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Sample records for wakiso district uganda

  1. health in Wakiso District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective: Bride price payment is a gender issue with implications on gender relations in different socio-cultural contexts. It also impacts. Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. In a qualitative study on the perceptions of domestic violence in Wakiso district, payment of bride price emerged as one of the ...

  2. Complementary feeding practices in Wakiso district of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first 2 years of life provide a critical window of opportunity for ensuring children's appropriate growth and development through optimal feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of weaning practices in Wakiso district. Wakiso is a district in central Uganda that encircles Kampala, Uganda's capital ...

  3. Implications of bride price on domestic violence and reproductive health in Wakiso District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Dan K; Mirembe, Florence; Ekstrom, Anna Mia; Kyomuhendo, Grace Bantebya; Johansson, Annika

    2005-12-01

    Bride price payment is a gender issue with implications on gender relations in different socio-cultural contexts. It also impacts Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. In a qualitative study on the perceptions of domestic violence in Wakiso district, payment of bride price emerged as one of the key factors associated with domestic violence. The study explored experiences, motivations, meanings, consequences and reproductive health implications of bride price payment in Wakiso district Uganda. 10 single-sex focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews were conducted in Wakiso and Nangabo sub-counties, Wakiso district from July 2003 through March 2004. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis, assisted by Easy Text software for data retrieval. Participants perceived bride price as indicating that a woman was 'bought' into the man's household, which reduced her household decision-making roles. It limited women's independence and perpetuated unequal gender power relations, especially regarding health-seeking behaviour. Bride price payment is a contextual factor that the community in Wakiso District, Uganda, perceived as associated with domestic violence, with serious sexual and reproductive health implications.

  4. Impact of pesticide use by smallholder farmers on water quality in the Wakiso District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramare, Christelle; Weiss, Frederik T.; Atuhaire, Aggrey; Staudacher, Philipp; Niwagaba, Charles; Stamm, Christian

    2017-04-01

    As in many tropical countries, farmers of the Wakiso District rely on heavy use of pesticides to protect crops and animals. This may impair human and environmental health due to poor application techniques, misuse of pesticide bins or diffuse pesticide losses from the treated fields during intense tropical rainstorms. The extent of pollution in different environmental compartments however, are generally only poorly documented. The same holds true for quantitative data on the relevance of different transport pathways of pesticides into the environment. Part of the limited knowledge is caused by the demanding sampling and analytical techniques that are necessary to obtain robust data on the actual pollution status. Especially in surface waters, pesticide concentration may vary rapidly in time such that grab samples may yield a very incomplete picture. This incompleteness was often enhanced because of limited analytical windows that covered only a small fraction of the pesticides actually used. In this presentation, we describe an approach to overcome these limitations to a large extent by using three different passive sampling devices and two broad analytical techniques (GC-MS/MS, LC HR-MS) that allow the quantification of about 260 different pesticides. We will present how these approaches are implemented in the catchment area of the Wakiso District in Uganda. This area is intensively used by smallholder farmers who grow a large set of different crops. Diffuse losses are expected to occur mainly during the two rainy seasons (March to May and September to November). Accordingly, the study will focus on this situation.

  5. Community perceptions and experiences of domestic violence and induced abortion in Wakiso district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Dan K

    2006-10-01

    In this qualitative research, the author explored (in general) whether domestic violence and induced abortion feature in men's and women's sexual and reproductive health experiences. In particular, he explored whether and how gender roles influence reproductive decision-making behavior regarding contraception, unwanted pregnancy, and induced abortion. The study area was Wakiso district in central Uganda, which surrounds the capital city, Kampala. The author collected data using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions and analyzed them using grounded theory. Effects of unplanned pregnancy were perceived to be gender specific. Unintended pregnancy and induced abortion as a health issue did not concern men. Rather, what concerned them was spouses' contraception, which they often strongly opposed. Consequently, covert contraceptive use was common. The author describes a relation between domestic violence, nonuse of contraception, unintended pregnancy, and induced abortion.

  6. Understanding sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents: evidence from a formative evaluation in Wakiso district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn M; Kibira, Simon P S; Bukenya, Justine; Muhumuza, Christine; Apolot, Rebecca R; Mulogo, Edgar

    2015-04-22

    Adolescents are frequently reluctant to seek sexual and reproductive health services (SRH). In Uganda, adolescent health and development is constrained by translation of the relevant policies to practice. Recent studies done in central Uganda have shown that there is need for a critical assessment of adolescent friendly services (AFS) to gain insights on current practice and inform future interventions. This study aimed to assess the sexual reproductive health needs of the adolescents and explored their attitudes towards current services available. A qualitative study was conducted in Wakiso district, central Uganda in September 2013.Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs) stratified by gender (10 out-of-school, and 10 in-school), were purposefully sampled. We used trained research assistants (moderator and note taker) who used a pretested FGD guide translated into the local language to collect data. All discussions were audio taped, and were transcribed verbatim before analysis. Thematic areas on; adolescent health problems, adolescent SRH needs, health seeking behaviour and attitudes towards services, and preferred services were explored. Data was analysed using atlas ti version 7 software. Our results clearly show that adolescents have real SRH issues that need to be addressed. In and out-of-school adolescents had sexuality problems such as unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), defilement, rape, substance abuse. Unique to the females was the issue of sexual advances by older men and adolescents. We further highlight RH needs which would be solved by establishing adolescent friendly clinics with standard recommended characteristics (sexuality information, friendly health providers, a range of good clinical services such as post abortion care etc.). With regard to health seeking behaviour, most adolescents do not take any action at first until disease severity increase. Adolescents in Uganda have multiple sexual and reproductive health needs

  7. Low prevalence of laboratory-confirmed malaria in clinically diagnosed adult women from the Wakiso district of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorov, Sergey; Galiwango, Ronald M; Ssemaganda, Aloysious; Muwanga, Moses; Wesonga, Irene; Miiro, George; Drajole, David A; Kain, Kevin C; Kiwanuka, Noah; Bagaya, Bernard S; Kaul, Rupert

    2016-11-14

    The malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has fallen substantially. Nevertheless, malaria remains a serious health concern, and Uganda ranks third in SSA in total malaria burden. Epidemiological studies of adult malaria in Uganda are scarce and little is known about rates of malaria in non-pregnant adult women. This pilot study assessed malaria prevalence among adult women from Wakiso district, historically a highly malaria endemic region. Adult women using public health services were screened for malaria, HIV and pregnancy. A physician-selected subset of women presenting to the Outpatient Department of Entebbe General Hospital (EGH) with current fever (axillary temperature ≥37.5 °C) or self-reporting fever during the previous 24 h, and a positive thick smear for malaria in the EGH laboratory were enrolled (n = 86). Women who self-identified as pregnant or HIV-positive were excluded from screening. Malaria infection was then assessed using HRP2/pLDH rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in all participants. Repeat microscopy and PCR were performed at a research laboratory for a subset of participants. In addition, 104 women without a history of fever were assessed for asymptomatic parasitaemia using RDT, and a subset of these women screened for parasitaemia using microscopy (40 women) and PCR (40 women). Of 86 women diagnosed with malaria by EGH, only two (2.3%) had malaria confirmed using RDT, subsequently identified as a Plasmodium falciparum infection by research microscopy and PCR. Subset analysis of hospital diagnosed RDT-negative participants detected one sub-microscopic infection with Plasmodium ovale. Compared to RDT, sensitivity, specificity and PPV of hospital microscopy were 100% (CI 19.8-100), 0% (CI 0-5.32) and 2.33% (CI 0.403-8.94) respectively. Compared to PCR, sensitivity, specificity and PPV of hospital microscopy were 100% (CI 31.0-100), 0% (CI 0-34.5) and 23.1% (CI 6.16-54.0), respectively. No malaria was detected among asymptomatic women

  8. Adolescent and adult first time mothers' health seeking practices during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Johansson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health services have a potentially critical role in the improvement of reproductive health. In order to get a better understanding of adolescent mothers'needs we compared health seeking practices of first time adolescent and adult mothers during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and August, 2007 in Wakiso district. A total of 762 women (442 adolescents and 320 adult were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. We calculated odds ratios with their 95% CI for antenatal and postnatal health care seeking, stigmatisation and violence experienced from parents comparing adolescents to adult first time mothers. STATA V.8 was used for data analysis. Results Adolescent mothers were significantly more disadvantaged in terms of health care seeking for reproductive health services and faced more challenges during pregnancy and early motherhood compared to adult mothers. Adolescent mothers were more likely to have dropped out of school due to pregnancy (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 2.40–5.44, less likely to earn a salary (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.24–0.76, and more likely to attend antenatal care visits less than four times compared to adult mothers (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.07. Adolescents were also more likely to experience violence from parents (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.39–3.08 and to be stigmatized by the community (CI = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.09–2.59. In early motherhood, adolescent mothers were less likely to seek for second and third vaccine doses for their infants [Polio2 (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55–0.98, Polio3 (OR = 0.70: 95% CI: 0.51–0.95, DPT2 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53–0.96, DPT3 (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50–0.92] compared to adult mothers. These results are compelling and call for urgent adolescent focused interventions. Conclusion Adolescents showed poorer health care seeking behaviour for themselves and their children, and experienced

  9. Integrated community case management in a peri-urban setting: a qualitative evaluation in Wakiso District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaras, Robin; Montague, Mark; Graham, Kirstie; Strachan, Clare E; Senyonjo, Laura; King, Rebecca; Counihan, Helen; Mubiru, Denis; Källander, Karin; Meek, Sylvia; Tibenderana, James

    2017-11-28

    Integrated community case management (iCCM) strategies aim to reach poor communities by providing timely access to treatment for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea for children under 5 years of age. Community health workers, known as Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda, have been shown to be effective in hard-to-reach, underserved areas, but there is little evidence to support iCCM as an appropriate strategy in non-rural contexts. This study aimed to inform future iCCM implementation by exploring caregiver and VHT member perceptions of the value and effectiveness of iCCM in peri-urban settings in Uganda. A qualitative evaluation was conducted in seven villages in Wakiso district, a rapidly urbanising area in central Uganda. Villages were purposively selected, spanning a range of peri-urban settlements experiencing rapid population change. In each village, rapid appraisal activities were undertaken separately with purposively selected caregivers (n = 85) and all iCCM-trained VHT members (n = 14), providing platforms for group discussions. Fifteen key informant interviews were also conducted with community leaders and VHT members. Thematic analysis was based on the 'Health Access Livelihoods Framework'. iCCM was perceived to facilitate timely treatment access and improve child health in peri-urban settings, often supplanting private clinics and traditional healers as first point of care. Relative to other health service providers, caregivers valued VHTs' free, proximal services, caring attitudes, perceived treatment quality, perceived competency and protocol use, and follow-up and referral services. VHT effectiveness was perceived to be restricted by inadequate diagnostics, limited newborn care, drug stockouts and VHT member absence - factors which drove utilisation of alternative providers. Low community engagement in VHT selection, lack of referral transport and poor availability of referral services also diminished perceived effectiveness. The i

  10. Promising perceptions, divergent practices and barriers to integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Musoke

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda.A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages.Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%, removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%, clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%, and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%. If trained, most participants (68.6% would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2% and cost (32.0%. Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 -0.53 and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.98.Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication

  11. "Now that you are circumcised, you cannot have first sex with your wife": post circumcision sexual behaviours and beliefs among men in Wakiso district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibira, Simon Peter Sebina; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Makumbi, Fredrick Edward; Daniel, Marguerite

    2017-06-05

    Safe male circumcision is an important biomedical intervention in the comprehensive HIV prevention programmes implemented in 14 sub-Saharan African countries with high HIV prevalence. To sustain its partial protective benefit, it is important that perceived reduced HIV risk does not lead to behavioural risk compensation among circumcised men and their sexual partners. This study explored beliefs that may influence post circumcision sexual behaviours among circumcised men in a programme setting. Forty-eight in-depth interviews were conducted with newly circumcised men in Wakiso district, central Uganda. Twenty-five men seeking circumcision services at public health facilities in the district were recruited from May to June 2015 and, interviewed at baseline and after 6 months. Participants' beliefs and sexual behaviours were compared just after circumcision and at follow up to explore changes. Data were managed using atlas.ti7 and analysed following a thematic network analysis framework. Four themes following safe male circumcision emerged from this study. Beliefs related to: (1) sexual cleansing, (2) healing, (3) post SMC sexual capabilities and (4) continued HIV transmission risk. Most men maintained or adopted safer sexual behaviour; being faithful to their partner after circumcision or using condoms with extramarital partners following the knowledge that there was continued HIV risk post circumcision. The most prevalent risky belief was regarding sexual cleansing post circumcision, and as a result of this belief, some men had one off condom-less sexual intercourse with a casual partner. Some resumed sex before the recommended period due to misunderstanding of what comprised healing. Although most men maintained or adopted safer sexual behaviour, there were instances of risky sexual behaviour resulting from beliefs regarding the first sexual intercourse after circumcision or misunderstandings of what comprised wound healing. If not addressed, these may attenuate

  12. Experiences of pregnant adolescents - voices from Wakiso district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Uganda, morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their children are high. Social factors behind this problem need to be better understood. Objective: To explore problems that pregnant adolescents face in order to design appropriate policies and interventions. Methods: This was a descriptive ...

  13. Exploring drivers for safe male circumcision: Experiences with health education and understanding of partial HIV protection among newly circumcised men in Wakiso, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P S Kibira

    Full Text Available About 2.5 million men have voluntarily been circumcised since Uganda started implementing the WHO recommendation to scale up safe male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. This study sought to understand what influences men's circumcision decisions, their experiences with health education at health facilities and their knowledge of partial HIV risk reduction in Wakiso district.Data were collected in May and June 2015 at five public health facilities in Wakiso District. Twenty-five in-depth interviews were held with adult safe male circumcision clients. Data were analysed using thematic network analysis.Safe male circumcision decisions were mainly influenced by sexual partners, a perceived need to reduce the risk of HIV/STIs, community pressure and other benefits like hygiene. Sexual partners directly requested men to circumcise or indirectly influenced them in varied ways. Health education at facilities mainly focused on the surgical procedure, circumcision benefits especially HIV risk reduction, wound care and time to resumption of sex, with less focus on post-circumcision sexual behaviour. Five men reported no health education. All men reported that circumcision only reduces and does not eliminate HIV risk, and could mention ways it protects, although some extended the benefit to direct protection for women and prevention of other STIs. Five men thought social marketing messages were 'misleading' and feared risk compensation within the community.Participants reported positive community perception about safe male circumcision campaigns, influencing men to seek services and enabling female partners to impact this decision-making process. However, there seemed to be gaps in safe male circumcision health education, although all participants correctly understood that circumcision offers only partial protection from HIV. Standard health education procedures, if followed at health facilities offering safe male circumcision, would ensure all

  14. Exploring drivers for safe male circumcision: Experiences with health education and understanding of partial HIV protection among newly circumcised men in Wakiso, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibira, Simon P S; Daniel, Marguerite; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Makumbi, Fredrick Edward; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

    2017-01-01

    About 2.5 million men have voluntarily been circumcised since Uganda started implementing the WHO recommendation to scale up safe male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. This study sought to understand what influences men's circumcision decisions, their experiences with health education at health facilities and their knowledge of partial HIV risk reduction in Wakiso district. Data were collected in May and June 2015 at five public health facilities in Wakiso District. Twenty-five in-depth interviews were held with adult safe male circumcision clients. Data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Safe male circumcision decisions were mainly influenced by sexual partners, a perceived need to reduce the risk of HIV/STIs, community pressure and other benefits like hygiene. Sexual partners directly requested men to circumcise or indirectly influenced them in varied ways. Health education at facilities mainly focused on the surgical procedure, circumcision benefits especially HIV risk reduction, wound care and time to resumption of sex, with less focus on post-circumcision sexual behaviour. Five men reported no health education. All men reported that circumcision only reduces and does not eliminate HIV risk, and could mention ways it protects, although some extended the benefit to direct protection for women and prevention of other STIs. Five men thought social marketing messages were 'misleading' and feared risk compensation within the community. Participants reported positive community perception about safe male circumcision campaigns, influencing men to seek services and enabling female partners to impact this decision-making process. However, there seemed to be gaps in safe male circumcision health education, although all participants correctly understood that circumcision offers only partial protection from HIV. Standard health education procedures, if followed at health facilities offering safe male circumcision, would ensure all clients are well

  15. Plants used to manage type II diabetes mellitus in selected districts of central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssenyange, Comfort Were; Namulindwa, Angella; Oyik, Bruno; Ssebuliba, Jude

    2015-06-01

    Chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus are increasing in incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. African traditional medicine is part and parcel of the health care system in Uganda. Majority of the indigenous population will have visited a traditional health care practioner or self-administered herbal medicines before seeking conventional health care. However, documentation of the various medicinal plants is still lacking, necessitating a well-organized information search for such knowledge through research. Such information can lay a firm and clear foundation for scientific investigation of the purported therapeutic benefits of the said plants. The objective of this study was to collect names of medicinal plants used to manage diabetes mellitus type II in selected districts of central Uganda. In this ethnobotanical survey, names, of plants used to manage diabetes mellitus type II as well as the methods of preparation, routes of administration and the plant parts used in the districts of Mukono, Kampala, Wakiso and Masaka in the central region of Uganda were documented using a researcher administered questionnaire. Participants were recruited using a snow ball approach in which one individual directed us to another. Informant consensus was determined for each of the plants mentioned. A total of 18 names of medicinal plants were recorded of which Aloe vera var, Solanum indicum and Vernonia amygydalina were the most commonly mentioned plants and thus had the highest informant consensus. Leaves were the main parts that were used to prepare the herbal medicine while water as the solvent used in all the preparations. In all the cases, only the oral route was used for administration of the medicines. Documentation of medicinal plants used to manage diabetes can further improve on the formalization process of the Ugandan traditional medicine system as well as lay a basis for further scientific investigation with emphasis on the plants whose informant consensus is high.

  16. The hydrogeology of Northern Agago County in Pader District, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    This report was produced to assist GOAL, an Irish NGO working in Uganda, in the provision of water supplies for displaced persons in Agago County, part of Pader District in the north of Uganda. The work contained within the report has been carried out on a voluntary basis, although considerable support has been provided by GOAL in the provision of travel and subsistence costs within Uganda, spanning the period from the 22nd September to the 12th October 2007. Funding for prepar...

  17. Predictors of Home Deliveries in Rakai District, Uganda | Nuwaha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify independent predictors for home delivery, 211 women from 21 clusters, who had a delivery in the previous one year, were interviewed in Rakai District, Uganda, from June 2 to 30, 1997. Mothers answered questions regarding socio-economic, local, reproductive and self-efficacy variables and whether ...

  18. Plasmodium falciparum malariometric indices in Apac district, northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwang, T G; Apio, B; Riley, E; Okello, D

    2000-08-01

    To establish Plasmodium falciparum malariometric indices in a field study site in Apac district, northern Uganda. A community-based cross sectional survey. Atopi Parish, Apac district, Uganda, 1995. One thousand two hundred and thirty four volunteers aged below one and ninety years. P. falciparum parasitaemia rates and parasite density, splenomegaly, bednet use and chloroquine consumption. All subjects with P. falciparum positive smears were treated with chloroquine. The population prevalence of parasitaemia was 62.1% with the predominant species being P. falciparum (100%) and P. malariae in the minority (3.5%); P. ovale was not seen. The prevalence of parasitaemia in subjects older than 20 years and in those under ten years was 36% and 85%, respectively. The geometric mean parasite density started to decline by the age of six years. The splenomegaly rate in subjects over the age of 12 years and in those under nine years was 19.8% and 63.1%, respectively. Bednet use and chloroquine consumption was low. Interestingly, the reported use of chloroquine in the week immediately preceding the study was more frequent in children under two years old than in the rest of the population. Malaria transmission in Atopi Parish in northern Uganda is hyperendemic and age-related acquired anti-parasite immunity seems to appear by seven years of age.

  19. A Case Study of Cooperative Learning in Bushenyi District in Uganda: Educational Leaders' and Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujuni, John Bosco

    2015-01-01

    In 2003-2007, the government of Uganda through the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES), under the umbrella of UPHOLD and in Partnership with USAID, introduced cooperative learning as a "student-centered teaching approach" in some selected districts and schools in Uganda. This dissertation explored the current state and practice of…

  20. Prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wafula, Solomon Tsebeni; Ssemugabo, Charles; Namuhani, Noel; Musoke, David; Ssempebwa, John; Halage, Abdullah Ali

    2016-01-01

    .... It is largely affecting rural communities in the Eastern, West Nile and Central regions. This study assessed prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of nutritional anaemia among female school children in Masindi district, western Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gakenia, W M; Barugahara, Evyline Isingoma; Kikafunda, J

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, dietary and health risk factors of nutritional anaemia amongst 11-14 year old girls attending primary schools in Masindi District of Western Uganda...

  2. The unresolved ethnic question in Uganda's District Councils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Constitution of Uganda of 1995 (the Constitution) recognises 65 indigenous communities in Uganda. It aspires to integrate all the people of Uganda by directing that “[e]verything shall be done to promote a culture of cooperation, understanding, appreciation, tolerance and respect for each other's customs, traditions and ...

  3. Bottleneck analysis at district level to illustrate gaps within the district health system in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka Henriksson, Dorcus; Fredriksson, Mio; Waiswa, Peter; Selling, Katarina; Swartling Peterson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Poor quality of care and access to effective and affordable interventions have been attributed to constraints and bottlenecks within and outside the health system. However, there is limited understanding of health system barriers to utilization and delivery of appropriate, high-impact, and cost-effective interventions at the point of service delivery in districts and sub-districts in low-income countries. In this study we illustrate the use of the bottleneck analysis approach, which could be used to identify bottlenecks in service delivery within the district health system. A modified Tanahashi model with six determinants for effective coverage was used to determine bottlenecks in service provision for maternal and newborn care. The following interventions provided during antenatal care were used as tracer interventions: use of iron and folic acid, intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria, HIV counseling and testing, and syphilis testing. Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in Mayuge and Namayingo districts in Uganda were used in this study. Effective coverage and human resource gaps were identified as the biggest bottlenecks in both districts, with coverage ranging from 0% to 66% for effective coverage and from 46% to 58% for availability of health facility staff. Our findings revealed a similar pattern in bottlenecks in both districts for particular interventions although the districts are functionally independent. The modified Tanahashi model is an analysis tool that can be used to identify bottlenecks to effective coverage within the district health system, for instance, the effective coverage for maternal and newborn care interventions. However, the analysis is highly dependent on the availability of data to populate all six determinants and could benefit from further validation analysis for the causes of bottlenecks identified.

  4. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  5. Cholera in endemic districts in Uganda during El Niño rains: 2002 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: El Niño phenomenon causing increased rainfall and flooding has been linked to flare ups and emergence of several disease outbreaks including cholera. The latter has been reported in many districts in Uganda in recent years. Therefore an understanding of factors influencing its pattern of occurrence is ...

  6. Nutrition status of children in Kasese district at the Uganda – Congo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the magnitude and risk factors for malnutrition in Kasese district at the Uganda-Congo border. Design: Cross sectional nutrition survey. Methods: Thirty clusters were selected. The height, weight, and mid upper arm circumference of at least 31 children per cluster were measured. Data on food ...

  7. Religiosity for promotion of behaviors likely to reduce new HIV infections in Uganda: a study among Muslim youth in Wakiso District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagimu, Magid; Guwatudde, David; Rwabukwali, Charles; Kaye, Sarah; Walakira, Yusuf; Ainomugisha, Dick

    2013-12-01

    The study was done to determine the association between religiosity and behaviors likely to reduce new HIV infections among 1,224 Muslim youth. Respondents with Sujda, the hyperpigmented spot on the forehead due to prostration during prayers, were more likely to abstain from sex, be faithful in marriage, and avoid alcohol and narcotics. Males wearing a Muslim cap were more likely to abstain from sex and avoid alcohol and narcotics. Females wearing the long dress (Hijab) were also more likely to avoid alcohol. This data should be used by stakeholders in promoting behaviors likely to reduce new HIV infections among Muslims.

  8. Influence of Head Teachers' General and Instructional Supervisory Practices on Teachers' Work Performance in Secondary Schools in Entebbe Municipality, Wakiso District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Nzabonimpa Buregeya

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the Influence of Secondary School Head Teachers' General and Instructional Supervisory Practices on Teachers' Work Performance. Qualitative and qualitative methods with a descriptive-correlational research approach were used in the study. Purposive sampling technique alongside random sampling technique was used to select the…

  9. Quality of midwifery care in Soroti District, Uganda | Kaye | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the quality of care provided by midwives in Soroti district; and specifically, to identify training needs, gaps in knowledge and other barriers to accessibility of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Soroti district. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: One regional hospital, one ...

  10. Availability of Essential Medicines across Levels of Care in Gulu District, Northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musoke, David; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The constant availability of essential and vital medicines at public health facilities is important for credible health services and the need to meet the health requirement of the community. This study assessed the availability of vital and essential medicines at selected Health Centers II, III...... and IV in Gulu district. We conducted a longitudinal survey which investigated the availability of vital and essential medicines at randomly selected public health facilities at the level of Health Centre II, III and IV, over a period of six months in Gulu district. The assessment was carried out...... on a monthly basis. The assessment of the availability of the medicines was carried out using the check lists that were derived from the Essential Medicines and Health Supplies List of Uganda as defined by the Ministry of Health of Uganda for the various levels of care. Seventeen (17) Health Centre level II...

  11. Unfulfilled promises, unsettled youth: the aftermath of conflict for former child soldiers in Yumbe District, north western Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, J.; Reis, R.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the long term impact of having been a child soldier in Yumbe District, Uganda. Within this district, a group of former child soldiers fell beyond the scope of almost all reintegration initiatives from the time a peace agreement was signed in 2002. Ten years after the youths’

  12. Nutrient contents of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of vitellaria paradoxa of Gulu District, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oryema, Christine; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Roos, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn locally known as ‘Yaa’ in Acholi is a valuable edible indigenous wild fruit in Gulu District, northern Uganda. It is a multipurpose fruit tree and highly favoured by the inhabitants of this district. Its fruit pulps are eaten when fresh and/or made into cakes and dried...

  13. Pesticidal Plants Used in Masaka District of Uganda | Mwine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resultantly, many farmers have to rely on traditi onal methods of pest control. Among these is the use of pesticidal plant extracts and this paper reports on the fi ndings of a study that undertook to compile an inventory of plants that are used in pest control in one part of the developing world, namely, Masaka District of ...

  14. Mycobacterium bovis infections in slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda: a public health concern

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    Muwonge Adrian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (TB caused by Mycobacterium bovis is primarily a disease of ruminants, particularly cattle (Bos primigenius and buffalo (Syncerus caffer, and is endemic in most developing countries. To date, studies done in Uganda have documented the prevalence of M. bovis in cattle, humans and wild life, in addition to non-tuberculous mycobacteria in pigs. Pigs are increasingly becoming an important component of the livestock sector and share the human ecosystem in rural Uganda. It is therefore of public health interest that they are not a source of human infections. As a follow up to previously published findings on mycobacteria in pigs, this study was aimed at investigating the occurrence and molecular characteristics of M. bovis detected in slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda. One hundred fifty mesenteric lymph nodes with lesions suggestive of mycobacterial infections were collected from approximately one thousand slaughtered pigs in Mubende district over a period of five months. The isolation and identification of M. bovis was done using conventional mycobacteriological methods. Mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC were identified to species level using deletion analysis. Molecular typing was done using Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR analysis. Molecular data were analysed and interpreted using MIRU-VNTR plus, SpolDB4.0 and the Mycobacterium bovis spoligo database. Results Of the examined animals, one boar and two sows from Madudu Sub County were infected with M. bovis which presented as lesions of a deep yellow colour and a grit-like texture in the mesenteric lymph nodes. This represents 2% (3/150 of the lymph nodes where lesions suggestive of mycobacterial infections were detected. Molecular analysis revealed that the isolates from the infected pigs showed identical MIRU-VNTR profile and spoligotype (SB1469. Conclusions This is the first study documenting the occurrence of M

  15. Porcine Cysticercosis in Southeast Uganda: Seroprevalence in Kamuli and Kaliro Districts

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    C. Waiswa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent recognition of neurocysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Uganda and changes in pig demography have lead to a need to better understand the basic epidemiology of Taenia solium infections in pigs and humans. Human exposure is a function of the size of the animal reservoir of this zoonosis. This is the first field survey for porcine cysticercosis to investigate the prevalence of antigen-positive pigs across an entire rural district of south-east Uganda. In our field surveys, 8.6% of 480 pigs screened were seropositive for the parasite by B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. In addition, of the 528 homesteads surveyed 138 (26% did not have pit latrines indicating a high probability of pigs having access to human faeces and thus T. solium eggs. This study thus indicates the need for better data on this neglected zoonotic disease in Uganda, with a particular emphasis on the risk factors for infection in both pigs and humans. In this regard, further surveys of pigs, seroprevalence surveys in humans and an understanding of cysticercosis-related epilepsy are required, together with risk-factor studies for human and porcine infections.

  16. Factors affecting the initial literacy development of urban and rural learners in the Iganga district, Uganda

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    Banda, Felix

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial motivation for the study was data from the Ministry of Education in Uganda that suggests that in terms of academic performance, urban learners continually outperform rural schools at primary and secondary school levels (Ministry of Education 2002. At present all government examinations are written in English. However, the language in education policy in Uganda differentially stipulates the use English as medium of instruction in urban schools and the use of the mother tongue in rural schools (cf. Kyeyune 2004. Other factors which mitigate against rural learners’ successful academic performance are untrained educators, poor infrastructure and school management practices in rural schools, poverty, lack of supportive academic discourse practices, and a general lack of enthusiasm among rural parents (most of whom have very little formal education for their children’s education. Using data from observations of selected urban and rural homes and schools in The Iganga district and field notes in the form of diary entries, the study draws on New Literacy Studies (NLS particularly the notion of literacy as social practice (Street 2001; Gee 2000; Baynham 2000, 2001, to explore the differential effect of urban and rural-based acculturation processes on the initial literacy development of learners. Finally, since 88% of Ugandans live in rural areas (Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002, the pedagogical implications for primary schools are discussed and suggestions are made on how to establish an inclusive education system.

  17. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

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    Mbalibulha Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yona Mbalibulha,1 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Godfrey R Mugyenyi,2 Bernard Natukunda1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods: Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT. Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results: Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%; A: 190 (26.%; B: 152 (21%; and AB: 28 (4%. A total of 28 (3.86% pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1% of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8% were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion: Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of

  18. The topic is the Relevance of wetland economic valuation in Uganda Acase study of Kiyanja-Kaku wetland in Lwengo District-Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namulema, Mary Jude

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relevance of economic valuation of wetlands in Uganda. A case study was done on Kiyanja-Kaku wetland in Lwengo District in Central Uganda using a semi-structured survey. Three objectives were examined i.e.: (i) To identify wetland ecosystem services in Uganda (ii) To identify the economic valuation methods appropriate for wetlands in Uganda (iii) To value clean water obtained from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland. The wetland ecosystem services were identified as provisioning, regulating, habitat, cultural and amenities services. The community had knowledge about 17 out of the 22 services as given by TEEB (2010). The economic valuation methods identified were, market price, efficiency price, travel cost, contingent valuation, hedonic pricing, and production function and benefit transfer methods. These were appropriate for valuation of wetlands in Uganda but only three methods i.e. market price, contingent valuation and productivity methods have been applied by researchers in Uganda so far. The economic value of clean water from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the nearby community was established by using the market price of clean water the National water and Sewerage Corporation charges for the water in Uganda to obtain the low value and the market price of water from the survey was used to obtain the high value. The estimated economic value of clean water service for a household ranges from UGX. 612174 to 4054733 (US 168.0-1095.0). The estimated economic value of clean water service from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the entire community ranges from UGX. 2,732,133,000.0 to 18,096,274,000.0 (US 775,228.0-4,885,994.0).

  19. Herbal medicine use in the districts of Nakapiripirit, Pallisa, Kanungu, and Mukono in Uganda

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    Tabuti John RS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional medicine (TM occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not.

  20. Tobacco use among high school students in a remote district of Arua, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpabulungi, Lillian; Muula, Adamson S

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for several non-communicable public health problems including cancer, ischaemic heart disease and chronic obstructive airways disease. The prevalence of smoking among adolescents and the associated environment deserve attention. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 2001 to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking, exposure to advertisements, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, deterrents from smoking and perception about smoking among high school students in a remote district of Arua, north-western Uganda. In total 1528 high school students participated in the study of which 21.9% were current smokers and 33.1% had ever used tobacco products. When the data were stratified according to sex, 81/452 (17.9%) females and 337/871 (38.7%) males had ever smoked (p tobacco from grocery stores and they had never been prevented because of their age. Media exposure to tobacco advertisements was high. Many young people in Arua, Uganda, were current smokers and exposed to environments that seemed to facilitate uptake of tobacco smoking and other tobacco use. This could be explained in part, by the fact that the district relies heavily on tobacco farming and exposure to facilitating environments is common. A concerted public health response is urgently required that will effectively alter the home and societal environment so as to discourage uptake of tobacco use by young people.

  1. [NOTES FROM A SIX MONTHS VOLUNTEER MISSION AS MEDICAL STAFF IN A DISTRICT HOSPITAL IN UGANDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Reut; Miron, Eitan; Stoff, Ronen; Segal, Yahel

    2017-08-01

    In December 2014 my husband and I flew for a stay of six months in Uganda. We went there in order to volunteer in the district hospital of Kiboga, one of the most impoverished districts of this poverty stricken country. A district in which over 60% of the population lives off less than a dollar and twenty five cents a day, in which the average life expectancy is 46.7 years (9.1 years lower than the national average expectancy). Kiboga's district hospital serves the 300,000 residents of the district, of whom 20,000 live in the district capital, while the rest are mainly farmers and cattle keepers, scattered in small villages that have limited and weather-dependent access. The hospital houses 120 beds, which are divided into four wards (maternity, pediatric, male and female), and is manned routinely by one on-call local physician, who (when present) is almost exclusively occupied by emergency cesarean sections. Therefore, the majority of hospitalized patients are not inspected by a doctor at any point of their stay. The hospital functions with no running water and in the absence of a reliable power supply. The nursing staff, composed largely of people with limited or no training, is always desperately understaffed, and many of the means needed for a patient's stay (starting with a bed pan and linens and ending with many of the medications prescribed) are not supplied by the hospital. Perhaps it would have been appropriate to continue by describing unsettling data about the health infrastructure in Kiboga (such as the fact that infant mortality rate is a staggering 15%, or that nearly 10% of the districts population have HIV), however, it appears to me that it would be more educating to learn from the story of the patients we encountered.

  2. Hidden talents: mapping innovations and knowledge management competencies in the sunflower value chain in Lira District, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oremo, M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was undertaken on the sunflower value chain in Lira district of Uganda. The objective of the study was twofold: First to catalogue innovations that have been developed or introduced in the value chain over a 10 year trajectory (1998-2007). The second objective was to map the knowledge

  3. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Kasese and Bushenyi Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F. N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and serotype-specificity of the circulating antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in cattle in K asese and Bushenyi districts in Uganda. A total of 309 serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies against...

  4. Attitudes of Stakeholders towards Physical Punishment on Pupils of International and National Schools in Kampala District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinga, Damien Mbikyo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an applied research study conducted to find solutions for the problem of the use of physical punishment in schools in the Kampala District of Uganda. In this study stakeholders were requested to state their actions and feelings towards the use of physical punishment in schools. The objective of the study was to investigate…

  5. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended.

  6. Performance of district disaster management teams after undergoing an operational level planners' training in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orach, Christopher Garimol; Mayega, Roy William; Woboya, Vincent; William, Bazeyo

    2013-06-01

    Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. The disasters most commonly experienced by the district teams were epidemics of diseases in humans (7 of 12), animals (epizoonotics) (3 of 12) and crops (3 of 12); hailstorms and floods (3 of 12). The capabilities viewed most useful for management of disasters were provision of health care services (9/12) and response management (8 of 12). The capability domains most often consulted during the disasters were general response management (31%), health services (29%) and water and sanitation (17%). The skills areas perceived to be vital following the training were response to epidemics 10/12, disaster management planning 8/12, hazards and vulnerability analysis 7/12 and principles of disaster planning 7/12 respectively. Main challenges mentioned by district teams were inadequacy of finance and logistics, lack of commitment by key partners towards disaster preparedness and response. The most common disaster experienced disasters related to outbreaks of diseases in man, animals and crops. The most frequently applied capabilities were response management and provision of emergency health services. The activities most frequently implemented following disaster management teams training were conducting planning meetings, refinement of plans and dissemination of skills gained. The main challenges were related to limited budget allocations and legal frameworks for disaster management that should be addressed by both central and local governments.

  7. An investigation on factors associated with malnutrition among underfive children in Nakaseke and Nakasongola districts, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habaasa, Gilbert

    2015-09-24

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity among under-five children in Sub Saharan Africa. To understand the factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children, a study was conducted in Nakaseke and Nakasongola districts of Uganda. Cross sectional secondary data of 104 underfive children in Nakaseke and Nakasongola districts was used. Epi Info programme-Nutrition module and Stata statistical softwares were used in analyses. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations and binary logistic regression results were generated. Stunting was found to be the most malnutrition condition with the highest prevalence (38.5%) in the two districts followed by wasting (16.5%) and underweight (13.5%) respectively. Results also showed that children aged 39-59 months were less likely to be underweight than those aged below twelve months. Children of peasant farmers were more likely to be stunted than their counterparts with mothers in pastoralist's family. No significant factors were found to be associated with wasting among the underfive children in the two districts although the prevalence was slightly higher than that of child underweight. The study is essential in pointing out the particular age-groups among underfive children as well as the maternal occupations that may be factors associated with malnutrition in the districts of Nakaseke and Nakasongola. The author recommends exclusive breast feeding and proper complementary feeding especially among children under three years. Furthermore, special arrangement could be put in place to have children of mothers engaged in cultivation brought to them regularly for breastfeeding.

  8. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F; Gonzalez, J P; Mercier, E; Helynck, B; Larouze, B; Hannoun, C

    1989-01-01

    Sera collected in May 1984 from 132 adult residents of Karamoja district, Uganda, were examined by haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against selected arboviruses, namely Chikungunya and Semliki Forest alphaviruses (Togaviridae); dengue type 2, Wesselsbron, West Nile, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses (Flaviviridae); Bunyamwera, Ilesha and Tahyna bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Sicilian sandfly fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae); and by immunofluorescence tests against certain haemorrhagic fever viruses, Lassa fever arenavirus (Arenaviridae), Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Zaïre and Marburg filoviruses (Filoviridae), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever nairovirus and Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). Antibodies against Chikungunya virus were the most prevalent (47%), followed by flavivirus antibodies (16%), which were probably due mainly to West Nile virus. No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area.

  9. Prevention and treatment practices and implications for malaria control in Mukono District Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P

    2008-01-01

    -sectional survey and key informant interviews was used to assess self-reported malaria at a household level in Mukono District, Uganda. A total of 5583 households were surveyed, and a high proportion (2897, 51.9%) reported a person with malaria two weeks prior to the survey. Only 546 households (9.8%) owned...... and used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. Similarly, only a few households (86, 1.5%) used indoor residual spraying. Self-treatment with home-stocked drugs was high, yet there was low awareness of the effectiveness of expired drugs on malaria treatment. Self-reported malaria...... was associated with socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental factors, but more especially with household ownership of ITNs. These results will contribute to the current debate on identifying new approaches for scaling-up prevention interventions and effective case management, as well as selection of priority...

  10. Widows' and orphans' property disputes: the impact of AIDS in Rakai District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roys, C

    1995-11-01

    The 1991 census identified 44,000 orphans in the Rakai District of Uganda. The Child Social Care Project (CSCP) in the district helps ensure that orphaned children under 18 years who have lost one or both parents to AIDS receive the property rights to which they are entitled. The property rights of widows are also championed by the CSCP. The project has enjoyed considerable success in settling individual disputes. The CSCP has also had some success in enabling communities to deal appropriately with the conflicts without recourse to experts. The author notes that while it is important to promote the empowerment of women, the phrase is so overused that it is in danger of becoming meaningless. That said, a vital aspect of empowerment is economic independence. The CSCP helps women claim the right to own property, land, and housing, as well as to care for their children in the attempt to give them some degree of economic control over their destiny and that of their children. The paper discusses widows' and orphans' property disputes in sections on wills, customary law, and statutory law. The CSCP is described followed by a case study and consideration of gender and legal reform.

  11. Uganda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    The Land Act 1998. ➢. Women's movement Struggle over land – the lost co- ownership clause. ➢. Section 40 Consent clause- Protection of family land/ restrictions on the transfer of land by family members. ➢. (Section 57) Establishment of District Land. Boards- where at least one third must be women ...

  12. Prevalence, pattern and perceptions of cleft lip and cleft palate among children born in two hospitals in Kisoro District, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kesande, Teopista; Muwazi, Louis Mugambe; Bataringaya, Aisha; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha

    2014-01-01

    Background Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies that affect the oro-facial region. The aim of the study was to determine the period prevalence, pattern and perceptions of cleft lip and cleft palate in children born between 2005 and 2010 in two hospitals in Kisoro District, Uganda. Methods The study involved a retrospective review of medical records of mothers who delivered live babies between January 2005 and December 2010 in Kisoro Hospital an...

  13. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods

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    John Odaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs. The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Design: Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. Results: All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. Conclusions: In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying

  14. Availability of human immunodeficiency virus prevention services in secondary schools in Kabarole District, Uganda

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    Jane Namuddu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%, drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%, peer education clubs (15%, workshops and seminars on HIV (8%, sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%, guidance and counseling (6%, talking compounds- (5%, abstinence talks (6%, keeping students busy in sports (4%, straight talk (4%. Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school.

  15. Experiences of using a participatory action research approach to strengthen district local capacity in Eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: To achieve a sustained improvement in health outcomes, the way health interventions are designed and implemented is critical. A participatory action research approach is applauded for building local capacity such as health management. Thereby increasing the chances of sustaining health interventions. Objective: This study explored stakeholder experiences of using PAR to implement an intervention meant to strengthen the local district capacity. Methods: This was a qualitative study featuring 18 informant interviews and a focus group discussion. Respondents included politicians, administrators, health managers and external researchers in three rural districts of eastern Uganda where PAR was used. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore stakeholders’ experiences. Results: ‘Being awakened’ emerged as an overarching category capturing stakeholder experiences of using PAR. This was described in four interrelated and sequential categories, which included: stakeholder involvement, being invigorated, the risk of wide stakeholder engagement and balancing the risk of wide stakeholder engagement. In terms of involvement, the stakeholders felt engaged, a sense of ownership, felt valued and responsible during the implementation of the project. Being invigorated meant being awakened, inspired and supported. On the other hand, risks such as conflict, stress and uncertainty were reported, and finally these risks were balanced through tolerance, risk-awareness and collaboration. Conclusions: The PAR approach was desirable because it created opportunities for building local capacity and enhancing continuity of interventions. Stakeholders were awakened by the approach, as it made them more responsive to systems challenges and possible local solutions. Nonetheless, the use of PAR should be considered in full knowledge of the undesirable and complex experiences, such as uncertainty, conflict and stress. This will enable adequate preparation and

  16. Availability of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Services in Secondary Schools in Kabarole District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuddu, Jane; Waiswa, Peter; Nsangi, Betty; Iriso, Robert; Matovu, Joseph; Maganda, Albert; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%), drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%), peer education clubs (15%), workshops and seminars on HIV (8%), sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%), guidance and counseling (6%), talking compounds- (5%), abstinence talks (6%), keeping students busy in sports (4%), straight talk (4%). Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school.

  17. Behavioral change communication strategy vital in malaria prevention interventions in rural communities: Nakasongola district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures.

  18. Effect of Climate Change on Reliability of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Kabarole District, Uganda

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    Violet Kisakye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effect of climate change on reliability of rainwater harvesting systems for Kabarole district, Uganda, as predicted by 6 best performing global circulation models (GCMs. A daily water balance model was used to simulate the performance of a rainwater harvesting system using historical daily rainfall data for 20 years. The GCMs used to generate daily rainfall projections for 2025–2055 and 2060–2090 periods included; ACCESS1-0, BCC-CSM-1-M, CNRM-CM5, HADGEM2-CC, HADGEM2-ES and MIROC5. Analysis was based on the Ugandan weather seasons which included March, April, May (MAM and September, October, November (SON rain seasons in addition to December, January, February (DJF and June, July, August (JJA dry seasons. While an increase in reliability is predicted for the SON season, the worst-case scenario is projected during the MAM season with a reliability reduction of over 40% for the 2055–2090 period. This corresponds to a 27% reduction in water security for the same period. The DJF season is also expected to experience reduced water security by 1–8% for 2025–2055 and 2060–2090 with a 0.5 m3 tank size. Therefore, some form of extra harvesting surface and increased tank size will be required to maintain 80% systems reliability considering climate change.

