980s, mid-1990s and again in 2005–2007. Declared catches peaked in the late 1980s and mid-1990s (peak 280 t, but have been low since 2001 (mean 29 t. Nett export data suggests catches may be 4 times higher. Eel landings are reported as bycatch from various marine fisheries around the UK coasts, with landings from 2001 to 2007 ranging from 0.2 to 13.7 t per annum. Assessment of stock status is based mainly on catch and catch per unit effort data as there has been little fishery independent survey of eels. There has been a general decreasing trend in both glass eel catches reported to the Agency and in nett export data. Comparing maximum catch levels in the late 1970s–early 1980s with minimum levels in the 2000s suggests that the catch has declined by around 75–95%. Trends in CPUE are similar, at least until 1998. It is concluded that current glass eel recruitment to the western coast of the UK is approximately 30% of the pre-1980 level of recruitment. Yellow and silver eel indices derived from HMRC nett exports or reported catches per licence sold, both suggest that the current estimate of stocks derived from these data are 20% those of the late 1980s and mid 1990s. The Reference Condition

  4. The diagnosis of urinary tract infections in young children (DUTY: protocol for a diagnostic and prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Harriet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is common in children, and may cause serious illness and recurrent symptoms. However, obtaining a urine sample from young children in primary care is challenging and not feasible for large numbers. Evidence regarding the predictive value of symptoms, signs and urinalysis for UTI in young children is urgently needed to help primary care clinicians better identify children who should be investigated for UTI. This paper describes the protocol for the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY study. The overall study aim is to derive and validate a cost-effective clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care acutely unwell. Methods/design DUTY is a multicentre, diagnostic and prospective observational study aiming to recruit at least 7,000 children aged before their fifth birthday, being assessed in primary care for any acute, non-traumatic, illness of ≤ 28 days duration. Urine samples will be obtained from eligible consented children, and data collected on medical history and presenting symptoms and signs. Urine samples will be dipstick tested in general practice and sent for microbiological analysis. All children with culture positive urines and a random sample of children with urine culture results in other, non-positive categories will be followed up to record symptom duration and healthcare resource use. A diagnostic algorithm will be constructed and validated and an economic evaluation conducted. The primary outcome will be a validated diagnostic algorithm using a reference standard of a pure/predominant growth of at least >103, but usually >105 CFU/mL of one, but no more than two uropathogens. We will use logistic regression to identify the clinical predictors (i.e. demographic, medical history, presenting signs and symptoms and urine dipstick analysis results most strongly associated with a positive urine culture result. We will

  5. Mortality attributable to excess adiposity in England and Wales in 2003 and 2015: explorations with a spreadsheet implementation of the Comparative Risk Assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powles John W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the burden of fatal disease attributable to excess adiposity in England and Wales in 2003 and 2015 and to explore the sensitivity of the estimates to the assumptions and methods used. Methods A spreadsheet implementation of the World Health Organization's (WHO Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA methodology for continuously distributed exposures was used. For our base case, adiposity-related risks were assumed to be minimal with a mean (SD BMI of 21 (1 Kg m-2. All cause mortality risks for 2015 were taken from the Government Actuary and alternative compositions by cause derived. Disease-specific relative risks by BMI were taken from the CRA project and varied in sensitivity analyses. Results Under base case methods and assumptions for 2003, approximately 41,000 deaths and a loss of 1.05 years of life expectancy were attributed to excess adiposity. Seventy-seven percent of all diabetic deaths, 23% of all ischaemic heart disease deaths and 14% of all cerebrovascular disease deaths were attributed to excess adiposity. Predictions for 2015 were found to be more sensitive to assumptions about the future course of mortality risks for diabetes than to variation in the assumed trend in BMI. On less favourable assumptions the attributable loss of life expectancy in 2015 would rise modestly to 1.28 years. Conclusion Excess adiposity appears to contribute materially but modestly to mortality risks in England and Wales and this contribution is likely to increase in the future. Uncertainty centres on future trends of associated diseases, especially diabetes. The robustness of these estimates is limited by the lack of control for correlated risks by stratification and by the empirical uncertainty surrounding the effects of prolonged excess adiposity beginning in adolescence.

  6. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date.

  7. Emergence of pregnancy-related listeriosis amongst ethnic minorities in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, P; Grant, K A; Little, C L; Kafatos, G; Gillespie, I A

    2010-07-08

    Listeriosis is a rare but severe food-borne disease that predominantly affects pregnant women, the unborn, newborns, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Following a large outbreak in the 1980s, specific food safety advice was provided to pregnant women and the immunocompromised in the United Kingdom. Following two coincident yet unconnected cases of pregnancy-related listeriosis in eastern European women in 2008, a review of the role of ethnicity in pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales was undertaken in 2009. Cases reported to the national listeriosis surveillance scheme were classified as 'ethnic', belonging to an ethnic minority, or 'non-ethnic' based on their name, and trends were examined. Between 2001 and 2008, 1,510 cases of listeriosis were reported in England and Wales and, of these, 12% were pregnancy-related cases. The proportion of pregnancy-related cases classified as ethnic increased significantly from 16.7% to 57.9% (chi-square test for trend p=0.002). The reported incidence among the ethnic population was higher than that among the non-ethnic population in 2006, 2007 and 2008 (Relative Risk: 2.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 5.29; 3.82, 1.82 to 8.03; 4.33, 1.74 to 10.77, respectively). This effect was also shown when analysing data from January to September 2009, using extrapolated live births as denominator. Increased immigration and/or economic migration in recent years appear to have altered the population at risk of pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales. These changes need to be taken into account in order to target risk communication strategies appropriately.

  8. Defining geo-habitats for groundwater ecosystem assessments: an example from England and Wales (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitowitz, Damiano C.; Maurice, Louise; Lewis, Melinda; Bloomfield, John P.; Reiss, Julia; Robertson, Anne L.

    2017-07-01

    Groundwater ecosystems comprising micro-organisms and metazoans provide an important contribution to global biodiversity. Their complexity depends on geology, which determines the physical habitat available, and the chemical conditions within it. Despite this, methods of classifying groundwater habitats using geological data are not well established and researchers have called for higher resolution habitat frameworks. A novel habitat typology for England and Wales (UK) is proposed, which distinguishes 11 geological habitats (geo-habitats) on hydrogeological principles and maps their distribution. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical data are used to determine the characteristics of each geo-habitat, and demonstrate their differences. Using these abiotic parameters, a new method to determine abiotic habitat quality is then developed. The geo-habitats had significantly different characteristics, validating the classification system. All geo-habitats were highly heterogeneous, containing both high quality habitat patches that are likely to be suitable for fauna, and areas of low quality that may limit faunal distributions. Karstic and porous habitats generally were higher quality than fractured habitats. Overall, 70% of England and Wales are covered by lower quality fractured habitats, with only 13% covered by higher quality habitats. The main areas of high quality habitats occur in central England as north-south trending belts, possibly facilitating dispersal along this axis. They are separated by low quality geo-habitats that may prevent east-west dispersal of fauna. In south-west England and Wales suitable geo-habitats occur as small isolated patches. Overall, this paper provides a new national-scale typology that is adaptable for studies in other geographic areas.

  9. Stressors, moderators and stress outcomes: findings from the All-Wales Community Mental Health Nurse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D; Burnard, P; Coyle, D; Fothergill, A; Hannigan, B

    2000-12-01

    The All-Wales Community Mental Health Nurse Stress Study was the largest study undertaken in the UK to date to investigate stress, burnout and coping amongst the CMHN workforce. The aim of the study was to examine the variety, frequency and severity of stressors, to describe coping strategies used to reduce work-based stress, and to determine stress outcomes. Questionnaires were sent out to 614 CMHNs from ten NHS Trusts throughout Wales. The response rate was 49% (n = 301). The measures used included the Maslach Human Services Survey, the CPN Stress Questionnaire, the Psychnurse Methods of Coping Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. Community mental health nurses indicated that trying to maintain a good quality service in the midst of long waiting lists, poor resources, and having too many interruptions while trying to work in the office were particularly stressful items. The coping strategies that CMHNs utilized the most were having a stable home life and looking forward to going home at the end of the day, having outside interests and hobbies and talking to people that they got on well with. Forty per cent of CMHNs tended to view themselves negatively, feeling that others did not hold much respect for them. The GHQ-12 measure indicated that 35% of CMHNs had crossed a threshold of psychiatric caseness. Measured against a normative sample of mental health workers, 51% of CMHNs were experiencing high levels of long-term emotional exhaustion. Twenty-four per cent were suffering from high levels of depersonalization burnout and were not relating well to clients, whilst 14% were experiencing severe long-term feelings of lack of personal accomplishment. The results from the study provided us with a picture of stress and coping in CMHNs in Wales. Addressing these factors may help to reduce levels of experienced stress and burnout.

  10. A semi-quantitative technique for mapping potential aquifer productivity on the national scale: example of England and Wales (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesser, Corinna; Lewis, Melinda

    2015-12-01

    The development and validation of aquifer productivity and depth-to-source maps for England and Wales are described. Aquifer productivity maps can provide valuable support for the assessment, planning and management of groundwater and renewable heat energy resources. Aquifer productivity is often mapped using geostatistical interpolation techniques such as kriging, but these techniques tend to be unsuitable for mapping at the national scale due to the high data (and time) demands. A methodology is outlined for mapping aquifer productivity at the national scale using existing national-scale data sets. Pumping test data are used to characterise the potential borehole yields that different geological formations of varying lithologies and ages can provide. Based on this analysis and using expert knowledge, the corresponding map codes on the geological map are assigned to potential productivity classes. The subsurface (concealed) extent of aquifer units is mapped from geophysical data, and together with the attributed geological map, provide the bedrock-aquifer productivity map. Drilling and pumping costs can be an important consideration when evaluating the feasibility of developing a groundwater source. Thus, a map of the approximate depth to source is developed alongside the aquifer productivity map. The maps are validated using independent data sets, and map performance is compared against performance from maps derived by random and uniform attribution. The results show that the maps successfully predict potential productivity and approximate depth to the water source, although utility of the depth-to-source map could be improved by increasing the vertical discretisation at which depth intervals are mapped.

  11. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer.

  12. Neofusicoccum luteum associated with leaf necrosis and fruit rot of olives in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sergeeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neofusicoccum luteum is reported for the first time from olives (Olea europaea, causing fruit rot and leaf necrosis. Affected fruits initially became brown with pycnidia developing on the surface, later drying out and becoming mummified. The fungus was shown to be pathogenic on both fruits and leaves. The association of Botryosphaeriaceae with rotting olive fruits in Mediterranean regions and in New South Wales, Australia indicates that these fungi play a significant role in fruit rots of olives and deserve greater attention.

  13. Woolworths and Wales: A Multi-Dimensional Analysis of the Loss of a Local Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Robin James Smith; Jesse Heley; Ian Stafford

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-dimensional analysis of the closure of Woolworths in Wales and the way in which the loss of this familiar high-street brand can be accounted for at a number of levels and within different social arenas. Primarily, the paper demonstrates how Woolworths is positioned as a symbol a previous era of consumption centred upon community and place based notions of nostalgia and community. What is striking in the analysis is the similarities in the way in which Woolwort...

  14. The benefits of drinking water quality regulation--England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, A

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that the regulation of drinking water quality in England and Wales has been successful in securing the improvements to drinking water quality resulting in better performance against EU and national standards. The water industry in England and Wales went through a major change in 1989 when suppliers were privatised and the government set up a robust regulatory regime. The regime was necessary as the industry was, as a result of privatisation, a monopoly with customers having no choice of supplier, unlike what was later available with other utilities such as gas or electricity. The regime would protect the interests of the consumer, the environment and public health through the quality of the product. The Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI), as established in 1990, had to ensure the implementation of the European Drinking Water Directive (DWD) that had been transposed into national legislation. The aim of the DWD is to ensure that all EU Member States provide drinking water of a prescribed quality. In England and Wales, a body was required to oversee the performance of the industry against those standards, reporting to the Government and the European Commission. Through acts and legislation, the set up of the industry, the duties of the suppliers and regulators and the powers available to the regulators were established. The improvements to drinking water quality since privatisation were achieved by massive investment of the privatised water industry overseen by an independent regulator with clear duties and the powers to inspect, enforce and prosecute. The DWI's achievements show that to improve quality performance with the ability to report in detail how the improvements were made with extensive data evidence, a special regulator is required. The DWI advises policy departments and Ministers and when there are serious concerns regarding a threat to human health through drinking water, the highest level of regulatory power is the creation

  15. Total quality management in accredited New South Wales hospitals: a public/private comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M; Hatcher, D; Johnson, A; Dixon, K

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of data collected in a 1994-95 survey of accredited New South Wales hospitals examined the adoption of key elements of total quality management practice in the public and private sectors. In a number of areas of practice widely considered to be central to a hospital's total quality management efforts, there was no statistically significant difference between the two sectors. Where differences existed, total quality management practices more likely to be adopted by public hospitals were limited in their scope and likely to be explained by structural peculiarities. In contrast, private hospitals were more likely to adopt practices more critical to the successful implementation of total quality management.

  16. [The sainsbury centre for mental health: forensic mental health services in England and wales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M; Duggan, S

    2008-06-01

    The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (SCMH) is a charity founded in 1985 by Gatsby Charitable Foundation. The SCMH works to improve the quality of life for people with mental health problems by influencing policy and practice in mental health and related services. Working to improve the quality of mental health care for people in prison is one of SCMH main work theme. This paper describes some epidemiological aspects of mental health situation of prisoners in England and Wales and the available forensic facilities to manage this kind of patients in prison.

  17. Gender comparison of young people charged with murder in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard, F. Jeane; Kevin D. Browne; Whitfield, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences regarding young people charged with murder in England and Wales. A sample of 318 cases were collected from the Home Office’s Homicide Index and analysed. Of these cases, 93% of the offenders were male and 7% female. The analyses explored gender differences in terms of the offender’s race, offender’s age, victim’s age, victim’s gender, weapon used, offender-victim relationship, and circumstances of the offence. The study found that a female offender w...

  18. A new species of Alwisia (Myxomycetes) from New South Wales and Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontyev, Dmitry V; Stephenson, Steven L; Schnittler, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Based on a morphological investigation of a series of specimens collected in New South Wales and Tasmania and a phylogeny constructed with partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we describe a new species Alwisia lloydiae; the fourth species within the recently revalidated genus Alwisia. This new species is characterized by short ovate sporothecae with mostly free stalks, morphologically resembling the recently described A. morula. However, the new species possesses a tubular capillitium that suggests an affinity with A. bombarda. The capillitium of the new species is ornamented with globular warts, and this feature separates it from all other members of the genus. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  19. Transport of Delights: Meeting Places: international residency, funded by Arts Council Wales

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCIS, Anna-Marie

    2012-01-01

    I was invited to take part in an international artist’s residency offered to twenty artists with theme,‘Meeting Places: transport of delights’. The residencies were part of the Harlech Biennale X – 2012. The residency was funded by Arts Council Wales. This resulted in a public exhibition at the Harlech WEA college. The research focus of the residencies was to ‘create an audience participation work which will connect with the spectator as the recipient’ a focus that fit very well with my own p...

  20. Railway suicide in England and Wales 2000-2013: a time-trends analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anna K; Knipe, Duleeka W; Thomas, Kyla H

    2016-03-15

    In 2010, the "Tackling Suicide on the Railways" programme was launched as a joint initiative among Network Rail, the Samaritans and other key organisations such as the British Transport Police and train operators to achieve a 20% reduction in railway suicides from 2010 to 2015 in Great Britain. We report the most recent age and sex specific trends in railway suicide in England and Wales from 2000 to 2013 and examine whether the initiative's target reduction in railway suicides is likely to be achieved. Population data and suicide mortality data (all methods combined and railway) for England and Wales were obtained from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and used to calculate age and gender specific rates for deaths registered from 2000 to 2013. Data on railway suicides were also obtained from the Rail Safety and Standards Board (RSSB) and compared with ONS data. We used joinpoint regression to identify changes in suicide trends across the study period. The railway was used in 4.1% of all suicides in England and Wales (RSSB data were similar to ONS data for most years). Suicides in all persons from all causes decreased from 2000 to 2007, with small increases from 2008 until 2013; this rise was entirely due to an increase in male suicides. Railway suicide rates increased over the entire study period; the proportion of railway suicides in all persons increased from 3.5 to 4.9% during the study period. This trend was also mainly driven by increases in male suicides as female railway suicide rates remained steady over time. The highest age specific railway suicide rates were observed in middle aged men and women. Although there was no conclusive evidence of an increase in ONS railway suicides, RSSB data showed a statistically significant increase in railway suicides in males from 2009 onwards. The continued rise in male railway suicide in England and Wales is concerning, particularly due to the high economic costs and psychological trauma associated with these

  1. Factors associated with preterm birth in Cardiff, Wales. II. Indicated and spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meis, P J; Michielutte, R; Peters, T J; Wells, H B; Sands, R E; Coles, E C; Johns, K A

    1995-08-01

    Our purpose was to examine and contrast associations of risk factors with spontaneous preterm birth and indicated preterm birth. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were performed of indicated and spontaneous preterm births in a large database of births in Cardiff, Wales. Spontaneous preterm births were associated with young maternal age, low maternal weight, low or high parity, previous abortion, smoking, and early pregnancy bleeding. Indicated preterm births were associated with older age, low weight, previous stillbirth, bacteriuria, and early pregnancy bleeding. Spontaneous and indicated preterm births have different overall profiles of association with pregnancy risk factors.

  2. Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Mirzaev

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

  3. Teenage conceptions by small area deprivation in England and Wales, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Zoe; Sheers, Dilwyn; Dattani, Nirupa

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between teenage conceptions and deprivation in England and Wales in 2001-2002 using data at census ward level. Teenage conceptions are defined as births and abortions to women conceiving under the age of 18. Deprivation has been measured using Carstairs scores rebased using the 2001 Census. For the first time at ward level, analysis has differentiated between births and abortions resulting from teenage conceptions. Findings confirm the strong association between teenage conceptions and deprivation and also that deprivation has a strong influence on the likelihood of conceptions leading to either birth or abortion, although regional variations were observed for this relationship.

  4. Geophysical interpretation of U, Th, and rare earth element mineralization of the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Stoeser, Douglas B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    A prospectivity map for rare earth element (REE) mineralization at the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, was calculated from high-resolution airborne gamma-ray data. The map displays areas with similar radioelement concentrations as those over the Dotson REE-vein-dike system, which is characterized by moderately high %K, eU, and eTh (%K, percent potassium; eU, equivalent parts per million uranium; and eTh, equivalent parts per million thorium). Gamma-ray concentrations of rocks that share a similar range as those over the Dotson zone are inferred to locate high concentrations of REE-bearing minerals. An approximately 1300-m-long prospective tract corresponds to shallowly exposed locations of the Dotson zone. Prospective areas of REE mineralization also occur in continuous swaths along the outer edge of the pluton, over known but undeveloped REE occurrences, and within discrete regions in the older Paleozoic country rocks. Detailed mineralogical examinations of samples from the Dotson zone provide a means to understand the possible causes of the airborne Th and U anomalies and their relation to REE minerals. Thorium is sited primarily in thorite. Uranium also occurs in thorite and in a complex suite of ±Ti±Nb±Y oxide minerals, which include fergusonite, polycrase, and aeschynite. These oxides, along with Y-silicates, are the chief heavy REE (HREE)-bearing minerals. Hence, the eU anomalies, in particular, may indicate other occurrences of similar HREE-enrichment. Uranium and Th chemistry along the Dotson zone showed elevated U and total REEs east of the Camp Creek fault, which suggested the potential for increased HREEs based on their association with U-oxide minerals. A uranium prospectivity map, based on signatures present over the Ross-Adams mine area, was characterized by extremely high radioelement values. Known uranium deposits were identified in the U-prospectivity map, but the largest tract occurs

  5. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  6. Clinical Influences on Nurse-Academics' Instructional Planning Decisions in the Implementation of Basic Nursing Curricula in Colleges of Advanced Education in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kathryn L.

    A study examined the clinical influences on the instructional planning decisions made by registered nurses who are lecturers in basic nursing at colleges of advanced education (CAEs) in New South Wales, Australia. Data were collected from a questionnaire that was completed by 98 nurse-academics from 12 of New South Wales' 15 CAEs offering basic…

  7. Institutional Influences on Nurse-Academics' Instructional Planning Decisions in the Implementation of Basic Nursing Curricula in Colleges of Advanced Education in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kathryn L.

    A study examined institutional influences on the instructional planning decisions of nurse-academics presenting basic nursing curricula in colleges of advanced education (CAEs) in New South Wales. Data were collected from the following sources: survey of 86 selected nurse-academics from 12 of New South Wales' 15 tertiary institutions running basic…

  8. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  9. Perinatal and infant mortality in Wales: inter-district variations and associations with socio-environmental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R R

    1988-06-01

    Stillbirth rates, perinatal death rates, early and late neonatal death rates and (post-neonatal) infant death rates are reported for Wales since local government and NHS reorganization in 1974. The time trends in these rates show declining mortality, in full weight and in low birthweight babies. Analysis of average rates for the period 1974-81 inclusive in the 37 local authority districts within Wales demonstrate wide variations, with PMRs ranging from 11.5 to 22.5 per 1000. Many highly statistically significant associations were evident between socioeconomic characteristics of the districts and stillbirth rates but few with neonatal death rates and none with infant death rates.

  10. Declining first-marriage rates in England and Wales: a change in timing or a rejection of marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, S; Kiernan, K

    1985-11-01

    Two different methods devised by Ryder and by Le Bras and Roussel are used "to assess how far the changes in first-marriage rates in England and Wales arise from a shift to marrying at later ages or from a decline in the popularity of formal marriage. The two methods yield consistent results, and indicate that the majority of young people...will continue to marry but that during the 1970s many were postponing marriage. The pattern of cohabitation and prevailing attitudes to marriage are compatible with such a finding. Recent marriage patterns in England and Wales are found to differ from those in France and Sweden." (summary in FRE)

  11. Orofacial pain in young adults and associated childhood and adulthood factors: results of the population study, Wales, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Kenealy, Pamela; Kingdon, H Anne; Mohlin, Benght; Pilley, J Richard; Mwangi, Caroline W; Hunter, Lindsay; Richmond, Steve; Shaw, William C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of orofacial pain (OFP) among young adults (30-31 years old) and to determine the effect of childhood and adulthood risk factors on the occurrence of OFP. Prospective cohort study to investigate dental and social effects of malocclusion and effectiveness of orthodontic treatment was conducted in Wales, United Kingdom. At 20-year follow-up 337 subjects aged 30-31 participated (74% from previous follow-up aged 19-20 and 33% from the baseline) and were asked about OFP. The prevalence of OFP was 23% (95% CI: 19%, 28%). Childhood factors, socio-demographic, lifestyle, health behavior factors, history of orthodontic treatment and tooth wear were not associated with OFP. Participants with OFP were more likely to report that their teeth did not fit together properly [odds ratio (OR) = 12.4, 95% CI: 2.7-56.5) and reported previous trauma to the jaws (2.3; 1.3-4.2). Both diurnal and nocturnal teeth clenching and grinding were significantly associated with OFP (3.1; 1.4-7.1). Participants with frequent headaches had increased risk of having OFP (3.7; 1.6-8.4) while having reported 4-10 types of pain in other parts of the body other than the head, was associated with OR = 9.2 (3.7-23.0). An increased tendency to have OFP was seen in those individuals with higher levels of psychological distress (2.3; 1.4-3.9), high score on Life Event Inventory (2.6; 1.3-5.3), depressive symptoms (2.2; 1.2-4.0) and stress (2.2; 1.2-4.0). High self-esteem associated with lower risk of OFP (0.5; 0.3-0.9). This study shows that OFP is frequently reported by young adults aged 30-31 and supports a multifactorial etiology with factors from many domains, including local mechanical factors, psychological and co-morbidities. However, none of the childhood factors considered in this study were associated with OFP in adulthood.

  12. Rainbow channeling of protons in very short carbon nanotubes with aligned Stone–Wales defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ćosić, M., E-mail: mcosic@vinca.rs [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Petrović, S. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Bellucci, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper proton channeling through armchair single-walled-carbon-nanotubes (SWCNTs) with aligned Stone–Wales defects has been investigated. The energy of the proton beam was 1 GeV, while the lengths of the SWCNTs have been varied from 200 nm up to 1000 nm. The linear density of aligned defects has been varied in the whole range, from minimally up to maximally possible values. Here are presented results of a detailed morphological analysis concerning: the formation, evolution and interaction of the nanotube rainbows. The potential of the SWCNT has been constructed from Molère’s expression of the Thomas–Fermi’s proton–carbon interaction-energy, using the approximation of the continuous atomic string. Trajectories of the channeled protons were obtained by solving the corresponding classical equations of motions. Distributions of the transmitted protons were obtained by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The shape of angular distributions has been explained in the framework of the theory of nanotube rainbows. The aim of this study is also to investigate the applicability of the proton rainbow channeling for the characterization of nanotubes with aligned Stone–Wales defects.

  13. Water Scarcity in England and Wales as a Failure of (metaGovernance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Walker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The water crisis is often said to be a crisis of governance failure rather than of availability per se; yet the sources of this failure are poorly understood. This paper examines contemporary water scarcity in England and Wales as a failure of ecological modernity, in which technical and institutional innovation is promoted as a means of increasing economic efficiency in the allocation and use of water resources. The role of the state in fostering this innovation is explored through exploring a shift from 'government' to 'governance'. The paper employs Jessopʼs theory of meta-governance to examine governance failure. Meta-governance represents the capacity of the state to flank or support the emergence of specific forms of governance through mobilising material or symbolic resources. Three sources of governance failure are explored: (1 the nature of capitalist exchange and its resulting production of nature, (2 the political dimensions implicit in meta-governance, and (3 the nature of governance as a task of self-organisation. The model is then applied to the rise of water scarcity in England and Wales from the 1970s to the present day. The utility of the model in analysing governance failure is discussed.

  14. Theoretical Framework of Leadership in Higher Education of England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical framework of leadership in higher education of England and Wales has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of the theoretical fundamentals of educational leadership, and presentation of classification of leadership models in educational sphere. Leadership in higher education has been studied by foreign and domestic scientists: methodology of comparative education (C. Bargh, N. Bidyuk, N. Mukan, A. Sbruyeva; continuous professional education (J. Barge, A. Kuzminskyy, N. Nychkalo, P. Lorange; leadership in education (J. Bareham, L. Danylenko, L. Karamushka, N. Kolominskyy, O. Marmaza; leaders’ training (A. Borysova, V. Ilromovyy etc. In Ukraine this problem has not been studied yet. The research methodology comprises theoretical (comparative and historical method, logical method, analysis and synthesis, and applied (conversations and dialogues methods. The research results have been presented: the comprehensive integration of leadership theories in the sphere of philosophy, sociology, psychology, pedagogy, management has been justified; the definition of leadership and distributed leadership, and their characteristic have been provided; the leadership models in higher education of England and Wales have been determined.

  15. Lost in translation: reviewing the role of the discharge liaison nurse in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Lynda; Wyatt, Matt; Roberts, Iain

    2010-02-01

    In Wales, the National Leadership and Innovation Agency in Healthcare (NLIAH) Change Agent Team (CAT) has found that its service improvement methodology of Communities of Practice (CoP), where motivated frontline staff in health and social care come together to share issues and develop solutions to mutual problems, is a highly effective and informative tool. Health and social care organizations in Wales are in the process of working to develop processes and solutions to remedy the challenges they have over patients with long lengths of stay. This article shows how by speaking to the frontline staff, whose role it is to help people whose discharge is likely to be complex or problematic, they often have most insight into the solutions required to alleviate the situation. The learning in this article is that there is no one solution to improve the discharge process; however there are a number of small changes and improvements required, which if done consistently can have a significant impact. The findings here have been shared with Welsh government policy leads and health and social care executive teams to inform their planning and actions on how to resolve the challenge of reducing length of stay.

  16. Actual availability of appointments at general practices in regional New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Joanne; Nancarrow, Susan; Avila, Cathy; Pit, Sabrina; Potts, Ruth; Doran, Frances; Freed, Gary L

    2017-01-01

    There is limited data to inform policy about the availability and costs of primary healthcare at the local level. The objective of this article was to determine the appointment availability and out-of-pocket costs for patients presenting with non urgent conditions to general practices in a regional setting. A cross-sectional, census study included all 184 general practices across 12 local government areas in northern New South Wales. Practices were telephoned in a randomised sequence on weekday mornings by a researcher. Twenty-two practices were excluded from the study as these were specialised only services; therefore, the sample size was n = 162. The rate of same-day appointment availability was 47.5% (n = 77/162; range: 11-63%), and bulk-billing availability was 21% (range: 0-50%). The mean out-of-pocket cost was $29.98 (range: $12.95-60.30). Availability of primary healthcare and bulk billing across northern New South Wales is highly variable. Areas with low service availability should be targeted by policy.

  17. Coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in Stone-Wales defected graphene-silver nanowire hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Xu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Defected graphene has a more important practical significance than graphene. Silver nanoparticles can modify the optical properties of defected graphene. We present herein a detailed theoretical analysis about the coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the Stone-Wales (SW) defected graphene-silver nanowire hybrid system by using time-dependent density functional theory. The plasmon coherent effect is mainly attributed to the electromagnetic field coupling between the Stone-Wales defected graphene and silver nanowires. As a result, the optical response of the hybrid system exhibits a remarkable enhancement. Plasmon resonance, which depends on polarization and selectable tuning, is enhanced in wide frequency regions. Moreover, it reveals that the resonance frequency of an optical absorption spectrum depends on the space configuration of the SW defected graphene in the hybrid system. This investigation provides a better understanding of the plasmon enhancement effect used in a graphene-based photoelectric device. The study also offers an effective means of detecting the defects existing in graphene.

  18. Down syndrome birth weight in England and Wales: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K; Cole, Tim J; Springett, Anna L; Dennis, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if syndrome-specific birth weight charts were beneficial for babies with Down syndrome in England and Wales. Birth weights of 8,825 babies with Down syndrome born in England and Wales in 1989-2010 were obtained from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register. Birth weight centiles for 30-42 weeks gestation by sex were fitted using the LMS method and were compared to those for unaffected babies from the UK-WHO growth charts. For babies born with Down syndrome the median birth weight from 37 to 42 weeks was 2,970 g (10th-90th centile: 2,115-3,680) for boys and 2930 g (2,100-3,629) for girls, and the modal age of gestation was 38 weeks, 2 weeks earlier than for unaffected babies. At 38 weeks gestation they were only slightly lighter than unaffected babies (159 g for boys and 86 g for girls). However at 40 weeks gestation the shortfall was much greater (304 g and 239 g, respectively). In neonates with Down syndrome there is little evidence of growth restriction before 38 weeks gestation, so up to this age it is appropriate to use the UK-WHO birth weight charts. Thereafter birth weight is below that of unaffected babies and it should be plotted on the UK Down syndrome growth charts.

  19. Incorporation of Obedience to Authority into New South Wales Police Force Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Wooden

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on a longitudinal study of Australian (New South Wales (n=286, Canadian (n=116 and Chinese (n=91 police recruits to discuss participants understandings of the concept of obedience to authority. Results for this study, which was conducted within the early stages of the recruits’ training, indicate a significant degree of uncertainty amongst participants from all three jurisdictions when faced with varying situations involving obedience to authority issues. Policing researchers have long observed that recruits enter training with noble intentions and this is enhanced through elements of academy training, such as ethics education. In contrast, however, other researchers have found that once recruits commence their policing roles the negative aspects of police culture can impact adversely upon ethical decision making. In addition, the hierarchical nature of policing coupled with the authoritarian nature of academy training can instil in recruits obedience to authority attributes which can also erode ethical decisions. It is contended that understanding the perceptions of recruits and, in particular, those from New South Wales (NSW, concerning obedience to authority issues, may have implications for recruit training. By incorporating an understanding of obedience to authority along with associated practical scenarios within the academy training curriculum, inexperienced officers when faced with obedience to authority dilemmas in the field may be assisted.

