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  1. Slow oscillation electrical brain stimulation during waking promotes EEG theta activity and memory encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirov, Roumen; Weiss, Carsten; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2009-01-01

    typically occurring during this state of sleep were also enhanced. Here, we show that the same tSOS applied in the waking brain also induced an increase in endogenous EEG slow oscillations (0.4-1.2 Hz), although in a topographically restricted fashion. Applied during wakefulness tSOS, additionally, resulted......The application of transcranial slow oscillation stimulation (tSOS; 0.75 Hz) was previously shown to enhance widespread endogenous EEG slow oscillatory activity when applied during a sleep period characterized by emerging endogenous slow oscillatory activity. Processes of memory consolidation...... induced by tSOS critically depend on brain state. In response to tSOS during wakefulness the brain transposes stimulation by responding preferentially with theta oscillations and facilitated encoding....

  2. Regional differences in trait-like characteristics of the waking EEG in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Dominik C; Tarokh, Leila; Achermann, Peter; Loughran, Sarah P

    2013-10-09

    The human waking EEG spectrum shows high heritability and stability and, despite maturational cortical changes, high test-retest reliability in children and teens. These phenomena have also been shown to be region specific. We examined the stability of the morphology of the wake EEG spectrum in children aged 11 to 13 years recorded over weekly intervals and assessed whether the waking EEG spectrum in children may also be trait-like. Three minutes of eyes open and three minutes of eyes closed waking EEG was recorded in 22 healthy children once a week for three consecutive weeks. Eyes open and closed EEG power density spectra were calculated for two central (C3LM and C4LM) and two occipital (O1LM and O2LM) derivations. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to determine whether the morphology of the waking EEG spectrum between 1 and 20 Hz is trait-like. We also examined the stability of the alpha peak using an ANOVA. The morphology of the EEG spectrum recorded from central derivations was highly stable and unique to an individual (correctly classified in 85% of participants), while the EEG recorded from occipital derivations, while stable, was much less unique across individuals (correctly classified in 42% of participants). Furthermore, our analysis revealed an increase in alpha peak height concurrent with a decline in the frequency of the alpha peak across weeks for occipital derivations. No changes in either measure were observed in the central derivations. Our results indicate that across weekly recordings, power spectra at central derivations exhibit more "trait-like" characteristics than occipital derivations. These results may be relevant for future studies searching for links between phenotypes, such as psychiatric diagnoses, and the underlying genes (i.e., endophenotypes) by suggesting that such studies should make use of more anterior rather than posterior EEG derivations.

  3. Acute toxicity and sleep-wake EEG analysis of Stachtarpheta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of systemic administration of TASC on sleep architecture in rats was also evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats that were chronically implanted with electrodes for electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recording. The acute toxicity test revealed no lethal effect with doses of SCCR (up to 2000 ...

  4. Automated EEG entropy measurements in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Ledoux, Didier; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Demertzi, Athéna; Noirhomme, Quentin; Lehembre, Rémy; Damas, Pierre; Goldman, Serge; Peeters, Erika; Moonen, Gustave; Laureys, Steven

    Summary Monitoring the level of consciousness in brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness is crucial as it provides diagnostic and prognostic information. Behavioral assessment remains the gold standard for assessing consciousness but previous studies have shown a high rate of misdiagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of electroencephalography (EEG) entropy measurements in differentiating unconscious (coma or vegetative) from minimally conscious patients. Left fronto-temporal EEG recordings (10-minute resting state epochs) were prospectively obtained in 56 patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers. Patients were assessed in the acute (≤1 month post-injury; n=29) or chronic (>1 month post-injury; n=27) stage. The etiology was traumatic in 23 patients. Automated online EEG entropy calculations (providing an arbitrary value ranging from 0 to 91) were compared with behavioral assessments (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised) and outcome. EEG entropy correlated with Coma Recovery Scale total scores (r=0.49). Mean EEG entropy values were higher in minimally conscious (73±19; mean and standard deviation) than in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients (45±28). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed an entropy cut-off value of 52 differentiating acute unconscious from minimally conscious patients (sensitivity 89% and specificity 90%). In chronic patients, entropy measurements offered no reliable diagnostic information. EEG entropy measurements did not allow prediction of outcome. User-independent time-frequency balanced spectral EEG entropy measurements seem to constitute an interesting diagnostic – albeit not prognostic – tool for assessing neural network complexity in disorders of consciousness in the acute setting. Future studies are needed before using this tool in routine clinical practice, and these should seek to improve automated EEG quantification paradigms in order to reduce the remaining false

  5. Wake and Sleep EEG in Patients With Huntington Disease: An eLORETA Study and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Carla; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Losurdo, Anna; Calandra Buonaura, Giovanna; Imperatori, Claudio; Cortelli, Pietro; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the EEG modifications in patients with Huntington disease (HD) compared with controls, by means of the exact LOw REsolution Tomography (eLORETA) software. We evaluated EEG changes during wake, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Moreover, we reviewed the literature concerning EEG modifications in HD. Twenty-three consecutive adult patients affected by HD were enrolled, 14 women and 9 men, mean age was 57.0 ± 12.4 years. Control subjects were healthy volunteers (mean age 58.2 ± 14.6 years). EEG and polygraphic recordings were performed during wake (before sleep) and during sleep. Sources of EEG activities were determined using the eLORETA software. In wake EEG, significant differences between patients and controls were detected in the delta frequency band (threshold T = ±4.606; P < .01) in the Brodmann areas (BAs) 3, 4, and 6 bilaterally. In NREM sleep, HD patients showed increased alpha power (T = ±4.516; P < .01) in BAs 4 and 6 bilaterally; decreased theta power (T = ±4.516; P < .01) in the BAs 23, 29, and 30; and decreased beta power (T = ±4.516; P < .01) in the left BA 30. During REM, HD patients presented decreased theta and alpha power (threshold T = ±4.640; P < .01) in the BAs 23, 29, 30, and 31 bilaterally. In conclusion, EEG data suggest a motor cortex dysfunction during wake and sleep in HD patients, which correlates with the clinical and polysomnographic evidence of increased motor activity during wake and NREM, and nearly absent motor abnormalities in REM. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2016.

  6. Temporal correlation between two channels EEG of bipolar lead in the head midline is associated with sleep-wake stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Tang, Xiaoying; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Weifeng; Li, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Whether the temporal correlation between inter-leads Electroencephalogram (EEG) that located on the boundary between left and right brain hemispheres is associated with sleep stages or not is still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of correlation coefficients between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz for automatic classification of sleep stages. A total number of 39 EEG recordings (about 20 h each) were selected from the expanded sleep database in European data format for temporal correlation analysis. Original waveform of EEG was decomposed into sub-bands δ (1-4 Hz), θ (4-8 Hz), α (8-13 Hz) and β (13-30 Hz). The correlation coefficient between original EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz within frequency band 0.5-30 Hz was defined as r(EEG) and was calculated every 30 s, while that between the two leads EEG in sub-bands δ, θ, α and β were defined as r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β), respectively. Classification of wakefulness and sleep was processed by fixed threshold that derived from the probability density function of correlation coefficients. There was no correlation between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz during wakefulness (|r| r > 0.1 for r(EEG) and r(δ)), while low correlation existed during sleep (r ≈ -0.4 for r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β)). There were significant differences (analysis of variance, P correlation index between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz could distinguish all five types of wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N1 sleep, N2 sleep and N3 sleep. In conclusion, the temporal correlation between EEG bipolar leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz are highly associated with sleep-wake stages. Moreover, high accuracy of sleep-wake classification could be achieved by the temporal correlation within frequency band 0.5-30 Hz between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz.

  7. Topographic distribution of EEG alpha attractor correlation dimension values in wake and drowsy states in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Bojić, Tijana

    2015-03-01

    Organization of resting state cortical networks is of fundamental importance for the phenomenon of awareness, which is altered in the first part of hypnagogic period (Hori stages 1-4). Our aim was to investigate the change in brain topography pattern of EEG alpha attractor correlation dimension (CD) in the period of transition from Hori stage 1 to 4. EEG of ten healthy adult individuals was recorded in the wake and drowsy states, using a 14 channel average reference montage, from which 91 bipolar channels were derived and filtered in the wider alpha (6-14 Hz) range. Sixty 1s long epochs of each state and individual were subjected to CD calculation according to the Grassberger-Procaccia method. For such a collection of signals, two embedding dimensions, d={5, 10}, and 22 time delays τ=2-23 samples were explored. Optimal values were d=10 and τ=18, where both saturation and second zero crossing of the autocorrelation function occurred. Bipolar channel CD underwent a significant decrease during the transition and showed a positive linear correlation with electrode distance, stronger in the wake individuals. Topographic distribution of bipolar channels with above median CD changed from longitudinal anterior-posterior pattern (awake) to a more diagonal pattern, with localization in posterior regions (drowsiness). Our data are in line with the literature reporting functional segregation of neuronal assemblies in anterior and posterior regions during this transition. Our results should contribute to understanding of complex reorganization of the cortical part of alpha generators during the wake/drowsy transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Caffeine promotes wakefulness via dopamine signaling in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Aleksandra H.; Shakhmantsir, Iryna; Cichewicz, Karol; Birman, Serge; Hirsh, Jay; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely-consumed psychoactive drug in the world, but our understanding of how caffeine affects our brains is relatively incomplete. Most studies focus on effects of caffeine on adenosine receptors, but there is evidence for other, more complex mechanisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which shows a robust diurnal pattern of sleep/wake activity, caffeine reduces nighttime sleep behavior independently of the one known adenosine receptor. Here, we show that dopamine is required for the wake-promoting effect of caffeine in the fly, and that caffeine likely acts presynaptically to increase dopamine signaling. We identify a cluster of neurons, the paired anterior medial (PAM) cluster of dopaminergic neurons, as the ones relevant for the caffeine response. PAM neurons show increased activity following caffeine administration, and promote wake when activated. Also, inhibition of these neurons abrogates sleep suppression by caffeine. While previous studies have focused on adenosine-receptor mediated mechanisms for caffeine action, we have identified a role for dopaminergic neurons in the arousal-promoting effect of caffeine. PMID:26868675

  9. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Chikahisa

    Full Text Available Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS. Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v mice and their wild-type littermates (WT, although W/W(v mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v mice. W/W(v mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  10. High-density EEG characterization of brain responses to auditory rhythmic stimuli during wakefulness and NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Patel, Yogi A; Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; Page, Jessica M; Price, Betsy; Boyle, Michael R; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2018-04-01

    Auditory rhythmic sensory stimulation modulates brain oscillations by increasing phase-locking to the temporal structure of the stimuli and by increasing the power of specific frequency bands, resulting in Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSR). The ASSR is altered in different diseases of the central nervous system such as schizophrenia. However, in order to use the ASSR as biological markers for disease states, it needs to be understood how different vigilance states and underlying brain activity affect the ASSR. Here, we compared the effects of auditory rhythmic stimuli on EEG brain activity during wake and NREM sleep, investigated the influence of the presence of dominant sleep rhythms on the ASSR, and delineated the topographical distribution of these modulations. Participants (14 healthy males, 20-33 years) completed on the same day a 60 min nap session and two 30 min wakefulness sessions (before and after the nap). During these sessions, amplitude modulated (AM) white noise auditory stimuli at different frequencies were applied. High-density EEG was continuously recorded and time-frequency analyses were performed to assess ASSR during wakefulness and NREM periods. Our analysis revealed that depending on the electrode location, stimulation frequency applied and window/frequencies analysed the ASSR was significantly modulated by sleep pressure (before and after sleep), vigilance state (wake vs. NREM sleep), and the presence of slow wave activity and sleep spindles. Furthermore, AM stimuli increased spindle activity during NREM sleep but not during wakefulness. Thus, (1) electrode location, sleep history, vigilance state and ongoing brain activity needs to be carefully considered when investigating ASSR and (2) auditory rhythmic stimuli during sleep might represent a powerful tool to boost sleep spindles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na, a prostaglandin DP1 receptor antagonist, in hypocretin/orexin deficient narcoleptic mice.

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    Sagawa, Yohei; Sato, Masatoshi; Sakai, Noriaki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Chiba, Shintaro; Maruyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Junki; Nishino, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is an endogenous sleep substance, and a series of animal studies reported that PGD2 or PGD2 receptor (DP1) agonists promote sleep, while DP1 antagonists promote wakefulness. This suggests the possibility of use of PG DP1 antagonists as wake-promoting compounds. We therefore evaluated the wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na, a DP1 antagonist, in a mouse model of narcolepsy (i.e., orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic mice) and compared those to effects of modafinil. ONO-4127Na perfused in the basal forebrain (BF) area potently promoted wakefulness in both wild type and narcoleptic mice, and the wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na at 2.93 × 10(-4) M roughly corresponded to those of modafinil at 100 mg/kg (p.o.). The wake promoting effects of ONO-4127Na was observed both during light and dark periods, and much larger effects were seen during the light period when mice slept most of the time. ONO-4127Na, when perfused in the hypothalamic area, had no effects on sleep. We further demonstrated that wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na were abolished in DP1 KO mice, confirming that the wake-promoting effect of ONO-4127Na is mediated by blockade of the PG DP1 receptors located in the BF area. ONO-4127Na reduced DREM, an EEG/EMG assessment of behavioral cataplexy in narcoleptic mice, suggesting that ONO-4127Na is likely to have anticataplectic effects. DP1 antagonists may be a new class of compounds for the treatment of narcolepsy-cataplexy, and further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain dead. EEG cannot be used to measure intelligence. Normal Results Brain electrical activity has a certain ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  13. Evidence for age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive provided by scoring principal components of the resting EEG spectrum in sleep-provoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, Arcady A; Donskaya, Olga G

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated changes in different bandwidths of the human electroencephalographic (EEG) spectrum are well documented, but their functional significance is poorly understood. This spectrum seems to represent summation of simultaneous influences of several sleep-wake regulatory processes. Scoring of its orthogonal (uncorrelated) principal components can help in separation of the brain signatures of these processes. In particular, the opposite age-associated changes were documented for scores on the two largest (1st and 2nd) principal components of the sleep EEG spectrum. A decrease of the first score and an increase of the second score can reflect, respectively, the weakening of the sleep drive and disinhibition of the opposing wake drive with age. In order to support the suggestion of age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive from the antagonistic influence of the sleep drive, we analyzed principal component scores of the resting EEG spectra obtained in sleep deprivation experiments with 81 healthy young adults aged between 19 and 26 and 40 healthy older adults aged between 45 and 66 years. At the second day of the sleep deprivation experiments, frontal scores on the 1st principal component of the EEG spectrum demonstrated an age-associated reduction of response to eyes closed relaxation. Scores on the 2nd principal component were either initially increased during wakefulness or less responsive to such sleep-provoking conditions (frontal and occipital scores, respectively). These results are in line with the suggestion of disinhibition of the wake drive with age. They provide an explanation of why older adults are less vulnerable to sleep deprivation than young adults.

  14. EEG

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... However, very few studies have examined the use of EEG in developing countries, including Ni- ... of evoked potentials from brain neurons, referred to as .... Percentage. Gender. Male. 89. 62.7. Female. 53. 37.3. Age. 0-10. 59.

  15. Assessment of Event-Related EEG Power After Single-Pulse TMS in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome and Minimally Conscious State Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Cavinato, Marianna; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Tonin, Paolo; Piccione, Francesco; Manganotti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In patients without a behavioral response, non-invasive techniques and new methods of data analysis can complement existing diagnostic tools by providing a method for detecting covert signs of residual cognitive function and awareness. The aim of this study was to investigate the brain oscillatory activities synchronized by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered over the primary motor area in the time-frequency domain in patients with the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state as compared to healthy controls. A time-frequency analysis based on the wavelet transform was used to characterize rapid modifications of oscillatory EEG rhythms induced by TMS in patients as compared to healthy controls. The pattern of EEG changes in the patients differed from that of healthy controls. In the controls there was an early synchronization of slow waves immediately followed by a desynchronization of alpha and beta frequency bands over the frontal and centro-parietal electrodes, whereas an opposite early synchronization, particularly over motor areas for alpha and beta and over the frontal and parietal electrodes for beta power, was seen in the patients. In addition, no relevant modification in slow rhythms (delta and theta) after TMS was noted in patients. The clinical impact of these findings could be relevant in neurorehabilitation settings for increasing the awareness of these patients and defining new treatment procedures.

  16. The wake-promoting hypocretin/orexin neurons change their response to noradrenaline after sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivel, Jeremy; Cvetkovic, Vesna; Bayer, Laurence; Machard, Danièle; Tobler, Irene; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2005-04-20

    Sleep deprivation is accompanied by the progressive development of an irresistible need to sleep, a phenomenon whose mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we identified for the first time a reflection of that phenomenon in vitro by showing that, after a short 2 h period of total sleep deprivation, the action of noradrenaline on the wake-promoting hypocretin/orexin neurons changes from an excitation to an inhibition. We propose that such a conspicuous modification of responsiveness should contribute to the growing sleepiness that accompanies sleep deprivation.

  17. Orexin/Hypocretin and Organizing Principles for a Diversity of Wake-Promoting Neurons in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Cornelia; Burdakov, Denis

    2017-01-01

    An enigmatic feature of behavioural state control is the rich diversity of wake-promoting neural systems. This diversity has been rationalized as 'robustness via redundancy', wherein wakefulness control is not critically dependent on one type of neuron or molecule. Studies of the brain orexin/hypocretin system challenge this view by demonstrating that wakefulness control fails upon loss of this neurotransmitter system. Since orexin neurons signal arousal need, and excite other wake-promoting neurons, their actions illuminate nonredundant principles of arousal control. Here, we suggest such principles by reviewing the orexin system from a collective viewpoint of biology, physics and engineering. Orexin peptides excite other arousal-promoting neurons (noradrenaline, histamine, serotonin, acetylcholine neurons), either by activating mixed-cation conductances or by inhibiting potassium conductances. Ohm's law predicts that these opposite conductance changes will produce opposite effects on sensitivity of neuronal excitability to current inputs, thus enabling orexin to differentially control input-output gain of its target networks. Orexin neurons also produce other transmitters, including glutamate. When orexin cells fire, glutamate-mediated downstream excitation displays temporal decay, but orexin-mediated excitation escalates, as if orexin transmission enabled arousal controllers to compute a time integral of arousal need. Since the anatomical and functional architecture of the orexin system contains negative feedback loops (e.g. orexin ➔ histamine ➔ noradrenaline/serotonin-orexin), such computations may stabilize wakefulness via integral feedback, a basic engineering strategy for set point control in uncertain environments. Such dynamic behavioural control requires several distinct wake-promoting modules, which perform nonredundant transformations of arousal signals and are connected in feedback loops.

  18. The wake-promoting drug Modafinil prevents motor impairment in sickness behavior induced by LPS in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zager, Adriano; Brandão, Wesley Nogueira; Margatho, Rafael Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    The wake-promoting drug Modafinil has been used for many years for treatment of Narcolepsy and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, due to a dopamine-related psychostimulant action. Recent studies have indicated that Modafinil prevents neuroinflammation in animal models. Thus, the aim of the present stu...

  19. The effects of diurnal intermittent fasting on the wake-promoting neurotransmitter orexin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Alzoghaibi, Mohammed; BaHammam, Abdulrahman A; Ibrahim, Mahmoud G; Olaish, Awad H; Nashwan, Samar Z; BaHammam, Ahmed S

    2018-01-01

    Food restriction has been demonstrated to increase the alertness in different species and to increase the levels of the wake-promoting neurotransmitter orexin. We hypothesized that diurnal intermittent fasting (DIF) increases orexin-A levels during fasting. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the effects of DIF, during the month of Ramadan, on orexin, while controlling for lifestyle changes that may accompany Ramadan such as sleep duration, bedtime and wake time, energy expenditure, light exposure, and food. Eight young healthy volunteers (mean age, 25.4 ± 3.5 years) reported to the laboratory on three occasions: (1) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing DIF for 1 week outside the month of Ramadan (fasting outside Ramadan); (2) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline) (BL); and (3) during the 2 nd week of Ramadan while performing DIF (Ramadan). Plasma levels of orexin-A were measured using an enzyme immunoassay five times at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00. Caloric intake, light exposure, and sleep schedule were maintained during the participants' stays in the laboratory in the three study periods. Orexin-A levels increased in the daytime during fasting and decreased at night compared to BL. The differences in orexin-A levels between DIF and BL were significant at 06:00, 11:00, 22:00, and 02:00. DIF increases orexin-A levels in the plasma during fasting hours. This finding supports findings from animal studies showing that fasting increases alertness.

  20. THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael D.; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the discovery of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep in the late 1950s, identification of the neural circuitry underlying wakefulness, sleep onset and the alternation between REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep has been an active area of investigation. Synchronization and desynchronization of cortical activity as detected in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is due to a corticothalamocortical loop, intrinsic cortical oscillators, monoaminergic and cholinergic afferent input to the thalamus, and the basal forebrain cholinergic input directly to the cortex. The monoaminergic and cholinergic systems are largely wake-promoting; the brainstem cholinergic nuclei are also involved in REM sleep regulation. These wake-promoting systems receive excitatory input from the hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin system. Sleep-promoting nuclei are GABAergic in nature and found in the preoptic area, brainstem and lateral hypothalamus. Although the pons is critical for the expression of REM sleep, recent research has suggested that melanin-concentrating hormone/GABAergic cells in the lateral hypothalamus "gate" REM sleep. The temporal distribution of sleep and wakefulness is due to interaction between the circadian system and the sleep homeostatic system. Although the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei contain the circadian pacemaker, the neural circuitry underlying the sleep homeostat is less clear. Prolonged wakefulness results in the accumulation of extracellular adenosine, possibly from glial sources, which is an important feedback molecule for the sleep homeostatic system. Cortical neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) neurons may also play a role in propagating slow waves through the cortex in NREM sleep. Several neuropeptides and other neurochemicals likely play important roles in sleep/wake control. Although the control of sleep and wakefulness seemingly involves multiple redundant systems, each of these systems provides a vulnerability that can result in sleep/wake dysfunction that may

  1. Plasticity in neurons synthesizing wake/arousal promoting hormone hypocretin/orexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a critical brain structure regulating physiological functions essential to the survival of individuals and species. One of the striking characteristics of this brain region is the abundance of nerve cells (neurons) expressing a great numbers of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, among which are hormones released into the blood stream through brain neuroendocrinological routes. The neurons in the lateral hypothalamus take part in intra- and extrahypothalamic circuits controlling basic physiological functions essential for the well being of animal bodies (such as cardiovascular function, respiratory function, immune responses, etc.), animal behaviors required for the maintenance of the survival of individuals (food foraging, flight, fight, etc.) and species (reproductive function), and higher brain functions (learning and memory, mental state, etc.). Hypocretin (also called orexin) comprises of two neuropeptides exclusively synthesized by neurons in the perifornical/lateral hypothalamus. Although hypocretin/orexin was initially found to enhance food intake, it is now clear that the functions mediated by hypocretin/orexin are well beyond what were originally proposed. Specifically, hypocretin/orexin is a crucial promoter of wakefulness; deficiency in the hypocretin/orexin system leads to diseases and disorders such as narcolepsy. It is clear that neurons synthesizing hypocretin/orexin are consistently under regulation originating from various parts of the brain and that the status of activity in hypocretin/orexin neurons is closely related with the nutritional and behavioral state of animals. Therefore, the demand to make adaptive changes in hypocretin/orexin neurons to accommodate the changes in the external environment and behavioral state of animals is expected. The latest developments in the studies of plasticity in hypocretin/orexin neurons under the challenges from environmental and behavioral factors have dramatically shaped the

  2. Cholinergic Neurons in the Basal Forebrain Promote Wakefulness by Actions on Neighboring Non-Cholinergic Neurons: An Opto-Dialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zant, Janneke C; Kim, Tae; Prokai, Laszlo; Szarka, Szabolcs; McNally, James; McKenna, James T; Shukla, Charu; Yang, Chun; Kalinchuk, Anna V; McCarley, Robert W; Brown, Ritchie E; Basheer, Radhika

    2016-02-10

    Understanding the control of sleep-wake states by the basal forebrain (BF) poses a challenge due to the intermingled presence of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. All three BF neuronal subtypes project to the cortex and are implicated in cortical arousal and sleep-wake control. Thus, nonspecific stimulation or inhibition studies do not reveal the roles of these different neuronal types. Recent studies using optogenetics have shown that "selective" stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons increases transitions between NREM sleep and wakefulness, implicating cholinergic projections to cortex in wake promotion. However, the interpretation of these optogenetic experiments is complicated by interactions that may occur within the BF. For instance, a recent in vitro study from our group found that cholinergic neurons strongly excite neighboring GABAergic neurons, including the subset of cortically projecting neurons, which contain the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV) (Yang et al., 2014). Thus, the wake-promoting effect of "selective" optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons could be mediated by local excitation of GABA/PV or other non-cholinergic BF neurons. In this study, using a newly designed opto-dialysis probe to couple selective optical stimulation with simultaneous in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrated that optical stimulation of cholinergic neurons locally increased acetylcholine levels and increased wakefulness in mice. Surprisingly, the enhanced wakefulness caused by cholinergic stimulation was abolished by simultaneous reverse microdialysis of cholinergic receptor antagonists into BF. Thus, our data suggest that the wake-promoting effect of cholinergic stimulation requires local release of acetylcholine in the basal forebrain and activation of cortically projecting, non-cholinergic neurons, including the GABAergic/PV neurons. Optogenetics is a revolutionary tool to assess the roles of particular groups of neurons in behavioral

  3. The wake-promoting drug modafinil stimulates specific hypothalamic circuits to promote adaptive stress responses in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S; Ifergane, G; Vainer, E; Matar, M A; Kaplan, Z; Zohar, J; Mathé, A A; Cohen, H

    2016-10-11

    Pharmacotherapeutic intervention during traumatic memory consolidation has been suggested to alleviate or even prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We recently reported that, in a controlled, prospective animal model, depriving rats of sleep following stress exposure prevents the development of a PTSD-like phenotype. Here, we report that administering the wake-promoting drug modafinil to rats in the aftermath of a stressogenic experience has a similar prophylactic effect, as it significantly reduces the prevalence of PTSD-like phenotype. Moreover, we show that the therapeutic value of modafinil appears to stem from its ability to stimulate a specific circuit within the hypothalamus, which ties together the neuropeptide Y, the orexin system and the HPA axis, to promote adaptive stress responses. The study not only confirms the value of sleep prevention and identifies the mechanism of action of a potential prophylactic treatment after traumatic exposure, but also contributes to understanding mechanisms underlying the shift towards adaptive behavioral response.

  4. Norepinephrine is required to promote wakefulness and for hypocretin-induced arousal in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chanpreet; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Prober, David A

    2015-09-16

    Pharmacological studies in mammals suggest that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in promoting arousal. However, the role of endogenous NE is unclear, with contradicting reports concerning the sleep phenotypes of mice lacking NE due to mutation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (dbh). To investigate NE function in an alternative vertebrate model, we generated dbh mutant zebrafish. In contrast to mice, these animals exhibit dramatically increased sleep. Surprisingly, despite an increase in sleep, dbh mutant zebrafish have a reduced arousal threshold. These phenotypes are also observed in zebrafish treated with small molecules that inhibit NE signaling, suggesting that they are caused by the lack of NE. Using genetic overexpression of hypocretin (Hcrt) and optogenetic activation of hcrt-expressing neurons, we also find that NE is important for Hcrt-induced arousal. These results establish a role for endogenous NE in promoting arousal and indicate that NE is a critical downstream effector of Hcrt neurons.

  5. EEG biofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Vznik EEG aktivity v mozku, rozdělení EEG vln podle frekvence, způsob měření EEG, přístroje pro měření EEG. Dále popis biofeedback metody, její možnosti a návrh biofeedback her. Popis zpracování naměřených EEG signálů. EEG generation, brain rhythms, methods of recording EEG, EEG recorder. Description of biofeedback, potentialities of biofeedback, proposal of biofeedback games. Description of processing measured EEG signals. B

  6. Rett syndrome: EEG presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, R; Langill, L; Wong, P K; Ho, H H

    1988-11-01

    Rett syndrome, a degenerative neurological disorder of girls, has a classical presentation and typical EEG findings. The electroencephalograms (EEGs) of 7 girls whose records have been followed from the onset of symptoms to the age of 5 or more are presented. These findings are tabulated with the Clinical Staging System of Hagberg and Witt-Engerström (1986). The records show a progressive deterioration in background rhythms in waking and sleep. The abnormalities of the background activity may only become evident at 4-5 years of age or during stage 2--the Rapid Destructive Stage. The marked contrast between waking and sleep background may not occur until stage 3--the Pseudostationary Stage. In essence EEG changes appear to lag behind clinical symptomatology by 1-3 years. An unexpected, but frequent, abnormality was central spikes seen in 5 of 7 girls. They appeared to be age related and could be evoked by tactile stimulation in 2 patients. We hypothesize that the prominent 'hand washing' mannerism may be self-stimulating and related to the appearance of central spike discharges.

  7. Why Does Sleep Slow-Wave Activity Increase After Extended Wake? Assessing the Effects of Increased Cortical Firing During Wake and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alexander V; Funk, Chadd M; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2016-12-07

    During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, cortical neurons alternate between ON periods of firing and OFF periods of silence. This bi-stability, which is largely synchronous across neurons, is reflected in the EEG as slow waves. Slow-wave activity (SWA) increases with wake duration and declines homeostatically during sleep, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is neuronal "fatigue": high, sustained firing in wake would force neurons to recover with more frequent and longer OFF periods during sleep. Another possibility is net synaptic potentiation during wake: stronger coupling among neurons would lead to greater synchrony and therefore higher SWA. Here, we obtained a comparable increase in sustained firing (6 h) in cortex by: (1) keeping mice awake by exposure to novel objects to promote plasticity and (2) optogenetically activating a local population of cortical neurons at wake-like levels during sleep. Sleep after extended wake led to increased SWA, higher synchrony, and more time spent OFF, with a positive correlation between SWA, synchrony, and OFF periods. Moreover, time spent OFF was correlated with cortical firing during prior wake. After local optogenetic stimulation, SWA and cortical synchrony decreased locally, time spent OFF did not change, and local SWA was not correlated with either measure. Moreover, laser-induced cortical firing was not correlated with time spent OFF afterward. Overall, these results suggest that high sustained firing per se may not be the primary determinant of SWA increases observed after extended wake. A long-standing hypothesis is that neurons fire less during slow-wave sleep to recover from the "fatigue" accrued during wake, when overall synaptic activity is higher than in sleep. This idea, however, has rarely been tested and other factors, namely increased cortical synchrony, could explain why sleep slow-wave activity (SWA) is higher after extended wake. We forced neurons in the mouse cortex to fire

  8. EEG (Electroencephalogram)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in diagnosing brain disorders, especially epilepsy or another seizure disorder. An EEG might also be helpful for diagnosing ... Sometimes seizures are intentionally triggered in people with epilepsy during the test, but appropriate medical care is ...

  9. Automatic interpretation and writing report of the adult waking electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sugi, Takenao; Nishida, Shigeto; Nagamine, Takashi; Ikeda, Akio

    2014-06-01

    Automatic interpretation of the EEG has so far been faced with significant difficulties because of a large amount of spatial as well as temporal information contained in the EEG, continuous fluctuation of the background activity depending on changes in the subject's vigilance and attention level, the occurrence of paroxysmal activities such as spikes and spike-and-slow-waves, contamination of the EEG with a variety of artefacts and the use of different recording electrodes and montages. Therefore, previous attempts of automatic EEG interpretation have been focussed only on a specific EEG feature such as paroxysmal abnormalities, delta waves, sleep stages and artefact detection. As a result of a long-standing cooperation between clinical neurophysiologists and system engineers, we report for the first time on a comprehensive, computer-assisted, automatic interpretation of the adult waking EEG. This system analyses the background activity, intermittent abnormalities, artefacts and the level of vigilance and attention of the subject, and automatically presents its report in written form. Besides, it also detects paroxysmal abnormalities and evaluates the effects of intermittent photic stimulation and hyperventilation on the EEG. This system of automatic EEG interpretation was formed by adopting the strategy that the qualified EEGers employ for the systematic visual inspection. This system can be used as a supplementary tool for the EEGer's visual inspection, and for educating EEG trainees and EEG technicians. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wake fields and wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Wilson, P.B.; Weiland, T.

    1984-12-01

    In this lecture we introduce the concepts of wake fields and wake potentials, examine some basic properties of these functions, show how they can be calculated, and look briefly at a few important applications. One such application is wake field acceleration. The wake field accelerator is capable of producing the high gradients required for future very high energy e + e - linear colliders. The principles of wake field acceleration, and a brief description of experiments in progress in this area, are presented in the concluding section. 40 references, 27 figures

  11. Increased EEG sigma and beta power during NREM sleep in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Feige, Bernd; Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Baglioni, Chiara; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The hyperarousal model of primary insomnia suggests that a deficit of attenuating arousal during sleep might cause the experience of non-restorative sleep. In the current study, we examined EEG spectral power values for standard frequency bands as indices of cortical arousal and sleep protecting mechanisms during sleep in 25 patients with primary insomnia and 29 good sleeper controls. Patients with primary insomnia demonstrated significantly elevated spectral power values in the EEG beta and sigma frequency band during NREM stage 2 sleep. No differences were observed in other frequency bands or during REM sleep. Based on prior studies suggesting that EEG beta activity represents a marker of cortical arousal and EEG sleep spindle (sigma) activity is an index of sleep protective mechanisms, our findings may provide further evidence for the concept that a simultaneous activation of wake-promoting and sleep-protecting neural activity patterns contributes to the experience of non-restorative sleep in primary insomnia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wake-promoting actions of median nerve stimulation in TBI-induced coma: An investigation of orexin-A and orexin receptor 1 in the hypothalamic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying-Jun; Feng, Zhen; Wang, Liang; Wei, Tian-Qi

    2015-09-01

    A coma is a serious complication, which can occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), for which no effective treatment has been established. Previous studies have suggested that neural electrical stimulation, including median nerve stimulation (MNS), may be an effective method for treating patients in a coma, and orexin‑A, an excitatory hypothalamic neuropeptide, may be involved in wakefulness. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this involvement remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the arousal‑promoting role of MNS in rats in a TBI‑induced coma and to investigate the potential mechanisms involved. A total of 90 rats were divided into three groups, comprising a control group, sham‑stimulated (TBI) group and a stimulated (TBI + MNS) group. MNS was performed on the animals, which were in a TBI‑induced comatose state. Changes in the behavior of the rats were observed following MNS. Subsequently, hypothalamic tissues were extracted from the rats 6, 12 and 24 h following TBI or MNS, respectively. The expression levels of orexin‑A and orexin receptor‑1 (OX1R) in the hypothalamus were examined using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrated that 21 rats subjected to TBI‑induced coma exhibited a restored righting reflex and response to pain stimuli following MNS. In addition, ignificant differences in the expression levels of orexin‑A and OXIR were observed among the three groups and among the time‑points. Orexin‑A and OX1R were upregulated following MNS. The rats in the stimulated group reacted to the MNS and exhibited a re‑awakening response. The results of the present study indicated that MNS may be a therapeutic option for TBI‑induced coma. The mechanism may be associated with increasing expression levels of the excitatory hypothalamic neuropeptide, orexin-A, and its receptor, OX1R, in the hypothalamic region.

  13. Mutual information measures applied to EEG signals for sleepiness characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Umberto Sergio Pio; Guaita, Marc; Vallverdú Ferrer, Montserrat; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, I; Salamero, Manuel; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders with a great impact on the patient lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, the automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on non-linear dynamical analysis of EEG signal was proposed. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five maintenance of wakefulness (MWT) and multiple sleep lat...

  14. German legislation for promotion of renewable energies 2014. Act on feed-in and guaranteed pricing of electricity from renewable energy sources (EEG). Commentary. 7. new rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salje, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The EEG is continuously subjected to changes and the permanent center of political discussions. Therefore now already the 7th edition of the EEG comment of the science and practice well recognized and highly recognized author Prof. Dr. Dr. Peter Salje appear. The revision includes, inter alia, further evaluation of the law of electric power produced from renewable energy sources from the EEG of 2012 and the regulations made there under (including Biomass and AusglMechV). The changes associated with the so-called Photovoltaic amendment dated August 2012 and the recent case law since the publication of the previous edition handed down are considered. In particular, the incorporation of the full basic EEG reform in 2014 guarantees the highest topicality. [de

  15. Multiple Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Mann, Jakob

    and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison of selected datasets from the campaign showed good far wake agreements of mean wake expansion with Actuator Line CFD computations and simpler engineering models. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction...... for modeling the resulting double wake deficit is only relevant at high turbine thrust coefficients. For high wind speed and low thrust coefficient, linear summation should be primarily used. The first iteration of a new engineering model capable of modeling the overlapped wake deficit is formulated and its...... measurement and simulation is seen in both the fixed and the meandering frame of reference. A benchmark of several wake accumulation models is performed as a basis for the subsequent development of an engineering model for wake interaction.Finally, the validated numerical CFD model is used as part...

  16. Wake field accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered

  17. Investigation of Murine Models for Sleep, Wakefulness and Target Discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Gui-lan; Lanthorn, Thomas; Savelieva, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    Genetic inhibition of two genes, an orphan GPCR and a kinase, have been shown to produce changes in the behavior of mice that suggest the ability to promote sleep and to promote extended wakefulness...

  18. Mecanismos do ciclo sono-vigília Sleep-wake cycle mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Alóe

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Três sub-divisões hipotalâmicas são importantes no ciclo sono-vigília: o hipotálamo anterior (núcleos gabaérgicos e núcleos supraquiasmáticos, o hipotálamo posterior (núcleo túbero-mamilar histaminérgico e o hipotálamo lateral (sistema hipocretinas. O sistema gabaérgico inibitório do núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral (VLPO do hipotálamo anterior é responsável pelo início e manutenção do sono NREM. Os neurônios supraquiasmáticos (NSQs do hipotálamo anterior são responsáveis pelo ritmo circadiano do ciclo sono-vigília. Os núcleos aminérgicos, histaminérgicos, as hipocretinas e núcleos colinérgicos do prosencéfalo basal apresentam-se ativos durante a vigília, inibindo o núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral, promovendo a vigília. O processo de inibição-estimulação é a base do modelo da interação recíproca entre os grupos de células wake-off-sleep-on e células wake-off-sleep-on reguladores do ciclo sono-vigília. O modelo da interação recíproca também se aplica aos núcleos colinérgicos (células REM-on e aminérgicos (células REM-off do tronco cerebral no controle temporal do sono REM-NREM.Neurochemically distinct systems interact regulating sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness is promoted by aminergic, acetylcholinergic brainstem and hypothalamic systems. Each of these arousal systems supports wakefulness and coordinated activity is required for alertness and EEG activation. Neurons in the pons and preoptic area control rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Mutual inhibition between these wake- and sleep-regulating systems generate behavioral states. An up-to-date understanding of these systems should allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the effects of drugs, lesions, and neurologic disease on sleep and wakefulness.

  19. Association between waking electroencephalography and cognitive event-related potentials in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Gagnon, Jean-François; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gosselin, Nadia

    2013-07-01

    Sleepiness, cognitive deficits, abnormal event-related potentials (ERP), and slowing of the waking electroencephalography (EEG) activity have been reported in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our study aimed at evaluating if an association exists between the severity of ERP abnormalities and EEG slowing to better understand cerebral dysfunctions in OSA. Twelve OSA patients and 12 age-matched controls underwent an overnight polysomnographic recording, an EEG recording of 10 min of wakefulness, and an auditory ERP protocol known to specifically recruit attention. P300 and P3a ERP components were measured as well as the spectral power in each frequency band of the waking EEG. Pearson product moment correlations were used to measure associations between ERP characteristics and EEG spectral power in OSA patients and control subjects. A positive correlation between the late P300 amplitude and θ power in the occipital region was observed in OSA subjects (P<.01). A positive correlation was also found between P3a amplitude and β1 power in central region in OSA subjects (P<.01). No correlation was observed for control subjects. ERP abnormalities observed in an attention task are associated with a slowing of the waking EEG recorded at rest in OSA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Wake modeling and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, howev...... methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjæreborg wind farm, have been performed showing satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements...

  1. Wake modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Larsen, T.J.; Troldborg, N.

    2008-07-15

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the DWM model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. A computationally low cost model is developed for this purpose. Likewise, the character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by a simple semi-empirical model essentially based on an eddy viscosity philosophy. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the DWM approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power- and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as well as of control strategies for the individual turbine. To establish an integrated modeling tool, the DWM methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjaereborg wind farm, have

  2. Generalized Information Equilibrium Approaches to EEG Sleep Stage Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Zorick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience have raised the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is via power-law distributed neuronal avalanches, while EEG signals are nonstationary. Therefore, spectral analysis of EEG may miss many properties inherent in such signals. A complete understanding of such dynamical systems requires knowledge of the underlying nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In recent work by Fielitz and Borchardt (2011, 2014, the concept of information equilibrium (IE in information transfer processes has successfully characterized many different systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We utilized a publicly available database of polysomnogram EEG data from fourteen subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 2 and waking and an overlapping set of eleven subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 3. We applied principles of IE to model EEG as a system that transfers (equilibrates information from the time domain to scalp-recorded voltages. We find that waking consciousness is readily distinguished from sleep stages 2 and 3 by several differences in mean information transfer constants. Principles of IE applied to EEG may therefore prove to be useful in the study of changes in brain function more generally.

  3. Pharmaco-EEG Studies in Animals: A History-Based Introduction to Contemporary Translational Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H I M; Ahnaou, Abdallah; Ruigt, Gé S F

    2015-01-01

    Current research on the effects of pharmacological agents on human neurophysiology finds its roots in animal research, which is also reflected in contemporary animal pharmaco-electroencephalography (p-EEG) applications. The contributions, present value and translational appreciation of animal p-EEG-based applications are strongly interlinked with progress in recording and neuroscience analysis methodology. After the pioneering years in the late 19th and early 20th century, animal p-EEG research flourished in the pharmaceutical industry in the early 1980s. However, around the turn of the millennium the emergence of structurally and functionally revealing imaging techniques and the increasing application of molecular biology caused a temporary reduction in the use of EEG as a window into the brain for the prediction of drug efficacy. Today, animal p-EEG is applied again for its biomarker potential - extensive databases of p-EEG and polysomnography studies in rats and mice hold EEG signatures of a broad collection of psychoactive reference and test compounds. A multitude of functional EEG measures has been investigated, ranging from simple spectral power and sleep-wake parameters to advanced neuronal connectivity and plasticity parameters. Compared to clinical p-EEG studies, where the level of vigilance can be well controlled, changes in sleep-waking behaviour are generally a prominent confounding variable in animal p-EEG studies and need to be dealt with. Contributions of rodent pharmaco-sleep EEG research are outlined to illustrate the value and limitations of such preclinical p-EEG data for pharmacodynamic and chronopharmacological drug profiling. Contemporary applications of p-EEG and pharmaco-sleep EEG recordings in animals provide a common and relatively inexpensive window into the functional brain early in the preclinical and clinical development of psychoactive drugs in comparison to other brain imaging techniques. They provide information on the impact of

  4. Meditation and the EEG

    OpenAIRE

    West, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Previous research on meditation and the EEG is described, and findings relating to EEG patterns during meditation are discussed. Comparisons of meditation with other altered states are reviewed and it is concluded that, on the basis of existing EEG evidence, there is some reason for differentiating between meditation and drowsing. Research on alpha-blocking and habituation of the blocking response during meditation is reviewed, and the effects of meditation on EEG patterns outside of meditati...

  5. Brain energetics during the sleep-wake cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2017-01-01

    Brain activity during wakefulness is associated with high metabolic rates that are believed to support information processing and memory encoding. In spite of loss of consciousness, sleep still carries a substantial energy cost. Experimental evidence supports a cerebral metabolic shift taking place...... during sleep that suppresses aerobic glycolysis, a hallmark of environment-oriented waking behavior and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies reveal that glial astrocytes respond to the reduction of wake-promoting neuromodulators by regulating volume, composition and glymphatic drainage of interstitial...

  6. Mobile EEG in epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askamp, Jessica; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of routine EEG recordings for interictal epileptiform discharges in epilepsy is limited. In some patients, inpatient video-EEG may be performed to increase the likelihood of finding abnormalities. Although many agree that home EEG recordings may provide a cost-effective alternative

  7. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by analytical as well as by numerical studies. The dynamic wake meandering philosophy has been verified by comparing model predictions with extensive full-scale measurements. These comparisons have demonstrated good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as

  8. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  9. Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienne, Julie; Lecciso, Gianpaolo; Constantinescu, Irina; Schwartz, Sophie; Franken, Paul; Heinzer, Raphaël; Tafti, Mehdi

    2012-08-01

    Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABAβ agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4.5 Hz), both indexes of NREM sleep (NREMS) intensity and depth, suggesting that SO enhances recuperative function of NREM. We investigated whether SO induces physiological deep sleep. SO was administered before an afternoon nap or before the subsequent experimental night in 13 healthy volunteers. The effects of SO were compared to baclofen (BAC), another GABAβ receptor agonist, to assess the role of GABAβ receptors in the SO response. As expected, a nap significantly decreased sleep need and intensity the subsequent night. Both drugs reversed this nap effect on the subsequent night by decreasing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time, SWS during the first NREMS episode, and EEG delta and theta (0.75-7.25 Hz) power during NREMS. The SO-induced increase in EEG delta and theta power was, however, not specific to NREMS and was also observed during REM sleep (REMS) and wakefulness. Moreover, the high levels of delta power during a nap following SO administration did not affect delta power the following night. SO and BAC taken before the nap did not improve subsequent psychomotor performance and subjective alertness, or memory consolidation. Finally, SO and BAC strongly promoted the appearance of sleep onset REM periods. The SO-induced EEG slow waves seem not to be functionally similar to physiological slow waves. Our findings also suggest a role for GABAβ receptors in REMS generation.