  19. Preliminary ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda

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    H. Oryem-Origa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded:  22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture;  12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.

  20. Building a competent health manager at district level: a grounded theory study from Eastern Uganda.

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    Tetui, Moses; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirpa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2016-11-21

    Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with district level administrative and political managers, district level health managers and health facility managers to understand their perceptions and definitions of management and capacity building. Kathy Charmaz's constructive approach to grounded theory informed the data analysis process. An interative, dynamic and complex model with three sub-process of building a competent health manager was developed. A competent manager was understood as one who knew his/her roles, was well informed and was empowered to execute management functions. Professionalizing health managers which was viewed as the foundation, the use of engaging learning approaches as the inside contents and having a supportive work environment the frame of the model were the sub-processes involved in the model. The sub-processes were interconnected although the respondents agreed that having a supportive work environment was more time and effort intensive relative to the other two sub-processes. The model developed in our study makes four central contributions to enhance the WHO framework and the existing literature. First, it emphasizes management capacity building as an iterative, dynamic and complex process rather than a set of characteristics of competent managers. Second, our model suggests the need for professionalization of health managers at different levels of the health

  1. The conduct of maternal and perinatal death reviews in Oyam District, Uganda: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

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    Agaro, Caroline; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Waiswa, Peter; Sekandi, Juliet N; Tusiime, Suzan; Anguzu, Ronald; Kiracho, Elizabeth Ekirapa

    2016-07-14

    Uganda like many developing countries still experiences high levels of maternal and perinatal deaths despite a decade of maternal and perinatal death review (MPDR) program. Oyam district has been implementing MPDR since 2008 with varying successes among the health facilities. This paper presents the factors that influence the conduct of maternal and perinatal death reviews in Oyam District, Uganda. This was a cross-sectional study where both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Semi-structured interviews were administered to 66 health workers and ten key informants (KIs) to assess the factors influencing the conduct of MPDR. Univariate and Bivariate analysis of quantitative data was done using SPSS version 17.0. A Pearson Chi-Square test was done to determine factors associated with conduct of MPDR. Factors with a p-value perinatal deaths, and non-implementation of recommendations. The proportion of maternal and perinatal death reviews conducted in Oyam was low. This was due to poor initiation of the review process and a lack of support supervision. The district and Ministry of Health needs to put more emphasis on monitoring the conduct of maternal and perinatal death reviews by: forming and training MPDR committees and ensuring they are financially supported, providing overall coordination, and ensuring effective support supervision.

  2. Community Acceptance of Tsetse Control Baits: A Qualitative Study in Arua District, North West Uganda

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    Kovacic, Vanja; Tirados, Inaki; Esterhuizen, Johan; Mangwiro, Clement T. N.; Torr, Stephen J.; Lehane, Michael J.; Smith, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT), including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets) in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. Conclusions/Significance Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and “ghosts from the river” which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early engagements with

  3. Child-headed households in Rakai District, Uganda: a mixed-methods study.

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    Collins, Lisa; Ellis, Matthew; Pritchard, Edward W J; Jenkins, Christopher; Hoeritzauer, Ingrid; Farquhar, Adam; Laverty, Orla; Murray, Vincent; Nelson, Brett D

    2016-02-01

    An important but neglected consequence of the AIDS pandemic that continues across sub-Saharan Africa is the phenomenon of child-headed households (CHH). This study aims to describe the challenges to health and well-being for young people living in child-headed households. A mixed-methods research approach linked common themes using qualitative and quantitative instruments to provide a broad picture of the location and challenges of CHH in Kabira, Kyotera and Kamuganja in the Rakai District of southern Uganda. Local knowledge was used to locate CHH. 163 children living in 40 CHH were traced: 42·5% of the household heads were double orphans caring for younger siblings, and 43% were also caring for chronically ill or disabled grandparents who were economically unproductive and largely dependent on the eldest child for survival. It was found that those heading households were more likely not to attend school than children living at home with a parent. Their immediate needs ranged from food and shelter to health-care and education. Fear was a major theme: 38% of those interviewed reported fear of 'violence'. Children as young as 13 were responsible for navigating through complex decision-making processes from everyday basic necessities to decisions on the health care of younger siblings and grandparents. Children and young people living in CHH are a largely invisible and highly vulnerable population. Clear, officially accepted definitions of CHH are a first step in recognising this vulnerable group for whom safeguards will be necessary as social work develops in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The precise numbers of CHH are unknown and further examination of this undocumented group is needed.

  4. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: a qualitative study in Arua District, North West Uganda.

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    Vanja Kovacic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT, including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km(2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and "ghosts from the river" which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early

  5. Newborn Care Practices among Adolescent Mothers in Hoima District, Western Uganda

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    Waiswa, Peter; Kawooya, Vincent; Nalwadda, Christine K.; Okuga, Monica; Nabiwemba, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent childbearing remains a major challenge to improving neonatal mortality especially in Sub Saharan countries which are still struggling with high neonatal mortality rates. We explored essential newborn care practices and associated factors among adolescent mothers in Western Uganda. Methods Data were collected among 410 adolescent mothers with children aged one to six months in Hoima district. Three composite variables (appropriate neonatal breastfeeding, cord care and thermal protection) were derived by combining related practices from a list of recommended newborn care practices. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors independently associated with practice of essential newborn care. Results Appropriate newborn feeding, optimal thermal protection and dry cord care were practiced by 60.5%, 67.2% and 31% of adolescent mothers respectively. Independent predictors’ of cord care were: knowledge of cord care (AOR 5.34, 95% CI (1.51–18.84) and having delivered twins (AOR 0.04, 95% CI (0.01–0.22). The only predictor of thermal care was knowledge (AOR 25.15, 95% CI (7.01–90.20). Staying in a hospital for more than one day postpartum (AOR 2.45, 95%CI (1.23–4.86), knowledge of the correct time of breastfeeding initiation (AOR 14.71, 95% CI (5.20–41.58), predicted appropriate neonatal feeding, whereas; adolescent mothers who had had a caesarean delivery (AOR 0.19, 95% CI (I 0.04–0.96) and a male caretaker in the postnatal period (AOR 0.18, 95% CI (0.07–0.49) were less likely to practice the recommended newborn feeding. Conclusion Sub optimal essential newborn care practice was noted especially suboptimal cord care. Adolescent mothers should be a focus of strategies to improve maternal and neonatal health. PMID:27855186

  6. Evaluation of Integrated Community Case Management in Eight Districts of Central Uganda.

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    Denis Mubiru

    Full Text Available Evidence is limited on whether Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM improves treatment coverage of the top causes of childhood mortality (acute respiratory illnesses (ARI, diarrhoea and malaria. The coverage impact of iCCM in Central Uganda was evaluated.Between July 2010 and December 2012 a pre-post quasi-experimental study in eight districts with iCCM was conducted; 3 districts without iCCM served as controls. A two-stage household cluster survey at baseline (n = 1036 and 1042 and end line (n = 3890 and 3844 was done in the intervention and comparison groups respectively. Changes in treatment coverage and timeliness were assessed using difference in differences analysis (DID. Mortality impact was modelled using the Lives Saved Tool.5,586 Village Health Team members delivered 1,907,746 treatments to children under age five. Use of oral rehydration solution (ORS and zinc treatment of diarrhoea increased in the intervention area, while there was a decrease in the comparison area (DID = 22.9, p = 0.001. Due to national stock-outs of amoxicillin, there was a decrease in antibiotic treatment for ARI in both areas; however, the decrease was significantly greater in the comparison area (DID = 5.18; p<0.001. There was a greater increase in Artemisinin Combination Therapy treatment for fever in the intervention areas than in the comparison area but this was not significant (DID = 1.57, p = 0.105. In the intervention area, timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI increased significantly higher in the intervention area than in the comparison area (DID = 2.12, p = 0.029 and 7.95, p<0.001, respectively. An estimated 106 lives were saved in the intervention area while 611 lives were lost in the comparison area.iCCM significantly increased treatment coverage for diarrhoea and fever, mitigated the effect of national stock outs of amoxicillin on ARI treatment, improved timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI and saved lives.

  7. Risk factors for measles death: Kyegegwa District, western Uganda, February-September, 2015.

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    Mafigiri, Richardson; Nsubuga, Fred; Ario, Alex Riolexus

    2017-07-03

    On 18 August 2015, Kyegegwa District reported eight deaths during a measles outbreak to the Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH). We investigated this death cluster to verify the cause, identify risk factors, and inform public health interventions. We defined a probable measles case as onset of fever and generalised rash in a Kyegegwa District resident from 1 February - 15 September 2015, plus ≥1 of the following: coryza, conjunctivitis, and cough. A confirmed measles case was a probable case with measles-specific IgM positivity. A measles death was a death of a probable or confirmed case-person. We conducted an active case-finding to identify measles patients who survived or died. In a case-control study, we compared risk factors between 16 measles patients who died (cases) and 48 who survived (controls), matched by age (±4 years) and village of residence. We identified 94 probable measles cases, 10 (11%) were confirmed by positive measles-specific IgM. Of the 64 probable measles patients aged ORM-H = 12; 95% CI = 1.6-104), while 56% (9/16) of case-persons and 67% (17/48) of controls (ORM-H = 2.3; 95% CI =0.74-7.4) did not receive vitamin A supplementation during illness. 63% (10/16) among the case-persons and 6.3% (3/48) of the controls (ORM-H = 33; 95% CI = 6.8-159) were not treated for measles illness at a health facility (a proxy for more appropriate treatment), while 38% (6/16) of the case-persons and 25% (12/48) of the controls (ORM-H = 2.5; 95% CI = 0.67-9.1) were malnourished. Lack of vaccination and no treatment in a health facility increased the risk for measles deaths. The one-dose measles vaccination currently in the national vaccination schedule had a protective effect against measles death. We recommended enhancing measles vaccination and adherence to measles treatment guidelines.

  8. Evaluation of Integrated Community Case Management in Eight Districts of Central Uganda.

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    Mubiru, Denis; Byabasheija, Robert; Bwanika, John Baptist; Meier, Joslyn Edelstein; Magumba, Godfrey; Kaggwa, Flavia Mpanga; Abusu, Jackson Ojera; Opio, Alex Chono; Lodda, Charles Clarke; Patel, Jaanki; Diaz, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is limited on whether Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) improves treatment coverage of the top causes of childhood mortality (acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), diarrhoea and malaria). The coverage impact of iCCM in Central Uganda was evaluated. Between July 2010 and December 2012 a pre-post quasi-experimental study in eight districts with iCCM was conducted; 3 districts without iCCM served as controls. A two-stage household cluster survey at baseline (n = 1036 and 1042) and end line (n = 3890 and 3844) was done in the intervention and comparison groups respectively. Changes in treatment coverage and timeliness were assessed using difference in differences analysis (DID). Mortality impact was modelled using the Lives Saved Tool. 5,586 Village Health Team members delivered 1,907,746 treatments to children under age five. Use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc treatment of diarrhoea increased in the intervention area, while there was a decrease in the comparison area (DID = 22.9, p = 0.001). Due to national stock-outs of amoxicillin, there was a decrease in antibiotic treatment for ARI in both areas; however, the decrease was significantly greater in the comparison area (DID = 5.18; p<0.001). There was a greater increase in Artemisinin Combination Therapy treatment for fever in the intervention areas than in the comparison area but this was not significant (DID = 1.57, p = 0.105). In the intervention area, timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI increased significantly higher in the intervention area than in the comparison area (DID = 2.12, p = 0.029 and 7.95, p<0.001, respectively). An estimated 106 lives were saved in the intervention area while 611 lives were lost in the comparison area. iCCM significantly increased treatment coverage for diarrhoea and fever, mitigated the effect of national stock outs of amoxicillin on ARI treatment, improved timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI and saved lives.

  9. Community knowledge of and attitudes toward epilepsy in rural and urban Mukono district, Uganda: A cross-sectional study.

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    Kaddumukasa, Mark; Kakooza, Angelina; Kayima, James; Kaddumukasa, Martin N; Ddumba, Edward; Mugenyi, Levi; Furlan, Anthony; Lhatoo, Samden; Sajatovic, Martha; Katabira, Elly

    2016-01-01

    The lack of adequate knowledge poses a barrier in the provision of appropriate treatment and care of patients with epilepsy within the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of and attitude towards epilepsy and its treatment by community dwellers in Uganda. A cross sectional population survey was conducted in urban and rural Mukono district, central Uganda. Adult respondents through multistage stratified sampling were interviewed about selected aspects of epilepsy knowledge, attitudes, and perception using a pretested structured questionnaire. Ninety-one percent of the study respondents had heard or read about epilepsy or knew someone who had epilepsy and had seen someone having a seizure. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents did not know the cause of epilepsy, while 29% cited genetic causes. About seventeen percent of the subjects believed that epilepsy is contagious. Only 5.6% (21/377) of the respondents would take a patient with epilepsy to hospital for treatment. Adults in Mukono are very acquainted with epilepsy but have many erroneous beliefs about the condition. Negative attitudes are pervasive within communities in Uganda. The national epilepsy awareness programs need to clarify the purported modes of transmission of epilepsy, available treatment options, and care offered during epileptic seizures during community sensitizations in our settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A qualitative study of provider perspectives on the barriers to contraceptive use in Kaliro and Iganga Districts, Eastern Central Uganda

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    Constance Sibongile Shumba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family planning confers unique benefits including preventing unintended pregnancies, improving maternal and child health outcomes, and increasing women’s access to education and economic opportunities. However, Uganda has a low contraceptive prevalence rate of only 30%, and progress in improving maternal and child health outcomes is slow. Objective: This assessment explores community health workers’ and facility-based health workers’ qualitative perspectives on the use of contraceptives in the Iganga and Kaliro districts in Eastern Central Uganda. Methods: The baseline assessment used a qualitative approach with a focused sample of community- and facility-based health workers aged 20-60 years. Two focus group discussions with Community Health Workers and four key informant interviews with facility-based health workers were conducted. Thematic content analysis was done manually. Results: The main factors influencing contraceptive use in these communities were preference for large families, perceived inadequate knowledge of family planning and fear of side effects, inadequate spousal and family support, male domination and risk of violence, divorce and polygamy, inadequate human resource capacity and low motivation, and user fees. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that there is low use of contraceptives for family planning in the Kaliro and Iganga districts in Uganda. Recommendations include developing a strong focus in exploring policy options to build the capacities of trained health workers to offer long-term methods in order to increase the availability of family planning options. Family planning interventions should increase the availability of contraceptive methods using gender-sensitive strategies, including community mobilization.

  11. A comparison of hierarchical cluster analysis and league table rankings as methods for analysis and presentation of district health system performance data in Uganda.

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    Tashobya, Christine K; Dubourg, Dominique; Ssengooba, Freddie; Speybroeck, Niko; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2016-03-01

    In 2003, the Uganda Ministry of Health introduced the district league table for district health system performance assessment. The league table presents district performance against a number of input, process and output indicators and a composite index to rank districts. This study explores the use of hierarchical cluster analysis for analysing and presenting district health systems performance data and compares this approach with the use of the league table in Uganda. Ministry of Health and district plans and reports, and published documents were used to provide information on the development and utilization of the Uganda district league table. Quantitative data were accessed from the Ministry of Health databases. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 20 and hierarchical cluster analysis, utilizing Wards' method was used. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the basis of seven clusters determined for each year from 2003 to 2010, ranging from a cluster of good through moderate-to-poor performers. The characteristics and membership of clusters varied from year to year and were determined by the identity and magnitude of performance of the individual variables. Criticisms of the league table include: perceived unfairness, as it did not take into consideration district peculiarities; and being oversummarized and not adequately informative. Clustering organizes the many data points into clusters of similar entities according to an agreed set of indicators and can provide the beginning point for identifying factors behind the observed performance of districts. Although league table ranking emphasize summation and external control, clustering has the potential to encourage a formative, learning approach. More research is required to shed more light on factors behind observed performance of the different clusters. Other countries especially low-income countries that share many similarities with Uganda can learn from these experiences. © The Author 2015

  12. Increased sexual abstinence among in-school adolescents as a result of school health education in Soroti district, Uganda.

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    Shuey, D A; Babishangire, B B; Omiat, S; Bagarukayo, H

    1999-06-01

    A school health education programme in primary schools aimed at AIDS prevention in Soroti district of Uganda emphasized improved access to information, improved peer interaction and improved quality of performance of the existing school health education system. A cross-sectional sample of students, average age 14 years, in their final year of primary school was surveyed before and after 2 years of interventions. The percentage of students who stated they had been sexually active fell from 42.9% (123 of 287) to 11.1% (31 of 280) in the intervention group, while no significant change was recorded in a control group. The changes remained significant when segregated by gender or rural and urban location. Students in the intervention group tended to speak to peers and teachers more often about sexual matters. Increases in reasons given by students for abstaining from sex over the study period occurred in those reasons associated with a rational decision-making model rather than a punishment model. A primary school health education programme which emphasizes social interaction methods can be effective in increasing sexual abstinence among school-going adolescents in Uganda. The programme does not have to be expensive and can be implemented with staff present in most districts in the region.

  13. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

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    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  14. Ebola haemorrhagic fever outbreak in Masindi District, Uganda: outbreak description and lessons learned

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    Borchert Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is infamous for its high case-fatality proportion (CFP and the ease with which it spreads among contacts of the diseased. We describe the course of the EHF outbreak in Masindi, Uganda, in the year 2000, and report on response activities. Methods We analysed surveillance records, hospital statistics, and our own observations during response activities. We used Fisher's exact tests for differences in proportions, t-tests for differences in means, and logistic regression for multivariable analysis. Results The response to the outbreak consisted of surveillance, case management, logistics and public mobilisation. Twenty-six EHF cases (24 laboratory confirmed, two probable occurred between October 21st and December 22nd, 2000. CFP was 69% (18/26. Nosocomial transmission to the index case occurred in Lacor hospital in Gulu, outside the Ebola ward. After returning home to Masindi district the index case became the origin of a transmission chain within her own extended family (18 further cases, from index family members to health care workers (HCWs, 6 cases, and from HCWs to their household contacts (1 case. Five out of six occupational cases of EHF in HCWs occurred after the introduction of barrier nursing, probably due to breaches of barrier nursing principles. CFP was initially very high (76% but decreased (20% due to better case management after reinforcing the response team. The mobilisation of the community for the response efforts was challenging at the beginning, when fear, panic and mistrust had to be countered by the response team. Conclusions Large scale transmission in the community beyond the index family was prevented by early case identification and isolation as well as quarantine imposed by the community. The high number of occupational EHF after implementing barrier nursing points at the need to strengthen training and supervision of local HCWs. The difference in CFP before and after

  15. Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda : FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda: FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa Worldwide, tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, in many low and middle-income

  16. District Health Officer Perceptions of PEPFAR’s Influence on the Health System in Uganda, 2005-2011

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    Nathaniel Lohman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Vertically oriented global health initiatives (GHIs addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, have successfully contributed to reducing HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality. However, there is still debate about whether these disease-specific programs have improved or harmed health systems overall, especially with respect to non-HIV health needs. Methods As part of a larger evaluation of PEPFAR’s effects on the health system between 2005-2011, we collected qualitative and quantitative data through semi-structured interviews with District Health Officers (DHOs from all 112 districts in Uganda. We asked DHOs to share their perceptions about the ways in which HIV programs (largely PEPFAR in the Ugandan context had helped and harmed the health system. We then identified key themes among their responses using qualitative content analysis. Results Ugandan DHOs said PEPFAR had generally helped the health system by improving training, integrating HIV and non-HIV care, and directly providing resources. To a lesser extent, DHOs said PEPFAR caused the health system to focus too narrowly on HIV/AIDS, increased workload for already overburdened staff, and encouraged doctors to leave public sector jobs for higher-paid positions with HIV/AIDS programs. Conclusion Health system leaders in Uganda at the district level were appreciative of resources aimed at HIV they could often apply for broader purposes. As HIV infection becomes a chronic disease requiring strong health systems to manage sustained patient care over time, Uganda’s weak health systems will require broad infrastructure improvements inconsistent with narrow vertical health programming.

  17. Perinatal mental health care in a rural African district, Uganda: a qualitative study of barriers, facilitators and needs.

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    Nakku, Juliet E M; Okello, Elialilia S; Kizza, Dorothy; Honikman, Simone; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred

    2016-07-22

    Perinatal mental illness is a common and important public health problem, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to explore the barriers and facilitators, as well as perceptions about the feasibility and acceptability of plans to deliver perinatal mental health care in primary care settings in a low income, rural district in Uganda. Six focus group discussions comprising separate groups of pregnant and postpartum women and village health teams as well as eight key informant interviews were conducted in the local language using a topic guide. Transcribed data were translated into English, analyzed, and coded. Key themes were identified using a thematic analysis approach. Participants perceived that there was an important unmet need for perinatal mental health care in the district. There was evidence of significant gaps in knowledge about mental health problems as well as negative attitudes amongst mothers and health care providers towards sufferers. Poverty and inability to afford transport to services, poor partner support and stigma were thought to add to the difficulties of perinatal women accessing care. There was an awareness of the need for interventions to respond to this neglected public health problem and a willingness of both community- and facility-based health care providers to provide care for mothers with mental health problems if equipped to do so by adequate training. This study highlights the acceptability and relevance of perinatal mental health care in a rural, low-income country community. It also underscores some of the key barriers and potential facilitators to delivery of such care in primary care settings. The results of this study have implications for mental health service planning and development for perinatal populations in Uganda and will be useful in informing the development of integrated maternal mental health care in this rural district and in similar settings in other low and middle income countries.

  18. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda.

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    Rujumba, Joseph; Kwiringira, Japheth

    2010-11-22

    Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex). In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and livelihood interventions in the post conflict Pader district to curtail

  19. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda

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    Kwiringira Japheth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex. In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and

  20. Burden of alcohol use in the Uganda police in Kampala district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol dependence is one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease. Among members of the Uganda Police Force, alcohol dependence has been a major contributor of poor mental health, poor work output and forced retirement. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ...

  1. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda.

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    Nicola A Batchelor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  2. Relatively low HIV infection rates in rural Uganda, but with high potential for a rise: a cohort study in Kayunga District, Uganda.

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    David Guwatudde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted in Uganda to identify and quantify the determinants of HIV-1 infection. We report results from a community-based cohort study, whose primary objectives were to determine HIV-1 prevalence, incidence, and determinants of these infections, among other objectives. METHODOLOGY: Consenting volunteers from the rural district of Kayunga in Uganda aged 15-49 years were enrolled between March and July 2006. Participants were evaluated every six months. A questionnaire that collected information on behavioral and other HIV-1 risk factors was administered, and a blood sample obtained for laboratory analysis at each study visit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV-1 prevalence among the 2025 participants was 9.9% (95% CI = 8.6%-11.2%. By the end of 12 months of follow-up, 1689.7 person-years had been accumulated, with a median follow-up time of 11.97 months. Thirteen HIV-1 incident cases were detected giving an annual HIV-1 incidence of 0.77% (95% CI = 0.35-1.19. Prevalence of HSV-2 infection was 57% and was strongly associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection (adjusted Odds Ratio = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.50-6.17; as well as incident HIV-1 infection (adjusted Rate Ratio (RR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.11-67.2. The single most important behavioral characteristic associated with incident HIV infection was the number of times in the past 6 months, a participant had sex with person(s they suspected/knew were having sex with others; attaining statistical significance at 10 times and higher (adjusted RR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.73-23.1. By the end of 12 months of follow-up, 259 participants (13% were lost to follow-up, 13 (0.6% had died, and 2 (0.1% had withdrawn consent. CONCLUSIONS: Despite relatively low HIV-1 incidence observed in this community, prevalence remains relatively high. In the presence of high prevalence of HSV-2 infection and the behavioral characteristic of having sex with more than one partner, there is potential for increase in HIV-1

  3. Interaction between teachers and slow learners : a case study in a school in Kampala District, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mirembe, Eseza

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Interaction is the road to learning and development. It involves what people do to influence each other s behaviour for better or for worse, and is therefore a central issue in the classroom situation. The study focuses on the interaction between teachers and slow learners in inclusive classrooms. Slow learners have special educational problems in all or nearly all the subjects in the curriculum. There are more or less slow learners in almost every class in Uganda. The quali...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religiosity for HIV prevention in Uganda: A case study among Christian youth in Wakiso district. Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 2 (2012) - Articles Evidence-based monitoring and evaluation of the faith-based approach to HIV prevention among Christian and Muslim youth in Wakiso district in Uganda Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 3 ...

  5. Responses to tuberculin among Zebu cattle in the transhumance regions of Karamoja and Nakasongola district of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloya, J; Opuda-Asibo, J; Djønne, B; Muma, J B; Matope, G; Kazwala, R; Skjerve, E

    2006-05-01

    Responses to tuberculin in Zebu cattle of the transhumant pastoral farming system in Karamoja region and Nakasongola district in the north-eastern and mid-central regions in Uganda, respectively, were investigated using a comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test. Of the 1864 cattle tested from 30 large units (superherds) in Karamoja and 7 herds in Nakasongola, a total of 28 animals from 19 herds (51.4%) tested positive. Inter-district tuberculin reactor prevalence variations seemed to be influenced by climate, with impact on both the management patterns and transmissibility of agent. High herd tuberculin reactor prevalence (51.4%) was attributed to widespread contacts and mixing of animals between herds. Low individual animal tuberculin test positivity (mean = 1.4%) was attributed to low transmissibility of the agent under the Karamoja climate, which is semi-arid, and to increased resistance due to non-specific response to environmental mycobacteria and natural selection, since there was no active control against bovine tuberculosis. Owing to similarities in management practices in Karamoja and widespread risk factors, it was difficult to identify which were more important, but variations in sources of drinking water pointed to provision of lake and borehole water during dry season as reducing the risk. Positive bovine tuberculin reactor prevalence and skin reactor status were related to age.

  6. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda.

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    Anou Dreyfus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda.359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2-40.3% defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9-24.4%. The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800 was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.2% and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes. Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048. Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6 with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4-108.6; p = 0.024 of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229 had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2-3.1; p = 0.009 of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby.The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup. Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and "smear-negative malaria" in rural East Africa.

  7. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Anou; Dyal, Jonathan W; Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M; Travis, Dominic A; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2-40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9-24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4-108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2-3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and "smear-negative malaria" in rural East Africa.

  8. Contribution of street foods to the dietary needs of street food vendors in Kampala, Jinja and Masaka districts, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namugumya, Brenda Shenute; Muyanja, Charles

    2012-08-01

    To assess the contribution of street foods to the energy and nutrient needs of street food vendors. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Food intake for the street food vendors was measured using the 24 h recall method and a semi-quantitative FFQ with emphasis on the source of all foods consumed. Kampala, Jinja and Masaka districts, Uganda. The study included 225 street food vendors trading in prepared cooked foods. The majority of vendors (87·6 %) were women with age range of 21-50 years. Traditional dishes were the most commonly prepared foods and classified into main meals, sauces, vegetables and snacks. The food groups consumed most commonly by street food vendors fall under energy-giving and body-building foods (0·26 (sd 0·81)). The mean daily intake of energy from street foods varied between 22·4 % and 25·6 % (2412 kJ). Carbohydrates contributed the highest proportion of energy (70·1 % to 93·4 %), followed by protein (38·6 % to 44·9 %) and fat (21·9 % to 26·3 %). Street food vendors obtained 24·0 % to 32·5 % of their RDA for Ca from street vended foods, with the lowest intake in Jinja (11·2 % to 23·9 %, P street foods were respectively above 74 % and 150 % of the RDA. The contribution of street foods to the RDA for Zn ranged from 81·9 % to 190·9 %, and from 3·5 % to 4·9 % for retinol. Fe intake from street vended foods was 40·9 % to 49·7 % of the RDA. Street foods contribute to sources of dietary energy and other nutrients among street food vendors in Uganda.

  9. Uptake of preventive treatment for intestinal schistosomiasis among school children in Jinja district, Uganda: a cross sectional study.

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    Simon Muhumuza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Uganda, the current national health sector strategic and investment plan underscores schistosomiasis as one of the diseases targeted for elimination by the year 2015. However, uptake of treatment among school children is unknown but suspected to be low. We estimated the uptake and predictors of preventive treatment with praziquantel. METHODS: In a cross sectional study carried out in Jinja district of Uganda, a random sample of 1,010 children in 12 primary schools was questioned about their uptake of praziquantel, knowledge and perceptions about schistosomiasis, support for taking preventive treatment and the dangers of taking praziquantel. The prevalence and mean intensity of infection with Schistosoma mansoni were determined. RESULTS: Self reported uptake of praziquantel at last mass treatment was 28.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 22.9%-33.6%. Overall prevalence and mean intensity of S. mansoni infection was 35% (95% CI: 25.4%-37.9% and 116.1 eggs per gram (epg of stool (95% CI: 98.3-137.1 respectively. Uptake of praziquantel was more likely if a child was from a school with high prevalence of infection, had knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, and reported teachers' support to take praziquantel. Of the 285 children who took praziquantel, 142 (49.8% developed side effects. Of the 725 children who did not take the drug, 522 (72.0% reported fear of side effects as a major reason for non-uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Uptake of praziquantel in this population is very low. Fear of side effects of praziquantel, lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention and lack of teacher support are some of the major factors associated with low uptake.

  10. The first mile: community experience of outbreak control during an Ebola outbreak in Luwero District, Uganda

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    Daniel H. de Vries

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge to outbreak control lies in early detection of viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs in local community contexts during the critical initial stages of an epidemic, when risk of spreading is its highest (“the first mile”. In this paper we document how a major Ebola outbreak control effort in central Uganda in 2012 was experienced from the perspective of the community. We ask to what extent the community became a resource for early detection, and identify problems encountered with community health worker and social mobilization strategies. Methods Analysis is based on first-hand ethnographic data from the center of a small Ebola outbreak in Luwero Country, Uganda, in 2012. Three of this paper’s authors were engaged in an 18 month period of fieldwork on community health resources when the outbreak occurred. In total, 13 respondents from the outbreak site were interviewed, along with 21 key informants and 61 focus group respondents from nearby Kaguugo Parish. All informants were chosen through non-probability sampling sampling. Results Our data illustrate the lack of credibility, from an emic perspective, of biomedical explanations which ignore local understandings. These explanations were undermined by an insensitivity to local culture, a mismatch between information circulated and the local interpretative framework, and the inability of the emergency response team to take the time needed to listen and empathize with community needs. Stigmatization of the local community – in particular its belief in amayembe spirits – fuelled historical distrust of the external health system and engendered community-level resistance to early detection. Conclusions Given the available anthropological knowledge of a previous outbreak in Northern Uganda, it is surprising that so little serious effort was made this time round to take local sensibilities and culture into account. The “first mile” problem is not only a

  11. Capacity of Health Facilities to Manage Hypertension in Mukono and Buikwe Districts in Uganda: Challenges and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Mukose, Aggrey; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases is increasing in both low- and middle-income countries. However, healthcare systems in low-income countries are inadequately equipped to deal with the growing disease burden, which requires chronic care for patients. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of health facilities to manage hypertension in two districts in Uganda. In a cross-sectional study conducted between June and October 2012, we surveyed 126 health facilities (6 hospitals, 4 Health Center IV (HCIV), 23 Health Center III (HCIII), 41 Health Center II (HCII) and 52 private clinics/dispensaries) in Mukono and Buikwe districts in Uganda. We assessed records, conducted structured interviews with heads of facilities, and administered questionnaires to 271 health workers. The study assessed service provision for hypertension, availability of supplies such as medicines, guidelines and equipment, in-service training for hypertension, knowledge of hypertension management, challenges and recommendations. Of the 126 health facilities, 92.9% reported managing (diagnosing/treating) patients with hypertension, and most (80.2%) were run by non-medical doctors or non-physician health workers (NPHW). Less than half (46%) of the facilities had guidelines for managing hypertension. A 10th of the facilities lacked functioning blood pressure devices and 28% did not have stethoscopes. No facilities ever calibrated their BP devices except one. About a half of the facilities had anti-hypertensive medicines in stock; mainly thiazide diuretics (46%), beta blockers (56%) and calcium channel blockers (48.4%). Alpha blockers, mixed alpha & beta blockers and angiotensin II receptor antagonists were only stocked by private clinics/dispensaries. Most HCIIs lacked anti-hypertensive medicines, including the first line thiazide diuretics. Significant knowledge gaps in classification of patients as hypertensive were noted among respondents. All health workers (except 5, 1.9%) indicated that they

  12. Impact of tailings from the Kilembe copper mining district on Lake George, Uganda

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    Owor, Michael; Hartwig, Tina; Muwanga, Andrew; Zachmann, Dieter; Pohl, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The abandoned Kilembe copper mine in western Uganda is a source of contaminants, mobilised from mine tailings into R. Rukoki flowing through a belt of wetlands into Lake George. Water and sediments were investigated on the lakeshore and the lakebed. Metal associations in the sediments reflect the Kilembe sulphide mineralisation. Enrichment of metals was compared between lakebed sediments, both for wet and dry seasons. Total C in a lakebed core shows a general increment, while Cu and Co decrease with depth. The contaminants are predominant (> 65%) in the ≤ 63 μm sediment size range with elevated Cu and Zn (> 28%), while Ni, Pb and Co are low (Cu and S. Heavy metal contents in lake waters are not an immediate risk to the aquatic environment.

  13. Using formative research to design a behavior change strategy to increase the use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L; Arney, Jennifer K; Mueller, Lisa M; Kumakech, Edward; Walugembe, Fiona; Mugisha, Emmanuel

    2013-12-10

    Household air pollution from cooking with biomass fuels negatively impacts maternal and child health and the environment, and contributes to the global burden of disease. In Uganda, nearly 20,000 young children die of household air pollution-related pneumonia every year. Qualitative research was used to identify behavioral determinants related to the acquisition and use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Uganda. Results were used to design a behavior change strategy for the introduction of a locally-fabricated top-lit updraft gasifier (TLUD) stove in Wakiso district. A theoretical framework--opportunity, ability, and motivation--was used to guide the research and behavior change strategy development. Participants consistently cited financial considerations as the most influential factor related to improved cookstove acquisition and use. In contrast, participants did not prioritize the potential health benefits of improved cookstoves. The theoretical framework, research methodology, and behavior change strategy design process can be useful for program planners and researchers interested in identifying behavioral determinants and designing and evaluating improved cookstove interventions.

  14. Using Formative Research to Design a Behavior Change Strategy to Increase the Use of Improved Cookstoves in Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda

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    Stephanie L. Martin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution from cooking with biomass fuels negatively impacts maternal and child health and the environment, and contributes to the global burden of disease. In Uganda, nearly 20,000 young children die of household air pollution-related pneumonia every year. Qualitative research was used to identify behavioral determinants related to the acquisition and use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Uganda. Results were used to design a behavior change strategy for the introduction of a locally-fabricated top-lit updraft gasifier (TLUD stove in Wakiso district. A theoretical framework—opportunity, ability, and motivation—was used to guide the research and behavior change strategy development. Participants consistently cited financial considerations as the most influential factor related to improved cookstove acquisition and use. In contrast, participants did not prioritize the potential health benefits of improved cookstoves. The theoretical framework, research methodology, and behavior change strategy design process can be useful for program planners and researchers interested in identifying behavioral determinants and designing and evaluating improved cookstove interventions.

  15. Prevalence, pattern and perceptions of cleft lip and cleft palate among children born in two hospitals in Kisoro District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies that affect the oro-facial region. The aim of the study was to determine the period prevalence, pattern and perceptions of cleft lip and cleft palate in children born between 2005 and 2010 in two hospitals in Kisoro District, Uganda. Methods The study involved a retrospective review of medical records of mothers who delivered live babies between January 2005 and December 2010 in Kisoro Hospital and St. Francis Hospital, Mutolere in Kisoro District. Key informant interviews of mothers (n = 20) of the children with cleft lip and/or clip palate and selected medical staff (n = 24) of the two hospitals were carried out. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Over the 6 year period, 25,985 mothers delivered live babies in Kisoro Hospital (n = 13,199) and St. Francis Hospital, Mutolere (n = 12,786) with 20 babies having oro-facial clefts. The overall period prevalence of the clefts was 0.77/1,000 live births. Sixty percent (n = 12) of children had combined cleft lip and palate and the same proportion had clefts on the left side of the face. More boys were affected than girls: 13 versus 7. About 45% of mothers were hurt on realizing that they had delivered a child with an oro-facial cleft. Forty percent of mothers indicated that a child with oro-facial cleft was regarded as an outcast. About 91.7% (n = 22) of the medical staff reported that these children were not accepted in their communities. Surgical intervention and psychosocial support were the management modalities advocated for by most respondents. Conclusion/recommendations The period prevalence of combined cleft lip and palate in two hospitals in Kisoro District was comparable to some findings elsewhere. Cleft lip and cleft palate are a medical and psychosocial problem in Kisoro District that calls for sensitization and counseling of the families and communities of the affected children

  16. A qualitative study on barriers to utilisation of institutional delivery services in Moroto and Napak districts, Uganda: implications for programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Quaglio, Gianluca; Putoto, Giovanni; Lochoro, Peter; Dall'Oglio, Giovanni; Manenti, Fabio; Atzori, Andrea; Lochiam, Rose Miligan; Takahashi, Risa; Mukundwa, Aline; Oyerinde, Koyejo

    2014-08-04

    Skilled attendance at delivery is critical in prevention of maternal deaths. However, many women in low- and middle-income countries still deliver without skilled assistance. This study was carried out to identify perceived barriers to utilisation of institutional delivery in two districts in Karamoja, Uganda. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal (PRA) with 887 participants (459 women and 428 men) in 20 villages in Moroto and Napak districts. Data were analysed using deductive content analysis. Notes taken during PRA session were edited, triangulated and coded according to recurring issues. Additionally, participants used matrix ranking to express their perceived relative significance of the barriers identified. The main barriers to utilisation of maternal health services were perceived to be: insecurity, poverty, socio-cultural factors, long distances to health facilities, lack of food at home and at health facilities, lack of supplies, drugs and basic infrastructure at health facilities, poor quality of care at health facilities, lack of participation in planning for health services and the ready availability of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Factors related to economic and physical inaccessibility and lack of infrastructure, drugs and supplies at health facilities were highly ranked barriers to utilisation of institutional delivery. A comprehensive approach to increasing the utilisation of maternal health care services in Karamoja is needed. This should tackle both demand and supply side barriers using a multi-sectorial approach since the main barriers are outside the scope of the health sector. TBAs are still active in Karamoja and their role and influence on maternal health in this region cannot be ignored. A model for collaboration between skilled health workers and TBAs in order to increase institutional deliveries is needed.

  17. Community awareness about risk factors, presentation and prevention and obstetric fistula in Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamba, Nassar; Kaye, Dan K; Mbalinda, Scovia N

    2013-12-10

    Obstetric fistula is a worldwide problem that is devastating for women in developing countries. The cardinal cause of obstetric fistula is prolonged obstructed labour and delay in seeking emergency obstetric care. Awareness about obstetric fistula is still low in developing countries. The objective was to assess the awareness about risk factors of obstetric fistulae in rural communities of Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Eastern Uganda. A qualitative study using focus group discussion for males and females aged 18-49 years, to explore and gain deeper understanding of their awareness of existence, causes, clinical presentation and preventive measures for obstetric fistula. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. The majority of the women and a few men were aware about obstetric fistula, though many had misconceptions regarding its causes, clinical presentation and prevention. Some wrongly attributed fistula to misuse of family planning, having sex during the menstruation period, curses by relatives, sexually transmitted infections, rape and gender-based violence. However, others attributed the fistula to delays to access medical care, induced abortions, conception at an early age, utilization of traditional birth attendants at delivery, and some complications that could occur during surgical operations for difficult deliveries. Most of the community members interviewed were aware of the risk factors of obstetric fistula. Some respondents, predominantly men, had misconceptions/myths about risk factors of obstetric fistula as being caused by having sex during menstrual periods, poor usage of family planning, being a curse.

  18. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda

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    Gerald Zirintunda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended.

  19. Land slide disaster in eastern Uganda: rapid assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene situation in Bulucheke camp, Bududa district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn M; Ediau, Michael; Orach, Christopher G; Musenero, Monica; Bazeyo, William

    2011-05-14

    On 1st March 2010, a major landslide occurred on Mt. Elgon in Eastern Uganda. This was triggered by heavy rains that lasted over three months. The landslide buried three villages in Bududa district, killing over 400 and displacing an estimate of 5,000 people. A comprehensive assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene was urgently needed to inform interventions by the Ministries of Health, and Relief, Disaster Preparedness and Refugees, Uganda. This was a cross-sectional study where both qualitative and quantitative data were collected two weeks after the disaster. Quantitative interviews involved 397 heads of households and qualitative methods comprised of 27 Key Informant interviews, four focus group discussions and observations. The survey quantified water safety (collection, treatment, storage) and hygiene practices. This was supplemented and triangulated with qualitative data that focused on community perceptions and beliefs regarding water and sanitation needs and practices. Quantitative data was entered in Epi-Info Version 3.2.2 software and then exported to SPSS Version 12 for analysis. Summary statistics and proportions were generated and bi-variable analysis performed for selected variables. Associations were assessed using odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Qualitative results showed that there were strong traditional beliefs governing water use and human excreta disposal. The use of river Manafwa water for household consumption was observed to potentially lead to disease outbreaks. Water from this river was reported tastier and the community culturally saw no need to boil drinking water. Latrines were few (23 for 5000 people), shallow, dirty (70% reported flies, 60% fecal littering), not separated by sex and had limited privacy and no light at night. This affected their use. Males were 3 times more likely to wash hands with soap after latrine use than females (OR = 3.584, 95%CI: 1

  20. Rapid reduction of malaria following introduction of vector control interventions in Tororo District, Uganda: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguttu, David W; Matovu, Joseph K B; Okumu, David C; Ario, Alex R; Okullo, Allen E; Opigo, Jimmy; Nankabirwa, Victoria

    2017-05-30

    In 2012, Tororo District had the highest malaria burden in Uganda with community Plasmodium prevalence of 48%. To control malaria in the district, the Ministry of Health introduced universal distribution of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in 2013 and added indoor residual spraying (IRS) in 2014. This study assessed malaria incidence, test positivity rates and outpatient (OPD) attendance due to malaria before and after vector control interventions. This study was based on analysis of Health Management Information System (HMIS) secondary malaria surveillance data of 2,727,850 patient records in OPD registers of 61 health facilities from 2012 to 2015. The analysis estimated monthly malaria incidence for the entire population and also separately for introduction of vector control interventions; determined laboratory test positivity rates and annual percentage of malaria cases in OPD. Chi square for trends was used to analyse annual change in malaria incidence and logistic regression for monthly reduction. Following universal LLINs coverage, the annual mean monthly malaria incidence fell from 95 cases in 2013 to 76 cases per 1000 in 2014 with no significant monthly reduction (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.01, P = 0.37). Among children malaria incidence reduced from 130 to 100 cases per 1000 (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-1.00, P = 0.08) when LLINs were used alone in 2014, but declined to 45 per 1000 in 2015 when IRS was combined with LLINs (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.996, P malaria incidence reduced from 59 to 52 cases per 1000 (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.02, P = 0.8) when LLINs were used alone in 2014, but reduced significantly to 25 per 1000 in 2015 (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94, P Malaria test positivity rate reduced from 57% in 2013 to 30% (Chi = 15, P malaria incidence was observed in Tororo District following the introduction of IRS in addition to LLINs. There was no significant reduction in malaria incidence following universal distribution

  1. Risk factors, person, place and time characteristics associated with Hepatitis E Virus outbreak in Napak District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanya, Geofrey; Kizito, Samuel; Nabukenya, Immaculate; Kalyango, Joan; Atuheire, Collins; Nansumba, Hellen; Abwoye, Stephen Akena; Opio, Denis Nixon; Kibuuka, Edrisa; Karamagi, Charles

    2017-06-26

    Hepatitis E is self-limiting, but can cause death in most at risk groups like pregnant women and those with preexisting acute liver disease. In developing countries it presents as epidemic, in 2014 Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) outbreak was reported in Napak district Uganda. The role of factors in this setting that might have propagated this HEV epidemic, including host, agent, and environmental characteristics, were still not clear. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the risk factors, person, place and time characteristics, associated with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) epidemic in Napak district. Review of line lists data for epidemiological description and matched case control study on neighborhood and age in the ratio of 1:2 were used to assess risk factors for HEV outbreak in Napak. Cluster and random sampling were used to obtain a sample size of 332, (111 cases, 221 controls). Possible interaction and confounding was assessed using conditional logistic regression. Over 1359 cases and 30 deaths were reported during 2013/2014 HEV outbreak. The mean age of patients was 29 ± years, 57.9% of cases were females. Overall case Fatality Ratio was 2.2% in general population but 65.2% in pregnant women. More than 94% of the cases were reported in the sub counties of Napak, 5.7% of cases were reported in the outside neighboring districts. The epidemic peaked in January 2014 and gradually subsided by December 2014. Risk factors found to be associated with HEV included drinking untreated water (OR 6.69, 95% CI 3.15-14.16), eating roadside food (OR 6.11, 95% CI 2.85-13.09), reported not cleaning utensils (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.55-1.76), and being a hunter (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-12.66). The results of this study suggest that the virus is transmitted by the feco-oral route through contaminated water. They also suggest that active surveillance and appropriate measures targeting community and routine individual health actions are important to prevent transmission and

  2. Impact of anti-retroviral therapy on sexual behaviour among Villa-Maria hospital clients, Maska district Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Yiga, Dominic Bukenya

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural change programmes specifically those promoting faithfulness, partner reduction and consistent right condom use contributed to the early declines in HIV incidence and prevalence in Uganda. To guard against treatment optimism and continued risky sexual practices which might result from improved health status, ART clients are also subjected to intensive behavioural change intervention campaigns in Uganda. However, comprehensive evaluation of behavioural change interventions /programm...