  20. Economic growth and health progress in England and Wales: 160 years of a changing relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A

    2012-03-01

    Using data for England and Wales during the years 1840-2000, a negative relation is found between economic growth--measured by the rate of growth of gross domestic product (GDP)--and health progress--as indexed by the annual increase in life expectancy at birth (LEB). That is, the lower is the rate of growth of the economy, the greater is the annual increase in LEB for both males and females. This effect is much stronger, however, in 1900-1950 than in 1950-2000, and is very weak in the 19th century. It appears basically at lag zero, though some short-lag effects of the same negative sign are found. In the other direction of causality, there are very small effects of the change in LEB on economic growth. These results add to an emerging consensus that in the context of long-term declining trends, mortality oscillates procyclically during the business cycle, declining faster in recessions. Therefore, LEB increases faster during recessions than during expansions. The investigation also shows how the relation between economic growth and health progress changed in England and Wales during the study period. No evidence of cointegration between income--as indexed by GDP or GDP per capita--and health--as indexed by LEB--is found.

  1. Morbidity registration and the fourth general practice morbidity survey in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D M

    1993-01-01

    The fourth morbidity survey in England and Wales is based on a population of 473,000 persons registered in 60 practices and cared for by 241 general practitioners. This presentation traces the evolution of morbidity surveys in England and Wales. That evolution has taken place against a background of advancing computer technology and the drift towards a paperless record. It is motivated by an increasing recognition of the need for data from primary health care an a realisation that a structured record is capable of servicing information needs without intermediary data sheets and coding procedures. The primary objectives of the study include assessment of disease prevalence by region, age-sex and social group; and to study trends over time. Morbidity and social data are collected in the practices and all relevant information stored on practice computers. At the end of the recording year, the computerised record for each patient is copied on to disks in an anonymized but uniquely identified form and transferred to the national Office of Population Censuses & Surveys for analysis. During the year, weekly extracts are taken of new episodes of illness in age and sex groupings which provide the basis of the Weekly Returns Service of the Royal College of General Practitioners.

  2. Human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) in England and Wales, 2004 to 2013: testing and diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Georgina; Croxford, Sara; Tosswill, Jennifer; Raghu, Rajani; Davison, Katy; Hewitt, Patricia; Simmons, Ruth; Taylor, Graham

    2017-05-18

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection has been under enhanced surveillance in England and Wales since 2002, however, little is known about testing patterns. Using data from two surveillance systems held at Public Health England, we described HTLV antibody testing patterns between 2008 and 2013 and the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons diagnosed with HTLV in England and Wales between 2004 and 2013. An increase in HTLV testing was observed in England between 2008 and 2013 (3,581 to 7,130). Most tests (82%; 7,597/9,302) occurred within secondary care, 0.5% (48/9,302) of persons were reactive for HTLV antibodies and 0.3% (27/9,302) were confirmed positive. Increasing age and female sex were predictors of a reactive HTLV screen and confirmed diagnosis. Testing in primary care including sexual health and antenatal services was infrequent. Between 2004 and 2013, 858 people were diagnosed with HTLV, most of whom were female (65%; 549/851), of black Caribbean ethnicity (60%), not born in the United Kingdom (72%; 369/514) and asymptomatic at diagnosis (45%; 267/595). Despite increased testing, the epidemiology and clinical features of those diagnosed with HTLV have remained consistent. Apart from donor screening, testing for HTLV infection remains uncommon, except to diagnose associated disease. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. Autism characteristics and behavioural disturbances in ~ 500 children with Down's syndrome in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Georgina; Moss, Joanna; Smith, Patrick; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Recent research shows that a significant minority of children with Down's syndrome (DS) also meet diagnostic criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study investigated what proportion of children aged 6-15 years with a confirmed diagnosis of DS in England and Wales display autistic-type behaviours, and explored the characteristics of this group of children. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was used to screen for autism characteristics and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to explore behavioural difficulties. The proportion of children who met the cut-off score for ASD on the SCQ (total score ≥ 15) was 37.7% (95% CI: 33.4-42.0%); for autism (total score ≥ 22) the proportion was 16.5% (95% CI: 13.2-19.8%). Children who met the cut-off for ASD were significantly more likely to be reported as having emotional symptoms, conduct problems and hyperactivity on the SDQ than children who scored well below cut-off (total score autism characteristics on the SCQ was atypical compared with individuals with idiopathic ASD. The pervasiveness of ASD in children with DS in England and Wales is substantially higher than in the general population. These children also experience significantly greater behavioural problems than children with DS only. Early detection of autism characteristics is important for appropriate intervention. However, the unusual profile of autism characteristics in this group may affect the recognition of the disorder and hinder the implementation of appropriate interventions.

  4. Rainbow channeling of protons in very short carbon nanotubes with aligned Stone-Wales defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćosić, M.; Petrović, S.; Bellucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper proton channeling through armchair single-walled-carbon-nanotubes (SWCNTs) with aligned Stone-Wales defects has been investigated. The energy of the proton beam was 1 GeV, while the lengths of the SWCNTs have been varied from 200 nm up to 1000 nm. The linear density of aligned defects has been varied in the whole range, from minimally up to maximally possible values. Here are presented results of a detailed morphological analysis concerning: the formation, evolution and interaction of the nanotube rainbows. The potential of the SWCNT has been constructed from Molère's expression of the Thomas-Fermi's proton-carbon interaction-energy, using the approximation of the continuous atomic string. Trajectories of the channeled protons were obtained by solving the corresponding classical equations of motions. Distributions of the transmitted protons were obtained by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The shape of angular distributions has been explained in the framework of the theory of nanotube rainbows. The aim of this study is also to investigate the applicability of the proton rainbow channeling for the characterization of nanotubes with aligned Stone-Wales defects.

  5. Developing a digital data collection platform to measure the prevalence of sepsis in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, B; Lundin, R M; Morgan, P; Hall, J E; Dhadda, A; Mann, C; Donoghue, D; Brownlow, E; Hill, F; Carr, G; Turley, H; Hassall, J; Atkinson, M; Jones, M; Martin, R; Rollason, S; Ibrahim, Y; Kopczynska, M; Szakmany, T

    2016-11-01

    To develop a secure, efficient, and easy-to-use data collection platform to measure the prevalence of sepsis in Wales over 24 hours. Open Data Kit was used on Android devices with Google App Engine and a digital data collection form. A total of 184 students participated in the study using 59 devices across 16 hospitals, 1198 datasets were submitted, and 97% of participants found the Open Data Kit form easy to use. We successfully demonstrated that by combining a reliable Android device, a free open-source data collection framework, a scalable cloud-based server, and a team of 184 medical students, we can deliver a low-cost, highly reliable platform that requires little training or maintenance, providing results immediately on completion of data collection. Our platform allowed us to measure, for the first time, the prevalence of sepsis in Wales over 24 hours. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Vital pulpotomy in the primary dentition: attitudes and practices of community dental staff in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingston, Emma Jane; Parmar, Sharlene; Hunter, Margaret Lindsay

    2007-05-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans, leaving the dental profession to look for viable substitutes to formocresol in the vital pulpotomy technique. This study was designed to examine the attitudes and practices of Community Dental Service (CDS) staff in Wales in relation to vital pulpotomy for primary molars 18 months following the IARC's press release. The study employed a postal questionnaire. Questionnaires were returned by 79 (78.2%) of the CDS staff surveyed, yielding a sample of 65 dentists practising the technique. The most commonly used pulpotomy agents were formocresol, paraformaldehyde and ferric sulphate. Twenty-seven (41.5%) dentists expressed concern regarding their preferred pulpotomy agent and 17 (26.2%) were considering changing their technique. Only one respondent (1.5% of the sample) routinely took preoperative radiographs; follow-up radiographs were routinely taken by only three dentists (4.6%). Only 44 respondents (67.7%) always used local anaesthesia for this form of treatment. Amalgam was the most commonly used restorative material. Twenty-two respondents (33.8%) stated that they would pulp treat a primary molar on more than one occasion. The results of this study suggest that there is need for relevant continuing professional development courses for CDS staff in Wales.

  7. WALE ADEBANWI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-01

    Mar 1, 2005 ... effectiveness of such choices, and to protect the polity from 'threats to its ..... ostensibly the general citizenry, whose 'security and welfare... shall be the ...... and scholarships in foreign school in cyber cafes by Nigerian ...

  8. WALE ADEBANWI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-01

    Mar 1, 2005 ... emlr to proffer solutions to this phase of the inter-ethnic crises which have .... it is generally agreed that, at the core, citizenship is care and concern. ..... principles of democracy and social justice' (Section 14 [1]). ..... That the Ogoni be granted Political Autonomy to participate in the affairs of the republic as a.

  9. 'E-stablishing a Learning Society': the Use of the Internet To Attract Adults to Lifelong Learning in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil; Williams, Sara; Gorard, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Concentrates on longer-established efforts made in Wales to use the Internet as a gateway for opportunities for adult learners. Focusing on a Web-based Welsh language program over a 12-month period, this paper empirically examines the role of the Internet in providing effective access procedures to adult learning and examines who such methods are…

  10. Hate speech revisited : a comparative and historical perspective on hate speech law in the Netherlands and England & Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorloos, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Criminal law on hate speech has become a hotly debated topic in the past decade. In the Netherlands and in England and Wales legislative changes and proposals abound, while cases such as the prosecution of MP Geert Wilders have received considerable attention. How to deal with hate speech in an incr

  11. Population size, breeding habitat and nest site distribution of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) on Montague Island, New South Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunsting, A.M.H.; Weerheim, M.S.; Klomp, N.I.; Komdeur, J.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of little penguin nest sites on Montague Island, New South Wales, was examined in relation to vegetation type, distance to landing sites and local footpaths. Nest site density was negatively correlated with distance to landing sites and positively correlated with distance to

  12. Regulation and comparative discretion of publicly and privately owned water companies in The Netherlands, England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.C. Schouten (Marco); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAny water company is subject to regulation, either through bylaws, national or supra-national regulations. In this contribution we assess how these regulatory regimes affect the discretion of privately owned companies in England and Wales and publicly owned water companies in the

  13. Statements of Special Educational Needs and Tribunal Appeals in England and Wales 2003-2013--In Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents a statistical analysis of statements of special educational needs and Special Educational Needs and Disability (SEND) tribunal appeal rates in England and Wales. It is set against the backcloth of the 2014 Children and Families Act which replaces statements with Education, Health and Care (EHC) plans. The numerical overview…

  14. The Pre-Incubator: A Longitudinal Study of 10 Years of University Pre-Incubation in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisey, Pamela; Jones, Paul; Thomas, Brychan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal study of over 10 years of university pre-incubation in Wales, using case studies of incubated businesses to track their performance since 2001. Surviving "graduated" businesses were investigated and quantitative and qualitative data were gathered to profile the current status of these businesses and…

  15. "Ars Poetica," Romanticism and English Education: Poetic Inheritances in the Senior Secondary English Curriculum in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Don

    2013-01-01

    Poetry, as a textual form for critical study and composition, continues to occupy a significant place in Australian senior secondary English syllabus documents and classrooms (cf. Carter, 2012). Indeed, within the senior secondary English syllabus in New South Wales (NSW), poetry remains one of the core mandatory types of texts for study by the…

  16. Inspiration, imagination and implementation: International Year of Light activities of the Photonics Academy of Wales at Bangor (PAWB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ray; Shore, K. Alan

    2016-09-01

    Since the establishment of the Photonics Academy of Wales in 2005, several generations of participants have been encouraged to use their imagination in devising, designing and building novel photonics devices of benefit to society. In pursuing photonics projects within PAWB, the participants have gained a practical proficiency in photonics experimentation and photonics product design. The Photonics Academy of Wales @ Bangor ( PAWB) assumed responsibility for the coordination of a series of events in Wales, UK as part of global activities celebrating 2015 as the International Year of Light. PAWB has worked with several organisations and individuals to devise a programme of events which are focussed on conveying the significance of light and its technologies to a broad swathe of the population. These events take into account the bi-lingual nature of Wales with significant events being delivered in the Welsh language. Arrangement and delivery of the events has largely been undertaken on a voluntary basis albeit with some funding having been obtained from supportive bodies and organisations. The presentation will report on the events which were organised and also will present examples of novel photonics devices developed by students working with PAWB. Being aware of the importance of creating an on-going interest in the topics treated during the International Year of Light, some attention will also be given to legacy activities beyond 2015. A specific concern is the identification of effective mechanisms for engagement with photonics industry.

  17. Societal Factors; An Analysis of Selected Factors of Dormitory Students and Commuting Students at Johnson and Wales College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    Focusing on freshmen commuter students and freshmen dormitory students at Johnson and Wales College, general characteristics and academic achievement were measured. General entrance characteristics included student age, College Entrance Examination Board scores and high school rank. Academic achievement was measured in terms of student grades in…

  18. Changes in classification of suicide in England and Wales : Time trends and associations with coroners' professional backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    Background. The legal definition of suicide in England and Wales (E&W) gives rise to a high proportion of open verdicts and an underestimated suicide rate. We examined whether the ratio between open and suicide verdicts in E&W has changed between 1974 and 1991 and whether it varies according to

  19. What Makes the Digital "Special"? The Research Program in Digital Collections at the National Library of Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusworth, Andrew; Hughes, Lorna M.; James, Rhian; Roberts, Owain; Roderick, Gareth Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces some of the digital projects currently in development at the National Library of Wales as part of its Research Program in Digital Collections. These projects include the digital representation of the Library's Kyffin Willams art collection, musical collections, and probate collection, and of materials collected by the…

  20. Experiences of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Policing in England and Wales: Surveying Police and the Autism Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L.; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina

    2016-01-01

    An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42% of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints…

  1. Hate speech revisited : a comparative and historical perspective on hate speech law in the Netherlands and England & Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorloos, L.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314121234

    2011-01-01

    Criminal law on hate speech has become a hotly debated topic in the past decade. In the Netherlands and in England and Wales legislative changes and proposals abound, while cases such as the prosecution of MP Geert Wilders have received considerable attention. How to deal with hate speech in an incr

  2. Kevin E. Wale "If you are in the car industry in the 21st century, China is where it's at."

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINA CHOI

    2008-01-01

    @@ China is the world's fastest growing auto market and General Motors (GM) is, as of last year, the biggest-selling car manufacturer in China. All of which means that Kevin Wale, president and managing director of General Motors China, has quite possibly the most exciting job in the auto industry.

  3. An Operational In Situ Soil Moisture & Soil Temperature Monitoring Network for West Wales, UK: The WSMN Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Petropoulos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a soil moisture dataset that has been collecting ground measurements of soil moisture, soil temperature and related parameters for west Wales, United Kingdom. Already acquired in situ data have been archived to the autonomous Wales Soil Moisture Network (WSMN since its foundation in July 2011. The sites from which measurements are being collected represent a range of conditions typical of the Welsh environment, with climate ranging from oceanic to temperate and a range of the most typical land use/cover types found in Wales. At present, WSMN consists of a total of nine monitoring sites across the area with a concentration of sites in three sub-areas around the region of Aberystwyth located in Mid-Wales. The dataset of composed of 0–5 (or 0–10 cm soil moisture, soil temperature, precipitation, and other ancillary data. WSMN data are provided openly to the public via the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN platform. At present, WSMN is also rapidly expanding thanks to funding obtained recently which allows more monitoring sites to be added to the network to the wider community interested in using its data.

  4. Population size, breeding habitat and nest site distribution of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) on Montague Island, New South Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheim, M.S.; Klomp, N.I.; Brunsting, A.M.H.; Komdeur, J.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of little penguin nest sites on Montague Island, New South Wales, was examined in relation to vegetation type, distance to landing sites and local footpaths. Nest site density was negatively correlated with distance to landing sites and positively correlated with distance to footpat

  5. Learner Diversity: A Successful Blended Professional Learning Approach Promoting Quality Inclusion in the United Kingdom and New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clench, Hugh; King, Brian Smyth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an online training model for teachers and teaching assistants working with students with special educational needs. Originally developed as part of a government funded initiative in the UK, the model has been successfully applied in other contexts, most notably in New South Wales, Australia where it has had…

  6. Changes in classification of suicide in England and Wales : Time trends and associations with coroners' professional backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    1997-01-01

    Background. The legal definition of suicide in England and Wales (E&W) gives rise to a high proportion of open verdicts and an underestimated suicide rate. We examined whether the ratio between open and suicide verdicts in E&W has changed between 1974 and 1991 and whether it varies according to coro

  7. Hate speech revisited : a comparative and historical perspective on hate speech law in the Netherlands and England & Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorloos, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Criminal law on hate speech has become a hotly debated topic in the past decade. In the Netherlands and in England and Wales legislative changes and proposals abound, while cases such as the prosecution of MP Geert Wilders have received considerable attention. How to deal with hate speech in an

  8. Regulation and comparative discretion of publicly and privately owned water companies in The Netherlands, England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.C. Schouten (Marco); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAny water company is subject to regulation, either through bylaws, national or supra-national regulations. In this contribution we assess how these regulatory regimes affect the discretion of privately owned companies in England and Wales and publicly owned water companies in the Netherl

  9. A Marathon Not a Sprint: Lessons Learnt from the First Decade of Digitisation at the National Library of Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. Arwel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of developments in digitisation policy and practice at the National Library of Wales (NLW) from 1995 to 2007 and drawing out the lessons learnt. Design/methodology/approach: A chronological overview of developments focusing on the pilot phase, policy statements of 2001 and 2005 and on specific…

  10. An Analysis of the Stakeholder Model of Public Boards and the Case of School Governing Bodies in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Michael; Farrell, Catherine; James, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the stakeholder model of boards that is widely used in public and third sector institutions in England and Wales. The central tenet of this model is that such institutions should be strategically led by individuals who are representative of and from the groups that have an interest in them. The article focuses in particular…

  11. The Management of Independent Secondary School Libraries in England and Wales: The Skills and Perceptions of Library Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Richard; Matthews, Graham; Ashcroft, Linda; Farrow, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates aspects of the management of independent secondary school libraries in England and Wales. It is based on a survey of 150 independent school library managers, with a response rate of 68.7 percent, which was carried out as part of an ongoing PhD research project. The paper considers a range of issues important to school…

  12. Changes in classification of suicide in England and Wales : Time trends and associations with coroners' professional backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    1997-01-01

    Background. The legal definition of suicide in England and Wales (E&W) gives rise to a high proportion of open verdicts and an underestimated suicide rate. We examined whether the ratio between open and suicide verdicts in E&W has changed between 1974 and 1991 and whether it varies according to coro

  13. Initial outcomes of using allografts from donation after cardiac death donors for liver transplantation in New South Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, Jorieke M.; Verran, Deborah J.; deRoo, Ronald A.; Christine, Hazel; Crawford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To report the early outcomes of the initial selection and use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor livers for transplantation in New South Wales, following a guidelines implementation process. Design and setting: Review of database and medical records from the Australian National

  14. [Analysis of the ethical consequences of the new proposed mental health legislation (Mental Health Bill 2004) for England and Wales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, P

    2005-10-01

    The article examines the ethical consequences of the new Mental Health Act for England and Wales. Particular emphasis is put on the apparent ethical shift from rights-based principles to utilitarian principles. This shift is particularly evident in the proposed provision for compulsory community treatment and with regards to patients with dangerous and severe personality disorders.

  15. Health needs of detainees in police custody in England and Wales. Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekrut-Lapa, Tatyana; Lapa, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this systematic is to review and analyse the literature concerned with the health needs of detainees in police custody in England and Wales. The healthcare of detainees in police custody is regulated by the England and Wales Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. The Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians also sets quality standards for the provision of custodial healthcare. The provision of healthcare in custody presents a number of challenges including the patient group, the setting and the overlap between the legal and medical concerns that are addressed by the medical team. Currently, care to the detainees in custody is delivered by a mixture of private organisations, police-led forensic medical services and the NHS. A search of the PUBMED, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases undertaken using the search terms: (police custody) OR (detainees) OR (police detainees) yielded 830 publications. All of the titles were screened to identify potentially relevant publications concerned with the health needs of detainees in police custodies in England and Wales. There were no design specific criteria set for inclusion of the studies in this literature review. 77 articles were initially identified as relevant and obtained in full. After further analysis 28 publications were included in this literature review. A total sample of over 12,000 detainees was examined in this literature review. Approximately 20% of detainees seen by health care teams suffer from psychiatric conditions. On average, 50% of patients claim that they have problems with drugs and alcohol. Physical health conditions are also highly prevalent with up to 74% of detainees requiring regular medication. Forensic medical issues included the management of detainees who were restrained using handcuffs, irritant sprays and TASER. Detainees who are suspected of internal drug concealment also require intensive medical input. Injury documentation in custody is often requested

  16. A potential model for the first all Wales mental health service user and carer-led research group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Fothergill, A; Rees, H

    2010-02-01

    This paper will inform mental health service users and carers on how a University in Wales established a service user and carer-led research group. * The group's primary aim will be to undertake its own service user and carer-led research projects. * Mental health service users have undergone empowerment and research training at a University in Wales. This is an important initiative because it is the first service user and carer-led research group in Wales. * This paper is co-authored by a mental health service user and includes transcripts of service users' stories written in their words. Abstract Service user and carer involvement in research has been gaining momentum in recent years. However, this involvement to date has primarily been as research respondents or 'subjects' in research studies. A group of mental health service users at a University in Wales underwent empowerment and research training to enable them to become active participants in the research process; this training was a necessary step to equip mental health service users with the skills to become independent researchers and to carry out service user-led research. We included transcripts from mental health service users on their views of the empowerment and research training received. We are not reporting, in this paper, on the findings from a research study rather it aims to inform readers how a service user and carer-led research group has been established in Wales. The group has two purposes: (1) to train service users in research methodologies, and thus for them to gain essential research skills; and (2) to undertake their own service user and carer-led research projects thereby implementing the research skills they have acquired from the training. The latter is a primary aim of the group; a future paper will report on its development.

  17. The TwF project: promoting bilingualism for public health in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    The Twf project was established in Wales in 2001 with the overall aim to increase the transfer of the Welsh language within the family. The project has two main strategies, which are to work with midwives and health visitors in order that they can inform parents of the advantages of raising children bilingually, and to raise awareness among parents-to-be, parents and the general public of the advantages of raising children bilingually. The project is funded by the Welsh government through the Welsh Language Board, and its community workers provide health visitors, midwives and other partners within their areas with Twf resources and information about relevant research, and visit antenatal and postnatal clinics on a regular basis to talk to parents. Where a particular need is identified, the Twf worker runs groups for new parents and parents-to-be to help them to speak Welsh to the baby through interesting activities, such as baby massage, singing and stories.

  18. Unilateral and collusive market power in the electricity pool of England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, D.W.; Martoccia, M. [London Business School, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    This paper uses a detailed market microsimulation of agent bidding behaviour to provide insights into the evolution of generator market power in the electricity pool of England and Wales. We identify an evolution, as market concentration declined, from unilateral market power dominance in the early years (1990-1996) to tacit collusive coordination towards the end (1996-2001), whereupon the pool was replaced by voluntary bilateral trading. The microsimulation analysis does not provide closed form solutions for market equilibrium nor a multi-agent co-evolutionary set of scenarios, but provides a diagnostic aid in determining when market concentration may decline to the point at which price leadership gives way to tacit collusion as means of exercising market power. (author)

  19. Disability and the Family in South Wales Coalfield Society, c.1920–1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ben; Thompson, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This article utilises the south Wales coalfield in the interwar period as a case study to illustrate the applicability of two sociological theories – family systems theory and the social ecology of the family – to impairment in the past. It demonstrates that a theoretically-informed approach can help to situate impairment in its particular contexts, most especially the family and the community, and give a better sense of the lived experience of disability. It also demonstrates the complexity of the experience of disability as the family and economic circumstances of each impaired individual varied and led to different forms of care-giving or the utilisation of different sources of support. The article also sheds further light on the ubiquity of disability as many families included a number of individuals with different impairments and this too had consequences for experiences and coping strategies. PMID:28706465

  20. Disability and the Family in South Wales Coalfield Society, c.1920-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ben; Thompson, Steven

    2017-01-02

    This article utilises the south Wales coalfield in the interwar period as a case study to illustrate the applicability of two sociological theories - family systems theory and the social ecology of the family - to impairment in the past. It demonstrates that a theoretically-informed approach can help to situate impairment in its particular contexts, most especially the family and the community, and give a better sense of the lived experience of disability. It also demonstrates the complexity of the experience of disability as the family and economic circumstances of each impaired individual varied and led to different forms of care-giving or the utilisation of different sources of support. The article also sheds further light on the ubiquity of disability as many families included a number of individuals with different impairments and this too had consequences for experiences and coping strategies.

  1. Assessing the financial, operational, and social sustainability of a biobank: the Wales Cancer Bank case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Jones, Alison

    2014-12-01

    Biobank sustainability is a multi-faceted concept that many biobanks are wrestling with to justify their continued existence. After 10 years of operation, the Wales Cancer Bank is faced with a potential reduction in grant funding that will result in the need for a restructured approach to patient consenting, sample collection, and sample issue. A review is currently in progress, using evidence from the last 12 months, to inform the decisions that will be taken at the end of 2014 regarding the biobank's future. The information presented details the areas under consideration for revision with the perceived costs and benefits associated with the amendment. Not all outcomes are currently known, and some decisions will be made once the level of future funding is confirmed. The process of assessment has proved to be a valuable exercise and has highlighted the need for biobanks to regularly evaluate strategic principles and operating procedures using sustainability as a denominator.

  2. Exercise intensities of gardening tasks within older adult allotment gardeners in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jemma L; Smith, Alexander; Backx, Karianne; Clayton, Deborah A

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that gardening activity could be an effective form of regular exercise for improving physical and psychological health in later life. However, there is a lack of data regarding the exercise intensities of various gardening tasks across different types of gardening and different populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise intensity of gardening activity for older adult allotment gardeners in Wales, United Kingdom following a similar procedure used in previous studies conducted in the United States and South Korea by Park and colleagues (2008a; 2011). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure for six gardening tasks were measured via indirect calorimetery using the portable Oxycon mobile device. From these measures, estimated metabolic equivalent units (METs) were calculated. Consistent with Park et al. (2008a; 2011) the six gardening tasks were classified as low to moderate-high intensity physical activities based on their metabolic values (1.9-5.7 METs).

  3. Gender Comparison of Young People Charged With Murder in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, F Jeane; Browne, Kevin D; Whitfield, Kate C

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated gender differences regarding young people charged with murder in England and Wales. A sample of 318 cases was collected from the Home Office's Homicide Index and analysed. Of these cases, 93% of the offenders were male and 7% female. The analyses explored gender differences in terms of the offender's race, offender's age, victim's age, victim's gender, weapon used, offender-victim relationship, and circumstances of the offence. The study found that a female offender was significantly more likely to murder a family member than a male offender, and a male offender was significantly more likely to murder a stranger than a female offender. In addition, a female offender was significantly more likely to murder a victim below the age of 5 than a male offender. Implications for interventions with young people who are charged with murder are discussed.

  4. Innovative zoning to support equine influenza eradication from New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Orr, H

    2011-07-01

    Following detection of equine influenza (EI) in New South Wales, a complete standstill was imposed the next morning on the movement of all horses and donkeys within the state. Premises' biosecurity guidelines became progressively more stringent with time in an effort to stop local spread. The standstill was highly effective as a primary response to stop EI becoming widespread across Australia, but did not prevent spread to properties contiguous to infected premises in areas of high horse density and small property size, nor transmission by fomites nor possible local airborne transmission. Within 2 weeks of the start of the outbreak, a zoning system of Purple (Special Restricted), Red (Restricted), Amber (Control), and Green (Protected) Zones was implemented, and progressively modified as disease distribution changed. The colour coding system proved to be an easy way to communicate zone changes, the approximate level of disease risk and the stringency of movement restrictions to the general public and should be adopted more generally in AUSVETPLAN.

  5. Masculinity and domesticity in 1930s South Wales: did unemployment change the domestic division of labour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penlington, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This article examines masculinity in an area suffering from sustained high unemployment and unremitting hardship during the 1930s: the South Wales coalfield had some of the highest rates of male unemployment and the lowest participation rates of married women in paid employment in Britain. Particular attention is drawn to power relations between husband and wife by looking at the domestic division of labour and whether male unemployment affected the split in domestic responsibilities. Personal testimonies are used to assess how men filled their time whilst unemployed and the meanings they attached to their activities and relationships. It will be shown that some unemployed men engaged more in the home and that many men were able to maintain existing power relations with their wives by finding or creating alternative manual work and maintaining an elastic relationship with the home by continuing to spend the majority of their time in the company of other men.

  6. Outbreak of botulism in north west England and Wales, June, 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, E M; Hayes, P J; Isaacs, P E

    1989-10-01

    The clinical features of 27 patients identified in an outbreak of botulism in Lancashire, England, and North Wales are reviewed. All but 1 of the patients (age range 14 months to 74 years) were admitted to hospital: 12 were treated in intensive care units, and 8 received positive pressure ventilation. 1 patient died with an aspiration pneumonia. The clinical presentations contained several unusual features, with evidence of segmental demyelination in some patients and drowsiness, sore throats, and fever in others. The widely dispersed source of intoxication with patients presenting singly to several hospitals added to the difficulties of diagnosis. Successful clinical management depends on full and early recognition both of the dangers of impaired oropharyngeal function and of the rapid neurological changes in botulism.

  7. The emergence of community strategic planning in New South Wales, Australia: Influences, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Prior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the emergence of community strategic planning in the New South Wales (NSW local government sector, against the backdrop of a series of broad influences ranging from increased interest in participatory democracy through to sustainable infrastructure provision. It provides an understanding of how community strategic planning has evolved over the past few decades to embody these influences. The paper concludes with reflections on some common challenges and opportunities experienced by local councils in NSW that have undertaken voluntary community strategic planning or are in the process of developing community strategic plans. Given underlying similarities in the emergence of participatory long-term strategic planning in local government around the world, many of the experiences associated with the preparation of community strategic plans in the NSW context are likely to be of relevance to those undertaking similar processes in other jurisdictions.

  8. Sugary drink consumption and dental caries in New South Wales teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J; Byun, R; Blinkhorn, A; Johnson, G

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of water, milk and various sugary drinks and their relationship with the caries experience of a random sample of teenagers aged 14 to 15 years living in New South Wales, Australia was investigated. Data were obtained from both clinical and questionnaire components of the NSW Teen Dental Survey, 2010. The analyses allowed for various demographic and behavioural risk factors using caries experience (DMFT >0) and mean DMFT as the key outcome variables. Males were more likely than females to consume large volumes of sugary drinks. Consuming two or more glasses of sugary drinks per day led to significantly increased caries experience amongst this sample of 14 and 15 year olds. Factors found to be associated with elevated sugary drink consumption included family income, gender, and mother's education level. There is a strong correlation between increased caries experience of NSW teenagers and high levels of consumption of sugary drinks. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Factors associated with preterm birth in Cardiff, Wales. I. Univariable and multivariable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meis, P J; Michielutte, R; Peters, T J; Wells, H B; Sands, R E; Coles, E C; Johns, K A

    1995-08-01

    Our purpose was to examine the associations of demographic, social, and medical factors with risk of preterm birth. By use of the Cardiff Births Survey, a large database of largely homogeneous (white) births in Wales, multivariable analysis by logistic regression examined the relative importance of risk variables associated with preterm birth. Significant independent associations with preterm birth were found (in decreasing order of magnitude) for late pregnancy bleeding, preeclampsia-proteinuria, low maternal weight, low maternal age, early pregnancy bleeding, history of previous stillbirth, smoking, high parity, low or high hemoglobin concentration, history of previous abortion, low social class, bacteriuria, and nulliparity. In this population demographic, social, and medical characteristics of the pregnancies showed significant associations with preterm birth.