  10. Hypnagogic behavior disorder: complex motor behaviors during wake-sleep transitions in 2 young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María Luz; García-Morales, Irene; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Franch, Oriol

    2008-08-01

    A nondescribed behavioral disorder was observed during wake-sleep transitions in 2 young children. Two boys had episodes of abnormal behavior in hypnagogic-and occasionally hypnopompic-periods for 1 year from the time they were 1 year and several months old. The episodes consisted of irregular body movements, which could be either gentle or violent but never made the children get out of bed. They lasted from a few seconds to 2 hours and were associated with poor reactivity and amnesia of the events. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings showed wake-state features, with brief bursts of hypnagogic hypersynchrony, and did not display seizure activity. A distinctive behavior disorder occurring during wake-sleep transitions with a wake EEG pattern has been identified in very early childhood. The clinical profile does not fit any of the known parasomnias and might belong to a new category of parasomnia.

  11. Wake Conference 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The 52 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2017 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland, Sweden. The Wake Conference series began in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 the conference took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it went back to where it started, Visby, and this time it once again takes place at Uppsala University’s Gotland campus, May 30 th - June 1 st . Modern wind turbines are today clustered in large farms with a total production capacity reaching those of a nuclear power plant. When placed in a wind farm, the turbines will be fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. This wake interaction results in a decreased power production, caused by the lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of wind farms. The increased importance and interest in the field of wake and wind farm aerodynamics can be seen in the increased number of scientific articles on the subject. For example, on the Web of Science citation index, the number citations on the topic ‘wind turbine wakes’ increased from about 50 in 2006 to more than 3800 in 2016. This citation growth essentially shows that the growth in the global production of electrical energy has become a scientific problem to be solved by scientists and engineers. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global climate change, the wind industry’s growth must continue. A part of making this growth possible will require research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. This conference is aimed at scientists and PhD students working in the field of wake dynamics. The conference covers the following subject areas: Wake and

  12. Information-Theoretical Analysis of EEG Microstate Sequences in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic von Wegner

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an open-source Python package to compute information-theoretical quantities for electroencephalographic data. Electroencephalography (EEG measures the electrical potential generated by the cerebral cortex and the set of spatial patterns projected by the brain's electrical potential on the scalp surface can be clustered into a set of representative maps called EEG microstates. Microstate time series are obtained by competitively fitting the microstate maps back into the EEG data set, i.e., by substituting the EEG data at a given time with the label of the microstate that has the highest similarity with the actual EEG topography. As microstate sequences consist of non-metric random variables, e.g., the letters A–D, we recently introduced information-theoretical measures to quantify these time series. In wakeful resting state EEG recordings, we found new characteristics of microstate sequences such as periodicities related to EEG frequency bands. The algorithms used are here provided as an open-source package and their use is explained in a tutorial style. The package is self-contained and the programming style is procedural, focusing on code intelligibility and easy portability. Using a sample EEG file, we demonstrate how to perform EEG microstate segmentation using the modified K-means approach, and how to compute and visualize the recently introduced information-theoretical tests and quantities. The time-lagged mutual information function is derived as a discrete symbolic alternative to the autocorrelation function for metric time series and confidence intervals are computed from Markov chain surrogate data. The software package provides an open-source extension to the existing implementations of the microstate transform and is specifically designed to analyze resting state EEG recordings.

  13. Mutual information measures applied to EEG signals for sleepiness characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Umberto; Guaita, Marc; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Salamero, Manel; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders with a great impact on the patient lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, the automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on non-linear dynamical analysis of EEG signal was proposed. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five maintenance of wakefulness (MWT) and multiple sleep latency (MSLT) tests alternated throughout the day from patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing. A group of 20 patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was compared with a group of 20 patients without daytime sleepiness (WDS), by analyzing 60-s EEG windows in waking state. Measures obtained from cross-mutual information function (CMIF) and auto-mutual-information function (AMIF) were calculated in the EEG. These functions permitted a quantification of the complexity properties of the EEG signal and the non-linear couplings between different zones of the scalp. Statistical differences between EDS and WDS groups were found in β band during MSLT events (p-value CMIF measures yielded sensitivity and specificity above 80% and AUC of ROC above 0.85 in classifying EDS and WDS patients. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Memories of attachment hamper EEG cortical connectivity in dissociative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Trentini, Cristina; Vergano, Carola Maggiora; Liotti, Giovanni; Brunetti, Riccardo; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cortical connectivity modifications by electroencephalography (EEG) lagged coherence analysis, in subjects with dissociative disorders and in controls, after retrieval of attachment memories. We asked thirteen patients with dissociative disorders and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls to retrieve personal attachment-related autobiographical memories through adult attachment interviews (AAI). EEG was recorded in the closed eyes resting state before and after the AAI. EEG lagged coherence before and after AAI was compared in all subjects. In the control group, memories of attachment promoted a widespread increase in EEG connectivity, in particular in the high-frequency EEG bands. Compared to controls, dissociative patients did not show an increase in EEG connectivity after the AAI. Conclusions: These results shed light on the neurophysiology of the disintegrative effect of retrieval of traumatic attachment memories in dissociative patients.

  15. EEG and Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshna, Nikesh I

    2016-03-01

    Coma is defined as a state of extreme unresponsiveness, in which a person exhibits no voluntary movement or behavior even to painful stimuli. The utilization of EEG for patients in coma has increased dramatically over the last few years. In fact, many institutions have set protocols for continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring for patients in coma due to potential causes such as subarachnoid hemorrhage or cardiac arrest. Consequently, EEG plays an important role in diagnosis, managenent, and in some cases even prognosis of coma patients.

  16. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed

  17. The EEG 2017 in the overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altrock, Martin; Vollprecht, Jens

    2016-01-01

    On 08.07.2016, the German Bundestag, the German Renewable Energies Act (EEG) in 2017 passed together with the wind-at-sea law. At the same time, the legislature changed 22 other energy legislation, inter alia, also the EnWG. Here, the law de facto a law amending the EEG 2014 is: The EEG is thus not total re-promulgated. Rather essentially part 3 (''Payment of market premium and feed in rate'') of the EEG 2014 renewed, notably Section 3 supplemented by regulations on the newly introduced procurements. But beyond the framework of support is further developed in various details, like the definition of a plant, the promotion of storage facilities and of course, in the again very ambitious and complicated transitional arrangements. Other notable individual changes concern the introduction of regional evidence of directly marketed electricity from renewable sources, the increase of liability for balancing group deviations in paragraph 60 para. 1 EEG 2017 or readjustments in the special equalization scheme, paragraph 64 para. 2 no. 2 EEG. [de

  18. Connectivity Measures in EEG Microstructural Sleep Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Dimitris; Koupparis, Andreas M; Kokkinos, Vasileios; Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Kostopoulos, George K

    2016-01-01

    During Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) the brain is relatively disconnected from the environment, while connectedness between brain areas is also decreased. Evidence indicates, that these dynamic connectivity changes are delivered by microstructural elements of sleep: short periods of environmental stimuli evaluation followed by sleep promoting procedures. The connectivity patterns of the latter, among other aspects of sleep microstructure, are still to be fully elucidated. We suggest here a methodology for the assessment and investigation of the connectivity patterns of EEG microstructural elements, such as sleep spindles. The methodology combines techniques in the preprocessing, estimation, error assessing and visualization of results levels in order to allow the detailed examination of the connectivity aspects (levels and directionality of information flow) over frequency and time with notable resolution, while dealing with the volume conduction and EEG reference assessment. The high temporal and frequency resolution of the methodology will allow the association between the microelements and the dynamically forming networks that characterize them, and consequently possibly reveal aspects of the EEG microstructure. The proposed methodology is initially tested on artificially generated signals for proof of concept and subsequently applied to real EEG recordings via a custom built MATLAB-based tool developed for such studies. Preliminary results from 843 fast sleep spindles recorded in whole night sleep of 5 healthy volunteers indicate a prevailing pattern of interactions between centroparietal and frontal regions. We demonstrate hereby, an opening to our knowledge attempt to estimate the scalp EEG connectivity that characterizes fast sleep spindles via an "EEG-element connectivity" methodology we propose. The application of the latter, via a computational tool we developed suggests it is able to investigate the connectivity patterns related to the occurrence

  19. Sedation, sleep promotion, and delirium screening practices in the care of mechanically ventilated children: a wake-up call for the pediatric critical care community*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudchadkar, Sapna R; Yaster, Myron; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2014-07-01

    To examine pediatric intensivist sedation management, sleep promotion, and delirium screening practices for intubated and mechanically ventilated children. An international, online survey of questions regarding sedative and analgesic medication choices and availability, sedation protocols, sleep optimization, and delirium recognition and treatment. Member societies of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies were asked to send the survey to their mailing lists; responses were collected from July 2012 to January 2013. Pediatric critical care providers. Survey. The survey was completed by 341 respondents, the majority of whom were from North America (70%). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported having written sedation protocols. Most respondents worked in PICUs with sedation scoring systems (70%), although only 42% of those with access to scoring systems reported routine daily use for goal-directed sedation management. The State Behavioral Scale was the most commonly used scoring system in North America (22%), with the COMFORT score more prevalent in all other countries (39%). The most commonly used sedation regimen for intubated children was a combination of opioid and benzodiazepine (72%). Most intensivists chose fentanyl as their first-line opioid (66%) and midazolam as their first-line benzodiazepine (86%) and prefer to administer these medications as continuous infusions. Propofol and dexmedetomidine were the most commonly restricted medications in PICUs internationally. Use of earplugs, eye masks, noise reduction, and lighting optimization for sleep promotion was uncommon. Delirium screening was not practiced in 71% of respondent's PICUs, and only 2% reported routine screening at least twice a day. The results highlight the heterogeneity in sedation practices among intensivists who care for critically ill children as well as a paucity of sleep promotion and delirium screening in PICUs worldwide.

  20. EEG: Origin and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.; Mulert, C.; Lemieux, L.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of the electrical activity of the brain (i.e. the electroencephalogram or EEG) was discovered more than a century ago by Caton. After the demonstration that the EEG could be recorded from the human scalp by Berger in the 1920s, it made a slow start before it became accepted as a method

  1. Collinear wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  2. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Langmesser

    Full Text Available Many effects of nitric oxide (NO are mediated by the activation of guanylyl cyclases and subsequent production of the second messenger cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP. cGMP activates cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PRKGs, which can therefore be considered downstream effectors of NO signaling. Since NO is thought to be involved in the regulation of both sleep and circadian rhythms, we analyzed these two processes in mice deficient for cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1 in the brain. Prkg1 mutant mice showed a strikingly altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness over the 24 hours of a day as well as reductions in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS duration and in non-REM sleep (NREMS consolidation, and their ability to sustain waking episodes was compromised. Furthermore, they displayed a drastic decrease in electroencephalogram (EEG power in the delta frequency range (1-4 Hz under baseline conditions, which could be normalized after sleep deprivation. In line with the re-distribution of sleep and wakefulness, the analysis of wheel-running and drinking activity revealed more rest bouts during the activity phase and a higher percentage of daytime activity in mutant animals. No changes were observed in internal period length and phase-shifting properties of the circadian clock while chi-squared periodogram amplitude was significantly reduced, hinting at a less robust oscillator. These results indicate that PRKG1 might be involved in the stabilization and output strength of the circadian oscillator in mice. Moreover, PRKG1 deficiency results in an aberrant pattern, and consequently a reduced quality, of sleep and wakefulness, possibly due to a decreased wake-promoting output of the circadian system impinging upon sleep.

  3. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...... together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen....

  4. Rhythms of EEG and cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova S.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive processes is regarded to be more effective if it combines a psychological approach with a neurophysiological one. This approach makes it possible to come closer to understanding of the basic mechanisms of different cognitive processes, to describe the patterns of forming these mechanisms in ontogenesis, to investigate the origin of cognitive impairments, and to develop intervention techniques. The promising way of investigating the mechanisms of cognitive functions is the electroencephalography (EEG. This is a non-invasive, safe, and relatively cheap method of research of the functional condition of the brain. The characteristics of EEG rhythms, recorded with different cognitive loads, reflect the processes of functional modulation of neural network activity of the cortex, which serves the neurophysiologic basis for attention, memory and other cognitive processes. The article provides an overview of works containing the analysis of the alpha and theta rhythms’ dynamics in various states of wakefulness. It also introduces the substantiation of methodology of functional regulatory approach to the interpretation of behaviors of EEG rhythms.

  5. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Diffusion in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-03-01

    Straight-line Gaussian models adequately describe atmospheric diffusion for many applications. They have been modified for use in estimating diffusion in building wakes by adding terms that include projected building area and by redefining the diffusion coefficients so that the coefficients have minimum values that are related to building dimensions. In a recent study, Ramsdell reviewed the building-wake dispersion models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its control room habitability assessments. The review included comparison of model estimates of centerline concentrations with concentrations observed in experiments at seven nuclear reactors. In general, the models are conservative in that they tend to predict concentrations that are greater than those actually observed. However, the models show little skill in accounting for variations in the observed concentrations. Subsequently, the experimental data and multiples linear regression techniques have been used to develop a new building wake diffusion model. This paper describes the new building wake model and compares it with other models. 8 refs., 2 figs

  7. Topographical characteristics and principal component structure of the hypnagogic EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Hayashi, M; Hori, T

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the dominant topographic components of electroencephalographs (EEG) and their behavior during the waking-sleeping transition period. Somnography of nocturnal sleep was recorded on 10 male subjects. Each recording, from "lights-off" to 5 minutes after the appearance of the first sleep spindle, was analyzed. The typical EEG patterns during hypnagogic period were classified into nine EEG stages. Topographic maps demonstrated that the dominant areas of alpha-band activity moved from the posterior areas to anterior areas along the midline of the scalp. In delta-, theta-, and sigma-band activities, the differences of EEG amplitude between the focus areas (the dominant areas) and the surrounding areas increased as a function of EEG stage. To identify the dominant topographic components, a principal component analysis was carried out on a 12-channel EEG data set for each of six frequency bands. The dominant areas of alpha 2- (9.6-11.4 Hz) and alpha 3- (11.6-13.4 Hz) band activities moved from the posterior to anterior areas, respectively. The distribution of alpha 2-band activity on the scalp clearly changed just after EEG stage 3 (alpha intermittent, < 50%). On the other hand, alpha 3-band activity became dominant in anterior areas after the appearance of vertex sharp-wave bursts (EEG stage 7). For the sigma band, the amplitude of extensive areas from the frontal pole to the parietal showed a rapid rise after the onset of stage 7 (the appearance of vertex sharp-wave bursts). Based on the results, sleep onset process probably started before the onset of sleep stage 1 in standard criteria. On the other hand, the basic sleep process may start before the onset of sleep stage 2 or the manually scored spindles.

  8. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age-related changes in sleep-wake rhythm in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Harada, Etsumori

    2002-10-17

    To investigate a sleep-wake rhythm in aged dogs, a radio-telemetry monitoring was carried out for 24 h. Electrodes and telemetry device were surgically implanted in four aged dogs (16-18 years old) and four young dogs (3-4 years old). Electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded simultaneously as parameters to determine vigilance states and an autonomic nervous function. Wakefulness, slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) were identified according to the EEG and EMG pattern. We also examined whether absolute powers and the low frequency-to-high frequency ratio (LF/HF) derived from the heart rate variability power spectrum could detect shifts in autonomic balance correlated with aging. The aged dogs showed a marked reduction of PS and a fragmentation of wakefulness in the daytime and a sleep disruption in the night. The pattern of 24 h sleep and waking was dramatically altered in the aged dog. It was characterized by an increase in the total amount of time spent in SWS during the daytime followed by an increasing of time spent in wakefulness during the night. Furthermore, LF/HF ratio showed a very low amplitude of variance throughout the day in the aged dog. These results suggest that the aged dog is a useful model to investigate sleep disorders in human such as daytime drowsiness, difficulties in sleep maintenance. The abnormality in sleep-wake cycle might be reflected by the altered autonomic balance in the aged dogs.

  10. Wake effects on Middelgrund Windfarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Frandsen, S.; Vølund, P.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the data analysis of the Middelgrund Wind Farm online collected data with the purpose of calculating the wake effects and turbulence intensities within the wind farm when maximum wake effects are present. The data are compared to themost commonly used wake model PARK...... decreasing wind speed through the array when the wind iscoming from north. The turbulence intensity is enhanced up to 0.3 due to the wake effects. The analysis has shown that this enhancement is nearly independent of the number of turbines involved in the wake creation....

  11. German legislation for promotion of renewable energies 2014. Act on feed-in and guaranteed pricing of electricity from renewable energy sources (EEG). Commentary. 7. new rev. ed.; Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz 2014. Gesetz fuer den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien. Kommentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salje, Peter [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Zivilrecht und Recht der Wirtschaft

    2015-07-01

    The EEG is continuously subjected to changes and the permanent center of political discussions. Therefore now already the 7th edition of the EEG comment of the science and practice well recognized and highly recognized author Prof. Dr. Dr. Peter Salje appear. The revision includes, inter alia, further evaluation of the law of electric power produced from renewable energy sources from the EEG of 2012 and the regulations made there under (including Biomass and AusglMechV). The changes associated with the so-called Photovoltaic amendment dated August 2012 and the recent case law since the publication of the previous edition handed down are considered. In particular, the incorporation of the full basic EEG reform in 2014 guarantees the highest topicality. [German] Das EEG ist fortlaufend Neuerungen unterworfen und im staendigen Mittelpunkt der politischen Diskussionen. In nunmehr bereits 7. Auflage erscheint daher der EEG-Kommentar von dem in Wissenschaft und Praxis bestens ausgewiesenen und hoechst anerkannten Autor Prof. Dr. Dr. Peter Salje. Die Neubearbeitung umfasst u.a. die weitere Auswertung des Rechts der Stromerzeugung aus Erneuerbaren Energien aus dem EEG 2012 und den dazu ergangenen Verordnungen (u.a. BiomasseV und AusglMechV). Die mit der sog. Photovoltaik-Novelle vom August 2012 einhergehenden Aenderungen sowie die seit Erscheinen der Vorauflage ergangene Rechtsprechung werden beruecksichtigt. Insbesondere die vollumfaengliche Einarbeitung der grundlegenden EEG-Reform 2014 garantiert hoechste Aktualitaet.

  12. Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) on vigilance states and EEG in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Westerveld, P; Turek, FW; Koehl, M

    2004-01-01

    Study Objectives: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous neuromodulator that appears to have wide-ranging effects on vigilance and behavior. In the present study, we examined the effects of GHB on sleep-wake behavior and EEG in mice. In addition, we measured effects of GHB on body temperature

  13. EEG Controlled Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Sim Kok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a brainwave controlled wheelchair. The main objective of this project is to construct a wheelchair which can be directly controlled by the brain without requires any physical feedback as controlling input from the user. The method employed in this project is the Brain-computer Interface (BCI, which enables direct communication between the brain and the electrical wheelchair. The best method for recording the brain’s activity is electroencephalogram (EEG. EEG signal is also known as brainwaves signal. The device that used for capturing the EEG signal is the Emotiv EPOC headset. This headset is able to transmit the EEG signal wirelessly via Bluetooth to the PC (personal computer. By using the PC software, the EEG signals are processed and converted into mental command. According to the mental command (e.g. forward, left... obtained, the output electrical signal is sent out to the electrical wheelchair to perform the desired movement. Thus, in this project, a computer software is developed for translating the EEG signal into mental commands and transmitting out the controlling signal wirelessly to the electrical wheelchair.

  14. Wake field acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics? I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs

  15. Brain oscillations in sport: toward EEG biomakers of performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eCheron

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The noninvasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical applications of EEG and event-related potentials (ERP in sport. In this context, the hypotheses of unified brain rhythms and continuity between wake and sleep states should provide a functional template for EEG biomarkers in sport. The oscillations in the thalamo-cortical and hippocampal circuitry including the physiology of the place cells and the grid cells provide a frame of reference for the analysis of delta, theta, beta, alpha (incl.mu and gamma oscillations recorded in the space field of human performance. Based on recent neuronal models facilitating the distinction between the different dynamic regimes (selective gating and binding in these different oscillations we suggest an integrated approach articulating together the classical biomechanical factors (3D movements and EMG and the high-density EEG and ERP signals to allow finer mathematical analysis to optimize sport performance, such as microstates, coherency/directionality analysis and neural generators.

  16. Brain Oscillations in Sport: Toward EEG Biomarkers of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheron, Guy; Petit, Géraldine; Cheron, Julian; Leroy, Axelle; Cebolla, Anita; Cevallos, Carlos; Petieau, Mathieu; Hoellinger, Thomas; Zarka, David; Clarinval, Anne-Marie; Dan, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The non-invasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical applications of EEG and event-related potentials (ERP) in sport. In this context, the hypotheses of unified brain rhythms and continuity between wake and sleep states should provide a functional template for EEG biomarkers in sport. The oscillations in the thalamo-cortical and hippocampal circuitry including the physiology of the place cells and the grid cells provide a frame of reference for the analysis of delta, theta, beta, alpha (incl.mu), and gamma oscillations recorded in the space field of human performance. Based on recent neuronal models facilitating the distinction between the different dynamic regimes (selective gating and binding) in these different oscillations we suggest an integrated approach articulating together the classical biomechanical factors (3D movements and EMG) and the high-density EEG and ERP signals to allow finer mathematical analysis to optimize sport performance, such as microstates, coherency/directionality analysis and neural generators. PMID:26955362

  17. Brain Oscillations in Sport: Toward EEG Biomarkers of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheron, Guy; Petit, Géraldine; Cheron, Julian; Leroy, Axelle; Cebolla, Anita; Cevallos, Carlos; Petieau, Mathieu; Hoellinger, Thomas; Zarka, David; Clarinval, Anne-Marie; Dan, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The non-invasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical applications of EEG and event-related potentials (ERP) in sport. In this context, the hypotheses of unified brain rhythms and continuity between wake and sleep states should provide a functional template for EEG biomarkers in sport. The oscillations in the thalamo-cortical and hippocampal circuitry including the physiology of the place cells and the grid cells provide a frame of reference for the analysis of delta, theta, beta, alpha (incl.mu), and gamma oscillations recorded in the space field of human performance. Based on recent neuronal models facilitating the distinction between the different dynamic regimes (selective gating and binding) in these different oscillations we suggest an integrated approach articulating together the classical biomechanical factors (3D movements and EMG) and the high-density EEG and ERP signals to allow finer mathematical analysis to optimize sport performance, such as microstates, coherency/directionality analysis and neural generators.

  18. Slow Activity in Focal Epilepsy During Sleep and Wakefulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrino, Giovanni; Tombini, Mario; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to test differences between healthy subjects and patients with respect to slow wave activity during wakefulness and sleep. Methods Fifteen patients affected by nonlesional focal epilepsy originating within temporal areas and fourteen matched controls underwent a 24-hour EEG....... The effect was widespread for alpha band and above, while localized over the affected hemisphere for delta (sleep cycle 1, P = .006; sleep cycle 2, P = .008; sleep cycle 3, P = .017). The analysis of interhemispheric differences showed that the only frequency band stronger over the affected regions...

  19. Seizure phenotypes, periodicity, and sleep-wake pattern of seizures in Kcna-1 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pilot prospective study of post-surgery sleep and EEG predictors of post-operative delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joanna L; Nadler, Jacob W; Preud'homme, Xavier A; Fang, Eric; Daughtry, Rommie L; Chapman, Joseph B; Attarian, David; Wellman, Samuel; Krystal, Andrew D

    2017-08-01

    Delirium is a common post-operative complication associated with significant costs, morbidity, and mortality. We sought sleep/EEG predictors of delirium present prior to delirium symptoms to facilitate developing and targeting therapies. Continuous EEG data were obtained in 12 patients post-orthopedic surgery from the day of surgery until delirium assessment on post-operative day 2 (POD2). Diminished total sleep time (r=-0.68; pdelirium severity. Patients experiencing delirium slept 2.4h less and took 2h longer to fall asleep. Greater waking EEG delta power (r=0.84; pdelirium severity. Loss of sleep on night1 post-surgery is an early predictor of subsequent delirium. EEG Delta Power alterations in waking and sleep appear to be later indicators of impending delirium. Further work is needed to evaluate reproducibility/generalizability and assess whether sleep loss contributes to causing delirium. This first study to prospectively collect continuous EEG data for an extended period prior to delirium onset identified EEG-derived indices that predict subsequent delirium that could aid in developing and targeting therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1994-05-01

    It is shown that an intense short laser pulse propagating through a semiconductor plasma will generated longitudinal Langmuir waves in its wake. The measurable wake field can be used as a diagnostic to study nonlinear optical phenomena. For narrow gap semiconductors (for examples InSb) with Kane-type dispersion relation, the system can simulate, at currently available laser powers, the physics underlying wake-field accelerators. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  2. Electron-Cloud Wake Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    The electron cloud gives rise to coherent and incoherent single-bunch wake fields, both in the longitudinal and in the transverse direction, and to coherent coupled-bunch wakes. These wake fields can be computed using the simulation programs ECLOUD and HEADTAIL developed at CERN. We present the wake fields simulated for the LHC beam in the CERN SPS and at injection into the LHC in different magnetic field configurations (field-free region, dipole, and solenoid), where the magnetic field affects both the elec-tron motion during a bunch passage and the overall electron distribution in the beam pipe.

  3. Effects of social stimuli on sleep in mice : non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep is promoted by aggressive interaction but not by sexual interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Turek, Fred W.

    2001-01-01

    Sleep is generally considered to be a process of recovery from prior wakefulness. In addition to being affected by the duration of the waking period, sleep architecture and sleep EEG also depend on the quality of wakefulness. In the present experiment, we examined how sleep is affected by different

  4. Hypnagogic imagery and EEG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Katoh, K; Hori, T

    1999-04-01

    The relationships between hypnagogic imagery and EEG activity were studied. 7 subjects (4 women and 3 men) reported the content of hypnagogic imagery every minute and the hypnagogic EEGs were classified into 5 stages according to Hori's modified criteria. The content of the hypnagogic imagery changed as a function of the hypnagogic EEG stages.

  5. Improvements in ECN Wake Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteeg, M.C. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Ozdemir, H.; Brand, A.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wind turbines extract energy from the flow field so that the flow in the wake of a wind turbine contains less energy and more turbulence than the undisturbed flow, leading to less energy extraction for the downstream turbines. In large wind farms, most turbines are located in the wake of one or more turbines causing the flow characteristics felt by these turbines differ considerably from the free stream flow conditions. The most important wake effect is generally considered to be the lower wind speed behind the turbine(s) since this decreases the energy production and as such the economical performance of a wind farm. The overall loss of a wind farm is very much dependent on the conditions and the lay-out of the farm but it can be in the order of 5-10%. Apart from the loss in energy production an additional wake effect is formed by the increase in turbulence intensity, which leads to higher fatigue loads. In this sense it becomes important to understand the details of wake behavior to improve and/or optimize a wind farm layout. Within this study improvements are presented for the existing ECN wake model which constructs the fundamental basis of ECN's FarmFlow wind farm wake simulation tool. The outline of this paper is as follows: first, the governing equations of the ECN wake farm model are presented. Then the near wake modeling is discussed and the results compared with the original near wake modeling and EWTW (ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer) data as well as the results obtained for various near wake implementation cases are shown. The details of the atmospheric stability model are given and the comparison with the solution obtained for the original surface layer model and with the available data obtained by EWTW measurements are presented. Finally the conclusions are summarized.

  6. Armodafinil in the treatment of sleep/wake disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan RL Schwartz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan RL Schwartz1,Thomas Roth2, Chris Drake21INTEGRIS Sleep Disorders Center and University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; 2Sleep Disorders and Research Center, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Excessive sleepiness (ES is a major but underestimated public health concern associated with significant impairments in alertness/wakefulness and significant morbidity. The term ES has been used in the sleep medicine literature for years, but due to its nonspecific symptoms (ie tiredness or fatigue, it frequently goes unrecognized or is misdiagnosed in primary care. In some cases ES arises due to poor sleep habits or self-imposed sleep deprivation; however, ES is also a key component of a number of sleep/wake disorders and multiple medical and psychiatric disorders. Identification and treatment of ES is critical to improve the quality of life and well-being of patients and for the safety of the wider community. The inability of patients to recognize the nature, extent, and symptomatic profile of sleep/wake disorders requires vigilance on the part of healthcare professionals. Interventions to address ES and its associated impairments, treatment of the underlying sleep/wake disorder, and follow-up are a priority given the potential for serious consequences if left untreated. Wakefulness-promoting agents are available that treat ES associated with sleep/wake disorders. This review examines current approaches for managing this debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition, focusing on the place of armodafinil as a wakefulness-promoting agent.Keywords: excessive sleepiness, wakefulness, armodafinil, obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, shift-work disorder

  7. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  8. Optogenetic deconstruction of sleep-wake circuitry in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Adamantidis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain regulate the sleep-wake cycle? What are the temporal codes of sleep- and wake-promoting neural circuits? How do these circuits interact with each other across the light/dark cycle? Over the past few decades, many studies from a variety of disciplines have made substantial progress in answering these fundamental questions. For example, neurobiologists have identified multiple, redundant wake-promoting circuits in the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain. Sleep-promoting circuits have been found in the preoptic area and hypothalamus. One of the greatest challenges in recent years has been to selectively record and manipulate these sleep-wake centers in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution. Recent developments in microbial opsin-based neuromodulation tools, collectively referred to as “optogenetics,” have provided a novel method to demonstrate causal links between neural activity and specific behaviors. Here, we propose to use optogenetics as a fundamental tool to probe the necessity, sufficiency, and connectivity of defined neural circuits in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  9. Enhancement of Neocortical-Medial Temporal EEG Correlations during Non-REM Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Axmacher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interregional interactions of oscillatory activity are crucial for the integrated processing of multiple brain regions. However, while the EEG in virtually all brain structures passes through substantial modifications during sleep, it is still an open question whether interactions between neocortical and medial temporal EEG oscillations also depend on the state of alertness. Several previous studies in animals and humans suggest that hippocampal-neocortical interactions crucially depend on the state of alertness (i.e., waking state or sleep. Here, we analyzed scalp and intracranial EEG recordings during sleep and waking state in epilepsy patients undergoing presurgical evaluation. We found that the amplitudes of oscillations within the medial temporal lobe and the neocortex were more closely correlated during sleep, in particular during non-REM sleep, than during waking state. Possibly, the encoding of novel sensory inputs, which mainly occurs during waking state, requires that medial temporal dynamics are rather independent from neocortical dynamics, while the consolidation of memories during sleep may demand closer interactions between MTL and neocortex.

  10. Neonatal Sleep-Wake Analyses Predict 18-month Neurodevelopmental Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Burns, Joseph W; Hassan, Fauziya; Carlson, Martha D; Barks, John D E; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-11-01

    The neurological examination of critically ill neonates is largely limited to reflexive behavior. The exam often ignores sleep-wake physiology that may reflect brain integrity and influence long-term outcomes. We assessed whether polysomnography and concurrent cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might improve prediction of 18-month neurodevelopmental outcomes. Term newborns with suspected seizures underwent standardized neurologic examinations to generate Thompson scores and had 12-hour bedside polysomnography with concurrent cerebral NIRS. For each infant, the distribution of sleep-wake stages and electroencephalogram delta power were computed. NIRS-derived fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) was calculated across sleep-wake stages. At age 18-22 months, surviving participants were evaluated with Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley-III), 3rd edition. Twenty-nine participants completed Bayley-III. Increased newborn time in quiet sleep predicted worse 18-month cognitive and motor scores (robust regression models, adjusted r2 = 0.22, p = .007, and 0.27, .004, respectively). Decreased 0.5-2 Hz electroencephalograph (EEG) power during quiet sleep predicted worse 18-month language and motor scores (adjusted r2 = 0.25, p = .0005, and 0.33, .001, respectively). Predictive values remained significant after adjustment for neonatal Thompson scores or exposure to phenobarbital. Similarly, an attenuated difference in FTOE, between neonatal wakefulness and quiet sleep, predicted worse 18-month cognitive, language, and motor scores in adjusted analyses (each p sleep-as quantified by increased time in quiet sleep, lower electroencephalogram delta power during that stage, and muted differences in FTOE between quiet sleep and wakefulness-may improve prediction of adverse long-term outcomes for newborns with neurological dysfunction. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved

  11. Wake High-Density Electroencephalographic Spatiospectral Signatures of Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michele A.; Ramautar, Jennifer R.; Wei, Yishul; Gomez-Herrero, Germán; Stoffers, Diederick; Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Cajochen, Christian; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although daytime complaints are a defining characteristic of insomnia, most EEG studies evaluated sleep only. We used high-density electroencephalography to investigate wake resting state oscillations characteristic of insomnia disorder (ID) at a fine-grained spatiospectral resolution. Methods: A case-control assessment during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) was performed in a laboratory for human physiology. Participants (n = 94, 74 female, 21–70 y) were recruited through www.sleepregistry.nl: 51 with ID, according to DSM-5 and 43 matched controls. Exclusion criteria were any somatic, neurological or psychiatric condition. Group differences in the spectral power topographies across multiple frequencies (1.5 to 40 Hz) were evaluated using permutation-based inference with Threshold-Free Cluster-Enhancement, to correct for multiple comparisons. Results: As compared to controls, participants with ID showed less power in a narrow upper alpha band (11–12.7 Hz, peak: 11.7 Hz) over bilateral frontal and left temporal regions during EO, and more power in a broad beta frequency range (16.3–40 Hz, peak: 19 Hz) globally during EC. Source estimates suggested global rather than cortically localized group differences. Conclusions: The widespread high power in a broad beta band reported previously during sleep in insomnia is present as well during eyes closed wakefulness, suggestive of a round-the-clock hyperarousal. Low power in the upper alpha band during eyes open is consistent with low cortical inhibition and attentional filtering. The fine-grained HD-EEG findings suggest that, while more feasible than PSG, wake EEG of short duration with a few well-chosen electrodes and frequency bands, can provide valuable features of insomnia. Citation: Colombo MA, Ramautar JR, Wei Y, Gomez-Herrero G, Stoffers D, Wassing R, Benjamins JS, Tagliazucchi E, van der Werf YD, Cajochen C, Van Someren EJW. Wake high-density electroencephalographic spatiospectral

  12. A three states sleep-waking model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, J.C.; Schatzman, M.; Ravassard, P.; Luppi, P.H.; Salin, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the sleep-states periodicity in animals are a mystery of biology. Recent studies identified a new neuronal population activated during the slow wave sleep (SWS) in the ventral lateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus. Interactions between this neuronal population and the others populations implicated in the vigilance states (paradoxical sleep (PS) and wake (W)) dynamics are not determined. Thus, we propose here a sleep-waking theoretical model that depicts the potential interactions between the neuronal populations responsible for the three vigilance states. First, we pooled data from previous papers regarding the neuronal populations firing rate time course and characterized statistically the experimental hypnograms. Then, we constructed a nonlinear differential equations system describing the neuronal populations activity time course. A simple rule playing the firing threshold role applied to the model allows to construct a theoretical hypnogram. A random modulation of the neuronal activity, shows that theoretical hypnograms present a dynamics close to the experimental observations. Furthermore, we show that the wake promoting neurons activity can predict the next SWS episode duration

  13. EEG criteria predictive of complicated evolution in idiopathic rolandic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, R; de Saint-Martin, A; Carcangiu, R; Rudolf, G; Seegmuller, C; Kleitz, C; Metz-Lutz, M N; Hirsch, E; Marescaux, C

    2001-09-25

    Although so-called "benign" epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) always has an excellent prognosis with regard to seizure remission, behavioral problems and cognitive dysfunctions may sometimes develop in its course. To search for clinical or EEG markers allowing early detection of patients prone to such complications, the authors conducted a prospective study in a cohort of unselected patients with BECTS. In 35 children with BECTS, academic, familial, neurologic, neuropsychological, and wake and sleep EEG evaluations were repeated every 6 to 12 months from the beginning of the seizure disorder up to complete recovery. In 25 of 35 patients (72%), behavioral and intellectual functioning remained unimpaired. In 10 of 35 patients (28%), educational performance and familial maladjustment occurred. These sociofamilial problems were correlated with impulsivity, learning difficulties, attention disorders, and minor (7/35 cases, 20%) or serious (3/35 cases, 8%) auditory-verbal or visual-spatial deficits. Worsening phases started 2 to 36 months after onset and persisted for 9 to 39 months. Occurrence of atypical evolutions was significantly correlated with five qualitative and one quantitative interictal EEG pattern: intermittent slow-wave focus, multiple asynchronous spike-wave foci, long spike-wave clusters, generalized 3-c/s "absence-like" spike-wave discharges, conjunction of interictal paroxysms with negative or positive myoclonia, and abundance of interictal abnormalities during wakefulness and sleep. Clinical deterioration was not linked with seizure characteristics or treatment. Different combinations of at least three of six distinctive interictal EEG patterns and their long-lasting (> or =6-month) persistence seem to be the hallmarks of patients with BECTS at risk for neuropsychological impairments.

  14. Identification of scalp EEG circadian variation using a novel correlation sum measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi Zandi, Ali; Boudreau, Philippe; Boivin, Diane B.; Dumont, Guy A.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. In this paper, we propose a novel method to determine the circadian variation of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in both individual and group levels using a correlation sum measure, quantifying self-similarity of the EEG relative energy across waking epochs. Approach. We analysed EEG recordings from central-parietal and occipito-parietal montages in nine healthy subjects undergoing a 72 h ultradian sleep-wake cycle protocol. Each waking epoch (˜1 s) of every nap opportunity was decomposed using the wavelet packet transform, and the relative energy for that epoch was calculated in the desired frequency band using the corresponding wavelet coefficients. Then, the resulting set of energy values was resampled randomly to generate different subsets with equal number of elements. The correlation sum of each subset was then calculated over a range of distance thresholds, and the average over all subsets was computed. This average value was finally scaled for each nap opportunity and considered as a new circadian measure. Main results. According to the evaluation results, a clear circadian rhythm was identified in some EEG frequency ranges, particularly in 4-8 Hz and 10-12 Hz. The correlation sum measure not only was able to disclose the circadian rhythm on the group data but also revealed significant circadian variations in most individual cases, as opposed to previous studies only reporting the circadian rhythms on a population of subjects. Compared to a naive measure based on the EEG absolute energy in the frequency band of interest, the proposed measure showed a clear superiority using both individual and group data. Results also suggested that the acrophase (i.e., the peak) of the circadian rhythm in 10-12 Hz occurs close to the core body temperature minimum. Significance. These results confirm the potential usefulness of the proposed EEG-based measure as a non-invasive circadian marker.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of microEEG: A Miniature, Wireless EEG Device

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Arthur C.; Abdel-Baki, Samah G.; Omurtag, Ahmet; Sinert, Richard; Chari, Geetha; Malhotra, Schweta; Weedon, Jeremy; Fenton, Andre A.; Zehtabchi, Shahriar

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the diagnostic accuracy (DA) of an EEG device is unconventional and complicated by imperfect interrater reliability. We sought to compare the DA of a miniature, wireless, battery-powered EEG device (“microEEG”) to a reference EEG machine in emergency department (ED) patients with altered mental status (AMS). 225 ED patients with AMS underwent 3 EEGs. EEG1 (Nicolet Monitor, “reference”) and EEG2 (microEEG) were recorded simultaneously with EEG cup electrodes using a signal splitter. ...

  16. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  17. Effects of GF-015535-00, a novel α1 GABA A receptor ligand, on the sleep-wake cycle in mice, with reference to zolpidem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaclet, Christelle; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Chunmei; Buda, Colette; Seugnet, Laurent; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Novel, safe, and efficient hypnotic compounds capable of enhancing physiological sleep are still in great demand in the therapy of insomnia. This study compares the sleep-wake effects of a new α1 GABA(A) receptor subunit ligand, GF-015535-00, with those of zolpidem, the widely utilized hypnotic compound. Nine C57Bl6/J male mice were chronically implanted with electrodes for EEG and sleep-wake monitoring. Each mouse received 3 doses of GF-015535-00 and zolpidem. Time spent in sleep-wake states and cortical EEG power spectra were analyzed. Both zolpidem and GF-015535-00 prominently enhanced slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep in the mouse. However, as compared with zolpidem, GF-015535-00 showed several important differences: (1) a comparable sleep-enhancing effect was obtained with a 10 fold smaller dose; (2) the induced sleep was less fragmented; (3) the risk of subsequent wake rebound was less prominent; and (4) the cortical EEG power ratio between slow wave sleep and wake was similar to that of natural sleep and thus compatible with physiological sleep. The characteristics of the sleep-wake effects of GF-015535-00 in mice could be potentially beneficial for its use as a therapeutic compound in the treatment of insomnia. Further investigations are required to assess whether the same characteristics are conserved in other animal models and humans.

  18. Comparison of Amplitude-Integrated EEG and Conventional EEG in a Cohort of Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meledin, Irina; Abu Tailakh, Muhammad; Gilat, Shlomo; Yogev, Hagai; Golan, Agneta; Novack, Victor; Shany, Eilon

    2017-03-01

    To compare amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) and conventional EEG (EEG) activity in premature neonates. Biweekly aEEG and EEG were simultaneously recorded in a cohort of infants born less than 34 weeks gestation. aEEG recordings were visually assessed for lower and upper border amplitude and bandwidth. EEG recordings were compressed for visual evaluation of continuity and assessed using a signal processing software for interburst intervals (IBI) and frequencies' amplitude. Ten-minute segments of aEEG and EEG indices were compared using regression analysis. A total of 189 recordings from 67 infants were made, from which 1697 aEEG/EEG pairs of 10-minute segments were assessed. Good concordance was found for visual assessment of continuity between the 2 methods. EEG IBI, alpha and theta frequencies' amplitudes were negatively correlated to the aEEG lower border while conceptional age (CA) was positively correlated to aEEG lower border ( P continuity and amplitude.

  19. Wake modelling combining mesoscale and microscale models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Volker, Patrick; Prospathospoulos, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the basis for introducing thrust information from microscale wake models into mesocale model wake parameterizations will be described. A classification system for the different types of mesoscale wake parameterizations is suggested and outlined. Four different mesoscale wake paramet...

  20. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...

  1. Mast Wake Reduction by Shaping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beauchamp, Charles H

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to various mast shapes, in which the mast shapes minimize the production of visible, electro-optic, infrared and radar cross section wake signatures produced by water surface piercing masts...