  3. A participatory action research approach to strengthening health managers' capacity at district level in Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Bennett, Sara; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; George, Asha; Kiracho, Elizabeth Ekirapa

    2017-12-28

    Many approaches to improving health managers' capacity in poor countries, particularly those pursued by external agencies, employ non-participatory approaches and often seek to circumvent (rather than strengthen) weak public management structures. This limits opportunities for strengthening local health managers' capacity, improving resource utilisation and enhancing service delivery. This study explored the contribution of a participatory action research approach to strengthening health managers' capacity in Eastern Uganda. This was a qualitative study that used open-ended key informant interviews, combined with review of meeting minutes and observations to collect data. Both inductive and deductive thematic analysis was undertaken. The Competing Values Framework of organisational management functions guided the deductive process of analysis and the interpretation of the findings. The framework builds on four earlier models of management and regards them as complementary rather than conflicting, and identifies four managers' capacities (collaborate, create, compete and control) by categorising them along two axes, one contrasting flexibility versus control and the other internal versus external organisational focus. The findings indicate that the participatory action research approach enhanced health managers' capacity to collaborate with others, be creative, attain goals and review progress. The enablers included expanded interaction spaces, encouragement of flexibility, empowerment of local managers, and the promotion of reflection and accountability. Tension and conflict across different management functions was apparent; for example, while there was a need to collaborate, maintaining control over processes was also needed. These tensions meant that managers needed to learn to simultaneously draw upon and use different capacities as reflected by the Competing Values Framework in order to maximise their effectiveness. Improved health manager capacity is

  4. No difference in sexual behavior of adolescent girls following Human Papilloma Virus vaccination: a case study two districts in Uganda; Nakasongola and Luwero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujo, Judith Caroline; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Kiguli, Sarah; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-02-12

    Vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) before sexual debut has been recommended by WHO as a primary prevention strategy against cervical cancer. In Uganda, vaccination against HPV started as a demonstration project among young girls in Nakasongola; and Ibanda districts. Studies have suggested that vaccination against HPV could result in risky sexual behavior and increase the risk of early sexual debut.This study was done to compare the sexual behavior of HPV vaccinated and non vaccinated adolescent girls in two neighboring districts in Uganda; and to assess whether HPV vaccination had any influence on sexual behavior of vaccinated adolescent girls. This was an unmatched comparative study, which used both qualitative and quantitative study methods. It was carried out among 400 primary school girls aged 12 to 15 years in the districts of Nakasongola (vaccinated) and Luwero (non vaccinated). Quantitative data was collected using a questionnaire while qualitative data was obtained using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The main outcome measure was the number of sexually active girls in each group. Of the 400 girls, 8 volunteered information that they were sexually active, 5(2.5%) from Luwero (non vaccinated) and 3 (1.5%) from Nakasongola (vaccinated), but there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. HPV vaccination was not significantly associated with being sexually active. There was no significant difference in sexual behavior between vaccinated and non vaccinated girls.

  5. Use of alternative medicine for hypertension in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwaha, Fred; Musinguzi, Geofrey

    2013-11-04

    Use of alternative medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension is common in low as well as high income countries. This study estimated the proportion of people who were aware of their hypertension that use alternative medicine and identified factors predicting the use of alternative medicine. In a community based cross sectional survey among people ≥ 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda 258 people aware of their hypertension were questioned about use of alternative medicine for hypertension, advice about uptake of life style intervention for hypertension control such as reduction of salt intake and about their attitude towards use of alternative medicine. Proportions of people who used alternative medicine and adopt life style interventions and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Predictors of using alternative medicine were identified using logistic binary regression analysis. More than a half 144 (56.2%) had ever used alternative medicine whereas more than one in four 74 (28.6%) were currently using alternative medicine alone or in combination with modern medicine (50%). People who were using alternative medicine alone (29.7% CI 17.5-45.9) were less likely to have received advice on reduction of salt intake compared to those using modern medicine alone or in combination with traditional medicine (56.6%, CI 47.7-65.0). The only independent predictor for using alternative medicine was agreeing that alternative medicine is effective for treatment of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6; 95% CI 1.40-4.82). The use of alternative medicine was common among patients with hypertension and usage was underpinned by the belief that alternative medicine is effective. As patients with hypertension use alternative medicine and modern medicine concurrently, there is need for open communication between health workers and patients regarding use of alternative medicine.

  6. Health Seeking Behaviours among Caretakers of Children with Nodding Syndrome in Pader District - Northern Uganda: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atim, Pamela; Ochola, Emmanuel; Ssendagire, Stephen; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2016-01-01

    Nodding syndrome is a neurological disorder which had affected about 3000 children with over 170 deaths in northern Uganda by 2012. With limited data on health seeking, the study aimed to assess the health seeking behavior and associated factors among caretakers of children with nodding syndrome in Pader district. A mixed methods cross sectional study was conducted in July 2013 among 249 caretakers of children with nodding syndrome in three sub-counties of Pader. Respondents were consecutively interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Eleven key informants were additionally interviewed. We determined the associations of various factors with health care seeking and obtained adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression model. Quantitative data was analysed using Stata version 12 while qualitative data was analysed manually and quotes reported. Most caretakers, 78.3% (195/249) sought care first from a health facility, 12.9% (32/249) visited traditional healers and 8.8% (22/249) self-medicated. Of those who sought care from a health facility, 50% sought care after a month. Factors associated with improved care seeking included: Time taken to reach care 1-3 hours; adjusted odds ratio = 6.4 (95% CI = 2.96-14.03), time spent in care above five years; adjusted odds ratio = 12.0 (95% CI: 1.24-117.73) and changed care seeking place; adjusted odds ratio = 17.2 (95% CI: 3.64-81.67). Caretakers sought care from multiple places. One in five caretakers still sought care outside a formal health facility. Many respondents who sought care first from health facilities went late, at least one month after symptoms onset. Factors associated with health seeking included distance, duration in treatment and not having changing care provider. There is need for massive sensitization of community to enhance prompt care seeking. More research is needed to elucidate the cause, thus finding the treatment for nodding syndrome, to prevent "wandering in hope".

  7. Fear of an HIV positive test result: an exploration of the low uptake of couples HIV counselling and testing (CHCT) in a rural setting in Mukono district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannozi, Victoria; Wobudeya, Eric; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2017-12-01

    Couples HIV counselling and testing (CHCT) is a key preventive strategy used to reduce the spread of HIV. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among married or cohabiting couples is 5.6%, compared to 2.2% among those never married. CHCT can help ease disclosure of HIV positive status, which in turn may help increase opportunities to obtain social supports and reduce new infections. The purpose of this study was aimed at exploring the possible reasons for the low uptake of CHCT in Mukono district, a rural in setting in Uganda. The study was conducted in two sub-counties in a rural district (Mukono district) using a descriptive qualitative research design. Specifically, we conducted four focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews. We also interviewed 53 individuals in couple relationships. Data were collected mainly in the local language Luganda and English, all data were transcribed into English and coded for emergent themes. Ethical clearance for this study was obtained from the Mengo Hospital Research Review Board and from the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. Fear of a positive HIV test result emerged strongly as the most significant barrier to CHCT. To a lesser extent, perceptions and knowledge of CHCT, mistrust in marriages and culture were also noted by participants as important barriers to the uptake of CHCT among couples. Participants offered suggestions on ways to overcome these barriers, including peer couple counselling, offering incentives to couples that test together and door-to-door CHCT testing. In an effort to improve the uptake of CHCT, it is crucial to involve both females and males in the planning and implementation of CHCT, as well as to address the misconceptions about CHCT and to prioritise CHCT within health care systems management.

  8. Application of social network analysis in the assessment of organization infrastructure for service delivery: a three district case study from post-conflict northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Kawooya, Vincent; Namakula, Justine; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    In post-conflict settings, service coverage indices are unlikely to be sustained if health systems are built on weak and unstable inter-organization networks-here referred to as infrastructure. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-organization infrastructure that supports the provision of selected health services in the reconstruction phase after conflict in northern Uganda. Applied social network analysis was used to establish the structure, size and function among organizations supporting the provision of (1) HIV treatment, (2) maternal delivery services and (3) workforce strengthening. Overall, 87 organizations were identified from 48 respondent organizations in the three post-conflict districts in northern Uganda. A two-stage snowball approach was used starting with service provider organizations in each district. Data included a list of organizations and their key attributes related to the provision of each service for the year 2012-13. The findings show that inter-organization networks are mostly focused on HIV treatment and least for workforce strengthening. The networks for HIV treatment and maternal services were about 3-4 times denser relative to the network for workforce strengthening. The network for HIV treatment accounted for 69-81% of the aggregated network in Gulu and Kitgum districts. In contrast, the network for workforce strengthening contributed the least (6% and 10%) in these two districts. Likewise, the networks supporting a young district (Amuru) was under invested with few organizations and sparse connections. Overall, organizations exhibited a broad range of functional roles in supporting HIV treatment compared to other services in the study. Basic information about the inter-organization setup (infrastructure)-can contribute to knowledge for building organization networks in more equitable ways. More connected organizations can be leveraged for faster communication and resource flow to boost the delivery of health services

  9. Nutritional status, feeding practices and state of other related indicators at onset of a multi-model community nutrition intervention program in Mpigi District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Tushemerirwe, Florence Basiimwa; Kajjura, Richard; Nabunya, Victoria; Naitala, Ronald Andrew; Namanda, Cissie

    2016-12-01

    In Uganda, malnutrition level has persistently remained high among the under-fives and this has led NGOs like World Vision, Uganda into finding innovative ways for intervention. This paper presents an assessment of nutrition status and values of related indicators at onset of a community intervention program in four sub-counties of Mpigi district in Central Uganda. This was a cross-sectional study to provide baseline information for a nutrition intervention. The study units were index children aged 6-59 months from 818 households. Face to face interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaires. Values of key indicators were computed and compared between designated control and intervention areas. Stunting level was 32% while wasting was 3% and underweight at 10%. Most of the index children (78%) started breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Nearly a third of the households visited had a kitchen garden and this did not differ by intervention status. Like at regional level, nutrition status and feeding practices in the study area were poor. The values of these indicators did not significantly change by designated intervention status. Much effort was needed to realize a difference in nutrition and feeding practices in designated intervention areas.

  10. Psychological distress and associated factors among the attendees of traditional healing practices in Jinja and Iganga districts, Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello Elialilia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of traditional healing practices in two districts in Uganda. Methods Face-to-face interviews with the Lusoga version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 were carried out with 400 patients over the age of 18 years attending traditional healing in Iganga and Jinja districts in Eastern Uganda. Patients were recruited consecutively in all the traditional healers' shrines that could be visited in the area. Persons with 6 or more positive responses to the SRQ were identified as having psychological distress. Prevalence was estimated and odds ratios of having psychological distress were obtained with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 387 questionnaire responses were analyzed. The prevalence of psychological distress in connection with attendance at the traditional healers' shrines was 65.1%. Having a co-wife and having more than four children were significantly associated with psyclogical distress. Among the socioeconomic indicators, lack of food and having debts were significantly associated with psychological distress. The distressed group was more likely to need explanations for ill health. Those who visited both the healer and a health unit were less likely to be distressed. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a substantial proportion of attendees of traditional healing practices suffer from psychological distress. Associated factors include poverty, number of children, polygamy, reason for visiting the healer and use of both traditional healing and biomedical health units

  11. Cholera outbreak caused by drinking lake water contaminated with human faeces in Kaiso Village, Hoima District, Western Uganda, October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguttu, David W; Okullo, A; Bwire, G; Nsubuga, P; Ario, A R

    2017-10-10

    On 12 October 2015, a cholera outbreak involving 65 cases and two deaths was reported in a fishing village in Hoima District, Western Uganda. Despite initial response by the local health department, the outbreak persisted. We conducted an investigation to identify the source and mode of transmission, and recommend evidence-led interventions to control and prevent cholera outbreaks in this area. We defined a suspected case as the onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 October to 2 November 2015 in a resident of Kaiso Village. A confirmed case was a suspected case who had Vibrio cholerae isolated from stool. We found cases by record review and active community case finding. We performed descriptive epidemiologic analysis for hypothesis generation. In an unmatched case-control study, we compared exposure histories of 61 cases and 126 controls randomly selected among asymptomatic village residents. We also conducted an environmental assessment and obtained meteorological data from a weather station. We identified 122 suspected cases, of which six were culture-confirmed, 47 were confirmed positive with a rapid diagnostic test and two died. The two deceased cases had onset of the disease on 2 October and 10 October, respectively. Heavy rainfall occurred on 7-11 October; a point-source outbreak occurred on 12-15 October, followed by continuous community transmission for two weeks. Village residents usually collected drinking water from three lakeshore points - A, B and C: 9.8% (6/61) of case-persons and 31% (39/126) of control-persons were found to usually use point A, 21% (13/61) of case-persons and 37% (46/126) of control-persons were found to usually use point B (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.64-5.3), and 69% (42/61) of case-persons and 33% (41/126) of control-persons were found to usually use point C (OR = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.5-17) for water collection. All case-persons (61/61) and 93% (117/126) of control-persons reportedly never treated/boiled drinking water (OR

  12. A prolonged, community-wide cholera outbreak associated with drinking water contaminated by sewage in Kasese District, western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwesiga, Benon; Pande, Gerald; Ario, Alex Riolexus; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Matovu, Joseph K B; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2017-07-18

    In May 2015, a cholera outbreak that had lasted 3 months and infected over 100 people was reported in Kasese District, Uganda, where multiple cholera outbreaks had occurred previously. We conducted an investigation to identify the mode of transmission to guide control measures. We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 February 2015 onwards in a Kasese resident. A confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba cultured from a stool sample. We reviewed medical records to find cases. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures among confirmed case-persons and asymptomatic controls, matched by village and age-group. We conducted environmental assessments. We tested water samples from the most affected area for total coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. We identified 183 suspected cases including 61 confirmed cases of Vibrio cholerae 01; serotype Inaba, with onset between February and July 2015. 2 case-persons died of cholera. The outbreak occurred in 80 villages and affected all age groups; the highest attack rate occurred in the 5-14 year age group (4.1/10,000). The outbreak started in Bwera Sub-County bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo and spread eastward through sustained community transmission. The first case-persons were involved in cross-border trading. The case-control study, which involved 49 confirmed cases and 201 controls, showed that 94% (46/49) of case-persons compared with 79% (160/201) of control-persons drank water without boiling or treatment (OR M-H =4.8, 95% CI: 1.3-18). Water collected from the two main sources, i.e., public pipes (consumed by 39% of case-persons and 38% of control-persons) or streams (consumed by 29% of case-persons and 24% control-persons) had high coliform counts, a marker of faecal contamination. Environmental assessment revealed evidence of open defecation along the streams. No food items were significantly associated with

  13. A prolonged, community-wide cholera outbreak associated with drinking water contaminated by sewage in Kasese District, western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benon Kwesiga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In May 2015, a cholera outbreak that had lasted 3 months and infected over 100 people was reported in Kasese District, Uganda, where multiple cholera outbreaks had occurred previously. We conducted an investigation to identify the mode of transmission to guide control measures. Methods We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 February 2015 onwards in a Kasese resident. A confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba cultured from a stool sample. We reviewed medical records to find cases. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures among confirmed case-persons and asymptomatic controls, matched by village and age-group. We conducted environmental assessments. We tested water samples from the most affected area for total coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN method. Results We identified 183 suspected cases including 61 confirmed cases of Vibrio cholerae 01; serotype Inaba, with onset between February and July 2015. 2 case-persons died of cholera. The outbreak occurred in 80 villages and affected all age groups; the highest attack rate occurred in the 5–14 year age group (4.1/10,000. The outbreak started in Bwera Sub-County bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo and spread eastward through sustained community transmission. The first case-persons were involved in cross-border trading. The case-control study, which involved 49 confirmed cases and 201 controls, showed that 94% (46/49 of case-persons compared with 79% (160/201 of control-persons drank water without boiling or treatment (ORM-H=4.8, 95% CI: 1.3–18. Water collected from the two main sources, i.e., public pipes (consumed by 39% of case-persons and 38% of control-persons or streams (consumed by 29% of case-persons and 24% control-persons had high coliform counts, a marker of faecal contamination. Environmental assessment revealed evidence of open defecation along the streams. No

  14. Access to Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda: A Multi-District, Cross-Sectional Study Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, Ayobami D; Jeffery, Caroline; Crossland, Nadine; Valadez, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the proportion of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) attending school in 89 districts of Uganda from 2011 - 2013 and investigates the factors influencing OVC access to education among this population. This study used secondary survey data from OVCs aged 5 - 17 years, collected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in 87 Ugandan districts over a 3-year period (2011 - 2013). Estimates of OVC school attendance were determined for the yearly time periods. Logistic regression was used to investigate the factors influencing OVC access to education. 19,354 children aged 5-17 were included in the analysis. We estimated that 79.1% (95% CI: 78.5% - 79.7%) of OVCs attended school during the 3-year period. Logistic regression revealed the odds of attending school were lower among OVCs from Western (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79 - 0.99) and Northern (OR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.56 - 0.73) regions compared to the Central region. Female OVCs had a significantly higher odds of attending school (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.17) compared to their male counterparts. When adjusting for all variables simultaneously, we found the odds of school attendance reduced by 12% between 2011 and 2012 among all OVCs (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81 - 0.97). Our findings reinforce the need to provide continuing support to OVC in Uganda, ensuring they have the opportunity to attain an education. The data indicate important regional and gender variation that needs to be considered for support strategies and in social policy. The results suggest the need for greater local empowerment to address the needs of OVCs. We recommend further research to understand why OVC access to education and attendance varies between regions and improvement of district level mapping of OVC access to education, and further study to understand the particular factors impacting the lower school attendance of male OVCs.

  15. Assessment of Dithiocarbamate Residues on Tomatoes Conventionally Grown in Uganda and the Effect of Simple Washing to Reduce Exposure Risk to Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuhaire, Aggrey; Kaye, Emmanuel; Mutambuze, Innocent Louis

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide misuse by farmers poses health risks to consumers. This study assessed the level of dithiocarbamate residues in tomatoes acquired from 20 farmers and 25 market vendors in Wakiso District, how simple washing affects these residues, and the potential chronic health risk for Ugandans eatin...

  16. What influences availability of medicines for the community management of childhood illnesses in central Uganda? Implications for scaling up the integrated community case management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagonza, James; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Eckmanns, Tim; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth

    2015-11-25

    The integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) of childhood illnesses strategy has been adopted world over to reduce child related ill health and mortality. Community Health workers (CHWs) who implement this strategy need a regular supply of drugs to effectively treat children under 5 years with malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. In this paper, we report the prevalence and factors influencing availability of medicines for managing malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea in communities in central Uganda. A cross sectional study was conducted among 303 CHWs in Wakiso district in central Uganda. Eligible CHWs from two randomly selected Health Sub Districts (HSDs) were interviewed. Questionnaires, check lists, record reviews were used to collect information on CHW background characteristics, CHW's prescription behaviors, health system support factors and availability of iCCM drugs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess factors associated with availability of iCCM drugs. Out of 300 CHWs, 239 (79.9%) were females and mean age was 42.1 (standard deviation =11.1 years). The prevalence of iCCM drug availability was 8.3% and 33 respondents (11%) had no drugs at all. Factors associated with iCCM drug availability were; being supervised within the last month (adjusted OR = 3.70, 95% CI 1.22-11.24), appropriate drug prescriptions (adjusted OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.38-9.96), regular submission of drug reports (adjusted OR = 4.02, 95% CI 1.62-10.10) and having a respiratory timer as a diagnostic tool (adjusted OR =3.11, 95% CI 1.08-9.00). The low medicine stocks for the community management of childhood illnesses calls for strengthening of CHW supervision, medicine prescription and reporting, and increasing availability of functional diagnostic tools.

  17. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  18. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera's effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it.

  19. Contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods in a district of southeastern Uganda endemic for bovine parasitic diseases: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Walter O; Muhanguzi, Dennis; MacLeod, Ewan T; Welburn, Susan C; Waiswa, Charles; Shaw, Alexandra P

    2015-11-05

    A study was conducted in Tororo District in eastern Uganda to assess the socio-economic contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods. The aim of the study was to empirically quantify the economic value of draft cattle thus contributing to understanding the impact of endemic parasitic diseases of cattle on livestock productivity and subsequently household income, labor and food security. A total of 205 draft cattle keeping households (n = 205) were randomly selected and structured household questionnaires were administered, focusing on work oxen use, productivity, inputs and outputs. The data obtained was analyzed using standard statistical methods and used to calculate the gross margin from the draft cattle enterprise. Secondary data were obtained from focus group discussions and key informant interviews and these were analyzed using Bayesian methods. The study showed that, apart from being labor saving, the use of animal traction is highly profitable with the gross margin per year from the use of draft cattle amounting to 245 United States dollars per work oxen owning household. The cash obtained from hiring out draft animals was equivalent to nearly a quarter of the average local household's monetary receipts. It also revealed that endemic bovine parasitic diseases such as trypanosomiasis and tick-borne diseases reduced draft cattle output by 20.9 % and potential household income from the use of draft oxen by 32.2 %. The presence of endemic cattle diseases in rural Uganda is adversely affecting the productivity of draft cattle, which in turn affects household income, labor and ultimately food security. This study highlights the contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods, thus increasing the expected impact of cost-effective control strategies of endemic production limiting livestock diseases in Uganda.

  20. Efforts by Small-Scale Farmers to Maintain Soil Fertility and Their Impacts on Soil Properties, Luwero District, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Esser, K.B.; Zake, J.Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    Low soil fertility remains a major reason for rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. In light of the need to set priorities and formulate development policies, this study investigates efforts by farmers in central Uganda to maintain soil fertility, factors affecting their capacity to act and impacts

  1. "They don't care what happens to us." The situation of double orphans heading households in Rakai District, Uganda

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    Musisi Seggane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article is based on information collected about the situation of double orphans who are heading households in Rakai District, Uganda. The information will be used as justification and guidance for planning actions to improve the situation of these and similar children. This research is thus the first step in an Action Research approach leading to specific interventions. The aim of this article is to describe the situation of these orphaned children, with an emphasis on the psychosocial challenges they face. Methods The study involved interviews, focus group discussions, observations and narratives. Forty-three heads of sibling-headed households participated. Information derived from informal discussions with local leaders is also included. The responses were analyzed using a modified version of Giorgi's psychological phenomenological method as described by Malterud 1. Results Factors such as lack of material resources, including food and clothes, limited possibilities to attend school on a regular basis, vast responsibilities and reduced possibilities for social interaction all contribute to causing worries and challenges for the child heads of households. Most of the children claimed that they were stigmatized and, to a great extent, ignored and excluded from their community. The Local Council Secretary ("Chairman" seemed to be the person in the community most responsible and helpful, but some chairmen seemed not to care at all. The children requested counseling for themselves as well as for community members because they experienced lack of understanding from other children and from adult community members. Conclusion The children experienced their situation as a huge and complex problem for themselves as well as for people in their villages. However, the situation might improve if actions focused on practical and psychological issues as well as on sensitization about the children's situation could be initiated. In

  2. Detection of Antibodies and Confirmation of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Using Nested PCR in Bulk Milk Samples from Nakasongola and Sembabule Districts, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface Okuni, Julius; Oyo, Tony; Kisekka, Magid; Ochwo, Sylvester; Kalenzi Atuhaire, David; Afayoa, Mathias; Olaho-Mukani, William; Ojok, Lonzy

    2013-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an emerging pathogen in many livestock and wildlife populations around the world. Concerns range from the serious economic impacts on livestock productivity to its suspected role in the human inflammatory bowel disease syndrome. Milk and faeces of infected animals are the main vehicles through which the organism spreads from infected to susceptible hosts. In this study, a survey was done in Nakasongola and Sembabule districts of Uganda involving a total of seven dairy collection centres to determine the prevalence of antibodies to MAP in bulk milk samples. The milk was tested with a commercial ELISA kit for MAP testing in milk. Positive and suspicious milk samples were further tested using nested PCR. Of the 257 milk samples tested, 11 (4.3%) were positive and five (1.9%) were suspicious. All the ELISA positive and suspicious milk samples were positive using nested PCR. The results show that MAP infection occurs in cattle from the two districts and highlight the need for a paratuberculosis control program in these and other districts where MAP infection has been reported.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder seven years after the conflict in three districts in northern Uganda (The Wayo-Nero Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, James; Muyinda, Herbert; Wandiembe, Peter; Kinyanda, Eugene

    2015-07-24

    Research on the prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is still limited in low income countries yet PTSD can be a public health problem in post conflict areas. In order to respond to the burden of PSTD in northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife for over two decades, we need accurate data on its (PTSD) prevalence and the associated risk factors to facilitate public mental health planning. This study employed a cross-sectional study design and data collection was undertaken in three districts in northern Uganda: Gulu, Amuru and Nwoya. Respondents were aged 18 years and above and were randomly selected at community level. A total of 2400 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in the three study districts. In this study, multivariate logistic regression was employed to analyze the associations of socio-demographic factors, trauma related variables and the outcome of PTSD. The prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the study population was 11.8 % (95 % CI: 10.5 %, 13.1 %) with a prevalence of 10.9 % (95 % CI: 9.3 %, 12.5 %) among female respondents and 13.4 % (95 % CI: 11.2 %, 15.7 %) among male respondents. Quite a number of factors were strongly associated with PTSD. Overall, a respondent had experienced 9 negative life events. In a multivariate logistic regression, the factors that were strongly associated with PTSD were: exposure to war trauma events, childhood trauma, negative life events, negative copying style and food insecurity. The findings also indicate no association between sex, age and PTSD. The prevalence rate of PTSD in the study communities is unacceptably high. Quite a number of factors were associated with PTSD. Effective public mental health services are needed that combine treatment (medical) psychological and social welfare programs especially at community level to address the high burden of PTSD. Longitudinal studies are also recommended to continuously assess the trends in PTSD in

  4. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

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    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  5. Prevalence of Sexual Experience and Initiation of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents, Rakai District, Uganda, 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Larsen Holden, Inge Kristine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors and time trends for sexual experience and sexual debut in rural Uganda. METHODS: Using population-based, longitudinal data from 15- to 19-year olds in Rakai, Uganda, we examined temporal trends in the prevalence of sexual experience......: Sexual experience was more common among adolescent women than men. The prevalence of sexual experience rose for most age-gender groups after 1994 and then declined after 2002. Factors associated with higher prevalence of sexual experience (without adjustment for other factors) included age, not enrolled...... in school, orphanhood, lower socioeconomic status, and drinking alcohol in the past 30 days; similar factors were associated with initiation of sex. Factors independently associated with initiation of sex included older age, nonenrollment in school (IRR = 1.7 for women and 1.8 for men), alcohol use (IRR = 1...

  6. Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES): a complex district-level management intervention to improve child survival in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiswa, Peter; O'Connell, Thomas; Bagenda, Danstan; Mullachery, Pricila; Mpanga, Flavia; Henriksson, Dorcus Kiwanuka; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Ssegujja, Eric; Mbonye, Anthony K; Peterson, Stefan Swartling

    2016-03-11

    become active partners in service delivery, coverage of child survival interventions will increase. Lessons learned on strengthening district-level managerial capacities and mechanisms for community monitoring may have implications, not only in Uganda but also in other similar settings, especially with regard to accelerating effective coverage of key child survival interventions using locally available resources. ISRCTN15705788 , Date of registration; 24 July 2015.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walakira, Y. Vol 12, No 1 (2012) - Articles Religiosity for HIV prevention in Uganda: A case study among Christian youth in Wakiso district. Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 2 (2012) - Articles Evidence-based monitoring and evaluation of the faith-based approach to HIV prevention among Christian and Muslim youth in Wakiso ...

  8. Finding Meaning: HIV Self-Management and Wellbeing among People Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Russell

    Full Text Available The health of people living with HIV (PLWH and the sustained success of antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes depends on PLWH's motivation and ability to self-manage the condition over the long term, including adherence to drugs on a daily basis. PLWH's self-management of HIV and their wellbeing are likely to be interrelated. Successful self-management sustains wellbeing, and wellbeing is likely to motivate continued self-management. Detailed research is lacking on PLWH's self-management processes on ART in resource-limited settings. This paper presents findings from a study of PLWH's self-management and wellbeing in Wakiso District, Uganda. Thirty-eight PLWH (20 women, 18 men were purposefully selected at ART facilities run by the government and by The AIDS Support Organisation in and around Entebbe. Two in-depth interviews were completed with each participant over three or four visits. Many were struggling economically, however the recovery of health and hope on ART had enhanced wellbeing and motivated self-management. The majority were managing their condition well across three broad domains of self-management. First, they had mobilised resources, notably through good relationships with health workers. Advice and counselling had helped them to reconceptualise their condition and situation more positively and see hope for the future, motivating their work to self-manage. Many had also developed a new network of support through contacts they had developed at the ART clinic. Second, they had acquired knowledge and skills to manage their health, a useful framework to manage their condition and to live their life. Third, participants were psychologically adjusting to their condition and their new 'self': they saw HIV as a normal disease, were coping with stigma and had regained self-esteem, and were finding meaning in life. Our study demonstrates the centrality of social relationships and other non-medical aspects of wellbeing for self

  9. Finding Meaning: HIV Self-Management and Wellbeing among People Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Steve; Martin, Faith; Zalwango, Flavia; Namukwaya, Stella; Nalugya, Ruth; Muhumuza, Richard; Katongole, Joseph; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The health of people living with HIV (PLWH) and the sustained success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes depends on PLWH's motivation and ability to self-manage the condition over the long term, including adherence to drugs on a daily basis. PLWH's self-management of HIV and their wellbeing are likely to be interrelated. Successful self-management sustains wellbeing, and wellbeing is likely to motivate continued self-management. Detailed research is lacking on PLWH's self-management processes on ART in resource-limited settings. This paper presents findings from a study of PLWH's self-management and wellbeing in Wakiso District, Uganda. Thirty-eight PLWH (20 women, 18 men) were purposefully selected at ART facilities run by the government and by The AIDS Support Organisation in and around Entebbe. Two in-depth interviews were completed with each participant over three or four visits. Many were struggling economically, however the recovery of health and hope on ART had enhanced wellbeing and motivated self-management. The majority were managing their condition well across three broad domains of self-management. First, they had mobilised resources, notably through good relationships with health workers. Advice and counselling had helped them to reconceptualise their condition and situation more positively and see hope for the future, motivating their work to self-manage. Many had also developed a new network of support through contacts they had developed at the ART clinic. Second, they had acquired knowledge and skills to manage their health, a useful framework to manage their condition and to live their life. Third, participants were psychologically adjusting to their condition and their new 'self': they saw HIV as a normal disease, were coping with stigma and had regained self-esteem, and were finding meaning in life. Our study demonstrates the centrality of social relationships and other non-medical aspects of wellbeing for self-management which ART

  10. Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pedrazzoli, Debora; Mbonye, Anthony; Clarke, Sian; Cundill, Bonnie; Magnussen, Pascal; Yeung, Shunmay

    2013-03-01

    In Uganda, as in many parts of Africa, the majority of the population seek treatment for malaria in drug shops as their first point of care; however, parasitological diagnosis is not usually offered in these outlets. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria have attracted interest in recent years as a tool to improve malaria diagnosis, since they have proved accurate and easy to perform with minimal training. Although RDTs could feasibly be performed by drug shop vendors, it is not known how much customers would be willing to pay for an RDT if offered in these settings. We conducted a contingent valuation survey among drug shop customers in Mukono District, Uganda. Exit interviews were undertaken with customers aged 15 years and above after leaving a drug shop having purchased an antimalarial and/or paracetamol. The bidding game technique was used to elicit the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for an RDT and a course of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with and without RDT confirmation. Factors associated with WTP were investigated using linear regression. The geometric mean WTP for an RDT was US$0.53, US$1.82 for a course of ACT and US$2.05 for a course of ACT after a positive RDT. Factors strongly associated with a higher WTP for these commodities included having a higher socio-economic status, no fever/malaria in the household in the past 2 weeks and if a malaria diagnosis had been obtained from a qualified health worker prior to visiting the drug shop. The findings further suggest that the WTP for an RDT and a course of ACT among drug shop customers is considerably lower than prevailing and estimated end-user prices for these commodities. Increasing the uptake of ACTs in drug shops and restricting the sale of ACTs to parasitologically confirmed malaria will therefore require additional measures.

  11. Willingness by people living with HIV/AIDS to utilize HIV services provided by Village Health team workers in Kalungu district, central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubogo, Mutaawe; Anguzu, Ronald; Wanzira, Humphrey; Namugwanya, Irene; Namuddu, Oliver; Ssali, Denis; Nanyonga, Sylivia; Ssentongo, Josephine; Seeley, Janet

    2017-03-01

    Less than one quarter of people in need have access to HIV services in Uganda. This study assessed willingness of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) to utilize HIV services provided by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Kalungu district, central Uganda. A cross-sectional study conducted in two health facilities providing anti-retroviral therapy enrolled 312 PLWHAs. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires were administered to participants at household level. A forward fitting logistic regression model computed the predictors of willingness of PLWHAs to utilize services provided by VHTs. Overall, 49% were willing to utilize HIV services provided by VHTs increasing to 75.6% if the VHT member was HIV positive. PLWHAs who resided in urban areas were more likely to utilize HIV services provided by VHTs (AOR 0.24, 95%CI 0.06-0.87). Barriers to utilizing HIV services provided by VHTs were: income level > 40 USD (AOR 6.43 95%CI 1.19-34.68), being a business person (AOR 8.71 95%CI 1.23-61.72), peasant (AOR 7.95 95%CI 1.37-46.19), lack of encouragement from: peers (AOR 6.33 95%CI 1.43-28.09), spouses (AOR 4.93 95%CI 1.23-19.82) and community leader (AOR 9.67 95%CI 3.35-27.92). Social support could improve willingness by PLWHAs to utilize HIV services provided by VHTs for increased access to HIV services by PLWHA.

  12. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-cassette assay as a survey tool for Schistosoma mansoni in different transmission settings within Bugiri District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, M; Standley, C J; Tinkitina, B; Tukahebwa, E M; Fenwick, A; Fleming, F M; Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; Stothard, J R; Kabatereine, N B

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of schistosomiasis at the point-of-care (POC) is a growing topic in neglected tropical disease research. There is a need for diagnostic tests which are affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free and delivered to those who need it, and POC is an important tool for disease mapping and guiding mass deworming. The aim of present study was to evaluate the relative diagnostic performance of two urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) cassette assays, one commercially available and the other in experimental production, against results obtained using the standard Kato-Katz faecal smear method (six thick smears from three consecutive days), as a 'gold-standard', for Schistosoma mansoni infection in different transmission settings in Uganda. Our study was conducted among 500 school children randomly selected across 5 schools within Bugiri district, adjacent to Lake Victoria in Uganda. Considering results from the 469 pupils who provided three stool samples for the six Kato-Katz smears, 293 (76%) children had no infection, 109 (23%) were in the light intensity category, while 42 (9%) and 25 (5%) were in the moderate and heavy intensity categories respectively. Following performance analysis of CCA tests in terms of sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, overall performance of the commercially available CCA test was more informative than single Kato-Katz faecal smear microscopy, the current operational field standard for disease mapping. The current CCA assay is therefore a satisfactory method for surveillance of S. mansoni in an area where disease endemicity is declining due to control interventions. With the recent resolution on schistosomiasis elimination by the 65th World Health Assembly, the urine POC CCA test is an attractive tool to augment and perhaps replace the Kato-Katz sampling within ongoing control programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda

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    Mufubenga Patrobas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC attendance was high (94.4%; 417 (57.7% visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5% during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1% reporting ≥ 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71% and 272 (35.8% received one or ≥ 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8% received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3% of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8% delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3. Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken.

  14. Menstrual hygiene management amongst schoolgirls in the Rukungiri district of Uganda and the impact on their education: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosey, Robyn; Prestwich, Georgina; Deave, Toity

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have found that girls in low-income settings miss or struggle at school during menstruation if they are unable to manage their menstrual hygiene effectively. This study explores the menstrual hygiene practices and knowledge of girls at rural government primary schools in the Rukungiri district in Uganda and assesses the extent to which poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) affects their education. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by schoolgirls in six government-run primary schools in the Rukungiri district. Focus groups were held with girls from each school and semi-structured interviews were conducted with headteachers and female teachers from the participating schools. A toilet assessment was also conducted in each school. One hundred and forty schoolgirls completed the questionnaire. The girls reported a lack of access to adequate resources, facilities and accurate information to manage their menstrual hygiene effectively at school. They reported that, as a result, during menstruation they often struggle at school or miss school. Eighty-six girls (61.7%) reported missing school each month for menstrual-related reasons (mean 1.64, range 0-10, SD. 1.84). It is common for girls who attend government-run primary schools in the Rukungiri district to miss school or struggle in lessons during menstruation because they do not have access to the resources, facilities, or information they need to manage for effective MHM. This is likely to have detrimental effects on their education and future prospects. A large-scale study is needed to explore the extent of this issue.

  15. Serotype Specificity of Antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Selected Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F.N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.

    2010-01-01

    Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non-structural......Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non...... antibodies. High prevalences of antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins of FMDV serotype O were demonstrated in herds with typical visible clinical signs of FMD, while prevalences were low in herds without clinical signs of FMD. Antibody titres were higher against serotype O than...... against serotypes SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in the sera investigated for serotype-specific antibodies. Only FMDV serotype O virus was isolated from one probang sample. This study shows that the majority of the FMD outbreaks in 2006 in the region studied were caused by FMDV serotype O; however, there was also...

  16. Determinants of clinician knowledge on aging and HIV/AIDS: a survey of practitioners and policy makers in Kampala District, Uganda.

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    Ekwaro A Obuku

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS epidemic has evolved with an increasing burden in older adults. We assessed for knowledge about aging and HIV/AIDS, among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda.A cross-sectional survey of 301 clinicians complemented by 9 key-informant interviews between May and October 2011. Data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression for potential determinants of clinician knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults, estimating their adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI using Stata 11.2 software.Two-hundred and sixty-two questionnaires (87.7% were returned. Respondents had a median age of 30 years (IQR 27-34 and 57.8% were general medical doctors. The mean knowledge score was 49% (range 8.8%-79.4%. Questions related to co-morbidities in HIV/AIDS (non-AIDS related cancers and systemic diseases and chronic antiretroviral treatment toxicities (metabolic disorders accounted for significantly lower scores (mean, 41.7%, 95% CI: 39.3%-44% compared to HIV/AIDS epidemiology and prevention (mean, 65.7%, 95% CI: 63.7%-67.7%. Determinants of clinician knowledge in the multivariable analysis included (category, aOR, 95% CI: clinician age (30-39 years; 3.28∶1.65-9.75, number of persons with HIV/AIDS seen in the past year (less than 50; 0.34∶0.14-0.86 and clinical profession (clinical nurse practitioner; 0.31∶0.11-0.83. Having diploma level education had a marginal association with lower knowledge about HIV and aging (p = 0.09.Our study identified gaps and determinants of knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. Clinicians in low and middle income countries could benefit from targeted training in chronic care for older adults with HIV/AIDS and long-term complications of antiretroviral treatment.

  17. Determinants of clinician knowledge on aging and HIV/AIDS: a survey of practitioners and policy makers in Kampala District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuku, Ekwaro A; Parikh, Sujal M; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Kakande, Nelson I; Mafigiri, David K; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Kityo, Cissy M; Mugyenyi, Peter N; Salata, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has evolved with an increasing burden in older adults. We assessed for knowledge about aging and HIV/AIDS, among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of 301 clinicians complemented by 9 key-informant interviews between May and October 2011. Data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression for potential determinants of clinician knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults, estimating their adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Stata 11.2 software. Two-hundred and sixty-two questionnaires (87.7%) were returned. Respondents had a median age of 30 years (IQR 27-34) and 57.8% were general medical doctors. The mean knowledge score was 49% (range 8.8%-79.4%). Questions related to co-morbidities in HIV/AIDS (non-AIDS related cancers and systemic diseases) and chronic antiretroviral treatment toxicities (metabolic disorders) accounted for significantly lower scores (mean, 41.7%, 95% CI: 39.3%-44%) compared to HIV/AIDS epidemiology and prevention (mean, 65.7%, 95% CI: 63.7%-67.7%). Determinants of clinician knowledge in the multivariable analysis included (category, aOR, 95% CI): clinician age (30-39 years; 3.28∶1.65-9.75), number of persons with HIV/AIDS seen in the past year (less than 50; 0.34∶0.14-0.86) and clinical profession (clinical nurse practitioner; 0.31∶0.11-0.83). Having diploma level education had a marginal association with lower knowledge about HIV and aging (p = 0.09). Our study identified gaps and determinants of knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. Clinicians in low and middle income countries could benefit from targeted training in chronic care for older adults with HIV/AIDS and long-term complications of antiretroviral treatment.

  18. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

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    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  19. Shifts in geographic distribution and antimicrobial resistance during a prolonged typhoid fever outbreak--Bundibugyo and Kasese Districts, Uganda, 2009-2011.