  10. Creating a typology of parishes in England and Wales: Mining 1881 census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schürer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of principal component analysis and cluster analysis to historical individual level census data in order to explore social and economic variations and patterns in household structure across mid-Victorian England and Wales. Principal component analysis is used in order to identify and eliminate unimportant attributes within the data and the aggregation of the remaining attributes. By combining Kaiser’s rule and the Broken-stick model, four principal components are selected for subsequent data modelling. Cluster analysis is used in order to identify associations and structure within the data. A hierarchy of cluster structures is constructed with two, three, four and five clusters in 21-dimensional data space. The main differences between clusters are described in this paper.

  11. Imposed Stories: Prisoner Self-narratives in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Hall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which offenders are required to provide very particular accounts of themselves and to self-narrate in confined ways. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in the New South Wales justice system, it explores how the stories that offenders are made to accept and tell about themselves often bear little relationship to their own reflections. It analyses how, despite the expectations of judges and prison authorities, these self-narratives are not products of an offender’s soul-searching concerning his past actions and experience; rather they are products of an official legal narrative being imposed on an offender whose capacity to own and enact such a narrative is already seriously compromised.

  12. A review of rural health restructuring in the New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, D; Johnson, L

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 the delivery of rural health services in New South Wales was restructured by the establishment of 23 district health services with the aims of diverting resources from administration to clinical services and enhancing decision-making at the local level. Implementation of the restructuring in its infancy was examined by structured interviews conducted with five general managers and 15 of their second-tier appointees. The organisational structure of the districts, the managerial attributes required of senior staff and approaches to change were emphasised. Political constraints on organisational decision-making such as organisational design were acknowledged and the importance accorded to demonstrable achievement in managing change and incorporating consultative techniques was recognised.

  13. Disciplinary Responsibility Of Judges And Judicial Employees In England And Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury M. Filippov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the topical issues of the judges and judicial employees’ disciplinary responsibility in England and Wales after the adoption of the Constitutional Reform Act and creation of the new disciplinary bodies. Present article contains a short analysis of the mechanism of professional and ethical standards among judges and magistrates of England and Wales maintenance, possible conflict of interests settlement and questions of conduct in the need of disciplinary trial. Author consider features of the lord powers - chancellor in the questions of bringing judges and magistrates to the disciplinary responsibility, interaction of the Lord Chancellor with the Lord - Supreme Judge and the Ministry of Justice in the questions of the disciplinary investigations organization and conduct. At the same time author considers an aspect that responsibility before the civil society has an informal character and doesn't assume carrying out any trial. At the same time possibility of judge's and court's employees behavior discussion by public organizations and associations and also in press is a usual practice. In the conclusion author notes that to the number of features of English model of the disciplinary responsibility of judges and judicial employees it is necessary to include active participation of public authorities in the process of trial on the complaints in regard to actions of judges and judicial employees (Ministry of Justice is authorized to conduct such trials, the dual legal nature of such decision on the complaint which is taken out not only on behalf of the judicial community, but also a name of the Lord Chancellor appointed by the Parliament, general procedure of the judge's and worker's of courts, and also coroners accountability.

  14. Oral health behaviours of children in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J; Ravaghi, V; Hill, K B; Watt, R G

    2016-09-01

    Background The 2013 Children's Dental Health Survey is the fifth in a series of national surveys.Aim To describe the oral health behaviours in children and adolescents in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.Method A representative sample of children (aged 5, 8 12 and 15 years) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were invited to participate in dental examinations. Children and parents were also invited to complete a questionnaire about oral health behaviours.Results Overall, the majority of children and young people reported good oral health behaviours. For example, more than three quarters of the 12- and 15-year-olds reported brushing their teeth twice a day or more often. However, a sizeable proportion of the sample reported less positive behaviours. Nearly 30% of 5-year-olds first started to brush their teeth after the age of one year. Among 15-year-olds, 11% were current smokers and 37% reported that they currently drank alcohol. Sixteen percent of 12-year-olds reported to consume drinks containing sugar four or more times a day. Of particular concern was the marked differences that existed by level of deprivation. Children living in lower income households (eligible for free school meals) were less likely to brush their teeth twice a day, more likely to start brushing after six months, more likely to be a smoker and more likely to consume frequent amounts of sugary drinks.Conclusion Despite some encouraging overall patterns of good oral health behaviours, a sizeable proportion of children and young people reported behaviours that may lead to poorer oral and general health. Preventive support should be delivered in clinical dental settings to encourage positive oral health behaviours. Public health strategies are also needed to reduce inequalities in oral health behaviours among children and young people.

  15. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety.

  16. Leading causes of certification for blindness and partial sight in England & Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wormald Richard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of visual impairment is an international priority agreed at the World Health Assembly of 2002- yet many countries lack contemporary data about incidence and causes from which priorities for prevention, treatment and management can be identified. Methods Registration as blind or partially-sighted in England and Wales is voluntary and is initiated by certification by a consultant ophthalmologist. From all certificates completed during the year April 1999 to March 2000, the main cause of visual loss was ascertained where possible and here we present information on the leading causes observed and comment on changes in the three leading causes since the last analysis conducted for 1990–1991 data. Results 13788 people were certified as blind, 19107 were certified as partially sighted. The majority of certifications were in the older age groups. The most commonly recorded main cause of certifications for both blindness (57.2 % and partial sight (56 % was degeneration of the macula and posterior pole which largely comprises age-related macular degeneration. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy were the next most commonly recorded main causes. Overall, the age specific incidence of all three leading causes has increased since 1990–1991 – with changes in diabetic retinopathy being the most marked – particularly in the over 65's where figures have more than doubled. Conclusion The numbers of individuals per 100,000 population being certified blind or partially sighted due to the three leading causes – AMD, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma have increased since 1990. This may to some extent be explained by improved ascertainment. The process of registration for severe visual impairment in England and Wales is currently undergoing review. Efforts must be made to ensure that routine collection of data on causes of severe visual impairment is continued, particularly in this age of improved technology, to allow such trends

  17. Neospora caninum in beef herds in New South Wales, Australia. 1: seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, B J; Kirkland, P D; Heuer, C

    2017-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in beef breeding herds across New South Wales (NSW) and to determine if there are any differences associated with geographic location and other herd-level factors. Cross-sectional survey of beef breeding cows (n = 3298) from 63 properties (approximately 55 cows per herd) sampled randomly from six regions in NSW using a multistage survey design. Samples were tested by ELISA for N. caninum. Seroprevalence was determined at animal and herd levels, using an analysis approach to account for stratification, sample weighting and within-herd clustering. Animal-level seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% across regions and the overall animal seroprevalence for NSW was 5.9%. The mean within-herd seroprevalence was 5.2%. The herd seroprevalence ranged from 50% to 92%, with an overall point estimate for NSW of 63.8% (using ≥ 1 animal positive = herd positive). The within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 1.6% to 32.7% Prevalence and associated confidence limits were adjusted for the design of the survey. Overall, about two-thirds of all herds in NSW showed evidence of infection, but the seroprevalence of N. caninum in individual beef cattle in NSW was low to moderate (1.8-11.3%). Significant differences occurred between regions. The risk for herds being positive for N. caninum was associated with geographic factors, particularly in the Mid-North Coast Region. © 2017 State of New South Wales.

  18. The association of cancer survival with four socioeconomic indicators: a longitudinal study of the older population of England and Wales 1981–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Harriet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found socioeconomic differentials in cancer survival. Previous studies have generally demonstrated poorer cancer survival with decreasing socioeconomic status but mostly used only ecological measures of status and analytical methods estimating simple survival. This study investigate socio-economic differentials in cancer survival using four indicators of socioeconomic status; three individual and one ecological. It uses a relative survival method which gives a measure of excess mortality due to cancer. Methods This study uses prospective record linkage data from The Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study for England and Wales. The participants are Longitudinal Study members, recorded at census in 1971 and 1981 and with a primary malignant cancer diagnosed at age 45 or above, between 1981 and 1997, with follow-up until end 2000. The outcome measure is relative survival/excess mortality, compared with age and sex adjusted survival of the general population. Relative survival and Poisson regression analyses are presented, giving models of relative excess mortality, adjusted for covariates. Results Different socioeconomic indicators detect survival differentials of varying magnitude and definition. For all cancers combined, the four indicators show similar effects. For individual cancers there are differences between indicators. Where there is an association, all indicators show poorer survival with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Cancer survival differs markedly by socio-economic status. The commonly used ecological measure, the Carstairs Index, is adequate at demonstrating socioeconomic differentials in survival for combined cancers and some individual cancers. A combination of car access and housing tenure is more sensitive than the ecological Carstairs measure at detecting socioeconomic effects on survival – confirming Carstairs effects where they occur but additionally identifying

  19. Outcomes of high-risk obstetric transfers in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory: The High-Risk Obstetric Transfer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Amy; Browning Carmo, Kathryn; Morris, Jonathan; Berry, Andrew; Wall, Margaret; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    In New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, in utero transfers to manage maternal or neonatal risks are highly challenging owing to geography and centralisation of tertiary perinatal care. The study aims to document the outcomes of high-risk obstetric transfers. A prospective observational study was conducted from 2010 to 2011 documenting urgent requests for obstetric transfers to tertiary centres across NSW/ACT for pregnancies 20 weeks' gestation or greater. Outcomes of transfers were allocated apriori to 'delivered at the receiving hospital', 'failed/delayed transfer' or 'discharged/transferred undelivered'. Our hypothesis is that each outcome has a specific group of associated clinical factors. Of the 249 transfer requests included in the study, 40% delivered at the receiving hospital, 7% were failed/delayed transfers, and 45% were discharged/transferred undelivered. Cases delivering at the receiving hospital were significantly associated with older mothers, twin pregnancies, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) or premature rupture of membranes (PROM) with/without threatened preterm labour (TPL) as the indications for transfer and having three indications for transfer. Cases that were discharged/transferred undelivered were significantly associated with singleton pregnancies, TPL and/or antepartum haemorrhage (APH) as the indication for transfer and having one indication for transfer. There were no significantly associated factors for failed/delayed transfers. The study confirms the hypothesis that particular transfer outcomes are associated with different factors. The findings also show that less than half of urgent obstetric transfers result in delivery at the receiving hospital, suggesting that there exists significant opportunities for further research into predicting preterm delivery, thereby improving the care of women with high-risk pregnancies. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Wales po devoluci: budování výlučného regionu a role Evropské unie v tomto procesu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mertl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wales After Devolution: Building a Unique Region and European Union’s Role in the Process.This paper deals with the issue of building Wales as a unique region in the context of the European Union and its resources. The author focuses on the period after 1999, i.e. the time when devolution took place and when official Welsh representatives emerged via the National Assembly for Wales (NAW. Since then, Wales has entered into cooperation with the EU, in order to gain access to resources provided by the Union. The cooperation is however of a specific kind, since officially, Welsh representatives have to communicate with the EU through the political representation of Great Britain. Nevertheless, by acting informally, Welsh representatives manage to avoid the British government in relevant contexts and communicate with the EU directly. In this way, they are able to exploit the formal and informal rules for their advantage (i.e. for building Wales as a unique region. The main purpose of this text is to show that the case of Wales can be replicated by any region that has official political representation, even if it has only weak representative institutions and has to deal with limitations posed by the existence of a central government.

  1. General outbreaks of vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 in England and Wales from 1992 to 1994.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wall, P G

    1996-02-02

    We have reviewed all general outbreaks of infection due to Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 reported in England and Wales from 1992 to 1994. One hundred and seventy-three people were affected in 18 outbreaks, compared with 76 people in seven outbreaks in the preceding three years (1989 to 1991). Outbreaks occurred throughout England and Wales. Thirty-eight per cent of cases were admitted to hospital, 21% developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and 3% died. VTEC O157 infection causes particular concern because of its serious complications--haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome, its capacity to spread from person to person as well as by food and water, and its reservoir in dairy and beef cattle.

  2. Engaging Communities in their Heritage: Collaboration between Higher Education and the Voluntary Sector in Wales and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on an Interreg funded pilot project entitled ‘Heritage and Culture for Learning, Empowerment and Sustainable Tourism’.  The project was a collaborative development between a Higher Education Institution in Wales and a Voluntary Sector Organisation in Ireland and adopted an innovative approach to engaging communities in their heritage.  The central aim of the project was to develop and promote joint opportunities for the creation of sustainable tourism products which build on the natural assets (people and landscape, built assets, culture and heritage of the Wales Ireland cross border region.  In practice this was achieved through an innovative approach combining research, lifelong learning, higher level skills development, networking, marketing and business development through active engagement of local communities. The pilot project ended in July 2013, and the focus of this presentation is an evaluation of the project outcomes and experiences.

  3. Stone-Wales defects in nitrogen-doped C$_{20}$ fullerenes: Insight from $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Katin, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory is applied to study the mechanism of the Stone-Wales defect formation in pure and nitrogen-doped dodecahedral C$_{20}$ fullerenes. The molecular structures of initial and defected cages as well as transition states dividing them are obtained. Depending on the number of nitrogen atoms and their relative position in the cage, Stone-Wales defect is formed through the single additional intermediate state or directly. The activation energy barrier of the defect formation reduces from 4.93 eV in pure C$_{20}$ to 2.98 eV in single-doped C$_{19}$N, and reaches $\\sim$ 2 eV under further doping. All nitrogen-doped fullerenes considered possess high kinetic stability at room temperature. However, they become much less stable at temperatures of about 750 K that are typical for the fullerene annealing process.

  4. Isolated teeth of Anhangueria  (Pterosauria: Pterodactyloidea) from the Lower Cretaceous of Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth T.; Bell, Phil R.

    2017-01-01

    The fossil record of Australian pterosaurs is sparse, consisting of only a small number of isolated and fragmentary remains from the Cretaceous of Queensland, Western Australia and Victoria. Here, we describe two isolated pterosaur teeth from the Lower Cretaceous (middle Albian) Griman Creek Formation at Lightning Ridge (New South Wales) and identify them as indeterminate members of the pterodactyloid clade Anhangueria. This represents the first formal description of pterosaur material from New South Wales. The presence of one or more anhanguerian pterosaurs at Lightning Ridge correlates with the presence of ‘ornithocheirid’ and Anhanguera-like pterosaurs from the contemporaneous Toolebuc Formation of central Queensland and the global distribution attained by ornithocheiroids during the Early Cretaceous. The morphology of the teeth and their presence in the estuarine- and lacustrine-influenced Griman Creek Formation is likely indicative of similar life habits of the tooth bearer to other members of Anhangueria. PMID:28480142

  5. Health and social care regulation in Wales: an integrated system of political, corporate and professional governance for improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Tony; Wilkinson, Jane

    2008-11-01

    Wales is developing a unique integrated system of governance to improve public health, which is diverging from some recent developments in the rest of the UK but shares many common features. There is a focus on strengthening collaborative working and co-ordination between bodies inspecting, regulating and auditing health and social care. Systems are being developed that are proportionate to the level of risk, eliminate unnecessary burdens of external review and support the improvement of services for patients, service users and carers. This is consistent with the Assembly Government's aim to improve the way that public services are delivered in Wales, including strengthening input from the public in the planning, delivery and reporting of regulation and inspection work. The test in the future will be how far we can demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the added value from our uniquely Welsh approach, built as it is on devolution and the aspirations for small-country governance.

  6. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  7. Understanding the driving forces behind the losses of soil carbon across England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    More than twice as much carbon is held in soils as in vegetation or the atmosphere, and changes in soil carbon content can have a large effect on the global carbon budget. The possibility that climate change is being reinforced by increased carbon dioxide emissions from soils owing to rising temperature is the subject of a continuing debate. But evidence for the suggested feedback mechanism has to date come solely from small-scale laboratory and field experiments and modelling studies. Here we use data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales obtained between 1978 and 2003 to show that carbon was lost from soils across England and Wales over the survey period at a mean rate of 0.6% yr-1 (relative to the existing soil carbon content). We find that the relative rate of carbon loss increased with soil carbon content and was more than 2% yr-1 in soils with carbon contents greater than 100 g kg-1. The relationship between rate of carbon loss and carbon content is irrespective of land use, suggesting a link to climate change. Our findings indicate that losses of soil carbon in England and Wales—and by inference in other temperate regions—are likely to have been offsetting absorption of carbon by terrestrial sinks. To investigate the possible driving forces of the measured losses of soil carbon we applied a simple model of soil carbon turnover to evaluate alternative explanations for the observed trends. We find that neither changes in decomposition resulting from the effects of climate change on soil temperature and moisture, nor changes in carbon input from vegetation, could account on their own for the overall trends. Of other explanations, results indicate that past changes in land use and management were probably dominant. The climate change signal, such as it is, is masked by these other changes. A more sophisticated model of carbon change (DAYCENT) has now been applied across the whole range of soils in England and Wales. This model has been

  8. Summer music and arts festivals as hot spots for measles transmission: experience from England and Wales, June to October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; Saliba, Vanessa; Cottrell, Simon; Young, Nick; Perry, Malorie; Bukasa, Antoaneta; Ramsay, Mary; Brown, Kevin; Amirthalingam, Gayatri

    2016-11-03

    We report 52 cases of measles linked to music and arts festivals in England and Wales, between mid-June and mid-October 2016. Nearly half were aged 15 to 19 years. Several individuals who acquired measles at one festival subsequently attended another festival while infectious, resulting in multiple interlinked outbreaks. Transmission within festivals resulted in a geographical spread of cases nationally as well as internationally, which presents particular challenges for measles control. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  9. Personality disorder and offending behaviour: findings from the national survey of male prisoners in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amanda D.L.; Coid, Jeremy W

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have related mental disorder and antisocial personality disorder to criminal behaviour, but little is known about the associations with other personality disorders. The aim of this study was to examine independent associations between offending behaviour over the lifetime and personality disorder in a representative sample of male offenders. A two-stage survey was carried out among prisoners in all prisons in England and Wales. DSM-IV personality disorder was measured using S...

  10. QUANTIFICATION AND COSTING OF DOMESTIC ELECTRICITY GENERATION FOR ARMIDALE, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA UTILISING MICRO WIND TURBINES

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a general overview of energy and renewable energy sources available in Australia was introduced, household’s electricity situation in Australia was presented, and focus wind energy was conducted. A theoretical methodology for quantification and costing of selected micro wind turbines was introduced. This methodology was applied to Armidale city, New South Wales (NSW), Australia as a case study. The methodology involved utilisation of spread sheet application and HOMER software....

  11. Reduced street lighting at night and health: A rapid appraisal of public views in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Green, J.; Perkins, C.; Steinbach, R; P. Edwards

    2015-01-01

    Financial and carbon reduction incentives have prompted many local authorities to reduce street lighting at night. Debate on the public health implications has centred on road accidents, fear of crime and putative health gains from reduced exposure to artificial light. However, little is known about public views of the relationship between reduced street lighting and health. We undertook a rapid appraisal in eight areas of England and Wales using ethnographic data, a household survey and docu...

  12. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, Kaisarun; Emma C. Barnes; Brophy, Joseph J.; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F.

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an ...

  13. Making the economic case for prevention – a view from Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Janine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely acknowledged that adverse lifestyle behaviours in the population now will place an unsustainable burden on health service resources in the future. It has been estimated that the combined cost to the NHS in Wales of overweight and obesity, alcohol and tobacco is in excess of £540 million. In the current climate of financial austerity, there can be a tendency for the case for prevention efforts to be judged on the basis of their scope for cost savings. This paper was prompted by discussion in Wales about the evidence for the cost savings from prevention and early intervention and a resulting concern that these programmes were thus being evaluated in policy terms using an incorrect metric. Following a review of the literature, this paper contributes to the discussion of the potential role that economics can play in informing decisions in this area. Discussion This paper argues that whilst studies of the economic burden of diseases provide information about the magnitude of the problem faced, they should not be used as a means of priority setting. Similarly, studies discussing the likelihood of savings as a result of prevention programmes may be distorting the arguments for public health. Prevention spend needs to be considered purposefully, resulting in a strategic commitment to spending. The role of economics in this process is to provide evidence demonstrating that information and support can be provided cost effectively to individuals to change their lifestyles thus avoiding lifestyle related morbidity and mortality. There is growing evidence that prevention programmes represent value for money using the currently accepted techniques and decision making metrics such as those advocated by NICE. Summary The issue here is not one of arguing that the economic evaluation of prevention and early intervention should be treated differently, although in some instances that may be appropriate, rather it is about making

  14. Psychosocial stress and strategies for managing adversity: measuring population resilience in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations around the world are facing an increasing number of adversities such as the global financial crisis, terrorism, conflict, and climate change. The aim of this paper was to investigate self-reported strategies and sources of support used to get through "tough times" in an Australian context and to identify patterns of response in the general population and differences in potentially vulnerable subgroups. Methods Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of the New South Wales population in Australia. The final sample consisted of 3,995 New South Wales residents aged 16 years and above who responded to the question: "What are the things that get you through tough times?" Results Respondents provided brief comments that were coded into 14 main subject-area categories. The most frequently reported responses were family and self (52%; friends and neighbors (21%; use of positive emotional and philosophical strategies (17%, such as sense of humor, determination, and the belief that things would get better; and religious beliefs (11%. The responses of four population subgroups were compared, based on gender, household income, level of psychological distress, and whether a language other than English was spoken at home. Women reported greater use of friends and neighbors and religious or spiritual beliefs for support, whereas men reported greater use of drinking/smoking and financial supports. Those with lower incomes reported greater reliance on positive emotional and philosophical strategies and on religious or spiritual beliefs. Those with high levels of psychological distress reported greater use of leisure interests and hobbies, drinking/smoking, and less use of positive lifestyle strategies, such as adequate sleep, relaxation, or work/life balance. Those who spoke a language other than English at home were less likely to report relying on self or others (family/friends or positive emotional and

  15. A Comparison of Substance Abuse and Mental Illness in Male Offenders in Jamaica and England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Sewell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study sought to determine the prevalence of substance abuse, mental illness, sociodemographics and clinical characteristics of mentally ill offenders. These data were compared to data from the prison population in the United Kingdom. Method: This is a cross-sectional study of male, mentally ill offenders in two prisons in Jamaica, and four prisons in England and Wales. For the Jamaican sample, a psychopathology and forensic survey instrument was developed by the research personnel to extract specific information from the diagnostic interview. Data extraction was done over a one-year period. For the England and Wales sample, the participants were interviewed and assessed using various structured instruments. Results: The results indicate that approximately 18% of persons within the Jamaican prison population under study had a mental illness. Of this number, 57% of these persons had been previously diagnosed with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR Axis 1 disorder. Substance abuse was the most frequently diagnosed DSM-IV Axis I disorder within both populations. The prevalence of mental illness found in the Jamaican prison population was approximately four times greater than the rate in the comparison population of England and Wales. Conclusions: There was an over-representation of mentally ill offenders in the Jamaican prison population. This is most likely linked to the lack of appropriate diversion programmes and a forensic mental hospital in Jamaica.

  16. Under-reporting of birth registrations in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Fenglian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the rates of birth registration over a five-year period in New South Wales (NSW and explore the factors associated with the rate of registration. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using linked population databases. The study population included all births of NSW residents in NSW between 2001 and 2005. Results Birth registration rates in NSW were 82.66% in the year of birth, 93.19% in the first year, 94.02% in the second, 94.56% in the third and 95.08% in the fourth year after birth. The non-registration of births was mainly associated with such factors as neonatal and postneonatal death (adjusted OR = 3.84, 95% CI: 3.23-4.57; being Indigenous (adjusted OR = 3.26, 95% CI: 3.10-3.43; maternal age 39 years (adjusted OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 2.72-2.90; low birthweight ( Conclusion Of birth in NSW, 4.92% were not registered by the fourth year after birth.

  17. Selenium in soils, spermatophytes and bryophytes around a Zn-Pb smelter, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Jian; Gulson, Brian L

    2002-07-01

    Selenium concentrations and its spatial distribution in soils, spermatophytes and bryophytes (mosses) around the Cockle Creek Zn-Pb smelter, New South Wales were studied from May to November 2000. Selenium was determined by ICP-MS on soils digested in nitric and hydrochloric acid (HNO3:HCl = 3:1), and plant samples digested in distilled concentrated nitric acid. At distances greater than 3 km, selenium in soils, spermatophytes and bryophytes converge to uniform values, which are considered to represent the background value. Mean selenium in soils around the smelter is two times higher than the background value. Mean concentration of selenium in plants around the smelter is three times greater than that for background plants. Selenium from 'in site' bryophyte is twice that found in the background bryophyte. The transfer coefficients of selenium between plants and soils are low, especially at a distance less than 1 km from the smelter. However, mosses show the reverse trend. This study indicates that the Zn-Pb smelter is one of the anthropogenic point sources of selenium pollution in the Lake Macquarie district.

  18. Enhanced chlamydia surveillance in New South Wales (Australia) prisons, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Garry; Boonwaat, Leng; Douglas, Jenny; Awofeso, Niyi

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia is currently the most frequently notified infectious disease in New South Wales (NSW). Published articles relating to chlamydia prevalence in Australian prison settings are sparse, but studies from the United Kingdom and the United States indicate relatively high chlamydia prevalence among young incarcerated individuals. This article reports on findings from an enhanced chlamydia surveillance programme in NSW prisons between 2005 and 2007. The authors report a relatively low chlamydia prevalence among the general population of NSW prisoners (compared with figures from the United Kingdom and United States), which by the end of 2007 was 4%. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for the NSW prison population during the review period was about four times that of the general NSW community - 716/100,000 during the review period compared with 175/100,000 in the NSW general community. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for Aboriginal prisoners during the review period was 1262/100,000, compared with 1470/100,000 in the general Australian Aboriginal population. The authors grapple with the dilemma of expanding chlamydia screening and treatment services for the sexual health benefits of prison populations with static prison health budgets on one hand, and limited evidence of cost-effectiveness of such an expensive intervention on the other.

  19. Inequalities in preventive and restorative dental services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, J; Sabbah, W

    2016-09-09

    Aims The objective of this study is to assess socioeconomic inequalities in the use of selected dental procedures.Methods Data is from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Overall, 6,279 participants were included in the analysis. Occupational classification and education were used to assess variations in the use of preventive, restorative services and tooth extraction using a series of logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, DMFT, self-reported oral health, dental visits and country.Results There were clear socioeconomic variations in the utilisation of preventive and restorative services. In the fully adjusted model those with no educational qualification were less likely to report ever having preventive services than those with a degree (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.36,0.65). Similarly, individuals in routine/manual occupation were significantly less likely to report ever having preventive services than those in managerial/professional occupation (OR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.46,0.74) in the fully adjusted model.Conclusion The findings imply that despite relatively equitable access and higher use of dental services in UK, the least educated and those at the bottom of social hierarchy are less likely to have preventive and restorative dental services.

  20. The green nephrology survey of sustainability in renal units in England, Scotland and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Andrew; Mortimer, Frances

    2010-09-01

    The impact of unmitigated climate change upon global health is predicted to be disastrous. However, the very provision of healthcare itself has a significant environmental impact, and the contribution of kidney care to the carbon footprint of the NHS is likely to be disproportionately high. Furthermore, the current economic climate will ensure that healthcare systems face unprecedented reductions in resources (or, at the very least, diminished expansion in the face of ongoing increases in demand). Improvements in the way that renal services use resources will address both issues. This survey was designed to identify a baseline for sustainability in kidney care, to support a clinical transformation to lower carbon kidney care by identifying fruitful areas for attention, and to act as an educational tool. The survey identified measures for improvement across the different areas of the provision of kidney care, including building energy use, patient and staff transport, water use and the consumption and procurement of resources. The results of the survey, which was completed by 58 adult and paediatric renal units across England, Scotland, and Wales, are reported here and potential changes are discussed.

  1. Sustained outbreak of measles in New South Wales, 2012: risks for measles elimination in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina Najjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: On 7 April 2012, a recently returned traveller from Thailand to Australia was confirmed to have measles. An outbreak of measles subsequently occurred in the state of New South Wales, prompting a sustained and coordinated response by public health authorities. The last confirmed case presented on 29 November 2012. This report describes the outbreak and its characteristics. Methods: Cases were investigated following Australian protocols, including case interviews and assessment of contacts for post-exposure prophylaxis. Results: Of the 168 cases identified, most occurred in south-western and western Sydney (92.9%, n = 156. Notable features of this outbreak were the disproportionately high number of cases in the 10–19-year-old age group (29.2%, n = 49, the overrepresentation among people of Pacific Islander descent (21.4%, n = 36 and acquisition in health-care facilities (21.4%, n = 36. There were no reported cases of encephalitis and no deaths. Discussion: This was the largest outbreak of measles in Australia since 1997. Its occurrence highlights the need to maintain vigilant surveillance systems for early detection and containment of measles cases and to maintain high population immunity to measles through routine childhood immunization. Vaccination campaigns targeting susceptible groups may also be necessary to sustain Australia’s measles elimination status.

  2. Operational practices associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in the catering industry in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah L; Parry, Sharon M; O'Brien, Sarah J; Palmer, Stephen R

    2008-08-01

    Catering businesses continue to be the most common setting for foodborne disease outbreaks. In a study of catering businesses in England and Wales, operational practices relating to the supply, preparation, and service of food in 88 businesses associated with outbreaks were compared with those practices at 88 control businesses. Operational practices did not differ significantly between case and control businesses but larger small medium-size enterprise (SME) businesses were more likely to be associated with foodborne disease outbreaks than were micro-SME businesses. Businesses associated with outbreaks of Salmonella infection were less likely to use local or national suppliers but instead used regional suppliers, especially for eggs. This practice was the only significantly independent operational practice associated with outbreaks of Salmonella infection. Regional egg suppliers also were more likely to be used by businesses associated with outbreaks attributed to food vehicles containing eggs. Businesses associated with egg-associated outbreaks were less likely to use eggs produced under an approved quality assurance scheme, suggesting that the underlying risk associated with using regional suppliers may relate to the use of contaminated eggs.

  3. The cost of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A; Fenn, P; McGuire, A

    1995-12-01

    This study estimates the direct health and social care costs of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in England and Wales in 1992 to be 96 million pounds, or 1021 pounds per person in a population with IDDM estimated at 94,000 individuals. These costs include insulin maintenance, hospitalization, GP and out-patient consultations, renal replacement therapy, and payments to informal carers. Expenditure is concentrated on younger age groups, with one-third of the total expended on those aged 0-24. Around one-half of the total costs can be directly attributed to IDDM, with the remainder associated with a range of complications of the disease. The single largest area of service expenditure is renal replacement therapy. The cost estimates are most sensitive to incidence rates of IDDM, numbers on dialysis and average duration of dialysis. A further 113 million pounds may be lost each year due to premature deaths resulting in lost productive contributions to the economy. The direct and indirect costs of IDDM are therefore significant. The cost of illness framework presented here should facilitate the economic evaluation of new and existing treatment regimens, which may improve value for money by reducing costs and/or increasing the quality or quantity of life for people with IDDM.