  2. Wake Shield Target Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed

  3. Wake effect in rocket observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Akira; Hayashi, Tomomasa

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of the wake phenomena due to a probe and in rocket observation is discussed on the basis of experimental data. In the low energy electron measurement performed with the L-3H-5 rocket, the electron count rate changed synchronously with the rocket spin. This seems to be a wake effect. It is also conceivable that the probe itself generates the wake of ion beam. The latter problem is considered in the first part. Experiment was performed with laboratory plasma, in which a portion of the electron component of the probe current was counted with a CEM (a channel type multiplier). The change of probe voltage-count rate charactersitics due to the change of relative position of the ion source was observed. From the measured angular distributions of electron density and electron temperature around the probe, it is concluded that anisotropy exists around the probe, which seems to be a kinds of wake structure. In the second part, the wake effect due to a rocket is discussed on the basis of the measurement of leaking electrons with L-3H-5 rocket. Comparison between the theory of wake formation and the measured results is also shortly made in the final part. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Propofol Anesthesia and Sleep: A High-Density EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Riedner, Brady A.; Boveroux, Pierre; Noirhomme, Quentin; Landsness, Eric C.; Brichant, Jean-Francois; Phillips, Christophe; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The electrophysiological correlates of anesthetic sedation remain poorly understood. We used high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG) and source modeling to investigate the cortical processes underlying propofol anesthesia and compare them to sleep. Design: 256-channel EEG recordings in humans during propofol anesthesia. Setting: Hospital operating room. Patients or Participants: 8 healthy subjects (4 males) Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Initially, propofol induced increases in EEG power from 12–25 Hz. Loss of consciousness (LOC) was accompanied by the appearance of EEG slow waves that resembled the slow waves of NREM sleep. We compared slow waves in propofol to slow waves recorded during natural sleep and found that both populations of waves share similar cortical origins and preferentially propagate along the mesial components of the default network. However, propofol slow waves were spatially blurred compared to sleep slow waves and failed to effectively entrain spindle activity. Propofol also caused an increase in gamma (25–40 Hz) power that persisted throughout LOC. Source modeling analysis showed that this increase in gamma power originated from the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. During LOC, we found increased gamma functional connectivity between these regions compared to the wakefulness. Conclusions: Propofol anesthesia is a sleep-like state and slow waves are associated with diminished consciousness even in the presence of high gamma activity. Citation: Murphy M; Bruno MA; Riedner BA; Boveroux P; Noirhomme Q; Landsness EC; Brichant JF; Phillips C; Massimini M; Laureys S; Tononi G; Boly M. Propofol anesthesia and sleep: a high-density EEG study. SLEEP 2011;34(3):283-291. PMID:21358845

  5. Local Use-Dependent Sleep in Wakefulness Links Performance Errors to Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Angelica; Zappasodi, Filippo; Committeri, Giorgia; Ferrara, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are no longer to be considered as discrete states. During wakefulness brain regions can enter a sleep-like state (off-periods) in response to a prolonged period of activity (local use-dependent sleep). Similarly, during nonREM sleep the slow-wave activity, the hallmark of sleep plasticity, increases locally in brain regions previously involved in a learning task. Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral performance may be impaired by off-periods in wake in task-related regions. However, the relation between off-periods in wake, related performance errors and learning is still untested in humans. Here, by employing high density electroencephalographic (hd-EEG) recordings, we investigated local use-dependent sleep in wake, asking participants to repeat continuously two intensive spatial navigation tasks. Critically, one task relied on previous map learning (Wayfinding) while the other did not (Control). Behaviorally awake participants, who were not sleep deprived, showed progressive increments of delta activity only during the learning-based spatial navigation task. As shown by source localization, delta activity was mainly localized in the left parietal and bilateral frontal cortices, all regions known to be engaged in spatial navigation tasks. Moreover, during the Wayfinding task, these increments of delta power were specifically associated with errors, whose probability of occurrence was significantly higher compared to the Control task. Unlike the Wayfinding task, during the Control task neither delta activity nor the number of errors increased progressively. Furthermore, during the Wayfinding task, both the number and the amplitude of individual delta waves, as indexes of neuronal silence in wake (off-periods), were significantly higher during errors than hits. Finally, a path analysis linked the use of the spatial navigation circuits undergone to learning plasticity to off periods in wake. In conclusion, local sleep regulation in

  6. EEG entropy measures indicate decrease of cortical information processing in Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Alexander; Lechinger, Julia; Donis, Johann; Michitsch, Gabriele; Pichler, Gerald; Kochs, Eberhard F; Jordan, Denis; Ilg, Rüdiger; Schabus, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Clinical assessments that rely on behavioral responses to differentiate Disorders of Consciousness are at times inapt because of some patients' motor disabilities. To objectify patients' conditions of reduced consciousness the present study evaluated the use of electroencephalography to measure residual brain activity. We analyzed entropy values of 18 scalp EEG channels of 15 severely brain-damaged patients with clinically diagnosed Minimally-Conscious-State (MCS) or Unresponsive-Wakefulness-Syndrome (UWS) and compared the results to a sample of 24 control subjects. Permutation entropy (PeEn) and symbolic transfer entropy (STEn), reflecting information processes in the EEG, were calculated for all subjects. Participants were tested on a modified active own-name paradigm to identify correlates of active instruction following. PeEn showed reduced local information content in the EEG in patients, that was most pronounced in UWS. STEn analysis revealed altered directed information flow in the EEG of patients, indicating impaired feed-backward connectivity. Responses to auditory stimulation yielded differences in entropy measures, indicating reduced information processing in MCS and UWS. Local EEG information content and information flow are affected in Disorders of Consciousness. This suggests local cortical information capacity and feedback information transfer as neural correlates of consciousness. The utilized EEG entropy analyses were able to relate to patient groups with different Disorders of Consciousness. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wake meandering of a model wind turbine operating in two different regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Yang, Xiaolei; Campagnolo, Filippo; Maniaci, David; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2018-05-01

    , indicating that neither a nacelle model nor an unstable hub vortex is a necessary requirement for the existence of wake meandering. However, further analysis of the wake meandering and instantaneous flow field using a filtering technique and dynamic mode decomposition show that the unstable hub vortex energizes the wake meandering. The turbine operating regime affects the shape and expansion of the hub vortex, altering the location of the onset of the wake meandering and wake meander oscillating intensity. Most important, the unstable hub vortex promotes a high-amplitude energetic meandering which cannot be predicted without a nacelle model.

  8. INTELLIGENT EEG ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murugesan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain is the wonderful organ of human body. It is the agent of information collection and transformation. The neural activity of the human brain starts between the 17th and 23rd week of prenatal development. It is believed that from this early stage and throughout life electrical signals are generated by the brain function but also the status of the whole body. Understanding of neuronal functions and neurophysiologic properties of the brain function together with the mechanisms underlying the generation of signals and their recording is, however, vital for those who deal with these signals for detection, diagnosis, and treatment of brain disorders and the related diseases. This research paper concentrated only on brain tumor detection. Using minimum electrode location the brain tumor possibility is detected. This paper is separated into two parts: the First part deals with electrode location on the scalp and the second part deals with how the fuzzy logic rule based algorithm is applied for estimation of brain tumor from EEG. Basically 8 locations are identified. After acquiring the pure EEG signal Fuzzy Logic Rule is applied to predict the possibility of brain tumor.

  9. Correntropy measures to detect daytime sleepiness from EEG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Caminal, Pere; Guaita, Marc; Montserrat, Josep M; Vilaseca, Isabel; Salamero, Manel; Gaig, Carles; Santamaria, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders and has a great impact on patients’ lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on correntropy function analysis of EEG signals was proposed in order to detect patients suffering from EDS. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five Maintenance of Wakefulness Tests (MWT) and Multiple Sleep Latency Tests (MSLT) alternated throughout the day for patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing (SDB). A group of 20 patients with EDS was compared with a group of 20 patients without daytime sleepiness (WDS), by analyzing 60 s EEG windows in a waking state. Measures obtained from the cross-correntropy function (CCORR) and auto-correntropy function (ACORR) were calculated in the EEG frequency bands: δ, 0.1–4 Hz; θ, 4–8 Hz; α, 8–12 Hz; β, 12–30 Hz; total band TB, 0.1–45 Hz. These functions permitted the quantification of complex signal properties and the non-linear couplings between different areas of the scalp. Statistical differences between EDS and WDS groups were mainly found in the β band during MSLT events (p-value < 0.0001). The WDS group presented more complexity in the occipital zone than the EDS group, while a stronger nonlinear coupling between the occipital and frontal regions was detected in EDS patients than in the WDS group. At best, ACORR and CCORR measures yielded sensitivity and specificity above 80% and the area under ROC curve (AUC) was above 0.85 in classifying EDS and WDS patients. These performances represent an improvement with respect to classical EEG indices applied in the same database (sensitivity and specificity were never above 80% and AUC was under 0.75). (paper)

  10. Linearised CFD Models for Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Berg, Jacob; Nielsen, Morten

    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in oshore wind farms taking wake eects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface....... Fuga is brie y described. The model is based on alinearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed{spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive...... use of look{up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived...

  11. Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.

    1991-05-01

    Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Educational simulation of the electroencephalogram (EEG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, de N.A.M.; Meurs, van W.L.; Grit, M.B.M.; Good, M.L.; Gravenstein, D.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a model for simulating a spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and for simulating the effects of anesthesia on the EEG, to allow anesthesiologists and EEG technicians to learn and practice intraoperative EEG monitoring. For this purpose, we developed a linear model to manipulate the

  13. Linearised CFD models for wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.; Berg, J.; Nielsen, Morten

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in offshore wind farms taking wake effects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface. Fuga is briefly described. The model is based on a linearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed-spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive use of look-up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived from generic look-up tables. Three different models, based on three different closures, are examined: 1) the 'simple closure' using an unperturbed eddy viscosity kucentre dotz. 2) the mixing length closure. 3) the E-epsilon closure. Model results are evaluated against offshore wind farm production data from Horns Rev I and the Nysted wind farm, and a comparison with direct wake measurements in an onshore turbine (Nibe B) is also made. A very satisfactory agreement with data is found for the simple closure. The exception is the near wake, just behind the rotor, where all three linearized models fail. The mixing length closure underestimates wake effects in all cases. The E-epsilon closure overestimates wake losses in the offshore farms while it predicts a too shallow and too wide the wake in the onshore case. The simple closure performs distinctly better than the other two. Wind speed data from the the Horns rev met masts are used to further validate Fuga results with the 'simple' closure. Finally, Roedsand 1 and 2 are used as an example to illustrate

  14. EEG in connection with coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John A; Nordal, Helge J

    2013-01-08

    Coma is a dynamic condition that may have various causes. Important changes may take place rapidly, often with consequences for treatment. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of EEG patterns in comas with various causes, and indicate how EEG contributes in an assessment of the prognosis for coma patients. The article is based on many years of clinical and research-based experience of EEG used for patients in coma. A self-built reference database was supplemented by searches for relevant articles in PubMed. EEG reveals immediate changes in coma, and can provide early information on cause and prognosis. It is the only diagnostic tool for detecting a non-convulsive epileptic status. Locked-in- syndrome may be overseen without EEG. Repeated EEG scans increase diagnostic certainty and make it possible to monitor the development of coma. EEG reflects brain function continuously and therefore holds a key place in the assessment and treatment of coma.

  15. EEG in children, in the laboratory or at the patient's bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, A; Cheliout-Heraut, F; Eisermann, M; Touzery de Villepin, A; Lamblin, M D

    2015-03-01

    In pediatrics, EEG recordings are performed on patients from the neonatal period up to young adults. This means adapting techniques to many different conditions, concerning not only the patient's age, the need for asepsis and the patient's behavior, but also the environment (e.g. in the laboratory, at the patient's bedside, or in the neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]). Technical requirements depend on age, indication and the type of examination; in infancy, there should be a minimum of 12 EEG electrodes, ECG and respiration recording. In epileptology, surface EMG is also necessary to characterize the type of seizures and refine the diagnosis of epilepsy syndrome, on which physicians will base their treatment choice. The role of the EEG technician is essential because the quality of the recording, its analysis and conclusion will depend on the quality of the technical set-up and the interaction with the child. Sleep is a systematic part of the study up to the age of 5 years for several reasons: sleep EEG yields information on brain maturation; the EEG tracing during wakefulness can contain too many artefacts; and some grapho-elements, key to the diagnosis, only appear during sleep. The time of the examination must be chosen according to the child's usual nap times, possibly after sleep deprivation. Grapho-elements and spatio-temporal organization of the EEG vary with age, and normal variants and unusual aspects are quite wide for any given age; this is why a physician experienced in pediatric EEG should perform the interpretation. This chapter concerns EEG performed in infants, children and adolescents, its technical aspects according to age and indications (general pediatrics, emergency, epilepsy). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Connexin 43-Mediated Astroglial Metabolic Networks Contribute to the Regulation of the Sleep-Wake Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasadonte, Jerome; Scemes, Eliana; Wang, Zhongya; Boison, Detlev; Haydon, Philip G

    2017-09-13

    Astrocytes produce and supply metabolic substrates to neurons through gap junction-mediated astroglial networks. However, the role of astroglial metabolic networks in behavior is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that perturbation of astroglial networks impairs the sleep-wake cycle. Using a conditional Cre-Lox system in mice, we show that knockout of the gap junction subunit connexin 43 in astrocytes throughout the brain causes excessive sleepiness and fragmented wakefulness during the nocturnal active phase. This astrocyte-specific genetic manipulation silenced the wake-promoting orexin neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) by impairing glucose and lactate trafficking through astrocytic networks. This global wakefulness instability was mimicked with viral delivery of Cre recombinase to astrocytes in the LHA and rescued by in vivo injections of lactate. Our findings propose a novel regulatory mechanism critical for maintaining normal daily cycle of wakefulness and involving astrocyte-neuron metabolic interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electroencephalogy (EEG) Feedback in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision- Making The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful...feedback when training rapid decision-making. More specifically, EEG will allow us to provide online feedback about the neural decision processes...Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision-Making Report Title The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful

  18. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staicu, A.D.; Mazzi, B.; Vassilicos, J.C.; Water, van de W.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are

  19. TMS-induced cortical potentiation during wakefulness locally increases slow wave activity during sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Huber

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning.To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep.These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.

  20. Prediction of multi-wake problems using an improved Jensen wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The improved analytical wake model named as 2D_k Jensen model (which was proposed to overcome some shortcomes in the classical Jensen wake model) is applied and validated in this work for wind turbine multi-wake predictions. Different from the original Jensen model, this newly developed 2D_k Jensen...... model uses a cosine shape instead of the top-hat shape for the velocity deficit in the wake, and the wake decay rate as a variable that is related to the ambient turbulence as well as the rotor generated turbulence. Coupled with four different multi-wake combination models, the 2D_k Jensen model...... is assessed through (1) simulating two wakes interaction under full wake and partial wake conditions and (2) predicting the power production in the Horns Rev wind farm for different wake sectors around two different wind directions. Through comparisons with field measurements, results from Large Eddy...

  1. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  2. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  3. Physiological artifacts in scalp EEG and ear-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Simon L; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2017-08-11

    A problem inherent to recording EEG is the interference arising from noise and artifacts. While in a laboratory environment, artifacts and interference can, to a large extent, be avoided or controlled, in real-life scenarios this is a challenge. Ear-EEG is a concept where EEG is acquired from electrodes in the ear. We present a characterization of physiological artifacts generated in a controlled environment for nine subjects. The influence of the artifacts was quantified in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration of the auditory steady-state response. Alpha band modulation was also studied in an open/closed eyes paradigm. Artifacts related to jaw muscle contractions were present all over the scalp and in the ear, with the highest SNR deteriorations in the gamma band. The SNR deterioration for jaw artifacts were in general higher in the ear compared to the scalp. Whereas eye-blinking did not influence the SNR in the ear, it was significant for all groups of scalps electrodes in the delta and theta bands. Eye movements resulted in statistical significant SNR deterioration in both frontal, temporal and ear electrodes. Recordings of alpha band modulation showed increased power and coherence of the EEG for ear and scalp electrodes in the closed-eyes periods. Ear-EEG is a method developed for unobtrusive and discreet recording over long periods of time and in real-life environments. This study investigated the influence of the most important types of physiological artifacts, and demonstrated that spontaneous activity, in terms of alpha band oscillations, could be recorded from the ear-EEG platform. In its present form ear-EEG was more prone to jaw related artifacts and less prone to eye-blinking artifacts compared to state-of-the-art scalp based systems.

  4. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  5. The EEG as an index of neuromodulator balance in memory and mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa eVakalopoulos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong correlation between signature EEG frequency patterns and the relative levels of distinct neuromodulators. These associations become particularly evident during the sleep-wake cycle. The monoamine-acetylcholine balance hypothesis is a theory of neurophysiological markers of the EEG and a detailed description of the findings that support this proposal are presented in this paper. According to this model alpha rhythm reflects the relative predominance of cholinergic muscarinic signals and delta rhythm that of monoaminergic receptor effects. Both high voltage synchronized rhythms are likely mediated by inhibitory Gαi/o-mediated transduction of inhibitory interneurons. Cognitively, alpha and delta EEG measures are proposed to indicate automatic and flexible strategies, respectively. Sleep is associated with marked changes in relative neuromodulator levels corresponding to EEG markers of distinct stages. Sleep studies on memory consolidation present some of the strongest evidence yet for the respective roles of monoaminergic and cholinergic projections in declarative and non-declarative memory processes, a key theoretical premise for understanding the data. Affective dysregulation is reflected in altered EEG patterns during sleep.

  6. The EEG as an index of neuromodulator balance in memory and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Costa

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong correlation between signature EEG frequency patterns and the relative levels of distinct neuromodulators. These associations become particularly evident during the sleep-wake cycle. The monoamine-acetylcholine balance hypothesis is a theory of neurophysiological markers of the EEG and a detailed description of the findings that support this proposal are presented in this paper. According to this model alpha rhythm reflects the relative predominance of cholinergic muscarinic signals and delta rhythm that of monoaminergic receptor effects. Both high voltage synchronized rhythms are likely mediated by inhibitory Gαi/o-mediated transduction of inhibitory interneurons. Cognitively, alpha and delta EEG measures are proposed to indicate automatic and flexible strategies, respectively. Sleep is associated with marked changes in relative neuromodulator levels corresponding to EEG markers of distinct stages. Sleep studies on memory consolidation present some of the strongest evidence yet for the respective roles of monoaminergic and cholinergic projections in declarative and non-declarative memory processes, a key theoretical premise for understanding the data. Affective dysregulation is reflected in altered EEG patterns during sleep.

  7. Wake shed by an accelerating carangiform fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2008-11-01

    We reveal an important fact that momentum change observed in the wake of an accelerating carangiform fish does not necessarily elucidate orientations of propulsive forces produced. An accelerating Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) was found to shed a wake with net forward fluid momentum, which seemed drag-producing. Based on Newton's law, however, an accelerating fish is expected to shed a thrust wake with net rearward fluid momentum, rather than a drag wake. The unusual wake pattern observed is considered to be resulted primarily from the effect of pressure gradient created by accelerating movements of the fish. Ambient fluids tend to be sucked into low pressure zones behind an accelerating fish, resulting in forward orientations of jets recognizable in the wake. Accordingly, as to an accelerating fish, identifying force orientations from the wake requires considering also the effect of pressure gradient.

  8. EEG frequency PCA in EEG-ERP dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert J; De Blasio, Frances M

    2018-05-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) has long been used to decompose the ERP into components, and these mathematical entities are increasingly accepted as meaningful and useful representatives of the electrophysiological components constituting the ERP. A similar expansion appears to be beginning in regard to decomposition of the EEG amplitude spectrum into frequency components via frequency PCA. However, to date, there has been no exploration of the brain's dynamic EEG-ERP linkages using PCA decomposition to assess components in each measure. Here, we recorded intrinsic EEG in both eyes-closed and eyes-open resting conditions, followed by an equiprobable go/no-go task. Frequency PCA of the EEG, including the nontask resting and within-task prestimulus periods, found seven frequency components within the delta to beta range. These differentially predicted PCA-derived go and no-go N1 and P3 ERP components. This demonstration suggests that it may be beneficial in future brain dynamics studies to implement PCA for the derivation of data-driven components from both the ERP and EEG. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Ventilation of an hydrofoil wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Roger; Lee, Seung Jae; Monson, Garrett

    2013-11-01

    Ventilation physics plays a role in a variety of important engineering applications. For example, hydroturbine ventilation is used for control of vibration and cavitation erosion and more recently for improving the dissolved oxygen content of the flow through the turbine. The latter technology has been the focus of an ongoing study involving the ventilation of an hydrofoil wake to determine the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). The data are compared with previous studies of ventilated flow. The theoretical results of Hinze suggest that a scaling relationship is possible that can lead to developing appropriate design parameters for a ventilation system. Sponsored by ONR and DOE.

  10. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    During the 1998 marine biological survey, a total of 122 species of reef fish, 41 species of corals, 39 species of other macroinvertebrates , and 19...The lagoon supports a large population of fish and the surrounding reefs host a diverse assemblage of reef fish. Nearshore fish important for food...found at Wake Island. The Federally threatened Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was observed multiple times in the near shore ocean and lagoon

  11. Adenosine A1 receptors in human sleep regulation studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is an essential physiological process. However, the functions of sleep and the endogenous mechanisms involved in sleep regulation are only partially understood. Convergent lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the build-up of sleep propensity during wakefulness and its decline during sleep are associated with alterations in brain adenosine levels and adenosine receptor concentrations. The non-selective A 1 and A 2A adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine stimulates alertness and is known to attenuate changes in the waking and sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) typically observed after prolonged waking. Several findings point to an important function of the adenosine A 1 receptor (A 1 AR) in the modulation of vigilance states. The A 1 AR is densely expressed in brain regions involved in sleep regulation, and pharmacological manipulations affecting the A 1 AR were shown to influence sleep propensity and sleep depth. However, an involvement of the A 2A adenosine receptor (A 2A AR) is also assumed. The distinct functions of the A 1 and A 2A receptor subtypes in sleep-wake regulation and in mediating the effects of caffeine have not been identified so far. The selective adenosine A 1 receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-3-(3- 18 Ffluoropropyl)- 1-propylxanthine ( 18 F-CPFPX), offers the opportunity to get further insights into adenosinergic mechanisms by in vivo imaging of the A 1 AR subtype with positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the role of adenosine A 1 receptors in human sleep regulation, combining 18 F-CPFPX PET brain imaging and EEG recordings, the gold standard in sleep research. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation would induce adenosine accumulation and/or changes in A 1 AR density. Thus, the question was addressed whether these effects of prolonged wakefulness can be visualized by altered 18 F-CPFPX binding. Moreover, it was investigated whether radioligand uptake might be influenced by caffeine, since

  12. Passive propulsion in vortex wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, D. N.; Hover, F. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.; Liao, J. C.; Lauder, G. V.

    A dead fish is propelled upstream when its flexible body resonates with oncoming vortices formed in the wake of a bluff cylinder, despite being well outside the suction region of the cylinder. Within this passive propulsion mode, the body of the fish extracts sufficient energy from the oncoming vortices to develop thrust to overcome its own drag. In a similar turbulent wake and at roughly the same distance behind a bluff cylinder, a passively mounted high-aspect-ratio foil is also shown to propel itself upstream employing a similar flow energy extraction mechanism. In this case, mechanical energy is extracted from the flow at the same time that thrust is produced. These results prove experimentally that, under proper conditions, a body can follow at a distance or even catch up to another upstream body without expending any energy of its own. This observation is also significant in the development of low-drag energy harvesting devices, and in the energetics of fish dwelling in flowing water and swimming behind wake-forming obstacles.

  13. Odds Ratio Product of Sleep EEG as a Continuous Measure of Sleep State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0–2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Citation: Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, Hanly P. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP 2015;38(4):641–654. PMID:25348125

  14. The justification of discriminating environmental control instruments. An investigation of the range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective using the German energy promoting laws EEG and KWKModG as an example; Die Rechtfertigung von diskriminierenden umweltpolitischen Steuerungsinstrumenten. Eine Untersuchung der Reichweite der Warenverkehrsfreiheit und ihrer Begrenzung durch den Umweltschutz als Vertragsziel am Beispiel der deutschen Energiefoerdergesetze EEG und KWKModG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Lydia

    2012-07-01

    The range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (AEUV) are the objective of this study. The investigation is performed in light of the German energy promoting laws EEG (Renewable Energy Law) and KWKModG (Act for the Retention, Modernisation and Expansion of Combined Heat and Power) whose incentive effect is combined with a discriminating interference of the free merchandise traffic. Based on the PreussenElektra legislation of the European Court of Justice (Luxembourg, Luxembourg) and the succession jurisdiction, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on whether the European Court of Justice has opened the Cassis formula as a basis for justification for discriminations. This can be negotiated. After all, the analysis of the Supreme Court decision comes to the result that the European Court of Justice has applied the known method of practical concordance in the PreussenElektra decision. In case of a collision of treaty objectives of equal rank - merchandise traffic and environmental traffic - one only has to perform an appreciation of values which may involve a justification of discriminating impacts in the free movement of goods and labour. The fundamentals of the minimis notice from the European Competition Act can be decisive for the justification and for the conformity of the domestic market of a discriminating national law if an intervention is connected with a partial market fore closure. These fundamentals have some influence on the consideration as part of the testing of concordance.

  15. Functional anatomy of the sleep-wakefulness cycle: wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando; de Andrés, Isabel; Garzón, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is a necessary, diverse, periodic, and an active condition circadian and homeostatically regulated and precisely meshed with waking time into the sleep-wakefulness cycle (SWC). Photic retinal stimulation modulates the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts as the pacemaker for SWC rhythmicity. Both the light period and social cues adjust the internal clock, making the SWC a circadian, 24-h period in the adult human. Bioelectrical and behavioral parameters characterize the different phases of the SWC. For a long time, lesions and electrical stimulation of brain structures, as well as connection studies, were the main methods used to decipher the foundations of the functional anatomy of the SWC. That is why the first section of this review presents these early historical studies to then discuss the current state of our knowledge based on our understanding of the functional anatomy of the structures underlying the SWC. Supported by this description, we then present a detailed review and update of the structures involved in the phase of wakefulness (W), including their morphological, functional, and chemical characteristics, as well as their anatomical connections. The structures for W generation are known as the "ascending reticular activating system", and they keep and maintain the "thalamo-cerebral cortex unit" awake. This system originates from the neuronal groups located within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, which use known neurotransmitters and whose neurons are more active during W than during the other SWC states. Thus, synergies among several of these neurotransmitters are necessary to generate the cortical and thalamic activation that is characteristic of the W state, with all the plastic qualities and nuances present in its different behavioral circumstances. Each one of the neurotransmitters exerts powerful influences on the information and cognitive processes as well as attentional, emotional, motivational, behavioral, and arousal

  16. Engagement Assessment Using EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic; Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present methods to analyze and improve an EEG-based engagement assessment approach, consisting of data preprocessing, feature extraction and engagement state classification. During data preprocessing, spikes, baseline drift and saturation caused by recording devices in EEG signals are identified and eliminated, and a wavelet based method is utilized to remove ocular and muscular artifacts in the EEG recordings. In feature extraction, power spectrum densities with 1 Hz bin are calculated as features, and these features are analyzed using the Fisher score and the one way ANOVA method. In the classification step, a committee classifier is trained based on the extracted features to assess engagement status. Finally, experiment results showed that there exist significant differences in the extracted features among different subjects, and we have implemented a feature normalization procedure to mitigate the differences and significantly improved the engagement assessment performance.

  17. Sleep-EEG in dizygotic twins discordant for Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Szocs, Katalin; Réthelyi, János M; Gerván, Patrícia; Kovács, Ilona

    2014-01-30

    Reports on twin pairs concordant and discordant for Williams syndrome were published before, but no study unravelled sleep physiology in these cases yet. We aim to fill this gap by analyzing sleep records of a twin pair discordant for Williams syndrome extending our focus on presleep wakefulness and sleep spindling. We performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of the 7q11.23 region of a 17 years old dizygotic opposite-sex twin pair discordant for Williams syndrome. Polysomnography of laboratory sleep at this age was analyzed and followed-up after 1.5 years by ambulatory polysomnography. Sleep stages scoring, EEG power spectra and sleep spindle analyses were carried out. The twin brother showed reduced levels of amplification for all of the probes in the 7q11.23 region indicating a typical deletion spanning at least 1.038 Mb between FKBP6 and CLIP2. The results of the twin sister showed normal copy numbers in the investigated region. Lower sleep times and efficiencies, as well as higher slow wave sleep percents of the twin brother were evident during both recordings. Roughly equal NREM, Stage 2 and REM sleep percents were found. EEG analyses revealed state and derivation-independent decreases in alpha power, lack of an alpha spectral peak in presleep wakefulness, as well as higher NREM sleep sigma peak frequency in the twin brother. Faster sleep spindles with lower amplitude and shorter duration characterized the records of the twin brother. Spectra show a striking reliability and correspondence between the two situations (laboratory vs. home records). Alterations in sleep and specific neural oscillations including the alpha/sigma waves are inherent aspects of Williams syndrome.

  18. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    Recently, a novel electroencephalographic (EEG) method called ear-EEG [1], that enable recording of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from a personalized earpiece was introduced. Initial investigations show that well established AEPs, such as ASSR and P1-N1-P2 complex can be observed from ear-EEG...

  19. Hypocretin and GABA interact in the pontine reticular formation to increase wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevig, Holly N; Watson, Christopher J; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2010-10-01

    Hypocretin-1/orexin A administered directly into the oral part of rat pontine reticular formation (PnO) causes an increase in wakefulness and extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels. The receptors in the PnO that mediate these effects have not been identified. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that the increase in wakefulness caused by administration of hypocretin-1 into the PnO occurs via activation of GABAA receptors and hypocretin receptors. Within/between subjects. University of Michigan. Twenty-three adult male Crl:CD*(SD) (Sprague Dawley) rats. Microinjection of hypocretin-1, bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist), SB-334867 (hypocretin receptor-1 antagonist), and Ringer solution (vehicle control) into the PnO. Hypocretin-1 caused a significant concentration-dependent increase in wakefulness and decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Coadministration of SB-334867 and hypocretin-1 blocked the hypocretin-1-induced increase in wakefulness and decrease in both the NREM and REM phases of sleep. Coadministration of bicuculline and hypocretin-1 blocked the hypocretin-1-induced increase in wakefulness and decrease in NREM sleep caused by hypocretin-1. The increase in wakefulness caused by administering hypocretin-1 to the PnO is mediated by hypocretin receptors and GABAA receptors in the PnO. These results show for the first time that hypocretinergic and GABAergic transmission in the PnO can interact to promote wakefulness.

  20. Hypnagogic EEG stages and polysomnogram

    OpenAIRE

    HAYASHI, Mitsuo; HIBINO, Kenji; HORI, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the polysomnogram of hypnagogic period. Sixteen subjects slept for two nights. Their EEGs (Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), horizontal and vertical EOGs, submentalis EMG, thoracic and abdominal respiration were recorded. They pressed a button when pip tones (1000Hz, 50dB, max duration : 5s, ISI : 30-90s) were presented, and reported their psychological experiences, According to Hori et al. (1994), the hypnagogic EEGs just 5s before the pip tones were classified into 9 stages,...

  1. Verification of the SLC wake potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Weiland, T.

    1983-01-01

    The accurate knowledge of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole wake potentials is essential for SLC. These wake potentials were previously computed by the modal method. The time domain code TBCI allows independent verification of these results. This comparison shows that the two methods agree to within 10% for bunch lengths down to 1 mm. TBCI results also indicate that rounding the irises gives at least a 10% reduction in the wake potentials

  2. Longitudinal and transverse wake potentials in SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Wilson, P.

    1980-01-01

    In a machine with short bunches of high peak currents, such as the SLAC collider, one needs to know the longitudinal wake potential, for the higher mode losses, and the transverse wake potential, since, for bunches passing slightly off axis, the induced transverse forces will tend to cause beam break up. The longitudinal and transverse wakes of the SLAC structure presented here, were calculated by computer using the modal method, and including an analytic extension for higher modes. (Auth.)

  3. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

  4. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

  5. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  6. Multi-stage wake-field accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Wei.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-stage wake field acceleration scheme to overcome the low transformer ratio problem and still provide high accelerating gradients. The idea is very simple. We use a train of several electron bunches from a linear accelerator (main linac) with well defined separations between the bunches (tens of ns) to drive wake field devices. Here we have made the assumption that the wake field devices are available, whether plasma, iris-loaded metallic or dielectric wake field structures. 10 refs

  7. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  8. EEG indices in patients with high risk of ischemic stroke as predictors of initial disturbed cerebral circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Isaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal changes were detected in EEG in patients with high risk of ischemic stroke (higher level than in the population. These changes show the disturbances in forming mechanisms of functional condition of cerebrum during the calm wakeful period. Changes were represented by: the registration of EEG IV- type (the E.A. Zhirmunsky type which was characterized by disorganization of alpha activity and of slow waves; the instability of pattern during the record of background activity; the paroxysmal activity in form of flashes of the bilateral synchronized waves; the strengthening of low-frequency and high-amplitude β-activity. Revealed changes in EEG show the presence of initial disturbed cerebral circulation and can be recommended as predictors of these disturbances.

  9. Performance evaluation of an automated single-channel sleep–wake detection algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan RF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard F Kaplan,1 Ying Wang,1 Kenneth A Loparo,1,2 Monica R Kelly,3 Richard R Bootzin3 1General Sleep Corporation, Euclid, OH, USA; 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: A need exists, from both a clinical and a research standpoint, for objective sleep measurement systems that are both easy to use and can accurately assess sleep and wake. This study evaluates the output of an automated sleep–wake detection algorithm (Z-ALG used in the Zmachine (a portable, single-channel, electroencephalographic [EEG] acquisition and analysis system against laboratory polysomnography (PSG using a consensus of expert visual scorers. Methods: Overnight laboratory PSG studies from 99 subjects (52 females/47 males, 18–60 years, median age 32.7 years, including both normal sleepers and those with a variety of sleep disorders, were assessed. PSG data obtained from the differential mastoids (A1–A2 were assessed by Z-ALG, which determines sleep versus wake every 30 seconds using low-frequency, intermediate-frequency, and high-frequency and time domain EEG features. PSG data were independently scored by two to four certified PSG technologists, using standard Rechtschaffen and Kales guidelines, and these score files were combined on an epoch-by-epoch basis, using a majority voting rule, to generate a single score file per subject to compare against the Z-ALG output. Both epoch-by-epoch and standard sleep indices (eg, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, latency to persistent sleep, and wake after sleep onset were compared between the Z-ALG output and the technologist consensus score files. Results: Overall, the sensitivity and specificity for detecting sleep using the Z-ALG as compared to the technologist consensus are 95.5% and 92.5%, respectively, across all subjects, and the positive predictive value and the

  10. EEG Findings in Burnout Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Bunt, P.M. van den; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Arns, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of burnout remains enigmatic since it is only determined by behavioral characteristics. Moreover, the differential diagnosis with depression and chronic fatigue syndrome is difficult. EEG-related variables in 13 patients diagnosed with burnout syndrome were compared with 13 healthy

  11. [Neurological and neuropsychological comparison between subjects with learning disorder and those suffering from learning difficulties when eeg abnormalities are detected at pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsetti, L; Viberti, B; Ariano, C; Isocrono, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study is to compare data and investigate the points of overlap between the two clinical conditions. The hypothesis is to observe a similar cognitive and neuropsychological profile in LD children and subjects with electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The present study consists of a descriptive analysis of 35 children who have been tested for suspected learning disorder (LD). The diagnostic protocol includes a detailed cognitive and neuropsychological evaluation, as well as logopedic and neuropsychomotor assessment. Children carried neurological visit, EEG in waking and encephalic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In this study, anamnestic data and the results of some of the neuropsychological tests were administrated to children and subsequently were analyzed. Depending on EEG report (positive or negative), subjects were split in two subsample: subjects with "pure" LD and subjects who showed significant paroxysmal abnormalities at the EEG. This comparison shows that the profile of the two subsamples matches for many aspects. The only statistically significant differences are the increased impairment of meta-phonological skills and reading speed in children with EEG abnormalities. On the other hand, children with "pure" LD are inclined to manifest more frequently difficulties in highly-modularized processes, such as counting. In conclusion, the substantial overlap of the two profiles causes a reflection about the difficulty in making differential diagnosis in children who show a suspected LD, in absence of an accurate neurophysiological and neuroradiological investigation. The study did not find out useful markers to select subjects who should carry EEG and encephalic NMR. Our team established to keep EEG in waking in the diagnostic protocol, for all children with LD diagnosis. Only in case of abnormalities at the track, we prescribed EEG in sleeping and encephalic NMR.

  12. Graph Theoretical Analysis of BOLD Functional Connectivity during Human Sleep without EEG Monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lv

    Full Text Available Functional brain networks of human have been revealed to have small-world properties by both analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI time series.In our study, by using graph theoretical analysis, we attempted to investigate the changes of paralimbic-limbic cortex between wake and sleep states. Ten healthy young people were recruited to our experiment. Data from 2 subjects were excluded for the reason that they had not fallen asleep during the experiment. For each subject, blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD images were acquired to analyze brain network, and peripheral pulse signals were obtained continuously to identify if the subject was in sleep periods. Results of fMRI showed that brain networks exhibited stronger small-world characteristics during sleep state as compared to wake state, which was in consistent with previous studies using EEG synchronization. Moreover, we observed that compared with wake state, paralimbic-limbic cortex had less connectivity with neocortical system and centrencephalic structure in sleep.In conclusion, this is the first study, to our knowledge, has observed that small-world properties of brain functional networks altered when human sleeps without EEG synchronization. Moreover, we speculate that paralimbic-limbic cortex organization owns an efficient defense mechanism responsible for suppressing the external environment interference when humans sleep, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the paralimbic-limbic cortex may be functionally disconnected from brain regions which directly mediate their interactions with the external environment. Our findings also provide a reasonable explanation why stable sleep exhibits homeostasis which is far less susceptible to outside world.

  13. Wake-vortex decay in external turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Armenio, V.; Fröhlich, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2010-01-01

    Wake vortices that form behind a moving aircraft represent 11 safety COil cern for other aircraft.s that follow. These tornado-like wake structures may persist for several minutes, extending for many kilometers across the sky. This safety issue is particularly important close to major airports where

  14. Wake field in electron-positron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Berezhiani, V.I.

    1993-03-01

    We study the creation of wake field in cold electron positron plasma by electron bunches. In the resulting plasma inhomogeneity we study the propagation of short electromagnetic pulse. In is found that wake fields can change the frequency of the radiation substantially. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  15. Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains a comprehensive 3D Navier-Stokes computational study of the characteristics of wakes of wind turbines operating in various flow conditions including interacting wakes between a row of turbines. The computations were carried out using the actuator line technique combined...

  16. The sleep-wake-cycle: basic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B E

    1989-11-01

    The physiologic characteristics of the sleep-wake states have been well defined and some of the chemical and neuron systems that participate in the cyclic generation and maintenance of these states have been identified. The actual dynamic process by which these systems interact to generate the basic sleep-wake cycle, however, remains a mystery.

  17. Wake Vortex Avoidance System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.

  18. PyEEG: an open source Python module for EEG/MEG feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis of neural diseases from EEG signals (or other physiological signals that can be treated as time series, e.g., MEG) is an emerging field that has gained much attention in past years. Extracting features is a key component in the analysis of EEG signals. In our previous works, we have implemented many EEG feature extraction functions in the Python programming language. As Python is gaining more ground in scientific computing, an open source Python module for extracting EEG features has the potential to save much time for computational neuroscientists. In this paper, we introduce PyEEG, an open source Python module for EEG feature extraction.

  19. Efficient Turbulence Modeling for CFD Wake Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul

    Wind turbine wakes can cause 10-20% annual energy losses in wind farms, and wake turbulence can decrease the lifetime of wind turbine blades. One way of estimating these effects is the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate wind turbines wakes in the atmospheric boundary layer. Since...... this flow is in the high Reynolds number regime, it is mainly dictated by turbulence. As a result, the turbulence modeling in CFD dominates the wake characteristics, especially in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS). The present work is dedicated to study and develop RANS-based turbulence models...... verified with a grid dependency study. With respect to the standard k-ε EVM, the k-ε- fp EVM compares better with measurements of the velocity deficit, especially in the near wake, which translates to improved power deficits of the first wind turbines in a row. When the CFD metholody is applied to a large...

  20. Wake Measurements in ECN's Scaled Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, J.W.; Schepers, J.G. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    In ECN's scaled wind farm the wake evolution is studied in two different situations. A single wake is studied at two different locations downstream of a turbine and a single wake is studied in conjunction with a triple wake. Here, the wake is characterized by the wind speed ratio, the turbulence intensity, the vertical wind speed and the turbulence (an)isotropy. Per situation all wake measurements are taken simultaneously together with the inflow conditions.

  1. Open Ephys electroencephalography (Open Ephys  +  EEG): a modular, low-cost, open-source solution to human neural recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher; Voigts, Jakob; Agrawal, Uday; Ladow, Max; Santoyo, Juan; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a unique opportunity to study human neural activity non-invasively with millisecond resolution using minimal equipment in or outside of a lab setting. EEG can be combined with a number of techniques for closed-loop experiments, where external devices are driven by specific neural signals. However, reliable, commercially available EEG systems are expensive, often making them impractical for individual use and research development. Moreover, by design, a majority of these systems cannot be easily altered to the specification needed by the end user. We focused on mitigating these issues by implementing open-source tools to develop a new EEG platform to drive down research costs and promote collaboration and innovation. Here, we present methods to expand the open-source electrophysiology system, Open Ephys (www.openephys.org), to include human EEG recordings. We describe the equipment and protocol necessary to interface various EEG caps with the Open Ephys acquisition board, and detail methods for processing data. We present applications of Open Ephys  +  EEG as a research tool and discuss how this innovative EEG technology lays a framework for improved closed-loop paradigms and novel brain-computer interface experiments. The Open Ephys  +  EEG system can record reliable human EEG data, as well as human EMG data. A side-by-side comparison of eyes closed 8-14 Hz activity between the Open Ephys  +  EEG system and the Brainvision ActiCHamp EEG system showed similar average power and signal to noise. Open Ephys  +  EEG enables users to acquire high-quality human EEG data comparable to that of commercially available systems, while maintaining the price point and extensibility inherent to open-source systems.

  2. Open Ephys electroencephalography (Open Ephys  +  EEG): a modular, low-cost, open-source solution to human neural recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher; Voigts, Jakob; Agrawal, Uday; Ladow, Max; Santoyo, Juan; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a unique opportunity to study human neural activity non-invasively with millisecond resolution using minimal equipment in or outside of a lab setting. EEG can be combined with a number of techniques for closed-loop experiments, where external devices are driven by specific neural signals. However, reliable, commercially available EEG systems are expensive, often making them impractical for individual use and research development. Moreover, by design, a majority of these systems cannot be easily altered to the specification needed by the end user. We focused on mitigating these issues by implementing open-source tools to develop a new EEG platform to drive down research costs and promote collaboration and innovation. Approach. Here, we present methods to expand the open-source electrophysiology system, Open Ephys (www.openephys.org), to include human EEG recordings. We describe the equipment and protocol necessary to interface various EEG caps with the Open Ephys acquisition board, and detail methods for processing data. We present applications of Open Ephys  +  EEG as a research tool and discuss how this innovative EEG technology lays a framework for improved closed-loop paradigms and novel brain-computer interface experiments. Main results. The Open Ephys  +  EEG system can record reliable human EEG data, as well as human EMG data. A side-by-side comparison of eyes closed 8-14 Hz activity between the Open Ephys  +  EEG system and the Brainvision ActiCHamp EEG system showed similar average power and signal to noise. Significance. Open Ephys  +  EEG enables users to acquire high-quality human EEG data comparable to that of commercially available systems, while maintaining the price point and extensibility inherent to open-source systems.

  3. EEG use in a tertiary referral centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, O

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively audit all electroencephalograms (EEGs) done over a 2-month period in 2009 by the Neurophysiology Department at Cork University Hospital. There were 316 EEGs performed in total, of which 176\\/316 (56%) were done within 24 hours of request. Out of 316 EEGs, 208 (66%) were considered \\'appropriate\\' by SIGN and NICE guidelines; 79\\/208 (38%) had abnormal EEGs and 28 of these abnormal EEGs had epileptiform features. There were 108\\/316 (34%) \\'inappropriate\\' requests for EEG; of these 15\\/108 (14%) were abnormal. Of the 67\\/316 (21%) patients who had EEGs requested based on a history of syncope\\/funny turns: none of these patients had epileptiform abnormalities on their EEGs. Our audit demonstrates that EEGs are inappropriately over-requested in our institution in particular for cases with reported \\'funny turns\\' and syncope. The yield from EEGs in this cohort of patients was low as would be expected.

  4. Honokiol promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep via the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei-Min; Yue, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Yu; Fan, Kun; Chen, Chang-Rui; Hou, Yi-Ping; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2012-10-01

    Decoctions of the Chinese herb houpu contain honokiol and are used to treat a variety of mental disorders, including depression. Depression commonly presents alongside sleep disorders and sleep disturbances, which appear to be a major risk factor for depression. Here, we have evaluated the somnogenic effect of honokiol and the mechanisms involved. Honokiol was administered i.p. at 20:00 h in mice. Flumazenil, an antagonist at the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor, was administered i.p. 15 min before honokiol. The effects of honokiol were measured by EEG and electromyogram (EMG), c-Fos expression and in vitro electrophysiology. Honokiol (10 and 20 mg·kg⁻¹) significantly shortened the sleep latency to non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep and increased the amount of NREM sleep. Honokiol increased the number of state transitions from wakefulness to NREM sleep and, subsequently, from NREM sleep to wakefulness. However, honokiol had no effect on either the amount of REM sleep or EEG power density of both NREM and REM sleep. Honokiol increased c-Fos expression in ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) neurons, as examined by immunostaining, and excited sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO by whole-cell patch clamping in the brain slice. Pretreatment with flumazenil abolished the somnogenic effects and activation of the VLPO neurons by honokiol. Honokiol promoted NREM sleep by modulating the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor, suggesting potential applications in the treatment of insomnia, especially for patients who experience difficulty in falling and staying asleep. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Spectral function calculation of angle wakes, wake moments, and misalignment wakes for the SLAC Damped Detuned Structures (DDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Miller, R.H.; Kroll, N.M.

    1997-05-01

    Transverse wake functions so far reported for the SLAC DDS have been limited to those caused by uniform offset of the drive beam in a straight perfectly aligned structure. The complete description of the betatron oscillations of wake coupled bunches requires an array of wake functions, referred to as moments. Modifications of these arrays induced by structure misalignments are also of interest. In this paper we express the array elements in terms of a spectral function array. Examples are given based upon DDS1

  6. Wakefulness delta waves increase after cortical plasticity induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, G; Pellegrino, G; Tombini, M; Di Pino, G; Di Lazzaro, V

    2015-06-01

    Delta waves (DW) are present both during sleep and in wakefulness. In the first case, DW are considered effectors of synaptic plasticity, while in wakefulness, when they appear in the case of brain lesions, their functional meaning is not unanimously recognized. To throw light on the latter, we aimed to investigate the impact on DW exerted by the cortical plasticity-inducing protocol of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Twenty healthy subjects underwent iTBS (11 real iTBS and nine sham iTBS) on the left primary motor cortex with the aim of inducing long-term potentiation (LTP)-like phenomena. Five-minute resting open-eye 32-channel EEG, right opponens pollicis motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and alertness behavioral scales were collected before and up to 30 min after the iTBS. Power spectral density (PSD), interhemispheric coherence between homologous sensorimotor regions, and intrahemispheric coherence were calculated for the frequency bands ranging from delta to beta. Real iTBS induced a significant increase of both MEP amplitude and DW PSD lasting up to 30 min after stimulation, while sham iTBS did not. The DW increase was evident over frontal areas ipsilateral and close to the stimulated cortex (electrode F3). Neither real nor sham iTBS induced significant modifications in the PSD of theta, alpha, and beta bands and in the interhemispheric coherence. Behavioral visuo-analogic scales score did not demonstrate changes in alertness after stimulations. No correlations were found between MEP amplitude and PSD changes in the delta band. Our data showed that LTP induction in the motor cortex during wakefulness, by means of iTBS, is accompanied by a large and enduring increase of DW over the ipsilateral frontal cortex. The present results are strongly in favor of a prominent role of DW in the neural plasticity processes taking place during the awake state. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland

  7. Role of basal ganglia in sleep-wake regulation: neural circuitry and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vetrivelan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers over the last decade have made substantial progress towards understanding the roles of dopamine and the basal ganglia in the control of sleep-wake behavior. In this review, we outline recent advancements regarding dopaminergic modulation of sleep through the basal ganglia (BG and extra-BG sites. Our main hypothesis is that dopamine promotes sleep by its action on the D2 receptors in the BG and promotes wakefulness by its action on D1 and D2 receptors in the extra-BG sites. This hypothesis implicates dopamine depletion in the BG (such as in Parkinson’s disease in causing frequent nighttime arousal and overall insomnia. Furthermore, the arousal effects of psychostimulants (methamphetamine, cocaine and modafinil may be linked to the ventral periaquductal grey (vPAG dopaminergic circuitry targeting the extra-BG sleep-wake network.