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    Maroya Spalding Walters

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is transmitted by fecally contaminated food and water and causes approximately 22 million typhoid fever infections worldwide each year. Most cases occur in developing countries, where approximately 4% of patients develop intestinal perforation (IP. In Kasese District, Uganda, a typhoid fever outbreak notable for a high IP rate began in 2008. We report that this outbreak continued through 2011, when it spread to the neighboring district of Bundibugyo.A suspected typhoid fever case was defined as IP or symptoms of fever, abdominal pain, and ≥1 of the following: gastrointestinal disruptions, body weakness, joint pain, headache, clinically suspected IP, or non-responsiveness to antimalarial medications. Cases were identified retrospectively via medical record reviews and prospectively through laboratory-enhanced case finding. Among Kasese residents, 709 cases were identified from August 1, 2009-December 31, 2011; of these, 149 were identified during the prospective period beginning November 1, 2011. Among Bundibugyo residents, 333 cases were identified from January 1-December 31, 2011, including 128 cases identified during the prospective period beginning October 28, 2011. IP was reported for 507 (82% and 59 (20% of Kasese and Bundibugyo cases, respectively. Blood and stool cultures performed for 154 patients during the prospective period yielded isolates from 24 (16% patients. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern combinations, including one observed in a Kasese isolate in 2009, were shared among Kasese and Bundibugyo isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed for 18 isolates; among these 15 (83% were multidrug-resistant (MDR, compared to 5% of 2009 isolates.Molecular and epidemiological evidence suggest that during a prolonged outbreak, typhoid spread from Kasese to Bundibugyo. MDR strains became prevalent. Lasting interventions, such as typhoid vaccination and improvements in drinking water

  20. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: the effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Okello-Onen, J; Nasinyama, G W; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E K; Mwayi, W; Musunga, D; Wandukwa, W

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  1. Knowledge and Attitudes of Parkinson’s Disease in Rural and Urban Mukono District, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional, Community-Based Study

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    Mark Kaddumukasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD negatively affects the quality of life. There is limited information on PD published from Africa. Lack of adequate knowledge poses a barrier in the provision of appropriate treatment and care for individuals with PD. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in urban and rural Mukono district, central Uganda. Through the systematic sampling method, data were gathered from 377 adult participants, interviewed on selected aspects of PD knowledge and attitudes. Results. Of the 377 participants, 47% were from urban settings and 68% (260/377 were women with a median age (IQR of 34 (26–48 years. Half of the study respondents did not know the body part involved in or apparent cause of PD. Nearly 1/3 of individuals believed that PD is a form of insanity and 17% believed that PD is contagious. Rural dwellers were more likely to have incorrect knowledge regarding selected aspects of PD. Conclusions. Understanding the cause of PD is very limited in our setting. Some beliefs about PD aetiology may potentially worsen stigma and social isolation. This study highlights the need for increasing PD awareness in our settings. Public health approaches that improve knowledge are urgently needed to promote care access and community response to Parkinson’s disease.

  2. Knowledge and Misconceptions about Malaria among Pregnant Women in a Post-Conflict Internally Displaced Persons' Camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda

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    James Obol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Uganda Malaria continues to be a major public health problem accounting for about 30–50% of all outpatient consultations and 35% of hospital admissions and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Pregnant women and their unborn children are vulnerable to malaria. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 20 postconflict IDP camps of Gulu district selected randomly as clusters. 769 pregnant women were interviewed. Results. The majority of the respondents 85% have ever heard about malaria. Most (80% 571 respondent attributed malaria to be transmitted by mosquito bites, 15 said cold weather, 53 said dirt, and 35 said not sleeping under net. Most (91% 683 respondents mentioned that malaria was caused by mosquito, 28 mentioned cold food, 3 mentioned playing in the rain, 19 mentioned cold weather, and 6 mentioned eating mangos. Conclusion. Most pregnant women in the post conflict IDP camps have relatively high knowledge about malaria transmission, signs, symptoms, and consequences during pregnancy. However, majority of respondents had misconception about the cause of malaria while a few had misconception about the mode of malaria transmission.

  3. Gaps and gains from engaging districts stakeholders for community-based health professions education in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Elialilia S; Nankumbi, Joyce; Ruzaaza, Gad Ndaruhutse; Bakengesa, Evelyn; Gumikiriza, Joy; Arubaku, Wilfred; Acio, Christine; Samantha, Mary; Matte, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Community-based education research and service (COBERS) is a brand of community-based education that has been adopted by the Medical Education and Service for All Ugandans consortium. The COBERS programme is aimed at equipping students in health professional education with the knowledge, attitudes and skills required to provide appropriate health care services. For sustainability purposes, the health professional training institutions have made efforts to involve various stakeholders in the implementation of the programme. However, the actual engagement process and outcome of such efforts have not been documented. This paper documents gaps and gains made in engaging district stakeholders for community-based education. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions and document review were used to collect data. Atlas.ti, computer software for qualitative data was used to aid analysis. The analysis revealed that the adopted engagement model has registered some gains including increased awareness among district leaders about potential opportunities offered by COBERS such as boosting of human resources at health facilities, opportunities for professional development for health care workers at health facilities, and establishment of linkages between prospective employees and employers. However, the engagement model left some gaps in terms of knowledge, awareness and ownership of the programme among some sections of stakeholders. The apparent information gap about the programme among district stakeholders, especially the political leadership, may hinder concerted partnership. The findings highlight the need for health professional education institutions to broaden the scope of actively engaged stakeholders with the district level.

  4. Wildlife-related Zoonotic Diseases among Pastoralists in Uganda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Journal articles. Determinants of patients' choice of provider in accessing brucellosis care among pastoral communities adjacent to Lake Mburo National Park in Kiruhura district, Uganda. Download PDF ...

  5. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263) were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160) were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL) for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits. Further work

  6. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

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    Faith Martin

    Full Text Available Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART to people living with HIV (PLWH has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263 were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160 were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits

  7. Women's Acceptability of Misoprostol Treatment for Incomplete Abortion by Midwives and Physicians - Secondary Outcome Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Equivalence Trial at District Level in Uganda.

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    Amanda Cleeve

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess women´s acceptability of diagnosis and treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives, compared with physicians.This was an analysis of secondary outcomes from a multi-centre randomized controlled equivalence trial at district level in Uganda. Women with first trimester incomplete abortion were randomly allocated to clinical assessment and treatment with misoprostol by a physician or a midwife. The randomisation (1:1 was done in blocks of 12 and stratified for health care facility. Acceptability was measured in expectations and satisfaction at a follow up visit 14-28 days following treatment. Analysis of women's overall acceptability was done using a generalized linear mixed-effects model with an equivalence range of -4% to 4%. The study was not masked. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.org, NCT 01844024.From April 2013 to June 2014, 1108 women were assessed for eligibility of which 1010 were randomized (506 to midwife and 504 to physician. 953 women were successfully followed up and included in the acceptability analysis. 95% (904 of the participants found the treatment satisfactory and overall acceptability was found to be equivalent between the two study groups. Treatment failure, not feeling calm and safe following treatment, experiencing severe abdominal pain or heavy bleeding following treatment, were significantly associated with non-satisfaction. No serious adverse events were recorded.Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives and physician was highly, and equally, acceptable to women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01844024.

  8. "It is about how the net looks": a qualitative study of perceptions and practices related to mosquito net care and repair in two districts in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Leah; Acosta, Angela; Koenker, Hannah; Kibuuka, Daniel Musoke; Harvey, Steven

    2014-12-17

    Prolonging net durability has important implications for reducing both malaria transmission and the frequency of net replacement. Protective behaviour, such as net care and repair, offers promise for improving net integrity and durability. Given the potential cost-savings and public health benefit associated with extending the useful life of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), prevention and mitigation of damage will become ever more critical to ensuring adequate net coverage at the population level. A qualitative assessment was conducted in two districts in central eastern Uganda in September 2013. Data on household net care and repair behaviour, attitudes and practices were collected from 30 respondents through in-depth interviews (IDIs), observations, photos, and video to gather an in-depth understanding of these behaviours. Net damage was common and the most cited causes were children and rodents. Responses revealed strong social norms about net cleanliness and aesthetics, and strong expectations that others should care for and repair their own nets. Respondents were receptive and able to repair nets, though longer-term repair methods, such as sewing and patching, were not as commonly reported or observed. Self-reported behaviour was not always consistent with observed or demonstrated behaviour, revealing potential misconceptions and the need for clear and consistent net care and repair messaging. Respondents considered both aesthetics and malaria protection important when deciding whether, when, and how to care for and repair nets. BCC should continue to emphasize the importance of maintaining net integrity for malaria prevention purposes as well as for maintaining aesthetic appeal. Additional research is needed, particularly surrounding washing, drying, daily storage routines, and gender roles in care and repair, in order to understand the complexity of these behaviours, and refine existing or develop new behaviour change communication (BCC) messages for

  9. Human brucellosis: sero-prevalence and associated risk factors in agro-pastoral communities of Kiboga District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwine, Gabriel; Matovu, Enock; Kabasa, John David; Owiny, David Okello; Majalija, Samuel

    2015-09-15

    Brucellosis remains a neglected zoonotic disease among agro-pastoral communities where unprocessed milk and milk products are consumed. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kiboga district to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with human brucellosis in communities where livestock rearing in a common practice. A total of 235 participants were involved in the study. Blood samples from the participants were collected and screened for Brucella using Serum Agglutination Test and Rose Bengal Plate Test. A questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and human brucellosis related risk factors. Human Brucella seroprevalence was at 17.0 % (n = 235). The prevalence was highest among males (20.5 %, n = 78) and the elderly - above 60 years (22.2 %, n = 18). Residence in rural areas (OR 3.16, 95 % CI: 1.16-8.56), consuming locally processed milk products (OR 2.54, 95 % CI: 1.12-5.78) and being single (OR 2.44, 95 % CI: 1.05-5.68), were associated with increased risk of brucellosis. Human brucellosis seroprevalence was high at 17 %, this was parallel with animal brucellosis prevalence that has been reported to range from 10.2 % to 25.7 % in cattle in the region. The participants were from communities known to habitually consume raw milk and milk products, know to process milk products using bare hands which are major risk factors for brucellosis in humans. This also explains why consumption of unpasteurized milk products was associated with the occurrence of brucellosis in study area. This strengthened the argument that humans get infected through consumption of contaminated animal products as reported in other earlier studies. Males and elderly being more affected because of traditional roles of these groups they play in livestock care and management. The single were also to be more associated to brucellosis, due to the fact that this group consume milk and milk products more as it is readily available in the informal

  10. "The Cango Lyec Project - Healing the Elephant": HIV related vulnerabilities of post-conflict affected populations aged 13-49 years living in three Mid-Northern Uganda districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamba, Samuel S; Muyinda, Herbert; Spittal, Patricia M; Ekwaru, John P; Kiwanuka, Noah; Ogwang, Martin D; Odong, Patrick; Kitandwe, Paul K; Katamba, Achilles; Jongbloed, Kate; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kinyanda, Eugene; Blair, Alden; Schechter, Martin T

    2016-11-21

    The protracted war between the Government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army in Northern Uganda (1996-2006) resulted in widespread atrocities, destruction of health infrastructure and services, weakening the social and economic fabric of the affected populations, internal displacement and death. Despite grave concerns that increased spread of HIV/AIDS may be devastating to post conflict Northern Uganda, empirical epidemiological data describing the legacy of the war on HIV infection are scarce. The 'Cango Lyec' Project is an open cohort study involving conflict-affected populations living in three districts of Gulu, Nwoya and Amuru in mid-northern Uganda. Between November 2011 and July 2012, 8 study communities randomly selected out of 32, were mapped and house-to-house census conducted to enumerate the entire community population. Consenting participants aged 13-49 years were enrolled and interviewer-administered data were collected on trauma, depression and socio-demographic-behavioural characteristics, in the local Luo language. Venous blood was taken for HIV and syphilis serology. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with HIV prevalence at baseline. A total of 2954 participants were eligible, of whom 2449 were enrolled. Among 2388 participants with known HIV status, HIV prevalence was 12.2% (95%CI: 10.8-13.8), higher in females (14.6%) than males (8.5%, p HIV infection was significantly associated with war trauma experiences (Adj. OR = 2.50; 95%CI: 1.31-4.79), the psychiatric problems of PTSD (Adj. OR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.06-1.96), Major Depressive Disorder (Adj. OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.28-2.80) and suicidal ideation (Adj. OR = 1.87; 95%CI: 1.34-2.61). Other HIV related vulnerabilities included older age, being married, separated, divorced or widowed, residing in an urban district, ulcerative sexually transmitted infections, and staying in a female headed household. There was no evidence in this study to

  11. Communication between HIV-infected children and their caregivers about HIV medicines: a cross-sectional study in Jinja district, Uganda

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    Phoebe Kajubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of antiretroviral therapy (ART among children with HIV depends on open communication with them about their health and medicines. Guidelines assign responsibility for communication to children's home caregivers. Other research suggests that communication is poor and knowledge about ART is low among children on treatment in low-income countries. This study sought to describe communication about medicine for HIV in quantitative terms from the perspectives of both children and caregivers. Thereafter, it established the factors associated with this communication and with children's knowledge about their HIV medicines. Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 394 children with HIV on treatment and their caregivers at nine health facilities in Jinja District, Uganda. We assessed reported frequency and content of communication regarding their medicines as well as knowledge of what the medicines were for. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with communication patterns and children's knowledge of HIV medicines. Results: Although 79.6% of the caregivers reported that they explained to the children about the medicines, only half (50.8% of the children said they knew that they were taking medicines for HIV. Older children aged 15–17 years were less likely to communicate with a caregiver about the HIV medicines in the preceding month (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.7, p=0.002. Children aged 11–14 years (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.8–13.7, p<0.001 and 15–17 years (OR 12.6, 95% CI 4.6–34.3, p<0.001 were more likely to know they were taking medicines for HIV compared to the younger ones. The least common reported topic of discussion between children and caregivers was “what the medicines are for” while “the time to take medicines” was by far the most mentioned by children. Conclusions: Communication about, and knowledge of, HIV medicines among children with HIV is low. Young

  12. HIV prevalence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services among youths (15-24 Years) in fishing and neighboring communities of Kasensero, Rakai District, South Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafigiri, Richardson; Matovu, Joseph K B; Makumbi, Fredrick Edward; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Nabukalu, Doreen; Sakor, Moses; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-03-14

    Although fishing communities have a significantly higher HIV prevalence than the general population, there is paucity of data on the burden of HIV and service utilization, particularly among the youth. We assessed the HIV prevalence and utilization of HIV prevention and treatment services among youth in Kasensero fishing community and the neighboring communities. Data were derived from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) surveys conducted between 2013 and 2014. The RCCS is a population-based household survey that collects data annually from individuals aged 15-49 years, resident in 48 communities in Rakai and neighboring districts in Uganda. For this analysis, socio-demographic, behavioral and HIV-related data were obtained for 792 individuals aged 15-24 years. We used logistic regression to conduct bivariate and multivariable analysis to determine the factors that are independently associated with HIV-positive status and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13. Overall HIV prevalence was 19.7% (n = 155); higher in Kasensero (n = 141; 25.1%) and Gwanda (n = 8; 11%) than in Kyebe (n = 6; 3.9%), p youth (n = 435; 92%). Consistent condom use was virtually non-existent in HIV-positive youth (n = 1; 0.6%) compared to HIV-negative youth (n = 20; 4.2%). Only 22.4% (n = 34) of the HIV-positive youth were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2013-2014; higher in the HIV-positive females (n = 31; 28.4%) than HIV-positive males (n = 03; 6.7%). Slightly more than half of males (n = 134; 53.8%) reported that they were circumcised; the proportion of circumcised youth was higher among HIV-negative males (n = 122; 58%) than HIV-positive males (n = 12; 27.9%). Factors significantly associated with HIV-positive status included living in Kasensero landing site (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 5.0; 95%CI: 2.22-13.01) and reporting one (aOR = 5.0; 95%CI: 1.33-15.80) or 2

  13. HIV prevalence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services among youths (15–24 Years in fishing and neighboring communities of Kasensero, Rakai District, South Western Uganda

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    Richardson Mafigiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although fishing communities have a significantly higher HIV prevalence than the general population, there is paucity of data on the burden of HIV and service utilization, particularly among the youth. We assessed the HIV prevalence and utilization of HIV prevention and treatment services among youth in Kasensero fishing community and the neighboring communities. Method Data were derived from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS surveys conducted between 2013 and 2014. The RCCS is a population-based household survey that collects data annually from individuals aged 15–49 years, resident in 48 communities in Rakai and neighboring districts in Uganda. For this analysis, socio-demographic, behavioral and HIV-related data were obtained for 792 individuals aged 15–24 years. We used logistic regression to conduct bivariate and multivariable analysis to determine the factors that are independently associated with HIV-positive status and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 19.7% (n = 155; higher in Kasensero (n = 141; 25.1% and Gwanda (n = 8; 11% than in Kyebe (n = 6; 3.9%, p < 0.001 and among females (n = 112; 26.0% than males (n = 43; 12.0%, p < 0.001. Uptake of HIV testing was high in both HIV-positive (n = 136; 89.5% and HIV-negative youth (n = 435; 92%. Consistent condom use was virtually non-existent in HIV-positive youth (n = 1; 0.6% compared to HIV-negative youth (n = 20; 4.2%. Only 22.4% (n = 34 of the HIV-positive youth were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in 2013–2014; higher in the HIV-positive females (n = 31; 28.4% than HIV-positive males (n = 03; 6.7%. Slightly more than half of males (n = 134; 53.8% reported that they were circumcised; the proportion of circumcised youth was higher among HIV-negative males (n = 122; 58% than HIV-positive males (n

  14. “The Cango Lyec Project - Healing the Elephant”: HIV related vulnerabilities of post-conflict affected populations aged 13–49 years living in three Mid-Northern Uganda districts

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    Samuel S. Malamba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protracted war between the Government of Uganda and the Lord’s Resistance Army in Northern Uganda (1996–2006 resulted in widespread atrocities, destruction of health infrastructure and services, weakening the social and economic fabric of the affected populations, internal displacement and death. Despite grave concerns that increased spread of HIV/AIDS may be devastating to post conflict Northern Uganda, empirical epidemiological data describing the legacy of the war on HIV infection are scarce. Methods The ‘Cango Lyec’ Project is an open cohort study involving conflict-affected populations living in three districts of Gulu, Nwoya and Amuru in mid-northern Uganda. Between November 2011 and July 2012, 8 study communities randomly selected out of 32, were mapped and house-to-house census conducted to enumerate the entire community population. Consenting participants aged 13–49 years were enrolled and interviewer-administered data were collected on trauma, depression and socio-demographic-behavioural characteristics, in the local Luo language. Venous blood was taken for HIV and syphilis serology. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with HIV prevalence at baseline. Results A total of 2954 participants were eligible, of whom 2449 were enrolled. Among 2388 participants with known HIV status, HIV prevalence was 12.2% (95%CI: 10.8-13.8, higher in females (14.6% than males (8.5%, p < 0.001, higher in Gulu (15.2% than Nwoya (11.6%, p < 0.001 and Amuru (7.5%, p = 0.006 districts. In this post-conflict period, HIV infection was significantly associated with war trauma experiences (Adj. OR = 2.50; 95%CI: 1.31–4.79, the psychiatric problems of PTSD (Adj. OR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.06–1.96, Major Depressive Disorder (Adj. OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.28–2.80 and suicidal ideation (Adj. OR = 1.87; 95%CI: 1.34–2.61. Other HIV related vulnerabilities included older age

  15. AIDS and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Published statistics collected in Uganda regarding the HIV and AIDS epidemic often conflict. While 460,000 Ugandans have died of AIDS according to the STD/AIDS Control Programme, the program's estimated number of HIV-positive Ugandans (1.5 million) is less than that of others (2 million). Dr. Hatib Njie, the WHO representative to Uganda, believes the epidemic is in decline because of the decrease (27-12%) 3 years ago in seroprevalence in all patients treated at Ugandan clinics. Yet UK Medical Research Council studies indicate that life expectancy in some areas is decreasing rapidly; it dropped from age 58 to 43 within the last few years in a southwestern Ugandan community. Although Uganda's Rakai district is one of the most AIDS-afflicted areas in the world, figures published recently in "Nature Medicine" indicate that the population is growing, rather than undergoing predicted 'negative growth rates.' This may indicate that the AIDS epidemic will stabilize more quickly than anticipated. However, within Rakai, HIV prevalence rates vary from 1% to 40%, depending on the parish. In these parishes, mortality rates are high, the number of deaths among children is larger than expected, and 'negative population growth' is apparent.

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religiosity for HIV prevention in Uganda: a case study among Muslim youth in Wakiso district. Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Level of understanding of co-trimoxazole use among HIV infected, recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis suspects at a national referral tuberculosis clinic in Kampala, Uganda: a qualitative ...

  17. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption

  18. Implications of Black Coffee Twig Borer on cocoa in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BCTB), Xylosandruscompactus (Eichhoff), a new pest on cocoa in Uganda. To determine its spread and impact, wesurveyed 20 households in Bundibugyo, Kibaale and Hoima districts in January 2014. On eachfield, 10 cocoa trees were examined ...

  19. Eastern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnut (Amc/nfs hypagea L) is the second most widely grown food legume in Uganda. Currently average yield of groundnuts at farm level is about 800 kg ha", but up to 3,000 kg ha“1 can be achieved. The most important constraints to its production are pests and diseases. Integrated pest management (IPM) ...

  20. Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono district, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pedrazzoli, Debora; Mbonye, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many parts of Africa, the majority of the population seek treatment for malaria in drug shops as their first point of care; however, parasitological diagnosis is not usually offered in these outlets. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria have attracted interest in recent years...... and a course of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with and without RDT confirmation. Factors associated with WTP were investigated using linear regression. The geometric mean WTP for an RDT was US$0.53, US$1.82 for a course of ACT and US$2.05 for a course of ACT after a positive RDT. Factors strongly...

  1. UPGro Hidden Crisis Research Consortium. Survey 1 Country Report, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Owor, M.; MacDonald, A.M.; Bonsor, H.C.; Okullo, J.; Katusiime, F.; Alupo, G.; Berochan, G.; Tumusiime, C.; Lapworth, D.; Whaley, L.; Lark, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Statistics on the functionality of water points from the Hidden Crisis project in Uganda are presented. The survey, undertaken in 2016, was focussed on boreholes equipped with handpumps (HPBs) within the 112 districts of Uganda. A stratified two stage random sampling approach was adopted and 10 districts identified to sample. A tiered definition of functionality was applied, and all which enabled more nuanced definitions to be reported: The results from the survey indicate: • 55% of HPB...

  2. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obol, James Henry; Arony, Denis Anywar; Wanyama, Ronald; Moi, Kenneth Luryama; Bodo, Bongomin; Odong, Patrick Olwedo; Odida, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nodding syndrome was first reported in Uganda in 2003 among internally displaced populations. Risk factors for the syndrome remain unknown. We therefore explored vitamin B6 deficiency and resulting high 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) levels as risk factor for nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda. Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. Cases were children/young adults with nodding syndrome. Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. Data on socio-demographic and other risk factors was collected using questionnaires. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes for assay of 3-HK and vitamin B6 using sandwich ELISA. Conditional logistic regression model was used to assess associations. 66 cases and 73 controls were studied. Factors associated with nodding syndrome were being positive for 3-HK (AOR=4.50, p=0.013), vitamin B6 concentration below mean (AOR=7.22, P=0.001), child being taken care of by mother only (AOR=5.43, p=0.011), child being taken care of by guardian (AOR=5.90, p=0.019) and child consuming relief food at weaning (AOR=4.05, p=0.021). Having low vitamin B6 concentration which leads to a build up of 3-hydroxykynurenine concentration in cases as a main risk factor. Therefore, cases should be treated with vitamin B6 and community members should be sensitise to ensure adequate dietary intake of vitamin B6 so that the risk of nodding syndrome among children is averted. We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised 3-HK concentration.

  3. Research Note The Livelihood Strategies of South Sudanese in a Refugee Settlement in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    MOCHIZUKI, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the livelihood strategies of South Sudanese refugees who fled to northern Uganda. Civil war broke out in December 2013 in South Sudan and there were 1.6 million internally displaced persons and 265, 700 refugees as of October 2015. Nearly 184, 000 refugees have fled to Uganda and many of them have been protected in refugee settlements in the Adjumani District of northwestern Uganda, a district that borders South Sudan. This research was conducted in December 2014, August 2...

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder in HIV/AIDS as seen in semi-urban Entebbe district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyanda Eugene

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not much is known about the risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD in HIV/AIDS in the African socio-cultural context. Therefore a study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors of MDD in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 618 respondents attending two HIV clinics in Uganda. Results Prevalence of MDD was 8.1%. Factors associated with MDD at univariate analysis only were female gender, family history of mental illness, negative coping style, alcohol dependency disorder, food insecurity and stress; not associated with MDD were social support, neurocognitive impairment, CD4 counts and BMI. Factors independently associated with MDD were psychosocial impairment, adverse life events, post traumatic stress disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and life-time attempted suicide. Conclusion Psychological and social factors were the main risk factors of MDD among ambulatory HIV positive persons with no evidence for the role of the neurotoxic effects of HIV. Treatment approaches for MDD in this patient group should be modeled on those used among non-HIV groups.

  5. Experiences of HIV-related stigma among HIV-positive older persons in Uganda – a mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteesa, Monica O.; Wright, Stuart; Seeley, Janet; Mugisha, Joseph; Kinyanda, Eugene; Kakembo, Frederick; Mwesigwa, Richard; Scholten, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is limited data on stigma among older HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the experiences of stigma and disclosure in a cohort of HIV-positive older people in Uganda. Using data from the Wellbeing of Older Peoples' Study of Kalungu (rural site) and Wakiso district (peri-urban site) residents, we measured self-reported stigma levels for 183 respondents (94 on antiretroviral therapy (ART); 88, not on ART) using a stigma score generated using three questions on stigma perceptions where 0 meant no stigma at all and 100 was maximum stigma. Based on two questions on disclosure, an overall score was computed. High disclosure was assigned to those who often or very often disclosed to the family and were never or seldom afraid to disclose elsewhere. We examined the experiences of HIV stigma of 25 adults (52% females) using semi-structured, open-ended interviews and monthly oral diaries over one year. Mean age of the respondents was 70 years (range 60–80 years) and 80% of all respondents were enrolled in ART. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Overall, 55% of respondents had a high disclosure score, meaning they disclosed easily, and 47% had a high stigma score. The stigma scores were similar among those with high and low disclosure scores. In multivariate analyses with disclosure and stigma scores as dependent variables none of the respondents' characteristics had a significant effect at the 5% level. Qualitative data revealed that stigma ranges from: (1) perceptions (relatively passive, but leading to behaviour such as gossip, especially if not intended maliciously); to (2) discriminatory behaviour (active or enacted stigma; from malicious gossip to outright discrimination). Despite the relatively high levels of disclosure, older people suffer from high levels of stigma of various forms apart from HIV-related stigma. Efforts to assess for different forms of stigma at an individual level deserve greater

  6. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  7. An indigobird Vidua sp. puzzle in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are Red-billed Firefinch L. senegala, host for the Village. Indigobird V. chalybeata; African Firefinch, L. rubricata, host for the Dusky Indigobird V. funerea; and ... (Queen Elizabeth National Park) in Kanungu District, Uganda. He noted that Afri- can Firefinches were present, and observed an indigobird associated with ...

  8. Vaccine preparedness: lessons from Lyantonde, Uganda | Ritvo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore how to better educate rural Africans about preventive HIV/AIDS vaccine trials, 15 semi-structured, openended interviews were conducted with villagers in Lyantonde, Rakai District, Uganda. This study reports on the findings by focusing on the attitudes, knowledge and questions the rural villagers had about ...

  9. District health planning at a time of transition: a critical review and lessons learnt from the implementation of regional planning in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtale, Filippo; Musila, Timothy; Opigo, Jimmy; Nantamu, Dyogo; Ezati, Isaac Alidria

    2016-05-01

    A quarter of a century after the Harare Declaration on Strengthening District Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care (1987) was conceived, district health teams (DHTs) are facing a markedly changed situation. Rapid population growth, urbanization, a rapidly developing private sector, and the increasing role of vertical programs and global initiatives have marginalized the planning process and weakened the entire district health system (DHS). The Ugandan Ministry of Health (MoH) responded to these challenges by beginning a review of district planning: a key action point of the Harare Declaration. The first step was a critical review of relevant literature, then central and district health staff were engaged with to provide their input in developing the new strategy. Through a field experiment started in 2012-13, and still underway, the MoH is developing an innovative regional approach to health planning, which aims to encompass the complexity of the new context of health care provision and coordinate all new actors (private health providers, projects and local government staff from other sectors) operating in the health sector. A strategic revision of the planning process represents an opportunity to develop an appropriate 'Theory of Change', intended as a broader approach of thinking about the entire DHS and the relative role and functions of the DHT. Leadership and stewardship capacities of MoH staff, at central and peripheral level, must be strengthened and supported to achieve the expected changes and results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: Stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Emily; De Silva, Mary J.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2014-01-01

    Three-quarters of the global mental health burden exists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet the lack of mental health services in resource-poor settings is striking. Task-sharing (also, task-shifting), where mental health care is provided by non-specialists, has been proposed to improve access to mental health care in LMICs. This multi-site qualitative study investigates the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing mental health care in LMICs by examining perceptions of primary care service providers (physicians, nurses, and community health workers), community members, and service users in one district in each of the five countries participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Thirty-six focus group discussions and 164 in-depth interviews were conducted at the pre-implementation stage between February and October 2012 with the objective of developing district level plans to integrate mental health care into primary care. Perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing were evaluated first at the district level in each country through open-coding and then at the cross-country level through a secondary analysis of emergent themes. We found that task-sharing mental health services is perceived to be acceptable and feasible in these LMICs as long as key conditions are met: 1) increased numbers of human resources and better access to medications; 2) ongoing structured supportive supervision at the community and primary care-levels; and 3) adequate training and compensation for health workers involved in task-sharing. Taking into account the socio-cultural context is fundamental for identifying local personnel who can assist in detection of mental illness and facilitate treatment and care as well as training, supervision, and service delivery. By recognizing the systemic challenges and sociocultural nuances that may influence task-sharing mental health care

  11. Costs Of Using “Tiny Targets” to Control Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a Vector of Gambiense Sleeping Sickness in Arua District of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alexandra P. M.; Tirados, Inaki; Mangwiro, Clement T. N.; Esterhuizen, Johan; Lehane, Michael J.; Torr, Stephen J.; Kovacic, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the relative effectiveness of tsetse control methods, their costs need to be analysed alongside their impact on tsetse populations. Very little has been published on the costs of methods specifically targeting human African trypanosomiasis Methodology/Principal Findings In northern Uganda, a 250 km2 field trial was undertaken using small (0.5 X 0.25 m) insecticide-treated targets (“tiny targets”). Detailed cost recording accompanied every phase of the work. Costs were calculated for this operation as if managed by the Ugandan vector control services: removing purely research components of the work and applying local salaries. This calculation assumed that all resources are fully used, with no spare capacity. The full cost of the operation was assessed at USD 85.4 per km2, of which USD 55.7 or 65.2% were field costs, made up of three component activities (target deployment: 34.5%, trap monitoring: 10.6% and target maintenance: 20.1%). The remaining USD 29.7 or 34.8% of the costs were for preliminary studies and administration (tsetse surveys: 6.0%, sensitisation of local populations: 18.6% and office support: 10.2%). Targets accounted for only 12.9% of the total cost, other important cost components were labour (24.1%) and transport (34.6%). Discussion Comparison with the updated cost of historical HAT vector control projects and recent estimates indicates that this work represents a major reduction in cost levels. This is attributed not just to the low unit cost of tiny targets but also to the organisation of delivery, using local labour with bicycles or motorcycles. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken, investigating key prices and assumptions. It is believed that these costs are generalizable to other HAT foci, although in more remote areas, with denser vegetation and fewer people, costs would increase, as would be the case for other tsetse control techniques. PMID:25811956

  12. Adherence of community caretakers of children to pre-packaged antimalarial medicines (HOMAPAK® among internally displaced people in Gulu district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opwonya John

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002, home-based management of fever (HBMF was introduced in Uganda, to improve access to prompt, effective antimalarial treatment of all fevers in children under 5 years. Implementation is through community drug distributors (CDDs who distribute pre-packaged chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (HOMAPAK® free of charge to caretakers of febrile children. Adherence of caretakers to this regimen has not been studied. Methods A questionnaire-based survey combined with inspection of blister packaging was conducted to investigate caretakers' adherence to HOMAPAK®. The population surveyed consisted of internally displaced people (IDPs from eight camps. Results A total of 241 caretakers were interviewed. 95.0% (CI: 93.3% – 98.4% of their children had received the correct dose for their age and 52.3% of caretakers had retained the blister pack. Assuming correct self-reporting, the overall adherence was 96.3% (CI: 93.9% – 98.7%. The nine caretakers who had not adhered had done so because the child had improved, had vomited, did not like the taste of the tablets, or because they forgot to administer the treatment. For 85.5% of cases treatment had been sought within 24 hours. Blister packaging was considered useful by virtually all respondents, mainly because it kept the drugs clean and dry. Information provided on, and inside, the package was of limited use, because most respondents were illiterate. However, CDDs had often told caretakers how to administer the treatment. For 39.4% of respondents consultation with the CDD was their reported first action when their child has fever and 52.7% stated that they consult her/him if the child does not get better. Conclusion In IDP camps, the HBMF strategy forms an important component of medical care for young children. In case of febrile illness, most caretakers obtain prompt and adequate antimalarial treatment, and adhere to it. A large proportion of malaria episodes are thus

  13. Introduction of mobile phones for use by volunteer community health workers in support of integrated community case management in Bushenyi District, Uganda: development and implementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumusiime, David Katuruba; Agaba, Gad; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Finch, Jan; Kabakyenga, Jerome; MacLeod, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    established through performance monitoring. Local information/communication consultants, working in concert with a university based department of pediatrics, can design and implement a robust mobile phone based system that may be anticipated to contribute to efficient delivery of iCCM by trained volunteer CHWs in rural settings in Uganda.

  14. Frequency of RANTES gene polymorphisms and their association with incidence of malaria: a longitudinal study on children in Iganga district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanira, Catherine N; Mukasa, Mark Kaddu; Swedberg, Göte; Kironde, Fred

    2015-09-05

    The severity and outcome of malaria is influenced by host immunity in which chemokines such as Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) play an important role. Previous studies show that variations in the RANTES gene affect RANTES protein production, hence altering host immunity. In this study, the relationship between presence of mutations in RANTES and incidence of malaria in a cohort of children living in a malaria-endemic area of Uganda was determined. This was a longitudinal study comprising of 423 children aged between 6 months and 9 years, who were actively followed up for 1 year. Malaria episodes occurring in the cohort children were detected and the affected children treated with national policy drug regimen. Mutations in the RANTES gene were determined by PCR-RFLP method and their frequencies were calculated. A multivariate negative binomial regression model was used to estimate the impact of RANTES mutations on malaria incidence. In all statistical tests, a P-value of sickle cell trait, 1n1.1T/C heterozygotes and homozygotes showed a non-significant trend towards higher incidence rates compared to wild-type individuals (IRR = 1.10; P = 0.55 and IRR = 1.25; P = 0.60, respectively). Similarly, there was no significant difference in malaria incidence rates between RANTES -403G/A heterozygotes or homozygotes and those without mutations (IRR = 1.09; P = 0.66 and IRR = 1.16; P = 0.50, respectively). No relation was seen between RANTES polymorphisms, baseline parasite densities and the time to first re-infection after administration of anti-malaria drugs. This study showed that the -403A mutation occurs in nearly half of the study population and the In1.1C allele occurs in one in every four children. Despite the high frequency of these mutations, there was no clear association with malaria incidence. Other studies evaluating more markers, that could potentially modulate RANTES gene transcription alongside other

  15. Strategies from the 2000–01 Ebola outbreak in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Omaswa, F G; Okware, S. I.; Kiguli-Malwadde, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: An outbreak of Ebola virus disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on Oct 8, 2000. Over a period of 3 months, the outbreak spread to two other parts of the country, namely Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilisation, and case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: the National Task Force (NTF), the District Task Force (DTF), and the Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were res...

  16. IN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of herbicides for destroying banana plants infected with bacterial wilt has been evaluated. Experiments were conducted on station at Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and on-farm at. Nckoyeddc and Ki menyedde, in Mukono district. Two systemic herbicides, Glyphosate and 2,4-D were evaluated.

  17. Information and Communication for Rural Innovation and Development: Context, Quality and Priorities in Southeast Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sseguya, Haroon; Mazur, Robert; Abbott, Eric; Matsiko, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the status and priorities for agricultural information generation, dissemination and utilization in the context of agricultural innovation systems in southeast Uganda. Design/Methodology/Approach: Group discussions were conducted with six communities in Kamuli district, southeast Uganda. The focus was on information sources and…

  18. How the timing and location of video shows influence learning among rice farmers in Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karubanga, Gabriel; Kibwika, Paul; Okry, Florent; Sseguya, Haroon

    Videos have the potential of enhancing learning among smallholder farmers. The study intended to establish whether timing and location of video shows influence learning among rice farmers in Kamwenge district, Uganda...

  19. Country watch: Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruranga, R

    1995-01-01

    The National Resistance Army (NRA) in Uganda has incorporated a component on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in its training and support programs since 1988. Staff trained by local agencies participate in educational campaigns using printed materials, videos, theater performances, seminars, and individual counseling. The messages stress positive actions and behavior changes, rather than fear. Condoms are linked with the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the treatment of which is encouraged. HIV testing, with pre- and post-test counseling, is offered on an anonymous voluntary basis. Soldiers living with AIDS receive care at four clinics. They may voluntarily leave the NRA, but there is no policy of mandatory discharge. The NRA agreed to expand its program in 1994, in collaboration with NGO World Learning Inc. The new initiative entails the training of health educators and community workers at four regional NRA offices, who will coordinate their activities with regional and/or district health educators in charge of community programs. Condom distribution will be expanded to places frequented by soldiers which are close to military installations. A referral service for counseling and HIV testing is being established for military personnel and their families. It will collaborate with the AIDS Information Centre, an NGO. Support clubs for HIV-positive persons will operate from new recreational facilities; a wide range of leisure activities (videos, games) will be offered.

  20. Country watch: Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namutebi, S K

    1996-01-01

    During its work in Rakai district, CONCERN recognized that women lack property/inheritance rights, a situation which increases their vulnerability to HIV infection. Widows are being disinherited of all their properties, including their marital homes. Since many of these women lack both education and skills, their survival often depends upon either marrying again or engaging in sex work. Many women are ignorant of their rights under the national law. Lawyers from the Ugandan Women Lawyers Association help women and children understand their rights, but they do not provide continuously available services. CONCERN therefore initiated a program of community-based legal educators (paralegals) selected by village communities and recommended by local leaders. The paralegals must be over age 28 years, respected by the community, able to maintain confidentiality, and have participated in previous HIV/AIDS sensitization work. Selected candidates are subsequently trained by lawyers from a governmental ministry in the basics of the law pertaining to sexual abuse, marriage, inheritance, divorce, domestic violence, children's rights and responsibilities, and the legal system in Uganda, as well as referrals, gender sensitization, and adult education methods. The paralegals now provide awareness seminars in their communities which include brainstorming, role plays, use of picture codes, group discussions, and lectures.

  1. Bubonic and pneumonic plague - Uganda, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-24

    Plague is a life-threatening fleaborne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The most common clinical form is bubonic plague, which is characterized by high fever and regional lymphadenitis. Without treatment, infection can spread from lymph nodes to the lungs, resulting in pneumonic plague and the potential for person-to-person transmission through respiratory droplets. In November 2006, the Uganda Ministry of Health received reports of an increase in bubonic plague cases and a possible outbreak of pneumonic plague among residents in the Arua and Nebbi districts. In response, the Uganda Ministry of Health and CDC conducted a joint investigation in the two districts during November 28-December 30, 2006. Overall, 127 clinical plague cases were identified, along with evidence of a focal pneumonic outbreak in Nebbi District. Median age of the patients was 14 years (range: 2 weeks-65 years); 65 (51%) were female. Twenty-eight (22%) of the 127 patients died. Among the 102 patients with documented symptoms, 90 (88%) had bubonic plague, and 12 (12%) had pneumonic plague. The results of this investigation underscore the need to 1) continue efforts to educate residents of rural Uganda regarding the source, signs, and symptoms of plague and the life-saving importance of seeking treatment; 2) strengthen plague surveillance and diagnostic capabilities; and 3) improve emergency response and vector-control capacity, especially in remote regions of the country.

  2. Performance of District Disaster Management Teams after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...

  3. Farmers' and traders' sources of market information in Lira district

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    the key constraints to farmers' access to marketing opportunities in Uganda (Kleih et al, 1999; Foodnet and. NRI, 2002). This paper is based on information which has been collected for the baseline study of the research project. 'Decentralised Market Information Services in Lira District,. Uganda' (Janowski et al, 2003).

  4. Understanding Poverty Dynamics in Nebbi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... pauvreté basée sur revenu/ consommation. La mesure courante de la pauvreté basée sur le revenu ne présente que partiellement l'état de la pauvreté prise globalement. Le panier de la consommation a été considéré par les thèses ..... compared to what our energies on the farm can produce for us'.

  5. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  6. Uganda Health Information Network (UHIN) - Phase IV | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health services in five participating districts are using the Uganda Health Information Network (UHIN) to send and receive disease surveillance data, health management reports, reports on drug supplies and use, and continuing education materials. This phase aims to fully integrate the Network into the Ministry of Health ...

  7. National immunisation days for polio eradication in Uganda: Did ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To analyse the effect of cards and of vitamin A supplementation on coverage for National Immunisation Days (NIDs). Design: A retrospective ecological study. Setting: A countrywide NIDs coverage before and after introduction of the NIDs cards and vitamin A supplementation in all districts of Uganda. Methods: ...

  8. Decentralisation in Uganda: Prospects for Improved Service Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of political decentralisation was to promote people's participation in the democratic process of Uganda. This took the form of Administrative Units – Resistance Councils (RC)1 running from the village to district levels. Financial decentralisation, on the other hand, attempted to assign responsibilities and taxes ...

  9. Nutritional and health status primary schoolchildren in rural Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor nutrition and health can affect children's education. The nutritional status of school children (9-15 years) was assessed in Kumi district, Eastern Uganda in 2006-2007. Selection of schools was done using modified cluster sampling involving 34 schools (n= 645). Assessments for nutritional status were done ...

  10. Repeated outbreaks of Viral hemorrhagic fevers in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Since the year 2000, Uganda has experienced repeated outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF). Ebola VHF outbreak occurred in the districts of Gulu in 2000, Bundibugyo, 2007, Luwero, 2011, Kibaale in July 2012, Luwero in November 2012. Marburg VHF was earlier reported in Ibanda in 2007.

  11. Pneumonia among children under five in Uganda: symptom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under five years of age. Pneumonia deaths could be averted if caretakers recognized the danger signs and sought appropriate treatment promptly. Methods: We interviewed 278 caretakers in Mukono district Uganda, whose under-five children ...

  12. Pneumonia among children under five in Uganda: symptom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under five years of age. Pneumonia deaths could be averted if caretakers recognized the danger signs and sought appropriate treatment promptly. Methods: We interviewed 278 caretakers in Mukono district Uganda, whose under-five children had ...

  13. Microfinance, rural livelihoods, and women's empowerment in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakwo, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines in what ways and to what extent microfinance services facilitate the empowerment of married rural women in Nebbi district, northwestern Uganda. In particular, it examines the gender relations inherent in the livelihood practices of the community, the changes in well-being (if

  14. Uganda mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Basangwa, David; Lutakome, Julius; Mubiru, Christine

    2004-01-01

    With the help of the International Consortium for Mental Health Policy and Services, data on country mental health services was gathered through a descriptive, cross sectional study. The study population included policymakers, health providers and consumers of health services. Data was collected at national level from relevant sectors including the Ministry of Health, Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital and four rural districts. The districts were purposively selected because of existing consumer groups. Quantitative data was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire and record reviews at hospitals and district headquarters. It was observed that the country has inadequate numbers of mental health professionals with poor mental health funding. Such factors, compounded with inappropriate cultural beliefs, are major obstacles to the delivery of mental health services. There is however an attempt by the Government to improve mental health services. The current health policy is an opportunity to improve access to mental health care. Currently there is improved pre-service and in-service training for mental health workers with ongoing rehabilitation and remodelling of the mental health infrastructure in the country. The burden of mental disorders in Uganda is high in a country that is poorly resourced. The majority of the population is rural and still harbours negative cultural beliefs. There is a need to increase advocacy for mental health and develop capacity for professional mental and general health workers to be supported by appropriate policies, facilities and finances.

  15. Growing Orchids in Uganda | Nsibambi | Uganda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 46 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription ...

  16. Ecotourism in Uganda | Rugumayo | Uganda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 48 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ...

  17. Uganda Mission PRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  18. Diagnosing and Managing Adult Diabetes with Scarce Resources in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    Introduction Given that international organizations and national governments have declared non-communicable diseases a priority, this study aimed to explore the availability of diagnosis and management of diabetes in adults in Uganda. It focused on identifying problems and in documenting the ways...... and early 2012, we worked in Butaleja District and Mbale town in southeastern Uganda, Kasese District in the west, and three districts of Acholi Region in the north. Site visits and observations included public and private health care facilities and retail outlets. Interviews were carried out with several...... cadres of health staff, as well as patients. Results There were shortages and irregularities in supply of diagnostic equipment and medication at all public units that were supposed to provide treatment for diabetes. Even the hospitals with designated diabetes clinics were not always able to avail testing...