  4. Evaluating the Health "Hubs and Spokes" interprofessional placements in rural New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Pippa L; Barnard, Amanda; Glasgow, Nicholas; May, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Australia has been relatively slow in adopting interprofessional learning (IPL) to prepare health professional students for future collaborative professional practice. A collaborative project between two universities placed senior health professional students in IPL teams in rural southeast New South Wales, Australia, to work on small, locally relevant projects with guidance from locally appointed IPL facilitators. This paper reports on the initial stages of an evaluation of this rural-based IPL intervention using the modified Freeth/Kirkpatrick's 4-level evaluation model. Students' responses were collected using a debriefing questionnaire, the Interprofessional Education Perception (IEPS) and Team Performance (TPS) scales. An audience feedback questionnaire was structured around project objectives. Seventy-nine students participated in 33 IPL teams during the evaluation period included in this study. IEPS scores increased with participation (t=2.803; p=0.007). The TPS showed a statistically significant difference between teams (ANOVA, F(31,45) = 1.982, p=0.018( and a trend toward agreement with audience perceptions of team performance. The evaluation demonstrated positive short-term outcomes suggesting benefits of this applied approach in preparing students to work interprofessionally.

  5. “Unothering” Wales. Domestication as a tourist marketing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Igor Prieto Arranz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Los turistas que visitan el País de Gales son mayoritariamente británicos y su organización nacional de turismo, la Wales Tourist Board, aunque ciertamente está intentando aumentar su cuota de visitantes extranjeros, presta especial atención a aquellos materiales promocionales destinados a una audiencia nacional británica. Dichos materiales, que han sido distinguidos con varios premios en el sector, serán el objeto del presente trabajo, que resalta en especial sus dos características principales: por una parte, su naturaleza intertextual “empotrada”; y por otra, la domesticación de todo lo que entiende por típicamente galés. Como resultado, Gales se acaba convirtiendo en una versión “agradablemente diferente” e incluso perfeccionada de Inglaterra, un claro indicador de que a quien se tiene en mente principalmente es al potencial turista inglés

  6. Mortality trends in asbestosis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, A; Hubbard, R B; Navaratnam, V

    2011-09-01

    To ascertain the trends in mortality from Asbestosis, Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) and Sarcoidosis in England and Wales, we analysed mortality data from the Office of National Statistics. We calculated age and stratum specific mortality rates between 1968 and 2008 and applied these to the 2008 population to generate annual standardised expected number of deaths. Poisson regression was used to calculate annual mortality rate ratios. From 1968 to 2008 there were 1958 registered deaths from Asbestosis, 878 deaths from EAA and 3544 deaths from Sarcoidosis. The Asbestosis mortality rate increased from 0.04 (95% CI 0.03-0.05) in the 1968-1972 calendar period to 0.12 (95% CI 0.10-0.13) in the 2005-2008 period whist the mortality from EAA increased marginally from 0.04 (95% CI 0.03-0.05) in the 1968-1972 calendar period to 0.08 (95% CI 0.07-0.09) in the 2005-2008 period. Mortality from Sarcoidosis increased by approximately 9% a year. Our findings show that the mortality from Asbestosis continues to rise in the UK. Overall mortality rates from EAA remained stable throughout the same period but it was higher in males and in older people. There was a slight increase in mortality from Sarcoidosis over the study period which was greater in women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathogens as Predictors of Honey Bee Colony Strength in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Giles E; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Brown, Mike; Laurenson, Lynn; Jones, Ben; Tomkies, Victoria; Delaplane, Keith S

    2015-01-01

    Inspectors with the UK National Bee Unit were asked for 2007-2008 to target problem apiaries in England and Wales for pathogen screening and colony strength measures. Healthy colonies were included in the sampling to provide a continuum of health conditions. A total of 406 adult bee samples was screened and yielded 7 viral, 1 bacterial, and 2 microsporidial pathogens and 1 ectoparasite (Acarapis woodi). In addition, 108 samples of brood were screened and yielded 4 honey bee viruses. Virus prevalence varied from common (deformed wing virus, black queen cell virus) to complete absence (Israeli acute paralysis virus). When colonies were forced into one of two classes, strong or weak, the weak colonies contained more pathogens in adult bees. Among observed pathogens, only deformed wing virus was able to predict colony strength. The effect was negative such that colonies testing positive for deformed wing virus were likely to have fewer combs of bees or brood. This study constitutes the first record for Nosema ceranae in Great Britain. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence linking pathogens to poor honey bee health.

  8. The use of public health e-learning resources by pharmacists in Wales: a quantitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew; Evans, Sian; Roberts, Debra

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how communicable disease e-learning resources were utilised by pharmacy professionals and to identify whether uptake of the resources was influenced by disease outbreaks. Retrospective analysis of routine data regarding the number of individuals completing e-learning resources and statutory notifications of communicable disease. A high proportion of pharmacy professionals in Wales (38.8%, n = 915/2357) accessed the resources; around one in six completed multiple resources (n = 156). The most commonly accessed were those where there had been a disease outbreak during the study period. There was a strong positive correlation between e-learning uptake and number of disease cases; this was observed both for measles and scarlet fever. Communicable disease e-learning appears to be an acceptable method for providing communicable disease information to pharmacy professionals. Study findings suggest that e-learning uptake is positively influenced by disease outbreaks this reflects well both on pharmacy professionals and on the e-learning resources themselves. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Technical note: Evaluation of the official identification system for pigs for sale in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Wu, M; Schembri, N; Holyoake, P K; Toribio, J-A L M L

    2008-02-01

    A study was undertaken at 2 saleyard (1 domestic, DS, and 1 export, ES) and 2 abattoir (1 domestic, DA, and 1 export, EA) locations in New South Wales, Australia, to assess the compliance (presence) and readability of body tattoos used to identify individual pigs presented for sale or slaughter. Each location was visited on 3 trading or slaughter days, and tattoo presence and readability of porkers (25 to 60 kg of BW), baconers (60 to 90 kg of BW), backfatters (>90 kg of BW but not for breeding), and breeders were recorded. A total of 4,655 pigs were inspected, including 158 DS, 1,599 ES, 1,257 DA, and 1,641 EA. Tattoo performance at the saleyards was influenced by producer (P 0.05) at DS. At the ES, tattoo compliance among baconers, backfatters, and breeding stock ranged from 82.4 to 88.3% and was greater (P 0.05). Tattoo compliance differed (P system was similar between locations and ranged from 63 to 74%. Our results suggest that current compliance and readability of tattoos would compromise traceback to the farm of origin in the event of an emergency animal disease outbreak. Education activities on legislation requirements and tattoo procedure would likely increase compliance and performance of the system.

  10. Vulnerability to the mortality effects of warm temperature in the districts of England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James E.; Blangiardo, Marta; Fecht, Daniela; Elliott, Paul; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-04-01

    Warm temperatures adversely affect disease occurrence and death, in extreme conditions as well as when the temperature changes are more modest. Therefore climate change, which is expected to affect both average temperatures and temperature variability, is likely to impact health even in temperate climates. Climate change risk assessment is enriched if there is information on vulnerability and resilience to effects of temperature. Some studies have analysed socio-demographic characteristics that make individuals vulnerable to adverse effects of temperature. Less is known about community-level vulnerability. We used geo-coded mortality and environmental data and Bayesian spatial methods to conduct a national small-area analysis of the mortality effects of warm temperature for all 376 districts in England and Wales. In the most vulnerable districts, those in London and south/southeast England, odds of dying from cardiorespiratory causes increased by more than 10% for 1 °C warmer temperature, compared with virtually no effect in the most resilient districts, which were in the far north. A 2 °C warmer summer may result in 1,552 (95% credible interval 1,307-1,762) additional deaths, about one-half of which would occur in 95 districts. The findings enable risk and adaptation analyses to incorporate local vulnerability to warm temperature and to quantify inequality in its effects.

  11. An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth science in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris John Henry

    2010-03-01

    Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one earth science error/misconception per page. Science syllabuses and examinations surveyed also showed errors/misconceptions. More than 500 instances of misconception were identified through the surveys. These were analysed for frequency, indicating that those areas of the earth science curriculum most prone to misconception are sedimentary processes/rocks, earthquakes/Earth's structure, and plate tectonics. For the 15 most frequent misconceptions, examples of quotes from the textbooks are given, together with the scientific consensus view, a discussion, and an example of a misconception of similar significance in another area of science. The misconceptions identified in the surveys are compared with those described in the literature. This indicates that the misconceptions found in college students and pre-service/practising science teachers are often also found in published materials, and therefore are likely to reinforce the misconceptions in teachers and their students. The analysis may also reflect the prevalence earth science misconceptions in the UK secondary (high school) science-teaching population. The analysis and discussion provide the opportunity for writers of secondary science materials to improve their work on earth science and to provide a platform for improved teaching and learning of earth science in the future.

  12. A new pupillarial scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from Angophora in coastal New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullan, Penny J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-05-30

    A new scale insect, Aolacoccus angophorae gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Eriococcidae), is described from the bark of Angophora (Myrtaceae) growing in the Sydney area of New South Wales, Australia. These insects do not produce honeydew, are not ant-tended and probably feed on cortical parenchyma. The adult female is pupillarial as it is retained within the cuticle of the penultimate (second) instar. The crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs) emerge via a flap or operculum at the posterior end of the abdomen of the second-instar exuviae. The adult and second-instar females, second-instar male and first-instar nymph, as well as salient features of the apterous adult male, are described and illustrated. The adult female of this new taxon has some morphological similarities to females of the non-pupillarial palm scale Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Phoenicococcidae), the pupillarial palm scales (Halimococcidae) and some pupillarial genera of armoured scales (Diaspididae), but is related to other Australian Myrtaceae-feeding eriococcids.

  13. Pertussis immunisation and control in England and Wales, 1957 to 2012: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirthalingam, G; Gupta, S; Campbell, H

    2013-09-19

    This review summarises the epidemiology and control of pertussis in England and Wales since the introduction of routine immunisation and considers the implications for future control. Routine infant immunisation with a whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine was introduced in 1957 and had a marked impact on the overall disease burden. Following a fall in vaccine coverage during the 1970s and 80s linked to a safety scare with wP vaccine, there was an extended period of high coverage and pertussis incidence fell dramatically. Incidence continued to decrease with the introduction of an acellular pertussis vaccine in the pre-school booster in November 2001 and in the primary United Kingdom (UK) schedule in September 2004 but has increased since July 2011. In response to a high rate of pertussis in infants, a temporary vaccination programme for pregnant women was introduced in October 2012. The key aim of the programme is to protect vulnerable infants from birth in the first months of life, before they can be fully protected by routine infant immunisation. A review of the UK adolescent immunisation programme is currently ongoing and the inclusion of a pertussis booster is being considered.

  14. Short-term changes in upland soil erosion in England and Wales: 1999 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Marianne

    2007-04-01

    Erosion was assessed on upland sites between October 2001 and June 2002, and compared with measurements of erosion made at the same sites during previous visits (1999). In addition to highlighting the scale of changes in erosion extent and nature over the sample period, the data were used to determine the influence of field site management and weather conditions on upland erosion. Results indicated that site erosion continued over the duration of the study, with most upland regions of England and Wales experiencing increases in erosion area and volume. On 52% of the 139 sites surveyed, increases in erosion extent resulted in 705 m 2 of newly exposed soil. Sheep were identified as the most frequent cause of this increased erosion, although the impacts of humans (through vehicle access, footpaths and drainage) were also extensive. Water-driven erosion processes were also prevalent in the maintenance of bare soil, both alone and in combination with other factors such as sheep, walkers and general weather conditions. Revegetation of bare soil was also an important feature of upland sites, resulting in a net decrease in erosion area on 63% of sites. The implications of these changes in erosion are discussed in the light of continuing changes in land use and management in the UK uplands, particularly those of reform of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and in view of predicted changes in climate.

  15. The historical development of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales: a symbiotic relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2014-04-01

    The paper explores the backward and forward linkage between HCL and bioethics. Indeed, the relationship between the two is so close that it can be considered one of symbiosis. This is particularly the case when an account is taken of how HCL and bioethics positively benefitted from each other in diverse ways during their development into their present status as discrete disciplines. In the first place, the aftermath of the Second World War, such as the Nuremberg trial and unprecedented medical experiment scandals in the 1960s/70s fuelled the increasing participation of lay scholars in exploring and critiquing medical ethics which culminated in the emergence ofbioethics.2 This in turn facilitated the evolution of HCL as a discipline, since academic lawyers involved in early bioethical discourse developed interest in exploring the interface between law and bioethics at the same time that society was waking up to the ethical implications of medical advances. As HCL emerged as a discrete discipline, it consolidated the status of bioethics as a field of inquiry by projecting the relevance of the latter in adjudication of novel cases with significant slippery moral undertones. Thus, the chicken and egg paradox finds a perfect reflection in the emergence of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales.

  16. Preferable binding site of gas molecules on graphene nanoribbon with Stone–Wales defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzar, Zuriana; Johari, Zaharah; Sakina, S. H.; Alias, N. E.; Abidin, M. S. Z.

    2017-02-01

    The issue of sensitivity of sensing device has focused on the development of sensing devices by using new materials, such as graphene. The gas molecules in different positions such as on, near and far from the defect are placed in the same binding site in two graphene configurations for fair comparison. The interaction between two different graphene configurations such as (pristine armchair graphene nanoribbon (P-AGNR) and Stone–Wales defect on graphene surface (SW-AGNR)) with gas molecules (e.g. O2, N2 and NH3) have been investigated to observe the preferential position site of adsorbate gas molecules. The preferable position sites are investigated by using Extended-Huckel Theory. It is found that, the electronic properties of each configuration are strongly depends on the position of gas molecules and graphene system. Meanwhile, the binding site of the gas molecules on the defective site of graphene surface is a significant factor in determining the sensing behavior of graphene based gas defection device.

  17. Coccidian parasites of intertidal fishes from Wales: systematics, development, and cytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A J

    1978-02-01

    Examination of littoral fish Blennius pholis and Cottus bubalis caught at Aberystwyth and Porth Cwyfan, Wales, U.K. revealed 2 species of coccidia. Eimeria dingleyi sp. n. Oocysts spherical (16.1-19.2) to subspherical (13.9-14.2 X 18.8-20.0) micron, with thin walls; sporulation outside the host to produce ellipsoid sporocysts; endogenous phases in epithelial cells throughout intestine; 26 of 58 B. pholis infected. Eimeria variabilis (Théohan) Reichenow. Oocysts spherical (11.9-14.6) to subspherical (9.2-10.9 X 13.9-14.3) micron, sporulation in lining of pyloric ceca and rectum; previously unrecorded schizonts and gametocytes present; 21 of 25 C. bubalis infected. Electron microscopy revealed that the oocyst wall of E. variabilis consists of a thin membrane whereas the sporocyst wall is thick and 3-layered. Typical oocyst wall-forming bodies were absent from the macrogamete. Cytochemical tests on the endogenous stages of E. dingleyi and E. variabilis indicated that in general they resembled other coccidia in their chemical constitution.

  18. Family Provision and Family Practices - The Discretionary Regime of the Inheritance Act of England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Douglas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discretionary ‘family provision’ jurisdiction in England and Wales. It considers how the criteria governing eligibility to make a claim, and the principles and rationales underlying the exercise of the court’s powers, shed light on what we understand as ‘family’ relationships and the fluidity between family structure and family practices. It argues that the law can and does operate dynamically and responsively to determine which kinds of relationships and what qualities of emotional or supportive bonds, should be recognised as giving rise to a ‘sense of obligation’ to provide financial support after a death in the family. Este artículo analiza la jurisdicción las "provisiones familiares" discrecionales en Inglaterra y Gales. Considera que los criterios de elegibilidad para presentar una reclamación, y los principios y razones que subyacen bajo el ejercicio de los poderes del tribunal, arrojan luz sobre lo que entendemos como relaciones “familiares” y la fluidez entre la estructura familiar y las prácticas familiares. Se argumenta que la ley puede, y de hecho opera, de forma dinámica y responsable para determinar qué tipo de relaciones y qué cualidades tienen los vínculos emocionales o de apoyo, y se debe reconocer que genera “un sentido de obligación” de prestar apoyo financiero después de una muerte en la familia.

  19. Dental fluorosis in the Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ikreet S; Dennison, Peter J; Evans, R Wendell

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the adjustment of the fluoride concentration to 1 ppm in the drinking water supplied to the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia in 1993 was associated with fluorosis incidence. In 2003, children attending schools in the Blue Mountains and a control region (fluoridated in 1967) that had been randomly selected at baseline in 1992 were examined for dental fluorosis (maxillary central incisors only) using Dean's index. A fluoride history for each child was obtained by questionnaire. Associations between fluorosis and 58 potential explanatory variables were explored. The response rate was 63%. A total of 1138 children aged from 7 to 11 years with erupted permanent central incisors were examined for dental fluorosis. Fluorosis prevalence was the same in both regions. The Community Index of Dental Fluorosis values were slightly different, but were both above 0.6, indicative of public health concern. For the group as a whole, we concluded that: (a) fluorosis prevalence (0.39) in both regions was similar; and (b) the higher-than-expected prevalence and severity of fluorosis was due mainly to two factors: (a) the higher-than-optimal fluoride level in drinking water; and (b) swallowing of fluoride toothpaste in early childhood. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Tunnelling characteristics of Stone-Wales defects in monolayers of Sn and group-V elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdagni, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Thakur, Anil; Pandey, Ravindra; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2017-10-01

    Topological defects in ultrathin layers are often formed during synthesis and processing, thereby strongly influencing the electronic properties of layered systems. For the monolayers of Sn and group-V elements, we report the results based on density functional theory determining the role of Stone-Wales (SW) defects in modifying their electronic properties. The calculated results find the electronic properties of the Sn monolayer to be strongly dependent on the concentration of SW defects, e.g. defective stanene has nearly zero band gap (≈0.03 eV) for the defect concentration of 2.2  ×  1013 cm-2 which opens up to 0.2 eV for the defect concentration of 3.7  ×  1013 cm-2. In contrast, SW defects appear to induce conduction states in the semiconducting monolayers of group-V elements. These conduction states act as channels for electron tunnelling, and the calculated tunnelling characteristics show the highest differential conductance for the negative bias with the asymmetric current-voltage characteristics. On the other hand, the highest differential conductance was found for the positive bias in stanene. Simulated STM topographical images of stanene and group-V monolayers show distinctly different features in terms of their cross-sectional views and distance-height profiles. These distinctive features can serve as fingerprints to identify the topological defects in experiments for the monolayers of group-IV and group-V elements.

  1. Whole Genome Sequencing Demonstrates Limited Transmission within Identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clusters in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjav, Ulziijargal; Outhred, Alexander C.; Jelfs, Peter; McCallum, Nadine; Wang, Qinning; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Marais, Ben J.; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a low tuberculosis incidence rate with most cases occurring among recent immigrants. Given suboptimal cluster resolution achieved with 24-locus mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) genotyping, the added value of whole genome sequencing was explored. MIRU-24 profiles of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were examined and clusters identified. The relatedness of cases within the largest MIRU-24 clusters was assessed using whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Of 1841 culture-confirmed TB cases, 91.9% (1692/1841) had complete demographic and genotyping data. East-African Indian (474; 28.0%) and Beijing (470; 27.8%) lineage strains predominated. The overall rate of MIRU-24 clustering was 20.1% (340/1692) and was highest among Beijing lineage strains (35.7%; 168/470). One Beijing and three East-African Indian (EAI) clonal complexes were responsible for the majority of observed clusters. Whole genome sequencing of the 4 largest clusters (30 isolates) demonstrated diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within identified clusters. All sequenced EAI strains and 70% of Beijing lineage strains clustered by MIRU-24 typing demonstrated distinct SNP profiles. The superior resolution provided by whole genome sequencing demonstrated limited M. tuberculosis transmission within NSW, even within identified MIRU-24 clusters. Routine whole genome sequencing could provide valuable public health guidance in low burden settings. PMID:27737005

  2. Anisotropic compressive response of Stone-Thrower-Wales defects in graphene: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, G.; Parashar, Avinash

    2016-09-01

    The mechanical properties of graphene sheet can be tailored with the help of topological defects. In this research article, the effects of Stone-Thrower-Wales (STW) defects on the mechanical properties of graphene sheet was investigated with the help of molecular dynamics based simulations. Authors has made an attempt to analyse the stress field developed in and around the vicinity of defect due to bond reorientation and further systematic evaluation has been carried out to study the effect of these stress fields against the applied axial compressive load. The results obtained with the pristine graphene were made to compare with the available open literature and the results were reported to be in good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. It was predicted that graphene with STW defect cannot able to bear compressive strength in zigzag direction, whereas on the other hand it was predicted that graphene sheet containing STW defect can bear higher compressive load in armchair direction, which shows an anisotropic response of STW defects in graphene. From the obtained results it can be observed that orientation of STW defects and the loading direction plays an important role to alter the strength of graphene under axial compression.

  3. The occurrence of groundwater in the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of upland Central Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of boreholes of up to 50 m depth, drilled into Lower Palaeozoic mudstone, shale and greywacke bedrock in the headwater catchment areas of the River Severn at Plynlimon in Central Wales, shows an extensive chemically- and hydrologically-active shallow groundwater fracture flow system. Groundwater chemistry varies in space and time with lowest water levels and highest alkalinities occurring during the drier summer months. The groundwaters are enriched in base cations, silica, sulphate and alkalinity relative to surface waters indicating significant silicate weathering sources and sulphide oxidation. These sources provide important contributions to both stream water quality and flow. At one site, the introduction of a borehole near to the main river opened bedrock fractures which increased the amount of groundwater entering the river. This had a profound effect on the river water quality by increasing the pH, alkalinity and calcium concentrations. As well as pointing to the possibility of the wider availability of groundwater resources in upland areas, the results highlight (a the potential value of groundwater as a acid neutralizing resource, (b the importance of weathering processes and flow routing within the groundwater environment for stream water chemistry, (c the potential for altering stream water quality by manipulation of groundwater routing and (d the need to include groundwater characteristics in hydrochemical management models of surface water acidification.

  4. The cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women against seasonal influenza in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Cromer, Deborah; Baguelin, Marc; Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth

    2010-12-10

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women against seasonal influenza in England and Wales, taking into account the timing of vaccination relative to both the influenza season and trimester of pregnancy. Women were assumed to be vaccinated in their second or third trimester. Vaccination between September and December was found to have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £23,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) (95% CI £10,000-£140,000) if it is assumed that infants are partially protected through their mothers, and of £28,000 per QALY gained (95% CI £13,000-£200,000) if infants are not protected. If some vaccine protection lasts for a second season, then the ratio is only £15,000 per QALY gained (95% CI £6,000-£93,000). Most of the benefit of vaccination is in preventing symptomatic episodes, regardless of health care resource use. Extending vaccination beyond December is unlikely to be cost-effective unless there is good protection into a second influenza season. Key sources of uncertainty are the cost of vaccine delivery and the quality of life detriment due to a clinically apparent episode of confirmed influenza. The cost of vaccine purchase itself is relatively low.

  5. A Review of the Impact of the Human Rights in Healthcare Programme in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Lindsey

    2015-12-10

    This article provides the background to an analysis of the Human Rights in Healthcare Programme in England and Wales. Using evidence from source materials, summary publications, and official reports, it charts a small but important change in the relationship between health and human rights and shows how a small number of National Health Service organizations used a human rights-based approach (HRBA) to develop resources aimed at improving the quality of health services and health outcomes. Through a case study of one participating organization, it examines the development of approaches to measuring the outcomes and impacts of HRBAs. The article argues that because of the way the Programme was set up, it is not likely to provide the level of evidence of impact required to bring about a profound change in the relationship between human rights and health care. There is a need for a different approach that considers the big human rights questions that need to be asked. Copyright © 2015 Dyer. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  6. Profenofos residues in wild fish from cotton-growing areas of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Chapman, J C

    2001-01-01

    The organophosphorus (OP) pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) is used heavily in cotton-growing areas of eastern Australia toward the end of the growing season. European carp (Cyprinus carpio), bony bream (Nematalosa erebi), and mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were collected from the cotton-growing areas around Wee Waa, New South Wales, to determine the relationship between profenofos residues and acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity in wild fish. Profenofos concentrations in water, sediment, and fish tissue reflected its general level of use; levels in March 1994 were significantly higher than in 1993 and generally decreased in May, 6 wk after cessation of spraying. Residues in carp and bony bream generally correlated with concentrations in water and sediment, although residues in fish tend to persist longer at some sites. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was a useful indicator of profenofos exposure within a season, particularly if linked with residue measurements. Bony bream and gravid female mosquitofish recovered AChE levels more slowly than carp or nongravid mosquitofish. Recovery in creeks was generally more rapid than in lagoons.

  7. Characteristics of and trends in subgroups of prisoner suicides in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, N; Piper, M; Appleby, L; Shaw, J

    2011-11-01

    The suicide rate is higher in prisoners compared with the general population. The aim was to describe the characteristics of and longitudinal trends in prisoner suicides in England and Wales. A case series was ascertained from the Safer Custody and Offender Policy Group at the Ministry of Justice and included a 9-year (1999-2007) national census of prisoner suicides. Questionnaires were completed by prison staff on sociodemographic, custodial, clinical and service-level characteristics of the suicides. There was a fall in the number of prison suicides and a decline in the proportion of young prisoner (18-20 years) suicides over time. Females were over-represented. Upward trends were found in prisoners with a history of violence and with previous mental health service contact. A downward trend was found in those with a primary psychiatric diagnosis of drug dependence. Drug dependence was found to be significant in explaining suicides within the first week of custody. The findings provide an important insight to aid a target set in the National Suicide Prevention Strategy in England to reduce suicides in the prisoner population by 20% and highlight an important area for policy development in mental health services. Examining trends identified subgroups that may require improved mental healthcare and recognized those that appeared to be having their treatment needs more adequately met. Evidence suggests that targeted suicide prevention strategies for subgroups of prisoners are required.

  8. Insomnia management in prisons in England and Wales: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Lindsay H; Hassan, Lamiece; Shaw, Jenny J; Senior, Jane

    2017-02-27

    Insomnia in prison is common; however, research is limited regarding the management strategies that prison establishments employ. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a survey to identify how insomnia is detected, diagnosed and treated in adult prisons in England and Wales. Telephone interviews with a purposive sample of health-care managers were then conducted. The survey was sent to all establishments holding adult prisoners, covering screening and assessment methods to detect insomnia; treatment options, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological; the importance of insomnia as a treatable condition; and staff training available. Eighty-four (73%) prisons completed the survey. Few had a stepped approach to insomnia management, as recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. The most common treatments available were sleep hygiene education and medication, offered by 94 and 88% of respondents, respectively. Analysis of telephone interviews revealed four main themes: insomnia as a normal occurrence in prison; the problem of medication in prison; the negative impact of the prison environment; and effective management of insomnia in prison. The current findings suggest that logistical, ethical and security barriers and a lack of staff knowledge and training impact negatively on the management of insomnia in prison.

  9. Urban and Rural—Population and Energy Consumption Dynamics in Local Authorities within England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Arbabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of feasible and pragmatic policies that mitigate climate change would require a thorough understanding of the interconnectivity that exists between environment, energy, and the composition of our settlements both urban and rural. This study explores the patterns of energy consumption in England and Wales by investigating consumption behavior within domestic and transport sectors as a function of city characteristics, such as population, density, and density distribution for 346 Local Authority Units (LAU. Patterns observed linking energetic behavior of these LAUs to their respective population and area characteristics highlight some distinctly contrasting consumption behaviors within urban and rural zones. This provides an overview of the correlation between urban/rural status, population, and energy consumption and highlights points of interest for further research and policy intervention. The findings show that energy consumption across cities follows common power law scaling increasing sub-linearly with their population regardless of their urban/rural classification. However, when considering per capita and sector specific consumptions, decreasing per capita consumption patterns are observed for growing population densities within more uniformly populated urban LAUs. This is while rural and sparsely populated LAUs exhibit sharply different patterns for gas, electricity, and transport per capita consumption.

  10. Replacing Trains with Coaches: Implications for Social Inclusion in Rural New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the future of New South Wales (NSW regional train services under question, concern has been expressed that replacement of trains with coaches will diminish levels of mobility and raise social exclusion for some people. Provision has been made on coaches for people considered to be disabled, but without recognition of the needs of people who do not fit either able or disabled categorisation. All train services offer better accessibility and therefore mobility to all people. The issue of regional train service cessation and replacement raises questions regarding the reliability of existing Australian studies about train service replacement, the degree to which health and illness are affected, as well as the potential for the exacerbation of existing social exclusion. An examination of the literature and some historical investigation undertaken by the authors highlights these limitations amid the ableism/disablism dualism in existing research and rural transport policy. The paper further suggests that the absence of Australian evidence of mobility loss should not be taken to indicate the reality of regional mobility and social inclusion. Instead the paper argues that further independent mobility loss and social exclusion may occur if coaches are further substituted for regional train services. Keywords: Public transport, disability, rural Australia, regional Australia, social inclusion, social policy, transport history

  11. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  12. Current situation of research and prospects of human amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells%羊水多潜能干细胞的研究现状及前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾潇; 陈必良

    2011-01-01

    由于强大的自我更新能力和多向分化的潜能,多潜能干细胞被广泛应用于再生医学的研究.胚胎干细胞的研究因伦理道德问题而受到限制.羊水多潜能干细胞的发现为多潜能干细胞的研究开辟了新的领域,引起了广大学者的关注.该文就羊水多潜能干细胞的生物学性状、分化潜能、临床应用前景等予以综述.%Because of a strong serf-renewal ability and multiplex differentiation potential, multipotential stem cells are widely used in researches on regenerative medicine. The research on embryonic stem cell is restricted because of ethical issues. The discovery of amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells has open up a new field for multipotential stem cell research, and attracted attention of scholars. The article reviewed biological characteristics, differentiation potentiality and future clinical application of amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells.