  8. The development of sleep-wake rhythms and the search for elemental circuits in the infant brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S; Gall, Andrew J; Todd, William D

    2014-06-01

    Despite the predominance of sleep in early infancy, developmental science has yet to play a major role in shaping concepts and theories about sleep and its associated ultradian and circadian rhythms. Here we argue that developmental analyses help us to elucidate the relative contributions of the brainstem and forebrain to sleep-wake control and to dissect the neural components of sleep-wake rhythms. Developmental analysis also makes it clear that sleep-wake processes in infants are the foundation for those of adults. For example, the infant brainstem alone contains a fundamental sleep-wake circuit that is sufficient to produce transitions among wakefulness, quiet sleep, and active sleep. In addition, consistent with the requirements of a "flip-flop" model of sleep-wake processes, this brainstem circuit supports rapid transitions between states. Later in development, strengthening bidirectional interactions between the brainstem and forebrain contribute to the consolidation of sleep and wake bouts, the elaboration of sleep homeostatic processes, and the emergence of diurnal or nocturnal circadian rhythms. The developmental perspective promoted here critically constrains theories of sleep-wake control and provides a needed framework for the creation of fully realized computational models. Finally, with a better understanding of how this system is constructed developmentally, we will gain insight into the processes that govern its disintegration due to aging and disease.

  9. Independent EEG sources are dipolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Delorme

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA and blind source separation (BSS methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA; best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison.

  10. EEG correlates of virtual reality hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Ciorciari, Joseph; Carbis, Colin; Liley, David

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated hypnosis-related electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence and power spectra changes in high and low hypnotizables (Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale) induced by a virtual reality hypnosis (VRH) induction system. In this study, the EEG from 17 participants (Mean age = 21.35, SD = 1.58) were compared based on their hypnotizability score. The EEG recording associated with a 2-minute, eyes-closed baseline state was compared to the EEG during a hypnosis-related state. This novel induction system was able to produce EEG findings consistent with previous hypnosis literature. Interactions of significance were found with EEG beta coherence. The high susceptibility group (n = 7) showed decreased coherence, while the low susceptibility group (n = 10) demonstrated an increase in coherence between medial frontal and lateral left prefrontal sites. Methodological and efficacy issues are discussed.

  11. Chronic sleep curtailment, even without extended (>16-h) wakefulness, degrades human vigilance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHill, Andrew W; Hull, Joseph T; Wang, Wei; Czeisler, Charles A; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2018-05-21

    Millions of individuals routinely remain awake for more than 18 h daily, which causes performance decrements. It is unknown if these functional impairments are the result of that extended wakefulness or from the associated shortened sleep durations. We therefore examined changes in objective reaction time performance and subjective alertness in a 32-d inpatient protocol in which participants were scheduled to wakefulness durations below 16 h while on a 20-h "day," with randomization into standard sleep:wake ratio (1:2) or chronic sleep restriction (CSR) ratio (1:3.3) conditions. This protocol allowed determination of the contribution of sleep deficiency independent of extended wakefulness, since individual episodes of wakefulness in the CSR condition were only 15.33 h in duration (less than the usual 16 h of wakefulness in a 24-h day) and sleep episodes were 4.67 h in duration each cycle. We found that chronic short sleep duration, even without extended wakefulness, doubled neurobehavioral reaction time performance and increased lapses of attention fivefold, yet did not uniformly decrease self-reported alertness. Further, these impairments in neurobehavioral performance were worsened during the circadian night and were not recovered during the circadian day, indicating that the deleterious effect from the homeostatic buildup of CSR is expressed even during the circadian promotion of daytime arousal. These findings reveal a fundamental aspect of human biology: Chronic insufficient sleep duration equivalent to 5.6 h of sleep opportunity per 24 h impairs neurobehavioral performance and self-assessment of alertness, even without extended wakefulness.

  12. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  13. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  14. Wind Turbine Wake in Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan Mikael

    to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-ε turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply......) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-ε model’s issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake...

  15. Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Pryor, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    , modeling, and predicting this complex and interdependent system is therefore critical to understanding and modeling wind farm power losses due to wakes, and to optimizing wind farm layout. This paper quantifies the impact of these variables on the power loss due to wakes using data from the large offshore......The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient...

  16. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    variance is used as a detection parameter for wakes. A one month long measurement campaign, where a continuous-wave lidar on a turbine has been exposed to multiple wake situations, is used to test the detection capabilities. The results show that it is possible to identify situation where a downstream...... turbine is in wake by comparing the peak widths. The used lidar is inexpensive and brings instalments on every turbine within economical reach. Thus, the information gathered by the lidars can be used for improved control at wind farm level....

  17. Test-retest reliability of cognitive EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, L. K.; Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Task-related EEG is sensitive to changes in cognitive state produced by increased task difficulty and by transient impairment. If task-related EEG has high test-retest reliability, it could be used as part of a clinical test to assess changes in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the EEG recorded during the performance of a working memory (WM) task and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). METHODS: EEG was recorded while subjects rested quietly and while they performed the tasks. Within session (test-retest interval of approximately 1 h) and between session (test-retest interval of approximately 7 days) reliability was calculated for four EEG components: frontal midline theta at Fz, posterior theta at Pz, and slow and fast alpha at Pz. RESULTS: Task-related EEG was highly reliable within and between sessions (r0.9 for all components in WM task, and r0.8 for all components in the PVT). Resting EEG also showed high reliability, although the magnitude of the correlation was somewhat smaller than that of the task-related EEG (r0.7 for all 4 components). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, task-related EEG has sufficient retest reliability for use in assessing clinical changes in cognitive status.

  18. Tele-transmission of EEG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemesle, M; Kubis, N; Sauleau, P; N'Guyen The Tich, S; Touzery-de Villepin, A

    2015-03-01

    EEG recordings can be sent for remote interpretation. This article aims to define the tele-EEG procedures and technical guidelines. Tele-EEG is a complete medical act that needs to be carried out with the same quality requirements as a local one in terms of indications, formulation of the medical request and medical interpretation. It adheres to the same quality requirements for its human resources and materials. It must be part of a medical organization (technical and medical network) and follow all rules and guidelines of good medical practices. The financial model of this organization must include costs related to performing the EEG recording, operating and maintenance of the tele-EEG network and medical fees of the physician interpreting the EEG recording. Implementing this organization must be detailed in a convention between all parties involved: physicians, management of the healthcare structure, and the company providing the tele-EEG service. This convention will set rules for network operation and finance, and also the continuous training of all staff members. The tele-EEG system must respect all rules for safety and confidentiality, and ensure the traceability and storing of all requests and reports. Under these conditions, tele-EEG can optimize the use of human resources and competencies in its zone of utilization and enhance the organization of care management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Arvicanthis ansorgei, a Novel Model for the Study of Sleep and Waking in Diurnal Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey; Ruppert, Elisabeth; Calvel, Laurent; Robin-Choteau, Ludivine; Gropp, Claire-Marie; Allemann, Caroline; Reibel, Sophie; Sage-Ciocca, Dominique; Bourgin, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep neurobiology studies use nocturnal species, mainly rats and mice. However, because their daily sleep/wake organization is inverted as compared to humans, a diurnal model for sleep studies is needed. To fill this gap, we phenotyped sleep and waking in Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent widely used for the study of circadian rhythms. Design: Video-electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings. Setting: Rodent sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen male Arvicanthis ansorgei, aged 3 mo. Interventions: 12 h light (L):12 h dark (D) baseline condition, 24-h constant darkness, 6-h sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed similar electrophysiological characteristics as nocturnal rodents. On average, animals spent 12.9 h ± 0.4 awake per 24-h cycle, of which 6.88 h ± 0.3 was during the light period. NREM sleep accounted for 9.63 h ± 0.4, which of 5.13 h ± 0.2 during dark period, and REM sleep for 89.9 min ± 6.7, which of 52.8 min ± 4.4 during dark period. The time-course of sleep and waking across the 12 h light:12 h dark was overall inverted to that observed in rats or mice, though with larger amounts of crepuscular activity at light and dark transitions. A dominant crepuscular regulation of sleep and waking persisted under constant darkness, showing the lack of a strong circadian drive in the absence of clock reinforcement by external cues, such as a running wheel. Conservation of the homeostatic regulation was confirmed with the observation of higher delta power following sustained waking periods and a 6-h sleep deprivation, with subsequent decrease during recovery sleep. Conclusions: Arvicanthis ansorgei is a valid diurnal rodent model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of sleep and so represents a valuable tool for further understanding the nocturnality/diurnality switch. Citation: Hubbard J, Ruppert E, Calvel L, Robin-Choteau L, Gropp CM

  20. [Daytime tiredness correlated with nocturnal respiratory and arousal variables in patients with sleep apnea: polysomnographic and EEG mapping studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu, M; Hauer, C; Anderer, P; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G; Gruber, G; Oberndorfer, S; Mandl, M; Popovic, R; Saletu, B

    2000-03-24

    There is evidence that daytime tiredness is caused by apnea/hypopnea with oxygen desaturation and/or by sleep fragmentation due to arousals. The aim of this study was to investigate objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality and daytime vigilance--objectified by midmorning mapping of vigilance-controlled EEG (V-EEG)--in sleep apnea patients (N: 18), as compared with age- and sex-matched normal controls (N: 18) as well as to correlate nocturnal respiratory distress and arousals to daytime brain function. Statistical analyses demonstrated a deterioration in subjective and objective sleep and awakening quality in apnea patients. Midmorning V-EEG mapping in apnea patients exhibited less total power, more delta and theta, less alpha and beta activity, as well as a slower dominant frequency and centroid of the total activity compared to controls, which suggests a vigilance decrement. The Spearman rank correlation between 6 polysomnographically registered respiratory variables and 36 diurnal quantitative EEG measures demonstrated the following: the higher the apnea, apnea-hypopnea, snoring and desaturation indices and the lower the minimum and average low oxygen saturation, the more pronounced was diurnal tiredness. Eleven arousal measures based on ASDA criteria showed the following significant correlations: the higher the nocturnal arousal index and the more arousals due to hypopneas, the greater was daytime tiredness. On the other hand, the greater the average frequency change during arousals and the more spontaneous arousals, the better was daytime vigilance. Our findings show that, in contrast to the lengthy Multiple Sleep Latency (MSLT) and Maintenance of Wakefulness (MWT) tests which evaluate sleep pressure under resting conditions conducive to sleep, V-EEG mapping provides a brief objective measure of a sleep apnea patient's daytime tiredness under conditions of wakefulness more appropriate to reflect the patient's everyday life.

  1. Analysis of turbulent wake behind a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the classical analytical model for estimation of the rate of wake expansion and the decay of wake velocity deficit in the far wake region behind a wind turbine. The relations for a fully turbulent axisymmetric far wake were derived by applying the mass and mome...

  2. On the wake of a Darrieus turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Base, T. E.; Phillips, P.; Robertson, G.; Nowak, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and experimental measurements on the aerodynamic decay of a wake from high performance vertical axis wind turbine are discussed. In the initial experimental study, the wake downstream of a model Darrieus rotor, 28 cm diameter and a height of 45.5 cm, was measured in a Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel. The wind turbine was run at the design tip speed ratio of 5.5. It was found that the wake decayed at a slower rate with distance downstream of the turbine, than a wake from a screen with similar troposkein shape and drag force characteristics as the Darrieus rotor. The initial wind tunnel results indicated that the vertical axis wind turbines should be spaced at least forty diameters apart to avoid mutual power depreciation greater than ten per cent.

  3. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  4. Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

  5. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  6. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...

  7. Free wake models for vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin, Aerospace Inst. (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The blade element method works fast and good. For some problems (rotor shapes or flow conditions) it could be better to use vortex methods. Different methods for calculating a wake geometry will be presented. (au)

  8. Aircraft Vortex Wake Decay Near the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    A multi-faceted experimental and analytical research program was carried out to explore the details of aircraft wake vortex breakdown under conditions representative of those which prevail at low altitudes in the vicinity of airports. Three separate ...

  9. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  10. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Wake Atoll in April...

  11. Video-EEG epilepsian diagnostiikassa - milloin ja miksi?

    OpenAIRE

    Mervaala, Esa; Mäkinen, Riikka; Peltola, Jukka; Eriksson, Kai; Jutila, Leena; Immonen, Arto

    2009-01-01

    Aivosähkötoimintaa mittaava EEG on epilepsian spesifinen tutkimus. Video-EEG:llä (V-EEG) tarkoitetaan EEG:n ja videokuvan samanaikaista tallennusta. Valtaosa epilepsiapotilaista joudutaan diagnosoimaan ilman V-EEG:tä, varsinkin jos kohtauksia on esiintynyt vain muutama. Kohtausten toistuessa tavoite on päästä kohtauksenaikaiseen V-EEG-rekisteröintiin. V-EEG:n käyttöaiheista tärkein on epilepsian diagnostiikka ja erotusdiagnostiikka. V-EEG:llä pystytään erottamaan epileptiset kohtaukset esimer...

  12. Sleep/Wake Physiology and Quantitative Electroencephalogram Analysis of the Neuroligin-3 Knockout Rat Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alexia M; Schwartz, Michael D; Saxe, Michael D; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-10-01

    Neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is one of the many genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sleep dysfunction is highly prevalent in ASD, but has not been rigorously examined in ASD models. Here, we evaluated sleep/wake physiology and behavioral phenotypes of rats with genetic ablation of Nlgn3. Male Nlgn3 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) rats were assessed using a test battery for ASD-related behaviors and also implanted with telemeters to record the electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram, body temperature, and locomotor activity. 24-h EEG recordings were analyzed for sleep/wake states and spectral composition. Nlgn3 KO rats were hyperactive, exhibited excessive chewing behavior, and had impaired prepulse inhibition to an auditory startle stimulus. KO rats also spent less time in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, more time in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, exhibited elevated theta power (4-9 Hz) during wakefulness and REM, and elevated delta power (0.5-4 Hz) during NREM. Beta (12-30 Hz) power and gamma (30-50 Hz) power were suppressed across all vigilance states. The sleep disruptions in Nlgn3 KO rats are consistent with observations of sleep disturbances in ASD patients. The EEG provides objective measures of brain function to complement rodent behavioral analyses and therefore may be a useful tool to study ASD. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Experimental investigation of main rotor wake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, experimental results of rotor wake in hover mode are presented. The experiments were carried out with a rotor rig model in the T-1K wind tunnel in Kazan National Research Technical University (Kazan Aviation Institute. The rotor consisted of four identical blades. The Q-criterion was used to identify tip vortices for a 2D case. The results were then compared with two different wake models.

  14. Particle Entrainment in Spherical-Cap Wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warncke, Norbert G W; Delfos, Rene; Ooms, Gijs; Westerweel, Jerry, E-mail: n.g.w.warncke@tudelft.nl [Laboratory for Aero- and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-12-22

    In this work we study the preferential concentration of small particles in the turbulent wake behind a spherical-cap object. We present a model predicting the mean particle concentration in the near-wake as a function of the characteristic Stokes number of the problem, the turbulence level and the Froude number. We compare the model with our experimental results on this flow, measured in a vertical water tunnel.

  15. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  16. Wake field in matched kicker magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent transverse instability observed in KEK booster proton synchrotron has been reported previously. This instability is induced by the interaction of the beam with kicker magnet for the fast beam extraction. To understand the mechanism completely, it is necessary to know the wake field in detail. Here, the wake field or induced current in the kicker magnet which is terminated with matched resistance is considered

  17. Preterm EEG: a multimodal neurophysiological protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjerna, Susanna; Voipio, Juha; Metsäranta, Marjo; Kaila, Kai; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2012-02-18

    Since its introduction in early 1950s, electroencephalography (EEG) has been widely used in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for assessment and monitoring of brain function in preterm and term babies. Most common indications are the diagnosis of epileptic seizures, assessment of brain maturity, and recovery from hypoxic-ischemic events. EEG recording techniques and the understanding of neonatal EEG signals have dramatically improved, but these advances have been slow to penetrate through the clinical traditions. The aim of this presentation is to bring theory and practice of advanced EEG recording available for neonatal units. In the theoretical part, we will present animations to illustrate how a preterm brain gives rise to spontaneous and evoked EEG activities, both of which are unique to this developmental phase, as well as crucial for a proper brain maturation. Recent animal work has shown that the structural brain development is clearly reflected in early EEG activity. Most important structures in this regard are the growing long range connections and the transient cortical structure, subplate. Sensory stimuli in a preterm baby will generate responses that are seen at a single trial level, and they have underpinnings in the subplate-cortex interaction. This brings neonatal EEG readily into a multimodal study, where EEG is not only recording cortical function, but it also tests subplate function via different sensory modalities. Finally, introduction of clinically suitable dense array EEG caps, as well as amplifiers capable of recording low frequencies, have disclosed multitude of brain activities that have as yet been overlooked. In the practical part of this video, we show how a multimodal, dense array EEG study is performed in neonatal intensive care unit from a preterm baby in the incubator. The video demonstrates preparation of the baby and incubator, application of the EEG cap, and performance of the sensory stimulations.

  18. Prediction of rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns and seizures on continuous EEG with early epileptiform discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, J; Herta, J; Draschtak, S; Pötzl, G; Pirker, S; Fürbass, F; Hartmann, M; Kluge, T; Baumgartner, C

    2015-08-01

    Continuous EEG (cEEG) is necessary to document nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), as well as rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' (RPPIIU) including periodic discharges, rhythmic delta activity, and spike-and-wave complexes in neurological intensive care patients. However, cEEG is associated with significant recording and analysis efforts. Therefore, predictors from short-term routine EEG with a reasonably high yield are urgently needed in order to select patients for evaluation with cEEG. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of early epileptiform discharges (i.e., within the first 30 min of EEG recording) on the following: (1) incidence of ictal EEG patterns and RPPIIU on subsequent cEEG, (2) occurrence of acute convulsive seizures during the ICU stay, and (3) functional outcome after 6 months of follow-up. We conducted a separate analysis of the first 30 min and the remaining segments of prospective cEEG recordings according to the ACNS Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology as well as NCS criteria and review of clinical data of 32 neurological critical care patients. In 17 patients with epileptiform discharges within the first 30 min of EEG (group 1), electrographic seizures were observed in 23.5% (n = 4), rhythmic or periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' in 64.7% (n = 11), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 11.8% (n = 2). In 15 patients with no epileptiform discharges in the first 30 min of EEG (group 2), no electrographic seizures were recorded on subsequent cEEG, RPPIIU were seen in 26.7% (n = 4), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 73.3% (n = 11). The incidence of EEG patterns on cEEG was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.008). Patients with early epileptiform discharges developed acute seizures more frequently than patients without early epileptiform discharges (p = 0.009). Finally, functional

  19. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  20. Probes, Moons, and Kinetic Plasma Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.

    2017-10-01

    Nonmagnetic objects as varied as probes in tokamaks or moons in space give rise to flowing plasma wakes in which strong distortions of the ion and electron velocity distributions cause electrostatic instabilities. Non-linear phenomena such as electron holes are then produced. Historic probe theory largely ignores the resulting unstable character of the wake, but since we can now simulate computationally the non-linear wake phenomena, a timely challenge is to reassess the influence of these instabilities both on probe measurements and on the wakes themselves. Because the electron instability wavelengths are very short (typically a few Debye-lengths), controlled laboratory experiments face serious challenges in diagnosing them. That is one reason why they have long been neglected as an influence in probe interpretation. Space-craft plasma observations, by contrast, easily obtain sub-Debye-length resolution, but have difficulty with larger-scale reconstruction of the plasma spatial variation. In addition to surveying our developing understanding of wakes in magnetized plasmas, ongoing analysis of Artemis data concerning electron holes observed in the solar-wind lunar wake will be featured. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.

  1. Stochastic Wake Modelling Based on POD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bastine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, large eddy simulation data is analysed to investigate a new stochastic modeling approach for the wake of a wind turbine. The data is generated by the large eddy simulation (LES model PALM combined with an actuator disk with rotation representing the turbine. After applying a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, three different stochastic models for the weighting coefficients of the POD modes are deduced resulting in three different wake models. Their performance is investigated mainly on the basis of aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine in the wake. Three different load cases and their statistical characteristics are compared for the original LES, truncated PODs and the stochastic wake models including different numbers of POD modes. It is shown that approximately six POD modes are enough to capture the load dynamics on large temporal scales. Modeling the weighting coefficients as independent stochastic processes leads to similar load characteristics as in the case of the truncated POD. To complete this simplified wake description, we show evidence that the small-scale dynamics can be captured by adding to our model a homogeneous turbulent field. In this way, we present a procedure to derive stochastic wake models from costly computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations or elaborated experimental investigations. These numerically efficient models provide the added value of possible long-term studies. Depending on the aspects of interest, different minimalized models may be obtained.

  2. VIRTUAL REALITY IN WAKING AND DREAMING CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eHobson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity –becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM sleep dreaming, may provide the theatre for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness. In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the sensorium to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  3. Generalized impedances and wakes in asymmetric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.; Wagner, A.; Zotter, B.

    1998-01-01

    In rotationally structures, the dominant m = 0 longitudinal impedance does not depend on the offsets of either the leading or the trailing particles, while the dominant m = 1 transverse impedance is proportional to the offset of the leading particles, while it is still independent of the offsets of the trailing ones. This behavior is no longer true in rotationally non-symmetric structures, where in general all impedances depend on the offsets of both the leading and the trailing particles. The same behavior is shown by wake functions and wake potentials. The concept of generalized impedances or generalized wake functions must be used to calculate the effect of leading particles on trailing ones with different offsets, each described by two transverse coordinates. This dependence of wake potentials on four additional parameters (two for each offset) would make their use very cumbersome. Fortunately, it was found that the transverse wake potentials can be separated into superpositions of dipolar components, which are proportional to the offset of the leading bunch, and quadrupolar components, which are proportional to the offset of the trailing particles. Higher multipole components are much smaller, and can be neglected for most structures without rotational symmetry. In this report, the authors derive analytical expressions for these multipolar components, which permits estimates of the size of the neglected terms. In particular, when structures have one or two transverse symmetry planes, the expressions simplify and explain the behavior of wake potentials which had been computed for rotationally non-symmetric structures

  4. Concealed, Unobtrusive Ear-Centered EEG Acquisition: cEEGrids for Transparent EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichner, Martin G.; Debener, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important clinical tool and frequently used to study the brain-behavior relationship in humans noninvasively. Traditionally, EEG signals are recorded by positioning electrodes on the scalp and keeping them in place with glue, rubber bands, or elastic caps. This setup provides good coverage of the head, but is impractical for EEG acquisition in natural daily-life situations. Here, we propose the transparent EEG concept. Transparent EEG aims for motion tolerant, highly portable, unobtrusive, and near invisible data acquisition with minimum disturbance of a user's daily activities. In recent years several ear-centered EEG solutions that are compatible with the transparent EEG concept have been presented. We discuss work showing that miniature electrodes placed in and around the human ear are a feasible solution, as they are sensitive enough to pick up electrical signals stemming from various brain and non-brain sources. We also describe the cEEGrid flex-printed sensor array, which enables unobtrusive multi-channel EEG acquisition from around the ear. In a number of validation studies we found that the cEEGrid enables the recording of meaningful continuous EEG, event-related potentials and neural oscillations. Here, we explain the rationale underlying the cEEGrid ear-EEG solution, present possible use cases and identify open issues that need to be solved on the way toward transparent EEG. PMID:28439233

  5. Measuring brain activity cycling (BAC) in long term EEG monitoring of preterm babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Nathan J; Palmu, Kirsi; Wikström, Sverre; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    Measuring fluctuation of vigilance states in early preterm infants undergoing long term intensive care holds promise for monitoring their neurological well-being. There is currently, however, neither objective nor quantitative methods available for this purpose in a research or clinical environment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was, therefore, to develop quantitative measures of the fluctuation in vigilance states or brain activity cycling (BAC) in early preterm infants. The proposed measures of BAC were summary statistics computed on a frequency domain representation of the proportional duration of spontaneous activity transients (SAT%) calculated from electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings. Eighteen combinations of three statistics and six frequency domain representations were compared to a visual interpretation of cycling in the SAT% signal. Three high performing measures (band energy/periodogram: R = 0.809, relative band energy/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.711, g-statistic/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.638) were then compared to a grading of sleep wake cycling based on the visual interpretation of the amplitude-integrated EEG trend. These measures of BAC are conceptually straightforward, correlate well with the visual scores of BAC and sleep wake cycling, are robust enough to cope with the technically compromised monitoring data available in intensive care units, and are recommended for further validation in prospective studies. (paper)

  6. Automatic seizure detection: going from sEEG to iEEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas; Remvig, Line Sofie; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2010-01-01

    Several different algorithms have been proposed for automatic detection of epileptic seizures based on both scalp and intracranial electroencephalography (sEEG and iEEG). Which modality that renders the best result is hard to assess though. From 16 patients with focal epilepsy, at least 24 hours...... of ictal and non-ictal iEEG were obtained. Characteristics of the seizures are represented by use of wavelet transformation (WT) features and classified by a support vector machine. When implementing a method used for sEEG on iEEG data, a great improvement in performance was obtained when the high...... frequency containing lower levels in the WT were included in the analysis. We were able to obtain a sensitivity of 96.4% and a false detection rate (FDR) of 0.20/h. In general, when implementing an automatic seizure detection algorithm made for sEEG on iEEG, great improvement can be obtained if a frequency...

  7. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhu eLiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs’ effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of twelve entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP, in anesthesia induced by GA-BAergic agents.Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE and State entropy (SE, three wavelet entropy (WE measures (Shannon WE (SWE, Tsallis WE (TWE and Renyi WE (RWE, Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE, approximate entropy (ApEn, sample entropy (SampEn, Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE measures (Shannon PE (SPE, Tsallis PE (TPE and Renyi PE (RPE. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflu-rane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, phar-macokinetic / pharmacodynamic (PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA as a non-entropy measure was compared.Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline vari-ability, higher coefficient of determination and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an ad-vantage in computation efficiency compared with MDFA.Conclusion: Each entropy index has its advantages and disadvantages in estimating DoA. Overall, it is suggested that the RPE index was a superior measure.Significance: Investigating the advantages and disadvantages of these entropy indices could help improve current clinical indices for monitoring DoA.

  8. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Sun, Xue; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Hagihira, Satoshi; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: ► Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.► Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.► Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of 12 entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA) and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP), in anesthesia induced by GABAergic agents. Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE) and State entropy (SE), three wavelet entropy (WE) measures [Shannon WE (SWE), Tsallis WE (TWE), and Renyi WE (RWE)], Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE), approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE) measures [Shannon PE (SPE), Tsallis PE (TPE) and Renyi PE (RPE)]. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflurane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability (Pk) analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) as a non-entropy measure was compared. Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline variability, higher coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an advantage in computation

  9. EEG applications for sport and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Trevor; Steffert, Tony; Ros, Tomas; Leach, Joseph; Gruzelier, John

    2008-08-01

    One approach to understanding processes that underlie skilled performing has been to study electrical brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG). A notorious problem with EEG is that genuine cerebral data is often contaminated by artifacts of non-cerebral origin. Unfortunately, such artifacts tend to be exacerbated when the subject is in motion, meaning that obtaining reliable data during exercise is inherently problematic. These problems may explain the limited number of studies using EEG as a methodological tool in the sports sciences. This paper discusses how empirical studies have generally tackled the problem of movement artifact by adopting alternative paradigms which avoid recording during actual physical exertion. Moreover, the specific challenges that motion presents to obtaining reliable EEG data are discussed along with practical and computational techniques to confront these challenges. Finally, as EEG recording in sports is often underpinned by a desire to optimise performance, a brief review of EEG-biofeedback and peak performance studies is also presented. A knowledge of practical aspects of EEG recording along with the advent of new technology and increasingly sophisticated processing models offer a promising approach to minimising, if perhaps not entirely circumventing, the problem of obtaining reliable EEG data during motion.

  10. Effects of oral amines on the EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D F; Moffett, A M; Swash, M

    1977-02-01

    Oral tyramine activated pre-existing episodic EEG abnormalities--namely, sharp waves, spike and wave, and localised theta activity--in epileptic patients. Little change was found in the EEGs of migrainous subjects after chocolate or beta-phenylethylamine. The implications of the findings with tyramine are discussed.

  11. Source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Lantz, Göran; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Although precise identification of the seizure-onset zone is an essential element of presurgical evaluation, source localization of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) signals has received little attention. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of source localization of rhythmic ictal...... EEG activity using a distributed source model....

  12. Analysis of EEG Related Saccadic Eye Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funase, Arao; Kuno, Yoshiaki; Okuma, Shigeru; Yagi, Tohru

    Our final goal is to establish the model for saccadic eye movement that connects the saccade and the electroencephalogram(EEG). As the first step toward this goal, we recorded and analyzed the saccade-related EEG. In the study recorded in this paper, we tried detecting a certain EEG that is peculiar to the eye movement. In these experiments, each subject was instructed to point their eyes toward visual targets (LEDs) or the direction of the sound sources (buzzers). In the control cases, the EEG was recorded in the case of no eye movemens. As results, in the visual experiments, we found that the potential of EEG changed sharply on the occipital lobe just before eye movement. Furthermore, in the case of the auditory experiments, similar results were observed. In the case of the visual experiments and auditory experiments without eye movement, we could not observed the EEG changed sharply. Moreover, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a right-side target, a change in EEG potential was found on the right occipital lobe. On the contrary, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a left-side target, a sharp change in EEG potential was found on the left occipital lobe.

  13. Changes of hypnagogic imagery and EEG stages

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Mitsuo; Katoh, Kohichi; Hori, Tadao

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between hypnagogic imagery and EEG stages. According to Hori, et al. (1994), the hypnagogic EEGs was classified into 9 stages, those were 1) alpha wave train, 2) alpha wave intermittent (>50%), 3) alpha wave intermittent (

  14. Continuous EEG Monitoring in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian Kærsmose; Wellwood, Ian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous EEG (cEEG) may allow monitoring of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and seizures, including non-convulsive seizures (NCSz), and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). We aimed to evaluate: (a) the diagnostic...

  15. Pedunculopontine Nucleus Gamma Band Activity-Preconscious Awareness, Waking, and REM Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Urbano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN is a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS that regulates waking and REM sleep, states of high frequency EEG activity. Recently, we described the presence of high threshold, voltage-dependent N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in RAS nuclei that subserve gamma band oscillations in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD. Cortical gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. That is, the RAS may play an early permissive role in volition. Our latest results suggest that, 1 the manifestation of gamma band activity during waking may employ a separate intracellular pathway compared to that during REM sleep, 2 neuronal calcium sensor (NCS-1 protein, which is over expressed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, modulates gamma band oscillations in the PPN in a concentration-dependent manner, 3 leptin, which undergoes resistance in obesity resulting in sleep dysregulation, decreases sodium currents in PPN neurons, accounting for its normal attenuation of waking, and 4 following our discovery of electrical coupling in the RAS, we hypothesize that there are cell clusters within the PPN that may act in concert. These results provide novel information on the mechanisms controlling high frequency activity related to waking and REM sleep by elements of the RAS.

  16. Different Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Torpor on EEG Slow-Wave Characteristics in Djungarian Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyazovskiy, V V; Palchykova, S; Achermann, P; Tobler, I; Deboer, T

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown previously in Djungarian hamsters that the initial electroencephalography (EEG) slow-wave activity (power in the 0.5-4.0 Hz band; SWA) in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep following an episode of daily torpor is consistently enhanced, similar to the SWA increase after sleep deprivation (SD). However, it is unknown whether the network mechanisms underlying the SWA increase after torpor and SD are similar. EEG slow waves recorded in the neocortex during sleep reflect synchronized transitions between periods of activity and silence among large neuronal populations. We therefore set out to investigate characteristics of individual cortical EEG slow waves recorded during NREM sleep after 4 h SD and during sleep after emergence from an episode of daily torpor in adult male Djungarian hamsters. We found that during the first hour after both SD and torpor, the SWA increase was associated with an increase in slow-wave incidence and amplitude. However, the slopes of single slow waves during NREM sleep were steeper in the first hour after SD but not after torpor, and, in contrast to sleep after SD, the magnitude of change in slopes after torpor was unrelated to the changes in SWA. Furthermore, slow-wave slopes decreased progressively within the first 2 h after SD, while a progressive increase in slow-wave slopes was apparent during the first 2 h after torpor. The data suggest that prolonged waking and torpor have different effects on cortical network activity underlying slow-wave characteristics, while resulting in a similar homeostatic sleep response of SWA. We suggest that sleep plays an important role in network homeostasis after both waking and torpor, consistent with a recovery function for both states. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. EEG slow-wave coherence changes in propofol-induced general anesthesia: Experiment and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaier eWang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electroencephalogram (EEG patterns recorded during general anesthetic-induced coma are closely similar to those seen during slow-wave sleep, the deepest stage of natural sleep; both states show patterns dominated by large amplitude slow waves. Slow oscillations are believed to be important for memory consolidation during natural sleep. Tracking the emergence of slow-wave oscillations during transition to unconsciousness may help us to identify drug-induced alterations of the underlying brain state, and provide insight into the mechanisms of general anesthesia. Although cellular-based mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the slow oscillation has not yet been unambiguously established. A recent theoretical study by Steyn-Ross et al. [Physical Review X 3(2, 021005 (2013] proposes that the slow oscillation is a network, rather than cellular phenomenon. Modeling anesthesia as a moderate reduction in gap-junction interneuronal coupling, they predict an unconscious state signposted by emergent low-frequency oscillations with chaotic dynamics in space and time. They suggest that anesthetic slow-waves arise from a competitive interaction between symmetry-breaking instabilities in space (Turing and time (Hopf, modulated by gap-junction coupling strength. A significant prediction of their model is that EEG phase coherence will decrease as the cortex transits from Turing--Hopf balance (wake to Hopf-dominated chaotic slow-waves (unconsciousness. Here, we investigate changes in phase coherence during induction of general anesthesia. After examining 128-channel EEG traces recorded from five volunteers undergoing propofol anesthesia, we report a significant drop in sub-delta band (0.05--1.5 Hz slow-wave coherence between frontal, occipital, and frontal-occipital electrode pairs, with the most pronounced wake-versus-unconscious coherence changes occurring at the frontal cortex.

  18. Cortical connectivity modulation during sleep onset: A study via graph theory on EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferrara, Michele; Iberite, Francesco; Bramanti, Placido; De Gennaro, Luigi; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2017-11-01

    Sleep onset is characterized by a specific and orchestrated pattern of frequency and topographical EEG changes. Conventional power analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) and computational assessments of network dynamics have described an earlier synchronization of the centrofrontal areas rhythms and a spread of synchronizing signals from associative prefrontal to posterior areas. Here, we assess how "small world" characteristics of the brain networks, as reflected in the EEG rhythms, are modified in the wakefulness-sleep transition comparing the pre- and post-sleep onset epochs. The results show that sleep onset is characterized by a less ordered brain network (as reflected by the higher value of small world) in the sigma band for the frontal lobes indicating stronger connectivity, and a more ordered brain network in the low frequency delta and theta bands indicating disconnection on the remaining brain areas. Our results depict the timing and topography of the specific mechanisms for the maintenance of functional connectivity of frontal brain regions at the sleep onset, also providing a possible explanation for the prevalence of the frontal-to-posterior information flow directionality previously observed after sleep onset. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5456-5464, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Differences in activity of cytochrome C oxidase in brain between sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, Elena V; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Zhang, Lin; Cater, Jacqueline R; Galante, Raymond J; Ward, Stephen E; Avadhani, Narayan G; Pack, Allan I

    2005-01-01

    Increased mRNA level of subunit 1 cytochrome c oxidase (COXI) during wakefulness and after short-term sleep deprivation has been described in brain. We hypothesized that this might contribute to increased activity of cytochrome oxidase (COX) enzyme during wakefulness, as part of the mechanisms to provide sufficient amounts of adenosine triphosphate to meet increased neuronal energy demands. COX activity was measured in isolated mitochondria from different brain regions in groups of rats with 3 hours of spontaneous sleep, 3 hours of spontaneous wake, and 3 hours of sleep deprivation. The group with 3 hours of spontaneous wake was added to delineate the circadian component of changes in the enzyme activity. Northern blot analysis was performed to examine the mRNA levels of 2 subunits of the enzyme COXI and COXIV, encoded by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, respectively. Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Animal Biology, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania. 2-month-old male Fischer rats (N = 21) implanted for polygraphic recording. For COX activity, there was a main effect by analysis of variance of experimental group (P sleep-deprived groups as compared to the sleep group. A main effect of brain region was also significant (P sleep. There is an increase in COX activity after both 3 hours of spontaneous wake and 3 hours of sleep deprivation as compared with 3 hours of spontaneous sleep in diverse brain regions, which could be, in part, explained by the increased levels of bigenomic transcripts of the enzyme. This likely contributes to increased adenosine triphosphate production during wakefulness. ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; COXI, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mRNA; COX, cytochrome c oxidase (protein); CREB, cyclic AMP response element binding protein; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; EEG, electroencephalography; EMG, electromyography; GABP, GA binding

  20. DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-06

    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  1. Quantitative topographic differentiation of the neonatal EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karel; Krajca, Vladimír; Roth, Zdenek; Melichar, Jan; Petránek, Svojmil

    2006-09-01

    To test the discriminatory topographic potential of a new method of the automatic EEG analysis in neonates. A quantitative description of the neonatal EEG can contribute to the objective assessment of the functional state of the brain, and may improve the precision of diagnosing cerebral dysfunctions manifested by 'disorganization', 'dysrhythmia' or 'dysmaturity'. 21 healthy, full-term newborns were examined polygraphically during sleep (EEG-8 referential derivations, respiration, ECG, EOG, EMG). From each EEG record, two 5-min samples (one from the middle of quiet sleep, the other from the middle of active sleep) were subject to subsequent automatic analysis and were described by 13 variables: spectral features and features describing shape and variability of the signal. The data from individual infants were averaged and the number of variables was reduced by factor analysis. All factors identified by factor analysis were statistically significantly influenced by the location of derivation. A large number of statistically significant differences were also established when comparing the effects of individual derivations on each of the 13 measured variables. Both spectral features and features describing shape and variability of the signal are largely accountable for the topographic differentiation of the neonatal EEG. The presented method of the automatic EEG analysis is capable to assess the topographic characteristics of the neonatal EEG, and it is adequately sensitive and describes the neonatal electroencephalogram with sufficient precision. The discriminatory capability of the used method represents a promise for their application in the clinical practice.

  2. Contribution of EEG in transient neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Tcheumeni, Nadine Carole; Turki, Sahar; Amiel, Hélène; Meppiel, Elodie; Masmoudi, Sana; Roos, Caroline; Crassard, Isabelle; Plaisance, Patrick; Benbetka, Houria; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Houdart, Emmanuel; Baudoin, Hélène; Kubis, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Identification of stroke mimics and 'chameleons' among transient neurological deficits (TND) is critical. Diagnostic workup consists of a brain imaging study, for a vascular disease or a brain tumour and EEG, for epileptiform discharges. The precise role of EEG in this diagnostic workup has, however, never been clearly delineated. However, this could be crucial in cases of atypical or incomplete presentation with consequences on disease management and treatment. We analysed the EEG patterns on 95 consecutive patients referred for an EEG within 7 days of a TND with diagnostic uncertainty. Patients were classified at the discharge or the 3-month follow-up visit as: 'ischemic origin', 'migraine aura', 'focal seizure', and 'other'. All patients had a brain imaging study. EEG characteristics were correlated to the TND symptoms, imaging study, and final diagnosis. Sixty four (67%) were of acute onset. Median symptom duration was 45 min. Thirty two % were 'ischemic', 14% 'migraine aura', 19% 'focal seizure', and 36% 'other' cause. EEGs were recorded with a median delay of 1.6 day after symptoms onset. Forty EEGs (42%) were abnormal. Focal slow waves were the most common finding (43%), also in the ischemic group (43%), whether patients had a typical presentation or not. Epileptiform discharges were found in three patients, one with focal seizure and two with migraine aura. Non-specific EEG focal slowing is commonly found in TND, and may last several days. We found no difference in EEG presentation between stroke mimics and stroke chameleons, and between other diagnoses.

  3. Signal Quality Evaluation of Emerging EEG Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Radüntz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG registration as a direct measure of brain activity has unique potentials. It is one of the most reliable and predicative indicators when studying human cognition, evaluating a subject's health condition, or monitoring their mental state. Unfortunately, standard signal acquisition procedures limit the usability of EEG devices and narrow their application outside the lab. Emerging sensor technology allows gel-free EEG registration and wireless signal transmission. Thus, it enables quick and easy application of EEG devices by users themselves. Although a main requirement for the interpretation of an EEG is good signal quality, there is a lack of research on this topic in relation to new devices. In our work, we compared the signal quality of six very different EEG devices. On six consecutive days, 24 subjects wore each device for 60 min and completed tasks and games on the computer. The registered signals were evaluated in the time and frequency domains. In the time domain, we examined the percentage of artifact-contaminated EEG segments and the signal-to-noise ratios. In the frequency domain, we focused on the band power variation in relation to task demands. The results indicated that the signal quality of a mobile, gel-based EEG system could not be surpassed by that of a gel-free system. However, some of the mobile dry-electrode devices offered signals that were almost comparable and were very promising. This study provided a differentiated view of the signal quality of emerging mobile and gel-free EEG recording technology and allowed an assessment of the functionality of the new devices. Hence, it provided a crucial prerequisite for their general application, while simultaneously supporting their further development.

  4. Joyce the Deconstructionist: Finnegans Wake in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangouei J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Had Finnegans Wake not been written, some seminal post-1950s innovations in the field of modern literary theory and criticism would have been impossible. James Joyce, who seems to have inspiringly influenced the entire sphere of modern literary theory and criticism greatly, is a pioneer of deconstruction too. His last novel, which reflects his deconstructive tendencies, has played a seminal role in the formation of 20th century deconstruction, and comprises an inchoate mass of implicit ideas on the subject. It was perhaps not until Jacques Derrida and his deconstruction techniques that the theory implied by Finnegans Wake really came into focus. This article seeks to delineate Derrida’s theory of deconstruction as well as Joyce's deconstructive aesthetics; and taking a diachronic approach to literary theory and criticism it glances at Finnegans Wake in the light of deconstruction.

  5. Wind Wake Watcher v. 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-03

    This software enables the user to produce Google Earth visualizations of turbine wake effects for wind farms. The visualizations are based on computations of statistical quantities that vary with wind direction and help quantify the effects on power production of upwind turbines on turbines in their wakes. The results of the software are plot images and kml files that can be loaded into Google Earth. The statistics computed are described in greater detail in the paper: S. Martin, C. H. Westergaard, and J. White (2016), Visualizing Wind Farm Wakes Using SCADA Data, in Wither Turbulence and Big Data in the 21st Century? Eds. A. Pollard, L. Castillo, L. Danaila, and M. Glauser. Springer, pgs. 231-254.

  6. Fast particle tracking with wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.

    2012-01-15

    Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of preconscious sucrose perception using EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotvel, Camilla; Møller, Stine; Nielsen, Rene R

    The objective of the current study is to develop a methodology for food ingredient screening based on Electro-Encephalo-Graphy (EEG). EEG measures electrical activity in the central nervous system, allowing assessment of activity in the ascending gustatory pathway from the taste buds on the tongue...... stimulus. The EEG was recorded using a 64 electrode setup, and gustatory evoked potentials (GEP) were estimated by coherent averaging across all 60 stimulations for each concentration. Cortical source localization based on the GEP was performed using a low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA...

  8. Analyzing Electroencephalogram Signal Using EEG Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh BHARDWAJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The EEG is composed of electrical potentials arising from several sources. Each source (including separate neural clusters, blink artifact or pulse artifact forms a unique topography onto the scalp – ‘scalp map‘. Scalp map may be 2-D or 3-D.These maps are mixed according to the principle of linear superposition. Independent component analysis (ICA attempts to reverse the superposition by separating the EEG into mutually independent scalp maps, or components. MATLAB toolbox and graphic user interface, EEGLAB is used for processing EEG data of any number of channels. Wavelet toolbox has been used for 2-D signal analysis.

  9. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P -E

    2009-10-15

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  10. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.