  19. Knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Mukama, Trasias; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore community knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda so as to generate data to inform interventions. Design A qualitative study using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Setting Discussions and interviews carried out in the community within two districts in Eastern Uganda. Participants Ten (10) focus group discussions with 119 screening-eligible women aged between 25 and 49 years and 11 key informant in...

  20. units in Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-15

    Jun 15, 2008 ... 'Department oi Clinical Sciences, Urnea University, Urneé, Sweden, ... Few studies havebeen done in developing countries on this topic. This study sought to determine the prevalence and detection of alcohol related problems in a Primary Health Care setting (PHC). in Kampala Uganda. Method: 'Z68 ...

  1. Plague in Uganda

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-25

    Dr. Paul Mead, a medical officer at CDC, discusses his article on Plague in Uganda.  Created: 1/25/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/25/2018.

  2. Uganda's eco-rebirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, D

    1991-01-01

    In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of Rubella Viruses Identified in Uganda, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuwulya, Prossy; Abernathy, Emily; Bukenya, Henry; Bwogi, Josephine; Tushabe, Phionah; Birungi, Molly; Seguya, Ronald; Kabaliisa, Theopista; Alibu, Vincent P.; Kayondo, Jonathan K.; Rivailler, Pierre; Icenogle, Joseph; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas

    2014-01-01

    Molecular data on rubella viruses are limited in Uganda despite the importance of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Routine rubella vaccination, while not administered currently in Uganda, is expected to begin by 2015. The World Health Organization recommends that countries without rubella vaccination programs assess the burden of rubella and CRS before starting a routine vaccination program. Uganda is already involved in integrated case-based surveillance, including laboratory testing to confirm measles and rubella, but molecular epidemiologic aspects of rubella circulation have so far not been documented in Uganda. Twenty throat swab or oral fluid samples collected from 12 districts during routine rash and fever surveillance between 2003 and 2012 were identified as rubella virus RNA positive and PCR products encompassing the region used for genotyping were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 20 sequences identified 19 genotype 1G viruses and 1 genotype 1E virus. Genotype-specific trees showed that the Uganda viruses belonged to specific clusters for both genotypes 1G and 1E and grouped with similar sequences from neighboring countries. Genotype 1G was predominant in Uganda. More epidemiological and molecular epidemiological data are required to determine if genotype 1E is also endemic in Uganda. The information obtained in this study will assist the immunization program in monitoring changes in circulating genotypes. PMID:24700073

  4. Over-the-counter suboptimal dispensing of antibiotics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukonzo JK

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jackson K Mukonzo,1,2 Proscovia M Namuwenge,1 Gildo Okure,3 Benjamin Mwesige,1 Olivia K Namusisi,4 David Mukanga4 1Center for Operational Research Africa, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 3School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4African Field Epidemiologist Network, Kampala, Uganda Background: Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is a serious global problem. While resistance to older antibiotics is increasing, development of newer molecules has stalled. Resistance to the existing antibiotics that is largely driven by their high-volume use is a global public health problem. Uganda is one of the countries where prescription-only drugs, including antibiotics, can be obtained over the counter. We determined the rate of antibiotic dispensing and use in Uganda. Methods: The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional study design to determine the number of antibiotic "prescribed" daily doses per 1,000 clients. Data were collected from one health center II, eight general/district hospitals, one national referral hospital, and 62 registered community pharmacies. From each study site, data were collected for five consecutive days over the months of November 2011 to January 2012. Results: The overall antibiotic issue rate was 43.2%. Amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim, cloxacillin, and ampicillin, belonging to the WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical classifications of penicillin with extended spectra, imidazole derivatives, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamide–trimethoprim combinations, constituted 70% of the issued antibiotics. About 41% of antibiotics were issued over the counter. At community pharmacies, where 30% of antibiotic dispensing occurred, the number of prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients was 4,169 compared to 6,220, 7,350 and 7,500 at general/district hospitals, the national referral hospital, and the health center, respectively. Conclusion

  5. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  6. Another glimmer of optimism in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A 5-year study by the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Uganda Virus Research Institute, which covered 15 villages and approximately 5200 adults over the age of 13 years in the Masaka district of Uganda, indicates that the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in men aged 20-24 years has declined by 80%, from 11.8% to 2.6%. Among girls aged 13-19 years and women aged 20-24 years the decline was 62% and 34%, respectively. In the general population, the decline was from 8.2% to 7.6%. Reasons for the decline are unclear, but the presence of the highly visible study team, which caused anxiety and heated discussion in the community, and high HIV-associated mortality among long-term residents at the beginning of the study may have had effects. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) control measures were gradually expanded during the period of the study. The inhabitants of the area are mainly peasant farmers from the Baganda tribal group; three-quarters are Catholic and one-quarter are Muslim. 80% of the total population participated in the survey the first year; 62%, the second year; 56%, the third year; 52%, the fourth year; and 57%, the fifth year. A table lists results by age and sex for 1989 and 1994.

  7. Fair-trade and tea: a comparative analysis of value chains in Kabarole Districtm Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoch, M.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examines the competiveness of the fair trade tea value chain through a comparative study of the conventional and fair trade tea value chains in Kabarole district, Uganda. By examining this economically important subject, it clarifies the process by which value chains compete for

  8. Delaying sexual debut amongst out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘sexual debut’ among out-of-school youth in Masaka District, Uganda, factors influencing its timing and assistance young people feel they need to delay sexual initiation. Data were drawn from a sexual health needs assessment using applied anthropological techniques with young

  9. Proportion of Deaths and Clinical Features in Bundibugyo Ebola Virus Infection, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnon, Eileen C.; Wamala, Joseph; Okware, Sam; Cannon, Deborah L.; Reed, Zachary; Towner, Jonathan S.; Tappero, Jordan W.; Lutwama, Julius; Downing, Robert; Nichol, Stuart T.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2010-01-01

    The first known Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak caused by Bundibugyo Ebola virus occurred in Bundibugyo District, Uganda, in 2007. Fifty-six cases of EHF were laboratory confirmed. Although signs and symptoms were largely nonspecific and similar to those of EHF outbreaks caused by Zaire and Sudan Ebola viruses, proportion of deaths among those infected was lower (≈40%). PMID:21122234

  10. Utilization of indigenous food plants in Uganda: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to document and establish the traditional processin methods of indigenous food plants in Rukungiri district. In order to establish the status and level of utilization and processing of indigenous food plants in southwestern Uganda, a baseline survey was carried out using a participatory method of ...

  11. Relative risks and population attributable fraction of incident HIV associated with symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases and treatable symptomatic sexually transmitted diseases in Rakai District, Uganda. Rakai Project Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R H; Wawer, M J; Sewankambo, N K; Serwadda, D; Li, C; Moulton, L H; Lutalo, T; Wabwire-Mangen, F; Meehan, M P; Ahmed, S; Paxton, L A; Kiwanuka, N; Nalugoda, F; Korenromp, E L; Quinn, T C

    1999-10-22

    To assess the linkage of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and treatable STD to HIV incidence. Analysis of a randomized trial of STD control for HIV prevention, Rakai, Uganda. Consenting adults 15-59 years of age were seen at 10-monthly home visits, interviewed regarding STD symptoms, and asked to provide samples for HIV and STD diagnoses. HIV incidence was determined in 8089 HIV-negative subjects over 10 457 person years. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HIV acquisition associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) and discharge/dysuria were used to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) of HIV acquisition. HIV transmission risks associated with STD symptoms in HIV-positive partners of 167 HIV discordant couples and the numbers of sexual partners reported by HIV-positive subjects were used to estimate the PAF of HIV transmission attributable to STD. HIV prevalence was 16%. The risk of HIV acquisition was increased with GUD (RR 3.14; CI 1.98-4.98) and in males with discharge/dysuria (RR 2.44; CI 1.17-5.12), but not in females with discharge/dysuria. The PAF of HIV acquisition was 9.5% (CI 2.8-15.8%) with any of the three STD symptoms. The PAF for GUD was 8.8% (CI 3.7-13.8), but only 8.2% of reported GUD was caused by treatable syphilis or chancroid . The PAF for discharge/dysuria in males was 6.7% (CI 1.1-13.8), but only 25% of symptomatic males had concurrent gonorrhea or chlamydial infection. No significant differences were seen in PAF between study treatment arms. The PAF of HIV transmission associated with STD symptoms in HIV-positive persons was indirectly estimated to be 10.4%. In this mature, generalized HIV epidemic setting, most HIV seroconversion occurs without recognized STD symptoms or curable STD detected by screening. Therefore, syndromic management or other strategies of STD treatment are unlikely to substantially reduce HIV incidence in this population. However, STD is associated with significant

  12. Identifying cholera "hotspots" in Uganda: An analysis of cholera surveillance data from 2011 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Ali, Mohammad; Sack, David A; Nakinsige, Anne; Naigaga, Martha; Debes, Amanda K; Ngwa, Moise C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Garimoi Orach, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Despite advance in science and technology for prevention, detection and treatment of cholera, this infectious disease remains a major public health problem in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive. The aim of this study was to identify cholera hotspots in Uganda to guide the development of a roadmap for prevention, control and elimination of cholera in the country. We obtained district level confirmed cholera outbreak data from 2011 to 2016 from the Ministry of Health, Uganda. Population and rainfall data were obtained from the Uganda Bureau of Statistics, and water, sanitation and hygiene data from the Ministry of Water and Environment. A spatial scan test was performed to identify the significantly high risk clusters. Cholera hotspots were defined as districts whose center fell within a significantly high risk cluster or where a significantly high risk cluster was completely superimposed onto a district. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression model was employed to identify the district level risk factors for cholera. In total 11,030 cases of cholera were reported during the 6-year period. 37(33%) of 112 districts reported cholera outbreaks in one of the six years, and 20 (18%) districts experienced cholera at least twice in those years. We identified 22 districts as high risk for cholera, of which 13 were near a border of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), while 9 districts were near a border of Kenya. The relative risk of having cholera inside the high-risk districts (hotspots) were 2 to 22 times higher than elsewhere in the country. In total, 7 million people were within cholera hotspots. The negative binomial component of the ZINB model shows people living near a lake or the Nile river were at increased risk for cholera (incidence rate ratio, IRR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97 to 0.99, p cholera in a district (IRR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.00, p = .02 and IRR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.03, p cholera in the district. The study identified cholera

  13. The Karimojong from Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Iva; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    The Karimojong, an African group from the Karamoja region of Northeast Uganda, were genetically analysed using a decaplex system for X chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs). A total of 255 individuals (117 males and 138 females) were genotyped for the following loci: DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133,...... in father/mother/daughter trios (99.9997%), in father daughter duos (99.9862%) and in half sisters with same father (99.0331%). These results confirm the potential of this 10-plex in parentage testing and in human identification....

  14. Leishmaniasis in Uganda: historical account and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olobo-Okao, Joseph; Sagaki, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala azar is a fatal and neglected disease caused by protozoan parasites. It occurs worldwide including north-eastern Uganda. This review gives a historical account of and reviews available literature on VL in Uganda to raise more awareness about the disease. Information was collected from: MEDLINE searches; records of Ministry of Health (Uganda), Amudat hospital records; records of NGOs and multilateral institutions; dissertations and personal communication. Results show that VL in Uganda was first reported in the 1950's, followed by almost four decades of neglect. Earlier records from the ministry of health and Amudat hospital on VL are also incomplete. From early 2000, reports mainly on the disease management and risk factors, started to appear in the literature. Management of VL has mainly been by NGOs and multilateral institutions including MSF Swiss. Currently DNDi is funding its management and clinical trials in Amudat hospital through LEAP. New cases of VL were reported recently from Moroto and Kotido districts and more patients continue to be received from these areas. In conclusion, management of VL is well established in Amudat hospital. However its sustainability and wider coverage remains a challenge. First-line drugs have now been registered in the country. Visceral leishmaniasis is apparently more widespread in north-eastern Uganda than originally thought. Research and surveillance on leishmaniasis is still weak. Strengthening the capacity of local institutions to; conduct surveillance and research, combined with effective management should mitigate VL in Uganda.

  15. Hepatitis E as a Cause of Acute Jaundice Syndrome in Northern Uganda, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Gemechu B.; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D.; Teshale, Eyasu H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7–24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

  16. Prevalence Estimates of Antibodies Towards Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Small Ruminants in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila Nina; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Muwanika, Vincent B.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda with control strategies focusing on vaccination of cattle, while small ruminants are largely ignored. In order for Uganda to establish effective control strategies, it is crucial that the epidemiology of the disease is fully understood. This study...... summarizes results of serological investigations of sheep and goats for antibodies to FMDV from four districts in 2006 following an FMD outbreak in the region and from an attempted comprehensive random sampling in two districts in 2007. Antibodies were quantified and serotyped using competitive ELISA...... for antibodies towards non-structural proteins (NSP) and structural proteins towards serotype O, and blocking ELISA for antibodies towards the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). In 2006, sheep and goats in Bushenyi and Isingiro districts were free from antibodies towards FMDV, while herds in Kasese and Mbarara...

  17. The burden of tetanus in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanteza, Barbara; Galukande, Moses; Aceng, Jane; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Mbonye, Anthony K; Mukooyo, Eddie; Behumize, Prosper; Makumbi, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    The successful scale-up of safe male circumcision (SMC) in Uganda has been hinged on client's safety and quality of services. However, after the recent three tetanus deaths after circumcision a review of all tetanus cases in one of the hospitals where the cases occurred was initiated. This was to ascertain the potential for an association between tetanus infection and circumcision. Routinely collected national data were also reviewed to determine the burden of tetanus in Uganda and contextualize these incidents. A review of medical charts of tetanus cases identified from the inpatients registry at Masafu hospital, Busia district for the period 2009/2010-2013/2014. Data were abstracted from the inpatients registries, charts and HMIS annual reports, and a key informant interview conducted with the in-charge of the ward that treats tetanus patients. All quantitative data were captured in an electronic database. Routine facility data from the National District health Information Software-2 (DHIS-2) for all the 112 districts were also used. Descriptive analysis and Poisson regression models were used for statistical analysis using STATA version 13.0. Data from the routine DHIS-2 showed a high and increasing burden of tetanus from the emergency/out-patient department records over the 4 year period, highest among females aged 5+ years in all the regions. At the Masafa hospital, the chart review revealed a total of 25 tetanus cases and all were males. Nearly a third (32 %) was aged 7-15 years, with no evidence of circumcision apart from only one case. The rate of tetanus infection among male inpatients over the review period was 2-6 per 1000. The case fatality rate was nearly a half (47.4 %) with deaths occurring within 2 days after admission, and rates of patients' self-discharge against medical advice were high, 36.8 %. The most common tetanus entry wounds were due to road traffic accidents, followed by diabetic foot. Anti-tetanus serum was only not readily

  18. Socio-economic and cultural determinants of human african trypanosomiasis at the Kenya - Uganda transboundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Jemeli Rutto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r. infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. RESULTS: Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7% applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a

  19. Uganda's Vision 2040 and Human Needs Promotion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *. Abstract. In 2013 the President of Uganda Yoweri Kaguta Museveni launched Uganda's. Vision 2040, a thirty-year development master plan which has received both praise and criticism from Ugandans. Although Vision 2040 has received ...

  20. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M

    2002-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case

  1. The Framing and Fashioning of Therapeutic Citizenship Among People Living With HIV Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Steve; Namukwaya, Stella; Zalwango, Flavia; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine how people living with HIV (PLWH) were able to reconceptualize or “reframe” their understanding of HIV and enhance their capacity to self-manage the condition. Two in-depth interviews were held with 38 PLWH (20 women, 18 men) selected from three government and nongovernment antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery sites in Wakiso District, and the narratives analyzed. ART providers played an important role in shaping participants’ HIV self-management processes. Health workers helped PLWH realize that they could control their condition, provided useful concepts and language for emotional coping, and gave advice about practical self-management tasks, although this could not always be put into practice. ART providers in this setting were spaces for the development of a collective identity and a particular form of therapeutic citizenship that encouraged self-management, including adherence to ART. Positive framing institutions are important for many PLWH in resource-limited settings and the success of ART programs. PMID:26246523

  2. A descriptive analysis of the institutional frameworks for disaster management in Uganda: structures, functions and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayega, R W; Wafula, M R; Woboya, V; Musenero, M; Omale, A; Orach, G C; Kiguli, J; Kabagambe, G; Bazeyo, W

    2013-06-01

    There is insufficient documentation of the institutional frameworks for disaster management and resilience at different levels in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to describe the institutional framework for disaster management in Uganda, and to identify actionable gaps at the different levels. This was part of a multi-country assessment in which 6 countries in Eastern Africa developed and applied a common tool. The assessment was qualitative in nature employing a mixed methods approach including review of documents, interviews with key informants from agencies involved in disaster management in Uganda, group discussions with stakeholder and synthesis meetings of the assessment team. The Office of the Prime Minister is the lead agency for disaster management, but management of disasters of a technical nature is devolved to line ministries (e.g. epidemics by the Health Ministry and Epizootics by the Agriculture Ministry). A new policy spells out disaster management structures at national, district, sub-county, and village levels. Key challenges included coordination, more focus on prevention than risk reduction, differences in capacity between sectors and inadequate inter-sectoral collaboration. The new policy and structures have not yet been rolled out to districts and sub-district levels, and districts lack a line item budget for disaster capacity building. The institutional framework for disaster management in Uganda needs to be strengthened at all levels through initiation of the relevant structures, training, and resource allocation so that they develop disaster management plans.

  3. Piecemeal versus one-time harvesting of sweet potato in north-east Uganda with special reference to pest damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Odongo, B.; Abidin, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    In north-eastern Uganda, the sweet potato crop of small subsistence farmers is severely affected by many pests, including (rough) sweet potato weevils, nematodes and millipedes. Field experiments with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were conducted at Arapai Station in Soroti District,

  4. Sexual and reproductive health information sources preferred by out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and

  5. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  6. Ebola viral hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Africa- lessons from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth

    2014-09-01

    There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.

  7. Cholera surveillance in Uganda: an analysis of notifications for the years 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Muggaga; Makumbi, Issa; Kagirita, Atek; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Kalyebi, Peter; Bingi, Aloysius; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Mengel, Martin; Dahlke, Melissa

    2013-11-01

    Cholera outbreaks have occurred periodically in Uganda since 1971. The country has experienced intervals of sporadic cases and localized outbreaks, occasionally resulting in prolonged widespread epidemics. Cholera surveillance data reported to the Uganda Ministry of Health from 2007 through 2011 were reviewed to determine trends in annual incidence and case fatality rate. Demographic characteristics of cholera cases were analyzed from the national line list for 2011. Cases were analyzed by district and month of report to understand the geographic distribution and identify any seasonal patterns of disease occurrence. From 2007 through 2011, Uganda registered a total of 7615 cholera cases with 181 deaths (case fatality rate = 2.4%). The absolute number of cases and incidence per 100 000 varied from year to year with the highest incidence occurring in 2008 following heavy rainfall and flooding in eastern Uganda. For 2011, cholera cases occurred in 1.6 times more males than females. The geographical areas affected by the outbreaks shifted each year, with the exception of a few endemic districts. No clear seasonal trends in cholera occurrence were identified for this time period. We observed an overall decline in cases reported during the 5 years under review. During this period, concerted efforts were made by the Ugandan government and development partners to educate communities on proper sanitation and hygiene and provide safe water and timely treatment. Mechanisms to ensure timely and complete cholera surveillance data are reported to the national level should continue to be strengthened.

  8. Book Review Uganda Bibliography 1998 | Ofcansky | Uganda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 45 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ...

  9. UGANDA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1994/1995 | Ofcansky | Uganda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 48 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription ...

  10. The Changing Face of the Uganda Journal | Carder | Uganda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Changing Face of the Uganda Journal. Nanny Carder. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v46i1.23039 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  11. Managing Wetlands for Improved Food Security in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fed 683 lowland ecologies in Uganda. Download PDF. Journal articles. Total economic value of wetlands products and services in Uganda. Download PDF. Journal articles. Contribution of wetland resources to household food security in Uganda.

  12. Uganda Journal - Vol 47 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertebrate Prey of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba Scopoli) from Tororo, Eastern Uganda · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Robert Kityo, 67-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v47i1.23053 ...

  13. Uganda Journal - Vol 48 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notes: Observations of Butterfly Migrations in Uganda, 2002 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ian Deshmukh, 111-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v48i1.23007 ...

  14. abducted boys in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently many were psychologically distressed at the time of the study Conclusions: The psychosocial intervention activities proposed include ... K Amonew P'Olak. Department of Psychology Gulu University PO Box 166, Culu, Uganda .... their own villages on fire, Another 95% saw dead bodies or body parts (n I 206), ...

  15. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  16. Knowledge gaps, attitude and beliefs of the communities about sickle cell disease in Eastern and Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwi, A L; Byarugaba, W; Ndugwa, C M; Parkes, A; Ocaido, M; Tumwine, J K

    2009-09-01

    The management of sickle cell disease (SCD) has remained insurmountable in developing countries such as Uganda, because most communities are not aware of it. To determine knowledge gaps, attitudes and beliefs of the communities about sickle cell disease in Eastern and Western Uganda. Cross sectional descriptive study. The districts of Sironko and Mbale in Eastern Uganda and Mbarara and Ntungamo in Western Uganda. Households, students and health workers. Household respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western (p curse from God compared to 2% in the West. Less than 18% of the household respondents knew they could have children with SCD and (< 52%) of health workers knew SCD screening methods. Fewer (< 14%) of the health workers had participated in screening. Less than 20% of the respondents knew their sickle cell status. Respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western. Minority of the respondents knew their SCD status and few health staff knew how to screen it. There is need to sensitise communities and policy makers about prevention, screening and treatment of SCD.

  17. Efficacy of single and double doses of albendazole and mebendazole alone and in combination in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura in school-age children in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namwanje, Harriet; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Olsen, Annette

    2011-01-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted in Kabale District, southwestern Uganda, to compare the efficacies of single and double doses of a combination of 400mg albendazole (ALB) and 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) with those of single and double doses of each drug given alone in the treatment of Trichu......A randomised clinical trial was conducted in Kabale District, southwestern Uganda, to compare the efficacies of single and double doses of a combination of 400mg albendazole (ALB) and 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) with those of single and double doses of each drug given alone in the treatment...

  18. Relationship between Social Capital and Livelihood Enhancing Capitals among Smallholder Farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Abenakyo, Annet; Sanginga, Pascal; Jemimah M. Njuki; Kaaria, Susan; Delve, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is an important characteristic of a community and is one of the components of the asset pentagon of the sustainable livelihood framework. The study aimed at assessing the levels and dimensions of social capital and how social capital influences other livelihood capitals. A Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 208 households was conducted in Masindi and Hoima Districts in Uganda to assess the current livelihood conditions and strategies for improving rural livelihoods. A...

  19. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...... for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly....

  20. SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN UGANDA: EVIDENCE FROM 2001 PRIMARY LEAVING EXAMINATIONS RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wabukawo, Veronica; Nyankori, James Cyprian Okuk

    2002-01-01

    Effect of staffing, supplies and facilities on primary school performance in Uganda was estimated using OLS on district level data. Parameter estimates and significance tests show that textbooks have an important influence on performance under prevailing levels of staffing and facilities. In addition, performance in schools in the northern region was lower than in the central region. This study suggests that considerable improvements in performance can be attained by additional expenditure on...

  1. Intestinal helminths in Luweero district, Uganda | Dumba | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Risk factors strongly associated with helminth infections included methods of anal cleaning, how compounds and latrines were maintained, keeping of pigs and age of the subjects, (P <0.001). In addition, methods of hand washing after latrine visits, the respondents' education level, type of house floor and ...

  2. Credit Demand Amongst Farmers in Mukono District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We employ the binary logit model estimation to analyse demand for credit. The empirical results suggest that the probability of a farmer demanding credit increases with proximity to credit facility, easier application procedures, customary land tenure system and membership to farmers' association. In contrast, the likelihood ...

  3. Credit Demand Amongst Farmers in Mukono District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as descriptive statistics and logistic regression with the aid of the R-statistical programme software. 3. MODELLING CREDIT DEMAND .... funds from their past years of work and therefore don't have to incur debts for their businesses. constraint (Left hand panel) ..... Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Education. Gujarati, D. N. ...

  4. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The worthiness of investments in eucalyptus growing has been determined using the net present value (NPV) criterion. It has been proved that investments in eucalyptus growing in perpetuity (forever) and being harvested on a four (4) year rotation period can earn a present value of a perpetual periodic annuity of Ug. shs ...

  5. Towards improving hospital performance in Uganda and Zambia: reflections and opportunities for autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kara; Atuyambe, Lynn; Kamwanga, Jolly; McPake, Barbara; Mungule, Oswald; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2002-07-01

    Hospitals have been relatively neglected although their high resource consumption implies that gains from improving the services they deliver may be substantial. Nevertheless, the challenges posed by hospital reforms are great. Hospital autonomy usually consists of both decentralisation, and a greater measure of exposure to market forces. In Uganda and Zambia, more traditional 'decentralisation' of authority to district level authorities includes district hospitals; and some measure of 'autonomy' (known as 'self-accounting status' in Uganda) has been applied to some or all second and third level referral hospitals. The hospital policies pursued in both countries present opportunities to tackle their hospital sectors. In Zambia, purchasing of services means that new incentives and policy mechanisms can come into play. Little advantage has been taken of these opportunities to date. In Uganda, there is no financial link between districts and higher levels of the system, but decentralisation of control over personnel is more advanced. These two components--the alignment of incentives (to promote access and quality for those intended to be covered by the public budget) and the effective decentralisation of control over key resources--seem to us the key tools to address the stubborn problems of hospitals.

  6. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  7. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  8. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  9. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  10. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  11. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  12. Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  13. The resistance councils in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Per

    in the capitals. In my dissertation I propose to change that focus. Partly by paying particular attention to rural politics, partly through a discussion of democracy in a longer-term perspective using a broader definition of democracy and finally through a discussion of democracy as effective political...... participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....

  14. Costs of early detection systems for epidemic malaria in highland areas of Kenya and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapuoda Beth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria epidemics cause substantial morbidity and mortality in highland areas of Africa. The costs of detecting and controlling these epidemics have not been explored adequately in the past. This study presents the costs of establishing and running an early detection system (EDS for epidemic malaria in four districts in the highlands of Kenya and Uganda. Methods An economic costing was carried out from the health service provider's perspective in both countries. Staff time for data entry and processing, as well as supervising and coordinating EDS activities at district and national levels was recorded and associated opportunity costs estimated. A threshold analysis was carried out to determine the number of DALYs or deaths that would need to be averted in order for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. Results The total costs of the EDS per district per year ranged between US$ 14,439 and 15,512. Salaries were identified as major cost-drivers, although their relative contribution to overall costs varied by country. Costs of relaying surveillance data between facilities and district offices (typically by hand were also substantial. Data from Uganda indicated that 4% or more of overall costs could potentially be saved by switching to data transfer via mobile phones. Based on commonly used thresholds, 96 DALYs in Uganda and 103 DALYs in Kenya would need to be averted annually in each district for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion Results from this analysis suggest that EDS are likely to be cost-effective. Further studies that include the costs and effects of the health systems' reaction prompted by EDS will need to be undertaken in order to obtain comprehensive cost-effectiveness estimates.

  15. Towards understanding governance issues in integration of mental health into primary health care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, James; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Kigozi, Fred N

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing burden of mental illness in low income countries. The situation is further worsened by the high poverty levels in these countries, resulting in difficult choices for their health sectors as regards to responding to the burden of mental health problems. In Uganda, integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) has been adopted as the most vital strategy for ensuring mental health service delivery to the general population. To identify governance related factors that promote/or hinder integration of mental health into PHC in Uganda. A qualitative research design was adopted at national and district level. A total of 18 Key informant interviews were conducted at both levels. Content thematic analysis was the main method of data analysis. There were positive gains in working on relevant laws and policies. However, both the mental health law and policy are still in draft form. There is also increased responsiveness/participation of key stakeholders; especially at national level in the planning and budgeting for mental health services. This however seems to be a challenge at both district and community level. In terms of efficiency, human resources, finances, medicines and technologies constitute a major drawback to the integration of mental health into PHC. Ethics, oversight, information and monitoring functions though reported to be in place, become weaker at the district level than at national level due to limited finances, human resources gaps and limited technical capacity. Other governance related issues are also reported in this study. There is some progress especially in the legal and policy arena to support integration of mental health into PHC in Uganda. However, adequate resources are still required to facilitate the effective functioning of all governance pillars that make integration of mental health into PHC feasible in Uganda.

  16. Uganda National Council for Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is a relatively recent and emerging area of science and technology in Uganda. It is, however, strategic in Uganda' 5 national development objectives in that it has a potentially central role to play in her economic growth, food security, natural germplasm conservation and the provision of improved health ...

  17. Towards sustainable Highland Banana production in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East Africa highland bananas (Musa sp., AAA-EAHB) are an important starchy food and cash crop in Uganda and the Great Lakes region of East Africa. Widespread reports of declining yields in Uganda since the 1930s and the low yields today do raise serious sustainability and food security concerns, especially as food ...

  18. Geospatial analysis of unmet pediatric surgical need in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily R; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo Nickenig; Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Butler, Elissa K; de Andrade, Luciano; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Namanya, Didacus B; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M

    2017-10-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), an estimated 85% of children do not have access to surgical care. The objective of the current study was to determine the geographic distribution of surgical conditions among children throughout Uganda. Using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey, we enumerated 2176 children in 2315 households throughout Uganda. At the district level, we determined the spatial autocorrelation of surgical need with geographic access to surgical centers variable. The highest average distance to a surgical center was found in the northern region at 14.97km (95% CI: 11.29km-16.89km). Younger children less than five years old had a higher prevalence of unmet surgical need in all four regions than their older counterparts. The spatial regression model showed that distance to surgical center and care availability were the main spatial predictors of unmet surgical need. We found differences in unmet surgical need by region and age group of the children, which could serve as priority areas for focused interventions to alleviate the burden. Future studies could be conducted in the northern regions to develop targeted interventions aimed at increasing pediatric surgical care in the areas of most need. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Poor parenting: teenagers' views on adolescent pregnancies in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiwunga, Richard; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2009-12-01

    In Uganda teenage pregnancy is considered a problem for moral and social, as well as health, reasons. This qualitative stud,y in Busia District focused on the views of teenagers themselves as expressed in 9 focus group discussions with girls and boys. Their perspectives were contrasted with those of community leaders and mothers of adolescents. The young people blamed teenage pregnancy on failures of the parental generation. They asserted that parents and guardians were both too lenient and too harsh, that they failed to provide for their daughters' needs, and that they pressured them into early marriages instead of giving priority to education. Although poverty and family breakdown were recognized as underlying structural causes of parental failure, the teenagers experienced these factors in their everyday lives as problems with their parents and guardians. The teenagers expressed the 'enlightened' view that adolescent pregnancy was undesireable, even though many girls have few alternatives to marriage and childbearing.

  20. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A.; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J.; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies. PMID:28835911

  1. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  2. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Maly

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  3. Dynamics of Land Use/Cover Trends in Kanungu District, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like other countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda is not an exception to the effects of land use/cover changes on the environment. Specifically the study intended to; determine the magnitude and trend of land use/cover changes in Kanungu District for the last 35 years. A series of Landsat TM/ETM orthorectified ...

  4. Plants used to manage type II diabetes mellitus in selected districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such information can lay a firm and clear foundation for scientific investigation of the purported therapeutic benefits of the said plants. The objective of this study was to collect names of medicinal plants used to manage diabetes mellitus type II in selected districts of central Uganda. Methods: In this ethnobotanical survey, ...

  5. Women for women's health: Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, C M

    1996-01-01

    The primary health care model targets social, political, and economic environments as key determinants of health for populations, as well as for individuals. If nursing in Uganda is to make a difference in health care outcomes and in the health of all Ugandans, nurses must look broadly at situations and be educated to practice primary health care nursing. After 14 years of civil war, Uganda is finally experiencing a period of reconstruction and rehabilitation: the whole infrastructure is undergoing a face-lift. Ugandan nurses recognize that their educational preparation has stagnated for many years and that it was not only the political unrest in their country that put them behind professionally. They realize that, given the new directions set by the government, they must become prepared to implement primary health care. They are demanding a university education so they may take their place alongside other health care providers prepared at the university level. Some of the most convincing arguments for a university program for nurses came from doctors at the university who spoke about the need to raise the standards of nursing practice, the quality of teachers, and the morale of practitioners. One nurse said: "If we lose hope for a BScN program, I think all the nurses will quit and we won't have any new students going into the profession." This program is designed to improve the health and well-being of all Ugandans, especially the most vulnerable groups of women and children in rural areas, through strengthening and expanding health services by targeting the educational preparation of nurses. Health planners in Uganda envision the professional nurse as key to the implementation of the national health policy of primary health care. University-educated nurses should be able to assess problems, make clinically sound decisions, and act appropriately within the scope of nursing practice. They should be able to interact and consult collegially with other health care

  6. Developing Orthopaedic Trauma Capacity in Uganda: Considerations From the Uganda Sustainable Trauma Orthopaedic Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Uganda, like many low-income countries, has a tremendous volume of orthopaedic trauma injuries. The Uganda Sustainable Trauma Orthopaedic Program (USTOP) is a partnership between the University of British Columbia and Makerere University that was initiated in 2007 to reduce the consequences of neglected orthopaedic trauma in Uganda. USTOP works with local collaborators to build orthopaedic trauma capacity through clinical training, skills workshops, system support, technology development, and research. USTOP has maintained a multidisciplinary approach to training, involving colleagues in anaesthesia, nursing, rehabilitation, and sterile reprocessing. Since the program's inception, the number of trained orthopaedic surgeons practicing in Uganda has more than doubled. Many of these newly trained surgeons provide clinical care in the previously underserved regional hospitals. The program has also worked with collaborators to develop several technologies aimed at reducing the cost of providing orthopaedic care without compromising quality. As orthopaedic trauma capacity in Uganda advances, USTOP strives to continually evolve and provide relevant support to colleagues in Uganda.

  7. Schistosoma bovis in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J R; Lockyer, A E; Kabatereine, N B; Tukahebwa, E M; Kazibwe, F; Rollinson, D; Fenwick, A

    2004-09-01

    During routine parasitological surveillance and monitoring activities within a National Control Programme for control of human schistosomiasis in Uganda, it was noted that cattle grazing in a water meadow immediately adjacent to Tonya primary school, where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in children was in excess of 90%, were unusually emaciated. To test the hypothesis that there may have been an anthropozoonotic focus of Schistosoma mansoni within the local herd, a young female heifer, clearly emaciated and c. 8 months old, was slaughtered from which schistosome worms were later recovered by dissection. As female worms inspected by microscopy were not gravid, morphological identification proved inconclusive but analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences from these worms identified them as Schistosoma bovis Sonsino, 1876. This is the first substantiated report of S. bovis from Lake Albert, western Uganda. Further epidemiological surveys are needed to clarify the extent of bovine schistosomiasis within this region, particularly so since this lakeside plain has been earmarked as a future game reserve.

  8. THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL, 2002: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES TO THE INFORMATION PROFESSIONALS. Isaac MN Kigongo-Bukenya. Abstract. The paper discusses the concept and philosophy of copyright. It also discusses copyright infringement with special reference to ICT.

  9. Technology, production and partnership innovation in Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moses Musaazi

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007 a partnership between UNHCR, the Government of Uganda and ‘MakaPads’ inventor Moses Musaazi has helped provide affordable sanitary pads for thousands of refugee girls and women while substantially reducing...

  10. Uganda elanikud tarbivad enim alkoholi / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) statistika järgi tarbivad maailmas kõige enam alkoholi Uganda elanikud - aastas 17,6 liitrit puhast alkoholi vanema kui 15-aastase elaniku kohta. Lisaks tabel alkoholi tarbimise kohta maailmas

  11. The burden of tetanus in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nanteza, Barbara; Galukande, Moses; Aceng, Jane; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Mbonye, Anthony K; Mukooyo, Eddie; Behumize, Prosper; Makumbi, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The successful scale-up of safe male circumcision (SMC) in Uganda has been hinged on client?s safety and quality of services. However, after the recent three tetanus deaths after circumcision a review of all tetanus cases in one of the hospitals where the cases occurred was initiated. This was to ascertain the potential for an association between tetanus infection and circumcision. Routinely collected national data were also reviewed to determine the burden of tetanus in Uganda and...

  12. Government Districts, Other, Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues, Published in 2014, Not Applicable scale, City of Huntsville Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Government Districts, Other dataset current as of 2014. Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues.

  13. A review of birds in Uganda: records updating the Uganda Atlas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is the first update of the Ugandan avifauna since the publication of the Bird Atlas of Uganda (Carswell et al. 2005) and reviews the status of selected species. It lists eighteen additions to the Uganda list since 2005, some the result of range expansion, but others revealed by advances in identification and ...

  14. Leprosy and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda; a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawuma, H J; Bwire, R; Adatu-Engwau, F

    1994-12-01

    Both leprosy and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are endemic in Uganda. Various speculations about a possible interaction between the two infections have been put forward but not confirmed. A case-control study involving 189 new leprosy patients and 481 matched controls, resident in eight Ugandan districts, was carried out to investigate if any relationship exists between leprosy and infection with HIV-1 in Uganda. Serum samples from 23 (12.2%) of the 189 leprosy patients tested positive for HIV-1 antibodies as compared to 88 (18.3%) of the 481 control sera. The two proportions of HIV seropositivity are not different statistically. A stratified analysis of the data by districts was done and showed a negative relationship between leprosy and HIV infection in the case of Rakai District (0.04 studies seeking to observe the clinical progress of dually infected patients might help to reveal new knowledge about a possible relationship between HIV and leprosy and about the immunology of leprosy in general.

  15. Hepatitis E as a cause of acute jaundice syndrome in northern Uganda, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7-24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Acceptability of male circumcision for prevention of HIV infection among men and women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Lisa M; Akol, Angela; L'Engle, Kelly; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Ramirez, Catalina B; Opio, Alex; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Thomsen, Sarah; Neema, Stella; Baine, Sebastian O

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, three randomized controlled trials in Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda have shown that medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces the sexual transmission of HIV from women to men. Objectives of this assessment were to measure acceptability of adult MMC and circumcision of children to inform policies regarding whether and how to promote MMC as an HIV prevention strategy. This mixed-method study, conducted across four Ugandan districts, included a two-stage household survey of 833 adult males and 842 adult females, focus group discussions, and a health provider survey. Respondents' acceptability of MMC was positive and substantial after being informed about the results of recent randomized trials. In uncircumcised men, between 40% and 62% across the districts would consider getting circumcised. Across the four districts between 60% and 86% of fathers and 49% and 95% of mothers were supportive of MMC for sons. Widespread support exists among men and women in this study for promoting MMC as part of Uganda's current 'ABC + ' HIV prevention strategy.

  17. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  18. Uganda: stolen children, stolen lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omona, G; Matheson, K E

    1998-02-07

    This news article discusses conditions in Uganda due to the 12-year war that jeopardize the health and well-being of children. Since 1995 the rebel Sudan-backed Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has secured new recruits to add to their diminishing numbers by abducting children. As many as 8000 children, ages 11 years and older, have been appropriated in the war effort. The children are abducted, trained as soldiers, and forced to commit brutal crimes and murders. Abducted girls are held as sex slaves and forced to marry. Those children who manage to escape need special psychological and medical interventions during their integration back into normal life. World Vision Uganda and Gulu Support the Children Organization (GUSCO) have set up psychosocial counseling programs to help these children overcome their traumatic experiences. The programs offer the children vocational training, trauma counseling, and reintegration into their families. Children return to their families within 3-6 weeks. The large number of children in need has resulted in difficult follow-up and lack of long-term support. The GUSCO reception center houses about 100 children, 15% of whom are girls. The philosophy of recovery is based on the view that 1) the children are survivors with individual resources and not sick victims; and 2) most of the children will experience a healing process when given protection and understanding. GUSCO uses a community participatory approach that includes children in decision-making and relies on local traditions. The psychosocial supportive environment helps children re-establish self-esteem, trust with other people, and a civilian identity. GUSCO works with families, local groups, teachers, and authorities. Reintegration follow-up occurs after 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The international community should put pressure on Sudan to end its support of the LRA.

  19. Earth Science Education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barifaijo, E.

    1999-05-01

    Uganda has two Government funded universities, five operating private universities and four other universities are due to start soon. Geology was first taught in Uganda at Makerere University in 1968 within the Department of Geography. Through the leadership of Prof. Robert Macdonald it became established as a full department in August 1969 as part of the Faculty of Science. Both pure and applied geology are taught and the courses are designed to suit the current job market. At present, the three-term academic year is being replaced by a semester-based course unit system. At the same time, the 3:2:2 subject combination, requiring a student to do three subjects in first year and two subjects in both second and third years, is to be replaced by a major-minor subject combination. Currently, there are about 50 undergraduate students and four Ph.D. students in the Department. A student Geological Association acts as a forum for the exchange of information on matters of geological concern. An affirmative action policy has improved the intake of women students into the Department. On average, the number of women has increased from about 10% to 33.3% in the years 1984/85 to 1997/98. Their performance parallels that of the male students and they are readily employed. Of the eight members of academic staff, two are women. The Department of Geology has good links with regional and overseas universities through which a number of research programmes are currently supported. In addition, most of the training of manpower for the University and research programmes is supported by regional and international research agencies. Academic staff combine teaching with research and consultancy.

  20. Referral of children seeking care at private health facilities in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K.; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2017-01-01

    facilities in order to explore ways of improving treatment and referral of sick children in this sector. Methods A survey was conducted from August to October 2014 in Mukono district, central Uganda. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire supplemented by Focus Group Discussions and Key Informant...... interviews with private providers and community members. Results A total of 241 private health facilities were surveyed; 170 (70.5%) were registered drug shops, 59 (24.5%) private clinics and 12 (5.0%) pharmacies. Overall, 104/241 (43.2%) of the private health facilities reported that they had referred sick...

  1. Decision space for health workforce management in decentralized settings: a case study in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Raven, Joanna; Theobald, Sally; Ssengooba, Freddie; Nattimba, Milly; Martineau, Tim

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve understanding about how district health managers perceive and use their decision space for human resource management (HRM) and how this compares with national policies and regulatory frameworks governing HRM. The study builds upon work undertaken by PERFORM Research Consortium in Uganda using action-research to strengthen human resources management in the health sector. To assess the decision space that managers have in six areas of HRM (e.g. policy, planning, remuneration and incentives, performance management, education and information) the study compares the roles allocated by Uganda's policy and regulatory frameworks with the actual room for decision-making that district health managers perceive that they have. Results show that in some areas District Health Management Team (DHMT) members make decisions beyond their conferred authority while in others they do not use all the space allocated by policy. DHMT members operate close to the boundaries defined by public policy in planning, remuneration and incentives, policy and performance management. However, they make decisions beyond their conferred authority in the area of information and do not use all the space allocated by policy in the area of education. DHMTs' decision-making capacity to manage their workforce is influenced by their own perceived authority and sometimes it is constrained by decisions made at higher levels. We can conclude that decentralization, to improve workforce performance, needs to devolve power further down from district authorities onto district health managers. DHMTs need not only more power and authority to make decisions about their workforce but also more control over resources to be able to implement these decisions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youth-friendly-services”. Afriam Health Sciences 2005; 5(4): 304 - 309. Introduction. Adolescence (age 10-19) is a transition period from childhood to adulthood 1 that includes sexual experimentation. Adolescents might consider themselves.