  13. Quantifying Holocene Coastal Retreat From River Morphology in Southern England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, M.; Mudd, S. M.; Hurst, M. D.; Crickmore, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Southern England and Wales have been undergoing subsidence since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, with average rates varying between 0.5 and 1.2 mm/yr over the last 10 ka (Shennan and Horton, 2002). Rivers typically respond to subsidence by aggrading (e.g., Ishihara et al., 2012), yet many English and Welsh rivers incise into bedrock at their outlet and exhibit river profiles convexities typical of systems experiencing a drop in base level (e.g., Snyder et al., 2002; Attal et al., 2011). Scientists have proposed that coastal erosion could result in such river morphology (Snyder et al., 2002; Leyland & Darby, 2008, 2009). We combine modelling with topographic analysis of a series of basins along the coast of Southern England and Wales to test whether coastal erosion could explain the occurrence of rivers incising into bedrock at the coast. We further assess whether the distribution of such rivers and the shape of river profiles could be used to constrain amounts of coastal erosion during the Holocene. Within zones characterized by similar lithologies and coastal exposure (i.e. the orientation of the coast and the type of water body it faces), we find that rivers with the smallest basins incise into bedrock at their mouth while rivers with the largest basins experience aggradation. The transition between these two types of basins occurs at a consistent basin size. This signal conforms to model predictions, assuming that the slope of rivers at the coast decreases with increasing basin size. Whereas rivers in basins comprising igneous and/or metamorphic rocks tend to be steeper than rivers flowing on sedimentary bedrock, we find that the critical drainage area does not vary significantly with varying lithology, suggesting that other factors such as spatial variations in coastal retreat exert a stronger control on the spatial distribution of the two types of rivers throughout the study area. Reconstruction of river profiles prior to base level rise allows estimates

  14. Buckley Sgraffito: a study of a 17th century pottery industry in North Wales, its production techniques and design influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Longworth

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The area around Buckley in north Wales has been associated with the production of pottery since the 13th or 14th centuries. Nineteen different pottery sites have been identified, producing a wide range of ceramic wares in the six-hundred year period up to the mid-20th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, many of the wares produced were of high quality, on a par with Staffordshire wares of the same date. In the early 17th century, the technique of sgraffito decoration spread to north Devon and Somerset from mainland Europe. Buckley is the only known site to produce early sgraffito wares in northern Britain. This article aims to establish the date of the production and range of early sgraffito wares at Buckley and to examine the derivation of the designs and illustrations on the vessels. An illustrated catalogue has been produced and a comparative study made of sgraffito wares elsewhere to place Buckley into a national and international context. The results show that early sgraffito production at Brookhill pottery, Buckley, was between 1640-1720. Of the excavated pieces, 62% were made between 1640-1680, and the number of sherds by vessel number is also greater within that date range. All the vessels are dishes. The form and designs on the remainder of the sherds, dated up to 1720, are no different from those dated to 1640-1680, which suggests a continuous period of production. The most common themes on the pots – tulips, leaves, mottoes, animals and birds – relate very closely to the designs featured on other objects made in the same period such as textiles, wallpaper, furniture and manuscripts. Some of the designs were available in pattern books for particular groups of objects, for example needlework and pastry decoration. There is an interesting sub-group of pieces with animal and bird motifs and mottoes on the rims. It is possible that the influence for these came from a resurgence of interest in the medieval bestiary texts and

  15. Age at marriage and the risk of divorce in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lampard

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A well-documented association exists between age at marriage and the risk of divorce. However, substantial gaps in our knowledge and understanding of ist origins, nature, and implications still exist. OBJECTIVE This article documents the relationship between women's ages at first marriage and marriage cohort divorce rates, assessing the importance of relative ages at marriage (based on rankings within marriage cohorts and of absolute, chronological ages at marriage, and evaluating the contribution of changes in the age at marriage distribution to observed divorce rates. METHODS Direct standardisation and logistic regression analyses are applied to published marriage and divorce data for the 1974-1994 marriage cohorts in England and Wales. RESULTS Changing ages at marriage appear to have constrained the rise in divorce across the cohorts examined. However, the results suggest that much of the impact of age at marriage is linked to relative ages, reducing the extent of this 'braking' effect. It also appears that a positive effect of relative age at marriage on the risk of divorce for later marriages is outweighed by the negative effect of absolute age at marriage at higher ages. CONCLUSIONS Both explanations relating to 'maturity' and explanations focusing on 'selection' or 'marriage markets' appear of relevance to the association between age at marriage and divorce. COMMENTS The data source provides over five million cases; however, it does not provide any scope to control for cohabitation, education, etc., and the analyses are restricted to divorces within about ten years of marriage. Further, related studies would be useful.

  16. Is bigger better? An empirical analysis of waste management in New South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Pedro, E-mail: pedrotcc@gmail.com [LAMEMO Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE/UFRJ, Av. Pedro Calmon – Ilha do Fundão, 21941-596 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); CESUR – Center for Urban and Regional Systems, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Marques, Rui Cunha, E-mail: rui.marques@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [CESUR – Center for Urban and Regional Systems, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Dollery, Brian, E-mail: bdollery@une.edu.au [CLG – Centre for Local Government, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia); Faculty of Economics, Yokohama National University (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We search for the most efficient cost structure for NSW household waste services. • We found that larger services are no longer efficient. • We found an optimal size for the range 12,000–20,000 inhabitants. • We found significant economies of output density for household waste collection. • We found economies of scope in joint provision of unsorted and recycling services. - Abstract: Across the world, rising demand for municipal solid waste services has seen an ongoing increase in the costs of providing these services. Moreover, municipal waste services have typically been provided through natural or legal monopolies, where few incentives exist to reduce costs. It is thus vital to examine empirically the cost structure of these services in order to develop effective public policies which can make these services more cost efficient. Accordingly, this paper considers economies of size and economies of output density in the municipal waste collection sector in the New South Wales (NSW) local government system in an effort to identify the optimal size of utilities from the perspective of cost efficiency. Our results show that – as presently constituted – NSW municipal waste services are not efficient in terms of costs, thereby demonstrating that ‘bigger is not better.’ The optimal size of waste utilities is estimated to fall in the range 12,000–20,000 inhabitants. However, significant economies of output density for unsorted (residual) municipal waste collection and recycling waste collection were found, which means it is advantageous to increase the amount of waste collected, but maintaining constant the number of customers and the intervention area.

  17. Legislating thresholds for drug trafficking: a policy development case study from New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Ritter, Alison; Cowdery, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    Legal thresholds are used in many parts of the world to define the quantity of illicit drugs over which possession is deemed "trafficking" as opposed to "possession for personal use". There is limited knowledge about why or how such laws were developed. In this study we analyse the policy processes underpinning the introduction and expansion of the drug trafficking legal threshold system in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A critical legal and historical analysis was undertaken sourcing data from legislation, Parliamentary Hansard debates, government inquiries, police reports and research. A timeline of policy developments was constructed from 1970 until 2013 outlining key steps including threshold introduction (1970), expansion (1985), and wholesale revision (1988). We then critically analysed the drivers of each step and the roles played by formal policy actors, public opinion, research/data and the drug trafficking problem. We find evidence that while justified as a necessary tool for effective law enforcement of drug trafficking, their introduction largely preceded overt police calls for reform or actual increases in drug trafficking. Moreover, while the expansion from one to four thresholds had the intent of differentiating small from large scale traffickers, the quantities employed were based on government assumptions which led to "manifest problems" and the revision in 1988 of over 100 different quantities. Despite the revisions, there has remained no further formal review and new quantities for "legal highs" continue to be added based on assumption and an uncertain evidence-base. The development of legal thresholds for drug trafficking in NSW has been arbitrary and messy. That the arbitrariness persists from 1970 until the present day makes it hard to conclude the thresholds have been well designed. Our narrative provides a platform for future policy reform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil governance in the agricultural landscapes of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A Webb

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a valuable natural resource. In the state of New South Wales, Australia, the governance of soil has evolved since Federation in 1901. Following rapid agricultural development, and in the face of widespread soil degradation, the establishment of the Soil Conservation Service marked a turning point in the management of soil. Throughout the 20th century, advances in knowledge were translated into evolving governance frameworks that were largely reactionary but saw progressive reforms such as water pollution legislation and case studies of catchment-scale land and vegetation management. In the 21st century, significant reforms have embedded sustainable use of agricultural soils within catchment- and landscape-scale legislative and institutional frameworks. What is clear, however, is that a multitude of governance strategies and models are utilised in NSW. No single governance model is applicable to all situations because it is necessary to combine elements of several different mechanisms or instruments to achieve the most desired outcomes. Where an industry, such as the sugar industry, has taken ownership of an issue such as acid sulfate soil management, self-regulation has proven to be extremely effective. In the case of co-managing agricultural soils with other landuses, such as mining, petroleum exploration and urban development, regulation, compliance and enforcement mechanisms have been preferred. Institutional arrangements in the form of independent commissioners have also played a role. At the landscape or total catchment level, it is clear that a mix of mechanisms is required. Fundamental, however, to the successful evolution of soil governance is strategic investment in soil research and development that informs the ongoing productive use of agricultural landscapes while preventing land degradation or adverse environmental effects.

  19. Increasing reports of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 1995-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobniewski Francis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-tuberculous mycobacteria have long been identified as capable of causing human disease and the number at risk, due to immune-suppression, is rising. Several reports have suggested incidence to be increasing, yet routine surveillance-based evidence is lacking. We investigated recent trends in, and the epidemiology of, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 1995-2006. Methods Hospital laboratories voluntarily report non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections to the Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections. Details reported include age and sex of the patient, species, specimen type and source laboratory. All reports were analysed. Results The rate of non-tuberculous mycobacteria reports rose from 0.9 per 100,000 population in 1995 to 2.9 per 100,000 in 2006 (1608 reports. Increases were mainly in pulmonary specimens and people aged 60+ years. The most commonly reported species was Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (43%; M. malmoense and M. kansasii were also commonly reported. M. gordonae showed the biggest increase over the study period rising from one report in 1995 to 153 in 2006. Clinical information was rarely reported. Conclusions The number and rate of reports increased considerably between 1995 and 2006, primarily in older age groups and pulmonary specimens. Increases in some species are likely to be artefacts but real changes in more pathogenic species, some of which will require clinical care, should not be excluded. Enhanced surveillance is needed to understand the true epidemiology of these infections and their impact on human health.

  20. Asthma deaths in children in New South Wales 2004-2013: Could we have done more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A; Gillis, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the deaths of children from asthma in New South Wales (NSW) over the last 10 years and ascertain whether there were modifiable factors that could have prevented the deaths. The hospital medical records, coronial reports, immunisation records and all relevant correspondence from general practitioners, medical specialists and hospitals were reviewed for children who died with asthma in the 10 years (2004-2013). In 10 years, there were 20 deaths (0-7 per year) with a male predominance (70%) occurring in children aged 4-17 years. Sixteen (80%) had persistent asthma and 4 (20%) had intermittent asthma. The majority (55%) had been hospitalised for asthma in the preceding 12 months, 25% in the preceding 6 weeks. The majority (55%) was aged 10-14 years. Ninety percent were atopic. Psychosocial issues were identified in the majority (55%) of families. Forty percent had a child protection history. Seventy-five percent had consulted a general practitioner in the year before their death, 45% had a current written asthma action plan and 50% had not seen a paediatrician ever in relation to their asthma. Of the 16 children at school, the schools were aware of the asthma in 14 (88%) cases, but only half had copies of written asthma plans. Improved communication and oversight between health-care providers, education and community protection agencies could reduce mortality from asthma in children. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. How good is New South Wales admitted patient data collection in recording births?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    This record linkage study aims to examine the coding concordance of delivery outcome and discharge status between the New South Wales (NSW) Midwives Data Collection (MDC) and Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC) as well as factors that contribute to hospital births not being recorded in the APDC. Births recorded in the APDC and MDC datasets for the calendar year 2005 were used for analysis. Births registered in the NSW Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages for the same period were used as validation. Descriptive analysis was used to examine coding concordance between the APDC and MDC datasets for matched records, and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with hospital births not being included in the APDC. A total of 90,585 unique births were recorded in the MDC for the calendar year 2005. A total of 79,173 confirmed hospital births were matched to corresponding records in the APDC; 2,249 (3%) confirmed hospital births were not found in the APDC. For unmatched records, logistic regression analyses showed that the level of obstetric hospital in which babies were born was a significant factor associated with information not being recorded in the APDC. As compared with local, small isolated, and small metropolitan hospitals (Levels 1 to 3 hospitals), larger tertiary hospitals (Levels 4 to 6) and private hospitals had decreased odds of hospital births not being recorded in the APDC. For matched records, 95% and 99% of records were found to be coded consistently between the APDC and MDC datasets for outcome of delivery and discharge status respectively. With a high level of coding concordance between the APDC and MDC datasets and only a small percentage of hospital births not being recorded in the APDC, the obstetrics subset of the APDC dataset was found to be of good quality.

  2. Association of climate drivers with rainfall in New South Wales, Australia, using Bayesian Model Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Rivett, Kelly; MacSween, Katrina; Le-Anh, Linh

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall in New South Wales (NSW), located in the southeast of the Australian continent, is known to be influenced by four major climate drivers: the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Many studies have shown the influences of ENSO, IPO modulation, SAM and IOD on rainfall in Australia and on southeast Australia in particular. However, only limited work has been undertaken using a multiple regression framework to examine the extent of the combined effect of these climate drivers on rainfall. This paper analysed the role of these combined climate drivers and their interaction on the rainfall in NSW using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to account for model uncertainty by considering each of the linear models across the whole model space which is equal to the set of all possible combinations of predictors to find the model posterior probabilities and their expected predictor coefficients. Using BMA for linear regression models, we are able to corroborate and confirm the results from many previous studies. In addition, the method gives the ranking order of importance and the probability of the association of each of the climate drivers and their interaction on the rainfall at a site. The ability to quantify the relative contribution of the climate drivers offers the key to understand the complex interaction of drivers on rainfall, or lack of rainfall in a region, such as the three big droughts in southeastern Australia which have been the subject of discussion and debate recently on their causes.

  3. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2011-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries given the ongoing debate in Australia as to the efficacy of this measure at a population level. We used hospital admissions data from New South Wales, Australia, from a 36 month period centred at the time legislation came into effect. Negative binomial regression of hospital admission counts of head and limb injuries to cyclists were performed to identify differential changes in head and limb injury rates at the time of legislation. Interaction terms were included to allow different trends between injury types and pre- and post-law time periods. To avoid the issue of lack of cyclist exposure data, we assumed equal exposures between head and limb injuries which allowed an arbitrary proxy exposure to be used in the model. As a comparison, analyses were also performed for pedestrian data to identify which of the observed effects were specific to cyclists. In general, the models identified a decreasing trend in injury rates prior to legislation, an increasing trend thereafter and a drop in rates at the time legislation was enacted, all of which were thought to represent background effects in transport safety. Head injury rates decreased significantly more than limb injury rates at the time of legislation among cyclists but not among pedestrians. This additional benefit was attributed to compulsory helmet legislation. Despite numerous data limitations, we identified evidence of a positive effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries at a population level such that repealing the law cannot be justified.

  4. NATO Summit in Wales: From global megatrends to the new Euro-Atlanticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Lidija Čehulić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous representatives of theories of international relations, security theories or alliance theories have examined the new role of the North Atlantic Alliance or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO in the post-bipolar world. Parallel with the theoretical examination of goals and tasks, NATO has transformed itself in practice, following the realities of the contemporary global era. In trying to achieve and keep the primacy of the strongest military- political organization, the Alliance has - especially in the Strategic Concept adopted in Lisbon in 2010-set the normative and institutional foundations of its global engagement, fulfilling the military (hard and a wide array of non-military (soft security challenges. This strategy has given rise to "Euro-Atlanticism", as a subsystem of international relations based on strong American-European relations, to fit with the process of regionalization of global politics. However, the 2013-2014 crisis in Ukraine has turned the focus of interest and activities of NATO once again primarily to Europe and it has stressed the importance and necessity of strengthening Euro-Atlantic security and defence ties. The most powerful member of the Alliance, the United States, is again strongly engaged in Europe and Russia, as a kind of successor to the Soviet Union, is once more detected as a major threat to European security. There have been many aspects of theories of international relations that have tried to explain the dynamic of the post-Cold War international community. However, the approach based on neo-realistic assumptions of the role of a security community, collective defence and the use of military force has proved to be dominant. NATO will continue to work on its political dimension as an alliance of the democratic world and the September 2014 Wales Summit will certainly mark the return of NATO to its roots, strengthening its security and military dimensions in the collective defence of Europe

  5. Assessing Embayed Equilibrium State, Beach Rotation and Environmental Forcing Influences; Tenby Southwest Wales, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphological change of a headland bay beach—Tenby, West Wales, UK—was analysed over a 73-year period (1941–2014. Geo-referenced aerial photographs were used to extract shoreline positions which were subsequently compared with wave models based on storm event data. From the 1941 baseline, results showed shoreline change rates reduced over time with regression models enabling a prediction of shoreline equilibrium circa 2061. Further temporal analyses showed southern and central sector erosion and northern accretion, while models identified long-term plan-form rotation, i.e., a negative phase relationship between beach extremities and a change from negative to positive correlation within the more stable central sector. Models were then used in conjunction with an empirical 2nd order polynomial equation to predict the 2061 longshore equilibrium shoreline position under current environmental conditions. Results agreed with previous regional research which showed that dominant south and southwesterly wave regimes influence south to north longshore drift with counter drift generated by less dominant easterly regimes. The equilibrium shoreline was also used to underpin flood and inundation assessments, identifying areas at risk and strategies to increase resilience. UK shoreline management plans evaluate coastal vulnerability based upon temporal epochs of 20, 50 and 100 years. Therefore, this research evaluating datasets spanning 73 years has demonstrated the effectiveness of linear regression in integrating temporal and spatial consequences of sea level rise and storms. The developed models can be used to predict future shoreline positions aligned with shoreline management plan epochs and inform embayed beach shoreline assessments at local, regional and international scales, by identifying locations of vulnerability and enabling the development of management strategies to improve resilience under scenarios of sea level rise and climate

  6. Knowledge of and attitudes to sports drinks of adolescents living in South Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, R M; Broughton, D; Morgan, M Z

    2017-06-23

    Background The UK sports drinks market has a turnover in excess of £200 million. Adolescents consume 15.6% of total energy as free sugars, much higher than the recommended 5%. Sugar sweetened beverages, including sports drinks, account for 30% of total free sugar intake for those aged 11-18 years.Objective To investigate children's knowledge and attitudes surrounding sports drinks.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children aged 12-14 were recruited to take part. Questions focussed on knowledge of who sports drinks are aimed at; the role of sports drinks in physical activity; and the possible detrimental effects to oral health. Recognition of brand logo and sports ambassadors and the relationship of knowledge to respondents' consumption of sports drinks were assessed.Results There was an 87% (160) response rate and 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks. 45.9% thought that sports drinks were aimed at everyone; approximately a third (50) viewed teenagers as the target group. Over two thirds recognised the brand logos, yet less than a third could identify brand ambassadors. About half were aware that dental erosion may result from consumption and approximately two thirds knew that they were linked to dental caries and energy provision. Despite this the majority claimed to drink them. As previously reported most of those drinking sports drinks did so because of the taste.Conclusion Whilst most of the respondents had some understanding of the detrimental effects on health the majority of them were drinking them regularly despite this knowledge. Work is therefore needed at a macro level, with soft drink manufacturers, to consider marketing and reformulation of products for adolescent consumers who appear to enjoy them.

  7. Soil governance in the agricultural landscapes of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A Webb

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a valuable natural resource. In the state of New South Wales, Australia, the governance of soil has evolved since Federation in 1901. Following rapid agricultural development, and in the face of widespread soil degradation, the establishment of the Soil Conservation Service marked a turning point in the management of soil. Throughout the 20th century, advances in knowledge were translated into evolving governance frameworks that were largely reactionary but saw progressive reforms such as water pollution legislation and case studies of catchment-scale land and vegetation management. In the 21st century, significant reforms have embedded sustainable use of agricultural soils within catchment- and landscape-scale legislative and institutional frameworks. What is clear, however, is that a multitude of governance strategies and models are utilised in NSW. No single governance model is applicable to all situations because it is necessary to combine elements of several different mechanisms or instruments to achieve the most desired outcomes. Where an industry, such as the sugar industry, has taken ownership of an issue such as acid sulfate soil management, self-regulation has proven to be extremely effective. In the case of co-managing agricultural soils with other landuses, such as mining, petroleum exploration and urban development, regulation, compliance and enforcement mechanisms have been preferred. Institutional arrangements in the form of independent commissioners have also played a role. At the landscape or total catchment level, it is clear that a mix of mechanisms is required. Fundamental, however, to the successful evolution of soil governance is strategic investment in soil research and development that informs the ongoing productive use of agricultural landscapes while preventing land degradation or adverse environmental effects.

  8. Neospora caninum in beef herds in New South Wales, Australia. 2: analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, B J; Heuer, C; Kirkland, P D

    2017-04-01

    To determine the influence of farm-level and animal-level factors on the seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and associations between seropositivity and reproductive outcomes. A questionnaire for a cross-sectional survey was posted to the 63 properties with a herd size ≥50 beef breeding cows that had participated in a previous seroprevalence study. Correspondence analysis, which does not appear to have been used previously in any Australian studies of livestock diseases, was used in conjunction with logistic regression to analyse the data. Geographic factors that increased the risk of seropositivity included higher rainfall North Coast location. Herd management factors that increased the risk of seropositivity included the use of Bos indicus genetics, cross-breeding and running several breeds in the one herd. Using fox control measures was found to be protective against infection with N. caninum. The risk of abortion was 12-fold greater in individual animals that were seropositive for N. caninum. Within a herd, the calving rate was 10.4% lower in herds with one or more N. caninum-positive animals (P = 0.03), but the difference in abortion rate was not significant between seropositive and seronegative herds (0.3% higher, P > 0.3). This study confirmed previous observations of increased risks for N. caninum seropositivity with being located in the coastal subtropics, some styles of herd management and canid exposure. In addition, it suggested that cross-breeding and proximity to an urban area may increase the risk, and that having pet dogs may reduce the risk of seropositivity. © 2017 State of New South Wales.

  9. Perinatal and early postnatal risk factors for malignant brain tumours in New South Wales children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCredie, M; Maisonneuve, P; Boyle, P

    1994-01-02

    A population-based case-control study of incident primary malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1985-1989 in children aged 0 to 14 years was carried out in the coastal conurbation of New South Wales comprising Sydney, Wollongong and Newcastle in the period 1988 to 1990. Personal interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire with mothers of 82 cases and 164 control children individually matched to the cases by sex and age. Among the hypotheses examined were those related to: N-nitroso compounds (sources included diet, dummies, medications, tobacco smoke); factors associated with the birth of the child; trauma to the head; and irradiation (X-rays and electromagnetic radiation through electric blankets or water beds). Reported ever-use of a dummy increased the risk of childhood brain tumours (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.4), although there did not appear to be any consistent indication of rising risk with reported increased levels of use. Compared with children who had never used a dummy, categories of use during the first year of life of a maximum of "no more than 1 hour per day or night", "several hours per day or night", and "most of the day or night" had statistically significant odds ratios of 2.6, 3.4, and 2.7 respectively. Consumption of fruit by the child before the age of one appeared to be protective. No association was found between childhood brain tumours and birth weight, being the first-born child, or factors linked with the child's birth; head injuries; exposure to X-rays; contact with horses, or living on a farm; pesticide treatment of the house during the child's lifetime; or exposure to burning incense.

  10. Nine key principles to guide youth mental health: development of service models in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Deborah; Batchelor, Samantha; Coates, Dominiek; Cashman, Emma

    2014-05-01

    Historically, the Australian health system has failed to meet the needs of young people with mental health problems and mental illness. In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) Health allocated considerable funds to the reform agenda of mental health services in NSW to address this inadequacy. Children and Young People's Mental Health (CYPMH), a service that provides mental health care for young people aged 12-24 years, with moderate to severe mental health problems, was chosen to establish a prototype Youth Mental Health (YMH) Service Model for NSW. This paper describes nine key principles developed by CYPMH to guide the development of YMH Service Models in NSW. A literature review, numerous stakeholder consultations and consideration of clinical best practice were utilized to inform the development of the key principles. Subsequent to their development, the nine key principles were formally endorsed by the Mental Health Program Council to ensure consistency and monitor the progress of YMH services across NSW. As a result, between 2008 and 2012 YMH Services across NSW regularly reported on their activities against each of the nine key principles demonstrating how each principle was addressed within their service. The nine key principles provide mental health services a framework for how to reorient services to accommodate YMH and provide a high-quality model of care. [Corrections added on 29 November 2013, after first online publication: The last two sentences of the Results section have been replaced with "As a result, between 2008 and 2012 YMH Services across NSW regularly reported on their activities against each of the nine key principles demonstrating how each principle was addressed within their service."]. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Speaking Too Soon: The Sabotage of Bail Reform in New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Quilter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within just over one month of coming into operation in May 2014, the new Bail Act 2013 (NSW, a product of long-term law reform consideration, was reviewed and then amended after talk-back radio ‘shock jock’ and tabloid newspaper outcry over three cases. This article examines the media triggers, the main arguments of the review conducted by former New South Wales (NSW Attorney General John Hatzistergos, and the amendments, with our analysis of the judicial interpretation of the Act thus far providing relevant background. We argue that the amendments are premature, unnecessary, create complexity and confusion, and, quite possibly, will have unintended consequences: in short, they are a mess. The whole process of reversal is an example of law and order politics driven by the shock jocks and tabloid media, the views of which, are based on fundamental misconceptions of the purpose of bail and its place in the criminal process, resulting in a conflation of accusation, guilt and punishment. Other consequences of the review and amendments process recognised in this article include the denigration of judicial expertise and lack of concern with evidence and process; the disproportionate influence of the shock jocks, tabloids and Police Association of NSW on policy formation; the practice of using retired politicians to produce ‘quick fix’ reviews; and the political failure to understand and defend fundamental legal principles that benefit us all and are central to the maintenance of a democratic society and the rule of law. The article concludes with some discussion of ways in which media and political debate might be conducted to produce more balanced outcomes.

  12. Estimating the economic costs of skin cancer in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2015-09-23

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The increased incidence of skin cancer, combined with limited health care resources and tight budgetary conditions, has increased the importance of understanding the economic impact of skin cancer. This research estimates the economic cost of skin cancer in the Australian state of New South Wales. An incidence based approach is used to estimate lifetime costs of skin cancer. Both direct and indirect costs are considered - direct costs include resources associated with the management of skin cancer and indirect costs refer to productivity costs associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Diagnosis of skin cancer was determined according to ICD-10 codes using principal diagnosis. Linked administrative data and regression modelling are used to calculate costs; presented as Australian dollars for the year 2010. The human capital approach is used to value present and future productivity losses. The lifetime cost of the 150,000 incident cases of skin cancer diagnosed in NSW in 2010 is estimated at $536 million ($44,796 per melanoma and $2459 per non-melanoma). Direct costs accounted for 72 % of costs ($10,230 per melanoma and $2336 per non-melanoma) and indirect costs accounted for 28 % of costs ($34,567 per melanoma and $123 per non-melanoma). Direct costs are, on average, higher for females than males with indirect costs, on average, higher for males than females. This research provides new evidence on the economic cost of skin cancer and provides policy makers with information of the potential monetary savings that may arise from efforts to reduce the incidence of skin cancer.

  13. Equity and service innovation: the implementation of a bibliotherapy scheme in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Alison; Peconi, Julie; Evans, Angela; Snooks, Helen; Lloyd, Keith; Russell, Ian

    2008-04-01

    Book Prescription Wales (BPW) is a pilot bibiliotherapy scheme launched in July 2005 as a primary care treatment option for people with mild to moderate mental health problems. In an innovative model, patients are prescribed self-help books from a list, to borrow from local libraries. Our objective was to evaluate its implementation, focusing on the issue of equity of service delivery. Data were gathered from Welsh Assembly Government concerning project set-up and borrowing rates. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 21/22 (95.4%) Local Health Boards and 44/64 (68.8%) Community Mental Health Teams. In addition, 327 out of 497 (66%) primary care practices were surveyed by telephone, 20 prescribers took part in in-depth telephone interviews and three focus groups were conducted with library staff. From July 2005-March 2006, books were borrowed 15,236 times. There was a 10-fold variation in borrowing rates across local authorities (1.07 to 10.18 loans/1000 people). The priority which Local Health Board staff reported giving to the scheme varied. Uptake among prescribers was mixed: in 35% of general practices (n = 116) no-one participated. Prescribers reported different ways of using the bibliotherapy scheme. Library staff reported issues of patchy uptake. Variation in usage of bibliotherapy raises questions about equity; it is unlikely to reflect the distribution of people who could potentially benefit. Factors influencing variation existed all along the implementation chain. It is not always possibly to separate demand-side and supply-side factors when considering equity and service innovation in health care.

  14. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  15. The PROSPECT Physics Program

    CERN Document Server

    Ashenfelter, J; Band, H R; Barclay, G; Bass, C D; Berish, D; Bowden, N S; Bowes, A; Bryan, C D; Brodsky, J P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, R; Classen, T; Commeford, K; Davee, D; Dean, D; Deichert, G; Diwan, M V; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Gaison, J K; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilje, K; Glenn, A; Goddard, B W; Green, M; Han, K; Hans, S; Heeger, K M; Heffron, B; Jaffe, D E; Jones, D; Langford, T J; Littlejohn, B R; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McKeown, R D; Mendenhall, M P; Mueller, P; Mumm, H P; Napolitano, J; Neilson, R; Norcini, D; Pushin, D; Qian, X; Romero, E; Rosero, R; Seilhan, B S; Sharma, R; Sheets, S; Surukuchi, P T; Varner, R L; Viren, B; Wang, W; White, B; White, C; Wilhelmi, J; Williams, C; Wise, T; Yao, H; Yeh, M; Yen, Y -R; Zangakis, G; Zhang, C; Zhang, X

    2015-01-01

    The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment, PROSPECT, is designed to make a precise measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium reactor and probe eV-scale sterile neutrinos by searching for neutrino oscillations over meter-long distances. PROSPECT is conceived as a 2-phase experiment utilizing segmented $^6$Li-doped liquid scintillator detectors for both efficient detection of reactor antineutrinos through the inverse beta decay reaction and excellent background discrimination. PROSPECT Phase I consists of a movable 3-ton antineutrino detector at distances of 7 - 12 m from the reactor core. It will probe the best-fit point of the $\

  16. National audit of pressure ulcers and incontinence-associated dermatitis in hospitals across Wales: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Semple, Martin J; Ivins, Nicola; Mahoney, Kirsten; Harding, Keith

    2017-08-21

    The Chief Nurse National Health Service Wales initiated a national survey of acute and community hospital patients in Wales to identify the prevalence of pressure ulcers and incontinence-associated dermatitis. Teams of two nurses working independently assessed the skin of each inpatient who consented to having their skin observed. Over 28 September 2015 to 2nd October 2015, 8365 patients were assessed across 66 hospitals with 748 (8.9%) found to have pressure ulcers. Not all patients had their skin inspected with all mental health patients exempt from this part of the audit along with others who did not consent or were too ill. Of the patients with pressure ulcers, 593 (79.3%) had their skin inspected with 158 new pressure ulcers encountered that were not known to ward staff, while 152 pressure ulcers were incorrectly categorised by the ward teams. Incontinence-associated dermatitis was encountered in 360 patients (4.3%), while medical device-related pressure ulcers were rare (n=33). The support surfaces used while patients were in bed were also recorded to provide a baseline against which future changes in equipment procurement could be assessed. The presence of other wounds was also recorded with 2537 (30.3%) of all hospital patients having one or more skin wounds. This survey has demonstrated that although complex, it is feasible to undertake national surveys of pressure ulcers, incontinence-associated dermatitis and other wounds providing comprehensive and accurate data to help plan improvements in wound care across Wales. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time.Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002-2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD, and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time.The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001. However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator.The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap.Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined strategies of population-wide and targeted

  18. The effect of the new GMS contract on GP appointment provision in Wales: postal questionnaire survey of practice managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Richard D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to health professionals is a key UK NHS priority, and meeting access targets is rewarded through the new General Medical Services (GMS contract in the UK. We sought to determine the current state of appointment provision in Wales and any changes resulting from the need to meet indicators in the new GMS contract. We undertook a postal questionnaire study of practice managers in all general practices in Wales. Findings Valid responses were received from 396/505 (78.4% practice managers. 361 (93.1% practices reported that they had achieved the target for 2004/05. 104 (26% practices reported that they were 100% open access/advanced access. The most frequent changes reported in response to the new GMS contract were offering more open or advanced access slots (237, 60%, more GP phone consultations (167, 42%, introducing a telephone triage system (100, 25%, introducing a minor illness clinic (76, 19%, and employing or training a nurse practitioner (59, 15%. 83% practice managers believed that patients were able to get an appointment at the time they need it either 'all of the time' or 'most of the time', and 70% that patients were able to get an appointment with the GP of choice either 'all of the time' or 'most of the time'. Conclusion This survey has demonstrated the current extent of appointment provision in Wales, and how changes have been driven by incentives. Whether these changes are in the best interests of either patients or doctors, or both, remains to be seen.