    2009-10-15

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  11. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Combining Cryptography with EEG Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis; Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Woźniak, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Cryptographic frameworks depend on key sharing for ensuring security of data. While the keys in cryptographic frameworks must be correctly reproducible and not unequivocally connected to the identity of a user, in biometric frameworks this is different. Joining cryptography techniques with biometrics can solve these issues. We present a biometric authentication method based on the discrete logarithm problem and Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes, perform its security analysis, and demonstrate its security characteristics. We evaluate a biometric cryptosystem using our own dataset of electroencephalography (EEG) data collected from 42 subjects. The experimental results show that the described biometric user authentication system is effective, achieving an Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 0.024.

  13. PyEEG: An Open Source Python Module for EEG/MEG Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis of neural diseases from EEG signals (or other physiological signals that can be treated as time series, e.g., MEG) is an emerging field that has gained much attention in past years. Extracting features is a key component in the analysis of EEG signals. In our previous works, we have implemented many EEG feature extraction functions in the Python programming language. As Python is gaining more ground in scientific computing, an open source Python module for extracting ...

  14. Construction and validation of the EEG analogues of the Karolinska sleepiness scale based on the Karolinska drowsiness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, Arcady A; Donskaya, Olga G

    2013-07-01

    Simple methods of sleepiness assessment are greatly needed for both fundamental research and practical applications. The Karolinska drowsiness test (KDT) was applied to construct physiological alertness scales and to validate them against such well-known instrument of subjective sleepiness assessment as the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS). Seven-min EEG recordings were obtained with 2-h interval from frontal and occipital derivations during the last 32-50 h of 44-61-h wakefulness of 15 healthy study participants. Occipital alpha-theta power difference and frontal and occipital scores on the 2nd principal component of the EEG spectrum were calculated for each one-min interval of 5-min eyes closed section of the record. To obtain scores (from 0 to 5) on alertness scales for each of these EEG indexes, all positive one-min values of the index were assigned to 1, and all remaining (negative) values were assigned to 0. Scores on any of the physiological alertness scales were found to be strongly associated with KSS scores. Physiological analogues of KSS were offered by utilising the EEG recordings on eyes closed interval of KDT. The constructed physiological scales can help in improving validity and user-friendliness of the field and laboratory methods of quantification of drowsy state. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wake Field of the e-Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, Samuel A

    2001-01-01

    The wake field of the cloud is derived analytically taking into account the finite size of the cloud and nonlinearity of the electron motion. The analytic expression for the effective transverse wake field caused by the electron cloud in a positron storage ring is derived. The derivation includes the frequency spread in the cloud, which is the main effect of the nonlinearity of electron motion in the cloud. This approach allows calculation of the Q-factor and study the tune spread in a bunch

  16. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.; Vorobieff, P.

    1999-01-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  17. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    The circadian system regulates the timing and expression of nearly all biological processes, most notably, the sleep-wake cycle, and disruption of this system can result in adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) consist of 5 disorders that are due primarily to pathology of the circadian clock or to a misalignment of the timing of the endogenous circadian rhythm with the environment. This article outlines the nature of these disorders, the association of many of these disorders with psychiatric illness, and available treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The bestial feminine in Finnegans Wake

    OpenAIRE

    Lovejoy, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Female characters frequently appear as animals in the unstable universe of James Joyce’s a Finnegans Wake. What Kimberly Devlin terms “the male tendency to reduce women to the level of the beast” is manifest in Finnegans Wake on a large scale. From the hen pecking at a dung heap which we suppose is a manifestation of matriarch Anna Livia Plurabelle, to the often lascivious pig imagery (reminiscent of Bloom’s experience with brothel-keeper Bella in the “Circe” episode of Ulysses) associated wi...

  19. Multiscale periodic structure in the Io wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P R; Wright, A N

    1989-06-08

    The decametric radio emissions from Jupiter are known to be influenced by the Galilean satellite Io. It is believed that the structure in these emissions is associated with the Alfven-wave wake downstream of Io. However, recent studies have shown that the structure of the wake cannot be as simple as originally thought. Here we present preliminary results from an eigenmode synthesis of the Alfven waves launched by Io, and find that several important periodicities emerge. Observations of the decametric emissions reveal fine, medium-and large-scale structure. The simulation we present here can provide structure on each of these scales, unlike earlier models. (author).

  20. Anisotropy of turbulence in wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Elvira, Rafael [Comision Nacional de Energia (Spain); Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio; Manuel, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Julio [Departamento de Mecanica, ETSII, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    This work is mainly dedicated to the study of non-isotropic characteristics of turbulence in wind turbine wakes, specifically the shear layer of the near wake. A calculation method based on an explicit algebraic model for the components of the turbulent stress tensor is proposed, and the results are found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results. Analytical expressions for the estimation of an upper limit of the global turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the individual contributions of each diagonal term in the turbulent stress tensor are proposed. Their predictions are compared with experimental results.

  1. Waking and sleeping following water deprivation in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Martelli

    Full Text Available Wake-sleep (W-S states are affected by thermoregulation. In particular, REM sleep (REMS is reduced in homeotherms under a thermal load, due to an impairment of hypothalamic regulation of body temperature. The aim of this work was to assess whether osmoregulation, which is regulated at a hypothalamic level, but, unlike thermoregulation, is maintained across the different W-S states, could influence W-S occurrence. Sprague-Dawley rats, kept at an ambient temperature of 24°C and under a 12 h∶12 h light-dark cycle, were exposed to a prolonged osmotic challenge of three days of water deprivation (WD and two days of recovery in which free access to water was restored. Two sets of parameters were determined in order to assess: i the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis (water and food consumption; changes in body weight and fluid composition; ii the effects of the osmotic challenge on behavioral states (hypothalamic temperature (Thy, motor activity, and W-S states. The first set of parameters changed in WD as expected and control levels were restored on the second day of recovery, with the exception of urinary Ca(++ that almost disappeared in WD, and increased to a high level in recovery. As far as the second set is concerned, WD was characterized by the maintenance of the daily oscillation of Thy and by a decrease in activity during the dark periods. Changes in W-S states were small and mainly confined to the dark period: i REMS slightly decreased at the end of WD and increased in recovery; ii non-REM sleep (NREMS increased in both WD and recovery, but EEG delta power, a sign of NREMS intensity, decreased in WD and increased in recovery. Our data suggest that osmoregulation interferes with the regulation of W-S states to a much lesser extent than thermoregulation.

  2. Homeostatic and circadian contribution to EEG and molecular state variables of sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curie, Thomas; Mongrain, Valérie; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Mang, Géraldine M; Emmenegger, Yann; Franken, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Besides their well-established role in circadian rhythms, our findings that the forebrain expression of the clock-genes Per2 and Dbp increases and decreases, respectively, in relation to time spent awake suggest they also play a role in the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Here, we determined whether time of day modulates the effects of elevated sleep pressure on clock-gene expression. Time of day effects were assessed also for recognized electrophysiological (EEG delta power) and molecular (Homer1a) markers of sleep homeostasis. EEG and qPCR data were obtained for baseline and recovery from 6-h sleep deprivation starting at ZT0, -6, -12, or -18. Mouse sleep laboratory. Male mice. Sleep deprivation. The sleep-deprivation induced changes in Per2 and Dbp expression importantly varied with time of day, such that Per2 could even decrease during sleep deprivations occurring at the decreasing phase in baseline. Dbp showed similar, albeit opposite dynamics. These unexpected results could be reliably predicted assuming that these transcripts behave according to a driven damped harmonic oscillator. As expected, the sleep-wake distribution accounted for a large degree of the changes in EEG delta power and Homer1a. Nevertheless, the sleep deprivation-induced increase in delta power varied also with time of day with higher than expected levels when recovery sleep started at dark onset. Per2 and delta power are widely used as exclusive state variables of the circadian and homeostatic process, respectively. Our findings demonstrate a considerable cross-talk between these two processes. As Per2 in the brain responds to both sleep loss and time of day, this molecule is well positioned to keep track of and to anticipate homeostatic sleep need. Curie T; Mongrain V; Dorsaz S; Mang GM; Emmenegger Y; Franken P. Homeostatic and circadian contribution to EEG and molecular state variables of sleep regulation. SLEEP 2013;36(3):311-323.

  3. EEG quantification of alertness: methods for early identification of individuals most susceptible to sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka, Chris; Levendowski, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Philip; Davis, Gene; Lumicao, Michelle N.; Olmstead, Richard E.; Popovic, Miodrag; Zivkovic, Vladimir T.; Ramsey, Caitlin K.

    2005-05-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) and neurocognitive measures were simultaneously acquired to quantify alertness from 24 participants during 44-hours of sleep deprivation. Performance on a three-choice vigilance task (3C-VT), paired-associate learning/memory task (PAL) and modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and sleep technician-observed drowsiness (eye-closures, head-nods, EEG slowing) were quantified. The B-Alert system automatically classifies each second of EEG on an alertness/drowsiness continuum. B-Alert classifications were significantly correlated with technician-observations, visually scored EEG and performance measures. B-Alert classifications during 3C-VT, and technician observations and performance during the 3C-VT and PAL evidenced progressively increasing drowsiness as a result of sleep deprivation with a stabilizing effect observed at the batteries occurring between 0600 and 1100 suggesting a possible circadian effect similar to those reported in previous sleep deprivation studies. Participants were given an opportunity to take a 40-minute nap approximately 24-hours into the sleep deprivation portion of the study (i.e., 7 PM on Saturday). The nap was followed by a transient period of increased alertness. Approximately 8 hours after the nap, behavioral and physiological measures of drowsiness returned to levels prior to the nap. Cluster analysis was used to stratify individuals into three groups based on their level of impairment as a result of sleep deprivation. The combination of B-Alert and neuro-behavioral measures may identify individuals whose performance is most susceptible to sleep deprivation. These objective measures could be applied in an operational setting to provide a "biobehavioral assay" to determine vulnerability to sleep deprivation.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Clinical Genetics Department, Human Genetics & Genome Research Division, ... neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ... level and by developmental changes2. .... for IQ as a confounding factor.30.

  5. Two channel EEG thought pattern classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D A; Nguyen, H T; Burchey, H A

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time electro-encephalogram (EEG) identification system with the goal of achieving hands free control. With two EEG electrodes placed on the scalp of the user, EEG signals are amplified and digitised directly using a ProComp+ encoder and transferred to the host computer through the RS232 interface. Using a real-time multilayer neural network, the actual classification for the control of a powered wheelchair has a very fast response. It can detect changes in the user's thought pattern in 1 second. Using only two EEG electrodes at positions O(1) and C(4) the system can classify three mental commands (forward, left and right) with an accuracy of more than 79 %

  6. Correlation between intra- and extracranial background EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Kjaer, Troels W.; Madsen, Rasmus E.

    2012-01-01

    Scalp EEG is the most widely used modality to record the electrical signals of the brain. It is well known that the volume conduction of these brain waves through the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, skull and scalp reduces the spatial resolution and the signal amplitude. So far the volume conduction...... has primarily been investigated by realistic head models or interictal spike analysis. We have set up a novel and more realistic experiment that made it possible to compare the information in the intra- and extracranial EEG. We found that intracranial EEG channels contained correlated patterns when...... placed less than 30 mm apart, that intra- and extracranial channels were partly correlated when placed less than 40 mm apart, and that extracranial channels probably were correlated over larger distances. The underlying cortical area that influences the extracranial EEG is found to be up to 45 cm2...

  7. Amplitude-Integrated EEG in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Th value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG in the newborn is explored by researchers at Washington University, St Louis; Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands; and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

  8. Predictive Values of Electroencephalography (EEG) in Epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive Values of Electroencephalography (EEG) in Epilepsy Patients with Abnormal Behavioural Symptoms. OR Obiako, SO Adeyemi, TL Sheikh, LF Owolabi, MA Majebi, MO Gomina, F Adebayo, EU Iwuozo ...

  9. EEG analysis in a telemedical virtual world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanov, E.; Starcevic, D.; Samardzic, A.; Marsh, A.; Obrenovic, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Telemedicine creates virtual medical collaborative environments. We propose here a novel concept of virtual medical devices (VMD) for telemedical applications. VMDs provide different views on biomedical recordings and efficient signal analysis. In this paper we present a telemedical EEG analysis

  10. Characterization of wake region by using and emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Ho

    1993-02-01

    An emissive probe was designed and manufactured to measure the floating and the space potentials of plasma in the wake region. The floating potential method' among various schemes was used for the measurement and analysis. To generate the wake, a plane artificial satellite with circular shape was introduced in a simply discharged argon plasma without the magnetic field. Potentials along the radial direction in and out of the wake regions of artificial satellite were measured, and plasma parameters were compared in the both regions. In the wake region, the floating potential was higher than that out of the wake, the space potential was approximately equal to that out of the wake, when the positive voltage was applied to artificial satellite, the floating and the space potentials were lower than that out of the wake and when the negative voltage was applied to artificial satellite, the floating potential was higher, the space potential was lower than that out of the wake

  11. Engineering models for merging wakes in wind farm optimization applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Murcia Leon, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with validation of 4 different engineering wake superposition approaches against detailed CFD simulations and covering different turbine interspacing, ambient turbulence intensities and mean wind speeds. The first engineering model is a simple linear superposition of wake ...

  12. Power generation from bio methane. Requirements of the EEG 2012 and balancing in gas infrastructure; Verstromung von Biomethan. Anforderungen des EEG 2012 und gaswirtschaftliche Bilanzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, Steffen; Bredow, Hartwig von [von Bredow Valentin Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Six years ago, the first biogas infeed plant was connected to the natural gas distribution system. The infeed of biogas progressed beyond the nursery stage. The infeed of bio methane significantly is promoted by the renewable energy law. One fundamental requirement for the promotion with respect to the Renewable Energy Law is the generation of the power to be remunerated by means of the exclusive use of biomass. The Renewable Energy Law EEG 2012 contains the new requirement, that furthermore the transport of biogas from its production until removal has to be documented by means of a mass balance. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the requirements of the EEG 2012 and the balancing in gas infrastructure with respect to the power generation from biomass.

  13. A simplified approach for simulation of wake meandering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Kenneth; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Larsen, Gunner; Juul Larsen, T.

    2006-03-15

    This fact-sheet describes a simplified approach for a part of the recently developed dynamic wake model for aeroelastic simulations for wind turbines operating in wake. The part described in this fact-sheet concern the meandering process only, while the other part of the simplified approach the wake deficit profile is outside the scope of the present fact-sheet. Work on simplified models for the wake deficit profile is ongoing. (au)

  14. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  15. Wind turbine wake measurement in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Menke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SCADA data from a wind farm and high frequency time series measurements obtained with remote scanning systems have been analysed with focus on identification of wind turbine wake properties in complex terrain. The analysis indicates that within the flow regime characterized by medium to large dow...

  16. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...

  17. Sleep EEG of Microcephaly in Zika Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Paulo Afonso Medeiros; Aguiar, Aline de Almeida Xavier; Miranda, Jose Lucivan; Falcao, Alexandre Loverde; Andrade, Claudia Suenia; Reis, Luigi Neves Dos Santos; Almeida, Ellen White R Bacelar; Bello, Yanes Brum; Monfredinho, Arthur; Kanda, Rafael Guimaraes

    2018-01-01

    Microcephaly (MC), previously considered rare, is now a health emergency of international concern because of the devastating Zika virus pandemic outbreak of 2015. The authors describe the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in sleep EEG of epileptic children who were born with microcephaly in areas of Brazil with active Zika virus transmission between 2014 and 2017. The authors reviewed EEGs from 23 children. Nine were females (39.2%), and the age distribution varied from 4 to 48 months. MC was associated with mother positive serology to toxoplasmosis (toxo), rubella (rub), herpes, and dengue (1 case); toxo (1 case); chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (1 case); syphilis (1 case); and Zika virus (ZIKV) (10 cases). In addition, 1 case was associated with perinatal hypoxia and causes of 9 cases remain unknown. The main background EEG abnormality was diffuse slowing (10 cases), followed by classic (3 cases) and modified (5 cases) hypsarrhythmia. A distinct EEG pattern was seen in ZIKV (5 cases), toxo (2 cases), and undetermined cause (1 case). It was characterized by runs of frontocentrotemporal 4.5-13 Hz activity (7 cases) or diffuse and bilateral runs of 18-24 Hz (1 case). In ZIKV, this rhythmic activity was associated with hypsarrhythmia or slow background. Further studies are necessary to determine if this association is suggestive of ZIKV infection. The authors believe that EEG should be included in the investigation of all newly diagnosed congenital MC, especially those occurring in areas of autochthonous transmission of ZIKV.

  18. Comparison of a Coupled Near and Far Wake Model With a Free Wake Vortex Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrung, Georg; Riziotis, Vasilis; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    to be updated during the computation. Further, the effect of simplifying the exponential function approximation of the near wake model to increase the computation speed is investigated in this work. A modification of the dynamic inflow weighting factors of the far wake model is presented that ensures good...... computations performed using a free wake panel code. The focus of the description of the aerodynamics model is on the numerical stability, the computation speed and the accuracy of 5 unsteady simulations. To stabilize the near wake model, it has to be iterated to convergence, using a relaxation factor that has...... and a BEM model is centered around the NREL 5 MW reference turbine. The response to pitch steps at different pitching speeds is compared. By means of prescribed vibration cases, the effect of the aerodynamic model on the predictions of the aerodynamic work is investigated. The validation shows that a BEM...

  19. EEG Based Inference of Spatio-Temporal Brain Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese

    Electroencephalography (EEG) provides a measure of brain activity and has improved our understanding of the brain immensely. However, there is still much to be learned and the full potential of EEG is yet to be realized. In this thesis we suggest to improve the information gain of EEG using three...... different approaches; 1) by recovery of the EEG sources, 2) by representing and inferring the propagation path of EEG sources, and 3) by combining EEG with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The common goal of the methods, and thus of this thesis, is to improve the spatial dimension of EEG...... recovery ability. The forward problem describes the propagation of neuronal activity in the brain to the EEG electrodes on the scalp. The geometry and conductivity of the head layers are normally required to model this path. We propose a framework for inferring forward models which is based on the EEG...

  20. Wake simulation for wind turbines with a free, prescribed- and hybrid-wake method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareiss, R.; Guidati, G.; Wagner, S. [Univ. Stuttgart, Inst. fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Calculations of the radial distribution and the time history of the induction factors have been performed with a number of different wake models implemented in a vortex-lattice method for tip-speed ratios in the range 1-13. The new models lead to a significant reduction of the computational effort down to 3-27% compared to a free-wake model with errors less than 5%. (au)

  1. Wake structure and similar behavior of wake profiles downstream of a plunging airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. DAVARI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Very limited attention has already been paid to the velocity behavior in the wake region in unsteady aerodynamic problems. A series of tests has been performed on a flapping airfoil in a subsonic wind tunnel to study the wake structure for different sets of mean angle of attack, plunging amplitude and reduced frequency. In this study, the velocity profiles in the wake for various oscillation parameters have been measured using a wide shoulder rake, especially designed for the present experiments. The airfoil under consideration was a critical section of a 660 kW wind turbine. The results show that for a flapping airfoil the wake structure can be of drag producing type, thrust producing or neutral, depending on the mean angle of attack, oscillation amplitude and reduced frequency. In a thrust producing wake, a high-momentum high-velocity jet flow is formed in the core region of the wake instead of the conventional low-momentum flow. As a result, the drag force normally experienced by the body due to the momentum deficit would be replaced by a thrust force. According to the results, the momentum loss in the wake decreases as the reduced frequency increases. The thrust producing wake pattern for the flapping airfoil has been observed for sufficiently low angles of attack in the absence of the viscous effects. This phenomenon has also been observed for either high oscillation amplitudes or high reduced frequencies. According to the results, for different reduced frequencies and plunging amplitudes, such that the product of them be a constant, the velocity profiles exhibit similar behavior and coalesce on each other. This similarity parameter works excellently at small angles of attack. However, at near stall boundaries, the similarity is not as evident as before.

  2. Effects of three hypnotics on the sleep-wakefulness cycle in sleep-disturbed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Shigemoto, Yuki; Omichi, Junji; Utsu, Yoshiaki; Mio, Mitsunobu; Kamei, Chiaki

    2004-04-01

    New sleep disturbance model in rats is useful for estimating the characteristics of some hypnotics. The present study was undertaken to investigate the utility of a sleep disturbance model by placing rats on a grid suspended over water using three kinds of hypnotics, that is, short-acting benzodiazepine (triazolam), intermediate-acting benzodiazepine (flunitrazepam) and long-acting barbiturate (phenobarbital). Electrodes for measurement of EEG and EMG were implanted into the frontal cortex and the dorsal neck muscle of rats. EEG and EMG were recorded with an electroencephalogram. SleepSign ver.2.0 was used for EEG and EMG analysis. Total times of wakefulness, non-REM and REM sleep were measured from 0900 to 1500 hours. In rats placed on the grid suspended over water up to 1 cm under the grid surface, not only triazolam but also flunitrazepam and phenobarbital caused a shortening of sleep latency. Both flunitrazepam and phenobarbital were effective in increasing of total non-REM sleep time in rats placed on sawdust or the grid, and the effects of both drugs in rats placed on the grid were larger than those in rats placed on sawdust. Measurement of the hourly non-REM sleep time was useful for investigating the peak time and duration of effect of the three hypnotics. Phenobarbital showed a decrease in total REM sleep time in rats placed on the grid, although both triazolam and flunitrazepam were without effect. The present insomnia model can be used as a sleep disturbance model for testing not only the sleep-inducing effects but also the sleep-maintaining effects including non-REM sleep and REM sleep of hypnotics.

  3. Alpha reactivity to complex sounds differs during REM sleep and wakefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Ruby

    Full Text Available We aimed at better understanding the brain mechanisms involved in the processing of alerting meaningful sounds during sleep, investigating alpha activity. During EEG acquisition, subjects were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm including rare complex sounds called Novels (the own first name - OWN, and an unfamiliar first name - OTHER while they were watching a silent movie in the evening or sleeping at night. During the experimental night, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. During wakefulness, the decrease in alpha power (8-12 Hz induced by Novels was significantly larger for OWN than for OTHER at parietal electrodes, between 600 and 900 ms after stimulus onset. Conversely, during REM sleep, Novels induced an increase in alpha power (from 0 to 1200 ms at all electrodes, significantly larger for OWN than for OTHER at several parietal electrodes between 700 and 1200 ms after stimulus onset. These results show that complex sounds have a different effect on the alpha power during wakefulness (decrease and during REM sleep (increase and that OWN induce a specific effect in these two states. The increased alpha power induced by Novels during REM sleep may 1 correspond to a short and transient increase in arousal; in this case, our study provides an objective measure of the greater arousing power of OWN over OTHER, 2 indicate a cortical inhibition associated with sleep protection. These results suggest that alpha modulation could participate in the selection of stimuli to be further processed during sleep.

  4. The added value of simultaneous EEG and amplitude-integrated EEG recordings in three newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Nathalie K. S.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2007-01-01

    Amplitude-integrated electroencephalograms (aEEGs) recorded by cerebral function monitors (CFMs) are used increasingly to monitor the cerebral activity of newborn infants with encephalopathy. Recently, new CFM devices became available which also reveal the original EEG signals from the same leads.

  5. EEG II. Annexes and regulations. Comment; EEG II. Anlagen und Verordnungen. Kommentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter (ed.) [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht

    2016-11-01

    Berlin commentary EEG II: safe through the paraphernalia Like hardly any other law, the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) is subject to constant changes. With the 2014 amendment, the EEG was fundamentally redesigned. This makes the application of the complex rules a challenge even for experts. In addition, the sub-rules contain important statements in the form of numerous annexes and regulations - with the EEG amendment 2014, this has become even more detailed. In it, many calculations are only defined in detail and the legal provisions of the EEG are made more definite and supplemented. The Berlin commentary EEG II accompanies you expertly through this complex matter. Experts explain the widely divergent rules in practice. If necessary for a better understanding, the provisions of the EEG 2014 are also explained. Consistently designed for your practice As a buyer of the work, you also benefit from access to an extensive, regularly updated database. This contains important legal energy regulations of the EU, the federal government and the countries. Even earlier legal positions remain searchable and can be conveniently compared with current versions. So you can see at a glance what has changed. [German] Berliner Kommentar EEG II: sicher durch den Paragrafengeflecht Wie kaum ein anderes Gesetz ist das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) staendigen Aenderungen unterworfen. Mit der Novelle 2014 wurde das EEG grundlegend umgestaltet. Dies macht die Anwendung der komplexen Regeln selbst fuer Experten zu einer Herausforderung. Zudem enthaelt auch das untergesetzliche Regelwerk wichtige Aussagen in Form zahlreicher Anlagen und Verordnungen - mit der EEG-Novelle 2014 ist dieses noch ausfuehrlicher geworden. In ihm werden viele Berechnungen erst naeher festgelegt und gesetzliche Bestimmungen des EEG entscheidend konkretisiert und ergaenzt. Der Berliner Kommentar EEG II begleitet Sie fachkundig durch diese komplexe Materie. Experten erlaeutern Ihnen praxisorientiert die

  6. Pharmacological Targeting the REV-ERBs in Sleep/Wake Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Ariadna; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Roberts, Amanda J.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock maintains appropriate timing for a wide range of behaviors and physiological processes. Circadian behaviors such as sleep and wakefulness are intrinsically dependent on the precise oscillation of the endogenous molecular machinery that regulates the circadian clock. The identical core clock machinery regulates myriad endocrine and metabolic functions providing a link between sleep and metabolic health. The REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are nuclear receptors that are key regulators of the molecular clock and have been successfully targeted using small molecule ligands. Recent studies in mice suggest that REV-ERB-specific synthetic agonists modulate metabolic activity as well as alter sleep architecture, inducing wakefulness during the light period. Therefore, these small molecules represent unique tools to extensively study REV-ERB regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In these studies, our aim was to further investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting the REV-ERBs for regulation of sleep by characterizing efficacy, and optimal dosing time of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Applying different experimental paradigms in mice, our studies establish that SR9009 does not lose efficacy when administered more than once a day, nor does tolerance develop when administered once a day over a three-day dosing regimen. Moreover, through use of a time response paradigm, we determined that although there is an optimal time for administration of SR9009 in terms of maximal efficacy, there is a 12-hour window in which SR9009 elicited a response. Our studies indicate that the REV-ERBs are potential therapeutic targets for treating sleep problems as those encountered as a consequence of shift work or jet lag. PMID:27603791

  7. Sleep-waking cycle in the cerveau isolé cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slósarska, M; Zernicki, B

    1973-06-01

    The experiments were performed on ten chronic low cerveau isolé cats: in eight cats the brain stem transection was prepontine and in two cats, intercollicular. The preparations survived from 24 to 3 days. During 24-36 hr sessions the ECoG activity was continuously recorded, and the ocular and ECoG components of the orienting reflexes to visual and olfactory stimuli were studied. 2. Three periods can be recognized in the recovery process of the low cerveau isolé cat. They are called acute, early chronic and late chronic stages. The acute stage lasts 1 day and the early chronic stage seems to last 3 weeks at least. During the acute stage the ability to desynchronize the EEG, either spontaneously or in response to sensory stimulations, is dramatically impaired and the pupils are fissurated. Thus the cat is comatous. 4. During the early chronic stage, although the ECoG synchronization-desynchronization cycle and the associated fissurated myosis-myosis cycle already exist, the episodes of ECoG desynchronization occupy only a small percentage of time and usually develop slowly. Visual and olfactory stimuli are often ineffective. Thus the cat is semicomatous. In the late chronic stage the sleep-waking cycle is present. The animal can be easily awakened by visual and olfactory stimuli. The intensity of the ECoG arousal to visual stimuli and the distribution of time between alert wakefulness, drowsiness, light synchronized sleep and deep synchronized sleep are similar to those in the chronic pretrigeminal cat. The recovery of the cerveau isolé seems to reach a steady level when the sleep-waking cycle becomes similar to that present in the chronic pretrigeminal cat. During the whole survival period the vertical following reflex is abortive.

  8. The urban brain: analysing outdoor physical activity with mobile EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, Peter; Mavros, Panagiotis; Coyne, Richard; Roe, Jenny

    2015-02-01

    Researchers in environmental psychology, health studies and urban design are interested in the relationship between the environment, behaviour settings and emotions. In particular, happiness, or the presence of positive emotional mindsets, broadens an individual's thought-action repertoire with positive benefits to physical and intellectual activities, and to social and psychological resources. This occurs through play, exploration or similar activities. In addition, a body of restorative literature focuses on the potential benefits to emotional recovery from stress offered by green space and 'soft fascination'. However, access to the cortical correlates of emotional states of a person actively engaged within an environment has not been possible until recently. This study investigates the use of mobile electroencephalography (EEG) as a method to record and analyse the emotional experience of a group of walkers in three types of urban environment including a green space setting. Using Emotiv EPOC, a low-cost mobile EEG recorder, participants took part in a 25 min walk through three different areas of Edinburgh. The areas (of approximately equal length) were labelled zone 1 (urban shopping street), zone 2 (path through green space) and zone 3 (street in a busy commercial district). The equipment provided continuous recordings from five channels, labelled excitement (short-term), frustration, engagement, long-term excitement (or arousal) and meditation. A new form of high-dimensional correlated component logistic regression analysis showed evidence of lower frustration, engagement and arousal, and higher meditation when moving into the green space zone; and higher engagement when moving out of it. Systematic differences in EEG recordings were found between three urban areas in line with restoration theory. This has implications for promoting urban green space as a mood-enhancing environment for walking or for other forms of physical or reflective activity. Published

  9. Sleep-Wake Differences in Relative Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate for Glucose among Patients with Insomnia Compared with Good Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B.; Karim, Helmet T.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wilckens, Kristine A.; James, Jeffrey A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Kupfer, David J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H.; Franzen, Peter L.; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The neurobiological mechanisms of insomnia may involve altered patterns of activation across sleep-wake states in brain regions associated with cognition, self-referential processes, affect, and sleep-wake promotion. The objective of this study was to compare relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) in these brain regions across wake and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states in patients with primary insomnia (PI) and good sleeper controls (GS). Methods: Participants included 44 PI and 40 GS matched for age (mean = 37 y old, range 21–60), sex, and race. We conducted [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scans in PI and GS during both morning wakefulness and NREM sleep at night. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for group (PI vs. GS) by state (wake vs. NREM sleep) interactions in relative rCMRglc. Results: Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc were found in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior/superior parietal lobules, left lingual/fusiform/occipital gyri, and right lingual gyrus. All clusters were significant at Pcorrected sleep and wakefulness. Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc suggest that insomnia is associated with impaired disengagement of brain regions involved in cognition (left frontoparietal), self-referential processes (precuneus/posterior cingulate), and affect (left middle frontal, fusiform/lingual gyri) during NREM sleep, or alternatively, to impaired engagement of these regions during wakefulness. Citation: Kay DB, Karim HT, Soehner AM, Hasler BP, Wilckens KA, James JA, Aizenstein HJ, Price JC, Rosario BL, Kupfer DJ, Germain A, Hall MH, Franzen PL, Nofzinger EA, Buysse DJ. Sleep-wake differences in relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose among patients with insomnia compared with good sleepers. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1779–1794. PMID:27568812

  10. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Henningson, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance...... predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results...

  11. Narcolepsy susceptibility gene CCR3 modulates sleep-wake patterns in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Toyoda

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (Hcrt neurons and is associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. Although abnormalities in immunity are suggested to be involved in the etiology of narcolepsy, no decisive mechanism has been established. We previously reported chemokine (C-C motif receptor 3 (CCR3 as a novel susceptibility gene for narcolepsy. To understand the role of CCR3 in the development of narcolepsy, we investigated sleep-wake patterns of Ccr3 knockout (KO mice. Ccr3 KO mice exhibited fragmented sleep patterns in the light phase, whereas the overall sleep structure in the dark phase did not differ between Ccr3 KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS promoted wakefulness and suppressed both REM and NREM sleep in the light phase in both Ccr3 KO and WT mice. Conversely, LPS suppressed wakefulness and promoted NREM sleep in the dark phase in both genotypes. After LPS administration, the proportion of time spent in wakefulness was higher, and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep was lower in Ccr3 KO compared to WT mice only in the light phase. LPS-induced changes in sleep patterns were larger in Ccr3 KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we quantified the number of Hcrt neurons and found that Ccr3 KO mice had fewer Hcrt neurons in the lateral hypothalamus compared to WT mice. We found abnormalities in sleep patterns in the resting phase and in the number of Hcrt neurons in Ccr3 KO mice. These observations suggest a role for CCR3 in sleep-wake regulation in narcolepsy patients.

  12. Hypocretinergic and cholinergic contributions to sleep-wake disturbances in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Thomasy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sleep and wakefulness occur in the majority of individuals who have experienced traumatic brain injury (TBI, with increased sleep need and excessive daytime sleepiness often reported. Behavioral and pharmacological therapies have limited efficacy, in part, because the etiology of post-TBI sleep disturbances is not well understood. Severity of injuries resulting from head trauma in humans is highly variable, and as a consequence so are their sequelae. Here, we use a controlled laboratory model to investigate the effects of TBI on sleep-wake behavior and on candidate neurotransmitter systems as potential mediators. We focus on hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, hypothalamic neuropeptides important for regulating sleep and wakefulness, and two potential downstream effectors of hypocretin actions, histamine and acetylcholine. Adult male C57BL/6 mice (n=6–10/group were implanted with EEG recording electrodes and baseline recordings were obtained. After baseline recordings, controlled cortical impact was used to induce mild or moderate TBI. EEG recordings were obtained from the same animals at 7 and 15 days post-surgery. Separate groups of animals (n=6–8/group were used to determine effects of TBI on the numbers of hypocretin and MCH-producing neurons in the hypothalamus, histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus, and cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. At 15 days post-TBI, wakefulness was decreased and NREM sleep was increased during the dark period in moderately injured animals. There were no differences between groups in REM sleep time, nor were there differences between groups in sleep during the light period. TBI effects on hypocretin and cholinergic neurons were such that more severe injury resulted in fewer cells. Numbers of MCH neurons and histaminergic neurons were not altered under the conditions of this study. Thus, we conclude that moderate TBI in mice reduces wakefulness and increases

  13. The Electricity Feed Law levy - how reliably can it be predicted?; Wie verlaesslich laesst sich die EEG-Umlage prognostizieren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bause, Rainer; Schulz, Woldemar [Amprion GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Buehler, Holger [EnBW TNG, Stuttgart (Germany); Hodurek, Claus [50Hertz Transmission GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kiessling, Axel [TenneT TSO GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    By paying their monthly electricity bill German consumers are promoting the transition to tomorrow's resource-efficient electricity supply system, in which the largest part of electricity used is to come from renewable energy resources. Every year Germany's transmission system operators publish what is referred to as the ''EEG-Umlage'' (report on the Electricity Feed Law levy, or EEG levy), which shows how much every German household will be paying for the promotion of renewable energies in the coming year. The determination of the EEG levy involves uncertainties and imponderabilities which have to be taken into account in its calculation. The crucial task is to find a suitable systematic scheme for predicting the renewable energy yield.

  14. Dissipation of Turbulence in the Wake of a Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.

    2015-02-01

    The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.

  15. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants' ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as 'encouragement' for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, 'playfulness' for amusement, joy, interest, and 'harmony' for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions.

  16. Highly Efficient Compression Algorithms for Multichannel EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laxmi; Rahman, Daleef; Routray, Aurobinda

    2018-05-01

    The difficulty associated with processing and understanding the high dimensionality of electroencephalogram (EEG) data requires developing efficient and robust compression algorithms. In this paper, different lossless compression techniques of single and multichannel EEG data, including Huffman coding, arithmetic coding, Markov predictor, linear predictor, context-based error modeling, multivariate autoregression (MVAR), and a low complexity bivariate model have been examined and their performances have been compared. Furthermore, a high compression algorithm named general MVAR and a modified context-based error modeling for multichannel EEG have been proposed. The resulting compression algorithm produces a higher relative compression ratio of 70.64% on average compared with the existing methods, and in some cases, it goes up to 83.06%. The proposed methods are designed to compress a large amount of multichannel EEG data efficiently so that the data storage and transmission bandwidth can be effectively used. These methods have been validated using several experimental multichannel EEG recordings of different subjects and publicly available standard databases. The satisfactory parametric measures of these methods, namely percent-root-mean square distortion, peak signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square error, and cross correlation, show their superiority over the state-of-the-art compression methods.

  17. Introduction to wakefields and wake potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    What are wakefields and wake potentials, and why are these concepts useful in the physics of linear accelerators and storage rings We approach this question by first reviewing the basic physical concepts which underlie the mathematical formalism. We then present a summary of the various techniques that have been developed to make detailed calculations of wake potentials. Finally, we give some applications to current problems of interest in accelerator physics. No attempt at completeness can be made in an introductory article of modest length. Rather, we try to give a broad overview and to list key references for more detailed study. It will also be apparent that the last chapter on this subject, with all the loose ends neatly tied up, has yet to be written. There are subtle points, there are controversial questions, and active calculations to resolve these questions are continuing at the time of this writing. 61 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Introduction to wakefields and wake potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    What are wakefields and wake potentials, and why are these concepts useful in the physics of linear accelerators and storage rings? We approach this question by first reviewing the basic physical concepts which underlie the mathematical formalism. We then present a summary of the various techniques that have been developed to make detailed calculations of wake potentials. Finally, we give some applications to current problems of interest in accelerator physics. No attempt at completeness can be made in an introductory article of modest length. Rather, we try to give a broad overview and to list key references for more detailed study. It will also be apparent that the last chapter on this subject, with all the loose ends neatly tied up, has yet to be written. There are subtle points, there are controversial questions, and active calculations to resolve these questions are continuing at the time of this writing. 61 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  19. CAS course on Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Plasma Wake Acceleration, held at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, from 23 to 29 November 2014.    Following a number of introductory lectures on laser and plasma physics, as well as an overview of conventional accelerators and their limitations, the course covered a large number of aspects of plasma wake acceleration schemes: the creation of plasma by high power lasers or particle beams, a description of the plasma creation process through simulations and the characteristics of the accelerated particle beams, including results of the latest achievements. Lectures on beam diagnostics, the applications of plasma accelerated beams, and topical seminars completed the programme.  The course was very successful, with 109 students of 26 nationalities attending; most participants coming from European counties, but also from the US, Israel, India, South Korea, Russia and Ukraine. Feedback from the participants was...

  20. Correlation of BOLD Signal with Linear and Nonlinear Patterns of EEG in Resting State EEG-Informed fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Portnova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent EEG and fMRI acquisitions in resting state showed a correlation between EEG power in various bands and spontaneous BOLD fluctuations. However, there is a lack of data on how changes in the complexity of brain dynamics derived from EEG reflect variations in the BOLD signal. The purpose of our study was to correlate both spectral patterns, as linear features of EEG rhythms, and nonlinear EEG dynamic complexity with neuronal activity obtained by fMRI. We examined the relationships between EEG patterns and brain activation obtained by simultaneous EEG-fMRI during the resting state condition in 25 healthy right-handed adult volunteers. Using EEG-derived regressors, we demonstrated a substantial correlation of BOLD signal changes with linear and nonlinear features of EEG. We found the most significant positive correlation of fMRI signal with delta spectral power. Beta and alpha spectral features had no reliable effect on BOLD fluctuation. However, dynamic changes of alpha peak frequency exhibited a significant association with BOLD signal increase in right-hemisphere areas. Additionally, EEG dynamic complexity as measured by the HFD of the 2–20 Hz EEG frequency range significantly correlated with the activation of cortical and subcortical limbic system areas. Our results indicate that both spectral features of EEG frequency bands and nonlinear dynamic properties of spontaneous EEG are strongly associated with fluctuations of the BOLD signal during the resting state condition.

  1. Investigating reading comprehension through EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Baretta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p69   Experimental studies point that different factors can influence reading comprehension, such as the topic, text type, reading task, and others. The advances in technologies for the past decades have provided researchers with several possibilities to investigate what goes on in one’s brain since their eyes meet the page until comprehension is achieved. Since the mid-80’s, numerous studies have been conducted with the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG to investigate the process of reading, through the analysis of different components – n400, n100 or n1, P2, among others. These components reveal, for example, how the brain integrates the meaning of a specific word in the semantic context of a given sentence.  based on previous studies, which demonstrate that different types of words affect cognitive load, this paper aims at investigating how the brain processes function and content words inserted in expository and narrative texts with suitable / unsuitable conclusions. results showed that the type of text and word influence the cognitive load in different scalp areas (midline, right and left hemispheres. The  n1s were more pronounced to the content words inserted in narrative texts and to the function words inserted in the expository type of texts, corroborating former studies.

  2. Identifying the effects of microsaccades in tripolar EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, Rachel; Steele, Preston; Bartels, Rachel; Lei Ding; Sunderam, Sridhar; Besio, Walter

    2017-07-01

    Microsaccades are tiny, involuntary eye movements that occur during fixation, and they are necessary to human sight to maintain a sharp image and correct the effects of other fixational movements. Researchers have theorized and studied the effects of microsaccades on electroencephalography (EEG) signals to understand and eliminate the unwanted artifacts from EEG. The tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) sensors are used to acquire TCRE EEG (tEEG). The tEEG detects extremely focal signals from directly below the TCRE sensor. We have noticed a slow wave frequency found in some tEEG recordings. Therefore, we conducted the current work to determine if there was a correlation between the slow wave in the tEEG and the microsaccades. This was done by analyzing the coherence of the frequency spectrums of both tEEG and eye movement in recordings where microsaccades are present. Our preliminary findings show that there is a correlation between the two.

  3. Removal of ocular artifacts from the REM sleep EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterman, D.; Woestenburg, J.C.; Elton, M.; Hofman, W.; Kok, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present report concerns the first study in which electrooculographic (EOG) contamination of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is systematically investigated. Contamination of REM sleep EEG recordings in six subjects was evaluated in the frequency domain.

  4. Extended seizure detection algorithm for intracranial EEG recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, T. W.; Remvig, L. S.; Henriksen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We implemented and tested an existing seizure detection algorithm for scalp EEG (sEEG) with the purpose of improving it to intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings. Method: iEEG was obtained from 16 patients with focal epilepsy undergoing work up for resective epilepsy surgery. Each patient...... had 4 or 5 recorded seizures and 24 hours of non-ictal data were used for evaluation. Data from three electrodes placed at the ictal focus were used for the analysis. A wavelet based feature extraction algorithm delivered input to a support vector machine (SVM) classifier for distinction between ictal...... and non-ictal iEEG. We compare our results to a method published by Shoeb in 2004. While the original method on sEEG was optimal with the use of only four subbands in the wavelet analysis, we found that better seizure detection could be made if all subbands were used for iEEG. Results: When using...

  5. Waking-up to Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    our genes", says Potočnik. "Unfortunately it tends to die away when we grow up. This is because the ways we raise and educate our children and the ways we work and live do not always support innovative thinking and doing. We cannot change this overnight. But I think it is worth making the effort to awaken this dormant passion and initiatives like Science on Stage can be a very effective alarm clock", he adds. The festival will close with the presentation of the European Science Teaching Awards. The teaching materials and methods voted to be the best in Europe will then be presented in the 'Science in School' magazine, distributed free of charge to 30,000 teachers in Europe. The festival is the climax of a two-year programme of events organised in virtually every European country and from which delegates have been selected for their outstanding projects for promoting science. The winners of ESO's Catch a Star! 2007 contest will also be announced during the Science on Stage festival. The event follows on from the hugely successful 'Physics on Stage' and 'Science on Stage' festivals organised by EIROforum in 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2005. Journalists are cordially invited to take part in this unique European event. Practical information, including the detailed festival programme, is available on the Science on Stage web site at http://www.ill.fr/scienceonstage2007. A detailed press kit is available at http://www.ill.fr/scienceonstage2007/fichiers/SOSpresskit.pdf

  6. [EEG changes in symptomatic headache caused by bruxism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieselmann, G; Grabmair, W; Logar, C; Permann, R; Moser, F

    1987-02-20

    EEG recordings were carried out on 36 patients with the verified diagnosis of bruxism and unilateral headache. Occlusal splints were applied in the long-term management of these patients. Initial EEG recordings showed pathological changes in 56% of the patients. The EEG recordings were repeated two and six weeks later in these patients and following improvement in the clinical symptomatology pathological EEG patterns were detected in only 22% of all cases. This decrease is of statistical significance.

  7. Temporal lobe deficits in murderers: EEG findings undetected by PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, L M; Raine, A; Buchsbaum, M; LaCasse, L

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET) in the same subjects. Fourteen murderers were assessed by using both PET (while they were performing the continuous performance task) and EEG during a resting state. EEG revealed significant increases in slow-wave activity in the temporal, but not frontal, lobe in murderers, in contrast to prior PET findings that showed reduced prefrontal, but not temporal, glucose metabolism. Results suggest that resting EEG shows empirical utility distinct from PET activation findings.