  3. Hypertension, cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive medication utilisation among HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Laura D; Newell, Kevin; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Mondo, George; Reynolds, Steven

    2015-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of hypertension, elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among HIV-positive individuals in rural Rakai District, Uganda. We assessed 426 HIV-positive individuals in Rakai, Uganda from 2007 to 2010. Prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure assessed by clinical measurement was compared to clinician-recorded hypertension in case report forms. Multiple logistic regression and z-tests were used to examine the association of hypertension and elevated blood pressure with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), CD4 cell count and antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. For individuals on antihypertensives, medication utilisation was reviewed. The prevalence of hypertension (two elevated blood pressure readings at different time points) was 8.0% (95% CI: 5.4-10.6%), and that of elevated blood pressure (one elevated blood pressure reading) was 26.3% (95% CI: 22.1-30.5%). Age ≥50 years and higher BMI were positively associated with elevated blood pressure. ART use, time on ART and CD4 cell count were not associated with hypertension. Eighty-three percent of subjects diagnosed with hypertension were on antihypertensive medications, most commonly beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers. Hypertension is common among HIV-positive individuals in rural Uganda. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Desire for female sterilization among women wishing to limit births in rural Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutalo, Tom; Gray, Ron; Mathur, Sanyukta; Wawer, Maria; Guwatudde, David; Santelli, John; Nalugoda, Fred; Makumbi, Fredrick

    2015-11-01

    Uganda has an unmet need for family planning of 34% and a total fertility rate of 6.2. We assessed the desire for female sterilization among sexually active women who wanted to stop childbearing in rural Rakai district, Uganda. 7192 sexually active women enrolled in a community cohort between 2002 and 2008 were asked about fertility intentions. Those stating that they did not want another child (limiters) were asked whether they would be willing to accept female sterilization, if available. Trends in desire for sterilization were determined by chi-square test for trend, and Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the associations between desire for sterilization and socio-demographic characteristics and HIV status. From 2002 to 2008, the proportion of limiters dropped (from 47.2% to 43.7%; psterilization significantly increased from 54.2% to 63.1% (psterilization included higher number of living children (>=3), being HIV-infected and having received HIV counseling and testing. There is latent and growing desire for sterilization in this population. Our findings suggest a need to increase permanent contraception services for women who want to limit childbearing in this setting. A large unmet need for permanent female contraception services exists in Uganda. Efforts to increase the method mix by increasing permanent contraception services could reduce fertility rates and undesired births. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Farmer’s Knowledge and Perceptions on Rice Insect Pests and Their Management in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alibu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a new crop in Uganda, but has quickly grown in importance. Between 2000 and 2010, total area under rice cultivation in the country grew by 94% from 140,000 ha. Changes in the agro ecosystem due to expansion in rice area may have altered the pest status of rice insect pests. However, far too little attention has been paid to assessing the prevalence and importance of rice insect-pests in Uganda. In this study, we interviewed 240 lowland-rice farming households from eight districts within the north, east and central regions of Uganda about their perceived insect-pest problems and control measures employed, if any. A semi-structured questionnaire was used. The farmers ranked rice insect pests as the most important biotic constraint in rice production, with stem borers and the African rice gall midge (AfRGM perceived to be the 1st and 2nd most detrimental insect pests, respectively. In spite of this, only 36% of the respondents could positively identify symptoms of AfRGM damage on rice plants, while 64% were familiar with stem borer damage. Over 60% of interviewed farmers expressed confidence in the effectiveness of insecticides for controlling rice insect pests. Cultural control measures were not popular among the farmers.

  6. Lack of effective communication between communities and hospitals in Uganda: a qualitative exploration of missing links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Okui, Olico; Walker, Damien; Mutebi, Aloysius; Pariyo, George

    2009-08-12

    Community members are stakeholders in hospitals and have a right to participate in the improvement of quality of services rendered to them. Their views are important because they reflect the perspectives of the general public. This study explored how communities that live around hospitals pass on their views to and receive feedback from the hospitals' management and administration. The study was conducted in eight hospitals and the communities around them. Four of the hospitals were from three districts from eastern Uganda and another four from two districts from western Uganda. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with medical superintendents of the hospitals. A member from each of three hospital management boards was also interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with health workers from the hospitals. Another eight FGDs (four with men and four with women) were conducted with communities within a five km radius around the hospitals. Four of the FGDs (two with men and two with women) were done in western Uganda and the other four in eastern Uganda. The focus of the KIIs and FGDs was exploring how hospitals communicated with the communities around them. Analysis was by manifest content analysis. Whereas health unit management committees were supposed to have community representatives, the representatives never received views from the community nor gave them any feed back from the hospitals. Messages through the mass media like radio were seen to be non specific for action. Views sent through suggestion boxes were seen as individual needs rather than community concerns. Some community members perceived they would be harassed if they complained and had reached a state of resignation preferring instead to endure the problems quietly. There is still lack of effective communication between the communities and the hospitals that serve them in Uganda. This deprives the communities of the right to participate in the improvement of the

  7. Lack of effective communication between communities and hospitals in Uganda: a qualitative exploration of missing links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutebi Aloysius

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community members are stakeholders in hospitals and have a right to participate in the improvement of quality of services rendered to them. Their views are important because they reflect the perspectives of the general public. This study explored how communities that live around hospitals pass on their views to and receive feedback from the hospitals' management and administration. Methods The study was conducted in eight hospitals and the communities around them. Four of the hospitals were from three districts from eastern Uganda and another four from two districts from western Uganda. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs were conducted with medical superintendents of the hospitals. A member from each of three hospital management boards was also interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with health workers from the hospitals. Another eight FGDs (four with men and four with women were conducted with communities within a five km radius around the hospitals. Four of the FGDs (two with men and two with women were done in western Uganda and the other four in eastern Uganda. The focus of the KIIs and FGDs was exploring how hospitals communicated with the communities around them. Analysis was by manifest content analysis. Results Whereas health unit management committees were supposed to have community representatives, the representatives never received views from the community nor gave them any feed back from the hospitals. Messages through the mass media like radio were seen to be non specific for action. Views sent through suggestion boxes were seen as individual needs rather than community concerns. Some community members perceived they would be harassed if they complained and had reached a state of resignation preferring instead to endure the problems quietly. Conclusion There is still lack of effective communication between the communities and the hospitals that serve them in Uganda. This deprives the

  8. Helicobacter pylori among patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Tsongo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To meet key millennium development goals, the rural population needs to be reached for health assessment and service delivery. Gastroduodenal ulcer disease is a common ailment affecting the health of people in Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Bwera Hospital in Kasese district of western Uganda, to establish the prevalence and predisposing factors of Helicobacter pylori among gastroduodenal ulcer disease patients. Methods: A sample of 174 patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease was purposively obtained. Using two laboratory test methods, the prevalence of H. pylori among these patients was determined. A structured questionnaire was administered to participants to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. Finally, the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunochromatographic rapid test (IRT were compared. Results: We established the prevalence of H. pylori as 29.9% (52/174 by ELISA and 37.4% (65/174 by IRT. Cigarette smoking, poor sanitation, and lack of formal education were the significant predisposing factors with p-values <0.05. The two tests gave identical results in 87.9% of the patients. Discussion: The prevalence of H. pylori by IRT and ELISA test methods was similar to what has been reported elsewhere in developed countries; but was lower than previously reported in developing countries including Uganda. The previous studies in Uganda were carried out in the urban population and on young children; and some used antibody-detection methods only, therefore leading to different prevalence as a result of difference in study population and methods.

  9. Use of Personal Protective Equipment among Building Construction Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Izudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 270 million workplace accidents occur annually. In Uganda, Kampala district has the highest workplace injury and fatality rates. However, information on personal protective equipment (PPE—hand gloves, hardhats, overalls, safety boots, earplugs, safety harness with lanyard, and face shields—utilization among building construction workers remains scarce. We assessed PPE utilization and determinants among building construction workers in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. This cross-sectional study involved 385 respondents. Data collected by structured questionnaire was double-entered in EpiData and analyzed in STATA at 5% significance level. Independent determinants of PPE use were established by a stepwise backward logistic regression analysis. Results. 305 (79.2% respondents were males, 290 (75.3% were 18–30 years, 285 (74.0% completed secondary education, and 197 (51.2% were temporary employees. 60 (15.6% respondents used PPE. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.64; 95% CI: 1.55–28.46; P=0.011, temporary (AOR = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27; P<0.001 and casual (AOR = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.001–0.071; P<0.001 employment, and previous knowledge of safety measures (AOR = 100.72; 95% CI: 26.00–390.16; P<0.001 were associated with PPE use. Conclusion. PPE use was low in Kampala, Uganda. Building construction companies should implement measures of the Uganda Occupational Health and Safety Act.

  10. Strengthening health facilities for maternal and newborn care: experiences from rural eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude Namazzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda maternal and neonatal mortality remains high due to a number of factors, including poor quality of care at health facilities. Objective: This paper describes the experience of building capacity for maternal and newborn care at a district hospital and lower-level health facilities in eastern Uganda within the existing system parameters and a robust community outreach programme. Design: This health system strengthening study, part of the Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST, aimed to increase frontline health worker capacity through district-led training, support supervision, and mentoring at one district hospital and 19 lower-level facilities. A once-off supply of essential medicines and equipment was provided to address immediate critical gaps. Health workers were empowered to requisition subsequent supplies through use of district resources. Minimal infrastructure adjustments were provided. Quantitative data collection was done within routine process monitoring and qualitative data were collected during support supervision visits. We use the World Health Organization Health System Building Blocks to describe the process of district-led health facility strengthening. Results: Seventy two per cent of eligible health workers were trained. The mean post-training knowledge score was 68% compared to 32% in the pre-training test, and 80% 1 year later. Health worker skills and competencies in care of high-risk babies improved following support supervision and mentoring. Health facility deliveries increased from 3,151 to 4,115 (a 30% increase in 2 years. Of 547 preterm babies admitted to the newly introduced kangaroo mother care (KMC unit, 85% were discharged alive to continue KMC at home. There was a non-significant declining trend for in-hospital neonatal deaths across the 2-year study period. While equipment levels remained high after initial improvement efforts, maintaining supply of even the most basic medications was a challenge, with

  11. Predictive mapping of prospectivity for orogenic gold in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sarah; Woldai, Tsehaie; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.

    2014-11-01

    Integration of enhanced regional geo-datasets has facilitated new geological interpretation and modelling of prospectivity for orogenic gold in southwestern Uganda. The geo-datasets include historical geological maps, geological field data, digital terrain models, Landsat TM data and airborne geophysical data. The study area, bordered by the western branch of the East African Rift, covers a range of different aged terranes including the Archaean basement gneisses, Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Buganda Toro Belt, Mesoproterozoic clastic sedimentary Karagwe Ankolean Belt and several outliers of undeformed Neoproterozoic sediments. The mineral systems approach to practical exploration targeting requires a framework to link conceptual models of mineralisation with available data. A conceptual model requires good understanding of key processes and their timing within the geodynamic history of an area. The challenge is that processes cannot be mapped, only their results or effects. In this study, a district-scale (1:100,000) investigation is considered appropriate given the scarcity of geological information and the absence of world-renowned gold deposits in southwestern Uganda. At this scale of orogenic gold mineral systems understanding, evidence for the source of gold, active pathways and the physical traps are considered critical. Following the mineral system approach, these processes critical to orogenic gold systems are translated into district-scale mappable proxies using available regional-scale datasets. Tectono-stratigraphic domains, mantle indicators and gold occurrences represent the “source of gold” as a critical process. Zones of hydrothermal alteration were extracted from radiometric data, structures involved in the orogenies and terrane contacts were extracted to represent the active pathway as a critical process and finally the physical throttle is represented by rheological contrasts and geological complexity. Then, the knowledge

  12. Motivators of couple HIV counseling and testing (CHCT uptake in a rural setting in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Nannozi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Couple HIV Counseling and Testing (CHCT is one of the key preventive strategies used to reduce the spread of HIV. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among married/living together is 7.2% among women and 7.6% among men. CHCT can help ease disclosure of HIV-positive status, which in turn may help increase opportunities to get social support and reduce new infections. The uptake of CHCT among attendees of health facilities in rural Uganda is as high as 34%. The purpose of this study was to explore the motivators of CHCT uptake in Mukono district, a rural setting in Uganda. Methods The study was conducted in two sub-counties in a rural district (Mukono district about 28 km east of the capital Kampala, using a descriptive and explorative qualitative research design. Specifically, we conducted focus group discussions and key informant interviews with HIV focal persons, village health team (VHT members, religious leaders and political leaders. We also interviewed persons in couple relationships. Data was analysed using NVivo 8 software. Ethical clearance was received from the Mengo Hospital Research Review Board and from the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. Results The study was conducted from June 2013 to July 2013 We conducted 4 focus group discussions, 10 key informant interviews and interviewed 53 persons in couple relationships. None of the participants were a couple. The women were 68% (36/53 and 49% (26/53 of them were above 29 years old. The motivators of CHCT uptake were; perceived benefit of HIV testing, sickness of a partner or child in the family and suspicion of infidelity. Other important motivators were men involvement in antenatal care (ANC attendance and preparation for marriage. Conclusion The motivators for CHCT uptake included the perceived benefit of HIV testing, sickness of a partner or child, preparation for marriage, lack of trust among couples and men involvement in antenatal care. Greater

  13. Accessing diabetes care in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited......, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes...

  14. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: Evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham

    2015-01-01

    were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK® FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45...... used vaccine strain. From the Wakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A......, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT...

  15. Community based peer counsellors for support of exclusive breastfeeding: experiences from rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndeezi Grace

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could reduce infant mortality by 13%. Although 99% women initiate breastfeeding in Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low. Although peer counsellors for support of breastfeeding mothers have been found useful in other countries, they have not been used in Uganda. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of training community based peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in a rural district in Uganda. Methods With assistance of the investigators, the local communities selected fifteen women aged 25 to 30 years. These women were trained for five days on breastfeeding counselling using the La Leche League curriculum. After training they returned to their communities and started supporting breastfeeding peers. They were followed up and supported in their work for three months. The programme was evaluated through focus group discussions with the peer counsellors, fathers and mothers. Results The trainees appreciated the knowledge gained and discussed cultural beliefs which affect breastfeeding. They offered breastfeeding support to 15 mothers each within the first two months. They found time to visit and help their breastfeeding peers despite busy schedules. They identified common breastfeeding problems as "insufficient breast milk", sore nipples, breast engorgement, mastitis and poor positioning at the breast. They further observed that most of these problems were eased by correct positioning of the baby at the breast. The peer counsellors were easily accepted by their communities. The mothers were happy to have someone within their community helping them with their breastfeeding problems. Although the peer counsellors were initially selected as volunteers, soon they demanded remuneration. Conclusion The training and follow up of peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in this rural district is feasible. The peer

  16. Comparative Brucella abortus antibody prevalence in cattle under contrasting husbandry practices in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Nizeyimana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the Luwero and Nakasongola districts in central Uganda to determine and compare the prevalence and distribution of antibodies against Brucella abortus in cattle under contrasting husbandry practices, using two serological tests. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were systematically sampled from 29 farms and subsequently tested using the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT and Indirect Antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA. The overall prevalence of antibodies against Brucella abortus in the Nakasongola and Luwero districts was 2.4% and 4.7% on RBPT, compared with 1.2% and 3.34 % on I-ELISA. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by RBPT and indirect antibody ELISA (p > 0.05. It was noted that antibodies against Brucella abortus were widely spread over different farms regardless of the cattle grazing system (p > 0.05. Based on the findings, it is feasible to use RBPT as a cheaper screening alternative for brucellosis. A comprehensive national brucellosis study should be undertaken to study the epidemiology and prevalence of brucellosis in Uganda.

  17. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community Development...

  18. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K

    2014-01-01

    using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression...... countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic...... analysis. RESULTS: The most frequently used pesticides belonged to WHO class II. The farmers had poor knowledge about pesticide toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides. There was no significant association between the number of times of spraying...

  19. MALE FERTILITY IN UGANDA BANANA GERMPLASM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of fertility levels in banana germplasm collection al Kabanyolo, Uganda, was conducted by dehiscing the anthers using a glass rod. ... Must East African highland banana cultivars were found to have more pollen titan lite receutly introduced banane ..... pseudostem and leaves. Close similarity of. inflorescence ...

  20. Institutional Efficiency in Selected Universities in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amina, Nakimuli; Turyahebwa, Abanis

    2015-01-01

    Universities are accountable This study looked into Institutional Efficiency in selected Universities in Central Uganda. The study was guided by the following objectives; Determine the level of institutional efficiency of the universities in terms of educational efficiency; research efficiency and community service efficiency. The study employed…

  1. Uganda | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    We were one of the first organizations to support the development of a Ugandan strategy for adopting and integrating information and communications technology (ICT). Our research on ICTs influenced decision-making and policies. Studies informed Uganda's ICT and universal access policies in the early 2000s — the first ...

  2. Healthy Child Uganda | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many children die from diarrhea, acute respiratory illness and malaria, despite the fact that there are well recognized, inexpensive and highly effective treatments for these ailments. Healthy Child Uganda (HCU), a Ugandan-Canadian partnership, has been operating a village health volunteer program ...

  3. Technology, production and partnership innovation in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Moses Musaazi

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007 a partnership between UNHCR, the Government of Uganda and ‘MakaPads’ inventor Moses Musaazi has helped provide affordable sanitary pads for thousands of refugee girls and women while substantially reducing UNHCR’s expenditure on these essential items.

  4. Biotechnology developments in Uganda and associated challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is an important tool whose application Ugandan scientists are exploring in crop, fish and livestock improvement, value addition, waste management, and in medicine. However, the continuing growth of biotechnology or more broadly, biosciences as an enterprise in Uganda will depend on the support given to ...

  5. Diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...

  6. Environmental interpretation in Uganda's national parks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken in three of Uganda's forested national parks to provide informatiun on the status of environmental interpretation. Sixty questionnaires were administered to range guides and park wardens in Kibale, Rwenzori, and Mnunt. Elgon :"'ational Parks to collect information on job description of rangers and ...

  7. Going interdisciplinary in Uganda's education system | Namusisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the relevance of interdisciplinary education, the crisis in which Uganda's education system is, where specialisation is at its peak. It analyses the form of the present curriculum, which leaves the learner in state of dilemma. The author again shows the need for interdisciplinarity, tries to find out whether ...

  8. Culturing the African lungfish in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The availability of African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) in many communities in Uganda is declining. Indigenous efforts to culture this fish usually produce poor yields and depend on feeding fish fry, minced meat, and leftover food. This study evaluates three formulated diets (diet-. 1, diet-2, diet-3) fed to wild caught ...

  9. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere...

  10. Bottlenecks of blood processing in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and

  11. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. General instructions. The Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences (UJAS) (ISSN: 1026-0919) is a peer reviewed journal publishing manuscripts semi-annually, in the areas of ... Formulae and equations used in the investigation should be indexed with Roman numerals at the right hand side of the page.

  12. Technology, production and partnership innovation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Musaazi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 a partnership between UNHCR, the Government of Uganda and ‘MakaPads’ inventor Moses Musaazi has helped provide affordable sanitary pads for thousands of refugee girls and women while substantially reducing UNHCR’s expenditure on these essential items.

  13. Infant mortality rates and decentralisation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niringiye, Aggrey

    2015-01-01

    Many countries in the developing world have embarked on the path of decentralisation over the last three decades to improve the provision of public goods such as healthcare services. It is hypothesised that devolving power to local governments would improve efficiency as well as equity and thereby health outcomes by bringing decision makers closer to the people, and by enhancing the participation of the community in the decision-making and implementation processes. This paper aims to assess the impact of decentralisation on infant mortality rates in Uganda. The intervention model was used to analyse national representative data from Uganda Demographic Health Surveys (1988/89, 1995, 2001, 2006). Results indicate that infant mortality rates deteriorated during the decentralisation period in three out of four regions in Uganda, but not overall when analysed for the whole country. Decentralisation was supposed to lead to a decrease in infant mortality rates, however, the opposite effect was seen with rates increasing in individual regions. There is need for further detailed studies to understand why infant mortality rates increased during the period of decentralisation in Uganda.

  14. perspectives on biotechnology and biosafety in uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International ett'orts aimed at the application of biotechnology and biosafety are underway. Inevitably,. Uganda is part of this effort. However, the country is constrained by inadequate financial and human resource capacity to foster her vision and strengthen institutional structures to fully benefit from the impact.

  15. Snakes and poles | Osmaston | Uganda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription ...

  16. An Investigation Into the Mediating Role of Inter-organisational Coordination Towards Refugee Protection: A Case Study of Nakivale Refugee Settlement Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kushemererwa, Diana

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of Inter-Organizational Coordination (IOC) towards refugee protection in Nakivale settlement located in Isingiro district in Uganda. Coordination takes place when organizations work together towards a common purpose. As the world is witnessing a dramatic increase in the number of refugees, the need for a strong international protection regime has never been more apparent. In reality, governments may be unable to provide such protection, and they may require the su...

  17. Burden of sickle cell trait and disease in the Uganda Sickle Surveillance Study (US3): a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeezi, Grace; Kiyaga, Charles; Hernandez, Arielle G; Munube, Deogratias; Howard, Thad A; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Nsungwa, Jesca; Kiguli, Sarah; Ndugwa, Christopher M; Ware, Russell E; Aceng, Jane R

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease contributes substantially to mortality in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, 20,000 babies per year are thought to be born with sickle cell disease, but accurate data are not available. We did the cross-sectional Uganda Sickle Surveillance Study to assess the burden of disease. The primary objective of the study was to calculate prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease. We obtained punch samples from dried blood spots routinely collected from HIV-exposed infants in ten regions and 112 districts across Uganda for the national Early Infant Diagnosis programme. Haemoglobin electrophoresis by isoelectric focusing was done on all samples to identify those from babies with sickle trait or disease. Between February, 2014, and March, 2015, 99,243 dried blood spots were analysed and results were available for 97,631. The overall number of children with sickle cell trait was 12,979 (13·3%) and with disease was 716 (0·7%). Sickle cell numbers ranged from 631 (4·6%) for trait and 23 (0·2%) for disease of 13,649 in the South Western region to 1306 (19·8%) for trait and 96 (1·5%) for disease of 6581 in the East Central region. Sickle cell trait was seen in all districts. The lowest prevalence was less than 3·0% in two districts. Eight districts had prevalence greater than 20·0%, with the highest being 23·9%. Sickle cell disease was less common in children older than 12 months or who were HIV positive, which is consistent with comorbidity and early mortality. Prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease were high in Uganda, with notable variation between regions and districts. The data will help to inform national strategies for sickle cell disease, including neonatal screening. Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation. Copyright © 2016 Ndeezi et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. School violence, mental health, and educational performance in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Child, Jennifer C; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Parkes, Jenny; Naker, Dipak

    2014-01-01

    Violence against children from school staff is anecdotally common in low- and middle-income countries, but data on prevalence and associations with mental health and educational outcomes are lacking. We report data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in June and July 2012 in Luwero District, Uganda. Forty-two primary schools representing 80% of students in the district were randomly selected; 100% agreed to participate. The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; and reading, spelling, and math tests were administered. We present descriptive statistics and logistic regression models, accounting for the complex sampling scheme used in the survey. We surveyed 3706 students and 577 school staff members; 93.3% (SE 1.0%) of boys and 94.2% (SE 1.6%) of girls attending primary school reported lifetime experience of physical violence from a school staff member, and >50% reported experience in the past week. Past-week physical violence was associated with increased odds of poor mental health and, for girls, double the odds of poor educational performance (adjusted odds ratio = 1.78, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.66). For boys, significant interactions were present. Despite a ban on corporal punishment in Ugandan schools since 1997, the use of violence against students is widespread and associated with poor mental health and educational performance. School violence may be an important but overlooked contributor to disease burden and poor educational performance in low- and middle-income settings.

  19. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. First Report of the Occurrence of Trichinella-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Pigs in Central and Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesel, Kristina; Nöckler, Karsten; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Fries, Reinhard; Dione, Michel M; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on trichinellosis in Africa focused on isolating Trichinella from wildlife while the role of domestic pigs has remained highly under-researched. Pig keeping in Uganda is historically recent, and evidence on zoonotic pig diseases, including infection with Trichinella species, is scarce. A cross-sectional survey on Trichinella seroprevalence in pigs was conducted in three districts in Central and Eastern Uganda from April 2013 to January 2015. Serum from a random sample of 1125 pigs from 22 villages in Eastern and Central Uganda was examined to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) against any Trichinella spp. using a commercially available ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigen. ELISA positive samples were confirmed using Western Blot based on somatic antigen of Trichinella spiralis as recommended in previous validation studies. Diaphragm pillar muscle samples (at least 5 g each) of 499 pigs from areas with high ELISA positivity were examined using the artificial digestion method. Overall, 78 of all 1125 animals (6.9%, 95% CI: 5.6-8.6%) tested positive for antibodies against Trichinella spp. in the ELISA at significantly higher levels in Kamuli district compared to Masaka and Mukono districts. Thirty-one percent of the ELISA positive samples were confirmed IgG positive by the Western Blot leading to an overall seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2%). The large proportion of ELISA positive samples that could not be confirmed using Western blot may be the result of cross-reactivity with other gastrointestinal helminth infections or unknown host-specific immune response mechanisms in local pig breeds in Uganda. Attempts to isolate muscle larvae for species determination using the artificial digestion method were unsuccessful. Due to the large number of muscle samples examined we are confident that even if pigs are infected, the larval burden in pork is too low to pose a major risk to consumers of developing trichinellosis. This was the first large

  1. A descriptive study on health workforce performance after decentralisation of health services in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutwama George

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda, like many developing countries, is committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs by 2015. However, serious challenges prove to hamper the attainment of these goals, particularly the health related MDGs. A major challenge relates to the human resources for health. The health system in Uganda was decentralised in the 1990s. Despite the health sector reforms, the services have remained significantly deficient and performance of health workers is thought to be one of the contributing factors. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the performance of health workers after decentralisation of the health services in Uganda in order to identify and suggest possible areas for improvement. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive survey, using quantitative research methods was utilised. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 276 health workers in the districts of Kumi, Mbale, Sironko and Tororo in Eastern Uganda. The health workers included doctors, clinical officers, professional nurses and midwives. The sample was selected using stratified random sampling. The data was analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and included both univariate and bivariate analysis. The results were presented in tabular and text forms. Results The study revealed that even though the health workers are generally responsive to the needs of their clients, the services they provide are often not timely. The health workers take initiatives to ensure that they are available for work, although low staffing levels undermine these efforts. While the study shows that the health workers are productive, over half (50.4% of them reported that their organisations do not have indicators to measure their individual performance. The findings indicate that the health workers are skilled and competent to perform their duties. In general, the results show that health workers are proficient

  2. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... District, San Juan Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton Gap District... Robles Willow Creek District, San Juan Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton... Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton Gap District viticultural areas within...

  3. Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee and food producers in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyamurwa, J M; Wamala, S; Baryamutuma, R; Kabwama, E; Loewenson, R

    2013-09-01

    Globalization-related measures to liberalize trade and stimulate export production were applied in Uganda in the late 1980s, including in the coffee production sector, to revitalize agricultural production, increase incomes to farmers and improve rural food security. To explore the different effects of such measures on the health and dietary outcomes of female coffee and food small holder farmers in Uganda. We gathered evidence through a cross-sectional comparative interview survey of 190 female coffee producers and 191 female food producers in Ntungamo district. The study mostly employed quantitative methods of data collection, targeting the sampled households. We also utilized qualitative data; collected three months after the household survey data had been collected and their analysis had been accomplished. Using qualitative interviews based on an unstructured interview guide, extra qualitative information was collected from key informants at national, district and community levels. This was among other underlying principles to avoid relying on snapshot information earlier collected at household level in order to draw valid and compelling conclusions from the study. We used indicators of production, income, access to food and dietary patterns, women's health and health care. Of the two groups selected from the same area, female coffee producers represented a higher level of integration into liberalised export markets. Document review suggests that, although Uganda's economy grew in the period, the household economic and social gains after the liberalization measures may have been less than expected. In the survey carried out, both food and coffee producers were similarly poor, involved in small-scale production, and of a similar age and education level. Coffee producers had greater land and livestock ownership, greater access to inputs and higher levels of income and used a wider variety of markets than food producers, but they had to work longer hours to obtain

  4. Food variety consumption and household food insecurity coping strategies after the 2010 landslide disaster - the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Peter M; Oshaug, Arne; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per O

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the nutritional situation of the victims of the 2010 landslide disaster in Uganda, food varieties consumed and coping strategies were assessed. Cross-sectional. Food variety scores (FVS) were obtained as the total of food items eaten over the last week while an index was based on severity weighting of household food insecurity coping strategies. We included 545 affected and 533 control households. Victims in the affected Bududa district in Eastern Uganda and those victims resettled in the Kiryandongo district, Western Uganda. Adjusted for covariates, in Bududa significantly higher mean FVS were observed among: affected than controls; farmers than others; and relief food recipients. Control households scored higher means (se) on severity of coping: 28·6 (1·3) v. 19·2 (1·2; P<0·01). In Kiryandongo, significantly higher FVS were observed among: control households; household heads educated above primary school; those with assets that complement food source; and recipients of relief food. Severity of coping was significantly higher among affected households and non-recipients of relief food. Affected households had a higher likelihood to skip a day without eating a household meal in Bududa (OR=2·31; 95 % CI 1·62, 3·29; P<0·01) and Kiryandongo (OR=1·77; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·57; P<0·01). Whereas FVS and severity of coping showed opposite trends in the two districts, resettlement into Kiryandongo led to severe coping experiences. Administrative measures that provide a combination of relief food, social protection and resettlement integration may offset undesirable coping strategies affecting diet.

  5. VT School Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont School Districts and one Interstate School District. Part of data sets which model Vermont's education system governance boudaries for...

  6. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  7. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  8. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  9. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  10. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  11. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  12. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Ayebale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote

  13. t he Cluster Approach in northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Huber; Birkeland, Nina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.

  14. t he Cluster Approach in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Huber

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.

  15. Uganda nursing research agenda: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, L A; Gray, J; Opollo, J; Mbalinda, S

    2015-06-01

    Use a Delphi Methodology to identify nursing research priorities in Uganda. Identifying nursing research priorities, empowering researchers, and encouraging relevant studies can advance attaining global health goals. The Uganda Nurses and Midwives Union identified the need to establish a nursing research agenda. Nurse leaders have a priority of increasing the influence of nurses in practice and policy. This study was conducted as a preliminary step in a long-term strategy to build nurses' capacity in nursing research. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. The 45 study participants were nurses in practice, nurse faculty and members of the Uganda Nurses and Midwives Union. In the initial round, the participants wrote their responses during face-to-face meetings and the follow-up rounds were completed via email. Maternal and child morbidity and HIV/AIDS were identified as research priorities. Nurses also identified nursing practice, education and policy as key areas that nursing research could impact. Demographic characteristics such as length of time in nursing were not collected. Additionally, first round participants completed a pencil-paper survey and the follow-up rounds were done by email. Nurse Leaders in Uganda identified areas where research efforts could have the most impact and were most relevant to nursing practice. Health policy decisions have historically been made without nursing input. Nursing research can provide evidence to inform policy and, ultimately, improve population health. The focus of nursing research in priority areas can be used to guide nursing contribution in policy discussions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  16. District-based malaria epidemic early warning systems in East Africa: perceptions of acceptability and usefulness among key staff at health facility, district and central levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline; Abeku, Tarekegn A; Rapuoda, Beth; Okia, Michael; Cox, Jonathan

    2008-07-01

    Malaria epidemics represent a significant public health problem in the highlands of Africa. Many of these epidemics occur in low resource settings, where the development of an effective system for malaria surveillance has been a key challenge. Between 2001 and 2006, the Highland Malaria Project (HIMAL) established a programme to develop and test a district-based surveillance system for the early detection and control of malaria epidemics in four pilot districts in Kenya and Uganda. An innovative feature of the programme was the devolution of responsibility for the detection of epidemics from the central Ministry of Health to District Health Management Teams. The implementation of the programme offered the opportunity to test both the technical aspects of the system and to examine the practical issues relating to the operation of the programme in the context of the existing health system. To investigate the attitude of key staff towards the programme, and their perceptions of its impact on their working practices, interviews were carried out among 52 health staff at district level and in the Ministries of Health in Kenya and Uganda. The transfer of responsibility for the early detection of epidemics to the districts had resulted in perceptions of individual empowerment among district-based staff. This, together with improved support supervision, was a key factor in sustaining motivation and improved surveillance. The enhanced support supervision also produced capacity benefits that extended beyond improved malaria surveillance. However, these improvements occurred in the context of increased logistical support (the provision of transport, fuel and travel allowances) which the participants believed was essential to the functioning of an effective system. With this proviso, the district-based malaria early warning system was perceived to be manageable, effective and sustainable in the context of the current health system.

  17. A second Uganda record of Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-05

    Oct 5, 2014 ... A bird atlas of Kenya. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. SKEEN, R.Q. 2014. A review of birds in Uganda: records updating the Uganda Atlas and notes on species unrecorded since 1980. Scopus 33: 53–63. Roger Q. Skeen. NatureUganda, Plot 1, Katalina Crescent, Naguru, P.O. Box 27034, Kampala, Uganda.

  18. Nature and dynamics of climate variability in the uganda cattle corridor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meteology Department

    2013-08-12

    Aug 12, 2013 ... 1Department of Geography, Geo-Informatics and Climatic Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda. 2Africa Innovations Institute, Kampala, Uganda. 3Department of Biology, Gulu University, Uganda. 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Uganda.

  19. Decentralisation and Development: Can Uganda now pass the test of being a role model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ssonko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uganda’s Government of the National Resistance Movement (NRM assumed power in 1986, in an environment of political turmoil, and initiated a policy of decentralisation as a way of restoring state credibility and deepening democracy. Decentralisation was accordingly legislated under the Local Government Act of 1997, as a framework act directing the decentralisation process. The aim of the Act was to enable implementation of decentralisation provisions provided for under Chapter 11 of the 1995 National Constitution. The decentralisation policy in Uganda aimed at improving local democracy, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability in the delivery of essential services country-wide. Improved service delivery was in turn expected to make significant positive impact on people’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the implementation of decentralisation appears to have concentrated more on administrative objectives as a means of promoting popular democracy and less on service delivery which would have led to economic transformation and better lives for the majority of Ugandans, and now new districts are being created without corresponding improvements in service delivery. Surprisingly, this is happening in the midst of external praise that decentralisation reform in Uganda is one of the most far-reaching local government reform programmes in the developing world. The paper explores the role of decentralisation in development and how it can be undermined by political factors. It highlights the development of decentralisation in Uganda, discusses its achievements, failure and challenges, and concludes that the decentralisation programme which was ambitious and politically driven has had mixed results in terms of enhancing service delivery and should be seriously reviewed and strengthened if it is to remain as a role model in Africa.

  20. Determinants of malaria diagnostic uptake in the retail sector: qualitative analysis from focus groups in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica; Cox, Alex; Dickens, William; Maloney, Kathleen; Lam, Felix; Fink, Günther

    2015-02-21

    In Uganda, as in most other malaria-endemic countries, presumptive treatment for malaria based on symptoms without a diagnostic blood test is still very common. While diagnostic testing in public sector facilities is increasing, many people in Uganda who suspect malaria visit private sector outlets to purchase medications. Increasing the availability and uptake of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria in private outlets could help increase diagnostic testing for malaria but raises questions about the patient demand for and valuation of testing that are less critical for public sector introduction. In preparation for a behaviour change campaign to encourage and sustain the demand for RDTs in drug shops, eight focus group discussions with a total of 84 community members were conducted in six districts across Uganda's Eastern Region in November-December 2011. Focus groups explored incentives and barriers to seeking diagnosis for malaria, how people react to test results and why, and what can be done to increase the willingness to pay for RDTs. Overall, participants were very familiar with malaria diagnostic testing and understood its importance, yet when faced with limited financial resources, patients preferred to spend their money on medication and sought testing only when presumptive treatment proved ineffective. While side effects did seem to be a concern, participants did not mention other potential costs of taking unnecessary or ineffective medications, such as money wasted on excess drugs or delays in resolution of symptoms. Very few individuals were familiar with RDTs. In order to boost demand, these results suggest that private sector RDTs will have to be made convenient and affordable and that targeted behaviour change campaigns should strive to increase the perceived value of diagnosis.

  1. The Cost-Effectiveness of Supplementary Immunization Activities for Measles: A Stochastic Model for Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Benjamin; Nair, Divya; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Fiona-Makmot, Braka; Simons, Emily; Dabbagh, Alya

    2011-01-01

    Supplemental Immunization Activities (SIAs) have become an important adjunct to measles control efforts in countries that endeavor to achieve higher levels of population immunity than can be achieved in a growing routine immunization system. Because SIAs are often supported with funds that have alternative uses, decision makers need to know how cost-effective they are compared with other options. This study integrated a dynamic stochastic model of measles transmission in Uganda (2010–2050) with a cost model to compare a strategy of maintaining Uganda's current (2008) levels of the first dose of routine measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage at 68% with SIAs with a strategy using the same levels of MCV1 coverage without SIAs. The stochastic model was fitted with parameters drawn from district-level measles case reports from Uganda, and the cost model was fitted to administrative data from the Ugandan Expanded Program on Immunization and from the literature. A discount rate of 0.03, time horizon of 2010–2050, and a societal perspective on costs were assumed. Costs expressed in US dollars (2010) included vaccination costs, disease treatment costs including lost productivity of mothers, as well as costs of outbreaks and surveillance. The model estimated that adding on triennial SIAs that covered 95% of children aged 12–59 months to a system that achieved routine coverage rates of 68% would have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $1.50 ($US 2010) per disability-adjusted life year averted. The ICER was somewhat higher if the discount rate was set at either 0 or 0.06. The addition of SIAs was found to make outbreaks less frequent and lower in magnitude. The benefit was reduced if routine coverage rates were higher. This cost-effectiveness ratio compares favorably to that of other commonly accepted public health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21666151

  2. Socio-cultural inhibitors to use of modern contraceptive techniques in rural Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Reid, Alice; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Family planning is one of the cost-effective strategies in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Yet in Uganda, the contraceptive prevalence rate is only 30% among married women in conjunction with a persistently high fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman. These demographic indicators have contributed to a high population growth rate of over 3.2% annually. This study examines the role of socio-cultural inhibitions in the use of modern contraceptives in rural Uganda. This was a qualitative study conducted in 2012 among men aged 15-64 and women aged 15-49 in the districts of Mpigi and Bugiri in rural Uganda. Eighteen selected focus group discussions (FGDs), each internally homogeneous, and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among men and women. Data were collected on sociocultural beliefs and practices, barriers to modern contraceptive use and perceptions of and attitudes to contraceptive use. All interviews were tape recoded, translated and transcribed verbatim. All the transcripts were coded, prearranged into categories and later analyzed using a latent content analysis approach, with support of ATLAS.ti qualitative software. Suitable quotations were used to provide in-depth explanations of the findings. Three themes central in hindering the uptake of modern contraceptives emerged: (i) persistence of socio-cultural beliefs and practices promoting births (such as polygamy, extending family lineage, replacement of the dead, gender-based violence, power relations and twin myths). (ii) Continued reliance on traditional family planning practices and (iii) misconceptions and fears about modern contraception. Sociocultural expectations and values attached to marriage, women and child bearing remain an impediment to using family planning methods. The study suggests a need to eradicate the cultural beliefs and practices that hinder people from using contraceptives, as well as a need to scale-up family planning services and sensitization

  3. A Survey: Potential Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Tolerant to Drought or Resistant to Stem Borers in Uganda

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    Isaac M. Wamatsembe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Uganda is constrained by various factors, but especially drought and stem borers contribute to significant yield losses. Genetically modified (GM maize with increased drought tolerance and/or Bt insect resistance (producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry protein is considered as an option. For an ex ante impact analysis of these technologies, a farmer survey was carried out in nine districts of Uganda, representing the major farming systems. The results showed that farmers did rate stem borer and drought as the main constraints for maize farming. Most farmers indicated a positive attitude towards GM maize, and 86% of all farmers said they would grow GM maize. Farmer estimated yield losses to drought and stem borer damage were on average 54.7% and 23.5%, respectively, if stress occurred. Taking the stress frequency into consideration (67% for both, estimated yield losses were 36.5% and 15.6% for drought and stem borer, respectively. According to the ex-ante partial budget analysis, Bt hybrid maize could be profitable, with an average value/cost ratio of 2.1. Drought tolerant hybrid maize had lower returns and a value/cost ratio of 1.5. Negative returns occurred mainly for farmers with non-stressed grain yields below 2 t·ha−1. The regulatory framework in Uganda needs to be finalized with consideration of strengthening key institutions in the maize sector for sustainable introduction of GM maize.

  4. Advances in breeding for sweetpotato virus resitance in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vf(anda Journal ofAgricultural Sciences, 2000, 5:4-6. Printed in Uganda. All rights re.c;ervcd. ISSN 1026-0919. ©2000 National Agricultural Research Organisation. Advances in breeding for sweetpotato virus resitance in Uganda. R.O.M. Mwanga, G. Turyumurccba, V. Arit11a. Namulonge Agricultural and Animal Production ...

  5. The development of an information society for Uganda's industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the environment within which Uganda can be productively involved in the process of building an information society for industrial development. There are concerted efforts by the government of Uganda and civil society organisations in the country towards the development of information literacy and ...

  6. A descriptive epidemiological study on stroke in Kampala, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Basic stroke features are hardly known in sub-Saharan countries, and no data are available in Uganda. Objective To characterize patients presenting with clinical stroke to Mulago Hospital. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting Mulago National referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Participants ...

  7. national immunisation days for polio eradication in uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-02-02

    Feb 2, 2000 ... NATIONAL IMMUNISATION DAYS FOR POLIO ERADICATION IN UGANDA: DID IMMUNISATION CARDS INCREASE COVERAGE? F. Nuwaha ... Methods: NIDs for polio eradication commenced in Uganda in 1996. Two rounds ... number of immunisation posts used were 13,000 of which about. 40% were ...

  8. Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…

  9. Boda Boda Injuries in Gulu Regional Hospital, Northern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trauma is the commonest indication for surgical admission in Gulu Hospital in Northern Uganda. The situation was made worst by the conflict between the government of Uganda and the LRA. As and when the guns fell silent, the Boda-boda motocycles brought another form of trauma epidemic. These injuries ...

  10. Uganda Coffee Supply Response and Export Demand: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric methods were used to estimate the supply and demand functions for Uganda's coffee using time series data for the period 1971-91. Eight major importing countries for Uganda's coffee: U.S., U.K., Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and the Netherlands were considered in export demand analysis.

  11. Widowhood and barriers to seeking health care in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirivayi, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether widowhood was associated with experiencing barriers to seeking health care in Uganda. Data from 8674 women aged between 15 and 49 years in the 2011 Uganda Demographic Health Survey, were analysed using multivariable logistic regression models. Compared to other women,

  12. Challenges to Quality Primary and Secondary Education in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey and discussion focus on the challenges to quality education in Uganda. It is over136 years since formal education was introduced in Uganda by the Christian Missionaries in 1877 and 1879. These were Anglican and Roman Catholic Missionaries respectively. Given the plethora of implicit and explicit challenges ...

  13. High proportion of mosquito vectors in Zika forest, Uganda, feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHOEBE

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... 1964), Witwatersrand and Germiston (Monath et al.,. 1972), Uganda S virus (Dick and Haddow, 1952) and yellow fever (Kirya et al., 1977) were isolated from mosquitoes. However, mosquito blood-meal studies from forests in. Uganda including Zika, were discontinued after the. 1970's due to instabilities in ...

  14. Birds of isolated small forests in Uganda | Dranzoa | Scopus: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study concerns birds recorded from four small forests in Uganda, three of them being naturally isolated and the fourth being a fragment of the once extensive forests of southern Uganda. Whilst the forest interior birds in the natural forest islands might be considered subsets of those found in larger forests, the fact that the ...

  15. Gastropod distribution in Lakes George and Edward, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastropod distribution in Lakes George and Edward, Uganda, relative to copper and cobalt levels. RD Holmberg, H Madsen, TK Kristensen, A Jørgensen. Abstract. Published data show that Lake George, Uganda, has a poorer gastropod fauna than Lake Edward, to which it is connected through the Kazinga Channel.

  16. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 16, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inheritance of resistance to (NGR1) pathogen isolates of Pyricularia grisea in GULU-E finger millet last resistant variety of Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Farmer awareness, coping mechanisms and economic implications of coffee leaf rust disease in Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Assessment of Business Information Access Problems in Uganda

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    Constant Okello-Obura

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uganda's economy has great potential. Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development at independence. However, chronic political instability and erratic economic management produced a record of persistent economic decline that left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries (United States, Bureau of African Affairs 2007. This situation can be averted by effectively promoting the involvement of the engine of economic growth, the SMEs in national and international businesses. The international involvement of SMEs requires accurate and adequate access to relevant business information. Based on that, a study was conducted to assess the problems SMEs face in accessing business information in Uganda. The study using a descriptive design with survey research techniques among others examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in northern Uganda and established whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information. The paper reports on among others the proposed strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs . The paper concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs.