  19. Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus--an assessment of the likelihood of introduction and establishment in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, E J; Afonso, A; Berthe, F C J; Brun, E; Rodgers, C J; Roque, A; Whittington, R J; Thrush, M A

    2009-10-01

    Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) is an iridovirus that affects perch (Perca fluviatilis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). It emerged in Australia in the 1980s and has not been discovered elsewhere. It causes a high level of mortality in perch resulting in steep population declines. The main possible routes of introduction of the virus to England and Wales are the importation of infected live fish or carcasses. However, no trade in live susceptible species is permitted under current legislation, and no importation of carcasses currently takes place. The virus is hardy and low levels of challenge can infect perch. Therefore, mechanical transmission through the importation of non-susceptible fish species should be considered as a potential route of introduction and establishment. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) have been imported to the UK from Australia for release into still-water fisheries. A qualitative risk assessment concluded that the likelihood of EHNV introduction and establishment in England and Wales with the importation of a consignment of carp was very low. The level of uncertainty at a number of steps in the risk assessment scenario tree was high, notably the likelihood that carp become contaminated with the virus and whether effective contact (resulting in pathogen transmission) is made between the introduced carp and susceptible species in England and Wales. The virus would only establish when the water temperature is greater than 12 degrees C. Analysis of 10 years of data from two rivers in south-west England indicated that establishment could occur over a period of at least 14 weeks a year in southern England (when average water temperature exceed 12 degrees C). Imports of live fish from Australia need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine which, if any, sanitary measures are required to reduce the assessed risk to an acceptable level.

  20. Prospective ergonomics: origin, goal, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jean-Marc; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    So far ergonomics has been concerned with two categories of activities: correction and design. We propose to add a third category: prospection, and by so doing, we introduce a new series of activities that opens up the future of ergonomics. Corrective ergonomics relates to the past and comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the correction of existing situations and aims to reduce or eliminate problems. Here, after delimiting and defining the problem, the challenge is to find the best solution. Ergonomics for design relates to the present and also comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the design of new artefacts that have already been identified by a client, and that will allow users to do some activity and attain their goals. Here, after defining the scope of the project and the functional requirements, the challenge is to do the best design. Finally, prospective ergonomics relates to the future and does not come with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the creation of future things that have not been identified yet. Here the challenge is to detect existing user needs or anticipate future ones, and imagine solutions. These three categories of activities overlap and are not exclusive of each other. In this paper we define prospective ergonomics and compare it with corrective ergonomics and ergonomics for design. We describe its origin, goal, and prospects, we analyze its impacts on education and practice, and we emphasize the need of new collaboration between ergonomics and other disciplines.

  1. Trends and variations in the rates of hospital complications, failure-to-rescue and 30-day mortality in surgical patients in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Ou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the increased acceptance of failure-to-rescue (FTR as an important patient safety indicator (defined as the percentage of deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications, there has not been any large epidemiological study reporting FTR in an Australian setting nor any evaluation on its suitability as a performance indicator. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study on elective surgical patients from 82 public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia between 2002 and 2009, exploring the trends and variations in rates of hospital complications, FTR and 30-day mortality. We used Poisson regression models to derive relative risk ratios (RRs after adjusting for a range of patient and hospital characteristics. RESULTS: The average rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality were 13.8 per 1000 admissions, 14.1% and 6.1 per 1000 admission, respectively. The rates of complications and 30-day mortality were stable throughout the study period however there was a significant decrease in FTR rate after 2006, coinciding with the establishment of national and state-level peak patient safety agencies. There were marked variations in the three rates within the top 20% of hospitals (best and bottom 20% of hospitals (worst for each of the four peer-hospital groups. The group comprising the largest volume hospitals (principal referral/teaching hospitals had a significantly higher rate of FTR in comparison to the other three groups of smaller-sized peer hospital groups (RR = 0.78, 0.57, and 0.61, respectively. Adjusted rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality varied widely for individual surgical procedures between the best and worst quintile hospitals within the principal referral hospital group. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in FTR rate over the study period appears to be associated with a wide range of patient safety programs. The marked variations in the three rates between- and within- peer hospital groups

  2. The Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY): a diagnostic prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Alastair D; Birnie, Kate; Busby, John; Delaney, Brendan; Downing, Harriet; Dudley, Jan; Durbaba, Stevo; Fletcher, Margaret; Harman, Kim; Hollingworth, William; Hood, Kerenza; Howe, Robin; Lawton, Michael; Lisles, Catherine; Little, Paul; MacGowan, Alasdair; O'Brien, Kathryn; Pickles, Timothy; Rumsby, Kate; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Thomas-Jones, Emma; van der Voort, Judith; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Whiting, Penny; Wootton, Mandy; Butler, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is not clear which young children presenting acutely unwell to primary care should be investigated for urinary tract infection (UTI) and whether or not dipstick testing should be used to inform antibiotic treatment. OBJECTIVES To develop algorithms to accurately identify pre-school children in whom urine should be obtained; assess whether or not dipstick urinalysis provides additional diagnostic information; and model algorithm cost-effectiveness. DESIGN Multicentre, prospective diagnostic cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Children < 5 years old presenting to primary care with an acute illness and/or new urinary symptoms. METHODS One hundred and seven clinical characteristics (index tests) were recorded from the child's past medical history, symptoms, physical examination signs and urine dipstick test. Prior to dipstick results clinician opinion of UTI likelihood ('clinical diagnosis') and urine sampling and treatment intentions ('clinical judgement') were recorded. All index tests were measured blind to the reference standard, defined as a pure or predominant uropathogen cultured at ≥ 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml in a single research laboratory. Urine was collected by clean catch (preferred) or nappy pad. Index tests were sequentially evaluated in two groups, stratified by urine collection method: parent-reported symptoms with clinician-reported signs, and urine dipstick results. Diagnostic accuracy was quantified using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and bootstrap-validated AUROC, and compared with the 'clinician diagnosis' AUROC. Decision-analytic models were used to identify optimal urine sampling strategy compared with 'clinical judgement'. RESULTS A total of 7163 children were recruited, of whom 50% were female and 49% were < 2 years old. Culture results were available for 5017 (70%); 2740 children provided clean-catch samples, 94% of whom were ≥ 2 years old

  3. Characteristic Features of Stone-Wales Defects in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube; Adsorption, Dispersion, and Field Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkwang Roh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption behaviors of dodecanethiol (C12H25SH molecules are investigated on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with vibrational and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers. The active adsorption sites are proved as Stone-Wales (SW defects (5–7 ring defects. The SW defect-removed SWCNTs formed by reacting nanotubes with allyl acrylate molecules are compared with pristine SWCNTs in dispersion and field emission. The former shows higher dispersion and field emission than the latter.

  4. The Importance of Brain Banks for Molecular Neuropathological Research: The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Harding

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New developments in molecular neuropathology have evoked increased demands for postmortem human brain tissue. The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (TRC at The University of Sydney has grown from a small tissue collection into one of the leading international brain banking facilities, which operates with best practice and quality control protocols. The focus of this tissue collection is on schizophrenia and allied disorders, alcohol use disorders and controls. This review highlights changes in TRC operational procedures dictated by modern neuroscience, and provides examples of applications of modern molecular techniques to study the neuropathogenesis of many different brain disorders.

  5. The growing impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in England and Wales: 1999–2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Aliko B; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Delpech, Valerie; Lipman, Marc; Boccia, Delia; Forde, Josh; Antoine, Delphine; Watson, John M

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies have estimated the prevalence of tuberculosis and HIV infection in population subgroups in the UK. This study was undertaken to describe recent trends in the proportion of individuals with HIV infection among reported cases of tuberculosis in England and Wales, and to review the implications for clinical and public health care. Methods A population‐based matching study using national surveillance databases was used to investigate all persons aged 15 years and over reported with a diagnosis of tuberculosis to the Health Protection Agency in England and Wales in 1999–2003. Record linkage was used to match the national tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS surveillance databases to identify all cases of tuberculosis and determine the proportion of patients with tuberculosis co‐infected with HIV. The distribution and characteristics of the cases were determined and the trend examined by year. Results Of 30 670 cases of tuberculosis reported in England and Wales between 1999 and 2003, an estimated 1743 (5.7%) were co‐infected with HIV. There was a year on year increase in the proportion from 3.1% (169/5388) in 1999 to 8.3% (548/6584) in 2003 (p for trend <0.0001). Co‐infected patients contributed to almost a third of the increase in the number of cases of tuberculosis during the 5 year period. Patients co‐infected with HIV were predominantly those born abroad. 18.5% (n = 323) of co‐infected patients had not been reported as active cases of tuberculosis on the national tuberculosis database. Conclusion The proportion of patients with tuberculosis co‐infected with HIV in England and Wales is increasing, with the greatest impact on those born abroad regardless of their ethnic origin. With HIV infection contributing substantially to the increase in the number of cases of tuberculosis, close cooperation in the clinical management and accurate notification of patients is vital if appropriate care and public health action is to be

  6. A national framework for flood forecasting model assessment for use in operations and investment planning over England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert J.; Wells, Steven C.; Cole, Steven J.

    2016-04-01

    It has been common for flood forecasting systems to be commissioned at a catchment or regional level in response to local priorities and hydrological conditions, leading to variety in system design and model choice. As systems mature and efficiencies of national management are sought, there can be a drive towards system rationalisation, gaining an overview of model performance and consideration of simplification through model-type convergence. Flood forecasting model assessments, whilst overseen at a national level, may be commissioned and managed at a catchment and regional level, take a variety of forms and be large in number. This presents a challenge when an integrated national assessment is required to guide operational use of flood forecasts and plan future investment in flood forecasting models and supporting hydrometric monitoring. This contribution reports on how a nationally consistent framework for flood forecasting model performance has been developed to embrace many past, ongoing and future assessments for local river systems by engineering consultants across England & Wales. The outcome is a Performance Summary for every site model assessed which, on a single page, contains relevant catchment information for context, a selection of overlain forecast and observed hydrographs and a set of performance statistics with associated displays of novel condensed form. One display provides performance comparison with other models that may exist for the site. The performance statistics include skill scores for forecasting events (flow/level threshold crossings) of differing severity/rarity, indicating their probability and likely timing, which have real value in an operational setting. The local models assessed can be of any type and span rainfall-runoff (conceptual and transfer function) and flow routing (hydrological and hydrodynamic) forms. Also accommodated by the framework is the national G2G (Grid-to-Grid) distributed hydrological model, providing area

  7. Quantifying crime associated with drug use among a large cohort of sanctioned offenders in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Matthias; Hayhurst, Karen; Bird, Sheila M; Hickman, Matthew; Seddon, Toby; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the relationship between testing positive for opiates and/or cocaine and prior offending. Methods 139,925 persons (107,573 men) identified from a saliva test for opiate and cocaine metabolites following arrest in England and Wales, 1 April 2005–31 March 2009, were case-linked with 2-year recorded offending history. The prior offending rate, accounting for estimated incarceration periods, was calculated by: drug-test outcome; gender; four main crime categories (acquisitive, non-a...

  8. Problems, Prospects And Challenges.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban Road Transportation in Nigeria From 1960 To 2006: Problems, Prospects And Challenges. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The paper suggested the construction of more motor-able roads within cities ...

  9. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...

  10. Abrupt transition to heightened poliomyelitis epidemicity in England and Wales, 1947-1957, associated with a pronounced increase in the geographical rate of disease propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, M R; Cliff, A D

    2014-03-01

    The abrupt transition to heightened poliomyelitis epidemicity in England and Wales, 1947-1957, was associated with a profound change in the spatial dynamics of the disease. Drawing on the complete record of poliomyelitis notifications in England and Wales, we use a robust method of spatial epidemiological analysis (swash-backwash model) to evaluate the geographical rate of disease propagation in successive poliomyelitis seasons, 1940-1964. Comparisons with earlier and later time periods show that the period of heightened poliomyelitis epidemicity corresponded with a sudden and pronounced increase in the spatial rate of disease propagation. This change was observed for both urban and rural areas and points to an abrupt enhancement in the propensity for the geographical spread of polioviruses. Competing theories of the epidemic emergence of poliomyelitis in England and Wales should be assessed in the light of this evidence.

  11. TOWARDS THE LIGHT/ TUA’R GOLEUNI: WELSH MEDIUM EDUCATION FOR THE NON-WELSH SPEAKING IN SOUTH WALES: A PARENT’S CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Rhian Siân Hodges

    2011-01-01

    The Welsh-medium education system has long been seen as an effective tool of Welsh language production in Wales. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of Welsh medium education in one south Wales Valley, ‘Cwm Rhymni / Rhymni Valley’. The main reasoning behind the primary research is to focus on the reasons why non-Welsh speaking parents chose Welsh medium education for their children. The research focuses on education but recognises the over lapping nature of the main language trans...

  12. The impacts of conifer harvesting on runoff water quality: a regional survey for Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Major, minor and trace element chemistry of runoff at stormflow and baseflow from 67 catchments (2 to 5 ha in area has been determined to investigate the effects of clear felling and replanting of conifers on stream water quality across Wales. Samples, collected by local forestry workers (Forest Enterprise staff on a campaign basis on up to eight occasions, were for 16 mature first rotation standing forest: the remainder represented areas completely clear felled from less than one to up to forty years previously. As the waters drain acidic and acid sensitive soils, acidic runoff is often encountered. However, higher pH values with associated positive alkalinities and base cation enrichments are observed due to the influence of weathering reactions within the bedrock. There is little systematic variation in water quality between baseflow and stormflow for each site indicating a complex and erratic contribution of waters from the soil and underlying parent material. 80% or more of the data points show hardly any changes with felling time, but there are a few outlier points with much higher concentrations that provide important information on the processes operative. The clearest outlier felling response is for nitrate at five of the more recently felled sites on brown earth, gley and podzolic soil types. ANC, the prime indicator of stream acidity, shows a diverse response from both high to low outlier values (>+400 to -300 μEq/l. In parallel to nitrate, aluminium, potassium and barium concentrations are higher in waters sampled up to 4 years post felling, but the time series response is even less clear than that for nitrate. Cadmium, zinc and lead and lanthanides/actinides show large variations from site to site due to localized vein ore-mineralization in the underlying bedrock. The survey provides a strong indication that forest harvesting can have marked local effects on some chemical components of runoff for the first four years after felling

  13. Ordovician Intrusive-related Gold-Copper Mineralization in West-Central New South Wales, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three major types of Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are recognized in central-west New South Wales,, Australia: porphyry, skam and high sulphidation epithermal deposits.These deposits are mainly distributed within two Ordovician volcano-intrusive belts of the Lachlan Fold Be1t: the Orange-Wellington Belt and the Parkes-Narromine Belt. Available isotopic age data suggest that mineralization of the three types of deposits is essentially coeval with the Ordovician intrusive rocks (480-430 Ma). Porphyry gold-copper deposits can be further divided into two groups. The first group is associated with monzoniteshowing shoshonitic features represented by Cadia and Goonumbla. The second group is associated with diorite and dacite, including the Copper Hill and Cargo gold-copper deposits. Gold skarn is associated with Late Ordovician (430-439 Ma) monzonitic intrusive complexes in the Junction Reefs area (Sheahan-Grants, Frenchmans, and Cornishmens), Endeavour 6, 7 and 44, Big and Little Cadia. The epithermal gold deposits with high sulphidation including Gidginbung (Temora) and Peak Hill mainly occur within Ordovician andesite and volcaniclastic rocks, and are associated with advanced argillic alteration. Available isotopic age data indicate that both alteration and mineralization of the porphyry, skam and epithermal gold-copper deposits are broadly coeval with the Late Ordovician hoshonitic mangmatism, which is thought to result from the melting of sub-continental lithosphere caused by Palaeozoic subduction events. The Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are restricted to two longitudinal parallel volcano-intrusive belts, rarely extending outside them. Diagonal intra-belt trends of mineralization are common, particularly at the intersections of longitudinal and transverse (oblique) fault/fracture zones basedon the authors'review of available geological data. The locations of these gold-copper deposits are obviously influenced by transverse

  14. Pesticides and nitrate in groundwater underlying citrus croplands, Lake Wales Ridge, central Florida, 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Anne F.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes pesticide and nitrate (as nitrogen) results from quarterly sampling of 31 surficial-aquifer wells in the Lake Wales Ridge Monitoring Network during April 1999 through January 2005. The wells, located adjacent to citrus orchards and used for monitoring only, were generally screened (sampled) within 5 to 40 feet of the water table. Of the 44 citrus pesticides and pesticide degradates analyzed, 17 were detected in groundwater samples. Parent pesticides and degradates detected in quarterly groundwater samples, ordered by frequency of detection, included norflurazon, demethyl norflurazon, simazine, diuron, bromacil, aldicarb sulfone, aldicarb sulfoxide, deisopropylatrazine (DIA), imidacloprid, metalaxyl, thiazopyr monoacid, oxamyl, and aldicarb. Reconnaissance sampling of five Network wells yielded detection of four additional pesticide degradates (hydroxysimazine, didealkylatrazine, deisopropylhydroxyatrazine, and hydroxyatrazine). The highest median concentration values per well, based on samples collected during the 1999–2005 period (n=14 to 24 samples per well), included 3.05 µg/L (micrograms per liter) (simazine), 3.90 µg/L (diuron), 6.30 µg/L (aldicarb sulfone), 6.85 µg/L (aldicarb sulfoxide), 22.0 µg/L (demethyl norflurazon), 25.0 µg/ (norflurazon), 89 µg/ (bromacil), and 25.5 mg/L (milligrams per liter) (nitrate). Nitrate concentrations exceeded the 10 mg/L (as nitrogen) drinking water standard in one or more groundwater samples from 28 of the wells, and the median nitrate concentration among these wells was 14 mg/L. Sampled groundwater pesticide concentrations exceeded Florida’s health-guidance benchmarks for aldicarb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone (4 wells), the sum of aldicarb and its degradates (6 wells), simazine (2 wells), the sum of simazine and DIA (3 wells), diuron (2 wells), bromacil (1 well), and the sum of norflurazon and demethyl norflurazon (1 well). The magnitude of fluctuations in groundwater pesticide

  15. Ecological quality assessment of rivers and integrated catchment management in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul LOGAN

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ecological assessment of river quality and its relationship to integrated catchment management. The concept of catchment or river basin management has been a basic management tool in England and Wales since 1990; it is now being enshrined in the Water Framework Directive. Historically the statutory and operational drivers in the UK have lead to the development of distinctly different approaches to the management of water quality, water resources (quantity and physical river structure. More recently a proactive approach to the sustainable use of water promulgated in the Local Environment Agency Plans has also dealt with the three management aspects in some isolation although greater effort has been made to present the issues in an integrated manner. The Water Framework Directive calls for further integration in river basin plans and associated programmes of measures. In the paper the three approaches are described and considered in light of the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. Water Quality classification and objective setting has been based on information from the survey of benthic macro-invertebrates. The Biological Monitoring Working Party Score and the predictive software River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS have been used to set site-specific targets for management purposes. RIVPACS includes a reference database of minimally impacted sites for comparison with the observed data. This approach is in line with the requirements of the directive. Physical river structure work has been based on monitoring of in-river and river corridor characteristics. The River Habitat System (RHS has also developed a reference database but is less well developed in terms of its predictive ability. The use of ecological information in Water Resource management has taken a different approach based on the concept of differential ecological sensitivity to the hydrological regime within the river. In

  16. Extreme climatic conditions and health service utilisation across rural and metropolitan New South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegasothy, Edward; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert; Scalley, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality. We defined heat waves and cold waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and excess cold factor (ECF) metrics, respectively. Heat waves generally resulted in increased rates of ambulance call-outs, ED presentations and mortality across the three regions and the entire state. For all of NSW, very intense heat waves resulted in an increase of 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 17.4%) in mortality, 3.4% (95% CI 0.8, 7.8%) in ED presentations and 10.9% (95% CI 7.7, 14.2%) in ambulance call-outs. Cold waves were shown to have significant effects on ED presentations (9.3% increase for intense events, 95% CI 8.0-10.6%) and mortality (8.8% increase for intense events, 95% CI 2.1-15.9%) in outer regional and remote areas. There was little evidence for an effect from cold waves on health service utilisation in major cities and inner regional areas. Heat waves have a large impact on health service utilisation in NSW in both urban and rural settings. Cold waves also have significant effects in outer regional and remote areas. EHF is a good predictor of health service utilisation for heat waves, although service needs may differ between urban and rural areas.

  17. The impacts of conifer harvesting on runoff water quality: a regional survey for Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Reynolds, B.; Wilkinson, J.; Hill, T.; Neal, M.; Hill, S.; Harrow, M.

    Major, minor and trace element chemistry of runoff at stormflow and baseflow from 67 catchments (2 to 5 ha in area) has been determined to investigate the effects of clear felling and replanting of conifers on stream water quality across Wales. Samples, collected by local forestry workers (Forest Enterprise staff) on a campaign basis on up to eight occasions, were for 16 mature first rotation standing forest: the remainder represented areas completely clear felled from less than one to up to forty years previously. As the waters drain acidic and acid sensitive soils, acidic runoff is often encountered. However, higher pH values with associated positive alkalinities and base cation enrichments are observed due to the influence of weathering reactions within the bedrock. There is little systematic variation in water quality between baseflow and stormflow for each site indicating a complex and erratic contribution of waters from the soil and underlying parent material. 80% or more of the data points show hardly any changes with felling time, but there are a few outlier points with much higher concentrations that provide important information on the processes operative. The clearest outlier felling response is for nitrate at five of the more recently felled sites on brown earth, gley and podzolic soil types. ANC, the prime indicator of stream acidity, shows a diverse response from both high to low outlier values (>+400 to -300 μEq/l). In parallel to nitrate, aluminium, potassium and barium concentrations are higher in waters sampled up to 4 years post felling, but the time series response is even less clear than that for nitrate. Cadmium, zinc and lead and lanthanides/actinides show large variations from site to site due to localized vein ore-mineralization in the underlying bedrock. The survey provides a strong indication that forest harvesting can have marked local effects on some chemical components of runoff for the first four years after felling but that this is

  18. Mortality attributable to influenza in England and Wales prior to, during and after the 2009 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen K Green

    Full Text Available Very different influenza seasons have been observed from 2008/09-2011/12 in England and Wales, with the reported burden varying overall and by age group. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of influenza on all-cause and cause-specific mortality during this period. Age-specific generalised linear regression models fitted with an identity link were developed, modelling weekly influenza activity through multiplying clinical influenza-like illness consultation rates with proportion of samples positive for influenza A or B. To adjust for confounding factors, a similar activity indicator was calculated for Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Extreme temperature and seasonal trend were controlled for. Following a severe influenza season in 2008/09 in 65+yr olds (estimated excess of 13,058 influenza A all-cause deaths, attributed all-cause mortality was not significant during the 2009 pandemic in this age group and comparatively low levels of influenza A mortality were seen in post-pandemic seasons. The age shift of the burden of seasonal influenza from the elderly to young adults during the pandemic continued into 2010/11; a comparatively larger impact was seen with the same circulating A(H1N1pdm09 strain, with the burden of influenza A all-cause excess mortality in 15-64 yr olds the largest reported during 2008/09-2011/12 (436 deaths in 15-44 yr olds and 1,274 in 45-64 yr olds. On average, 76% of seasonal influenza A all-age attributable deaths had a cardiovascular or respiratory cause recorded (average of 5,849 influenza A deaths per season, with nearly a quarter reported for other causes (average of 1,770 influenza A deaths per season, highlighting the importance of all-cause as well as cause-specific estimates. No significant influenza B attributable mortality was detected by season, cause or age group. This analysis forms part of the preparatory work to establish a routine mortality monitoring system ahead of introduction of the UK

  19. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Nazroo, James; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aim to develop robust estimates of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) for ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001 and to examine observed variations across ethnic groups. Design. DFLE and HLE by age and gender for five-year age groups were computed for 16 ethnic groups by combining the 2001 Census data on ethnicity, self-reported limiting long-term illness and self-rated health using mortality by ethnic group estimated by two methods: the Standardised Illness Ratio (SIR) method and the Geographically Weighted Method (GWM). Results. The SIR and GWM methods differed somewhat in their estimates of life expectancy (LE) at birth but produced very similar estimates of DFLE and HLE by ethnic group. For the more conservative method (GWM), the range in DFLE at birth was 10.5 years for men and 11.9 years for women, double that in LE. DFLE at birth was highest for Chinese men (64.7 years, 95% CI 64.0–65.3) and women (67.0 years, 95% CI 66.4–67.6). Over half of the ethnic minority groups (men: 10; women: 9) had significantly lower DFLE at birth than White British men (61.7 years, 95% CI 61.7–61.7) or women (64.1 years, 95% CI 64.1–64.2), mostly the Black, Asian and mixed ethnic groups. The lowest DFLE observed was for Bangladeshi men (54.3 years, 95% CI 53.7–54.8) and Pakistani women (55.1 years, 95% CI 54.8–55.4). Notable were Indian women whose LE was similar to White British women but who had 4.3 years less disability-free (95% CI 4.0–4.6). Conclusions. Inequalities in DFLE between ethnic groups are large and exceed those in LE. Moreover, certain ethnic groups have a larger burden of disability that does not seem to be associated with shorter LE. With the increasing population of the non-White British community, it is essential to be able to identify the ethnic groups at higher risk of disability, in order to target appropriate interventions. PMID:24897306

  20. Acute costs and predictors of higher treatment costs of trauma in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Mitchell, Rebecca; Black, Deborah; Taylor, Colman; Dickson, Cara; Jan, Stephen; Palmer, Cameron S; Langcake, Mary; Myburgh, John

    2014-01-01

    Accurate economic data are fundamental for improving current funding models and ultimately in promoting the efficient delivery of services. The financial burden of a high trauma casemix to designated trauma centres in Australia has not been previously determined, and there is some evidence that the episode funding model used in Australia results in the underfunding of trauma. To describe the costs of acute trauma admissions in trauma centres, identify predictors of higher treatment costs and cost variance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data linkage of admitted trauma patient and financial data provided by 12 Level 1 NSW trauma centres for the 08/09 financial year was performed. Demographic, injury details and injury scores were obtained from trauma registries. Individual patient general ledger costs (actual trauma patient costs), Australian Refined Diagnostic Related Groups (AR-DRG) and state-wide average costs (which form the basis of funding) were obtained. The actual costs incurred by the hospital were then compared with the state-wide AR-DRG average costs. Multivariable multiple linear regression was used for identifying predictors of costs. There were 17,522 patients, the average per patient cost was $10,603 and the median was $4628 (interquartile range: $2179-10,148). The actual costs incurred by trauma centres were on average $134 per bed day above AR-DRG costs-determined costs. Falls, road trauma and violence were the highest causes of total cost. Motor cyclists and pedestrians had higher median costs than motor vehicle occupants. As a result of greater numbers, patients with minor injury had comparable total costs with those generated by patients with severe injury. However the median cost of severely injured patients was nearly four times greater. The count of body regions injured, sex, length of stay, serious traumatic brain injury and admission to the Intensive Care Unit were significantly associated with increased costs (ptrauma costing study

  1. Neuropathological alterations in alcoholic brains. Studies arising from the New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Clive; Dixon, Gavin; Sheedy, Donna; Garrick, Therese

    2003-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse are among the most costly health problems in the world from both social and economic points of view. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world with more women and young people drinking heavily. Excessive drinking can lead to impairment of cognitive function and structural brain changes--some permanent, some reversible. Patterns of damage appear to relate to lifetime alcohol consumption but, more importantly, to associated medical complications. The most significant of these is the alcohol-related vitamin deficient state, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), which is caused by thiamin deficiency but is seen most commonly in alcoholics. Careful selection and classification of alcoholic cases into those with and without these complications, together with detailed quantitative neuropathological analyses has provided data that gives clues to the most vulnerable regions and cells in the brain. Brain shrinkage is largely accounted for by loss of white matter. Some of this damage appears to be reversible. Alcohol-related neuronal loss has been documented in specific regions of the cerebral cortex (superior frontal association cortex), hypothalamus and cerebellum. No change is found in basal ganglia, nucleus basalis, or serotonergic raphe nuclei. Many of these regions which are normal in uncomplicated alcoholics are damaged in those with the WKS. Dendritic and synaptic changes have been documented in alcoholics and these, together with receptor and transmitter changes, may explain functional changes and cognitive deficits, which precede more severe structural neuronal changes. A resource to provide human brain tissues for these types of studies has been developed at the University of Sydney--the New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre. The aim of this facility is to provide research groups throughout the world with fresh and/or frozen tissues from well-characterized cases of alcohol-related brain damage and matched

  2. Results of national lake surveys 1995 in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russian Kola, Russian Karelia, Scotland and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Mannio, Jaakko [FEI, (Finland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1995, national lake surveys were conducted in the above North European countries. This report provides the first united evaluation of lake water chemistry in Northern Europe. It was found that, except for Denmark, the water was characterized by low ionic strength and had low content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Kola and Karelia more than 50% of the lakes had low critical load (CL) values for sulphur acidity (S), while Scotland, Wales and Denmark had very few lakes with low CL for S. The highest percentage (27%) of lakes with exceedence of CL for S was found in Norway, while the values for Russian Kola, Sweden and Finland were 17%, 9% and 9%, respectively. In Scotland and Wales, critical loads for sulphur acidity were exceeded in 1% of the total lake population. For Denmark and Russian Karelia, too few lakes were sampled to give reliable estimates. This adds up to approximately 22000 lakes in Northern Europe where CL for S was exceeded. However, this number of lakes is a minimum as exceedence of CL for N was not included in the calculation due to lack of catchment data. 26 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Use of programme budgeting and marginal analysis as a framework for resource reallocation in respiratory care in North Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J.M.; Brown, G.; Thomas, K.; Johnstone, F.; Vandenblink, V.; Pethers, B.; Jones, A.; Edwards, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the global financial crisis, UK NHS spending has reduced considerably. Respiratory care is a large cost driver for Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, the largest health board in Wales. Under the remit of ‘prudent healthcare’ championed by the Welsh Health Minister, a Programme Budgeting Marginal Analysis (PBMA) of the North Wales respiratory care pathway was conducted. Methods A PBMA panel of directors of medicines management, therapies finance, planning, public health and healthcare professionals used electronic voting to establish criteria for decision-making and vote on candidate interventions in which to disinvest and invest. Results A sum of £86.9 million was spent on respiratory care in 2012–13. Following extensive discussion of 13 proposed candidate interventions facilitated by a chairperson, 4 candidates received recommendations to disinvest, 7 to invest and 2 to maintain current activity. Marginal analysis prioritized mucolytics and high antibiotic prescribing as areas for disinvestment, and medicines waste management and pulmonary rehabilitation for investment. Conclusions This exercise demonstrates the potential for health boards to use evidence-based approaches to reach potentially controversial disinvestment and investment decisions. Initial progress has begun with communication from the Medical Director in relation to the disinvestment in mucolytics prescribing and possible redirection of funding options being explored. PMID:26377991

  4. Passive acoustic monitoring of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise, in Cardigan Bay, Wales, with implications for habitat use and partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Malene Juul; Nuuttila, Hanna; Reyes-Zamudio, Mercedes M

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about harbour porpoise and bottlenose dolphin occurrence in Cardigan Bay Special Area of Conservation (SAC), Wales, is limited to daylight hours during summer, when conditions are suitable for traditional visual surveys. T-PODs are autonomous instruments programmed to log time-cues of s......Knowledge about harbour porpoise and bottlenose dolphin occurrence in Cardigan Bay Special Area of Conservation (SAC), Wales, is limited to daylight hours during summer, when conditions are suitable for traditional visual surveys. T-PODs are autonomous instruments programmed to log time......-cues of species-specific echolocation signals for long periods of time. Here we investigated bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise habitat use and partitioning by deploying ten calibrated T-PODs in Cardigan Bay SAC for one year. The T-PODs detected both species all year round with a peak of detections in April......-October for dolphins and in October-March for porpoise, revealing a previously unknown importance of the place to harbour porpoise during winter. Though the two species are sympatric, simultaneous detections of both species were rare and indication of temporal habitat partitioning between the two species in some parts...