  8. The Mozart Effect: A quantitative EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrusio, Walter; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Vanacore, Nicola; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mecarelli, Oriano

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on brain activity through spectral analysis of the EEG in young healthy adults (Adults), in healthy elderly (Elderly) and in elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). EEG recording was performed at basal rest conditions and after listening to Mozart's K448 or "Fur Elise" Beethoven's sonatas. After listening to Mozart, an increase of alpha band and median frequency index of background alpha rhythm activity (a pattern of brain wave activity linked to memory, cognition and open mind to problem solving) was observed both in Adults and in Elderly. No changes were observed in MCI. After listening to Beethoven, no changes in EEG activity were detected. This results may be representative of the fact that said Mozart's music is able to "activate" neuronal cortical circuits related to attentive and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. EEG-guided meditation: A personalized approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Kallio-Tamminen, Tarja

    2015-12-01

    The therapeutic potential of meditation for physical and mental well-being is well documented, however the possibility of adverse effects warrants further discussion of the suitability of any particular meditation practice for every given participant. This concern highlights the need for a personalized approach in the meditation practice adjusted for a concrete individual. This can be done by using an objective screening procedure that detects the weak and strong cognitive skills in brain function, thus helping design a tailored meditation training protocol. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) is a suitable tool that allows identification of individual neurophysiological types. Using qEEG screening can aid developing a meditation training program that maximizes results and minimizes risk of potential negative effects. This brief theoretical-conceptual review provides a discussion of the problem and presents some illustrative results on the usage of qEEG screening for the guidance of mediation personalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Widespread EEG changes precede focal seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Perucca

    Full Text Available The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal, and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline. Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples. At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development, but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.

  11. EEG. Renewables Act. Comment. 3. new rev. and enl. ed.; EEG. Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz. Kommentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht; Mueggenborg, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [Kassel Univ. (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    Like hardly any other law, the Renewable Energy Sources Law (EEG) is a subject to continuing modifications. This makes the application of the already complicated regulations even for experts to a special challenge. With the proven Berliner comment EEG, now a reliable companion through the bureaucratic jungle is available. All regulations of the EEG are commented precisely and easily to understand by profound experts. An extensive selection of terminology enables a rapid orientation within this book. In addition to the excursions to renewable energy technologies, this book also describes the structural aspects in the establishment of a photovoltaic system.

  12. The colorful brain: Visualization of EEG background patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a method to transform routine clinical EEG recordings to an alternative visual domain. The method is intended to support the classic visual interpretation of the EEG background pattern and to facilitate communication about relevant EEG characteristics. In addition, it provides

  13. A comparison of EEG spectral entropy with conventional quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of EEG spectral entropy with conventional quantitative EEG at varying depths of sevoflurane anaesthesia. PR Bartel, FJ Smith, PJ Becker. Abstract. Background and Aim: Recently an electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral entropy module (M-ENTROPY) for an anaesthetic monitor has become commercially ...

  14. Improving the Specificity of EEG for Diagnosing Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-B. Vialatte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. EEG has great potential as a cost-effective screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the specificity of EEG is not yet sufficient to be used in clinical practice. In an earlier study, we presented preliminary results suggesting improved specificity of EEG to early stages of Alzheimer's disease. The key to this improvement is a new method for extracting sparse oscillatory events from EEG signals in the time-frequency domain. Here we provide a more detailed analysis, demonstrating improved EEG specificity for clinical screening of MCI (mild cognitive impairment patients. Methods. EEG data was recorded of MCI patients and age-matched control subjects, in rest condition with eyes closed. EEG frequency bands of interest were θ (3.5–7.5 Hz, α1 (7.5–9.5 Hz, α2 (9.5–12.5 Hz, and β (12.5–25 Hz. The EEG signals were transformed in the time-frequency domain using complex Morlet wavelets; the resulting time-frequency maps are represented by sparse bump models. Results. Enhanced EEG power in the θ range is more easily detected through sparse bump modeling; this phenomenon explains the improved EEG specificity obtained in our previous studies. Conclusions. Sparse bump modeling yields informative features in EEG signal. These features increase the specificity of EEG for diagnosing AD.

  15. Analysis of routine EEG usage in a general adult ICU.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, J C

    2009-09-01

    Non-convulsive seizures and status epilepticus are common in brain-injured patients in intensive care units. Continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) monitoring is the most sensitive means of their detection. In centres where cEEG is unavailable, routine EEG is often utilized for diagnosis although its sensitivity is lower.

  16. Performance and wake conditions of a rotor located in the wake of an obstacle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2016-01-01

    and associated pulsations as a function of the incoming flow structures were measured by strain gauges. The flow condition in front of the rotor was measured with high temporal accuracy using LDA and power coefficients were determine as function of tip speed ratio for different obstacle positions. Furthermore......Obstacles like forests, ridges and hills can strongly affect the velocity profile in front of a wind turbine rotor. The present work aims at quantifying the influence of nearby located obstacles on the performance and wake characteristics of a downstream located wind turbine. Here the influence......, PIV measurements were carried out to study the development of the mean velocity deficit profiles of the wake behind the wind turbine model under the influence of the wake generated by the obstacle. By use of regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to determine velocity...

  17. Performance and wake conditions of a rotor located in the wake of an obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, I. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Okulov, V. L.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2016-09-01

    Obstacles like forests, ridges and hills can strongly affect the velocity profile in front of a wind turbine rotor. The present work aims at quantifying the influence of nearby located obstacles on the performance and wake characteristics of a downstream located wind turbine. Here the influence of an obstacle in the form of a cylindrical disk was investigated experimentally in a water flume. A model of a three-bladed rotor, designed using Glauert's optimum theory at a tip speed ratio λ = 5, was placed in the wake of a disk with a diameter close to the one of the rotor. The distance from the disk to the rotor was changed from 4 to 8 rotor diameters, with the vertical distance from the rotor axis varied 0.5 and 1 rotor diameters. The associated turbulent intensity of the incoming flow to the rotor changed 3 to '6% due to the influence of the disk wake. In the experiment, thrust characteristics and associated pulsations as a function of the incoming flow structures were measured by strain gauges. The flow condition in front of the rotor was measured with high temporal accuracy using LDA and power coefficients were determine as function of tip speed ratio for different obstacle positions. Furthermore, PIV measurements were carried out to study the development of the mean velocity deficit profiles of the wake behind the wind turbine model under the influence of the wake generated by the obstacle. By use of regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to determine velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation.

  18. Adenosine A{sub 1} receptors in human sleep regulation studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET)[Dissertation 17227

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler, E

    2007-07-01

    Sleep is an essential physiological process. However, the functions of sleep and the endogenous mechanisms involved in sleep regulation are only partially understood. Convergent lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the build-up of sleep propensity during wakefulness and its decline during sleep are associated with alterations in brain adenosine levels and adenosine receptor concentrations. The non-selective A{sub 1} and A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine stimulates alertness and is known to attenuate changes in the waking and sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) typically observed after prolonged waking. Several findings point to an important function of the adenosine A{sub 1} receptor (A{sub 1}AR) in the modulation of vigilance states. The A{sub 1}AR is densely expressed in brain regions involved in sleep regulation, and pharmacological manipulations affecting the A{sub 1}AR were shown to influence sleep propensity and sleep depth. However, an involvement of the A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor (A{sub 2A}AR) is also assumed. The distinct functions of the A{sub 1} and A{sub 2A} receptor subtypes in sleep-wake regulation and in mediating the effects of caffeine have not been identified so far. The selective adenosine A{sub 1} receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-3-(3-{sup 18}Ffluoropropyl)- 1-propylxanthine ({sup 18}F-CPFPX), offers the opportunity to get further insights into adenosinergic mechanisms by in vivo imaging of the A{sub 1}AR subtype with positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the role of adenosine A{sub 1} receptors in human sleep regulation, combining {sup 18}F-CPFPX PET brain imaging and EEG recordings, the gold standard in sleep research. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation would induce adenosine accumulation and/or changes in A{sub 1}AR density. Thus, the question was addressed whether these effects of prolonged wakefulness can be visualized by altered {sup 18}F-CPFPX binding. Moreover, it was

  19. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  20. Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder revisited – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado eGarbazza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S, which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in an approximately 24h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the subthalamic nucleus (SCN, master clock of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (zeitgebers, the most important being the LD-cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD-cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and ultimately to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD. Non-24-h sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau >24.5h to the LD- cycle. The disease is rare (<1:1 Mio in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood.Here we present the case of a 40 year old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external light-dark cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, 4 cycles and AVD regimen, 4 cycles. A thorough clinical assessment including actigraphy, melatonin profiles, polysomnography and wake-EEG lead to the diagnosis of a non-24-h sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD with a free-running rhythm of tau=25.5h. A therapeutic intervention with bright-light therapy (BLT, 30 min 10.000lux in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more

  1. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental......This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal....

  2. On atmospheric stability in the dynamic wake meandering model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates a new approach for capturing the effects of atmospheric stability on wind turbine wake evolution and wake meandering by using the dynamic wake meandering model. The most notable impact of atmospheric stability on the wind is the changes in length and velocity scales...... spectra and applied to the dynamic wake meandering model to capture the correct wake meandering behaviour. The ambient turbulence in all stability classes is generated using the Mann turbulence model, where the effects of non-neutral atmospheric stability are approximated by the selection of input...... in the computational domain. The changes in the turbulent length scales due to the various atmospheric stability states impact the wake meandering characteristics and thus the power generation by the individual turbines. The proposed method is compared with results from both large-eddy simulation coupled...

  3. Modification of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity in autobiographical memory: a sLORETA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Brunetti, Riccardo; Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of scalp EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity during the autobiographical memory test (AM-T) and during the retrieval of an autobiographical event (the high school final examination, Task 2). Seventeen healthy volunteers were enrolled (9 women and 8 men, mean age 23.4 ± 2.8 years, range 19-30). EEG was recorded at baseline and while performing the autobiographical memory (AM) tasks, by means of 19 surface electrodes and a nasopharyngeal electrode. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra and lagged EEG coherence were compared between EEG acquired during the memory tasks and baseline recording. The frequency bands considered were as follows: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta1 (13-17.5 Hz); beta2 (18-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-60 Hz). During AM-T, we observed a significant delta power increase in left frontal and midline cortices (T = 3.554; p < 0.05) and increased EEG connectivity in delta band in prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and for gamma bands in the left temporo-parietal regions (T = 4.154; p < 0.05). In Task 2, we measured an increased power in the gamma band located in the left posterior midline areas (T = 3.960; p < 0.05) and a significant increase in delta band connectivity in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and in the gamma band involving right temporo-parietal areas (T = 4.579; p < 0.05). These results indicate that AM retrieval engages in a complex network which is mediated by both low- (delta) and high-frequency (gamma) EEG bands.

  4. EEG. Renewables Act. Comment. 4. new rev. and enl. ed.; EEG. Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz. Kommentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht; Mueggenborg, Hans-Juergen [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Kassel Univ. (Germany); Cosack, Tilman [Hochschule Trier, Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld (Germany). IREK - Inst. fuer das Recht der Erneuerbaren Energien, Energieeffizienzrecht und Klimaschutzrecht; Ekardt, Felix (ed.) [Forschungsstelle Nachhaltigkeit und Klimapolitik, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Unlike any other Act, the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) changes continuously. Recently it has been fundamentally transformed with the amendment 2014. Comprehensive, readable and practice-oriented. The proven Berliner comment EEG is your reliable companion through the new regulatory regime. All provisions of the EEG 2014 thorough and easy to understand commented by experts of the matter. 2. The EEG Amending Act of 29.6.2015 has already been considered. A detailed introduction and contributions to the relevant European law and the antitrust aspects of the renewable energy sources to guarantee you a broad understanding of the rules. Valuable background information you provide, the digressions of the most important renewable energy technologies, will explain the pictures thanks to numerous the scientific and technical foundations. Moreover you the construction law aspects in the construction of photovoltaic and wind turbines are explained clearly. [German] Wie kaum ein anderes Gesetz veraendert sich das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) laufend. Zuletzt wurde es mit der Novelle 2014 grundlegend umgestaltet. Umfassend, verstaendlich und praxisgerecht Der bewaehrte Berliner Kommentar EEG ist Ihr verlaesslicher Begleiter durch das neue Regelungsregime. Alle Vorschriften des EEG 2014 werden gruendlich und leicht verstaendlich von Kennern der Materie kommentiert. Das 2. EEG-Aenderungsgesetz vom 29.06.2015 ist bereits beruecksichtigt. Eine ausfuehrliche Einleitung sowie Beitraege zum einschlaegigen europaeischen Recht und zu den kartellrechtlichen Aspekten der erneuerbaren Energien verhelfen Ihnen zu einem breiten Verstaendnis der Vorschriften. Wertvolles Hintergrundwissen liefern Ihnen auch die Exkurse zu den wichtigsten Erneuerbare-Energien-Technologien, die Ihnen dank zahlreicher Abbildungen die naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Grundlagen erlaeutern. Zudem werden Ihnen die baurechtlichen Aspekte bei der Errichtung von Photovoltaik- und Windenergieanlagen

  5. Comparing satellite SAR and wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Vincent, P.; Husson, R.

    2015-01-01

    . These extend several tens of kilometres downwind e.g. 70 km. Other SAR wind maps show near-field fine scale details of wake behind rows of turbines. The satellite SAR wind farm wake cases are modelled by different wind farm wake models including the PARK microscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting...... (WRF) model in high resolution and WRF with coupled microscale parametrization....

  6. Transient Resistive Wall Wake for Very Short Bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, G.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The catch up distance for the resistive wall wake in a round pipe is approximately equal to the square of the pipe radius divided by the bunch length. The standard formulae for this wake are applicable at distances much larger than the catch up distance. In this paper, we calculate the resistive wall wake at distances compared with the catch up distance assuming a constant wall conductivity

  7. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly ca...

  8. Numerical challenges of short range wake field calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Thomas; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)

    2011-07-01

    For present and future accelerator projects with ultra short bunches the accurate and reliable calculation of short range wake fields is an important issue. However, the numerical calculation of short range wake fields is a numerical challenging task. The presentation gives an overview over the numerical challenges and techniques for short range wake field calculations. Finally, some simulation results obtained by the program PBCI developed at the TU Darmstadt are presented.

  9. Random matrix analysis of human EEG data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šeba, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 91, - (2003), s. 198104-1 - 198104-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : random matrix theory * EEG signal Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 7.035, year: 2003

  10. Illumination influences working memory: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Young; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Pak, Hyensou; Jeong, Yeon-Hong; Kim, Eosu

    2013-09-05

    Illumination conditions appear to influence working efficacy in everyday life. In the present study, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of working-memory load, and investigated how these waveforms are modulated by illumination conditions. We hypothesized that illumination conditions may affect cognitive performance. We designed an EEG study to monitor and record participants' EEG during the Sternberg working memory task under four different illumination conditions. Illumination conditions were generated with a factorial design of two color-temperatures (3000 and 7100 K) by two illuminance levels (150 and 700 lx). During a working memory task, we observed that high illuminance led to significantly lower frontal EEG theta activity than did low illuminance. These differences persisted despite no significant difference in task performance between illumination conditions. We found that the latency of an early event-related potential component, such as N1, was significantly modulated by the illumination condition. The fact that the illumination condition affects brain activity but not behavioral performance suggests that the lighting conditions used in the present study did not influence the performance stage of behavioral processing. Nevertheless, our findings provide objective evidence that illumination conditions modulate brain activity. Further studies are necessary to refine the optimal lighting parameters for facilitating working memory. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discriminant Multitaper Component Analysis of EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Sajda, Paul

    the method for predicting the handedness of a subject’s button press given multivariate EEG data. We show that our method learns multitapers sensitive to oscillatory activity in the 8–12 Hz range with spatial filters selective for lateralized motor cortex. This finding is consistent with the well-known mu...

  12. EEG-based characterization of flicker perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazo, M.; Tsoneva, T.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2013-01-01

    Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) is an oscillatory electrical response appearing in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in response to flicker stimulation. The SSVEP manifests more prominently in electrodes located near the visual cortex and has oscillatory components at the stimulation

  13. EEG source imaging during two Qigong meditations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Pascal L; Lehmann, Dietrich; Tei, Shisei; Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Kumano, Hiroaki; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Kochi, Kieko

    2012-08-01

    Experienced Qigong meditators who regularly perform the exercises "Thinking of Nothing" and "Qigong" were studied with multichannel EEG source imaging during their meditations. The intracerebral localization of brain electric activity during the two meditation conditions was compared using sLORETA functional EEG tomography. Differences between conditions were assessed using t statistics (corrected for multiple testing) on the normalized and log-transformed current density values of the sLORETA images. In the EEG alpha-2 frequency, 125 voxels differed significantly; all were more active during "Qigong" than "Thinking of Nothing," forming a single cluster in parietal Brodmann areas 5, 7, 31, and 40, all in the right hemisphere. In the EEG beta-1 frequency, 37 voxels differed significantly; all were more active during "Thinking of Nothing" than "Qigong," forming a single cluster in prefrontal Brodmann areas 6, 8, and 9, all in the left hemisphere. Compared to combined initial-final no-task resting, "Qigong" showed activation in posterior areas whereas "Thinking of Nothing" showed activation in anterior areas. The stronger activity of posterior (right) parietal areas during "Qigong" and anterior (left) prefrontal areas during "Thinking of Nothing" may reflect a predominance of self-reference, attention and input-centered processing in the "Qigong" meditation, and of control-centered processing in the "Thinking of Nothing" meditation.

  14. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachunov, Sammy; Casson, Alexander J

    2016-10-02

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise.

  15. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Krachunov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI. A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise.

  16. An overview of an amplitude integrated EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Handryastuti

    2007-05-01

    for neurodevelopmental problem in conditions such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, prematurity, neonatal seizures, central nervous system infection, metabolic disorders, intraventricular or intracranial bleeding and brain malformation. This article gives an overview about aEEG and its role in newborn.

  17. Microneedle array electrode for human EEG recording.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttge, Regina; van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Vander Sloten, Jos; Verdonck, Pascal; Nyssen, Marc; Haueisen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Microneedle array electrodes for EEG significantly reduce the mounting time, particularly by circumvention of the need for skin preparation by scrubbing. We designed a new replication process for numerous types of microneedle arrays. Here, polymer microneedle array electrodes with 64 microneedles,

  18. Simultaneous recording of EEG and electromyographic polygraphy increases the diagnostic yield of video-EEG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Aron T; Briggs, Belinda A; Seneviratne, Udaya

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the usefulness of adjunctive electromyographic (EMG) polygraphy in the diagnosis of clinical events captured during long-term video-EEG monitoring. A total of 40 patients (21 women, 19 men) aged between 19 and 72 years (mean 43) investigated using video-EEG monitoring were studied. Electromyographic activity was simultaneously recorded with EEG in four patients selected on clinical grounds. In these patients, surface EMG electrodes were placed over muscles suspected to be activated during a typical clinical event. Of the 40 patients investigated, 24 (60%) were given a diagnosis, whereas 16 (40%) remained undiagnosed. All four patients receiving adjunctive EMG polygraphy obtained a diagnosis, with three of these diagnoses being exclusively reliant on the EMG recordings. Specifically, one patient was diagnosed with propriospinal myoclonus, another patient was diagnosed with facio-mandibular myoclonus, and a third patient was found to have bruxism and periodic leg movements of sleep. The information obtained from surface EMG recordings aided the diagnosis of clinical events captured during video-EEG monitoring in 7.5% of the total cohort. This study suggests that EEG-EMG polygraphy may be used as a technique of improving the diagnostic yield of video-EEG monitoring in selected cases.

  19. Serial EEG findings in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: correlation between clinical course and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Jun; Kawamoto, Michi; Hikiami, Ryota; Ishii, Junko; Yoshimura, Hajime; Matsumoto, Riki; Kohara, Nobuo

    2017-12-01

    Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a paraneoplastic encephalitis characterised by psychiatric features, involuntary movement, and autonomic instability. Various EEG findings in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis have been reported, however, the correlation between the EEG findings and clinical course of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis remains unclear. We describe a patient with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with a focus on EEG findings, which included: status epilepticus, generalised rhythmic delta activity, excess beta activity, extreme delta brush, and paroxysmal alpha activity upon arousal from sleep, which we term"arousal alpha pattern". Initially, status epilepticus was observed on the EEG when the patient was comatose with conjugate deviation. The EEG then indicated excess beta activity, followed by the emergence of continuous slow activity, including generalised rhythmic delta activity and extreme delta brush, in the most severe phase. Slow activity gradually faded in parallel with clinical amelioration. Excess beta activity persisted, even after the patient became almost independent in daily activities, and finally disappeared with full recovery. In summary, our patient with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis demonstrated slow activity on the EEG, including extreme delta brush during the most severe phase, which gradually faded in parallel with clinical amelioration, with excess beta activity persisting into the recovery phase.

  20. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F; Henningson, Dan S; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J

    2015-02-28

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Numerically Generated Wake Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanell, S.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2009-01-01

    . In the actuator-line method, the blades are represented by lines along which body forces representing the loading are introduced. The body forces are determined by computing local angles of attack and using tabulated aerofoil coefficients. The advantage of using the actuator-line technique...... is that it is not needed to resolve blade boundary layers and instead the computational resources are devoted to simulating the dynamics of the flow structures. In the present study, approximately 5 million mesh points are used to resolve the wake structure in a 120-degree domain behind the turbine. The results from...

  2. [Metacommunication in waking and hypnotic states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granone, F

    1981-10-27

    A definition is given of the terms "communication" and "metacommunication", "language" and "metalanguage", and the several types of relationships that may arise in communication: "symmetrical competitive", "integrative complementary", "metacomplementary", and "paradoxical", Reference is made to the "spontaneity" and "simulation" that may arise in communication and metacommunication, during both wakefulness, conscious states in barbituric subnarcosis, and hypnosis. The question of metacommunication during the induction of hypnosis and during the hypnotic relationship is examined, stress being placed on the parapsycholgical metacommunications that may take place during some forms of self- or hetero-induced hypnotic consciousness.

  3. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Gacon, C.; Jennum, P.

    2016-01-01

    discuss variability in the sleep–wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. Methods Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls. From these recordings, we extracted...... the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and chronotype, using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Although no group differences were found when averaging over the entire recording period, we found a greater variability throughout the 30-days in both sleep efficiency and timing of the night-time sleep...

  4. Inviscid double wake model for stalled airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, L; Ramos-García, N; Sørensen, J N

    2014-01-01

    An inviscid double wake model based on a steady two-dimensional panel method has been developed to predict aerodynamic loads of wind turbine airfoils in the deep stall region. The separated flow is modelled using two constant vorticity sheets which are released at the trailing edge and at the separation point. A calibration of the code through comparison with experiments has been performed using one set of airfoils. A second set of airfoils has been used for the validation of the calibrated model. Predicted aerodynamic forces for a wide range of angles of attack (0 to 90 deg) are in overall good agreement with wind tunnel measurements

  5. Interrater variability of EEG interpretation in comatose cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westhall, Erik; Rosén, Ingmar; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: EEG is widely used to predict outcome in comatose cardiac arrest patients, but its value has been limited by lack of a uniform classification. We used the EEG terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) to assess interrater variability in a cohort...... who were blinded for patient outcome. Percent agreement and kappa (κ) for the categories in the ACNS EEG terminology and for prespecified malignant EEG-patterns were calculated. RESULTS: There was substantial interrater agreement (κ 0.71) for highly malignant patterns and moderate agreement (κ 0.......42) for malignant patterns. Substantial agreement was found for malignant periodic or rhythmic patterns (κ 0.72) while agreement for identifying an unreactive EEG was fair (κ 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: The ACNS EEG terminology can be used to identify highly malignant EEG-patterns in post cardiac arrest patients...

  6. Potential load reductions on megawatt turbines exposed to wakes using individual-pitch wake compensator and trailing-edge flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Helen; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    that typically focus on either load or power prediction. As a consequence, the wake affected inflow field generated by the DWM formulation opens for control strategies for the individual turbine. Two different control approaches for load reduction on the individual turbines are implemented in the multi-body aero-servo-elastic...... tool HAWC2, developed at Risø-DTU in Denmark, and their potential load reduction capabilities compared: (1) full-blade ‘individual-pitch controllers’ acting as wake compensators and (2) controllers using trailing-edge flaps. Information on the wake inflow conditions, induced by upstream turbines...... for the loading conditions of the individual turbines in the farm. The dynamic wake meandering model (DWM) is believed to capture the essential physics of the wake problem, and thus, both load and production aspects can be predicted, which is contrary to the traditional engineering wake prediction methods...

  7. Use Case Analysis: The Ambulatory EEG in Navy Medicine for Traumatic Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    science of binaural beats . Retrieved from http://binauralbrains.com/the-science-of- binaural - beats / Biosignal. (2016). MicroEEG. Retrieved from http...Cap. Source: Binaural Brains (n.d.). ....................................4  Figure 3.  EEG Machine. Source: Refine Medical Technology (n.d...EEG. Figures 2, 3, and 4 display images of a standard EEG cap, EEG machine, and an EEG recording. Figure 2. Standard EEG Cap. Source: Binaural Brains

  8. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil in a flowing soap film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We present an experimental study of an oscillating, symmetric foil in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we explore and visualize a variety of wake structures, including von K´arm´an wake, reverse von K´arm´an wake, 2P wake, and 2P+2S wake. We...

  9. Mixed-norm estimates for the M/EEG inverse problem using accelerated gradient methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramfort, Alexandre; Kowalski, Matthieu; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2012-04-07

    Magneto- and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure the electromagnetic fields produced by the neural electrical currents. Given a conductor model for the head, and the distribution of source currents in the brain, Maxwell's equations allow one to compute the ensuing M/EEG signals. Given the actual M/EEG measurements and the solution of this forward problem, one can localize, in space and in time, the brain regions that have produced the recorded data. However, due to the physics of the problem, the limited number of sensors compared to the number of possible source locations, and measurement noise, this inverse problem is ill-posed. Consequently, additional constraints are needed. Classical inverse solvers, often called minimum norm estimates (MNE), promote source estimates with a small ℓ₂ norm. Here, we consider a more general class of priors based on mixed norms. Such norms have the ability to structure the prior in order to incorporate some additional assumptions about the sources. We refer to such solvers as mixed-norm estimates (MxNE). In the context of M/EEG, MxNE can promote spatially focal sources with smooth temporal estimates with a two-level ℓ₁/ℓ₂ mixed-norm, while a three-level mixed-norm can be used to promote spatially non-overlapping sources between different experimental conditions. In order to efficiently solve the optimization problems of MxNE, we introduce fast first-order iterative schemes that for the ℓ₁/ℓ₂ norm give solutions in a few seconds making such a prior as convenient as the simple MNE. Furthermore, thanks to the convexity of the optimization problem, we can provide optimality conditions that guarantee global convergence. The utility of the methods is demonstrated both with simulations and experimental MEG data.

  10. Ear-EEG detects ictal and interictal abnormalities in focal and generalized epilepsy - A comparison with scalp EEG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibrandtsen, I C; Kidmose, P; Christensen, C B; Kjaer, T W

    2017-12-01

    Ear-EEG is recording of electroencephalography from a small device in the ear. This is the first study to compare ictal and interictal abnormalities recorded with ear-EEG and simultaneous scalp-EEG in an epilepsy monitoring unit. We recorded and compared simultaneous ear-EEG and scalp-EEG from 15 patients with suspected temporal lobe epilepsy. EEGs were compared visually by independent neurophysiologists. Correlation and time-frequency analysis was used to quantify the similarity between ear and scalp electrodes. Spike-averages were used to assess similarity of interictal spikes. There were no differences in sensitivity or specificity for seizure detection. Mean correlation coefficient between ear-EEG and nearest scalp electrode was above 0.6 with a statistically significant decreasing trend with increasing distance away from the ear. Ictal morphology and frequency dynamics can be observed from visual inspection and time-frequency analysis. Spike averages derived from ear-EEG electrodes yield a recognizable spike appearance. Our results suggest that ear-EEG can reliably detect electroencephalographic patterns associated with focal temporal lobe seizures. Interictal spike morphology from sufficiently large temporal spike sources can be sampled using ear-EEG. Ear-EEG is likely to become an important tool in clinical epilepsy monitoring and diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of the Eddy Viscosity and Lange Wake Models using Measured Wake Flow Characteristics Behind a Large Wind Turbine Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Bum Suk; Huh, Jong Chul [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Go, Young Jun [Hanjin Ind, Co., Ltd., Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The wake effects behind wind turbines were investigated by using data from a Met Mast tower and the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system for a wind turbine. The results of the wake investigations and predicted values for the velocity deficit based on the eddy viscosity model were compared with the turbulence intensity from the Lange model. As a result, the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity of the wake increased as the free stream wind speed decreased. In addition, the magnitude of the velocity deficit for the center of the wake using the eddy viscosity model was overestimated while the turbulence intensity from the Lange model showed similarities with measured values.

  12. Do building wakes increase ground level concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.J.; Melbourne, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the EPRI Plume Rise and Downwash Project to develop and evaluate new mathematical algorithms representing plume rise and downwash, physical model studies were performed on the plume dispersion from Combustion Turbine Unit 4, (CT 4), at the Jersey Central Power and Light Sayreville Generating Station, Sayreville, New Jersey. Studies were performed both in neutral and stably stratified model atmospheric boundary layer conditions with the primary objective being to determine the behavior of the combustion turbine plume under high and low ambient wind speed conditions within the wake region produced by the combustion turbine itself. Field measurements were also performed at the site and to this end a base case wind direction of β = 335 degree was chosen for both the field and model studies in an attempt to minimize the effects of other building wakes on the plume. This paper looks at the flow and dispersion characteristics with and without these large structures in the model in an attempt to explain why the differences in concentration levels occurred

  13. Modelling the Wake of the Marquesas Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raapoto, H.; Martinez, E. C.; Petrenko, A. A.; Doglioli, A. M.; Maes, C.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a high-resolution ( 2.5 km) numerical model was set up to investigate the fine-scale activity within the region of the Marquesas archipelago where a strong biological enhancement occurs. This has never been performed before. The robustness of the model results is assessed by comparison with remote sensing and in situ observations. Our results highlight regions of warm waters leeward of the different islands with high eddy kinetic energy (EKE) on their sides. The analysis of energy conversion terms reveals contributions to EKE variability by wind, baroclinic and barotropic instabilities. The use of a geometry-based eddy detection algorithm reveals eddy generation in the wake of the largest islands, with both an inshore and offshore effect. Maximum eddy activity occurs in austral winter following the seasonality of both wind stress and EKE intensity. Most eddies have a radius between 20 and 30 km and are generally cyclonic rather than anticyclonic. Significant vertical velocities are observed in the proximity of the islands, associated with topography induced flow separation. Eddy trapping inshore waters are advected offshore in the wake of the islands. The overall influence of these fine-scale dynamics could explain the strong biological enhancement of the archipelago.

  14. Modeling the Wake of the Marquesas Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raapoto, H.; Martinez, E.; Petrenko, A.; Doglioli, A. M.; Maes, C.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a high-resolution (˜2.5 km) numerical model was set up to investigate the fine-scale activity within the region of the Marquesas archipelago. This has never been performed before. The robustness of the model results is assessed by comparison with remote sensing and in situ observations. Our results highlight regions of warm waters leeward of the different islands with high eddy kinetic energy (EKE) on their sides. The analysis of energy conversion terms reveals contributions to EKE variability by wind, baroclinic, and barotropic instabilities. The use of a geometry-based eddy detection algorithm reveals the generation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies in the wake of the largest islands, with both an inshore and offshore effect. Maximum eddy activity occurs in austral winter following the seasonality of both wind stress and EKE intensity. Most eddies have a radius between 20 and 30 km and are generally cyclonic rather than anticyclonic. Significant vertical velocities are observed in the proximity of the islands, associated with topographically induced flow separation. Eddy trapping inshore waters are advected offshore in the wake of the islands. The overall influence of these fine-scale dynamics could explain the strong biological enhancement of the archipelago.

  15. Unsteady wake of a rotating tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Moxey, Dave; Xu, Hui; Sherwin, Spencer; Sherwin Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    For open wheel race-cars, such as IndyCar and Formula One, the wheels are responsible for 40% of the total drag. For road cars drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 60% of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two or three pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative importance of which still remains an open question, that interact to form a complex wake. Traditional RANS based methods are typically not well equipped to deal with such highly unsteady flows which motivates research into more physical, unsteady models. Leveraging a high-fidelity spectral/hp element based method a Large Eddy Simulation is performed to give further insight into unsteady characteristics of the wake. In particular the unsteady nature of both the jetting and top vortex pair is reported as well as the time and length scales associated with the vortex core trajectories. Correlation with experimentally obtained particle image velocimetry is presented. The authors acknowledge support from the United Kingdom Turbulence Consortium (UKTC) as well as from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for access to ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service.

  16. Brain mechanisms that control sleep and waking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jerome

    This review paper presents a brief historical survey of the technological and early research that laid the groundwork for recent advances in sleep-waking research. A major advance in this field occurred shortly after the end of World War II with the discovery of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) as the neural source in the brain stem of the waking state. Subsequent research showed that the brain stem activating system produced cortical arousal via two pathways: a dorsal route through the thalamus and a ventral route through the hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The nuclei, pathways, and neurotransmitters that comprise the multiple components of these arousal systems are described. Sleep is now recognized as being composed of two very different states: rapid eye movements (REMs) sleep and non-REM sleep. The major findings on the neural mechanisms that control these two sleep states are presented. This review ends with a discussion of two current views on the function of sleep: to maintain the integrity of the immune system and to enhance memory consolidation.

  17. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2017-08-03

    Offsetting turbines' yaw orientations from incoming wind is a powerful tool that may be leveraged to reduce undesirable wake effects on downstream turbines. First, we examine a simple two-turbine case to gain intuition as to how inflow direction uncertainty affects the optimal solution. The turbines are modeled with unidirectional inflow such that one turbine directly wakes the other, using ten rotor diameter spacing. We perform optimization under uncertainty (OUU) via a parameter sweep of the front turbine. The OUU solution generally prefers less steering. We then do this optimization for a 60-turbine wind farm with unidirectional inflow, varying the degree of inflow uncertainty and approaching this OUU problem by nesting a polynomial chaos expansion uncertainty quantification routine within an outer optimization. We examined how different levels of uncertainty in the inflow direction effect the ratio of the expected values of deterministic and OUU solutions for steering strategies in the large wind farm, assuming the directional uncertainty used to reach said OUU solution (this ratio is defined as the value of the stochastic solution or VSS).

  18. Studies of Particle Wake Potentials in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ian; Graziani, Frank; Glosli, James; Strozzi, David; Surh, Michael; Richards, David; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren

    2011-10-01

    Fast Ignition studies require a detailed understanding of electron scattering, stopping, and energy deposition in plasmas with variable values for the number of particles within a Debye sphere. Presently there is disagreement in the literature concerning the proper description of these processes. Developing and validating proper descriptions requires studying the processes using first-principle electrostatic simulations and possibly including magnetic fields. We are using the particle-particle particle-mesh (PPPM) code ddcMD and the particle-in-cell (PIC) code BEPS to perform these simulations. As a starting point in our study, we examine the wake of a particle passing through a plasma in 3D electrostatic simulations performed with ddcMD and with BEPS using various cell sizes. In this poster, we compare the wakes we observe in these simulations with each other and predictions from Vlasov theory. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by UCLA under Grant DE-FG52-09NA29552.

  19. Multitude scaling laws in axisymmetric turbulent wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, G. C.; Sunita

    2018-03-01

    We establish theoretically multitude scaling laws of a self-similar (statistical) axisymmetric turbulent wake. At infinite Reynolds number limit, the flow evolves as general power law and a new exponential law of streamwise distance, consistent with the criterion of equilibrium similarity hypothesis. We found power law scalings for components of the homogeneous dissipation rate (ɛ) obeying the non-Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade as ɛu˜ku3 /2/(l R elm ) , ɛv˜kv3 /2/l , kv˜ku/R el2 m, 0 stress, l is the local length scale, and Rel is the Reynolds number. The Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade corresponds to m = 0. For m ≈ 1, the power law agrees with non-equilibrium scaling laws observed in recent experiments of the axisymmetric wake. On the contrary, the exponential scaling law follows the above dissipation law with different regions of existence for power index m = 3. At finite Reynolds number with kinematic viscosity ν, scalings obey the dissipation laws ɛu ˜ νku/l2 and ɛv ˜ νkv/l2 with kv˜ku/R eln. The value of n is preferably 0 and 2. Different possibilities of scaling laws and symmetry breaking process are discussed at length.

  20. Characterization of forced response of density stratified reacting wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Samadhan A.; Sujith, Raman I.; Emerson, Benjamin; Lieuwen, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of a reacting wake depends primarily on the density ratio [i.e., ratio of unburnt gas density (ρu) to burnt gas density (ρb)] of the flow across the wake. The variation of the density ratio from high to low value, keeping ρ u / ρ b > 1 , transitions dynamical characteristics of the reacting wake from a linearly globally stable (or convectively unstable) to a globally unstable mode. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze the effect of harmonic forcing on the deterministic and synchronization characteristics of reacting wakes. Using the recurrence quantification analysis of the forced wake response, we show that the deterministic behaviour of the reacting wake increases as the amplitude of forcing is increased. Furthermore, for different density ratios, we found that the synchronization of the top and bottom branches of the wake with the forcing signal is dependent on whether the mean frequency of the natural oscillations of the wake (fn) is lesser or greater than the frequency of external forcing (ff). We notice that the response of both branches (top and bottom) of the reacting wake to the external forcing is asymmetric and symmetric for the low and high density ratios, respectively. Furthermore, we characterize the phase-locking behaviour between the top and bottom branches of the wake for different values of density ratios. We observe that an increase in the density ratio results in a gradual decrease in the relative phase angle between the top and bottom branches of the wake, which leads to a change in the vortex shedding pattern from a sinuous (anti-phase) to a varicose (in-phase) mode of the oscillations.

  1. Causality within the Epileptic Network: An EEG-fMRI Study Validated by Intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Avanzini, Pietro; Tassi, Laura; Ruggieri, Andrea; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nichelli, Paolo; Lemieux, Louis; Meletti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Accurate localization of the Seizure Onset Zone (SOZ) is crucial in patients with drug-resistance focal epilepsy. EEG with fMRI recording (EEG-fMRI) has been proposed as a complementary non-invasive tool, which can give useful additional information in the pre-surgical work-up. However, fMRI maps related to interictal epileptiform activities (IED) often show multiple regions of signal change, or "networks," rather than highly focal ones. Effective connectivity approaches like Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) applied to fMRI data potentially offers a framework to address which brain regions drives the generation of seizures and IED within an epileptic network. Here, we present a first attempt to validate DCM on EEG-fMRI data in one patient affected by frontal lobe epilepsy. Pre-surgical EEG-fMRI demonstrated two distinct clusters of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increases linked to IED, one located in the left frontal pole and the other in the ipsilateral dorso-lateral frontal cortex. DCM of the IED-related BOLD signal favored a model corresponding to the left dorso-lateral frontal cortex as driver of changes in the fronto-polar region. The validity of DCM was supported by: (a) the results of two different non-invasive analysis obtained on the same dataset: EEG source imaging (ESI), and "psycho-physiological interaction" analysis; (b) the failure of a first surgical intervention limited to the fronto-polar region; (c) the results of the intracranial EEG monitoring performed after the first surgical intervention confirming a SOZ located over the dorso-lateral frontal cortex. These results add evidence that EEG-fMRI together with advanced methods of BOLD signal analysis is a promising tool that can give relevant information within the epilepsy surgery diagnostic work-up.

  2. Causality within the epileptic network: an EEG-fMRI study validated by intracranial EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabetta eVaudano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate localization of the Seizure Onset Zone (SOZ is crucial in patients with drug-resistance focal epilepsy. EEG with fMRI recording (EEG-fMRI has been proposed as a complementary non-invasive tool, which can give useful additional information in the pre-surgical workup. However, fMRI maps related to interictal epileptiform activities (IED often show multiple regions of signal change, or networks, rather than highly focal ones. Effective connectivity approaches like Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM applied to fMRI data potentially offers a framework to address which brain regions drives the generation of seizures and IED within an epileptic network. Here we present a first attempt to validate DCM on EEG-fMRI data in one patient affected by frontal lobe epilepsy. Pre-surgical EEG-fMRI demonstrated two distinct clusters of BOLD signal increases linked to IED, one located in the left frontal pole and the other in the ipsilateral dorso-lateral frontal cortex. DCM of the IED-related BOLD signal favoured a model corresponding to the left dorsolateral frontal cortex as driver of changes in the fronto-polar region. The validity of DCM was supported by: (a the results of two different non-invasive analysis obtained on the same dataset: EEG source imaging (ESI, and psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI; (b the failure of a first surgical intervention limited to the fronto-polar region; (c the results of the intracranial EEG monitoring performed after the first surgical intervention confirming a SOZ located over the dorso-lateral frontal cortex. These results add evidence that EEG-fMRI together with advanced methods of BOLD signal analysis is a promising tool that can give relevant information within the epilepsy surgery diagnostic work-up.

  3. Screening EEG in Aircrew Selection: Clinical Aerospace Neurology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jonathan B.; Riley, Terrence

    2001-01-01

    As clinical aerospace neurologists we do not favor using screening EEG in pilot selection on unselected and otherwise asymptomatic individuals. The role of EEG in aviation screening should be as an adjunct to diagnosis, and the decision to disqualify a pilot should never be based solely on the EEG. Although a policy of using a screening EEG in an unselected population might detect an individual with a potentially increased relative risk, it would needlessly exclude many applicants who would probably never have a seizure. A diagnostic test performed on an asymptomatic individual without clinical indications, in a population with a low prevalence of disease (seizure) may be of limited or possibly detrimental value. We feel that rather than do EEGs on all candidates, a better approach would be to perform an EEG for a specific indication, such as family history of seizure, single convulsion (seizure) , history of unexplained loss of consciousness or head injury. Routine screening EEGs in unselected aviation applications are not done without clinical indication in the U.S. Air Force, Navy, or NASA. The USAF discontinued routine screening EEGs for selection in 1978, the U.S. Navy discontinued it in 1981 , and NASA discontinued it in 1995. EEG as an aeromedical screening tool in the US Navy dates back to 1939. The US Navy routinely used EEGs to screen all aeromedical personnel from 1961 to 1981. The incidence of epileptiform activity on EEG in asymptomatic flight candidates ranges from 0.11 to 2.5%. In 3 studies of asymptomatic flight candidates with epileptiform activity on EEG followed for 2 to 15 years, 1 of 31 (3.2%), 1 of 30 (3.3%), and 0 of 14 (0%) developed a seizure, for a cumulative risk of an individual with an epileptiform EEG developing a seizure of 2.67% (2 in 75). Of 28,658 student naval aviation personnel screened 31 had spikes and/or slow waves on EEG, and only 1 later developed a seizure. Of the 28,627 who had a normal EEG, 4 later developed seizures, or

  4. [Sleep deprivation and its effect on the ability to maintain wakefulness: implications on functioning and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Gabriela Dorfman; Cahan, Clement; Baharav, Armada

    2009-05-01

    During the last century, western society suffers from an increasing steep debt. A large number of accidents occur due to drowsy drivers. People are not aware of the influence of fatigue/drowsiness on their functioning and driving capacity. Our goal is to identify and characterize measurable physioLogicaL information capable of monitoring simple and reliable performance of driver vigilance. Eight healthy volunteers without sleep disorders were included in the study. They participated in two missions, on and off every two hours during 34-36 hours, in order to create an accumulative sleep debt. The tasks included the Maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) and the driving simulator test. White tested, they remained connected to EEG, EMG, EOG, ECG and audio-video registration. These first results are related to 60 MWT tests. The first falling asleep events (FA) appeared around the early afternoon hours, in agreement to the physiological tendency to fall asleep, according to the biological clock. The night was characterized by FAs with a very short sleep Latency time at around 4 AM. On the second day of the experiment, the averaged sleep latency was larger than in the night before, despite the accumulation of sleep debt. The fluctuations of RRI increased after the first micro sleep. The autonomic nervous regulation displays an increase in the overall sympathetic activity as an indicator of increased stress. There is a correlation between parameters associated with instantaneous autonomic changes of heart rhythm (RRI) and the FA/almost-FA events observed on EEG. These attributes may provide a useful tool for monitoring drowsy drivers and preventing accidents.

  5. The role of the standard EEG in clinical psychiatry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S S

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The EEG is a commonly requested test on patients attending psychiatric services, predominantly to investigate for a possible organic brain syndrome causing behavioural changes. AIMS: To assess referrals for EEG from psychiatric services in comparison with those from other sources. We determine which clinical factors were associated with an abnormal EEG in patients referred from psychiatric sources. METHODS: A retrospective review of EEG requests in a 1-year period was performed. Analysis of referral reasons for psychiatric patients was undertaken, and outcome of patients referred from psychiatric services post-EEG was reviewed. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred and seventy EEGs were reviewed, of which 91 (6.2%) were referred from psychiatry. Neurology service referrals had detection rates of abnormal EEGs of 27%, with psychiatric referrals having the lowest abnormality detection rate of 17.6% (p < 0.1). In psychiatric-referred patients the only significant predictors found of an abnormal EEG were a known history of epilepsy (p < 0.001), being on clozapine (p < 0.05), and a possible convulsive seizure (RR = 6.51). Follow-up data of 53 patients did not reveal a significant clinical impact of EEG results on patient management. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients are referred for EEG from psychiatric sources despite a relatively low index of suspicion of an organic brain disorders, based on reasons for referral documented, with an unsurprising low clinical yield.