  18. PRACTICE POINTS: Breast cancer guidelines for Uganda | The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in Uganda is the third commonest cancer in women coming only next to cancer of the cervix and Kaposi's sarcoma. The incidence of breast cancer in Uganda has doubled from 11:100,000 in 1961 to 22:100,000 in 1995. Unfortunately the cases are often seen in late stages thus the outcome of treatment is ...

  19. Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural research in Uganda started around 1898. However, research on manures came into light after 19-03 when commercial cotton varieties were introduced in the country. It was after the cotton introductions that declining soil fertility was considered a serious problem. Under the Uganda conditions, the use of artificial ...

  20. Pedestrian traffic injuries among school children in Kawempe, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traffic injuries are an important problem in low income countries. In Uganda road traffic is the largest single cause of injury in Kampala; pedestrians, and children are most affected. Pedestrian injury affects school children in Uganda. Objective: To determine the overall risk of pedestrian traffic injury among ...

  1. Overview of groundnuts research in Uganda: Past, present and future

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Overview of groundnuts research in Uganda: Past, present and future. D. K. Okello1*, M. Biruma1 and C. M. Deom2. 1Groundnut breeding Department, National Semi-Arid Research Resources Institute, P.O Box Soroti, Uganda. 2Department of Pathology at the University of Georgia, University of Georgia, ...

  2. Realized Access to Antenatal Care Utilization in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores into realized access to antenatal care utilisation in Uganda. This emanates from the fact that access to antenatal care is still a national nemesis, (National Service Delivery Survey Report, 2005). In Uganda, the Ministry of Health (MoH) recommends that a pregnant woman should attend antenatal care at ...

  3. Uganda : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le corridor du bétail couvre environ 40 % de la surface terrestre de l'Ouganda et constitue l'un des écosystèmes les plus fragiles du pays. Région: Uganda ... TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment. Projet ... Région: Uganda. Programme: Governance and Justice.

  4. Uganda's Vision 2040 and Human Needs Promotion | Balyejjusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2013 the President of Uganda Yoweri Kaguta Museveni launched Uganda's Vision 2040, a thirty-year development master plan which has received both praise and criticism from Ugandans. Although Vision 2040 has received both praise and criticism in almost equal measure, in this article I argue that Vision 2040 does ...

  5. Grey Crowned Cranes Balearica regulorum in urban areas of Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    landscapes: the case of Crowned Crane breeding and distribution outside Protected Areas in Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 48: 119–125. Pomeroy, d.e. 1980a. Aspects of the ecology of Crowned Crane Balearica regulorum in Uganda. Scopus 4: 29–35. Pomeroy, d.e. 1980b. Growth and plumage changes of the Grey ...

  6. All projects related to Uganda | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-19

    Security Council Report Inc. Start Date: August 19, 2010. End Date: March 31, 2013. Topic: INFORMATION ... Region: Uganda. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 434,340.00. Food, Health and Climate Change Adaptation in Uganda. Project. Extensive areas of sub-Saharan and especially East ...

  7. Dynamics of Revenue Generation in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of revenue generation in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda are explored. Results demonstrate that revenue generation is sluggish in Tanzania compared to Kenya and Uganda. Macroeconomic environment, economic structure, and level of development are fundamental at explaining these differences. Results ...

  8. Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural research in Uganda started around 1898. However, research on manures came into light after 19-03 when commercial cotton varieties were introduced in the country. It was after the cotton introductions that declining soil fertility was considered a serious problem. Under the Uganda conditions, the use of artificial ...

  9. A century of soils research and development in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to soil productivity. Early soils research- 1914 to 1944. Early soil productivity research in Uganda was linked to introduction of cash crops [cotton, tobacco, coffee or tea] into the indigenous farming systems. Initial [ 191 0-1924) agricultural trials in Uganda suggested that climate was the rna in factor controlling yield of cotton.

  10. Book Publishing Patterns in Uganda: Challenges and Prospects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the book publishing patterns in Uganda. The paper looks at the development of Ugandas book industry and assesses the factors that have impeded its growth. Current opportunities at the disposal of the industry are highlighted and the way forward outlined. Some of the factors identified as inhibiting ...

  11. Uganda : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: SURGERY, MEDICAL EDUCATION, MEDICAL CARE, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Uganda. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants. Financement total : CA$ 295,285.00. Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU). Projet. En Afrique subsaharienne ...

  12. Suicide in urban Kampala, Uganda: a preliminary exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Suicide was investigated in the urban setting of Kampala, Uganda. Objectives: Firstly, to explore the use of two research methodologies, a retrospective review of patient records and the psychological autopsy methodology in suicide research in Uganda. Secondly to investigate the characteristics and correlates ...

  13. Helping patients in Uganda overcome weight gain and obesity using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity is one of the fastest growing health problems in Uganda and across the world and its rising prevalence is placing additional strain on medical resources. At its simplest level obesity is a consequence of unhealthy lifestyles. Preventing its spread in Uganda will rest on the ability of society to motivate individuals to ...

  14. Theory and Practice in Language Policy: The Case of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The team that carried out the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa (with specific reference to Uganda) was non-committal on stating the number of languages there are in Uganda. In the end, they mentioned 63 languages/dialects which fall into 5 groups based on broad lexical and grammatical ...

  15. Quality of Antenatal care services in eastern Uganda: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) provides opportunity to detect and respond to risky maternal conditions. This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of benchmarking implications for interventions. Methods Data was collected from 15 health facilities in Eastern Uganda to establish capacity ...

  16. Treatment patterns of childhood diarrhoea in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey

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    Löfgren Jenny

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death in children under five accounting for 1.8 million deaths yearly. Despite global efforts to reduce diarrhoea mortality through promotion of proper case management, there is still room for ample improvement. In order to seek options for such improvements this study explored the knowledge and practices of diarrhoea case management among health care providers at health centres and drug shops in Uganda. Methods Records were reviewed for case management and structured interviews concerning knowledge and practices were conducted with the staff at all health centres and at all identified drug shops in the rural district of Namutumba, Uganda. Results There was a significant gap between knowledge and documented practices among staff. Antibiotics, antimalarials and antipyretics were prescribed or recommended as frequently as Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS. In almost a third of the health facilities, ORS was out of stock. 81% of staff in health centres and 87% of staff in drug shops stated that they prescribed antibiotics for common diarrhoea. Zinc was not prescribed or recommended in any case. Conclusions The findings indicate that many children presenting with diarrhoea are inadequately treated. As a result they may not get the rehydration they need and are at risk of potential side effects from unjustified usage of antibiotics. Practices must be improved at health centres and drug shops in order to reduce childhood mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases.

  17. Treatment patterns of childhood diarrhoea in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Jenny; Tao, Wenjing; Larsson, Elin; Kyakulaga, Francis; Forsberg, Birger C

    2012-09-25

    Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death in children under five accounting for 1.8 million deaths yearly. Despite global efforts to reduce diarrhoea mortality through promotion of proper case management, there is still room for ample improvement. In order to seek options for such improvements this study explored the knowledge and practices of diarrhoea case management among health care providers at health centres and drug shops in Uganda. Records were reviewed for case management and structured interviews concerning knowledge and practices were conducted with the staff at all health centres and at all identified drug shops in the rural district of Namutumba, Uganda. There was a significant gap between knowledge and documented practices among staff. Antibiotics, antimalarials and antipyretics were prescribed or recommended as frequently as Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). In almost a third of the health facilities, ORS was out of stock. 81% of staff in health centres and 87% of staff in drug shops stated that they prescribed antibiotics for common diarrhoea. Zinc was not prescribed or recommended in any case. The findings indicate that many children presenting with diarrhoea are inadequately treated. As a result they may not get the rehydration they need and are at risk of potential side effects from unjustified usage of antibiotics. Practices must be improved at health centres and drug shops in order to reduce childhood mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases.

  18. Desire for female sterilization among women wishing to limit births in rural Rakai, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutalo, Tom; Gray, Ron; Mathur, Sanyukta; Wawer, Maria; Guwatudde, David; Santelli, John; Nalugoda, Fred; Makumbi, Fredrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective Uganda has an unmet need for family planning of 34% and a total fertility rate of 6.2. We assessed the desire for female sterilization among sexually active women who wanted to stop childbearing in rural Rakai district, Uganda. Study design 7,192 sexually active women enrolled in a community cohort between 2002 and 2008 were asked about fertility intentions. Those stating that they did not want another child (limiters) were asked whether they would be willing to accept female sterilization, if available. Trends in desire for sterilization were determined by Chi-square test for trend, and Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals of the associations between desire for sterilization and socio-demographic characteristics and HIV status. Results From 2002 to 2008, the proportion of limiters dropped (47.2% to 43.7%; ppills and injectables among limiters significantly increased, 38.9% to 50.3% (p=3), being HIV-infected and having received HIV counseling and testing. Conclusion There is latent and growing desire for sterilization in this population. Our findings suggest a need to increase permanent contraception services for women who want to limit childbearing in this setting. PMID:26232377

  19. Stakeholder's perceptions of help-seeking behaviour among people with mental health problems in Uganda

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    Ndyanabangi Sheila

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problems, and the factors that may influence such behaviours in Uganda. Method Sixty-two interviews and six focus groups were conducted with stakeholders drawn from national and district levels. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using a framework analysis approach. Results The findings revealed that in some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help-seeking behaviour within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness, the nature of service delivery, accessibility and cost, stigma. Conclusion Increasing the uptake of mental health services requires dedicating more human and financial resources to conventional mental health services. Better understanding of socio-cultural factors that may influence accessibility, engagement and collaboration with traditional healers and conventional practitioners is also urgently required.

  20. Malaria diagnosis and mapping with m-Health and geographic information systems (GIS: evidence from Uganda

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    Alberto Larocca

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural populations experience several barriers to accessing clinical facilities for malaria diagnosis. Increasing penetration of ICT and mobile-phones and subsequent m-Health applications can contribute overcoming such obstacles. Methods GIS is used to evaluate the feasibility of m-Health technologies as part of anti-malaria strategies. This study investigates where in Uganda: (1 malaria affects the largest number of people; (2 the application of m-Health protocol based on the mobile network has the highest potential impact. Results About 75% of the population affected by Plasmodium falciparum malaria have scarce access to healthcare facilities. The introduction of m-Health technologies should be based on the 2G protocol, as 3G mobile network coverage is still limited. The western border and the central-Southeast are the regions where m-Health could reach the largest percentage of the remote population. Six districts (Arua, Apac, Lira, Kamuli, Iganga, and Mubende could have the largest benefit because they account for about 28% of the remote population affected by falciparum malaria with access to the 2G mobile network. Conclusions The application of m-Health technologies could improve access to medical services for distant populations. Affordable remote malaria diagnosis could help to decongest health facilities, reducing costs and contagion. The combination of m-Health and GIS could provide real-time and geo-localized data transmission, improving anti-malarial strategies in Uganda. Scalability to other countries and diseases looks promising.

  1. Allocative efficiency of smallholder common bean producers in Uganda: A stochastic frontier and Tobit model approach

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    Sibiko, K.W.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated allocative efficiency levels of common bean farms in Eastern Uganda and the factors influencing allocative efficiencies of these farms. To achieve this objective, a sample of 480 households was randomly selected in Busia, Mbale, Budaka and Tororo districts in Eastern Uganda. Data was collected using a personally administered structured questionnaire with a focus on household decision makers; whereas a stochastic frontier model and a two limit Tobit regression model were employed in the analysis. It was established that the mean allocative efficiency was 29.37% and it was significantly influenced by farm size, off-farm income, asset value and distance to the market. Therefore the study suggested the need for policies to discourage land fragmentation and promote road and market infrastructure development in the rural areas. The study also revealed the need for farmers to be trained on entrepreneurial skills so that they can invest their farm profits into more income generating activities that will harness more farming capital.

  2. Persistent high fertility in Uganda: young people recount obstacles and enabling factors to use of contraceptives

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    Nalwadda Gorrette

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High fertility among young people aged 15-24 years is a public health concern in Uganda. Unwanted pregnancy, unsafe induced abortions and associated high morbidity and mortality among young women may be attributed to low contraceptive use. This study aims at exploring reasons for low contraceptive use among young people. Methods In 16 focus group discussions, the views of young people about obstacles and enabling factors to contraceptive use in Mityana and Mubende districts, Uganda were explored. The groups were homogeneously composed by married and unmarried men and women, between the ages of 15-24. The data obtained was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Young men and women described multiple obstacles to contraceptive use. The obstacles were categorized as misconceptions and fears related to contraception, gender power relations, socio-cultural expectations and contradictions, short term planning, and health service barriers. Additionally, young people recounted several enabling factors that included female strategies to overcome obstacles, changing perceptions to contraceptive use, and changing attitude towards a small family size. Conclusions Our findings suggest changing perceptions and behavior shift towards contraceptive use and a small family size although obstacles still exist. Personalized strategies to young women and men are needed to motivate and assist young people plan their future families, adopt and sustain use of contraceptives. Reducing obstacles and reinforcing enabling factors through education, culturally sensitive behavior change strategies have the potential to enhance contraceptives use. Alternative models of contraceptive service delivery to young people are proposed.

  3. Constraints to educational opportunities of orphans: a community-based study from northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleke, C; Blystad, A; Fylkesnes, K; Tumwine, J K

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this article is to assess constraints on educational opportunities of orphans cared for within the extended family system in Lira district, northern Uganda. The data were collected through: review of school census records; ethnographic fieldwork; in-depth interviews with 21 community leaders, 45 heads of households caring for orphans and 35 orphans. Focus group discussions were held with men and women caring for orphans, community leaders and orphans. A household survey was conducted in 402 households caring for orphans. We found that very poor widows living on less than half a dollar per day head 48% of the households caring for orphans. The elderly heads of households were 3 times more likely to have all the children in their household in schools than the younger ones. Furthermore, the widowed and single heads of households were more likely to have all orphans in school than the married, and households that received external support offered better educational opportunities. Poverty, as indicated by lack of food while at school and heavy involvement of orphans in domestic labour, were identified as major constraints on orphans' schooling. There is an urgent need to support orphans' education in northern Uganda beyond the current Universal Primary Education efforts. The most vulnerable households need to be targeted, and the communities need to be sensitized to child labour, school meals and sex abuse.

  4. Risk factors for mortality in landslide- and flood-affected populations in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shreya; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Assess mortality risk factors including age, sex, and disaster type, in the March 2010 floods and landslides in Eastern Uganda and to compare time period, cause, location, and receipt of medical care among landslide and flood fatalities. A stratified cluster survey was conducted of 802 affected households in community and camp locations. Flood and landslide affected populations in the East Uganda the districts of Baduda and Butaleja. Adult household members in 802 households were surveyed regarding household member deaths in the floods and landslides areas. The primary outcome measure was the odds of death associated with age, sex, and disaster type (flood or landslide). The secondary outcome measure was the odds of event (landslide or flood) among fatalities associated with sex, age, time period of death, and cause of death. The odds of death were significantly higher in landslide affected populations than in flood affected populations (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.20-4.25, p cause of death (p floods. More deaths occurred due to landslides than floods, and landslide deaths were more immediate, with a majority occurring on the day of the event. Females and younger age groups faced a greater risk of death from the landslide than the flood.

  5. Circulation of bluetongue virus in goats in the Karamoja region of Uganda

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    Carrie A. Batten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV in indigenous goats from the Karamoja region of northern Uganda was investigated. A total of 300 goats were sampled (serum and whole blood from five districts within the Karamoja region. The samples were analysed for the presence of bluetongue (BT antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and for the presence of BTV viral RNA by real-time Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, because BTV is an RNA virus. Of the 300 goats tested, 269 (90% were positive for BTV antibodies, indicating high levels of BTV circulation within the region. Out of the 150 whole blood samples tested for the presence of the virus by real-time RT-PCR, 84 (56% were positive for BTV RNA. This study, which is the first of its kind in Uganda, showed a high seroprevalence of BT antibodies and active circulation of BTV in a high proportion of goats in the Karamoja region.

  6. Circulation of bluetongue virus in goats in the Karamoja region of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah N. Mulabbi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV in indigenous goats from the Karamoja region of northern Uganda was investigated. A total of 300 goats were sampled (serum and whole blood from five districts within the Karamoja region. The samples were analysed for the presence of bluetongue (BT antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and for the presence of BTV viral RNA by real-time Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, because BTV is an RNA virus. Of the 300 goats tested, 269 (90% were positive for BTV antibodies, indicating high levels of BTV circulation within the region. Out of the 150 whole blood samples tested for the presence of the virus by real-time RT-PCR, 84 (56% were positive for BTV RNA. This study, which is the first of its kind in Uganda, showed a high seroprevalence of BT antibodies and active circulation of BTV in a high proportion of goats in the Karamoja region.

  7. A review of birds in Uganda: records updating the Uganda Atlas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is the first update of the Ugandan avifauna since the publication of the Bird. Atlas of Uganda .... main migration of Black Terns is along the West coast of Africa to wintering areas in. Namibia. Fischer's ... similar to that in which the species occurs in neighbouring Kenya, so its discovery was not so surprising.

  8. Recentralization of local government chief administrative officers appointments in Uganda: Implications for downward accountability

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    Lazarus Nabaho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Uganda Constitution of 1995 spelt out the principle of decentralization by devolution. Accordingly, from 1995 to 2005, district local governments had a dejure mandate to hire and fire all categories of civil servants through their respective district service commissions (DSCs. Following the Constitutional amendment in September 2005, the right to hire and fire district chief administrative officers (CAOs reverted to central government. Critics of recentralization of CAO appointments contend that the shift in the policy and legislation for managing CAOs runs contrary to the principles of decentralization by devolution. This paper argues that recentralization of CAOs has confused reporting, reduced the autonomy of sub-national governments in civil service management, undermined accountability of CAOs to elected councils, and shifted the loyalty of CAOs from local governments with and for which they work to central government that appoints and deploys them. To deepen accountability in local governments, the paper advocates for decentralization of CAO appointments, but for participation of central government in recruitment of CAOs within the confines of a separate personnel system. It further calls for a rethinking of the current call by the 9th Parliament to recentralize human resource in health in local governments owing to accountability challenges of managing the civil service in sub-national governments under an integrated personnel system.

  9. Enhanced passive screening and diagnosis for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in north-western Uganda - Moving towards elimination.

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    Charles Wamboga

    Full Text Available The incidence of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (gHAT in Uganda has been declining, from 198 cases in 2008, to only 20 in 2012. Interruption of transmission of the disease by early diagnosis and treatment is core to the control and eventual elimination of gHAT. Until recently, the format of available screening tests had restricted screening and diagnosis to central health facilities (passive screening. We describe a novel strategy that is contributing to elimination of gHAT in Uganda through expansion of passive screening to the entire population at risk.In this strategy, patients who are clinically suspected of having gHAT at primary health facilities are screened using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT, followed by parasitological confirmation at strategically located microscopy centres. For patients who are positive with the RDT and negative by microscopy, blood samples undergo further testing using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, a molecular test that detects parasite DNA. LAMP positive patients are considered strong suspects, and are re-evaluated by microscopy. Location and upgrading of facilities to perform microscopy and LAMP was informed by results of georeferencing and characterization of all public healthcare facilities in the 7 gHAT endemic districts in Uganda. Three facilities were upgraded to perform RDTs, microscopy and LAMP, 9 to perform RDTs and microscopy, and 200 to screen patients with RDTs. This reduced the distance that a sick person must travel to be screened for gHAT to a median distance of 2.5km compared to 23km previously. In this strategy, 9 gHAT cases were diagnosed in 2014, and 4 in 2015.This enhanced passive screening strategy for gHAT has enabled full coverage of the population at risk, and is being replicated in other gHAT endemic countries. The improvement in case detection is making elimination of the disease in Uganda an imminent possibility.

  10. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda. Copyright © 2015

  11. Factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda

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    Oyok Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 20 year war in northern Uganda between the Lord's Resistance Army and the Ugandan government has resulted in the displacement of up to 2 million people within Uganda. The purpose of the study was to measure rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression amongst these internally displaced persons (IDPs, and investigate associated demographic and trauma exposure risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional multi-staged, random cluster survey with 1210 adult IDPs was conducted in November 2006 in Gulu and Amuru districts of northern Uganda. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version, and levels of depression were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association of demographic and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Results Over half (54% of the respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD, and over two thirds (67% of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. Over half (58% of respondents had experienced 8 or more of the 16 trauma events covered in the questionnaire. Factors strongly linked with PTSD and depression included gender, marital status, distance of displacement, experiencing ill health without medical care, experiencing rape or sexual abuse, experiencing lack of food or water, and experiencing higher rates of trauma exposure. Conclusion This study provides evidence of exposure to traumatic events and deprivation of essential goods and services suffered by IDPs, and the resultant effect this has upon their mental health. Protection and social and psychological assistance are urgently required to help IDPs in northern Uganda re-build their lives.

  12. 'Better medicines for children' within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness framework: a qualitative inquiry in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Ogwal-Okeng, Japer; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Mbonye, Anthony; Muyinda, Herbert; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses is the main approach for treating children in more than 100 low income countries worldwide. In 2007, the World Health Assembly urged countries to integrate 'better medicines for children' into their essential medicines lists and treatment guidelines. WHO regularly provides generic algorithms for IMCI and publishes the Model Essential Medicines List with child-friendly medicines based on new evidence for member countries to adopt. However, the status of 'better medicines for children' within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses approach in Uganda has not been studied. Qualitative interviews were conducted with: two officials from the ministry of health; two district health officials and, 22 health workers from public health facilities. Interview transcripts were manually analyzed for manifest and latent content. Child-appropriate dosage formulations were not included in the package for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses and ministry officials attributed this to resource constraints and lack of initial guidance from the World Health Organization. Underfunding reportedly undercut efforts to: orient health workers; do support supervision and update treatment guidelines to reflect 'better medicines for children'. Health workers reported difficulties in administering tablets and capsules to under-five children and that's why they preferred liquid oral dosage formulations, suppositories and injections. The IMCI strategy in Uganda was not revised to reflect child-appropriate dosage formulations - a missed opportunity for improving the quality of management of childhood illnesses. Funding was an obstacle to the integration of child-appropriate dosage formulations. Ministry of health should prioritize funding for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses and revising the Essential Medicines and Health Supplies List of Uganda, the Uganda Clinical Guidelines and, the Treatment Charts for the

  13. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I

    2010-07-01

    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  14. Adolescent suicidality as seen in rural northeastern Uganda: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Kizza, Ruth; Levin, Jonathan; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Abbo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in adolescence is a public health concern and has serious consequences for adolescents and their families. There is, however, a paucity of data on this subject from sub-Saharan Africa, hence the need for this study. A cross-sectional multistage survey to investigate adolescent suicidality among other things was undertaken in rural northeastern Uganda. A structured protocol administered by trained psychiatric nurses collected information on sociodemographics, mental disorders (DSM-IV criteria), and psychological and psychosocial risk factors for children aged 3-19 years (N = 1492). For the purposes of this paper, an analysis of a subsample of adolescents (aged 10-19 years; n = 897) was undertaken. Lifetime suicidality in this study was 6.1% (95% CI, 4.6%-7.9%). Factors significantly associated with suicidality included mental disorder, the ecological factor district of residence, factors suggestive of low socioeconomic status, and disadvantaged childhood experiences.

  15. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Novel Virus Strain, Uganda, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J.; Talisuna, Ambrose O.; Okware, Sam I.

    2010-01-01

    During August 2007–February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78–8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions. PMID:20587179

  16. Patterns, risk factors and characteristics of reported and perceived foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Mwiine, Frank N.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda were elucidated from spatial and temporal retrospective data retrieved from monthly reports from District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to the central administration for the years spanning 2001–2008. An assessment of perceived FMD...... occurrence, risk factors and the associated characteristics was made based on semi-structured questionnaires administered to the DVOs. During this period, a total of 311 FMD outbreaks were reported in 56 (70%) out of Uganda’s 80 districts. The number of reported FMD outbreaks changed over time...... and by geographical regions. Occurrence of FMD was significantly associated with the dry season months (p = 0.0346), the time when animals movements are more frequent. The average number of FMD outbreaks was higher for some sub-counties adjacent to national parks than for other sub-counties, whilst proximity...

  17. Pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John C; Irving, Helen; Okedi, Loyce M; Steven, Andrew; Wondji, Charles S

    2010-07-29

    The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved. A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly increased the numbers of field-caught females laying eggs and generated more than 4000 F1 adults. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus in Tororo is resistant to pyrethroids (62% mortality after 1 h exposure to 0.75% permethrin and 28% mortality to 0.05% deltamethrin). Suspected DDT resistance was also observed with 82% mortality. However this population is fully susceptible to bendiocarb (carbamate), malathion (organophosphate) and dieldrin with 100% mortality observed after exposure to each of these insecticides. Sequencing of a fragment of the sodium channel gene containing the 1014 codon conferring pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. gambiae did not detect the L1014F kdr mutation but a correlation between haplotypes and resistance phenotype was observed indicating that mutations in other exons may be conferring the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays suggest that resistance in this population is mediated by metabolic resistance with elevated level of GSTs, P450s and pNPA compared to a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae. RT-PCR further confirmed the involvement of P450s with a 12-fold over-expression of CYP6P9b in the Tororo population compared to the fully susceptible laboratory colony FANG. This study represents the first report of pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. funestus from East Africa. With resistance already reported in southern and West Africa, this indicates that resistance in An. funestus may be more widespread than previously assumed and therefore this should be taken into account

  18. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary L; Paydos, Michael

    2008-06-20

    This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article--number two in the series--describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM) system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM.

  19. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paydos Michael

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article – number two in the series – describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP, a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM.

  20. Risk factors for injuries in landslide- and flood-affected populations in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shreya; Gopalakrishnan, Tisha; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-08-01

    The frequency of occurrence of natural disasters has increased over the past several decades, which necessitates a better understanding of human vulnerability, particularly in low-resource settings. This paper assesses risk factors for injury in the March 2010 floods and landslides in Eastern Uganda, and compares the effects of location, injury type, and severity. A stratified cluster survey of the disaster-affected populations was conducted five months after onset of the disasters. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to sample 800 households, including 400 affected by floods in Butaleja District and 400 affected by landslides in Bududa District. Flood- and landslide-affected populations were surveyed in July 2010 using a stratified cluster design. The odds of injury were 65% higher in the flood-affected groups than the landslide-affected groups in a logistic regression (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52; P < .001). The injury rate was greater in individuals under 42 years of age, and location of injury was a contributing factor. More people were injured in the flood-affected population as compared with the landslide-affected population, and injuries were more severe. This study illustrates differences between populations injured by flood and landslide disasters that occurred simultaneously in Eastern Uganda in 2010. In areas where landslides are prone to occur due to massive rainfalls or floods, preventative measures, such as early warning systems and evacuation, are more likely to increase the likelihood of people surviving, while for areas with massive floods, immediate and effective medical attention can save lives and improve injury outcomes.

  1. Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of potato pests and their management in Uganda

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    Joshua Sikhu Okonya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we initiate entomological research on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. in Uganda, there is need to understand farmers’ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and their management practices. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM strategy. A farm household survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted among 204 potato farmers in six districts of Uganda (i.e., Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, Kapchorwa, Mubende, and Kyegegwa during August and September 2013. Diseases, insect pests, price fluctuations, and low market prices were the four highest ranked constraints in potato production, in order of decreasing importance. Cutworms (Agrotis spp., aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer, and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller were the three most severe insect pests. Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard were pests of moderate importance. Major yield losses are predominantly due to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary and reached 100% without chemical control in the districts of Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, and Kapchorwa. On average, farmers had little to moderate knowledge about pest characteristics. The predominant control methods were use of fungicides (72% of respondents and insecticides (62% of respondents. On average, only 5% of the 204 farmers knew about insect pests and their natural enemies. This lack of knowledge calls for training of both farmers and extension workers in insect pest identification, their biology, and control. Empowering farmers with knowledge about insect pests is essential for the reduction of pesticide misuse and uptake of more environmentally friendly approaches like IPM. Field surveys would need follow-up in order to assess the actual field infestation rates and intensities of each insect pest and compare the results with the responses

  2. Cost of individual peer counselling for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

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    Nankunda Jolly

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for 6 months is the recommended form of infant feeding. Support of mothers through individual peer counselling has been proved to be effective in increasing exclusive breastfeeding prevalence. We present a costing study of an individual peer support intervention in Uganda, whose objective was to raise exclusive breastfeeding rates at 3 months of age. Methods We costed the peer support intervention, which was offered to 406 breastfeeding mothers in Uganda. The average number of counselling visits was about 6 per woman. Annual financial and economic costs were collected in 2005-2008. Estimates were made of total project costs, average costs per mother counselled and average costs per peer counselling visit. Alternative intervention packages were explored in the sensitivity analysis. We also estimated the resources required to fund the scale up to district level, of a breastfeeding intervention programme within a public health sector model. Results Annual project costs were estimated to be US$56,308. The largest cost component was peer supporter supervision, which accounted for over 50% of total project costs. The cost per mother counselled was US$139 and the cost per visit was US$26. The cost per week of EBF was estimated to be US$15 at 12 weeks post partum. We estimated that implementing an alternative package modelled on routine public health sector programmes can potentially reduce costs by over 60%. Based on the calculated average costs and annual births, scaling up modelled costs to district level would cost the public sector an additional US$1,813,000. Conclusion Exclusive breastfeeding promotion in sub-Saharan Africa is feasible and can be implemented at a sustainable cost. The results of this study can be incorporated in cost effectiveness analyses of exclusive breastfeeding promotion programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Coping Strategies for Landslide and Flood Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Mt. Elgon Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuret, Jimmy; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Mayega, Roy William; Ssentongo, Julius; Tumuhamye, Nathan; Mongo Bua, Grace; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bazeyo, William

    2016-07-11

    The occurrence of landslides and floods in East Africa has increased over the past decades with enormous Public Health implications and massive alterations in the lives of those affected. In Uganda, the Elgon region is reported to have the highest occurrence of landslides and floods making this area vulnerable. This study aimed at understanding both coping strategies and the underlying causes of vulnerability to landslides and floods in the Mt. Elgon region. We conducted a qualitative study in three districts of Bududa, Manafwa and Butalejja in the Mt. Elgon region in eastern Uganda. Six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and eight Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. We used trained research assistants (moderator and note taker) to collect data. All discussions were audio taped, and were transcribed verbatim before analysis. We explored both coping strategies and underlying causes of vulnerability. Data were analysed using latent content analysis; through identifying codes from which basis categories were generated and grouped into themes. The positive coping strategies used to deal with landslides and floods included adoption of good farming methods, support from government and other partners, livelihood diversification and using indigenous knowledge in weather forecasting and preparedness. Relocation was identified as unsustainable because people often returned back to high risk areas. The key underlying causes of vulnerability were; poverty, population pressure making people move to high risk areas, unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness and, cultural beliefs affecting people's ability to cope. This study revealed that deep rooted links to poverty, culture and unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness were responsible for failure to overcome the effects to landslides and floods in disaster prone communities of Uganda. However, good farming practices and support from the government and implementation partners were shown to be effective

  4. Off-Grid Electricity Access and its Impact on Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoro, Peter N.

    The history of development shows convincingly that no country has substantially reduced poverty without massively increasing the use of electricity. The development of micro-enterprises in rural areas of Uganda is linked with increased access and use of electricity services. In this study, I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including informal surveys, intra-business energy allocation studies and historical analysis, to analyze off-grid electricity access among micro-enterprises in rural western Uganda. I explore the linkages between of grid electricity access and the influence it has on micro- enterprises. Data is obtained from 56 micro-enterprises located in 11 village-towns within 3 districts in Uganda. In studying the micro-enterprises. the focus is on the services that are provided by electricity from modern energy carriers. The type of equipment used, forms of transportation, technical support, level of understanding and education of the entrepreneur, financing for energy equipment, and the role of donors are discussed in this thesis. Qualitative methods are used to allow for new insights and prioritization of concepts to emerge from the field rattier than from theory. Micro-enterprises in rural Uganda create income for the poor; they are resources for poverty reduction. With price adjustments, it becomes possible for those who live below the poverty line, nominally less than $1 a day, to afford the products and services and therefore mitigating the vicious cycle of poverty. Energy consumption among the micro-enterprises is at an average of 0.13kWh/day. The cost of accessing this amount of electricity attributes to about 50% of total revenue. I find that the "practices" used in off-grid electricity access lead to situations where the entrepreneurs have to evaluate pricing and output of products and services to generate higher profits. Such numbers indicate the need for appropriate technologies and profitable policies to be implemented. The data

  5. Patterns, risk factors and characteristics of reported and perceived foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Mwiine, Frank N; Muwanika, Vincent B; Okurut, Anna Rose Ademun; Siegismund, Hans R; Alexandersen, Soren

    2010-10-01

    Patterns of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda were elucidated from spatial and temporal retrospective data retrieved from monthly reports from District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to the central administration for the years spanning 2001-2008. An assessment of perceived FMD occurrence, risk factors and the associated characteristics was made based on semi-structured questionnaires administered to the DVOs. During this period, a total of 311 FMD outbreaks were reported in 56 (70%) out of Uganda's 80 districts. The number of reported FMD outbreaks changed over time and by geographical regions. Occurrence of FMD was significantly associated with the dry season months (p = 0.0346), the time when animals movements are more frequent. The average number of FMD outbreaks was higher for some sub-counties adjacent to national parks than for other sub-counties, whilst proximity to international border only seemed to play a role at the southern border. DVOs believed that the major risk factor for FMD outbreaks was animal movements (odds ratio OR 50.8, confidence interval CI 17.8-144.6) and that most outbreaks were caused by introduction of sick animals.

  6. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and evaluation of FAMACHA diagnostic marker in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabukenya, Immaculate; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Olila, Deogracious; Muhangi, Denis; Höglund, Johan

    2014-10-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a challenge to goat production globally causing reduced growth, morbidity and mortality. We report here results of the first nation-wide anthelmintic resistance (AR) study and validation of assessment of clinical anaemia with FAMACHA eye scores in goats in Uganda. From August to December 2012 the efficacy of albendazole (7.5mg/kg), levamisole (10.5mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.3mg/kg) against strongyle nematodes was tested on 33 goat farms in Soroti, Gulu, Mpigi, Mbarara and Ssembabule districts of Uganda. Altogether 497 goats were subjected to a total of 45 different faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT), each involving 5-20 goats. On one farm all substances were tested. Faecal and blood samples were collected and FAMACHA eye scores evaluated on the day of treatment and 15 days later. A questionnaire survey was conducted on frequency, type and dose of anthelmintics used, farm size and grazing management system. Examination of infective third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures demonstrated Haemonchus to be the predominant genus (>75%). Resistance to at least one anthelmintic group was detected on 61% of the 33 farms and in 49% of the 45 test groups. Prevalence of resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole was respectively 58%, 52% and 38%. Correlation between pre-treatment packed cell volume determinations and FAMACHA scores (r(498) = -0.89) was significant. Paddock grazing system (Odds ratio 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-17.3) and large farm size of >40 goats (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16.1) were significant predictors of AR. In all districts, resistance to all three anthelmintics was higher on large-scale goat farms practising mostly paddock grazing. Interestingly, resistance to albendazole, the most commonly used anthelmintic in Uganda, was lower than that to ivermectin and levamisole. We recommend adaptation of FAMACHA to goats to help restrict anthelmintic treatment to heavily infected individuals. This will limit

  7. Menstrual health and school absenteeism among adolescent girls in Uganda (MENISCUS): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miiro, George; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Nakuya, Kevin; Musoke, Saidat; Namakula, Juliet; Francis, Suzanna; Torondel, Belen; Gibson, Lorna J; Ross, David A; Weiss, Helen A

    2018-01-03

    Management of menstruation can present substantial challenges to girls in low-income settings. In preparation for a menstrual hygiene intervention to reduce school absenteeism in Uganda, this study aimed to investigate menstruation management practices, barriers and facilitators, and the influence of menstruation on school absenteeism among secondary school students in a peri-urban district of Uganda. Qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted among consenting girls and boys aged 14-17 years in four secondary schools in Entebbe sub-District, Uganda. Methods included group and in-depth interviews with students, a quantitative cross-sectional questionnaire, a prospectively self-completed menstrual diary, key informant interviews with policy makers, and observations of school water, sanitation and hygiene facilities. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with school absenteeism during the most recent menstrual period. Girls reported substantial embarrassment and fear of teasing related to menstruation in the qualitative interviews, and said that this, together with menstrual pain and lack of effective materials for menstrual hygiene management, led to school absenteeism. All policy makers interviewed reported poverty and menstruation as the key factors associated with school attendance. The 352 girls with questionnaire data had a median age of 16 (inter-quartile range (IQR) = 15,16) years, with median age at menarche of 13 (IQR = 13,14) years. Of these, 64 girls (18.7%) reported having stained their clothes and 69 (19.7%) reported missing at least 1 day of school, during their most recent period. Missing school during the most recent period was associated with physical symptoms (headache (odds ratio (OR) = 2.15, 95%CI:1.20, 3.86), stomach pain (OR = 1.89, 95%CI:0.89, 4.04), back pain (OR = 1.75, 95%CI:0.97, 3.14), and with changing protection 4 or more times per 24 h period (OR = 2.08, 95%CI:1.06, 4.10). In

  8. Managing Ebola from rural to urban slum settings: experiences from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, Sam I; Omaswa, Francis; Talisuna, Ambrose; Amandua, Jacinto; Amone, Jackson; Onek, Paul; Opio, Alex; Wamala, Joseph; Lubwama, Julius; Luswa, Lukwago; Kagwa, Paul; Tylleskar, Thorkild

    2015-03-01

    Five outbreaks of ebola occurred in Uganda between 2000-2012. The outbreaks were quickly contained in rural areas. However, the Gulu outbreak in 2000 was the largest and complex due to insurgency. It invaded Gulu municipality and the slum- like camps of the internally displaced persons (IDPs). The Bundigugyo district outbreak followed but was detected late as a new virus. The subsequent outbreaks in the districts of Luwero district (2011, 2012) and Kibaale (2012) were limited to rural areas. Detailed records of the outbreak presentation, cases, and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. Each outbreak was described and the outcomes examined for the different scenarios. Early detection and action provided the best outcomes and results. The ideal scenario occurred in the Luwero outbreak during which only a single case was observed. Rural outbreaks were easier to contain. The community imposed quarantine prevented the spread of ebola following introduction into Masindi district. The outbreak was confined to the extended family of the index case and only one case developed in the general population. However, the outbreak invasion of the town slum areas escalated the spread of infection in Gulu municipality. Community mobilization and leadership was vital in supporting early case detection and isolations well as contact tracing and public education. Palliative care improved survival. Focusing on treatment and not just quarantine should be emphasized as it also enhanced public trust and health seeking behavior. Early detection and action provided the best scenario for outbreak containment. Community mobilization and leadership was vital in supporting outbreak control. International collaboration was essential in supporting and augmenting the national efforts.

  9. LEADERSHIP STYLES AND EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION IN UGANDA: THE CASE OF UGANDA MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Epiphany Picho Odubuker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Leadership Styles and job satisfaction among the staff of Uganda Management Institute. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used with a sample size being 118. Purposive, stratified and systematic sampling techniques were used to select respondents. Data analysis involved frequencies and percentages, Spearman rank Order correlation, coefficient of determination, regression, and ANOVA. There was a strong positive re...

  10. All projects related to Uganda | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: LEGISLATION, Democracy, Governance, ADMINISTRATIVE LAW, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, GENDER ANALYSIS. Region: South of Sahara, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 622,400.00. Using Evidence to Reduce Health Inequalities in East and Southern Africa. Project.

  11. The History of Resource Mobilization and Social Spending in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Marianne; Katusiimeh, Mesharch W.

    This paper is the first of a series of papers exploring the political and institutional contexts of resource mobilization and social spending for social development in Uganda. We provide the historical context of, and trends in, resource mobilization (domestic and external revenue) and social...... spending in post-independence Uganda. After years of civil war, mismanagement and general decline, Uganda turned a page in 1986 when NRM (National Resistance Movement) came to power. During the 1990s and early 2000s, Uganda was a prototypical donor-dependent country with aid constituting more than half...... of education and health care is still disappointing and social protection programmes remain neglected. Moreover, domestic resource mobilization has not improved considerably which points to issues of weak institutional capacity as well as the contested nature of taxation. Trends in recent years show...

  12. Banana research in Uganda; Meeting Challenges and Exploring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PLANTUser

    2013-04-02

    , Bagamba F and AMK Abera. Monograph on geographic shifts in highland cooking banana (Musa, group. AAA-EA) production in Uganda, Afr. Crop Sci. J. 1999; 7: 223-298. 3. Bekunda M and PL Woomer Organic resource ...

  13. The new female condom (FC2) in Uganda: perceptions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new female condom (FC2) in Uganda: perceptions and experiences of users and their sexual partners. Rhoda K Wanyenze, Lynn Atuyambe, Vista Kibirige, Sarah Mbabazi, Nazarius M Tumwesigye, Kara Djurhuus, Alice Namale ...

  14. All projects related to Uganda | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    End Date: August 15, 2013. Topic: HEALTH SYSTEM, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, HEALTH PLANNING, RESEARCH CAPACITY, STRATEGIC PLANNING. Region: Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 137,690.00.

  15. Uganda : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 31 juillet 2010. Sujet: URBAN AGRICULTURE, WATER TREATMENT, WATER REUSE, DOMESTIC WASTES, WASTE RECYCLING, COMPOSTING, SMALL ENTERPRISES. Région: Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 1,200,000.00.

  16. All projects related to Uganda | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: AGRICULTURAL LAND, AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY, AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. Region: Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 904,800.00. Involvement ...

  17. All projects related to Uganda | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC RECESSION, WOMEN WORKERS, UNEMPLOYMENT, GENDER ANALYSIS, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, SURVEYS. Region: Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Uganda, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 791,200.00. Linking African Researchers with ...

  18. All projects related to Uganda | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC RECESSION, WOMEN WORKERS, UNEMPLOYMENT, GENDER ANALYSIS, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, SURVEYS. Region: Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Uganda, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 791,200.00. Linking African Researchers with ...

  19. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 15, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severity of angular leaf spot and rust diseases on common beans in Central Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Pamela, D Mawejje, M Ugen, 63-72 ...

  20. Prescribing Practices and Polypharmacy in Kitovu Hospital, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescribing Practices and Polypharmacy in Kitovu Hospital, Uganda. N McGaughey, M Lynch, D Bell. Abstract. This audit of prescribing practices explores recent trends at Kitovu Hospital, Uganda. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 2.89 ± 0.11, of which 1.79±0.09 were generics and 0.69±0.06 ...

  1. Chikungunya in Uganda: Sometimes the Hoof Beats Really Are Zebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Anne Eller3, Merlin L. Robb4, Peter Kataaha5, Nelson L. Michael6, Lisa E. Hensley7, and Randal J. Schoepp1* 1 US Army Medical Institute of...Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA 2 College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA 3 Makerere University Walter Reed ...Project, Kampala, Uganda 4 Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland, USA 5 Nakasero Blood Bank, Kampala, Uganda 6 Walter Reed Army

  2. Assessment of Business Information Access Problems in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Constant Okello-Obura; Mabel K. Minishi-Majanja; Linda Cloete; J.R. Ikoja-Odongo

    2007-01-01

    Uganda's economy has great potential. Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development at independence. However, chronic political instability and erratic economic management produced a record of persistent economic decline that left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries (United States, Bureau of African Affairs 2007). This situation can be ave...