  5. The impact of limiting long term illness on internal migration in England and Wales: New evidence from census microdata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Sam; Martin, David; Moon, Graham

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that poor health is associated with reduced migration; this knowledge stems from models based on past censuses, or longitudinal studies which imply that the factors influencing migration are the same between those in good and poor health. This paper addresses these issues by utilising health-stratified analyses on the 2011 Census Individual Secure Sample for England and Wales. Multilevel models predict the odds of moving for working age adults, controlling for key predictors of migration, estimating the effect of health status on the odds of moving and the destination-specific variance in migration. We find that those in poor health are less likely to move, after controlling for individual level characteristics. In contrast with expectations, economic inactivity, marriage and being in African, Caribbean, Black, Other or Mixed ethnic groups were not significant predictors of migration among the unhealthy sample, but were for the healthy sample. We conclude that migration is health-selective and propose implications for understanding area level concentrations of poor health in England and Wales.

  6. Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Durrheim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72% notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%. Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

  7. The injury profile and acute treatment costs of major trauma in older people in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Chan, Daniel Leonard; Lam, Mary Kit; Mitchell, Rebecca; King, Kate; Leonard, Liz; D'Amours, Scott; Black, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    To Describe injury profile and costs of older person trauma in New South Wales; quantify variations with peer group costs; and identify predictors of higher costs. Nine level 1 New South Wales trauma centres provided data on major traumas (aged ≥ 55 years) during 2008-2009 financial year. Trauma register and financial data of each institution were linked. Treatment costs were compared with peer group Australian Refined Diagnostic Related Groups costs, on which hospital funding is based. Variables examined through multivariate analyses. Six thousand two hundred and eighty-nine patients were admitted for trauma. Most common injury mechanism was falls (74.8%) then road trauma (14.9%). Median patient cost was $7044 (Q1-3: $3405-13 930) and total treatment costs $76 694 252. Treatment costs were $5 813 975 above peer group average. Intensive care unit admission, age, injury severity score, length of stay and traumatic brain injury were independent predictors of increased costs. Older person trauma attracts greater costs and length of stay. Cost increases with age and injury severity. Hospital financial information and trauma registry data provides accurate cost information that may inform future funding. © 2013 ACOTA.

  8. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kaisarun; Barnes, Emma C; Brophy, Joseph J; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia.

  9. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisarun Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia.

  10. Derivative Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field \\phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants. Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(\\phi,X), where X is the canonical kinetic term for \\phi. The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for \\phi. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning...

  11. The PROSPECT physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bignell, L.; Bowden, N. S.; Bowes, A.; Brodsky, J. P.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Commeford, K.; Conant, A. J.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; DuVernois, M.; Erikson, A. S.; Febbraro, M. T.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Goddard, B. W.; Green, M.; Hackett, B. T.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Insler, J.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jones, D.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Matta, J. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nikkel, J. A.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Qian, X.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Sheets, S.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Trinh, C.; Varner, R. L.; Viren, B.; Wang, W.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zangakis, G. Z.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.; PROSPECT Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The precision reactor oscillation and spectrum experiment, PROSPECT, is designed to make a precise measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium reactor and probe eV-scale sterile neutrinos by searching for neutrino oscillations over a distance of several meters. PROSPECT is conceived as a 2-phase experiment utilizing segmented 6Li-doped liquid scintillator detectors for both efficient detection of reactor antineutrinos through the inverse beta decay reaction and excellent background discrimination. PROSPECT Phase I consists of a movable 3 ton antineutrino detector at distances of 7-12 m from the reactor core. It will probe the best-fit point of the {ν }e disappearance experiments at 4σ in 1 year and the favored region of the sterile neutrino parameter space at \\gt 3σ in 3 years. With a second antineutrino detector at 15-19 m from the reactor, Phase II of PROSPECT can probe the entire allowed parameter space below 10 eV2 at 5σ in 3 additional years. The measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum and the search for short-baseline oscillations with PROSPECT will test the origin of the spectral deviations observed in recent {θ }13 experiments, search for sterile neutrinos, and conclusively address the hypothesis of sterile neutrinos as an explanation of the reactor anomaly.

  12. Derivative chameleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂μphi∂μphi,squphi,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(phi,∂μphi∂μphi). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for phi → phi+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  13. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  14. Psychological Types of Female Primary School Teachers in Anglican State-Maintained Schools in England and Wales: Implications for Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Lankshear, David W.; Robbins, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 221 female primary school teachers in Anglican state-maintained schools in England and Wales completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS). The data demonstrated clear preferences for Extraversion (E) over Introversion (I), for Sensing (S) over Intuition (N), for Feeling (F) over Thinking (T) and for Judging (J) over…

  15. Photo-identification methods reveal seasonal and long-term site-fidelity of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) in shallow waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.N.; Leopold, M.F.; Simmonds, M.P.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A photo-identification study on Risso’s dolphins was carried out off Bardsey Island in Wales (July to September, 1997-2007). Their local abundance was estimated using two different analytical techniques: 1) mark-recapture of well-marked dolphins using a “closed-population” model; and 2) a census tec

  16. The Spiritual Revolution and Suicidal Ideation: An Empirical Enquiry among 13- to 15-Year-Old Adolescents in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    The association between conventional religiosity and suicide inhibition has been well explored and documented since the pioneering work of Durkheim. Commentators like Heelas and Woodhead point to ways in which conventional religiosity is giving way in England and Wales to a range of alternative spiritualities, including renewed interest in…

  17. "Nobody Dodges Remington": The Free Library Movement and the Achievement of Public Library Legislation in New South Wales, 1935-39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Carmel

    2007-01-01

    Traces the role of Geoffrey Cochrane Remington, Sydney solicitor and businessman, in free public library development in Australia. Describes how the Munn Pitt Report on Australian libraries and Remington's acquaintance with John Wallace Metcalfe of the Public Library of New South Wales led to the birth of the Free Library Movement in 1935, and…

  18. The Spiritual Revolution and Suicidal Ideation: An Empirical Enquiry among 13- to 15-Year-Old Adolescents in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    The association between conventional religiosity and suicide inhibition has been well explored and documented since the pioneering work of Durkheim. Commentators like Heelas and Woodhead point to ways in which conventional religiosity is giving way in England and Wales to a range of alternative spiritualities, including renewed interest in…

  19. Caught between a Rock and a Hard Place: Disruptive Boys' Views on Mainstream and Special Schools in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Linda J.; Van Bergen, Penny; Sweller, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Students with disruptive behaviour in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) are increasingly being educated in separate "behaviour" schools. There is however surprisingly little research on how students view these settings, or indeed the mainstream schools from which they were excluded. To better understand excluded students'…

  20. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the New Labour Discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) across Schools in England and Wales: Conversations with Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the New Labour (1997-2010) discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in schools, and how it was understood and enacted by policymakers in England and in Wales within the context of devolved government across the UK. By SEL I mean universal school-based programs, located in the…

  1. Continuity of care : is the personal doctor still important? : A survey of general practitioners and family physicians in England and Wales, the United States, and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokes, T.; Tarrant, C.; Mainous, A.G.; Schers, H.J.; Freeman, G.; Baker, R.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: We determined the reported value general practitioners/family physicians in 3 different health care systems place on the various types of continuity of care. METHODS: We conducted a postal questionnaire survey in England and Wales, the United States, and The Netherlands. The participants we

  2. Modeling Water Utility Investments and Improving Regulatory Policies using Economic Optimisation in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Water utilities in England and Wales are regulated natural monopolies called 'water companies'. Water companies must obtain periodic regulatory approval for all investments (new supply infrastructure or demand management measures). Both water companies and their regulators use results from least economic cost capacity expansion optimisation models to develop or assess water supply investment plans. This presentation first describes the formulation of a flexible supply-demand planning capacity expansion model for water system planning. The model uses a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation to choose the least-cost schedule of future supply schemes (reservoirs, desalination plants, etc.) and demand management (DM) measures (leakage reduction, water efficiency and metering options) and bulk transfers. Decisions include what schemes to implement, when to do so, how to size schemes and how much to use each scheme during each year of an n-year long planning horizon (typically 30 years). In addition to capital and operating (fixed and variable) costs, the estimated social and environmental costs of schemes are considered. Each proposed scheme is costed discretely at one or more capacities following regulatory guidelines. The model uses a node-link network structure: water demand nodes are connected to supply and demand management (DM) options (represented as nodes) or to other demand nodes (transfers). Yields from existing and proposed are estimated separately using detailed water resource system simulation models evaluated over the historical period. The model simultaneously considers multiple demand scenarios to ensure demands are met at required reliability levels; use levels of each scheme are evaluated for each demand scenario and weighted by scenario likelihood so that operating costs are accurately evaluated. Multiple interdependency relationships between schemes (pre-requisites, mutual exclusivity, start dates, etc.) can be accounted for by

  3. Exploring interhospital transfers and partnerships in the hospital sector in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Leeder, Stephen R

    2016-11-04

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore characteristics of interhospital transfers (IHT) and sharing of care among hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia.Methods Data were extracted from patient-level linked hospital administrative datasets for separations from all NSW acute care hospitals from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2015. Patient discharge and arrival information was used to identify IHTs. Characteristics of patients and related hospitals were then analysed.Results Transfer-in patients accounted for 3.9% of all NSW admitted patients and, overall, 7.3% of NSW admissions were associated with transfers (IHT rate). Patients with injuries and circulatory system diseases had the highest IHT rate, accounting for one-third of all IHTs. Patients were more often transferred to larger than smaller hospitals (61% vs 29%). Compared with private hospitals, public hospitals had a higher IHT rate (8.4% vs 5.1%) and a greater proportion of transfer-out IHTs (52% vs 28%). Larger public hospitals had lower IHT rates (3-8%) compared with smaller public hospitals (13-26%). Larger public hospitals received and retransferred higher proportions of IHT patients (52-58% and 11% respectively) than their smaller counterparts (26-30% and 2-3% respectively). Less than one-quarter of IHTs were between the public and private sectors or between government health regions. The number of interacting hospitals and their interactions varied across hospital peer groups.Conclusion NSW IHTs were often to hospitals with greater speciality services. The patterns of interhospital interactions could be affected by organisational and regional preferences.What is known about the topic? IHTs aim to provide efficient and effective care. Nonetheless, information on transfers and the sharing of care among hospitals in an Australian setting is lacking. Studies of transfers and hospital partnership patterns will inform efforts to improve patient-centred transfers and hospital accountability in

  4. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  5. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

    2013-11-01

    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  6. Marine-derived fungi as a source of proteases

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, T.; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.

    Microbial enzymes have continued to assist diverse reactions as biocatalysts. Marine derived microbes offer a prospective resource for such enzymes. In this study thirteen fungi were isolated from marine organisms (soft coral and sponge) collected...

  7. The dangers of taking mud for granted: Lessons from Lower Old Red Sandstone dryland river systems of South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, V. Paul; Marriott, Susan B.

    2007-02-01

    Mudrocks are a prominent feature of many ancient dryland successions but they are not always a product of the settling out of suspension load. From studies of the late Silurian-early Devonian Old Red Sandstone mudrocks of South Wales it has been shown that many were not overbank sediments deposited from suspension on floodplains, but were emplaced as sand- and silt-sized aggregates transported as bed load and deposited in sinuous channels and as braid-bar complexes on multi-stage floodplains in dryland river systems. Using the Old Red Sandstone examples criteria are provided for the recognition of similar deposits in the sedimentary record. One important aspect of these mudrocks is that they can represent multiple recycling events and can constitute condensed deposits that may be characteristic of closed alluvial basins with periodically limited sediment supply.

  8. Mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer risk in New South Wales North Coast Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Ruth; Spuur, Kelly Maree; Currie, Geoffrey; Greene, Lacey

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to document the distribution of mammographic parenchymal patterns (MPP) of Indigenous Australian women attending BreastScreen New South Wales (NSW) North Coast, to profile breast cancer risk as it relates to breast density and to explore the correlation between MPP, breast size as described by the posterior nipple line (PNL) and age. Ethics was granted from CQUniversity Human Research Ethics Committee, NSW Population Health Services Research Ethics Committee and the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council Ethics Committee. A quantitative retrospective analysis reviewed 502 screening mammograms against the Tabár I-V MPP classification system. The PNL was measured in millimetres (mm) and the age of the patient documented. A statistically significant variation in the distribution of MPP (P distribution of MPP was noted in this snapshot of Indigenous women. A larger study of Indigenous Australian women is required for validation.

  9. Reduced street lighting at night and health: A rapid appraisal of public views in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Judith; Perkins, Chloe; Steinbach, Rebecca; Edwards, Phil

    2015-07-01

    Financial and carbon reduction incentives have prompted many local authorities to reduce street lighting at night. Debate on the public health implications has centred on road accidents, fear of crime and putative health gains from reduced exposure to artificial light. However, little is known about public views of the relationship between reduced street lighting and health. We undertook a rapid appraisal in eight areas of England and Wales using ethnographic data, a household survey and documentary sources. Public concern focused on road safety, fear of crime, mobility and seeing the night sky but, for the majority in areas with interventions, reductions went unnoticed. However, more private concerns tapped into deep-seated anxieties about darkness, modernity 'going backwards', and local governance. Pathways linking lighting reductions and health are mediated by place, expectations of how localities should be lit, and trust in local authorities to act in the best interests of local communities.

  10. The impact of compulsory helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    This article responds to criticisms made in a rejoinder (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2012, 45: 107-109) questioning the validity of a study on the impact of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. We systematically address the criticisms through clarification of our methods, extension of the original analysis and discussion of new evidence on the population-level effects of MHL. Extensions of our analysis confirm the original conclusions that MHL had a beneficial effect on head injury rates over and above background trends and changes in cycling participation. The ongoing debate around MHL draws attention away from important ways in which both safety and participation can be improved through investment in well-connected cycling infrastructure, fostering consideration between road users, and adequate legal protection for vulnerable road users. These are the essential elements for providing a cycling environment that encourages participation, with all its health, economic and environmental benefits, while maximising safety.

  11. Distribution of the genus Alexandrium (Halim) and paralytic shellfish toxins along the coastline of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Brett, Steve; Ajani, Penelope; Murray, Shauna

    2013-07-15

    Blooms of Alexandrium species, in particular the species Alexandrium catenella, accounted for more than 50% of algal related, shellfish aquaculture harvest zone closures in New South Wales (NSW) Australia since 2005. While there are indications that species of Alexandrium are more abundant than they were formerly, there is little data available on the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of the genus in NSW. A six and a half year dataset comprising a total of 8649 fortnightly samples from 31 estuaries spread over 2000 km of NSW coastline was analysed. The greatest abundances of Alexandrium spp. were observed during the austral Spring and Summer, in estuaries in the mid and southern latitudes of the state. In identifying these high risk zones, we propose variables such as season, temperature, rainfall and estuarine flushing to be targeted in intensive site specific studies, to support the development of predictive tools for resource managers.

  12. The politics of school sex education policy in England and Wales from the 1940s to the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, James

    2005-04-01

    This article explores the political history of school sex education policy in England and Wales. Focusing on the period from the 1940s to the 1960s, it shows how sex education developed as a controversial political issue through an analysis of the differing institutional cultures and agendas of health and education administrators. The article argues that serious consideration of school sex education by central government was first prompted by concern about venereal disease during the Second World War. Thereafter, two groups of actors emerged with conflicting ideas about the role of government in prescribing school sex education. The medical establishment, including the Ministry of Health, was broadly supportive of a national policy, whereas the Department of Education, which had ultimate responsibility for any such policy in schools, sought to avoid decision-making about the issue. The article explores how a public health consensus on sex education developed and then explains why the Department of Education resisted this consensus.

  13. Age Structure of the Otter (Lutra lutra Population in England and Wales, and Problems with Cementum Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Sherrard-Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Age is an important parameter in understanding population structure and age-dependent processes such as accumulation of contaminants. In the current study, canines and incisors of sub-adult and mature wild otters (Lutra lutra from England and Wales were sectioned and incremental cementum lines were used as an indication of age. The age structure of the sample population is much younger than some European populations (of 110 otters aged, only 10 were aged four or older. Cementum ageing is useful here in giving a broad indication of age structure, but is imprecise for species which do not exhibit seasonal breeding. Age is likely to be underestimated in most cases.

  14. Analysing spatial trends in referral patterns to cancer genetics services: a preliminary investigation of regional variations in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kevin; Higgs, Gary; Iredale, Rachel; Tempest, Vanessa; Gray, Jonathon

    2004-11-01

    This paper discusses spatial trends in referral patterns to a cancer genetics service. It presents a literature review outlining the paucity of existing research, a preliminary analysis at the Unitary Authority level in Wales and advances a programme of further research to be conducted at a more detailed spatial level. The preliminary analysis shows a weak negative relationship between referral rates from primary care and social deprivation by Unitary Authority (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, sigma = -0.38). There is also a weak positive relationship between average settlement size and referral rates (sigma = +0.28), which taken together may indicate that primary care practices in affluent urban areas are more likely to refer than those in poorer rural areas. Future research will be conducted at a finer spatial scale, and will take into account characteristics of primary care practices and the patients being referred, amongst other variables.

  15. Cross-sectional survey of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from diseased farm livestock in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, T E A; Smith, R P; Hutchinson, J P; Brunton, L A; Pritchard, G; Teale, C J

    2015-09-01

    Between 2005 and 2007, E. coli obtained from clinical diagnostic submissions from cattle, goats, pigs and sheep to government laboratories in England and Wales were tested for sensitivity to 16 antimicrobials. Resistance was most commonly observed against ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Resistance levels varied significantly between species, with isolates from cattle frequently showing the highest levels. Verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) expressed less resistance than non-VTEC. Only 19·3% of non-VTEC and 43·5% of VTEC were susceptible to all antimicrobials, while 47·1% and 30·4%, respectively, were resistant to ⩾5 antimicrobials. The resistance phenotype SSuT was commonly observed, and isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were also identified. We recommend judicious antimicrobial usage in the livestock industry in order to preserve efficacy.

  16. Xiphosurans from the Westphalian-D of the Radstock Basin, Somerset Coalfield, the South Wales Coalfield and Mazon Creek, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.I.

    1994-01-01

    Euproops kilmersdonensis (Ambrose Romano, 1972) is proposed as a synonym of Euproops danae (Meek and Worthen, 1865) from Mazon Creek, Illinois. Five other species attributed to Euproops Meek, 1867 and one species attributed to Prestwichianella nitida Dix and Pringle, 1929, from the Westphalian D of the South Wales Coalfield, described by Dix and Pringle (1922, 1930) are also synonymized with E. danae. In addition, six species described by Raymond (1944) from Mazon Creek are synonymized with E. danae. The taphonomic processes acting upon xiphosuran body fossils produce spurious morphological differences between specimens, which have been used in the past to define species. It is concluded that species diversity within the Carboniferous Xiphosura was low, contrary to previous reports (Fisher, 1984). The mode of life of E. danae is re-evaluated in the light of trace fossils recently described by Pollard and Hardy (1991) from Writhlington Geological Nature Reserve, and from palaeophysiological considerations.

  17. Review of Historic Parishes of England and Wales: An Electronic Map of Boundaries before 1850 with a Gazetteer and Metadata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pickles

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the authors, Historic Parishes of England and Wales aims to provide one possible solution to 'a major lacuna militating against the effective exploitation of many post-medieval to mid-Victorian historical sources collected by local administrative areas.' That is 'the lack of information on the boundaries of those administrative areas: the so-called "historic" or "ancient" parishes of England and Wales.' There is no doubt that this is indeed a problem, and that such information will find a wide potential audience. As they admirably illustrate in the accompanying book, parish boundaries have been some of the most enduring and stable organising units, certainly formed by the thirteenth century and largely unchanged until the nineteenth. However, a series of Victorian parliamentary acts sought to rationalise the parochial pattern, and no national sources exist that record the status quo preceding these changes. Kain and Oliver point to an impressive number of historians of locally compiled sources who would benefit from reliable information on these pre-Victorian boundaries, and their list is by no means exhaustive. The core of the package is a database of 'metadata', intended for use with either Acrobat Reader or Microsoft Excel, which records the character of each administrative unit mapped, and the origins of the evidence for its boundaries. Three CDs contain this database in addition to maps of the 'historic' parish boundaries of England that can be read using Acrobat Reader, with the necessary reader software supplied. A further six CDs contain those same maps saved as three separate interactive layers, to be viewed using Adobe Illustrator but this software is not included.

  18. The traditional commons of England and Wales in the twenty-first century: meeting new and old challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Short

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The commons literature makes much of the changes within the traditional land use sectors of developed countries. This largely focuses on the decline of the economic function of commons that threaten their existence, the emergence of multiple use patterns, and the resilience and policy adaptation needed to continue. The situation in England and Wales is used to illustrate that commons are increasingly important to a number of ‘new’ rural functions and that the associated policy developments may hold an important message for progress towards sustainable multifunctional land management more generally. This article reviews and updates what is meant by the term common land within England and Wales, while outlining its current importance and threats. The commons literature is investigated to see if the approach is useful in revealing the current issues associated with the incorporation of new stakeholders and functions within a traditional structure. Recent changes and developments surrounding the Commons Act 2006 are assessed to see if they are likely to assist in sustaining these commons through the twenty-first century. The article argues that any new approach requires long term planning and a commitment to support local participation among commoners and others who are involved in the governance and management of these areas of land. In order for these challenges to be met there needs to be an understanding of the functions and cultural traditions of common land as well as of the changes in society associated with the decline in traditional agrarian management in developed countries. Such challenges can rarely if ever be achieved through legislation and policy developments, requiring an investment in developing locally based solutions.

  19. a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rörster, Elisa geb. Pätel

    2012-01-01

    Bulk fractures only occur on very rare occasions in bilayered all-ceramic crowns, where as veneer fractures, above all chippings, still present a frequent amount of clinical complications. The purpose of the current prospective study was to examine the clinical performance of an anatomically modified framework for a period of two years. All crowns were manufactured following the Cercon process (DeguDent GmbH, Hanau). As is common practice, the frameworks for the control group were made of ...

  20. Bright Economic Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minqiu

    2004-01-01

    @@ India is expected to register an 8.2% growth rate for the 2003-04 fiscal year. The overall economic situation this year has been satisfactory despite the scaled down 6-6.5% growth rate for the new fiscal year due to oil price hikes, reduced monsoon volume and some 7% inflation. Judging from the following factors, bright prospects are in store for the country down the road.

  1. Methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitive methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probalistic mineral prospectivity map.The Rodalquilar mineral district is located in the Sierra del Cabo de Gata volcanic field, in the south...

  2. Prospecting for lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much

  3. Sound velocity, temperature, and salinity profiles from underway vessel profiler and CTD casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER from West of Prince of Wales, Alaska, from 2008-10-07 to 2008-11-10 (NCEI Accession 0048722)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Ship RAINIER from West of Prince of Wales, Alaska, from 07 October 2008 to 10 November 2008. Data were...

  4. Temperature and salinity profile data from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER west of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, from 2008-05-16 to 2008-06-16 (NCEI Accession 0043264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Ship RAINIER west of Prince of Wales Island from 16 May 2008 to 16 June 2008. Data were collected from CTD...

  5. Quantifying the Physical Composition of Urban Morphology throughout Wales Based on the Time Series (1989–2011 Analysis of Landsat TM/ETM+ Images and Supporting GIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Scott

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of impervious surface areas (ISA and on their changes in magnitude, location, geometry and morphology over time is significant for a range of practical applications and research alike from local to global scales. Despite this, use of Earth Observation (EO technology in mapping ISAs within some European Union (EU countries, such as the United Kingdom (UK, is to some extent scarce. In the present study, a combination of methods is proposed for mapping ISA based on freely distributed EO imagery from Landsat TM/ETM+ sensors. The proposed technique combines a traditional classifier and a linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA with a series of Landsat TM/ETM+ images to extract ISA. Selected sites located in Wales, UK, are used for demonstrating the capability of the proposed method. The Welsh study areas provided a unique setting in detecting largely dispersed urban morphology within an urban-rural frontier context. In addition, an innovative method for detecting clouds and cloud shadow layers for the full area estimation of ISA is also presented herein. The removal and replacement of clouds and cloud shadows, with underlying materials is further explained. Aerial photography with a spatial resolution of 0.4 m, acquired over the summer period in 2005 was used for validation purposes. Validation of the derived products indicated an overall ISA detection accuracy in the order of ~97%. The latter was considered as very satisfactory and at least comparative, if not somehow better, to existing ISA products provided on a national level. The hybrid method for ISA extraction proposed here is important on a local scale in terms of moving forward into a biennial program for the Welsh Government. It offers a much less subjectively static and more objectively dynamic estimation of ISA cover in comparison to existing operational products already available, improving the current estimations of international urbanization and soil sealing. Findings of our

  6. Estimation of the vertical distribution of tree biomass using last significant return laser altimetry returns from Eucalypt trees in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, I. J.; Walker, J.; Gurney, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    can be derived from trees, by comparing the elevation return frequency from a number of individual Eucalypt trees in New South Wales, Australia, and comparing this to photography of the same trees. Airborne laser altimetry last significant return data was acquired in November 2006, which included ten Eucalypt trees. This was analysed using the assumption that probability of beam interception within a fixed height interval was proportional to vegetation area, and, assuming constant leaf thickness and angular distribution, vegetation mass. This provided a layered estimate for vegetation mass, relative within the tree. This was compared with analysis of photographs acquired in 2007 and 2010, indicating a change in structure and growth within the canopy over the intervening period for the younger, shorter trees. A potential problem with this form of analysis is the loss of information below the point at which all laser pulses have been intercepted, however in this case, no trees showed this, with at least 26% of pulses penetrating to ground level.

  7. Applied Astronomy: Asteroid Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.

    2013-09-01

    In the age of asteroid mining the ability to find promising ore-bearing bodies will be valuable. This will give rise to a new discipline- "Applied Astronomy". Just as most geologists work in industry, not in academia, the same will be true of astronomers. Just how rare or common ore-rich asteroids are likely to be, and the skills needed to assay their value, are discussed here, with an emphasis on remote - telescopic - methods. Also considered are the resources needed to conduct extensive surveys of asteroids for prospecting purposes, and the cost and timescale involved. The longer-term need for applied astronomers is also covered.

  8. Rural Versus Urban Health Service Utilization and Outcomes for Renal Patients in New South Wales: Protocol for a Data Linkage Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kotwal, Sradha; Webster, Angela; Cass, Alan; Gallagher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Kidney disease is a significant burden on health systems globally, with the rising prevalence of end stage kidney disease in Australia mirrored in many other countries. Approximately 25% of the Australian population lives in regional and rural areas and accessing complex tertiary services is challenging. Objective We aim to compare the burden and outcomes of chronic kidney disease and end stage kidney disease in rural and urban regions of New South Wales (Australia’s most populous ...

  9. Medication monitoring in a nurse-led respiratory outpatient clinic: pragmatic randomised trial of the West Wales Adverse Drug Reaction Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E Gabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effect of medication monitoring using the West Wales Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR Profile for Respiratory Medicine. DESIGN: Single-site parallel-arm pragmatic trial using stratified randomisation. SETTING: Nurse-led respiratory outpatient clinic in general hospital in South Wales. PARTICIPANTS: 54 patients with chronic respiratory disease receiving bronchodilators, corticosteroids or leukotriene receptor antagonists. INTERVENTION: Following initial observation of usual nursing care, we allocated participants at random to receive at follow up: either the West Wales ADR Profile for Respiratory Medicine in addition to usual care ('intervention arm' with 26 participants; or usual care alone ('control arm' with 28 participants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Problems reported and actions taken. RESULTS: We followed up all randomised participants, and analysed data in accordance with treatment allocated. The increase in numbers of problems per participant identified at follow up was significantly higher in the intervention arm, where the median increase was 20.5 [inter-quartile range (IQR 13-26], while that in the control arm was -1 [-3 to +2] [Mann-Whitney U test: z = 6.28, p<0.001]. The increase in numbers of actions per participant taken at follow up was also significantly higher in the intervention arm, where the median increase was 2.5 [1]-[4] while that in the control arm was 0 [-1.75 to +1] [Mann-Whitney U test: z = 4.40, p<0.001]. CONCLUSION: When added to usual nursing care, the West Wales ADR Profile identified more problems and prompted more nursing actions. Our ADR Profile warrants further investigation as a strategy to optimise medication management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN10386209.

  10. Barriers to the use of Information and Communication Technology by occupational therapists working in a rural area of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedid, Rebecca Jean; Dew, Angela; Veitch, Craig

    2013-06-01

    This qualitative study formed part of a large-scale, multi-phase study into the delivery of therapy services to people with a disability, living in one rural area of New South Wales, Australia. The study's purpose was to identify the impact of Information and Communication Technology on the workforce practices of occupational therapists' working in a rural area of New South Wales. Individual semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 occupational therapists working in disability, health and private practice in a rural area of New South Wales. Participants were asked about access to, skills and limitations of using Information and Communication Technology. A modified grounded theory approach, based on thematic analysis and constant comparison, was used to analyse the interview transcripts. This study found widespread use of technology by rurally based occupational therapists working in the disability sector in New South Wales. However, Information and Communication Technology was primarily used for client contact, professional development and professional networking rather than therapy provision. The study identified individual, workplace and community barriers to greater uptake of Information and Communication Technology by this group. The individual barriers included: age cohort, knowledge and personal preferences. The workplace barriers included: support and training and availability of resources. The community barriers included: infrastructure and perceptions of clients' acceptance. The potential exists for Information and Communication Technology to supplement face-to-face therapy provision, enhance access to professional development and reduce professional isolation thereby addressing the rural challenges of large distances, travel times and geographic isolation. To overcome these challenges, individual, workplace and community Information and Communication Technology barriers should be addressed concurrently. © 2012 The Authors Australian

  11. Women’s socio-economic rights and religion among Christian, Islamic and non-religiously affiliated students in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; McKenna, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the association between self-assigned religious affiliation (Christian, Muslim, and unaffiliated) and attitudes toward women’s rights among a sample of 1,058 students between the ages of 14 and 18 years in England and Wales, after taking into account personal factors, home environment factors, psychological factors, and religious factors. While religious saliency and interreligious openness both predicted a more positive attitude toward women’s rights, after taking these a...