  6. What drives slow wave activity during early non-REM sleep: Learning during prior wake or effort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Li

    Full Text Available What is the function of sleep in humans? One claim is that sleep consolidates learning. Slow wave activity (SWA, i.e. slow oscillations of frequency < 4 Hz, has been observed in electroencephalograms (EEG during sleep; it increases with prior wakefulness and decreases with sleep. Studies have claimed that increase in SWA in specific regions of the sleeping brain is correlated with overnight improved performance, i.e. overnight consolidation, on a demanding motor learning task. We wondered if SWA change during sleep is attributable to overnight consolidation or to metabolic demand. Participants executed out-and-back movements to a target using a pen-like cursor with their dominant hand while the target and cursor position were displayed on a screen. They trained on three different conditions on separate nights, differing in the amount and degree of rotation between the actual hand movement direction and displayed cursor movement direction. In the no-rotation (NR condition, there was no rotation. In the single rotation (SR condition, the amount of rotation remained the same throughout, and performance improved both across pre-sleep training and after sleep, i.e. overnight consolidation occurred; in the random rotation (RR condition, the amount of rotation varied randomly from trial to trial, and no overnight consolidation occurred; SR and RR were cognitively demanding. The average EEG power density of SWA for the first 30 min. of non-rapid eye movement sleep after training was computed. Both SR and RR elicited increase in SWA in the parietal region; furthermore, the topographic distribution of SWA in each was remarkably similar. No correlation was found between the overnight performance improvement on SR and the SWA change in the parietal region on measures of learning. Our results argue that regulation of SWA in early sleep is associated with high levels of cognitive effort during prior wakefulness, and not just overnight consolidation.

  7. Wake structure of a single vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posa, Antonio; Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.; Balaras, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The wake structure of an isolated Vertical Axis Wind Turbine is studied by both Particle Imaging Velocimetry and Large Eddy Simulation. • The wake structure is investigated for two values of tip speed ratio, TSR_1=1.35 and TSR_2=2.21. • A displacement of the momentum deficit towards the windward side is verified in the wake. • Higher turbulence and coherence is observed on the leeward side of the wake, due to the upwind stall of the blades. • Coherence in the wake core, associated to the downwind stall, decays quickly downstream. - Abstract: The wake structure behind a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is both measured in a wind tunnel using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and computed with large-eddy simulation (LES). Geometric and dynamic conditions are closely matched to typical applications of VAWTs (Re_D ∼ 1.8 × 10"5). The experiments and computations were highly coordinated with continuous two-way feedback to produce the most insightful results. Good qualitative agreement is seen between the computational and experimental results. The dependence of the wake structure on the tip speed ratio, TSR, is investigated, showing higher asymmetry and larger vortices at the lower rotational speed, due to stronger dynamic stall phenomena. Instantaneous, ensemble-averaged and phase-averaged fields are discussed, as well as the dynamics of coherent structures in the rotor region and downstream wake.

  8. Unsteady Double Wake Model for the Simulation of Stalled Airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos García, Néstor; Cayron, Antoine; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the recent developed Unsteady Double Wake Model, USDWM, is used to simulate separated flows past a wind turbine airfoil at high angles of attack. The solver is basically an unsteady two-dimensional panel method which uses the unsteady double wake technique to model flow separ...

  9. Measurements on the extended range of the wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbartzki, G.J.; Kroesing, G; Neuburger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Coulomb explosion of H 2 + -ions at 28 MeV is used to probe the wake over a range of about 400 A in Al. Preliminary results give food agreement with the wavelength prediction of the simple plasma oscillation wake model. (author)

  10. Comparison of Engineering Wake Models with CFD Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Ivanell, S.

    2014-01-01

    The engineering wake models by Jensen [1] and Frandsen et al. [2] are assessed for different scenarios simulated using Large Eddy Simulation and the Actuator Line method implemented in the Navier-Stokes equations. The scenarios include the far wake behind a single wind turbine, a long row of turb...

  11. Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Models applied to Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2013-01-01

    The linear k−ε eddy viscosity model and modified versions of two existing nonlinear eddy viscosity models are applied to single wind turbine wake simulations using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes code. Results are compared with field wake measurements. The nonlinear models give better results...

  12. On the Turbulent Mixing in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Wakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The wake flow of a horizontal axis wind turbine is characterised by lower wind speed and higher turbulence than the free-stream conditions. When clustered in large wind farms, wind turbines regularly operate inside the wake of one or more upstream machines. This is a major cause of energy production

  13. Characterization of an Actively Controlled Three-Dimensional Turret Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As bluff bodies, these geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study looked to use dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the turret wake. The flow field was characterized using dynamic pressure and stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of the turret. Results showed that the suction system was able to manipulate the wake region of the turret and could alter not only the spatial structure of the wake, but also the temporal behavior of the wake flow field. Closed-loop, feedback control techniques were used to determine a more optimal control input for the flow control. Similar control effects were seen for both the steady open-loop control case and the closed-loop feedback control configuration with a 45% reduction in the suction levels when comparing the closed-loop to the open-loop case. These results provide unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations.

  14. Donepezil impairs memory in healthy older subjects: behavioural, EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H Balsters

    Full Text Available Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs, by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta, right frontal-parietal network (Alpha, and default-mode network (Beta. We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify

  15. On AEP prediction and wake modelling at Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Volker, Patrick

    and direction. We show that the WRF model is able to reproduce such gradients relatively well by comparison to the wind farm’s SCADA. About 1.5 yr of such SCADA, further quality controlled and filtered, reveals an average wake loss of 3.87% only, whereas results from three wake models, Park, Larsen and FUGA......, show average wake losses of 3.46%, 3.69%, and 3.38%, respectively. We employ a bootstrap method to estimate the uncertainty of the wake models. As this is performed with reference to the SCADA, the results provide an idea of the uncertainty of the AEP prediction2. We find all wake models...

  16. Biogas plants in EEG. 4. new rev. and enl. ed.; Biogasanlagen im EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loibl, Helmut; Maslaton, Martin; Bredow, Hartwig von; Walter, Rene (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    With the EEG 2014, the legislature has created a complete revision of all the RES plants. Specifically for biogas plants fundamental changes have been made with the maximum rated power or a new landscape conservation concept. For new biogas plants the legislator arranges not only a much lower remuneration, but also the direct marketing as a rule, which entails fundamental changes in the overall compensation system by itself. The new edition of this highly regarded standard work revives the extensive practical experience to EEG 2009, 2012 and 2014 in detail and in particular and takes into account the large number of newly issued clearinghouses decisions and judgments. All current legal issues and challenges of biogas plants can be found comprehensively presented here. [German] Mit dem EEG 2014 hat der Gesetzgeber eine komplette Neuregelung fuer alle EEG-Anlagen geschaffen. Speziell fuer Biogasanlagen wurden mit der Hoechstbemessungsleistung oder einem neuen Landschaftspflegebegriff grundlegende Aenderungen vorgenommen. Fuer neue Biogasanlagen ordnet der Gesetzgeber nicht nur eine deutlich geringere Verguetung, sondern zudem die Direktvermarktung als Regelfall an, was grundlegende Veraenderungen des gesamten Verguetungssystems nach sich zieht. Die Neuauflage dieses vielbeachteten Standardwerks greift die umfangreichen Praxiserfahrungen zum EEG 2009, 2012 und 2014 detailliert auf und beruecksichtigt insbesondere auch die Vielzahl der neu ergangenen Clearingstellenentscheidungen und Urteile. Alle aktuellen rechtlichen Themen und Herausforderungen bei Biogasanlagen finden Sie hier umfassend dargestellt.

  17. The quantity does it? The EEG 2017 and the consequences for the German energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meya, Jasper N.; Neetzow, Paul; Neubauer, Linda; Pechan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) has so far been the driving force behind German energy transition and has found many imitators internationally as an effective funding instrument. With the reform of the EEG, which was approved by the Federal Government, the promotion of renewable energies (EE) was shifted from the current price to a quantity control. The present analysis of the impact of the switch to cost-efficiency, the diversity of actors, the achievement of the EE production targets and network consistency shows that the efficiency advantages of tendering may be reduced by higher transaction costs and regional expansion ambitions dampened. The tendered quantities are not sufficient for the long term to increase EE share to the targeted level. It is also doubtful whether a grid-compatible EE expansion is achieved. [de

  18. Classifying Drivers' Cognitive Load Using EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2017-01-01

    A growing traffic safety issue is the effect of cognitive loading activities on traffic safety and driving performance. To monitor drivers' mental state, understanding cognitive load is important since while driving, performing cognitively loading secondary tasks, for example talking on the phone, can affect the performance in the primary task, i.e. driving. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the reliable measures of cognitive load that can detect the changes in instantaneous load and effect of cognitively loading secondary task. In this driving simulator study, 1-back task is carried out while the driver performs three different simulated driving scenarios. This paper presents an EEG based approach to classify a drivers' level of cognitive load using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). The results show that for each individual scenario as well as using data combined from the different scenarios, CBR based system achieved approximately over 70% of classification accuracy.

  19. Homeostatic and Circadian Contribution to EEG and Molecular State Variables of Sleep Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curie, Thomas; Mongrain, Valérie; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Mang, Géraldine M.; Emmenegger, Yann; Franken, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Besides their well-established role in circadian rhythms, our findings that the forebrain expression of the clock-genes Per2 and Dbp increases and decreases, respectively, in relation to time spent awake suggest they also play a role in the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Here, we determined whether time of day modulates the effects of elevated sleep pressure on clock-gene expression. Time of day effects were assessed also for recognized electrophysiological (EEG delta power) and molecular (Homer1a) markers of sleep homeostasis. Design: EEG and qPCR data were obtained for baseline and recovery from 6-h sleep deprivation starting at ZT0, -6, -12, or -18. Setting: Mouse sleep laboratory. Participants: Male mice. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Results: The sleep-deprivation induced changes in Per2 and Dbp expression importantly varied with time of day, such that Per2 could even decrease during sleep deprivations occurring at the decreasing phase in baseline. Dbp showed similar, albeit opposite dynamics. These unexpected results could be reliably predicted assuming that these transcripts behave according to a driven damped harmonic oscillator. As expected, the sleep-wake distribution accounted for a large degree of the changes in EEG delta power and Homer1a. Nevertheless, the sleep deprivation-induced increase in delta power varied also with time of day with higher than expected levels when recovery sleep started at dark onset. Conclusions: Per2 and delta power are widely used as exclusive state variables of the circadian and homeostatic process, respectively. Our findings demonstrate a considerable cross-talk between these two processes. As Per2 in the brain responds to both sleep loss and time of day, this molecule is well positioned to keep track of and to anticipate homeostatic sleep need. Citation: Curie T; Mongrain V; Dorsaz S; Mang GM; Emmenegger Y; Franken P. Homeostatic and circadian contribution to EEG and molecular state

  20. NREM sleep hypersomnia and reduced sleep/wake continuity in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression based on chronic corticosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dantec, Y; Hache, G; Guilloux, J P; Guiard, B P; David, D J; Adrien, J; Escourrou, P

    2014-08-22

    Sleep/wake disorders are frequently associated with anxiety and depression and to elevated levels of cortisol. Even though these alterations are increasingly sought in animal models, no study has investigated the specific effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration on sleep. We characterized sleep/wake disorders in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression, based on chronic CORT administration in the drinking water (35 μg/ml for 4 weeks, "CORT model"). The CORT model was markedly affected during the dark phase by non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) increase without consistent alteration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Total sleep duration (SD) and sleep efficiency (SE) increased concomitantly during both the 24h and the dark phase, due to the increase in the number of NREM sleep episodes without a change in their mean duration. Conversely, the total duration of wake decreased due to a decrease in the mean duration of wake episodes despite an increase in their number. These results reflect hypersomnia by intrusion of NREM sleep during the active period as well as a decrease in sleep/wake continuity. In addition, NREM sleep was lighter, with an increased electroencephalogram (EEG) theta activity. With regard to REM sleep, the number and the duration of episodes decreased, specifically during the first part of the light period. REM and NREM sleep changes correlated respectively with the anxiety and the anxiety/depressive-like phenotypes, supporting the notion that studying sleep could be of predictive value for altered emotional behavior. The chronic CORT model in mice that displays hallmark characteristics of anxiety and depression provides an insight into understanding the changes in overall sleep architecture that occur under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. EEG-based characterization of flicker perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lazo, M.; Tsoneva, T.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2013-01-01

    Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) is an oscillatory electrical response appearing in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in response to flicker stimulation. The SSVEP manifests more prominently in electrodes located near the visual cortex and has oscillatory components at the stimulation frequency and/or harmonics. The phase and amplitude of the SSVEP are sensitive to stimulus parameters such as frequency, modu-lation depth, and spatial frequency. Research related to SSVEP and the human...

  3. An EEG Data Investigation Using Only Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...some conditions, an automation feature was implemented to help the participants find the HVT. When the HVT was within the sensor footprint, a tone...EEG Data Investigation Using Only Artifacts 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1 Chelsey

  4. Detection of EEG electrodes in brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Juan P; Gómez, M Eugenia; Bustos, José J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to detect 128 EEG electrodes in image study and to merge with the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance volume for better diagnosis. First we propose three hypotheses to define a specific acquisition protocol in order to recognize the electrodes and to avoid distortions in the image. In the second instance we describe a method for segmenting the electrodes. Finally, registration is performed between volume of the electrodes and NMR.

  5. Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Offshore winds can be observed from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the FP7 EERA DTOC project, the European Energy Research Alliance project on Design Tools for Offshore Wind Farm Clusters, there is focus on mid- to far-field wind farm wakes. The more wind farms are constructed nearby other wind farms, the more is the potential loss in annual energy production in all neighboring wind farms due to wind farm cluster effects. It is of course dependent upon the prevailing wind directions and wind speed levels, the distance between the wind farms, the wind turbine sizes and spacing. Some knowledge is available within wind farm arrays and in the near-field from various investigations. There are 58 offshore wind farms in the Northern European seas grid connected and in operation. Several of those are spaced near each other. There are several twin wind farms in operation including Nysted-1 and Rødsand-2 in the Baltic Sea, and Horns Rev 1 and Horns Rev 2, Egmond aan Zee and Prinses Amalia, and Thompton 1 and Thompton 2 all in the North Sea. There are ambitious plans of constructing numerous wind farms - great clusters of offshore wind farms. Current investigation of offshore wind farms includes mapping from high-resolution satellite SAR of several of the offshore wind farms in operation in the North Sea. Around 20 images with wind farm wake cases have been retrieved and processed. The data are from the Canadian RADARSAT-1/-2 satellites. These observe in microwave C-band and have been used for ocean surface wind retrieval during several years. The satellite wind maps are valid at 10 m above sea level. The wakes are identified in the raw images as darker areas downwind of the wind farms. In the SAR-based wind maps the wake deficit is found as areas of lower winds downwind of the wind farms compared to parallel undisturbed flow in the flow direction. The wind direction is clearly visible from lee effects and wind streaks in the images. The wind farm wake cases

  6. In the wake of the economic crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komp, Katrin; Starke, Peter; van Hooren, Franca

    , they take different approaches that reflect the country-specific history and welfare state institutions. This working paper gives an overview of social change and welfare state reform in the wake of the economic crisis. For this purpose, it presents discussions and findings from two classes that were taught...... at universities in Germany. The material includes the outcomes of a grounded theory study that was conducted in the framework of one of these classes, summaries from various essays that students wrote for the classes, and from a book that was used as teaching material. The arguments brought forth in the working...... paper illustrate how the economic crisis influences e.g. social inequalities, life-courses, family relations, anti-foreigner sentiments, migration, and welfare policies. It, thereby, serves as an excellent starting point for reflections on what societies will be like post-economic crisis....

  7. Stellar Wakes from Dark Matter Subhalos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Safdi, Benjamin R; Wu, Chih-Liang

    2018-05-25

    We propose a novel method utilizing stellar kinematic data to detect low-mass substructure in the Milky Way's dark matter halo. By probing characteristic wakes that a passing dark matter subhalo leaves in the phase-space distribution of ambient halo stars, we estimate sensitivities down to subhalo masses of ∼10^{7}  M_{⊙} or below. The detection of such subhalos would have implications for dark matter and cosmological models that predict modifications to the halo-mass function at low halo masses. We develop an analytic formalism for describing the perturbed stellar phase-space distributions, and we demonstrate through idealized simulations the ability to detect subhalos using the phase-space model and a likelihood framework. Our method complements existing methods for low-mass subhalo searches, such as searches for gaps in stellar streams, in that we can localize the positions and velocities of the subhalos today.

  8. Stellar Wakes from Dark Matter Subhalos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Wu, Chih-Liang

    2018-05-01

    We propose a novel method utilizing stellar kinematic data to detect low-mass substructure in the Milky Way's dark matter halo. By probing characteristic wakes that a passing dark matter subhalo leaves in the phase-space distribution of ambient halo stars, we estimate sensitivities down to subhalo masses of ˜107 M⊙ or below. The detection of such subhalos would have implications for dark matter and cosmological models that predict modifications to the halo-mass function at low halo masses. We develop an analytic formalism for describing the perturbed stellar phase-space distributions, and we demonstrate through idealized simulations the ability to detect subhalos using the phase-space model and a likelihood framework. Our method complements existing methods for low-mass subhalo searches, such as searches for gaps in stellar streams, in that we can localize the positions and velocities of the subhalos today.

  9. Finnegans Wake & embodied cognition. A joycean reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rebora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes an interpretation of the language theory in Finnegans Wake, identifying its potential matches with the embodied cognition thesis. First, are revised critical texts about the relations between joycean writings, the sciences of the mind and the evolution of technology and informatics. Then, through the close analysis of four excerpt, are outlined the traits of joycean poetics closer to the recent acquisitions in the cognitive sciences. In particular: the bodily roots of the formation of language and the inexhaustible process of interpretation. The first convergence is detected in neurosciences, with reference to the recent proposals of Vittorio Gallese, about “embodiment of language comprehension.” The second convergence is identified in the studies on Artificial Life, referring to the writings of Christopher Langton and the Research Group of Los Alamos.

  10. Lessons learned in wake of WPPSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenen, A.V.; Gillespie, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Several fundamentals of public power financial management have become more critical in the wake of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) default: the human and financial costs of trying to resolve problems of this complexity after they occur will require an almost unimaginable amount of time and money that could be productively employed elsewhere; the economic feasibility of the project is paramount, and is far more important than its legal security or its attractiveness to utility managers; the ratepayers' ability and willingness to pay is the key security in public power financing; management performance, not promises, will be the measure of the post WPPSS marketplace; financial flexibility is crucial. Using these lessons, the author outlines a five-step program of strategic planning for planning and managing long-term projects

  11. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  12. Robust power spectral estimation for EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melman, Tamar; Victor, Jonathan D

    2016-08-01

    Typical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings often contain substantial artifact. These artifacts, often large and intermittent, can interfere with quantification of the EEG via its power spectrum. To reduce the impact of artifact, EEG records are typically cleaned by a preprocessing stage that removes individual segments or components of the recording. However, such preprocessing can introduce bias, discard available signal, and be labor-intensive. With this motivation, we present a method that uses robust statistics to reduce dependence on preprocessing by minimizing the effect of large intermittent outliers on the spectral estimates. Using the multitaper method (Thomson, 1982) as a starting point, we replaced the final step of the standard power spectrum calculation with a quantile-based estimator, and the Jackknife approach to confidence intervals with a Bayesian approach. The method is implemented in provided MATLAB modules, which extend the widely used Chronux toolbox. Using both simulated and human data, we show that in the presence of large intermittent outliers, the robust method produces improved estimates of the power spectrum, and that the Bayesian confidence intervals yield close-to-veridical coverage factors. The robust method, as compared to the standard method, is less affected by artifact: inclusion of outliers produces fewer changes in the shape of the power spectrum as well as in the coverage factor. In the presence of large intermittent outliers, the robust method can reduce dependence on data preprocessing as compared to standard methods of spectral estimation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Data-driven forward model inference for EEG brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Hauberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a flexible and accessible tool with excellent temporal resolution but with a spatial resolution hampered by volume conduction. Reconstruction of the cortical sources of measured EEG activity partly alleviates this problem and effectively turns EEG into a brain......-of-concept study, we show that, even when anatomical knowledge is unavailable, a suitable forward model can be estimated directly from the EEG. We propose a data-driven approach that provides a low-dimensional parametrization of head geometry and compartment conductivities, built using a corpus of forward models....... Combined with only a recorded EEG signal, we are able to estimate both the brain sources and a person-specific forward model by optimizing this parametrization. We thus not only solve an inverse problem, but also optimize over its specification. Our work demonstrates that personalized EEG brain imaging...

  14. EEG activity during estral cycle in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Juárez, J; Ponce-de-León, M; Ramos, J; Velázquez, P N

    1992-10-01

    EEG activity was recorded from right and left parietal cortex in adult female rats daily during 6 days. Immediately after EEG recording vaginal smears were taken and were microscopically analyzed to determine the estral stage. Absolute and relative powers and interhemispheric correlation of EEG activity were calculated and compared between estral stages. Interhemispheric correlation was significantly lower during diestrous as compared to proestrous and estrous. Absolute and relative powers did not show significant differences between estral stages. Absolute powers of alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 bands were significantly higher at the right parietal cortex. Comparisons of the same EEG records with estral stages randomly grouped showed no significant differences for any of the EEG parameters. EEG activity is a sensitive tool to study functional changes related to the estral cycle.

  15. Genetic and anatomical basis of the barrier separating wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Joiner

    Full Text Available A robust, bistable switch regulates the fluctuations between wakefulness and natural sleep as well as those between wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness. We previously provided experimental evidence for the existence of a behavioral barrier to transitions between these states of arousal, which we call neural inertia. Here we show that neural inertia is controlled by processes that contribute to sleep homeostasis and requires four genes involved in electrical excitability: Sh, sss, na and unc79. Although loss of function mutations in these genes can increase or decrease sensitivity to anesthesia induction, surprisingly, they all collapse neural inertia. These effects are genetically selective: neural inertia is not perturbed by loss-of-function mutations in all genes required for the sleep/wake cycle. These effects are also anatomically selective: sss acts in different neurons to influence arousal-promoting and arousal-suppressing processes underlying neural inertia. Supporting the idea that anesthesia and sleep share some, but not all, genetic and anatomical arousal-regulating pathways, we demonstrate that increasing homeostatic sleep drive widens the neural inertial barrier. We propose that processes selectively contributing to sleep homeostasis and neural inertia may be impaired in pathophysiological conditions such as coma and persistent vegetative states.

  16. Dynamic Loads and Wake Prediction for Large Wind Turbines Based on Free Wake Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jiufa; Wang Tongguang; Long Hui; Ke Shitang; Xu Bofeng

    2015-01-01

    With large scale wind turbines ,the issue of aerodynamic elastic response is even more significant on dy-namic behaviour of the system .Unsteady free vortex wake method is proposed to calculate the shape of wake and aerodynamic load .Considering the effect of aerodynamic load ,inertial load and gravity load ,the decoupling dy-namic equations are established by using finite element method in conjunction of the modal method and equations are solved numerically by Newmark approach .Finally ,the numerical simulation of a large scale wind turbine is performed through coupling the free vortex wake modelling with structural modelling .The results show that this coupling model can predict the flexible wind turbine dynamic characteristics effectively and efficiently .Under the influence of the gravitational force ,the dynamic response of flapwise direction contributes to the dynamic behavior of edgewise direction under the operational condition of steady wind speed .The difference in dynamic response be-tween the flexible and rigid wind turbines manifests when the aerodynamics/structure coupling effect is of signifi-cance in both wind turbine design and performance calculation .

  17. Burst suppression in sleep in a routine outpatient EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Kheder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression (BS is an electroencephalogram (EEG pattern that is characterized by brief bursts of spikes, sharp waves, or slow waves of relatively high amplitude alternating with periods of relatively flat EEG or isoelectric periods. The pattern is usually associated with coma, severe encephalopathy of various etiologies, or general anesthesia. We describe an unusual case of anoxic brain injury in which a BS pattern was seen during behaviorally defined sleep during a routine outpatient EEG study.

  18. Transfer function between EEG and BOLD signals of epileptic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have seen growing application in the evaluation of epilepsy, namely in the characterization of brain networks related to epileptic activity. In EEG-correlated fMRI studies, epileptic events are usually described as boxcar signals based on the timing information retrieved from the EEG, and subsequently convolved with a heamodynamic response function to model the associated BOLD changes. Although more flexible approaches may allow a higher degree of complexity for the haemodynamics, the issue of how to model these dynamics based on the EEG remains an open question. In this work, a new methodology for the integration of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data in epilepsy is proposed, which incorporates a transfer function from the EEG to the BOLD signal. Independent component analysis (ICA of the EEG is performed, and a number of metrics expressing different models of the EEG-BOLD transfer function are extracted from the resulting time courses. These metrics are then used to predict the fMRI data and to identify brain areas associated with the EEG epileptic activity. The methodology was tested on both ictal and interictal EEG-fMRI recordings from one patient with a hypothalamic hamartoma. When compared to the conventional analysis approach, plausible, consistent and more significant activations were obtained. Importantly, frequency-weighted EEG metrics yielded superior results than those weighted solely on the EEG power, which comes in agreement with previous literature. Reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity should be addressed in an extended group of patients in order to further validate the proposed methodology and generalize the presented proof of concept.

  19. Effects of outer perturbances on dynamics of wake vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, N.A.; Belotserkovsky, A.S.; Turchak, L.I.

    2004-01-01

    One of the problems in aircraft flight safety is reduction of the risk related with aircraft encounter with wake vortices generated by other aircraft. An efficient approach to this problem is design of systems providing information on areas of potential danger of wake vortices to pilots in real time. The main components of such a system are a unit for calculations of wake vortices behind aircraft and a unit for calculations of areas of potential danger. A promising way to development of real time algorithms for calculation of wake vortices is the use of vortex methods in CFD based on the hypothesis of quasi-3D flow in the area of wake vorticity. The mathematical model developed by our team calculates positions and intensity of wake vortices past aircraft taking account of such effects as viscous dissipation of vortices, effects of ambient turbulence, wind shear, as well as viscous interaction between wake vortices and the underlying surface. The necessity of including the last factor could be stems from the fact that in the case where wake vortices are in close proximity of the rigid surface, the viscous interaction between the wake vortices and the surface boundary layer results in the boundary layer separation changing the overall intensity and dynamics of the wake vortices. To evaluate the boundaries of the danger areas the authors use an approach based on calculation of additional aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft encountering wake vortices by means of evaluation of the aircraft additional velocities and angular rates corresponding to distribution of disturbed velocities on the aircraft surface. These criteria could be based on local characteristics of the vorticity areas or on characteristics related to the perturbation effects on the aircraft. The latter characteristics include the actual aerodynamic roll moment, the maximum angular rate or the maximum roll of the aircraft under perturbations in the wake vortices. To estimate the accuracy

  20. EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubany, Adam; Mhabary, Ziv; Gontar, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. → An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. → Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.

  1. EEG Signal Decomposition and Improved Spectral Analysis Using Wavelet Transform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhatti, Muhammad

    2001-01-01

    EEG (Electroencephalograph), as a noninvasive testing method, plays a key role in the diagnosing diseases, and is useful for both physiological research and medical applications. Wavelet transform (WT...

  2. Synchronization of EEG activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panischev, O Yu; Demin, S A; Muhametshin, I G; Yu Demina, N

    2015-01-01

    In paper we apply the method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) to determine the differences in frequency-phase synchronization of the cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We found that for healthy subjects the frequency-phase synchronization of EEGs from long-range electrodes was significantly better for BD patients. In BD patients a high synchronization of EEGs was observed only for short-range electrodes. Thus, the FNS is a simple graphical method for qualitative analysis can be applied to identify the synchronization effects in EEG activity and, probably, may be used for the diagnosis of this syndrome. (paper)

  3. Synchronization of EEG activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panischev, O. Yu; Demin, S. A.; Muhametshin, I. G.; Demina, N. Yu

    2015-12-01

    In paper we apply the method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) to determine the differences in frequency-phase synchronization of the cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We found that for healthy subjects the frequency-phase synchronization of EEGs from long-range electrodes was significantly better for BD patients. In BD patients a high synchronization of EEGs was observed only for short-range electrodes. Thus, the FNS is a simple graphical method for qualitative analysis can be applied to identify the synchronization effects in EEG activity and, probably, may be used for the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  4. Deep Neural Architectures for Mapping Scalp to Intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniades, Andreas; Spyrou, Loukianos; Martin-Lopez, David; Valentin, Antonio; Alarcon, Gonzalo; Sanei, Saeid; Took, Clive Cheong

    2018-03-19

    Data is often plagued by noise which encumbers machine learning of clinically useful biomarkers and electroencephalogram (EEG) data is no exemption. Intracranial EEG (iEEG) data enhances the training of deep learning models of the human brain, yet is often prohibitive due to the invasive recording process. A more convenient alternative is to record brain activity using scalp electrodes. However, the inherent noise associated with scalp EEG data often impedes the learning process of neural models, achieving substandard performance. Here, an ensemble deep learning architecture for nonlinearly mapping scalp to iEEG data is proposed. The proposed architecture exploits the information from a limited number of joint scalp-intracranial recording to establish a novel methodology for detecting the epileptic discharges from the sEEG of a general population of subjects. Statistical tests and qualitative analysis have revealed that the generated pseudo-intracranial data are highly correlated with the true intracranial data. This facilitated the detection of IEDs from the scalp recordings where such waveforms are not often visible. As a real-world clinical application, these pseudo-iEEGs are then used by a convolutional neural network for the automated classification of intracranial epileptic discharges (IEDs) and non-IED of trials in the context of epilepsy analysis. Although the aim of this work was to circumvent the unavailability of iEEG and the limitations of sEEG, we have achieved a classification accuracy of 68% an increase of 6% over the previously proposed linear regression mapping.

  5. EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubany, Adam, E-mail: adamku@bgu.ac.i [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Mhabary, Ziv; Gontar, Vladimir [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.

  6. Altered resting state EEG in chronic pancreatitis patients: toward a marker for chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Jongsma, M.L.A.; Broeke, E.N. van den; Arns, M.W.; Goor, H. van; Rijn, C.M. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Electroencephalography (EEG) may be a promising source of physiological biomarkers accompanying chronic pain. Several studies in patients with chronic neuropathic pain have reported alterations in central pain processing, manifested as slowed EEG rhythmicity and increased EEG power in

  7. Altered resting state EEG in chronic pancreatitis patients: toward a marker for chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Jongsma, M.L.A.; Broeke, E.N. van den; Arns, M.W.; Goor, H. van; Rijn, C.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Electroencephalography (EEG) may be a promising source of physiological biomarkers accompanying chronic pain. Several studies in patients with chronic neuropathic pain have reported alterations in central pain processing, manifested as slowed EEG rhythmicity and increased EEG power in

  8. Influence of obstacle aspect ratio on tripped cylinder wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Tiago B.; Sicot, Christophe; Borée, Jacques; Martinuzzi, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Influence of a tripwire on wake properties of a surface-mounted circular cylinder. ► Height-to-diameter aspect ratios of 3 and 6 are considered. ► Critical positions for the tripwire lead to an abrupt change in the wake structure. ► Results further suggest that the tripwire can strengthen 2D wake properties. - Abstract: The influence of an asymmetrically mounted, single tripwire on the shedding and wake characteristics of a vertical, surface-mounted finite circular cylinder is investigated experimentally. Height-to-diameter aspect ratios of 3 and 6 are considered. It is shown that a critical position for the tripwire exists, which is characterised in an abrupt change in the shedding frequency and wake structure. Results further suggest that the tripwire can strengthen 2D wake properties. The influence of the aspect ratio is due to tip-wake flow interactions and thus differs fundamentally from two-dimensional geometries.

  9. Self-organized dynamical complexity in human wakefulness and sleep: Different critical brain-activity feedback for conscious and unconscious states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Piarulli, Andrea; Gemignani, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity. Herein we study intermittent events, extracted from 29 night EEG recordings, including presleep wakefulness and all phases of sleep, where different levels of mentation and consciousness are present. We show that while critical avalanching is unchanged, at least qualitatively, intermittency and functional connectivity, present during conscious phases (wakefulness and REM sleep), break down during both shallow and deep non-REM sleep. We provide a theory for fragmentation-induced intermittency breakdown and suggest that the main difference between conscious and unconscious states resides in the backwards causation, namely on the constraints that the emerging properties at large scale induce to the lower scales. In particular, while in conscious states this backwards causation induces a critical slowing down, preserving spatiotemporal correlations, in dreamless sleep we see a self-organized maintenance of moduli working in parallel. Critical avalanches are still present, and establish transient auto-organization, whose enhanced fluctuations are able to trigger sleep-protecting mechanisms that reinstate parallel activity. The plausible role of critical avalanches in dreamless sleep is to provide a rapid recovery of consciousness, if stimuli are highly arousing.

  10. Homeostatic & Circadian Regulation of Wakefulness During Jet Lag and Sleep. Sleep Deprivation: Effect of Wake-Promoting Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dinges, David

    2000-01-01

    .... Major human research projects on the effects of induced jet lag and sleep deprivation and their mitigation by sustained low-dose caffeine and naps were undertaken at the University of Pennsylvania...

  11. Music exposure and maturation of late preterm sleep-wake cycles: a randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Adia; Agthe, Alexander G; El Metwally, Dina

    2018-04-01

    To determine the effect of music on sleep-wake cycle (SWC) patterns in late preterm neonates. In a masked crossover study, infants between 32 and 36 6/7 weeks gestation were randomised to music exposure either during the first six or last six hours of a 12-hour observation period. SWC characteristics were determined by continuous amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) read by two coders masked to exposure sequence. Analysis was performed in paired comparisons. ANOVA was used to assess the effects of music exposure, period and crossover on SWC outcomes: (i) Burdjalov Scores (BS) during active sleep (AS) (ii) per cent and duration of quiet sleep (QS). Thirty infants were studied. A total of 222 QS cycles (median seven per patient; range five to 12) were analysed. Music exposure was associated with higher BS (F = 10.60, p = 0.0019) in AS and decreased interruptions during QS. The advanced postconceptual age (PCA) SWC pattern during AS was equivalent to a one-week mean. Number, duration and ratio of QS cycles did not change with music exposure. Music exposure elicits an increasing PCA pattern in AS and fewer interruptions in QS. Music may benefit sleep in late preterm infants. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevning, R; Wallace, R K; Beidebach, M

    1992-01-01

    While for centuries a wakeful and tranquil state or experience variously called "samadhi," "pure awareness," or "enlightenment" had been said to be a normal experience and the goal of meditation in Vedic, Buddhist, and Taoist traditions, there was little known about this behavior until recently, when the practice of "transcendental meditation" (TM) became available for study in Western scientific laboratories. Derived from the Vedic tradition, TM is unique because it requires no special circumstances or effort for practice. Based upon a wide spectrum of physiological data on TM, we hypothesize that meditation is an integrated response with peripheral circulatory and metabolic changes subserving increased central nervous activity. Consistent with the subjective description of meditation as a very relaxed but, at the same time, a very alert state, it is likely that such findings during meditation as increased cardiac output, probable increased cerebral blood flow, and findings reminiscent of the "extraordinary" character of classical reports: apparent cessation of CO2 generation by muscle, fivefold plasma AVP elevation, and EEG synchrony play critical roles in this putative response.

  13. Dim light at night disturbs the daily sleep-wake cycle in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvers, Dirk Jan; van Dorp, Rick; Foppen, Ewout; Mendoza, Jorge; Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H; Meijer, Johanna H; Kalsbeek, Andries; Deboer, Tom

    2016-10-20

    Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150-200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150-200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days. LDim diminished the rhythms of 1) the circadian 16-19 Hz frequency domain within the NREM sleep EEG, and 2) SCN clock gene expression. LDim also induced internal desynchronization in locomotor activity by introducing a free running rhythm with a period of ~25 h next to the entrained 24 h rhythm. LDim did not affect body weight or glucose tolerance. In conclusion, we introduce the first rodent model for disturbed circadian control of sleep due to LAN. We show that internal desynchronization is possible in a 24 h L:D cycle which suggests that a similar desynchronization may explain the association between LAN and human insomnia.

  14. What the cerveau isolé preparation tells us nowadays about sleep-wake mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesmann, C

    1988-01-01

    The intercollicular transected preparation opened a rich field for investigations of sleep-wake mechanisms. Initial results showed that brain stem ascending influences are essential for maintaining an activated cortex. It was subsequently shown that the forebrain also develops activating influences, since EEG desynchronization of the cortex reappears in the chronic cerveau isolé preparation, and continuous or almost continuous theta rhythm is able to occur in the acute cerveau isolé preparation. A brief "intermediate stage" of sleep occurs during natural sleep just prior to and after paradoxical sleep. It is characterized by cortical spindle bursts, hippocampal low frequency theta activity (two patterns of the acute cerveau isolé preparation) and is accompanied by a very low thalamic transmission level, suggesting a cerveau isolé-like state. The chronic cerveau isolé preparation also demonstrates that the executive processes of paradoxical sleep are located in the lower brain stem, while the occurrence of this sleep stage seems to be modulated by forebrain structures.

  15. Online Reduction of Artifacts in EEG of Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Using Reference Layer Adaptive Filtering (RLAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyrl, David; Krausz, Gunther; Koschutnig, Karl; Edlinger, Günter; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allow us to study the active human brain from two perspectives concurrently. Signal processing based artifact reduction techniques are mandatory for this, however, to obtain reasonable EEG quality in simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Current artifact reduction techniques like average artifact subtraction (AAS), typically become less effective when artifact reduction has to be performed on-the-fly. We thus present and evaluate a new technique to improve EEG quality online. This technique adds up with online AAS and combines a prototype EEG-cap for reference recordings of artifacts, with online adaptive filtering and is named reference layer adaptive filtering (RLAF). We found online AAS + RLAF to be highly effective in improving EEG quality. Online AAS + RLAF outperformed online AAS and did so in particular online in terms of the chosen performance metrics, these being specifically alpha rhythm amplitude ratio between closed and opened eyes (3-45% improvement), signal-to-noise-ratio of visual evoked potentials (VEP) (25-63% improvement), and VEPs variability (16-44% improvement). Further, we found that EEG quality after online AAS + RLAF is occasionally even comparable with the offline variant of AAS at a 3T MRI scanner. In conclusion RLAF is a very effective add-on tool to enable high quality EEG in simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiments, even when online artifact reduction is necessary.

  16. Wind Farm Wake: The Horns Rev Photo Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Rasmussen, Leif; Peña, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the nowadays well-known wind farm wake photographs taken on 12 February 2008 at the offshore Horns Rev 1 wind farm. The meteorological conditions are described from observations from several satellite sensors quantifying clouds, surface wind vectors and sea surf...... in the wake regions with relatively high axial velocities and high turbulent kinetic energy. The wind speed is near cut-in and most turbines produce very little power. The rotational pattern of spiraling bands produces the large-scale structure of the wake fog....

  17. Numerical Analysis of the Unsteady Propeller Performance in the Ship Wake Modified By Different Wake Improvement Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugalski Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the summary of results of the numerical analysis of the unsteady propeller performance in the non-uniform ship wake modified by the different wake improvement devices. This analysis is performed using the lifting surface program DUNCAN for unsteady propeller analysis. Te object of the analysis is a 7000 ton chemical tanker, for which four different types of the wake improvement devices have been designed: two vortex generators, a pre-swirl stator, and a boundary layer alignment device. These produced five different cases of the ship wake structure: the original hull and hull equipped alternatively with four wake improvement devices. Two different propellers were analyzed in these five wake fields, one being the original reference propeller P0 and the other - a specially designed, optimized propeller P3. Te analyzed parameters were the pictures of unsteady cavitation on propeller blades, harmonics of pressure pulses generated by the cavitating propellers in the selected points and the fluctuating bearing forces on the propeller shaft. Some of the calculated cavitation phenomena were confronted with the experimental. Te objective of the calculations was to demonstrate the differences in the calculated unsteady propeller performance resulting from the application of different wake improvement devices. Te analysis and discussion of the results, together with the appropriate conclusions, are included in the paper.

  18. Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG: SCORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Martins-da-Silva, António; Trinka, Eugen; Visser, Gerhard; Rubboli, Guido; Hjalgrim, Helle; Stefan, Hermann; Rosén, Ingmar; Zarubova, Jana; Dobesberger, Judith; Alving, Jørgen; Andersen, Kjeld V; Fabricius, Martin; Atkins, Mary D; Neufeld, Miri; Plouin, Perrine; Marusic, Petr; Pressler, Ronit; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger; Emde Boas, Walter; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The electroencephalography (EEG) signal has a high complexity, and the process of extracting clinically relevant features is achieved by visual analysis of the recordings. The interobserver agreement in EEG interpretation is only moderate. This is partly due to the method of reporting the findings in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings). A working group of EEG experts took part in consensus workshops in Dianalund, Denmark, in 2010 and 2011. The faculty was approved by the Commission on European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The working group produced a consensus proposal that went through a pan-European review process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice. The main elements of SCORE are the following: personal data of the patient, referral data, recording conditions, modulators, background activity, drowsiness and sleep, interictal findings, “episodes” (clinical or subclinical events), physiologic patterns, patterns of uncertain significance, artifacts, polygraphic channels, and diagnostic significance. The following specific aspects of the neonatal EEGs are scored: alertness, temporal organization, and spatial organization. For each EEG finding, relevant features are scored using predefined terms. Definitions are provided for all EEG terms and features. SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make

  19. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  20. Detecting interictal discharges in first seizure patients: ambulatory EEG or EEG after sleep deprivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geut, I.; Weenink, S.; Knottnerus, I.L.H.; van Putten, Michel J.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Uncertainty about recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure is a significant psychological burden for patients, and motivates the need for diagnostic tools with high sensitivity and specificity to assess recurrence risk. As the sensitivity of a routine EEG after a first unprovoked seizure

  1. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. I. Hippocampal EEG correlates of gross motor behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    It was shown that rewarding spectral shifts (i.e. increase in amplitude or peak frequency of the hippocampal EEG) causes a solitary dog to show increased motor behaviour. Rewarded spectral shifts concurred with a variety of behavioural transitions. It was found that statistically significant

  2. Investigating Patterns for Self-Induced Emotion Recognition from EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ning; Zeng, Ying; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Chi; Tong, Li; Yan, Bin

    2018-03-12

    Most current approaches to emotion recognition are based on neural signals elicited by affective materials such as images, sounds and videos. However, the application of neural patterns in the recognition of self-induced emotions remains uninvestigated. In this study we inferred the patterns and neural signatures of self-induced emotions from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG signals of 30 participants were recorded while they watched 18 Chinese movie clips which were intended to elicit six discrete emotions, including joy, neutrality, sadness, disgust, anger and fear. After watching each movie clip the participants were asked to self-induce emotions by recalling a specific scene from each movie. We analyzed the important features, electrode distribution and average neural patterns of different self-induced emotions. Results demonstrated that features related to high-frequency rhythm of EEG signals from electrodes distributed in the bilateral temporal, prefrontal and occipital lobes have outstanding performance in the discrimination of emotions. Moreover, the six discrete categories of self-induced emotion exhibit specific neural patterns and brain topography distributions. We achieved an average accuracy of 87.36% in the discrimination of positive from negative self-induced emotions and 54.52% in the classification of emotions into six discrete categories. Our research will help promote the development of comprehensive endogenous emotion recognition methods.

  3. Investigating Patterns for Self-Induced Emotion Recognition from EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying; Yang, Kai; Tong, Li; Yan, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Most current approaches to emotion recognition are based on neural signals elicited by affective materials such as images, sounds and videos. However, the application of neural patterns in the recognition of self-induced emotions remains uninvestigated. In this study we inferred the patterns and neural signatures of self-induced emotions from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG signals of 30 participants were recorded while they watched 18 Chinese movie clips which were intended to elicit six discrete emotions, including joy, neutrality, sadness, disgust, anger and fear. After watching each movie clip the participants were asked to self-induce emotions by recalling a specific scene from each movie. We analyzed the important features, electrode distribution and average neural patterns of different self-induced emotions. Results demonstrated that features related to high-frequency rhythm of EEG signals from electrodes distributed in the bilateral temporal, prefrontal and occipital lobes have outstanding performance in the discrimination of emotions. Moreover, the six discrete categories of self-induced emotion exhibit specific neural patterns and brain topography distributions. We achieved an average accuracy of 87.36% in the discrimination of positive from negative self-induced emotions and 54.52% in the classification of emotions into six discrete categories. Our research will help promote the development of comprehensive endogenous emotion recognition methods. PMID:29534515

  4. Experienced Mindfulness Meditators Exhibit Higher Parietal-Occipital EEG Gamma Activity during NREM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A.; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25–40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function. PMID:24015304

  5. Algorithmic procedures for Bayesian MEG/EEG source reconstruction in SPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J D; Litvak, V; Espinosa, J J; Friston, K; Barnes, G R

    2014-01-01

    The MEG/EEG inverse problem is ill-posed, giving different source reconstructions depending on the initial assumption sets. Parametric Empirical Bayes allows one to implement most popular MEG/EEG inversion schemes (Minimum Norm, LORETA, etc.) within the same generic Bayesian framework. It also provides a cost-function in terms of the variational Free energy-an approximation to the marginal likelihood or evidence of the solution. In this manuscript, we revisit the algorithm for MEG/EEG source reconstruction with a view to providing a didactic and practical guide. The aim is to promote and help standardise the development and consolidation of other schemes within the same framework. We describe the implementation in the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software package, carefully explaining each of its stages with the help of a simple simulated data example. We focus on the Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP) model, which we compare with the well-known Minimum Norm and LORETA models, using the negative variational Free energy for model comparison. The manuscript is accompanied by Matlab scripts to allow the reader to test and explore the underlying algorithm. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Algorithmic procedures for Bayesian MEG/EEG source reconstruction in SPM☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J.D.; Litvak, V.; Espinosa, J.J.; Friston, K.; Barnes, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    The MEG/EEG inverse problem is ill-posed, giving different source reconstructions depending on the initial assumption sets. Parametric Empirical Bayes allows one to implement most popular MEG/EEG inversion schemes (Minimum Norm, LORETA, etc.) within the same generic Bayesian framework. It also provides a cost-function in terms of the variational Free energy—an approximation to the marginal likelihood or evidence of the solution. In this manuscript, we revisit the algorithm for MEG/EEG source reconstruction with a view to providing a didactic and practical guide. The aim is to promote and help standardise the development and consolidation of other schemes within the same framework. We describe the implementation in the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software package, carefully explaining each of its stages with the help of a simple simulated data example. We focus on the Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP) model, which we compare with the well-known Minimum Norm and LORETA models, using the negative variational Free energy for model comparison. The manuscript is accompanied by Matlab scripts to allow the reader to test and explore the underlying algorithm. PMID:24041874

  7. Long-term EEG in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  8. Circadian Sleep-Wake Rhythm of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaskant, Marijke; van de Wouw, Ellen; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The circadian sleep-wake rhythm changes with aging, resulting in a more fragmented sleep-wake pattern. In individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), brain structures regulating the sleep-wake rhythm might be affected. The aims of this study were to compare the sleep-wake rhythm of older adults with ID to that of older adults in the general…

  9. Wake Island Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Wake Island Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  10. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Marine propellers are designed not for the open-water operation, but for the operation behind a hull due to the inhomogeneous hull wake and thrust deduction. The adaptation for the hull wake is important for the propulsive efficiency and cavitation risk especially on single-screw ships. CFD...... simulations for a propeller with a hull model have showed acceptable agreement with a model test result in the thrust and torque (Larsson et al. 2010). In the current work, a measured hull wake is applied to the simulation instead of modelling a hull, because the hull geometry is mostly not available...... for propeller designers and the computational effort can be reduced by excluding the hull. The CFD simulation of a propeller flow with a hull wake is verified in order to use CFD as a propeller design tool. A Kappel propeller, which is an innovative tip-modified propeller, is handled. Kappel propellers...