  3. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  4. To use or not to use a condom: A prospective cohort study comparing contraceptive practices among HIV-infected and HIV-negative youth in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Stella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection are issues of significant concern to young people. Limited data exists on contraceptive decision-making and practices among HIV-infected and HIV-negative young people in low resource settings with generalized HIV epidemics. Methods From July 2007 until April 2009, we recruited, and followed up over a one year period, a cohort of 501 HIV-negative and 276 HIV-infected young women and men aged 15-24 years residing in Kampala and Wakiso districts. We compared contraceptive use among HIV-infected and HIV-negative young people and assessed factors associated with contraceptive decision-making and use, using multivariate logistic regression modelling to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Contraceptive use among sexually active HIV-infected young people was 34% while it was 59% among the HIV-negative group. The condom was the most frequently used method of contraception. Only 24% of the HIV-infected used condoms consistently compared to 38% among the negative group OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.38, 0.82. HIV-infected young people were more likely to discuss safe sex behaviour with health workers OR 1.70 (95% CI 1.13, 2.57, though its effect on fertility decision-making was not significant. Throughout the year's follow-up, only 24% among the HIV-negative and 18% among the HIV-infected continued to use contraception while 12% and 28% among the HIV-negative and infected respectively did not use contraception at all. At multivariate analysis, the HIV-infected young people were less likely to maintain contraceptive use. Other factors independently associated with sustained contraceptive use were age of the respondent, marital status and being a male. Conversely, HIV-infected young people were less likely to initiate use of contraception. Being married or in a relationship was associated with higher odds of initiating contraceptive use. Conclusion Compared to the HIV-negative group

  5. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  6. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  7. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  8. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  9. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  10. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  11. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  12. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  13. Assessment of core capacities for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] – Uganda, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisu Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda is currently implementing the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] within the context of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR. The IHR(2005 require countries to assess the ability of their national structures, capacities, and resources to meet the minimum requirements for surveillance and response. This report describes the results of the assessment undertaken in Uganda. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional assessment using the protocol developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO. The data collection tools were adapted locally and administered to a convenience sample of HR(2005 stakeholders, and frequency analyses were performed. Results Ugandan national laws relevant to the IHR(2005 existed, but they did not adequately support the full implementation of the IHR(2005. Correspondingly, there was a designated IHR National Focal Point (NFP, but surveillance activities and operational communications were limited to the health sector. All the districts (13/13 had designated disease surveillance offices, most had IDSR technical guidelines (92%, or 12/13, and all (13/13 had case definitions for infectious and zoonotic diseases surveillance. Surveillance guidelines were available at 57% (35/61 of the health facilities, while case definitions were available at 66% (40/61 of the health facilities. The priority diseases list, surveillance guidelines, case definitions and reporting tools were based on the IDSR strategy and hence lacked information on the IHR(2005. The rapid response teams at national and district levels lacked food safety, chemical and radio-nuclear experts. Similarly, there were no guidelines on the outbreak response to food, chemical and radio-nuclear hazards. Comprehensive preparedness plans incorporating IHR(2005 were lacking at national and district levels. A national laboratory policy existed and the strategic plan was being drafted. However, there were critical gaps

  14. Uganda women shy away from the pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekatawa, E K

    1993-01-01

    According to the 1988/89 Demographic and Health Survey of Uganda (UDHS), over 80% of women of reproductive age were acquainted with how to obtain family planning methods. 33% of married women wanted to postpone childbearing, and 19% wanted no more children at all. In spite of this, the survey also showed that only 2.7% were currently using a modern method of contraception, and 7% had ever tried one. Most of these women were aged 20-40 years, and they were married with 4 or more children, lived in urban areas, and had at least primary school education. One of the barriers was poor information about modern methods such as injectables, IUDs, vasectomy, and spermicides. They knew only about pills and female sterilization. In addition, 40% of married women stated that their husbands disapproved of family planning (FP), and the medical community had not promoted FP as an alternative to pregnancy complications. The Family Planning Association of Uganda (FPAU) has recruited 33% of all FP acceptors, and government services another 42%. FPAU has only 17 clinics, and staff strength would have to be expanded to 150 providers, instead of the existing 40 service providers, to meet the demand. The poor, rural population is hard to reach. 76% of public health staff was located in urban areas serving only 11% of the total population. Most trained nurses and midwives have not been deployed to maternal-child health and FP delivery points. The side effects of contraceptives are also often exaggerated, leading to discontinuation with a current drop-out rate of 30%. Training for service providers requires practice: 15 IUDs have to be inserted before being certified competent in the procedure. In Kampala, there are an average of 250 IUD acceptors a month, thus training is compromised with fewer insertions. The lack of equipment is another hindrance, and students have to be taught using models.

  15. Book Review - No-Party Democracy in Uganda, Myths and Realities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review - No-Party Democracy in Uganda, Myths and Realities by Senzo Ngubane No-Party Democracy in Uganda, Myths and Realities - Mugaju, Justus and Oloka-Onyango (eds.)2000. Uganda: Fountain Publishers, 158 pp. Reviewed by Senzo Ngubane, Research Officer, ACCORD ...

  16. Pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Morgan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved.A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly increased the numbers of field-caught females laying eggs and generated more than 4000 F1 adults. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus in Tororo is resistant to pyrethroids (62% mortality after 1 h exposure to 0.75% permethrin and 28% mortality to 0.05% deltamethrin. Suspected DDT resistance was also observed with 82% mortality. However this population is fully susceptible to bendiocarb (carbamate, malathion (organophosphate and dieldrin with 100% mortality observed after exposure to each of these insecticides. Sequencing of a fragment of the sodium channel gene containing the 1014 codon conferring pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. gambiae did not detect the L1014F kdr mutation but a correlation between haplotypes and resistance phenotype was observed indicating that mutations in other exons may be conferring the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays suggest that resistance in this population is mediated by metabolic resistance with elevated level of GSTs, P450s and pNPA compared to a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae. RT-PCR further confirmed the involvement of P450s with a 12-fold over-expression of CYP6P9b in the Tororo population compared to the fully susceptible laboratory colony FANG.This study represents the first report of pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. funestus from East Africa. With resistance already reported in southern and West Africa, this indicates that resistance in An. funestus may be more widespread than previously assumed and therefore this should be taken

  17. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J Vonasek

    Full Text Available Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302, the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802. When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each. The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates.

  18. Violence against primary school children with disabilities in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Zuurmond, Maria; Parkes, Jenny; Child, Jennifer C; Walakira, Eddy J; Naker, Dipak

    2014-09-29

    150 million children live with disabilities globally, and a recent systematic review found 3 to 4 times the levels of violence versus non-disabled children in high income countries. However, almost nothing is known about violence against disabled children in lower income countries. We aim to explore the prevalence, patterns and risk factors for physical, sexual and emotional violence among disabled children attending primary school in Luwero District, Uganda. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the baseline survey of the Good Schools Study. 3706 children and young adolescents aged 11-14 were randomly sampled from 42 primary schools. Descriptive statistics were computed and logistic regression models fitted. 8.8% of boys and 7.6% of girls reported a disability. Levels of violence against both disabled and non-disabled children were extremely high. Disabled girls report slightly more physical (99.1% vs 94.6%, p = 0.010) and considerably more sexual violence (23.6% vs 12.3%, p = 0.002) than non-disabled girls; for disabled and non-disabled boys, levels are not statistically different. The school environment is one of the main venues at which violence is occurring, but patterns differ by sex. Risk factors for violence are similar between disabled and non-disabled students. In Uganda, disabled girls are at particular risk of violence, notably sexual violence. Schools may be a promising venue for intervention delivery. Further research on the epidemiology and prevention of violence against disabled and non-disabled children in low income countries is urgently needed.

  19. Uptake of mass drug administration programme for schistosomiasis control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Tuhebwe

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012 MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers.Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615, 95% confidence interval (CI 40.8-48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6% reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22-2.81 and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67-9.65. Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands.Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education and systematic drug supply for the

  20. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Ricarda; Waiswa, Peter; Neuhann, Florian; Scheibe, Florian; de Savigny, Don

    2011-08-01

    Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to enable systems that can match and accommodate investments in

  1. Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Feldmeier, Hermann; Waiswa, Charles; Mencke, Norbert; Sentongo, Elizabeth; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda. Methods and Findings To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3–37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0–64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (panimal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, panimals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, pAnimal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3–11.4, pAnimal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals. PMID:26473360

  2. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: understanding the dynamics of neonatal mortality in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwashana, Agnes Semwanga; Nakubulwa, Sarah; Nakakeeto-Kijjambu, Margaret; Adam, Taghreed

    2014-08-08

    Of the three million newborns that die each year, Uganda ranks fifth highest in neonatal mortality rates, with 43,000 neonatal deaths each year. Despite child survival and safe motherhood programmes towards reducing child mortality, insufficient attention has been given to this critical first month of life. There is urgent need to innovatively employ alternative solutions that take into account the intricate complexities of neonatal health and the health systems. In this paper, we set out to empirically contribute to understanding the causes of the stagnating neonatal mortality by applying a systems thinking approach to explore the dynamics arising from the neonatal health complexity and non-linearity and its interplay with health systems factors, using Uganda as a case study. Literature reviews and interviews were conducted in two divisions of Kampala district with high neonatal mortality rates with mothers at antenatal clinics and at home, village health workers, community leaders, healthcare decision and policy makers, and frontline health workers from both public and private health facilities. Data analysis and brainstorming sessions were used to develop causal loop diagrams (CLDs) depicting the causes of neonatal mortality, which were validated by local and international stakeholders. We developed two CLDs for demand and supply side issues, depicting the range of factors associated with neonatal mortality such as maternal health, level of awareness of maternal and newborn health, and availability and quality of health services, among others. Further, the reinforcing and balancing feedback loops that resulted from this complexity were also examined. The potential high leverage points include special gender considerations to ensure that girls receive essential education, thereby increasing maternal literacy rates, improved socioeconomic status enabling mothers to keep healthy and utilise health services, improved supervision, and internal audits at the health

  3. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

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    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  4. Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit drying in Uganda

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    Didier Pillot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture in Uganda is developing at a fast pace and despite this trend Uganda is still unable to produce enough fresh and dry organic fruits mainly pineapple to meet the exporters demand. This current research investigated the strategies of farmers at production level by assessing the pros and cons of fruit growing, organic agriculture and fruit drying in order to understand the underlying causal factor for the low production of organic dry fruits in a major fruit producing district of Uganda.The study was carried out in two separate and distinctive areas; one which only produces and export fresh organic pineapple and the other which exports dried fruits (mainly pineapple and papaya. About 10% of the farmers in the two study areas were surveyed using questionnaires which were further followed by semi-structured interviews and participatory rural appraisals activities with various types of farmers in order to understand the different decisions and strategies of farmers.82% and 74% of farmers in the two study areas grew fruits as it gave better economic returns and for 77% and 90% respectively in the two study areas, the reasons for growing fruit was the ease of selling compared to other crops. All the farmers were relying on coffee husk for growing organic pineapples. However, 50% of the farmers want to grow pineapples (either organic or conventional but couldn't afford to buy coffee husk. Fruit drying was mainly a strategy to utilize cheap fruits during harvesting seasons for value addition. 71% and 42% of farmers in the two study areas wanted to dry fruits but it was beyond their economic capacity to buy the driers.Decision of the farmers whether to grow fruits or cereals, organic or conventional agriculture and selling the fruits as fresh or dry were dependent mainly on the economic, knowledge and resource availability of each type of practices. It is concluded that the main barrier for an increase in the production of organic dried

  5. Determinants of infant growth in Eastern Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study

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    Engebretsen Ingunn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child under-nutrition is a leading factor underlying child mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies from Uganda have reported impaired growth, but there have been few if any community-based infant anthropometric studies from Eastern Uganda. The aim of this study was to describe current infant growth patterns using WHO Child Growth Standards and to determine the extent to which these patterns are associated with infant feeding practices, equity dimensions, morbidity and use of primary health care for the infants. Methods A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding practices, socio-economic characteristics and anthropometric measurements was conducted in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003; 723 mother-infant (0–11 months pairs were analysed. Infant anthropometric status was assessed using z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ, length-for-age (LAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ. Dependent dichotomous variables were constructed using WLZ Results The prevalences of wasting and stunting were 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Diarrhoea during the previous 14 days was associated with wasting in the crude analysis, but no factors were significantly associated with wasting in the adjusted analysis. The adjusted analysis for stunting showed associations with age and gender. Stunting was more prevalent among boys than girls, 58.7% versus 41.3%. Having brothers and/or sisters was a protective factor against stunting (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8, but replacement or mixed feeding was not (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0–7.1. Lowest household wealth was the most prominent factor associated with stunting with a more than three-fold increase in odds ratio (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6–7.8. This pattern was also seen when the mean LAZ was investigated across household wealth categories: the adjusted mean difference between the top and the bottom wealth categories was 0.58 z-scores, p Conclusion Sub-optimal infant feeding practices after birth, poor

  6. Expanding HIV testing and linkage to care in southwestern Uganda with community health extension workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Stephen; Ross, Jennifer M; Arinaitwe, Anthony; Tumusiime, Obed; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Roberts, D Allen; O'Malley, Gabrielle; Barnabas, Ruanne V

    2017-07-21

    Achieving the UNAIDS goals of 90-90-90 will require more than doubling the number of people accessing HIV care in Uganda. Community-based programmes for entry into HIV care are effective strategies to expand access to HIV care, but few programmes have been evaluated with a particular focus on scale-up. Integrated Community Based Initiatives, a Uganda-based non-governmental organization, designed and implemented a programme of community-based HIV counselling and testing and facilitated linkage to care utilizing community health extension workers (CHEWs) in rural Sheema District, Uganda. CHEWs performed programme activities during 1 October 2015 through 31 March 2016. Outcomes for this evaluation were (1) the number of people tested for HIV, and (2) the proportion of those testing positive who were seen at an ART clinic within three months of their positive test, and (3) the cost of the programme per person newly diagnosed with HIV. Microcosting methods were used to calculate the programme costs. Program scalability factors were evaluated using a published framework. Sixty-two CHEWs attended a five-day training that introduced the biology of HIV, the conduct of confidential HIV testing, HIV prevention messages, and linkage, referral, and reporting requirements. CHEWs received a $30 monthly stipend and a field testing kit that included a bicycle, field bag, umbrella, gumboots, reporting booklet, pens, and HIV testing materials. Trained CHEWs tested 43,696 persons for HIV infection during the six-month programme period. Nine-hundred seventy-four participants (2.2%) were identified as HIV positive, and 623 participants (64%) were linked to HIV care. An estimated 69% of adult residents received testing as part of this campaign. The programme cost $3.02 per person test, $135.70 per positive person identified, and $212.15 per HIV-positive person linked to care. Lay community health extension workers (CHEWs) can be rapidly trained to scale-up home-based HIV testing and

  7. Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial correlates of high HIV risk sexual behaviour in war-affected Eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, E.; Weiss, H.A.; Mungherera, M.; Onyango-Mangen, P.; Ngabirano, E.; Kajungu, R.; Kagugube, J.; Muhwezi, W.; Muron, J.; Patel, V.

    2016-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors for high risk sexual behaviour in a war-affected population in Eastern Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four sub-counties in two districts in Eastern Uganda where 1560 randomly selected respondents (15 years and above) were interviewed. The primary outcome was a derived variable “high risk sexual behaviour” defined as reporting at least one of eight sexual practices that have been associated with HIV transmission in Uganda and which were hypothesised could arise as a consequence of psychiatric disorder or psychosocial problems. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with high risk sexual behaviour in this population. Males were more likely to have at least one “high risk sexual behaviour” than females (11.8% vs. 9.1% in the last year). Sex outside marriage was the most commonly reported high risk sexual behaviour. Among males, the factors independently associated with high risk sexual behaviour were: being married, belonging to non-Catholic/non-Protestant religions, poverty, being a victim of intimate partner violence and having a major depressive disorder (MDD). Among females, the factors that were independently associated with high risk sexual behaviour were: being in the reproductive age groups of 25–34 and 35–44 years, not seeing a close relative killed and having experienced war-related sexual torture. Holistic HIV/AIDS prevention programming in conflict and post-conflict settings should address the psychiatric and psychosocial well-being of these communities as a risk factor for HIV acquisition. PMID:22272693

  8. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into registered drug shops in Uganda: lessons learned and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham; Chandler, Clare I; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal

    2015-11-14

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence to RDTs results, management of severe illnesses, referral of patients, and relationship with caretakers. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing RDTs in registered drug shops in Uganda and document lessons and policy implications for future scale-up of malaria control in the private health sector. A cluster-randomized trial introducing RDTs into registered drug shops was implemented in central Uganda from October 2010 to July 2012. An evaluation was undertaken to assess the impact and the processes involved with the introduction of RDTs into drug shops, the lessons learned and policy implications. Introducing RDTs into drug shops was feasible. To scale-up this intervention however, drug shop practices need to be regulated since the registration process was not clear, supervision was inadequate and record keeping was poor. Although initially it was anticipated that introducing a new practice of record keeping would be cumbersome, but at evaluation this was not found to be a constraint. This presents an important lesson for introducing health management information system into drug shops. Involving stakeholders, especially the district health team, in the design was important for ownership and sustainability. The involvement of village health teams in community sensitization to the new malaria treatment and diagnosis policy was a success and this strategy is recommended for future interventions. Introducing RDTs into drug shops was feasible and it increased appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy. It is anticipated that the lessons presented will help better implementation of similar interventions in the private sector.

  9. Factors influencing modes of transport and travel time for obstetric care: a mixed methods study in Zambia and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Emma; Vail, Daniel; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Macwan'gi, Mubiana; Kruk, Margaret E; Grépin, Karen A

    2016-04-01

    Transportation is an important barrier to accessing obstetric care for many pregnant and postpartum women in low-resource settings, particularly in rural areas. However, little is known about how pregnant women travel to health facilities in these settings. We conducted 1633 exit surveys with women who had a recent facility delivery and 48 focus group discussions with women who had either a home or a facility birth in the past year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. Quantitative data were analysed using univariate statistics, and qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis techniques. On average, women spent 62-68 min travelling to a clinic for delivery. Very different patterns in modes of transport were observed in the two countries: 91% of Ugandan women employed motorized forms of transportation, while only 57% of women in Zambia did. Motorcycle taxis were the most commonly used in Uganda, while cars, trucks and taxis were the most commonly used mode of transportation in Zambia. Lower-income women were less likely to use motorized modes of transportation: in Zambia, women in the poorest quintile took 94 min to travel to a health facility, compared with 34 for the wealthiest quintile; this difference between quintiles was ∼50 min in Uganda. Focus group discussions confirmed that transport is a major challenge due to a number of factors we categorized as the 'three A's:' affordability, accessibility and adequacy of transport options. Women reported that all of these factors had influenced their decision not to deliver in a health facility. The two countries had markedly different patterns of transportation for obstetric care, and modes of transport and travel times varied dramatically by wealth quintile, which policymakers need to take into account when designing obstetric transport interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sex inequality, high transport costs, and exposed clinic location: reasons for loss to follow-up of clients under prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in eastern Uganda – a qualitative study

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    Lubega M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhamadi Lubega,1–4 Ibrahim A Musenze,3 Gukiina Joshua,2 George Dhafa,2 Rose Badaza,3 Christopher J Bakwesegha,3 Steven J Reynolds41District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, Iganga, Uganda; 2Research Institute, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Busoga University, Iganga, Uganda; 4National Institutes of Health/NIAID-ICER American Embassy, Kampala, UgandaBackground: In Iganga, Uganda, 45% of women who tested HIV-positive during antenatal care between 2007 and 2010 were lost to follow-up (LTFU. We explored reasons for LTFU during prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT from a client perspective in eastern Uganda, where antiretroviral therapy (ART awareness is presumably high.Methods: Seven key informant interviews and 20 in-depth interviews, including both clients who had been retained under PMTCT care and those LTFU during PMTCT were held. Ten focus-group discussions involving a total of 112 participants were also conducted with caretakers/relatives of the PMTCT clients. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes.Results: Our findings indicate that LTFU during PMTCT in eastern Uganda was due to sex inequality, high transport costs to access the services, inadequate posttest counseling, lack of HIV status disclosure, and the isolated/exposed location of the ART clinic, which robs the clients of their privacy.Conclusion: There is a need for approaches that empower women with social capital, knowledge, and skills to influence health-seeking practices. There is also a need to train low-ranking staff and take PMTCT services closer to the clients at the lower-level units to make them affordable and accessible to rural clients. Posttest counseling should be improved to enable PMTCT clients to appreciate the importance of PMTCT services through increasing the number of staff in antenatal care to match the client numbers for improved quality. The counseling should emphasize HIV status disclosure to

  11. HIV-1 prevalence and factors associated with infection in the conflict-affected region of North Uganda

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    Musinguzi Joshua

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1986, northern Uganda has been severely affected by civil strife with most of its population currently living internally displaced in protected camps. This study aims at estimating the HIV-1 prevalence among this population and the factors associated with infection. Methods In June-December 2005, a total of 3051 antenatal clinics attendees in Gulu, Kitgum and Pader districts were anonymously tested for HIV-1 infection as part of routine sentinel surveillance. Factors associated with the infection were evaluated using logistic regression models. Results The age-standardised HIV-1 prevalence was 10.3%, 9.1% and 4.3% in the Gulu, Kitgum and Pader district, respectively. The overall prevalence in the area comprised of these districts was 8.2% when data was weighted according to the districts' population size. Data from all sites combined show that, besides older women [20–24 years: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.29–2.97; 25–29 years: AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; ≥ 30 years: AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.23–2.97], unmarried women (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.06–2.04, and those with a partner with a non-traditional occupation (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.18–2.21, women living outside of protected camps for internally displaced persons have a higher risk of being HIV-1 infected than internally displaced women (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15–2.08. Conclusion Although published data from Gulu district show a declining HIV-1 prevalence trend that is consistent with that observed at the national level since 1993, the prevalence in North Uganda is still high. Internally displaced women have a lower risk of being infected probably because of their reduced mobility and accessibility, and increased access to health prevention services.

  12. Luther and the Law in the Lutheran Church of Uganda

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    Enoch Ekyarikunda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the role of the Law in the Lutheran Church of Uganda. It investigates how the Law is understood and lived among Lutherans in Uganda. Luther, the sixteenthcentury Reformer, understood and interpreted the Law in terms of the social and cultural context of his time. Luther’s background is very different and so much removed from the African context in which the Ugandan Lutherans find themselves today. Therefore, can the Lutheran Church of Uganda have the same understanding and interpretation of the Law as the Reformer? Is Luther’s sixteenth-century European understanding of the Law applicable to the current Lutherans in Africa, specifically in the Lutheran Church of Uganda? This article examines the social and cultural context of Lutherans in Uganda and determines how it affects their understanding and interpretation of the Law. The article aims to demonstrate that the social and cultural context of the people plays an important role in the way the Christian life is conducted. This article appeals to Paul’s situation in Galatians to prove this point.

  13. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

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    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  14. Importance of intrapreneurial practices prevalent among secondary school teachers in Kalungu District (Uganda

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    Genza Musoke Gyaviira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines teachers' business initiatives within school (intrapreneurial ventures and highlights the economic and educational importance of these initiatives. It first unveils the prevalence of different intrapreneurial ventures among teachers, before going on to state the meaning of these practices for both the economic and professional welfare of teachers in particular, and schools in general. The study concludes with several conclusions for the development of education on the African continent.

  15. Barriers to use of antiretroviral drugs in Rakai district of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Access to antiretroviral therapy could be ameliorated by: improving community education using innovative approaches such as through music, dance and videos, increasing the number of providers who are able to provide ART as through engagement of non health professionals in ART care, bringing ART ...

  16. Parental Participation Improves Student Academic Achievement: A Case of Iganga and Mayuge Districts in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahuro, G. M.; Hungi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research has linked parental participation in children's schooling with a wide range of children's academic outcomes. Parental involvement involves time and resource commitment towards children's academic performance. This paper extracts data from a cross-sectional survey involving 2,669 grade six students attending public and private…

  17. Identification of indigenous fruits with export potential from Mukono district, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Riikka; Sørensen, Marten; Theilade, Ida

    2017-01-01

    criteria applied to species identified in the ethnobotanical study. Priority indigenous fruits identified in the ethnobotanical study included Canarium schweinfurtii, Vangueria apiculata, Garcinia buchananii and Tamarindus indica whereas the scorecard assessment identified a different set of species; i...

  18. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compared to other trees, b) coppicing capacity, and c) ready market for the tree products. The shorter growing period (3-8 years), depending on the objective of management, means that the investors are able to get returns on their investments in a shorter period. Coppicing means that investors get costless regrowth crop.

  19. Hamilton district energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsales, D. [Hamilton Community Energy, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation began with a description of the Hamilton District Energy Project. A piping distribution system delivers the energy. For those buildings located in the close vicinity of the central energy centre, heating and cooling are provided. The Hamilton City Hall, the Copps Coliseum, and a host of other buildings located downtown are included in this project. Both the proximity to the energy centre and the pipe infrastructure are important components for the delivery of the energy. A natural gas burning engine is part of the energy centre. Direct waste is minimized since waste exhaust is used to heat water. Individual energy transfer systems, much smaller than the equipment being replaced, are used for each building connected to the district energy network. All emission requirements are met by district heating, which is a reliable source of energy and more efficient. There are instances where only more efficient energy solutions are available to a municipality when renewable energy sources are not feasible. figs.

  20. Assessing the effects of air temperature and rainfall on malaria incidence: an epidemiological study across Rwanda and Uganda

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    Felipe J. Colón-González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the short-term effects of air temperature, rainfall, and socioeconomic indicators on malaria incidence across Rwanda and Uganda from 2002 to 2011. Delayed and nonlinear effects of temperature and rainfall data are estimated using generalised additive mixed models with a distributed lag nonlinear specification. A time series cross-validation algorithm is implemented to select the best subset of socioeconomic predictors and to define the degree of smoothing of the weather variables. Our findings show that trends in malaria incidence agree well with variations in both temperature and rainfall in both countries, although factors other than climate seem to play an important role too. The estimated short-term effects of air temperature and precipitation are nonlinear, in agreement with previous research and the ecology of the disease. These effects are robust to the effects of temporal correlation. The effects of socioeconomic data are difficult to ascertain and require further evaluation with longer time series. Climate-informed models had lower error estimates compared to models with no climatic information in 77 and 60% of the districts in Rwanda and Uganda, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of using climatic information in the analysis of malaria surveillance data, and show potential for the development of climateinformed malaria early warning systems.

  1. Assessing the effects of air temperature and rainfall on malaria incidence: an epidemiological study across Rwanda and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-González, Felipe J; Tompkins, Adrian M; Biondi, Riccardo; Bizimana, Jean Pierre; Namanya, Didacus Bambaiha

    2016-03-31

    We investigate the short-term effects of air temperature, rainfall, and socioeconomic indicators on malaria incidence across Rwanda and Uganda from 2002 to 2011. Delayed and nonlinear effects of temperature and rainfall data are estimated using generalised additive mixed models with a distributed lag nonlinear specification. A time series cross-validation algorithm is implemented to select the best subset of socioeconomic predictors and to define the degree of smoothing of the weather variables. Our findings show that trends in malaria incidence agree well with variations in both temperature and rainfall in both countries, although factors other than climate seem to play an important role too. The estimated short-term effects of air temperature and precipitation are nonlinear, in agreement with previous research and the ecology of the disease. These effects are robust to the effects of temporal correlation. The effects of socioeconomic data are difficult to ascertain and require further evaluation with longer time series. Climate-informed models had lower error estimates compared to models with no climatic information in 77 and 60% of the districts in Rwanda and Uganda, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of using climatic information in the analysis of malaria surveillance data, and show potential for the development of climate informed malaria early warning systems.

  2. The health system burden of chronic disease care: an estimation of provider costs of selected chronic diseases in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settumba, Stella Nalukwago; Sweeney, Sedona; Seeley, Janet; Biraro, Samuel; Mutungi, Gerald; Munderi, Paula; Grosskurth, Heiner; Vassall, Anna

    2015-06-01

    To explore the chronic disease services in Uganda: their level of utilisation, the total service costs and unit costs per visit. Full financial and economic cost data were collected from 12 facilities in two districts, from the provider's perspective. A combination of ingredients-based and step-down allocation costing approaches was used. The diseases under study were diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), epilepsy and HIV infection. Data were collected through a review of facility records, direct observation and structured interviews with health workers. Provision of chronic care services was concentrated at higher-level facilities. Excluding drugs, the total costs for NCD care fell below 2% of total facility costs. Unit costs per visit varied widely, both across different levels of the health system, and between facilities of the same level. This variability was driven by differences in clinical and drug prescribing practices. Most patients reported directly to higher-level facilities, bypassing nearby peripheral facilities. NCD services in Uganda are underfunded particularly at peripheral facilities. There is a need to estimate the budget impact of improving NCD care and to standardise treatment guidelines. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  4. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  5. Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Nanyunja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  6. Malaria treatment policy change and implementation: the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  7. Effectiveness of a pre-treatment snack on the uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne

    2014-01-01

    -treatment snack on uptake of mass treatment.Methods and Findings:In a cluster randomized trial carried out in Jinja district, Uganda, 12 primary schools were randomized into two groups; one received education messages for schistosomiasis prevention for two months prior to mass treatment, while the other......, in addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. Four weeks after mass treatment, uptake of praziquantel was assessed among a random sample of 595 children in the snack schools and 689 children in the non-snack schools as the primary outcome. The occurrence...... of side effects and the prevalence and mean intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined as the secondary outcomes. Uptake of praziquantel was higher in the snack schools, 93.9% (95% CI 91.7%-95.7%), compared to that in the non-snack schools, 78.7% (95% CI 75.4%-81.7%) (p = 0...

  8. Butterfly Diversity from Farmlands of Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Théodore Munyuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect information about the diversity of butterfly communities in the mixed coffee-banana mosaic (seminatural, agricultural landscapes of rural central Uganda. Data were collected for one year (2006 using fruit-bait traps, line transect walk-and-counts, and hand nets. A total of 56,315 individuals belonging to 331 species, 95 genera, and 6 families were sampled. The most abundant species was Bicyclus safitza (14.5% followed by Acraea acerata (6.3%, Catopsilia florella (6.5% and Junonia sophia (6.1%. Significant differences in abundance, species richness, and diversity of butterflies occurred between the 26 study sites. Farmland butterflies visited a variety of habitats within and around sites, but important habitats included woodlands, fallows, hedgerows, swampy habitats, abandoned gardens, and home gardens. The highest diversity and abundance of butterflies occurred in sites that contained forest remnants. Thus, forest reserves in the surrounding of fields increased the conservation values of coffee-banana agroforestry systems for butterflies. Their protection from degradation should be a priority for policy makers since they support a species-rich community of butterflies pollinating cultivated plants. Farmers are encouraged to protect and increase on-farm areas covered by complex traditional agroforests, linear, and nonlinear seminatural habitats to provide sufficient breeding sites and nectar resources for butterflies.

  9. Positive predictive value and effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance in Uganda, 2012-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Nsubuga

    Full Text Available Disease surveillance is a critical component in the control and elimination of vaccine preventable diseases. The Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization strives to have a sensitive surveillance system within the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR framework. We analyzed measles surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of the measles case-based surveillance system and estimate its positive predictive value in order to inform policy and practice.An IDSR alert was defined as ≥1 suspected measles case reported by a district in a week, through the electronic Health Management Information System. We defined an alert in the measles case-based surveillance system (CBS as ≥1 suspected measles case with a blood sample collected for confirmation during the corresponding week in a particular district. Effectiveness of CBS was defined as having ≥80% of IDSR alerts with a blood sample collected for laboratory confirmation. Positive predictive value was defined as the proportion of measles case-patients who also had a positive measles serological result (IgM +. We reviewed case-based surveillance data with laboratory confirmation and measles surveillance data from the electronic Health Management Information System from 2012-2015.A total of 6,974 suspected measles case-persons were investigated by the measles case-based surveillance between 2012 and 2015. Of these, 943 (14% were measles specific IgM positive. The median age of measles case-persons between 2013 and 2015 was 4.0 years. Between 2013 and 2015, 72% of the IDSR alerts reported in the electronic Health Management Information System, had blood samples collected for laboratory confirmation. This was however less than the WHO recommended standard of ≥80%. The PPV of CBS between 2013 and 2015 was 8.6%.In conclusion, the effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance was sub-optimal, while the PPV showed that true measles cases have significantly reduced in Uganda

  10. District-Level Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make…

  11. perceptions in Dedza District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    logistical problems. HCWs identified the tendency of patients with ТВ to seek traditional and private healthcare services, the association of ТВ with HIV/AIDS, difficulties in. Abstract traveling to .... "Even those who come to collect the sputum sometimes take time ... when you complain they [district staff] say transport problem ...

  12. State Highway District Boundaries - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).

  13. Analysing Information Systems Security In Higher Learning Institutions Of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugyenyi Raymond

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information communication technology has increased globalisation in higher learning institution all over the world. This has been achieved through introduction of systems that ease operations related to information handling in the institutions. The paper assessed and analysed the information systems security performance status in higher learning institutions of Uganda. The existing policies that govern the information security have also been analysed together with the current status of information systems security in Uganda. Citations related management of information systems security and policies have been identified and analysed. A proposed model illustrating the effective management of information in higher learning institutions have been developed. Relevant recommendations and conclusions have also been developed.

  14. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....

  15. Women's intention to screen and willingness to vaccinate their daughters against cervical cancer - a cross sectional study in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Mukama, Trasias; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Ssempebwa, John C; Musoke, David

    2017-03-14

    The World Health Organization recommends cervical cancer screening and vaccination programmes as measures to combat cervical cancer. The uptake of these measures remains low in Uganda, most especially in rural areas. An understanding of the factors that influence women's decision to attend screening, and willingness to have their daughters vaccinated against cervical cancer is essential for any attempts to increase uptake of these services. This study assessed the factors associated with intention to screen for cervical cancer among women in eastern Uganda, and willingness to have their daughters vaccinated against the disease. This cross sectional study involved 900 females aged 25 to 49 years in Bugiri and Mayuge districts in eastern Uganda. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire, entered in Epidata version 3.02 and analysed in STATA version 12.0. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were computed using a generalized linear model with Poisson family, and a log link with robust standard errors. Majority 819 (91.0%) of respondents stated that they intended to go for cervical cancer screening in the subsequent six months. Among them, 603 (73.6%) wanted to know their status, 256 (31.3%) thought it was important, 202 (24.7%) wanted to reduce their chances of getting the disease, and 20 (2.4%) had been told to do so by a health worker. Majority 813 (90.4%) of respondents were willing to vaccinate their daughters against cervical cancer. Higher income (adjusted PR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20), cervical cancer screening status (adjusted PR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.99) and knowledge of at least one test for cervical cancer (adjusted PR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-0.98) were significantly associated with intention to screen for cervical cancer. No socio-demographic characteristic was associated with willingness to vaccinate daughters among women. There is a very high intention to screen and willingness to vaccinate daughters against

  16. Ophthalmic clinical officers: developments in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Kaggwa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the rural areas, OCOs refer patients with complicated clinical problems to ophthalmologists and those requiring complicated refractions are referred to optometrists. They review patients after operations, perform extra-ocular surgery, assist surgeons in theatre, and conduct eye care outreach to schools, rural parts of the community and remote health facilities. At district level, OCOs coordinate eye care services (including planning and budgeting and also train and supervise other eye care personnel.

  17. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  18. Caso mortal de Malaria Cerebral en la misión de Uganda Death due to cerebral malaria in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Presa García

    2012-01-01

    Las enfermedades y lesiones no de combate han sido y siguen siendo en nuestros días una amenaza muy importante para nuestras tropas. Entre ellas, las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores artrópodos ocupan un lugar importante, como es el caso del paludismo en Uganda. La prevención Sanitaria incluye una fase previa al despliegue, una fase de despliegue y otra fase posterior al despliegue. Durante nuestra misión en Uganda se ha perseguido cada una de estas fases para hacer frente a este riesgo...

  19. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  20. Prevalence, comorbidity and predictors of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in rural north-eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent anxiety disorders are the most prevalent form of childhood psychopathology. Research on child and adolescent anxiety disorders has predominantly been done in westernized societies. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence, comorbidity, and predictors of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in non-western societies including those in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper investigates the prevalence, comorbidity, and predictors of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in north-eastern Uganda. Objective To determine the prevalence of DSM-IV anxiety disorders, as well as comorbidity patterns and predictors in children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 years in north-eastern Uganda. Methods Four districts (Lira, Tororo, Kaberamaido and Gulu) in rural north-eastern Uganda participated in this study. Using a multi-stage sampling procedure, a sample of 420 households with children aged 3–19 years from each district was enrolled into the study. The MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents (MINI KID) was used to assess for psychiatric disorders in 1587 of 1680 respondents. Results The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 26.6%, with rates higher in females (29.7%) than in males (23.1%). The most common disorders in both males and females were specific phobia (15.8%), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (6.6%) and separation anxiety disorder (5.8%). Children below 5 years of age were significantly more likely to have separation anxiety disorder and specific phobias, while those aged between 14–19 were significantly more likely to have PTSD. Anxiety disorders were more prevalent among respondents with other psychiatric disorders; in respondents with two or more co-morbid psychiatric disorders the prevalence of anxiety disorders was 62.1%. Predictors of anxiety disorders were experience of war trauma (OR = 1.93, p < 0.001) and a higher score on the emotional symptom scale of the SDQ (OR

  1. Individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turyakira Eleanor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and of adverse outcome for newborns in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda. Methods A review was performed on 12,463 obstetric records for the year 2006 from six hospitals located in south-western Uganda and 11,180 women records were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to control for probable confounders. Results Prevalence of obstructed labour for the six hospitals was 10.5% and the main causes were cephalopelvic disproportion (63.3%, malpresentation or malposition (36.4% and hydrocephalus (0.3%. The risk of obstructed labour was statistically significantly associated with being resident of a particular district [Isingiro] (AOR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86, with nulliparous status (AOR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.22-1.78, having delivered once before (AOR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.30-1.91 and age group 15-19 years (AOR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.45. The risk for perinatal death as an adverse outcome was statistically significantly associated with districts other than five comprising the study area (AOR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.60-5.08 and grand multiparous status (AOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.11-3.22. Women who lacked paid employment were at increased risk of obstructed labour. Perinatal mortality rate was 142/1000 total births in women with obstructed labour compared to 65/1000 total births in women without the condition. The odds of having maternal complications in women with obstructed labour were 8 times those without the condition. The case fatality rate for obstructed labour was 1.2%. Conclusions Individual socio-demographic and health system factors are strongly associated with obstructed labour and its adverse outcome in south-western Uganda. Our study provides baseline information which may be used by

  2. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Jerry; Kanya, Lucy; Obare, Francis; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Bange, Teresah; Warren, Charlotte; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-10-18

    Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher

  3. Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15–29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees’ and non-abductees’ HIV risk profiles. Results Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p = 0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups’ survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences

  4. Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Atim, Stella; Oboya, Charles; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M

    2013-08-07

    Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15-29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees' and non-abductees' HIV risk profiles. Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p = 0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups' survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences, both overall and by gender. The

  5. Prevalence of cerebral palsy in Uganda: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Andrews, Carin; Peterson, Stefan; Wabwire Mangen, Fred; Eliasson, Ann Christin; Forssberg, Hans

    2017-12-01

    Few population-based studies of cerebral palsy have been done in low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to examine cerebral palsy prevalence and subtypes, functional impairments, and presumed time of injury in children in Uganda. In this population-based study, we used a nested, three-stage, cross-sectional method (Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance System [HDSS]) to screen for cerebral palsy in children aged 2-17 years in a rural eastern Uganda district. A specialist team confirmed the diagnosis and determined the subtype, motor function (according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]), and possible time of brain injury for each child. Triangulation and interviews with key village informants were used to identify additional cases of suspected cerebral palsy. We estimated crude and adjusted cerebral palsy prevalence. We did χ 2 analyses to examine differences between the group screened at stage 1 and the entire population and regression analyses to investigate associations between the number of cases and age, GMFCS level, subtype, and time of injury. We used data from the March 1, 2015, to June 30, 2015, surveillance round of the Iganga-Mayuge HDSS. 31 756 children were screened for cerebral palsy, which was confirmed in 86 (19%) of 442 children who screened positive in the first screening stage. The crude cerebral palsy prevalence was 2·7 (95% CI 2·2-3·3) per 1000 children, and prevalence increased to 2·9 (2·4-3·6) per 1000 children after adjustment for attrition. The prevalence was lower in older (8-17 years) than in younger (cerebral palsy was the most common subtype (45 [46%] of 97 children) followed by bilateral cerebral palsy (39 [40%] of 97 children). 14 (27%) of 51 children aged 2-7 years had severe cerebral palsy (GMFCS levels 4-5) compared with only five (12%) of 42 children aged 8-17 years. Few children (two [2%] of 97) diagnosed with cerebral palsy were born preterm. Post-neonatal events were the

  6. District energy a global solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damecour, R.; Andersson, B. [Kattner/FVB District Energy Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-08-01

    An overview of the development of district energy systems throughout the world is provided. Significant district energy data is provided for Canada, the United States, East Asia, Korea, Japan, China, Eastern Europe and Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. The overall conclusion is that district energy systems are here to stay and have a good chance of succeeding provided that the concept has the support of business, municipalities and national governments. The 40 years old district heating system in Vasteras, Sweden, the oldest and most successful district energy system in the world, was highlighted.

  7. Colorectal cancer in patients from Uganda: A histopathological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DN Dijxhoorn, A Boutall, CJ Mulder, R Ssebuufu, A Mall, S Kalungi, C Baigrie, PA Goldberg. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Colorectal cancer, HNPCC, Endoscopy, Uganda, Histopathology, Lynch syndrome. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Strategies Used by Facilities in Uganda to Integrate Family Planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    To help HIV care clinics improve FP provision for their clients, the Uganda. Ministry of Health (UMOH) ... and given the WHO counseling tools. With technical assistance and coaching from the core team, we ... sites (61.5%) used peer counselors to share FP information with other patients. The sites that used this approach ...

  9. Area Handbook Series. Uganda: A Country Study, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    minister of tourism and wildlife . Ali had been Amin’s minister of finance, so this was a significant expansion of the principle of broad-based...123 M anufacturing ............................... 125 M ining .................................... 128 TOURISM ...178 Regional Organizations ........................ 180 Kenya and Tanzania .......................... 181 Uganda’s Other Neighbors-Sudan, Rwanda

  10. Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus in Kampala, Uganda – are they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The globally Vulnerable Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) has been seen in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, in increasing numbers in recent years. This apparently new behaviour of a typically forest species is helped by the presence of many large trees, which provide roosting and nesting sites, and fruiting trees where they ...

  11. Civil Society Organisations and Democratic Consolidation in Uganda1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... consolidation in Uganda. It argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) play an .... come, in a phrase 'the only game in town,' behaviourally, attitudinally ... Civil society is a locus for recruiting new political leadership. Those who .... NGOs, in my opinion, are a mixed blessing whose main effect is to worsen.

  12. Sustainable use ofland resources: towards a new approach in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One can not derive a iot of information from "Ankole and. Koki surfaces". Where do we go from here? Harmonization is necessary so as to decide on which methods and systems of classification to use in Uganda. This is crucial especially at this time when the national environment information system is in place. Updating of.

  13. Forced Sex among Married or Steady Partners in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Research objectives were to understand the relationship between sexual, domestic and civil violence and the transmission of. HIV/AIDS in Uganda. The focus of this paper is on forced marital sex within the context of Ugandan marital and steady partner relations. Qualitative unstructured interviews were conducted in focus ...

  14. Monitoring the severity of iodine deficiency disorders in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) cover a variety of pathological conditions including goitre, mental retardation and perinatal mortality in millions of individuals globally. IDD was initially identified as a problem in 1970 and was confirmed in 1991. In 1993, the Uganda government introduced a policy of Universal ...

  15. Uganda : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... DISASTERS, DISASTER PREPAREDNESS, DISASTER MANAGEMENT. Région: Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 1,398,500.00. Analyse sexospécifique et générationnelle des conflits armés et ...

  16. Isolations of Bwamba virus from south central Uganda and north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bwamba virus (Genus Bunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae) is widely distributed in Africa. It causes many unidentified fevers because of its benign nature. Objectives: Samples of blood from patients were received at Uganda Virus Research Institute for diagnosis and confirmation of infections. Mosquito collections ...

  17. Social security systems in Uganda | Kasente | Journal of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following social security systems exist in Uganda: formal social security schemes targeting the employed, community groups that serve only group members, kinship-based solidarity groups that serve the extended family and village residents' mutual assistance groups, which are compulsory for all adults in the villages ...

  18. Addressing HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda: does social capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital ...

  19. Recent advances in coffee berry disease (CBD) control in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waller & Bridge) attacks arabic a coffee in most African arabica coffee growing countries. The disease was first recorded in Uganda in 1959 and surveys on the disease indicated that up to 50% crop losses were being incurred. Most of the ...

  20. Adolescents' perceptions of sexual coercion in Uganda | Birungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted three focus group discussions with adolescents in an urban area in Uganda to understand their perceptions of sexual coercion, and to identify, from their point of view, how coercion can be addressed. Data were collected to inform the development of an Internet-based programme for young people, tailored to ...