  12. Violence against People with Disability in England and Wales: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Hind; Howard, Louise M.; Osborn, David; Moran, Paul; Johnson, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent World Report on Disability highlighted violence as a leading cause of morbidity among disabled people. However, we know little about the extent to which people with disability experience different violence types, and associated health/economic costs. The recent introduction of disability measures into the England&Wales victimization survey provided an opportunity to address this gap. Methods and Findings Analysis of the 2009/10 British Crime Survey (BCS), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 44,398 adults living in residential households in England&Wales. Using multivariate logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of being a victim of past-year violence (physical/sexual domestic or non-domestic violence) in people with disability compared to those without, after adjusting for socio-demographics, behavioural and area confounders. 1256/44398(2.4%) participants had one or more disabilities including mental illness (‘mental illness’) and 7781(13.9%) had one or more disabilities excluding mental illness (‘non-mental disability’). Compared with the non-disabled, those with mental illness had adjusted relative odds (aOR) of 3.0(95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3–3.8) and those with non-mental disability had aOR of 1.8(95% CI: 1.5–2.2) of being a victim of past-year violence (with similar relative odds for domestic and non-domestic violence). Disabled victims were more likely to suffer mental ill health as a result of violence than non-disabled victims. The proportion of violence that could be attributed to the independent effect of disability in the general population was 7.5%(CI 5.7–9.3%), at an estimated cost of £1.51 billion. The main study limitation is the exclusion of institutionalised people with disability. Conclusions People with disability are at increased risk of being victims of domestic and non-domestic violence, and of suffering mental ill health when victimized. The related public health and

  13. Violence against people with disability in England and Wales: findings from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Khalifeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent World Report on Disability highlighted violence as a leading cause of morbidity among disabled people. However, we know little about the extent to which people with disability experience different violence types, and associated health/economic costs. The recent introduction of disability measures into the England&Wales victimization survey provided an opportunity to address this gap. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of the 2009/10 British Crime Survey (BCS, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 44,398 adults living in residential households in England&Wales. Using multivariate logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of being a victim of past-year violence (physical/sexual domestic or non-domestic violence in people with disability compared to those without, after adjusting for socio-demographics, behavioural and area confounders. 1256/44398(2.4% participants had one or more disabilities including mental illness ('mental illness' and 7781(13.9% had one or more disabilities excluding mental illness ('non-mental disability'. Compared with the non-disabled, those with mental illness had adjusted relative odds (aOR of 3.0(95% confidence interval (CI 2.3-3.8 and those with non-mental disability had aOR of 1.8(95% CI: 1.5-2.2 of being a victim of past-year violence (with similar relative odds for domestic and non-domestic violence. Disabled victims were more likely to suffer mental ill health as a result of violence than non-disabled victims. The proportion of violence that could be attributed to the independent effect of disability in the general population was 7.5%(CI 5.7-9.3%, at an estimated cost of £1.51 billion. The main study limitation is the exclusion of institutionalised people with disability. CONCLUSIONS: People with disability are at increased risk of being victims of domestic and non-domestic violence, and of suffering mental ill health when victimized. The related public health and

  14. Recovery-focused care planning and coordination in England and Wales: a cross-national mixed methods comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Alan; Hannigan, Ben; Coffey, Michael; Barlow, Sally; Cohen, Rachel; Jones, Aled; Všetečková, Jitka; Faulkner, Alison; Thornton, Alexandra; Cartwright, Martin

    2016-05-16

    In the UK, concerns about safety and fragmented community mental health care led to the development of the care programme approach in England and care and treatment planning in Wales. These systems require service users to have a care coordinator, written care plan and regular reviews of their care. Processes are required to be collaborative, recovery-focused and personalised but have rarely been researched. We aimed to obtain the views and experiences of stakeholders involved in community mental health care and identify factors that facilitate or act as barriers to personalised, collaborative, recovery-focused care. We conducted a cross-national comparative study employing a concurrent transformative mixed-methods approach with embedded case studies across six service provider sites in England and Wales. The study included a survey of views on recovery, empowerment and therapeutic relationships in service users (n = 448) and recovery in care coordinators (n = 201); embedded case studies involving interviews with service providers, service users and carers (n = 117) and a review of care plans (n = 33). Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed within and across sites using inferential statistics, correlations and framework method. Significant differences were found across sites for scores on therapeutic relationships. Variation within sites and participant groups was reported in experiences of care planning and understandings of recovery and personalisation. Care plans were described as administratively burdensome and were rarely consulted. Carers reported varying levels of involvement. Risk assessments were central to clinical concerns but were rarely discussed with service users. Service users valued therapeutic relationships with care coordinators and others, and saw these as central to recovery. Administrative elements of care coordination reduce opportunities for recovery-focused and personalised work. There were few common understandings

  15. Is HELICS the right way? Lack of chest radiography limits ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance in Wales

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    Richard Pugh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The reported incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP in Wales is low compared with surveillance data from other European regions. It is unclear whether this reflects success of the Welsh healthcare-associated infection prevention measures or limitations in the application of European VAP surveillance methods. Our primary aim was to investigate episodes of ventilator-associated respiratory tract infection (VARTI, to identify episodes that met established criteria for VAP, and to explore reasons why others did not, according to the Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS definitions. Materials and methods: During two 14-day study periods 2012-2014, investigators reviewed all invasively ventilated patients in all 14 Welsh Intensive Care Units (ICUs. Episodes were identified in which the clinical team had commenced antibiotic therapy because of suspected VARTI. Probability of pneumonia was estimated using a modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (mCPIS. Episodes meeting HELICS definitions of VAP were identified, and reasons for other episodes not meeting definitions examined. In the second period, each patient was also assessed with regards to the development of a ventilator-associated event (VAE, according to recent US definitions. Results: The study included 306 invasively ventilated patients; 282 were admitted to ICU for 48 hours or more. 32 (11.3% patients were commenced on antibiotics for suspected VARTI. 10 of these episodes met HELICS definitions of VAP, an incidence of 4.2 per 1000 intubation days. In 48% VARTI episodes, concurrent chest radiography was not performed, precluding the diagnosis of VAP. Mechanical ventilation (16.0 vs. 8.0 days; p=0.01 and ICU stay (25.0 vs. 11.0 days; p=0.01 were significantly longer in patients treated for VARTI compared to those not treated. There was no overlap between episodes of VARTI and of VAE. Discussion: HELICS VAP surveillance

  16. Astronautics summary and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Anatoly Ivanovich; Menshikov, Valery Alexandrovich

    2003-01-01

    The monograph by A.I.Kiselev, A.A. Medvedev and Y.A.Menshikov, Astronautics: Summary and Prospects, aroused enthusiasm both among experts and the public at large. This is due to the felicitous choice of presentation that combines a simple description of complex space matters with scientificsubstantiation of the sub­ jectmatter described. The wealth of color photos makes the book still more attractive, and it was nominated for an award at the 14th International Moscow Book Fair, being singled out as the "best publication of the book fair". The book's popularity led to a second edition, substantially revised and enlarged. Since the first edition did not sufficiently cover the issues of space impact on ecology and the prospective development of space systems, the authors revised the entire volume, including in it the chapter "Space activity and ecology" and the section "Multi-function space systems". Using the federal monitoring system, now in the phase of system engi­ neering, as an example, the authors consi...

  17. Assessment of the LES-WALE and Zonal-DES Turbulence Models in Simulation of the Flow Structures around the Finite Circular Cylinder

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    Ramin Kamali-Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional unsteady flow field around a finite circular cylinder standing in a flat-plate boundary layer is studied. For this purpose, two different numerical turbulence approaches as wall adapted local eddyviscosity LES (LES-WALE and the zonal hybrid RANS-LES approach of Detached-Eddy Simulation (Zonal-DES are used. Analysis is carried out for a finite circular cylinder with diameter of D = 3 mm and length-to-diameter ratio of L/D=6 which leads to the Reynolds number 2×104. Numerical simulation has been performed based on the LES-WALE and Zonal-DES turbulence models using coarse and fine grids. Ability and accuracy of two models in capturing the complex physics of present phenomenon are investigated by comparing their results with each other and validated experimental results. Also, effect of several important parameters such as time-averaged pressure coefficient, velocity, vortex shedding frequency and performance of the LES-WALE and Zonal-DES turbulence models are studied.

  18. Impact of deprivation on breast cancer survival among women eligible for mammographic screening in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia): Women diagnosed 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard; O'Connell, Dianne; Lawrence, Gill; Coleman, Michel P

    2016-05-15

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer in the UK display marked differences in survival between categories defined by socio-economic deprivation. Timeliness of diagnosis is one of the possible explanations for these patterns. Women whose cancer is screen-detected are more likely to be diagnosed at an earlier stage. We examined deprivation and screening-specific survival in order to evaluate the role of early diagnosis upon deprivation-specific survival differences in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia). We estimated net survival for women aged 50-65 years at diagnosis and whom had been continuously eligible for screening from the age of 50. Records for 5,628 women in West Midlands (98.5% of those eligible, mean age at diagnosis 53.7 years) and 6,396 women in New South Wales (99.9% of those eligible, mean age at diagnosis 53.8 years). In New South Wales, survival was similar amongst affluent and deprived women, regardless of whether their cancer was screen-detected or not. In the West Midlands, there were large and persistent differences in survival between affluent and deprived women. Deprivation differences were similar between the screen-detected and non-screen detected groups. These differences are unlikely to be solely explained by artefact, or by patient or tumour factors. Further investigations into the timeliness and appropriateness of the treatments received by women with breast cancer across the social spectrum in the UK are warranted.

  19. TOWARDS THE LIGHT/ TUA’R GOLEUNI: WELSH MEDIUM EDUCATION FOR THE NON-WELSH SPEAKING IN SOUTH WALES: A PARENT’S CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhian Siân Hodges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Welsh-medium education system has long been seen as an effective tool of Welsh language production in Wales. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of Welsh medium education in one south Wales Valley, ‘Cwm Rhymni / Rhymni Valley’. The main reasoning behind the primary research is to focus on the reasons why non-Welsh speaking parents chose Welsh medium education for their children. The research focuses on education but recognises the over lapping nature of the main language transmission spheres within Welsh language planning, i.e. family,community and workplace. This study adopts a mainly qualitative research strategy by administering 60 unstructured interviews to parents who chose Welsh medium nursery, primary and secondary schools for their children. However, as a secondary methodological tool, a semi-structured questionnaire was given out prior to the interviews and the interview sample was then drawn from these. Moreover, Welsh language resurgence within Anglicized areas of South Wales is a fairly unexplored field, this study is hoped to be a catalyst for many more future studies in this field and attempts to address the existing lacunae.

  20. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  1. Survival of trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) and trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome) in England and Wales: 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianhua; Springett, Anna; Morris, Joan K

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the survival of live births with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 and their variants. Information on live births with trisomy 18 or trisomy 13 recorded in the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register (NDSCR) was linked by the NHS Information Centre to obtain information about survival. Survival was known for 326 (88%) of live births with trisomy 18 and 142 (82%) of live births with trisomy 13 born in England and Wales between 2004 and 2011. The median survival time for live births with full trisomy 18 was 14 days and with full trisomy 13 was 10 days, the 3-month survival was 20% and 18%, respectively, and the 1-year survival for both syndromes was 8%. The 1-year survival for live births with trisomy 18 mosaicism (n = 17) was 70%, for those with trisomy 13 mosaicism (n = 5) was 80% and for those with partial trisomy 13 (Robertsonian translocations) (n = 17) was 29%. This study is based on the largest data set on survival for live births with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13. Although median survival for these children is 2 weeks or less, about one in five survive for 3 months or more and about 1 in 12 survive for 1 year or more. We suggest that these survival rates are used in counselling as well as the median survival time.

  2. The health status of mussels, Mytilus spp., in Ireland and Wales with the molecular identification of a previously undescribed haplosporidian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, S A; Morgan, E; Carlsson, J; Mackenzie, C; Wooton, E C; Rowley, A F; Malham, S; Culloty, S C

    2014-05-01

    Both wild and cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis and hybrids), are found along most of the Irish coastline. M. edulis is widespread along all Irish coasts and is the only mussel species present on both the east coast of Ireland and the Welsh coast in the Irish Sea. M. galloprovincialis and hybrids are found along the Irish coastline except for the east coast. Samples of Mytilus spp. were collected from twenty-four sites, encompassing all coasts of Ireland and the Welsh coast, at different times of the year and over several years (2008-2011). In total, 841 mussels were examined histologically to assess their health status and the presence of any parasites or commensals. Mussels from 14 of the 24 sites were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine which mytilid species were present. A range of parasites were observed, generally at low levels. The most diverse community of parasites was observed at a sheltered site with poor water quality. Of significance, a previously undescribed haplosporidian was detected in a single mussel sample in the Menai Strait, Wales, by PCR and was confirmed by direct sequencing and is most closely related to Minchina chitonis and a haplosporidian of the Florida marsh clam Cyrenoida floridana. While M. edulis were infected by a variety of micro- and macro-parasites, only trematodes were observed in M. galloprovincialis and hybrids. Habitat description and the environmental factors influencing the study sites, including water quality and exposure, were recorded.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance among Clinical Ureaplasma Isolates Recovered from Neonates in England and Wales between 2007 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Michael L; Chalker, Victoria J; Jones, Lucy C; Maxwell, Nicola C; Spiller, O Brad

    2015-10-12

    Ureaplasma spp. are associated with numerous clinical sequelae with treatment options being limited due to patient and pathogen factors. This report examines the prevalence and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance among clinical strains isolated from 95 neonates, 32 women attending a sexual health clinic, and 3 patients under investigation for immunological disorders, between 2007 and 2013 in England and Wales. MICs were determined by using broth microdilution assays, and a subset of isolates were compared using the broth microdilution method and the Mycoplasma IST2 assay. The underlying molecular mechanisms for resistance were determined for all resistant isolates. Three isolates carried the tet(M) tetracycline resistance gene (2.3%; confidence interval [CI], 0.49 to 6.86%); two isolates were ciprofloxacin resistant (1.5%; CI, 0.07 to 5.79%) but sensitive to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, while no resistance was seen to any macrolides tested. The MIC values for chloramphenicol were universally low (2 μg/ml), while inherently high-level MIC values for gentamicin were seen (44 to 66 μg/ml). The Mycoplasma IST2 assay identified a number of false positives for ciprofloxacin resistance, as the method does not conform to international testing guidelines. While antibiotic resistance among Ureaplasma isolates remains low, continued surveillance is essential to monitor trends and threats from importation of resistant clones.

  4. Analysis of the effects of zinc pollution on the macro-invertebrate populations of the Afon Crafnant, North Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, M

    1985-09-01

    The study of the input draining from mine-waste into the Afon Crafnant, N. Wales, revealed that the most significant pollutant was zinc. The concentrations of zinc were monitored during 1978 and 1979, and spot samples were concentrated and analysed for lead, copper, cadmium, iron, cobalt, manganese and nickel. Analysis was by flame atomic absorption specto-scopy. The 'total' zinc concentration of the input was about 4 mg Zn/l which was diluted by the Afon Crafnant to give mean annual concentrations of 213 μg Zn/l and 146 μg Zn/l for 1978 and 1979 respectively at a site 60 metres downstream of the input. The numbers of individuals and number of taxa in the macro-invertebrate community were reduced at these concentrations. The taxa affected werePhagocata vitta,Erpobdella octoculata, Oligochaeta,Ithytrichia lamellaris, Simuliidae,Ancylus fluviatilis andRithrogena semicolorata. Several commonly used diversity indices failed to show differences between the macro- invertebrate communities at the affected and control sites whereas a modified version of Chandler's Biotic Score (detailed in this paper) revealed both the acute effects at higher concentrations and the chronic effects at lower concentrations.

  5. Experience in Wales (UK) of the optimisation of ortho-phosphate dosing for controlling lead in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, C R; Incledion, S; Balch, M

    2008-06-01

    Dwr Cymru Welsh Water supplies over three million people with drinking water throughout most of Wales (UK). Ortho-phosphate has increasingly been dosed at around 1 mg/L (P) to further reduce the corrosivity of supplies to the lead pipes which connect approximately 30% of houses to water mains in the company's area, additional to long-establish pH adjustment measures. The installation of new ortho-phosphate dosing schemes and the optimisation of these and existing dosing schemes, 29 schemes in total, were subject to a regulatory programme of work, agreed with the Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI). Optimisation comprised (i) selection of appropriate ortho-phosphate doses by a procedure involving laboratory based plumbosolvency testing linked to zonal lead emission (compliance) modelling, (ii) tight dose control and (iii) extensive monitoring of lead in supply by random daytime (RDT) sampling and by the use of lead pipe test rigs. The successful outcome was confirmed by 99% of over 5,000 RDT samples complying with the future standard of 10 microg/L for lead in drinking water.

  6. QUANTIFICATION AND COSTING OF DOMESTIC ELECTRICITY GENERATION FOR ARMIDALE, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA UTILISING MICRO WIND TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a general overview of energy and renewable energy sources available in Australia was introduced, household’s electricity situation in Australia was presented, and focus wind energy was conducted. A theoretical methodology for quantification and costing of selected micro wind turbines was introduced. This methodology was applied to Armidale city, New South Wales (NSW, Australia as a case study. The methodology involved utilisation of spread sheet application and HOMER software. Such methodology dealt with hourly household electric load in Armidale and hourly wind speed in Armidale as inputs and provided hourly power outputs from selected micro wind turbine as an output. As well, a sample of payback period calculations for the said selected wind turbines is calculated versus various wind speeds. This methodology can be applied to any other cities or towns. Undoubtedly, the ability of quantifying micro electricity generation resultant from micro wind turbines for a specific city or town and evaluating the share of households’ electric consumption at that city or town associated with the relevant payback periods opens the gate for further studies of feasibility and visibility of micro wind turbines.

  7. Hepatitis E virus in England and Wales: indigenous infection is associated with the consumption of processed pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, B; Ijaz, S; Chand, M A; Kafatos, G; Tedder, R; Morgan, D

    2014-07-01

    Indigenously acquired hepatitis E infections have increased substantially in England and Wales since 2010. Epidemiological investigations were undertaken to determine risk factors for the acquisition of infection. A case-control study (25 cases, 75 controls) was used to test the hypothesis that hepatitis E infection was related to consumption of pork products. In a multivariable model, consumption of pork pie [odds ratio (OR) 6·33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·41-28·48, P = 0·009] and consumption of ham and sausages purchased from a major UK supermarket chain (OR 10·12, 95% CI 1·68-60·81, P = 0·023) were significantly associated with indigenous infection. The consumption of sausages and ham purchased from the supermarket was highly correlated; however. separate models showed that each variable was significantly associated with infection (OR 7·59, 95% CI 1·81-31·84, P = 0·004 and OR 10·98, 95% CI 1·84-65·35, P = 0·003, respectively). Although contamination of sausages with HEV has previously been shown this study also raises concerns about other processed pork products and whether current practice in preparing these products is sufficient to prevent transmission of HEV.

  8. Constructed wetlands may lower inorganic nutrient inputs but enhance DOC loadings into a drinking water reservoir in North Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, C; Jones, T G; West, M; Ehbair, A M S; Dunn, C; Freeman, C

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor a newly constructed wetland (CW) in north Wales, UK, to assess whether it contributes to an improvement in water quality (nutrient removal) of a nearby drinking water reservoir. Inflow and outflow of the Free Water Surface (FWS) CW were monitored on a weekly basis and over a period of 6 months. Physicochemical parameters including pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured, as well as nutrients and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC, DIC) concentration. The CW was seen to contribute to water quality improvement; results show that nutrient removal took place within weeks after construction. It was found that 72 % of initial nitrate (N03 (-)), 53 % of initial phosphate (PO4 (3-)) and 35 % of initial biological oxygen demand (BOD) were removed, calculated as a total over the whole sampling period. From our study, it can be concluded that while inorganic nutrients do decline in CWs, the DOC outputs increases. This may suggest that CWs represent a source for DOC. To assess the carbon in- and output a C budget was calculated.

  9. Explaining the differences in household food waste collection and treatment provisions between local authorities in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees, A D; Williams, I D

    2017-09-14

    Separate household food waste collection for anaerobic digestion is one method used in the sustainable management of biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW). Recycling of food waste contributes to the UK's reuse, recycling and composting targets and can help local authorities boost plateauing rates whilst encouraging landfill diversion. This study explored the reasons for differences in the provision of food waste collections, using two comparable local authorities, one with a collection in Wales (Cardiff), and the other absent of such service in England (Southampton). A PESTLE analysis investigated the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental impacts of separate food waste collections. The greenhouse gas impacts of the collection and treatment systems of MSW in both cities were estimated for 2012/13. Results showed significant policy and legislative differences between devolved governments, that separate food waste collections can save local authorities significant sums of money and substantially reduce greenhouse gas impacts. A survey of one hundred respondents in each city aimed to understand attitudes and behaviours towards recycling, food waste segregation, cooking and purchasing habits. The number of frequent recyclers and levels of satisfaction were higher in the authority which provided a separate food waste collection. In the area which lacked a separate collection service, over three-quarters of respondents would participate in such a scheme if it were available. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of an ice-contact glacial lake succession: an example from the late Devensian of southwest Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, James L.; Jansson, Krister N.; Glasser, Neil F.; Hambrey, Michael J.; Davies, Jeremy R.; Waters, Richard A.; Maltman, Alex J.; Wilby, Philip R.

    2006-04-01

    During the late Devensian (late Weichselian) glaciation, a number of large proglacial lakes developed in dammed river valleys along the southwest coast of Wales, U.K. This paper presents sedimentological data, together with a Digital Terrain Model, to establish the sedimentation history, dynamics and evolution of the largest lake, glacial Llyn (Lake) Teifi. Buried valley-fill sequences within the margins of the former lake basin reveal a thick succession of glaciolacustrine muds which coarsen upward into, or are locally abruptly overlain by, proximal deltaic, subglacial and glaciofluvial deposits. Sediment delivery pathways represented in the lacustrine succession include gravity flows, suspension settling, deltaic aggradation and iceberg rafting, the latter indicating ice-contact conditions. The lacustrine muds are variably deformed, with a range of syn- and post-depositional structures, some of which indicate subglacial deformation associated with overriding of the lacustrine succession. Syn-depositional structures indicate high sedimentation rates, which may explain an absence of bioturbation structures. The overall coarsening-upward succession and cap of subglacial and/or glaciofluvial deposits support recent theories suggesting that glacial Llyn Teifi formed during glacial advance. There is no evidence to support glaciomarine conditions of sedimentation in this area of the Irish Sea basin.

  11. Farmer reported prevalence and factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis in Wales: A questionnaire of 511 sheep farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, J W; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D; Grove-White, D H

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 2000 questionnaires were sent to a random sample of Welsh sheep farmers. The questionnaire investigated farmers' knowledge and views on contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) - an emerging disease of sheep responsible for causing severe lameness, welfare and production problems. The overall response rate was 28.3% with a usable response rate of 25.6%. The between farm prevalence of CODD was 35.0% and the median farmer estimated prevalence of CODD was 2.0%. The disease now appears endemic and widespread in Wales. Furthermore, there has been a rapid increase in reports of CODD arriving on farms since the year 2000. Risk factors for CODD identified in this study include the presence of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in cattle on the farm and larger flocks. Farmers also consider concurrent footrot/interdigital dermatitis, buying in sheep, adult sheep, time of year and housing to be associated with CODD. Further experimental research is necessary to establish whether these observations are true associations.

  12. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the Phebalium squamulosum species complex (Rutaceae) in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas J; Telford, Ian R H; Greatrex, Ben W; Jones, Graham L

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils have been hydrodistilled and characterized from 21 populations of taxa currently assigned to the endemic Australian species Phebalium squamulosum (Rutaceae: Boronieae) using GC-MS, NMR and quantified using GC-FID. Essential oils were further examined using principle component analysis to distinguish chemotypes, then screened for antimicrobial activity using broth dilution and TLC-bioautography. Collections of subspecies of P. squamulosum, namely subsp. coriaceum, subsp. gracile, subsp. lineare, subsp. squamulosum, subsp. ozothamnoides and subsp. verrucosum, were made from the wild and one from a cultivated plant of known provenance within New South Wales. Results demonstrated considerable intra- and interspecific essential oil component variation, suggesting the existence of distinct chemotypes and supporting previously observed segregate species based on morphological evidence. Antimicrobial testing revealed moderate to high activity for all essential oils dominated by sesquiterpene alcohols; elemol and eudesmol isomers. Conversely, very low antimicrobial activity was observed from essential oils dominated by monoterpenes. This study constitutes the most exhaustive investigation of essential oils from P. squamulosum subspecies to date and provides the first report of antimicrobial activity.

  13. Association Between Home Visit Programs and Emergency Preparedness Among Elderly Vulnerable People in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kathy Tannous PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between home visit programs and emergency preparedness among elderly vulnerable people in New South Wales, Australia. Method: The study used data acquired from an intervention program run by emergency agencies and consisted of 370 older people. Seven emergency outcome measures were examined by adjusting for key demographic factors, using a generalized estimating equation model, to examine the association between home visit programs and emergency preparedness. Results: The study revealed that knowledge demonstrated by participants during visits and post home visits showed significant improvements in the seven emergency outcome measures. The odds of finding out what emergencies might affect one’s area were significantly lower among older participants who were born outside Australia and those who were women. Discussion: The findings suggest that the intervention via home visits and periodic reminders post these visits may be a useful intervention in improving emergency preparedness among older people, especially among men and those who were born outside of Australia. In addition, other reminders such as safety messaging via mobile or landline telephone calls may also be a supplementary and useful intervention to improve emergency preparedness among older people.

  14. Childhood cancer and magnetic fields from high-voltage power lines in England and Wales: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, M E; Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Draper, G J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic low-intensity extremely-low-frequency magnetic-field exposure is associated with increased risk of childhood leukaemia; it is not certain the association is causal. Methods: We report a national case–control study relating childhood cancer risk to the average magnetic field from high-voltage overhead power lines at the child's home address at birth during the year of birth, estimated using National Grid records. From the National Registry of Childhood Tumours, we obtained records of 28 968 children born in England and Wales during 1962–1995 and diagnosed in Britain under age 15. We selected controls from birth registers, matching individually by sex, period of birth, and birth registration district. No participation by cases or controls was required. Results: The estimated relative risk for each 0.2 μT increase in magnetic field was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 0.57 to 2.32) for leukaemia, 0.80 (0.43–1.51) for CNS/brain tumours, and 1.34 (0.84–2.15) for other cancers. Conclusion: Although not statistically significant, the estimate for childhood leukaemia resembles results of comparable studies. Assuming causality, the estimated attributable risk is below one case per year. Magnetic-field exposure during the year of birth is unlikely to be the whole cause of the association with distance from overhead power lines that we previously reported. PMID:20877338

  15. Health needs of prisoners in England and Wales: the implications for prison healthcare of gender, age and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Francesca; Hek, Gill; Condon, Louise

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence of the healthcare needs of prisoners in relation to gender, age and ethnicity, drawing from a larger systematic overview of the policy and research literature concerning primary care nursing in prisons in England and Wales. The literature overview shaped the initial stages of a research project funded by the Department of Health to examine the views and perspectives of prisoners and nurses working in prisons, and to identify good primary care nursing in the prison environment. At total of 17 databases were searched using search terms related to primary healthcare in prisons (health, nurs*, primary care, healthcare, family medicine, prison*, offender*, inmate*) with terms truncated where possible in the different databases. Following this, a sifting phase was employed using inclusion/exclusion criteria to narrow and focus the literature perceived as relevant to the research questions. All papers were critically appraised for quality using standardised tools. Findings from the literature overview show that prisoners are more likely to have suffered some form of social exclusion compared to the rest of society, and there are significantly greater degrees of mental health problems, substance abuse and worse physical health in prisoners than in the general population. Women, young offenders, older prisoners and those from minority ethnic groups have distinct health needs compared to the prison population taken as a whole, with implications for the delivery of prison healthcare, and how these needs are met effectively and appropriately.

  16. Influences of Stone-Wales defects on the structure, stability and electronic properties of antimonene: A first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghong; Wu, Yunyi; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    Defects are inevitably present in materials, and their existence strongly affects the fundamental physical properties of 2D materials. Here, we performed first-principles calculations to study the structural and electronic properties of antimonene with Stone-Wales defects, highlighting the differences in the structure and electronic properties. Our calculations show that the presence of a SW defect in antimonene changes the geometrical symmetry. And the band gap decreases in electronic band structure with the decrease of the SW defect concentration. The formation energy and cohesive energy of a SW defect in antimonene are studied, showing the possibility of its existence and its good stability, respectively. The difference charge density near the SW defect is explored, by which the structural deformations of antimonene are explained. At last, we calculated the STM images for the SW defective antimonene to provide more information and characters for possible experimental observation. These results may provide meaningful references to the development and design of novel nanodevices based on new 2D materials.

  17. Disaster declarations associated with bushfires, floods and storms in New South Wales, Australia between 2004 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, T; Stephens, R E; Dominey-Howes, D; Bruce, E; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S

    2016-11-07

    Australia regularly experiences disasters triggered by natural hazards and New South Wales (NSW) the most populous State is no exception. To date, no publically available spatial and temporal analyses of disaster declarations triggered by hazards (specifically, bushfires, floods and storms) in NSW have been undertaken and no studies have explored the relationship between disaster occurrence and socio-economic disadvantage. We source, collate and analyse data about bushfire, flood and storm disaster declarations between 2004 and 2014. Floods resulted in the most frequent type of disaster declaration. The greatest number of disaster declarations occurred in 2012-2013. Whilst no significant Spearman's correlation exists between bushfire, flood and storm disaster declarations and the strength of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase, we observe that bushfire disaster declarations were much more common during El Niño, and flood disaster declarations were five times more common during La Niña phases. We identify a spatial cluster or 'hot spot' of disaster declarations in the northeast of the State that is also spatially coincident with 43% of the most socio-economically disadvantaged Local Government Areas in NSW. The results have implications for disaster risk management in the State.

  18. Performance analysis of boron nitride embedded armchair graphene nanoribbon metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor with Stone Wales defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Anuja; Sengupta, Amretashis; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    We study the performance of a hybrid Graphene-Boron Nitride armchair nanoribbon (a-GNR-BN) n-MOSFET at its ballistic transport limit. We consider three geometric configurations 3p, 3p + 1, and 3p + 2 of a-GNR-BN with BN atoms embedded on either side (2, 4, and 6 BN) on the GNR. Material properties like band gap, effective mass, and density of states of these H-passivated structures are evaluated using the Density Functional Theory. Using these material parameters, self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger simulations are carried out under the Non Equilibrium Green's Function formalism to calculate the ballistic n-MOSFET device characteristics. For a hybrid nanoribbon of width ˜5 nm, the simulated ON current is found to be in the range of 265 μA-280 μA with an ON/OFF ratio 7.1 × 106-7.4 × 106 for a VDD = 0.68 V corresponding to 10 nm technology node. We further study the impact of randomly distributed Stone Wales (SW) defects in these hybrid structures and only 2.5% degradation of ON current is observed for SW defect density of 3.18%.

  19. Performance analysis of boron nitride embedded armchair graphene nanoribbon metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor with Stone Wales defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanana, Anuja; Sengupta, Amretashis; Mahapatra, Santanu [Nano Scale Device Research Laboratory, Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2014-01-21

    We study the performance of a hybrid Graphene-Boron Nitride armchair nanoribbon (a-GNR-BN) n-MOSFET at its ballistic transport limit. We consider three geometric configurations 3p, 3p + 1, and 3p + 2 of a-GNR-BN with BN atoms embedded on either side (2, 4, and 6 BN) on the GNR. Material properties like band gap, effective mass, and density of states of these H-passivated structures are evaluated using the Density Functional Theory. Using these material parameters, self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger simulations are carried out under the Non Equilibrium Green's Function formalism to calculate the ballistic n-MOSFET device characteristics. For a hybrid nanoribbon of width ∼5 nm, the simulated ON current is found to be in the range of 265 μA–280 μA with an ON/OFF ratio 7.1 × 10{sup 6}–7.4 × 10{sup 6} for a V{sub DD} = 0.68 V corresponding to 10 nm technology node. We further study the impact of randomly distributed Stone Wales (SW) defects in these hybrid structures and only 2.5% degradation of ON current is observed for SW defect density of 3.18%.

  20. Variations in breast tangent radiotherapy: a survey of practice in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veness, M.J.; Delaney, G.; Berry, M. [Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, NSW (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology

    1999-08-01

    The breast is a complex anatomical structure where achieving a homogeneous dose distribution with radiation treatment is difficult. Despite obvious similarities in the approach to such treatment (using tangents) there is variation in the process of simulation, planning and treatment between radiation oncologists. Previous Australasian studies in the treatment of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin`s disease highlighted considerable variation in many areas of treatment. As part of a multicentre breast phantom study involving 10 radiation oncology departments throughout New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), a 22-question survey was distributed. The aim of the survey was to assess the extent of variation in the approach to the simulation, planning and treatment of early breast cancer using tangents. Responses from 10 different radiation oncology departments revealed variation in most areas of the survey. There is no reason to assume similar variations do not occur Australasia wide. Studies involving overseas radiation oncologists also reveal a wide variation in treating early breast cancer. The consequences of such variations remain unclear. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 15 refs., 1 tab.