  11. Cockpit-based Wake Vortex Visualization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To prevent aircraft accidents due to wake vortex hazards, FAA procedures specify the minimum separation required between different categories of aircraft. However, a...

  12. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David

    2012-01-16

    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  13. Improvement of a near wake model for trailing vorticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrung, Georg; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2014-01-01

    A near wake model, originally proposed by Beddoes, is further developed. The purpose of the model is to account for the radially dependent time constants of the fast aerodynamic response and to provide a tip loss correction. It is based on lifting line theory and models the downwash due to roughly...... the first 90 degrees of rotation. This restriction of the model to the near wake allows for using a computationally efficient indicial function algorithm. The aim of this study is to improve the accuracy of the downwash close to the root and tip of the blade and to decrease the sensitivity of the model...... to temporal discretization, both regarding numerical stability and quality of the results. The modified near wake model is coupled to an aerodynamics model, which consists of a blade element momentum model with dynamic inflow for the far wake and a 2D shed vorticity model that simulates the unsteady buildup...

  14. A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    We present an idealized simple, but fast, semi-analytical algorithm for computation of stationary wind farm wind fields with a possible potential within a multi-fidelity strategy for wind farm topology optimization. Basically, the model considers wakes as linear perturbations on the ambient non......-linear. With each of these approached, a parabolic system are described, which is initiated by first considering the most upwind located turbines and subsequently successively solved in the downstream direction. Algorithms for the resulting wind farm flow fields are proposed, and it is shown that in the limit......-uniform mean wind field, although the modelling of the individual stationary wake flow fields includes non-linear terms. The simulation of the individual wake contributions are based on an analytical solution of the thin shear layer approximation of the NS equations. The wake flow fields are assumed...

  15. Short bunch wake potentials for a chain of TESLA cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; Mosnier, Alban

    2014-01-01

    The modification of wake fields from a single cavity to a quasi-periodic structure of cavities is of great concern, especially for applications using very short bunches. We extend our former study (Novokhatski, 1997 [1]). A strong modification of wake fields along a train of cavities was clearly found for bunch lengths lower than 1 mm. In particular, the wakes induced by the bunch, as it proceeds down the successive cavities, decrease in amplitude and become more linear around the bunch center, with a profile very close to the integral of the charge density. The loss factor, decreasing also with the number of cells, becomes independent of bunch length for very short bunches and tends asymptotically to a finite value. This nice behavior of wake fields for short bunches presents good opportunity for application of very short bunches in Linear Colliders and X-ray Free Electron Lasers

  16. Field test of wake steering at an offshore wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fleming

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a field test of wake-steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.

  17. Sleep-wake disturbances after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Morin, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances are extremely common after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The most common disturbances are insomnia (difficulties falling or staying asleep), increased sleep need, and excessive daytime sleepiness that can be due to the TBI or other sleep disorders associated with TBI, such as sleep-related breathing disorder or post-traumatic hypersomnia. Sleep-wake disturbances can have a major effect on functional outcomes and on the recovery process after TBI. These negative effects can exacerbate other common sequelae of TBI-such as fatigue, pain, cognitive impairments, and psychological disorders (eg, depression and anxiety). Sleep-wake disturbances associated with TBI warrant treatment. Although evidence specific to patients with TBI is still scarce, cognitive-behavioural therapy and medication could prove helpful to alleviate sleep-wake disturbances in patients with a TBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2018-03-01

    The timing, duration, and consolidation of sleep result from the interaction of the circadian timing system with a sleep-wake homeostatic process. When aligned and functioning optimally, this allows wakefulness throughout the day and a long consolidated sleep episode at night. Mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall and remain asleep is a hallmark of the circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. This article discusses changes in circadian regulation of sleep with aging; how age influences the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders; and how neurologic diseases in older patients affect circadian rhythms and sleep. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep/Wakefulness Management in Continuous/Sustained Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ......There is an antinomy between the physiological requirement and the operational requirement. To be able to continue the mission but also to preserve our security and the security of the crew we need an appropriate sleep-wakefulness management...

  20. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2012-01-01

    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  1. NASA AVOSS Fast-Time Wake Prediction Models: User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash'at N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing and testing fast-time wake transport and decay models to safely enhance the capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). The fast-time wake models are empirical algorithms used for real-time predictions of wake transport and decay based on aircraft parameters and ambient weather conditions. The aircraft dependent parameters include the initial vortex descent velocity and the vortex pair separation distance. The atmospheric initial conditions include vertical profiles of temperature or potential temperature, eddy dissipation rate, and crosswind. The current distribution includes the latest versions of the APA (3.4) and the TDP (2.1) models. This User's Guide provides detailed information on the model inputs, file formats, and the model output. An example of a model run and a brief description of the Memphis 1995 Wake Vortex Dataset is also provided.

  2. Controlled Wake of a Moving Axisymmetric Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads exerted on a wire-mounted axisymmetric bluff body in prescribed rigid motion are controlled by fluidic manipulation of its near wake. The body is supported by a six-degree of freedom eight-wire traverse and its motion is controlled using a dedicated servo actuator and inline load cell for each wire. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces and moments on the moving body are manipulated by controlled interactions of an azimuthal array of integrated synthetic jet actuators with the cross flow to induce localized flow attachment over the body's aft end and thereby alter the symmetry of the wake. The coupled interactions between the wake structure and the effected aerodynamic loads during prescribed time-periodic and transitory (gust like) motions are investigated with emphasis on enhancing or diminishing the loads for maneuver control, and decoupling the body's motion from its far wake.

  3. Comparison of two LES codes for wind turbine wake studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Pierella, F.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2014-01-01

    of this paper is to investigate on two CFD solvers, the DTU's in-house code, EllipSys3D and the open-sourse toolbox, OpenFoam, for a set of actuator line based LES computations. Two types of simulations are performed: the wake behind a signle rotor and the wake behind a cluster of three inline rotors. Results...... are compared in terms of velocity deficit, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy viscosity. It is seen that both codes predict similar near-wake flow structures with the exception of OpenFoam's simulations without the subgrid-scale model. The differences begin to increase with increasing the distance from...... of the wake structures and more homogenuous flow structures. It is finally observed that OpenFoam computations are more sensitive to the SGS models....

  4. Local Learning Strategies for Wake Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Alsalman, Mohamad; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Swimming agents, biological and engineered alike, must navigate the underwater environment to survive. Tasks such as autonomous navigation, foraging, mating, and predation require the ability to extract critical cues from the hydrodynamic environment. A substantial body of evidence supports the hypothesis that biological systems leverage local sensing modalities, including flow sensing, to gain knowledge of their global surroundings. The nonlinear nature and high degree of complexity of fluid dynamics makes the development of algorithms for implementing localized sensing in bioinspired engineering systems essentially intractable for many systems of practical interest. In this work, we use techniques from machine learning for training a bioinspired swimmer to learn from its environment. We demonstrate the efficacy of this strategy by learning how to sense global characteristics of the wakes of other swimmers measured only from local sensory information. We conclude by commenting on the advantages and limitations of this data-driven, machine learning approach and its potential impact on broader applications in underwater sensing and navigation.

  5. Gas transfer in a bubbly wake flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, A.; Gulliver, J. S.; Monson, G. M.; Ellis, C.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Hong, J.

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports simultaneous bubble size and gas transfer measurements in a bubbly wake flow of a hydrofoil, designed to be similar to a hydroturbine blade. Bubble size was measured by a shadow imaging technique and found to have a Sauter mean diameter of 0.9 mm for a reference case. A lower gas flow rate, greater liquid velocities, and a larger angle of attack all resulted in an increased number of small size bubbles and a reduced weighted mean bubble size. Bubble-water gas transfer is measured by the disturbed equilibrium technique. The gas transfer model of Azbel (1981) is utilized to characterize the liquid film coefficient for gas transfer, with one scaling coefficient to reflect the fact that characteristic turbulent velocity is replaced by cross-sectional mean velocity. The coefficient was found to stay constant at a particular hydrofoil configuration while it varied within a narrow range of 0.52-0.60 for different gas/water flow conditions.

  6. EEG-Annotate: Automated identification and labeling of events in continuous signals with applications to EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kyung-Min; Hairston, W David; Robbins, Kay

    2018-01-01

    In controlled laboratory EEG experiments, researchers carefully mark events and analyze subject responses time-locked to these events. Unfortunately, such markers may not be available or may come with poor timing resolution for experiments conducted in less-controlled naturalistic environments. We present an integrated event-identification method for identifying particular responses that occur in unlabeled continuously recorded EEG signals based on information from recordings of other subjects potentially performing related tasks. We introduce the idea of timing slack and timing-tolerant performance measures to deal with jitter inherent in such non-time-locked systems. We have developed an implementation available as an open-source MATLAB toolbox (http://github.com/VisLab/EEG-Annotate) and have made test data available in a separate data note. We applied the method to identify visual presentation events (both target and non-target) in data from an unlabeled subject using labeled data from other subjects with good sensitivity and specificity. The method also identified actual visual presentation events in the data that were not previously marked in the experiment. Although the method uses traditional classifiers for initial stages, the problem of identifying events based on the presence of stereotypical EEG responses is the converse of the traditional stimulus-response paradigm and has not been addressed in its current form. In addition to identifying potential events in unlabeled or incompletely labeled EEG, these methods also allow researchers to investigate whether particular stereotypical neural responses are present in other circumstances. Timing-tolerance has the added benefit of accommodating inter- and intra- subject timing variations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wireless recording systems: from noninvasive EEG-NIRS to invasive EEG devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mohamad; Salam, Muhammad T; Le Lan, Jérôme; Kassab, Amal; Gelinas, Sébastien; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Lesage, Frédéric; Lassonde, Maryse; Nguyen, Dang K

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a wireless wearable electronic system dedicated to remote data recording for brain monitoring. The reported wireless recording system is used for a) simultaneous near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) and scalp electro-encephalography (EEG) for noninvasive monitoring and b) intracerebral EEG (icEEG) for invasive monitoring. Bluetooth and dual radio links were introduced for these recordings. The Bluetooth-based device was embedded in a noninvasive multichannel EEG-NIRS system for easy portability and long-term monitoring. On the other hand, the 32-channel implantable recording device offers 24-bit resolution, tunable features, and a sampling frequency up to 2 kHz per channel. The analog front-end preamplifier presents low input-referred noise of 5 μ VRMS and a signal-to-noise ratio of 112 dB. The communication link is implemented using a dual-band radio frequency transceiver offering a half-duplex 800 kb/s data rate, 16.5 mW power consumption and less than 10(-10) post-correction Bit-Error Rate (BER). The designed system can be accessed and controlled by a computer with a user-friendly graphical interface. The proposed wireless implantable recording device was tested in vitro using real icEEG signals from two patients with refractory epilepsy. The wirelessly recorded signals were compared to the original signals recorded using wired-connection, and measured normalized root-mean square deviation was under 2%.

  8. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhall, Erik; Rossetti, Andrea O.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Wesenberg Kjaer, Troels; Horn, Janneke; Ullén, Susann; Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas; Rosén, Ingmar; Åneman, Anders; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Hassager, Christian; Hovdenes, Jan; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Tommaso; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matt P.; Cronberg, Tobias; Saxena, Manoj; Miller, Jennene; Inskip, Deborah; Macken, Lewis; Finfer, Simon; Eatough, Noel; Hammond, Naomi; Bass, Frances; Yarad, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Anne; Bird, Simon; Jewell, Timothy; Davies, Gareth; Ng, Karl; Coward, Sharon; Stewart, Antony; Micallef, Sharon; Parker, Sharyn; Cortado, Dennis; Gould, Ann; Harward, Meg; Thompson, Kelly; Glass, Parisa; Myburgh, John; Smid, Ondrej; Belholavek, Jan; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Boerma, EC

    2016-01-01

    To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists, blinded to outcome,

  9. Convolutive ICA for Spatio-Temporal Analysis of EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Makeig, Scott; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    in the convolutive model can be correctly detected using Bayesian model selection. We demonstrate a framework for deconvolving an EEG ICA subspace. Initial results suggest that in some cases convolutive mixing may be a more realistic model for EEG signals than the instantaneous ICA model....

  10. Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development…

  11. Correlations of CT and EEG findings in brain affections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, B.; Nevsimalova, S.; Kvicala, V.

    1984-01-01

    The results were compared of electroencephalography (EEG) and computerized tomography (CT) examinations of 250 patients with different brain affections. In intracranial expansive processes the pre-operative CT findings were positive in 100% cases, the EEG findings in 89.7% of cases. In severe traumatic affections the EEG and CT findings were positive in all cases, in mild injuries and post-traumatic conditions the EEG findings were more frequently positive than the CT. In focal and diffuse vascular affections the EEG and CT findings were consistent, in transitory ischemic conditions the EEG findings were more frequently positive. In inflammatory cerebral affections and in paroxymal diseases the EEG findings were positive more frequently than the CT. The same applies for demyelinating and degenerative affections. Findings of other authors were confirmed to the effect that CT very reliably reveals morphological changes in cerebral tissue while EEG records the functional state of the central nervous system and its changes. The two methods are complementary. (author)

  12. EOG Artifacts Removal in EEG Measurements for Affective Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a direct link between the brain and a computer. Multi-modal input with BCI forms a promising solution for creating rich gaming experience. Electroencephalography (EEG) measurement is the sole necessary component for a BCI system. EEG signals have the

  13. EEG Signal Classification With Super-Dirichlet Mixture Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zhanyu; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Swati

    2012-01-01

    Classification of the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is a challengeable task in the brain-computer interface systems. The marginalized discrete wavelet transform (mDWT) coefficients extracted from the EEG signals have been frequently used in researches since they reveal features related...

  14. Quantitative EEG Applying the Statistical Recognition Pattern Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engedal, Knut; Snaedal, Jon; Hoegh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the discriminatory power of quantitative EEG (qEEG) applying the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) method to separate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from elderly individuals without dementia and from other dementia patients. METHODS...

  15. A computerised EEG-analyzing system for small laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropveld, D.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Popken, R. J.; Smith, J.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental setup, including instrumentation and software packaging, is described for the use of a minicomputer as an on-line analyzing system of the EEG in rats. Complete fast Fourier transformation of the EEG sampled in 15 episodes of 10 s each is plotted out within 7 min after the start of

  16. Diagnostic Role of ECG Recording Simultaneously With EEG Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirli, Mustafa Tansel; Aparci, Mustafa; Kendirli, Nurten; Tekeli, Hakan; Karaoglan, Mustafa; Senol, Mehmet Guney; Togrol, Erdem

    2015-07-01

    Arrhythmia is not uncommon in the etiology of syncope which mimics epilepsy. Data about the epilepsy induced vagal tonus abnormalities have being increasingly reported. So we aimed to evaluate what a neurologist may gain by a simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in the patients who underwent EEG testing due to prediagnosis of epilepsy. We retrospectively evaluated and detected ECG abnormalities in 68 (18%) of 376 patients who underwent EEG testing. A minimum of 20 of minutes artifact-free recording were required for each patient. Standard 1-channel ECG was simultaneously recorded in conjunction with the EEG. In all, 28% of females and 14% of males had ECG abnormalities. Females (mean age 49 years, range 18-88 years) were older compared with the male group (mean age 28 years, range 16-83 years). Atrial fibrillation was more frequent in female group whereas bradycardia and respiratory sinus arrhythmia was higher in male group. One case had been detected a critical asystole indicating sick sinus syndrome in the female group and treated with a pacemaker implantation in the following period. Simultaneous ECG recording in conjunction with EEG testing is a clinical prerequisite to detect and to clarify the coexisting ECG and EEG abnormalities and their clinical relevance. Potentially rare lethal causes of syncope that mimic seizure or those that could cause resistance to antiepileptic therapy could effectively be distinguished by detecting ECG abnormalities coinciding with the signs and abnormalities during EEG recording. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  17. A comparison of EEG spectral entropy with conventional quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    and decrease with increasing depth of anaesthesia. Spectral en- tropy yields two scales: Response Entropy (RE), ranging between. 0 to100, is an amalgam of EEG and frontal muscle activity while. State Entropy (SE), consisting mainly of EEG activity in a lower frequency band, ranges from 0 to 91.2 Initial reports have pro-.

  18. Analysis of Small Muscle Movement Effects on EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    different conditions are recorded in this experiment. These conditions are the resting state, left finger keyboard press, right finger keyboard...51 4.3.2. Right and Left Finger Keyboard Press Conditions ..................................... 57 4.4. Detection of Hand...solving Gamma 30 Hz and higher Blending of multiple brain functions ; Muscle related artifacts 2.2. EEG Artifacts EEG recordings are intended to

  19. Recording EEG In Young Children Without Sedation | Curuneaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Although it has been considered that sedation in children undergoing EEG tests is effective and safe and complications are infrequent, occasionally adverse sedation-related events are presented. Objective The aim of this work was to determine if it is possible to carry out EEG in children up to 4 years old ...

  20. The effect of CPAP treatment on EEG of OSAS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Jun; Zhou, Junhong; Su, Li; Feng, Liping; Ma, Jing; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Jue

    2015-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently the most effective treatment method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to compare the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) changes before and after the application of CPAP to OSAS patients. A retrospective study was conducted and 45 sequential patients who received both polysomnography (PSG) and CPAP titration were included. The raw data of sleep EEG were extracted and analyzed by engineers using two main factors: fractal dimension (FD) and the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD). FD was an effective indicator reflecting the EEG complexity and zDFD was useful to reflect the variability of the EEG complexity. The FD and zDFD indexes of sleep EEG of 45 OSAS patients before and after CPAP titration were analyzed. The age of 45 OSAS patients was 52.7 ± 5.6 years old and the patients include 12 females and 33 males. After CPAP treatment, FD of EEG in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep decreased significantly (P CPAP therapy (P CPAP therapy had a significant influence on sleep EEG in patients with OSAHS, which lead to a more stable EEG pattern. This may be one of the mechanisms that CPAP could improve sleep quality and brain function of OSAS patients.

  1. Uncovering the genetic landscape for multiple sleep-wake traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Winrow

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research in defining sleep-wake properties in mammals, little is known about the nature or identity of genes that regulate sleep, a fundamental behaviour that in humans occupies about one-third of the entire lifespan. While genome-wide association studies in humans and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses in mice have identified candidate genes for an increasing number of complex traits and genetic diseases, the resources and time-consuming process necessary for obtaining detailed quantitative data have made sleep seemingly intractable to similar large-scale genomic approaches. Here we describe analysis of 20 sleep-wake traits from 269 mice from a genetically segregating population that reveals 52 significant QTL representing a minimum of 20 genomic loci. While many (28 QTL affected a particular sleep-wake trait (e.g., amount of wake across the full 24-hr day, other loci only affected a trait in the light or dark period while some loci had opposite effects on the trait during the light vs. dark. Analysis of a dataset for multiple sleep-wake traits led to previously undetected interactions (including the differential genetic control of number and duration of REM bouts, as well as possible shared genetic regulatory mechanisms for seemingly different unrelated sleep-wake traits (e.g., number of arousals and REM latency. Construction of a Bayesian network for sleep-wake traits and loci led to the identification of sub-networks of linkage not detectable in smaller data sets or limited single-trait analyses. For example, the network analyses revealed a novel chain of causal relationships between the chromosome 17@29cM QTL, total amount of wake, and duration of wake bouts in both light and dark periods that implies a mechanism whereby overall sleep need, mediated by this locus, in turn determines the length of each wake bout. Taken together, the present results reveal a complex genetic landscape underlying multiple sleep-wake traits

  2. Wind turbine wake characterization using long-range Doppler lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, M.; Lundquist, J. K.; Hestmark, K.; Banta, R. M.; Pichugina, Y.; Brewer, A.

    2012-12-01

    Wind turbines extract energy from the freestream flow, resulting in a waked region behind the rotor which is characterized by reduced wind speed and increased turbulence. The velocity deficit in the wake diminishes with distance, as faster-moving air outside is gradually entrained. In a concentrated group of turbines, then, downwind machines experience very different inflow conditions compared to those in the front row. As utility-scale turbines rarely exist in isolation, detailed knowledge of the mean flow and turbulence structure inside wakes is needed to correctly model both power production and turbine loading at modern wind farms. To this end, the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS) was conducted in the spring of 2011 to determine the reduction in wind speeds downstream from a multi-MW turbine located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Boulder, Colorado. Full-scale measurements of wake dynamics are hardly practical or even possible with conventional sensors, such as cup anemometers mounted on meteorological (met) masts. Accordingly, the High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Earth System Research Laboratory was employed to investigate the formation and propagation of wakes under varying levels of ambient wind speed, shear, atmospheric stability, and turbulence. HRDL remotely senses line-of-sight wind velocities and has been used in several previous studies of boundary layer aerodynamics. With a fully steerable beam and a maximum range up to about 5 km, depending on atmospheric conditions, HRDL performed a comprehensive survey of the wind flow in front of and behind the turbine to study the shape, meandering, and attenuation of wakes. Due in large part to limited experimental data availability, wind farm wake modeling is still subject to an unacceptable amount of uncertainty, particularly in complex terrain. Here, analytical

  3. Computational study of three-dimensional wake structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, R.; Shirayama, S.; Kamo, K.; Kuwahara, K.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional wake structure is studied by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results are visualized by a three-dimensional color graphic system. It was found that a pair of vortex tubes separated from a body plays the most important role in the wake. Near the body vortex tubes are rather stable, however, they gradually become unsteady as they flow down

  4. Sleep wake pattern analysis: Study of 131 medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Nita Ninama; Jaydeep Kangathara

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Sleep is part of the rhythm of life. Without a good sleep the mind is less adapts, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep wake cycle of the students is quite different and characterized by delayed onset, partial sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration and occurrence of napping episodes during the day The aim of the present study is to know sleep wake pattern in medical student, role of residence and individual characterization...

  5. Boat, wake, and wave real-time simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerkowski, Leszek; Gouthas, Efthimios; Christie, Chad L.; Williams, Owen M.

    2009-05-01

    We describe the extension of our real-time scene generation software VIRSuite to include the dynamic simulation of small boats and their wakes within an ocean environment. Extensive use has been made of the programmabilty available in the current generation of GPUs. We have demonstrated that real-time simulation is feasible, even including such complexities as dynamical calculation of the boat motion, wake generation and calculation of an FFTgenerated sea state.

  6. TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).

  7. Wind Turbine Wake-Redirection Control at the Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, M.; Fleming, P.; Bulder, B.; White, S.

    2015-05-06

    In this paper, we will present our work towards designing a control strategy to mitigate wind turbine wake effects by redirecting the wakes, specifically applied to the Fishermen’s Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW), proposed for deployment off the shore of Atlantic City, New Jersey. As wind turbines extract energy from the air, they create low-speed wakes that extend behind them. Full wake recovery Full wake recovery to the undisturbed wind speed takes a significant distance. In a wind energy plant the wakes of upstream turbines may travel downstream to the next row of turbines, effectively subjecting them to lower wind speeds, meaning these waked turbines will produce less power.

  8. Extracting attempted hand movements from EEGs in people with complete hand paralysis following stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eMuralidharan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of using electroencephalograms (EEGs to rapidly detect the intent to open one’s hand in individuals with complete hand paralysis following a subcortical ischemic stroke. If detectable, this motor planning activity could be used in real time to trigger a motorized hand exoskeleton or an electrical stimulation device that opens/closes the hand. While EEG-triggered movement-assist devices could restore function, they may also promote recovery by reinforcing the use of remaining cortical circuits. EEGs were recorded while participants were cued to either relax or attempt to extend their fingers. Linear discriminant analysis was used to detect onset of finger extension from the EEGs in a leave-one-trial-out cross-validation process. In each testing trial, the classifier was applied in pseudo real time starting from an initial hand-relaxed phase, through movement planning, and into the initial attempted finger extension phase (finger extension phase estimated from typical time-to-movement-onset measured in the unaffected hand. The classifiers detected attempted finger-extension at a significantly higher rate during both motor planning and early attempted execution compared to rest. To reduce inappropriate triggering of a movement-assist device during rest, the classification threshold could be adjusted to require more certainty about one’s intent to move before triggering a device. Additionally, a device could be set to activate only after multiple time samples in a row were classified as finger extension events. These options resulted in some sessions with no false triggers while the person was resting, but moderate-to-high true trigger rates during attempted movements.

  9. Global Manufacturing Research: Experience Exchange Group (EEG) contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter

    1998-01-01

    of preliminary studies found interesting to set upan EEG composed of representatives from industry and a researcher. Inthe paper some general research methods pertinent to the areaindustrial management is discussed. The EEG concept is introduced andcharacterised in comparison with the other methods. EEG...... activities aredescribed and a tentative coupling to the phases in a research processis proposed. Following this is a discussion of methodological andquality requirements. It is considered how EEG activities couldpossible contribute to an industrial rooted research. The paper endsup looking at future research......The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an ExperienceExchange Group (EEG) can be involved in a research process in the areaof industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoingresearch in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research itwas after a series...

  10. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG:SCORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sandor; H, Aurlien,; JC, Brøgger,

    2013-01-01

    process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice...... in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings....... SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make possible the build-up of a multinational database, and it will help in training young neurophysiologists....

  11. EEG as an Indicator of Cerebral Functioning in Postanoxic Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Elsa; Kaplan, Peter W; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2015-12-01

    Postanoxic coma after cardiac arrest is one of the most serious acute cerebral conditions and a frequent cause of admission to critical care units. Given substantial improvement of outcome over the recent years, a reliable and timely assessment of clinical evolution and prognosis is essential in this context, but may be challenging. In addition to the classic neurologic examination, EEG is increasingly emerging as an important tool to assess cerebral functions noninvasively. Although targeted temperature management and related sedation may delay clinical assessment, EEG provides accurate prognostic information in the early phase of coma. Here, the most frequently encountered EEG patterns in postanoxic coma are summarized and their relations with outcome prediction are discussed. This article also addresses the influence of targeted temperature management on brain signals and the implication of the evolution of EEG patterns over time. Finally, the article ends with a view of the future prospects for EEG in postanoxic management and prognostication.

  12. EEG Suppression Associated with Apneic Episodes in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evonne Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the EEG findings from an ex-preterm neonate at term equivalent age who presented with intermittent but prolonged apneic episodes which were presumed to be seizures. A total of 8 apneic episodes were captured (duration 23–376 seconds during EEG monitoring. The baseline EEG activity was appropriate for corrected gestational age and no electrographic seizure activity was recorded. The average baseline heart rate was 168 beats per minute (bpm and the baseline oxygen saturation level was in the mid-nineties. Periods of complete EEG suppression lasting 68 and 179 seconds, respectively, were recorded during 2 of these 8 apneic episodes. Both episodes were accompanied by bradycardia less than 70 bpm and oxygen saturation levels of less than 20%. Short but severe episodes of apnea can cause complete EEG suppression in the neonate.

  13. Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A; Allen, John J B

    2004-10-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry appears to serve as (1) an individual difference variable related to emotional responding and emotional disorders, and (2) a state-dependent concomitant of emotional responding. Such findings, highlighted in this review, suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may serve as both a moderator and a mediator of emotion- and motivation-related constructs. Unequivocal evidence supporting frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and/or mediator of emotion is lacking, as insufficient attention has been given to analyzing the frontal EEG asymmetries in terms of moderators and mediators. The present report reviews the frontal EEG asymmetry literature from the framework of moderators and mediators, and overviews data analytic strategies that would support claims of moderation and mediation.

  14. Combined process automation for large-scale EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfondouris, John L; Quebedeaux, Tabitha M; Holdgraf, Chris; Musto, Alberto E

    2012-01-01

    Epileptogenesis is a dynamic process producing increased seizure susceptibility. Electroencephalography (EEG) data provides information critical in understanding the evolution of epileptiform changes throughout epileptic foci. We designed an algorithm to facilitate efficient large-scale EEG analysis via linked automation of multiple data processing steps. Using EEG recordings obtained from electrical stimulation studies, the following steps of EEG analysis were automated: (1) alignment and isolation of pre- and post-stimulation intervals, (2) generation of user-defined band frequency waveforms, (3) spike-sorting, (4) quantification of spike and burst data and (5) power spectral density analysis. This algorithm allows for quicker, more efficient EEG analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil in a flowing soap film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders; Bohr, Tomas

    2008-11-01

    We present an experimental study of an oscillating, symmetric foil in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we explore and visualize a variety of wake structures, including von Kármán wake, reverse von Kármán wake, 2P wake, and 2P+2S wake. We characterize the transition from the von Kármán wake (drag) to the reverse von Kármán wake (thrust) and discuss the results in relation to fish swimming. We visualize the time evolution of the vortex shedding in detail, identify the origins of the vortices comprising the wake, and propose a simple model to account for the transition from von Kármán like wakes to more exotic wake structures.

  16. Sleep/wake dependent changes in cortical glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Michael B; Bellesi, Michele; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Most of the energy in the brain comes from glucose and supports glutamatergic activity. The firing rate of cortical glutamatergic neurons, as well as cortical extracellular glutamate levels, increase with time spent awake and decline throughout non rapid eye movement sleep, raising the question whether glucose levels reflect behavioral state and sleep/wake history. Here chronic (2-3 days) electroencephalographic recordings in the rat cerebral cortex were coupled with fixed-potential amperometry to monitor the extracellular concentration of glucose ([gluc]) on a second-by-second basis across the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and in response to 3 h of sleep deprivation. [Gluc] progressively increased during non rapid eye movement sleep and declined during rapid eye movement sleep, while during wake an early decline in [gluc] was followed by an increase 8-15 min after awakening. There was a significant time of day effect during the dark phase, when rats are mostly awake, with [gluc] being significantly lower during the last 3-4 h of the night relative to the first 3-4 h. Moreover, the duration of the early phase of [gluc] decline during wake was longer after prolonged wake than after consolidated sleep. Thus, the sleep/wake history may affect the levels of glucose available to the brain upon awakening. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Surface Characteristics of Green Island Wakes from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Ho; Hsu, Po-Chun; Ho, Chung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    Characteristics of an island wake induced by the Kuroshio Current flows pass by Green Island, a small island 40 km off southeast of Taiwan is investigated by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery. The MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) imagery is produced at 250-meter resolution from 2014 to 2015 using the SeaDAS software package which is developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The wake occurrence is 59% observed from SST images during the data span. The average cooling area is 190 km2, but the area is significantly changed with wind directions. The wake area is increased during southerly winds and is reduced during northerly winds. Besides, the average cooling SST was about 2.1 oC between the front and rear island. Comparing the temperature difference between the wake and its left side, the difference is 1.96 oC. In addition, the wakes have 1 3 times higher than normal in chlorophyll concentration. The results indicate the island mass effect makes the surface water of Green island wake colder and chl-a higher.

  18. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  19. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2017-05-01

    Wind turbines in a wind power plant experience significant power losses because of aerodynamic interactions between turbines. One control strategy to reduce these losses is known as 'wake steering,' in which upstream turbines are yawed to direct wakes away from downstream turbines. Previous wake steering research has assumed perfect information, however, there can be significant uncertainty in many aspects of the problem, including wind inflow and various turbine measurements. Uncertainty has significant implications for performance of wake steering strategies. Consequently, the authors formulate and solve an optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problem for finding optimal wake steering strategies in the presence of yaw angle uncertainty. The OUU wake steering strategy is demonstrated on a two-turbine test case and on the utility-scale, offshore Princess Amalia Wind Farm. When we accounted for yaw angle uncertainty in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm case, inflow-direction-specific OUU solutions produced between 0% and 1.4% more power than the deterministically optimized steering strategies, resulting in an overall annual average improvement of 0.2%. More importantly, the deterministic optimization is expected to perform worse and with more downside risk than the OUU result when realistic uncertainty is taken into account. Additionally, the OUU solution produces fewer extreme yaw situations than the deterministic solution.

  20. Simulation of Wake Vortex Radiometric Detection via Jet Exhaust Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the potential of an airborne hyperspectral imaging IR instrument to infer wake vortices via turbine jet exhaust as a proxy. The goal was to determine the requirements for an imaging spectrometer or radiometer to effectively detect the exhaust plume, and by inference, the location of the wake vortices. The effort examines the gas spectroscopy of the various major constituents of turbine jet exhaust and their contributions to the modeled detectable radiance. Initially, a theoretical analysis of wake vortex proxy detection by thermal radiation was realized in a series of simulations. The first stage used the SLAB plume model to simulate turbine jet exhaust plume characteristics, including exhaust gas transport dynamics and concentrations. The second stage used these plume characteristics as input to the Line By Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to simulate responses from both an imaging IR hyperspectral spectrometer or radiometer. These numerical simulations generated thermal imagery that was compared with previously reported wake vortex temperature data. This research is a continuation of an effort to specify the requirements for an imaging IR spectrometer or radiometer to make wake vortex measurements. Results of the two-stage simulation will be reported, including instrument specifications for wake vortex thermal detection. These results will be compared with previously reported results for IR imaging spectrometer performance.

  1. Wake flow control using a dynamically controlled wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ricardo; Wang, Yeqin; Pol, Suhas; Swift, Andy; Hussain, Fazle; Westergaard, Carsten; Texas Tech University Team

    2016-11-01

    A wind tunnel based "Hyper Accelerated Wind Farm Kinematic-Control Simulator" (HAWKS) is being built at Texas Tech University to emulate controlled wind turbine flow physics. The HAWKS model turbine has pitch, yaw and speed control which is operated in real model time, similar to that of an equivalent full scale turbine. Also, similar to that of a full scale wind turbine, the controls are developed in a Matlab Simulink environment. The current diagnostic system consists of power, rotor position, rotor speed measurements and PIV wake characterization with four cameras. The setup allows up to 7D downstream of the rotor to be mapped. The purpose of HAWKS is to simulate control strategies at turnaround times much faster than CFD and full scale testing. The fundamental building blocks of the simulator have been tested, and demonstrate wake steering for both static and dynamic turbine actuation. Parameters which have been studied are yaw, rotor speed and combinations hereof. The measured wake deflections for static yaw cases are in agreement with previously reported research implying general applicability of the HAWKS platform for the purpose of manipulating the wake. In this presentation the general results will be introduced followed by an analysis of the wake turbulence and coherent structures when comparing static and dynamic flow cases. The outcome of such studies could ultimately support effective wind farm wake flow control strategies. Texas Emerging Technology Fund (ETF).

  2. International Survey on the Management of Wake-Up Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Afonso, Luís Henrique; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Pontes-Neto, Octávio Marques; dos Santos, Antônio Carlos; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2016-01-01

    Patients who wake up having experienced a stroke while asleep represent around 20% of acute stroke admissions. According to international guidelines for the management of acute stroke, patients presenting with wake-up stroke are not currently eligible to receive revascularization treatments. In this study, we aimed to assess the opinions of stroke experts about the management of patients with wake-up stroke by using an international multicenter electronic survey. This study consisted of 8 questions on wake-up stroke treatment. Two hundred invitations to participate in the survey were sent by e-mail. Fifty-nine participants started the survey, 4 dropped out before completing it, and 55 completed the full questionnaire. We had 55 participants from 22 countries. In this study, most stroke experts recommended a recanalization treatment for wake-up stroke. However, there was considerable disagreement among experts regarding the best brain imaging method and the best recanalization treatment. The results of ongoing randomized trials on wake-up stroke are urgently needed.

  3. International Survey on the Management of Wake-Up Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique de Castro-Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who wake up having experienced a stroke while asleep represent around 20% of acute stroke admissions. According to international guidelines for the management of acute stroke, patients presenting with wake-up stroke are not currently eligible to receive revascularization treatments. In this study, we aimed to assess the opinions of stroke experts about the management of patients with wake-up stroke by using an international multicenter electronic survey. Method: This study consisted of 8 questions on wake-up stroke treatment. Results: Two hundred invitations to participate in the survey were sent by e-mail. Fifty-nine participants started the survey, 4 dropped out before completing it, and 55 completed the full questionnaire. We had 55 participants from 22 countries. Conclusions: In this study, most stroke experts recommended a recanalization treatment for wake-up stroke. However, there was considerable disagreement among experts regarding the best brain imaging method and the best recanalization treatment. The results of ongoing randomized trials on wake-up stroke are urgently needed.

  4. The quantity does it? The EEG 2017 and the consequences for the German energy transition; Menge macht's? Das EEG 2017 und die Folgen fuer die deutsche Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meya, Jasper N.; Neetzow, Paul [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany); Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Neubauer, Linda; Pechan, Anna [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) has so far been the driving force behind German energy transition and has found many imitators internationally as an effective funding instrument. With the reform of the EEG, which was approved by the Federal Government, the promotion of renewable energies (EE) was shifted from the current price to a quantity control. The present analysis of the impact of the switch to cost-efficiency, the diversity of actors, the achievement of the EE production targets and network consistency shows that the efficiency advantages of tendering may be reduced by higher transaction costs and regional expansion ambitions dampened. The tendered quantities are not sufficient for the long term to increase EE share to the targeted level. It is also doubtful whether a grid-compatible EE expansion is achieved. [German] Das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) war bislang der Motor der deutschen Energiewende und hat als effektives Foerderinstrument international viele Nachahmer gefunden. Mit der von der Bundesregierung beschlossenen Reform des EEG wird die Foerderung der erneuerbaren Energien (EE) von der bisherigen Preis- auf eine Mengensteuerung umgestellt. Die vorliegende Analyse der Auswirkungen der Umstellung auf Kosteneffizienz, Akteursvielfalt, Erreichen der EE-Erzeugungsziele und Netzkonformitaet zeigt, dass die Effizienzvorteile der Ausschreibungen ggf. durch hoehere Transaktionskosten verringert und regionale Ausbauambitionen gedaempft werden. Die ausgeschriebenen Mengen reichen langfristig nicht aus, um den EE-Anteil zielkonform zu erhoehen. Es ist zudem fraglich, ob ein netzkonformer EE-Ausbau erreicht wird.

  5. Functional consequences of brain glycogen deficiency on the sleep-wake cycle regulation in PTG-KO mice

    KAUST Repository

    Burlet-Godinot, S.

    2017-12-31

    Introduction: In the CNS, glycogen is mainly localized in astrocytes where its levels are linked to neuronal activity. Astrocytic glycogen synthesis is regulated by glycogen synthase (GS) activity that is positively controlled by protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) expression levels. Although the role of glycogen in sleep/wake regulation is still poorly understood, we have previously demonstrated that, following a 6 hour gentle sleep deprivation (GSD), PTG mRNA expression and GS activity increased in the brain in mice while glycogen levels were paradoxically maintained and not affected. In order to gain further insight on the role of PTG in this process, we studied the sleep/wake cycle parameters in PTG knockout (PTG-KO) mice under baseline conditions and after a 6 hour GSD. Glycogen levels as well as mRNAs expression of genes related to energy metabolism were also determined in several brain areas. Materials and methods: Adult male C57BL/6J (WT) and PTG-KO mice were sleep-recorded under baseline conditions (24 h recordings, 12 h light/dark cycle) and following 6 hours GSD from ZT00 to ZT06. Vigilance states were visually scored (4 s temporal window). Spectral analysis of the EEG signal was performed using a discrete Fourier transformation. Glycogen measurements and gene expression analysis were assessed using a biochemical assay and quantitative RT-PCR respectively, on separate cohorts in WT vs PTG-KO mice at the end of the 6 hours GSD or in control animals (CTL) in different brain structures. Results: Quantitative analysis of the sleep/wake cycle under baseline conditions did not reveal major differences between the WT and the PTG-KO mice. However, during the dark period, the PTG-KO mice showed a significant increase in the number of wake and slow wave sleep episodes (respectively +26.5±8% and +26.1±8%; p< 0.05) together with a significant shortening in their duration (-21.6±7.2% and -14.3±2.8%; p< 0.01). No such quantitative changes were observed during

  6. Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Larry

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By enabling individuals to self-regulate their brainwave activity in the field of optimal performance in healthy individuals, neurofeedback has been found to improve cognitive and artistic performance. Here we assessed whether two distinct EEG neurofeedback protocols could develop surgical skill, given the important role this skill plays in medicine. Results National Health Service trainee ophthalmic microsurgeons (N = 20 were randomly assigned to either Sensory Motor Rhythm-Theta (SMR or Alpha-Theta (AT groups, a randomized subset of which were also part of a wait-list 'no-treatment' control group (N = 8. Neurofeedback groups received eight 30-minute sessions of EEG training. Pre-post assessment included a skills lab surgical procedure with timed measures and expert ratings from video-recordings by consultant surgeons, together with state/trait anxiety self-reports. SMR training demonstrated advantages absent in the control group, with improvements in surgical skill according to 1 the expert ratings: overall technique (d = 0.6, p Conclusion SMR-Theta neurofeedback training provided significant improvement in surgical technique whilst considerably reducing time on task by 26%. There was also evidence that AT training marginally reduced total surgery time, despite suboptimal training efficacies. Overall, the data set provides encouraging evidence of optimised learning of a complex medical specialty via neurofeedback training.

  7. Anterior EEG asymmetries and opponent process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, John P; Blackhart, Ginette C; Williams, William C

    2007-03-01

    The opponent process theory of emotion [Solomon, R.L., and Corbit, J.D. (1974). An opponent-process theory of motivation: I. Temporal dynamics of affect. Psychological Review, 81, 119-143.] predicts a temporary reversal of emotional valence during the recovery from emotional stimulation. We hypothesized that this affective contrast would be apparent in asymmetrical activity patterns in the frontal lobes, and would be more apparent for left frontally active individuals. The present study tested this prediction by examining EEG asymmetries during and after blocked presentations of aversive pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). 12 neutral images, 12 aversive images, and 24 neutral images were presented in blocks. Participants who were right frontally active at baseline did not show changes in EEG asymmetry while viewing aversive slides or after cessation. Participants left frontally active at baseline, however, exhibited greater relative left frontal activity after aversive stimulation than before stimulation. Asymmetrical activity patterns in the frontal lobes may relate to affect regulatory processes, including contrasting opponent after-reactions to aversive stimuli.

  8. Bilateral 5 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation on fronto-temporal areas modulates resting-state EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Atri, Aurora; Romano, Claudia; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Scarpelli, Serena; Alfonsi, Valentina; Ferrara, Michele; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2017-11-15

    Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order. We assessed the stimulation effects on cortical EEG activity (28 derivations) and self-reported sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale). θ-tACS induced significant increases of the theta activity in temporo-parieto-occipital areas and centro-frontal increases in the alpha activity compared to sham but failed to induce any online effect on sleepiness. Since the total energy delivered in the sham condition was much less than in the active θ-tACS, the current data are unable to isolate the specific effect of entrained theta oscillatory activity per se on sleepiness scores. On this basis, we concluded that θ-tACS modulated theta and alpha EEG activity with a topography consistent with high sleep pressure conditions. However, no causal relation can be traced on the basis of the current results between these rhythms and changes on sleepiness.

  9. Dynamics of EEG functional connectivity during statistical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Janacsek, Karolina; Takács, Ádám; Kóbor, Andrea; Zavecz, Zsófia; Nemeth, Dezso

    2017-10-01

    Statistical learning is a fundamental mechanism of the brain, which extracts and represents regularities of our environment. Statistical learning is crucial in predictive processing, and in the acquisition of perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills. Although previous studies have revealed competitive neurocognitive processes underlying statistical learning, the neural communication of the related brain regions (functional connectivity, FC) has not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating FC networks that promote statistical learning in humans. Young adults (N=28) performed a statistical learning task while 128-channels EEG was acquired. The task involved probabilistic sequences, which enabled to measure incidental/implicit learning of conditional probabilities. Phase synchronization in seven frequency bands was used to quantify FC between cortical regions during the first, second, and third periods of the learning task, respectively. Here we show that statistical learning is negatively correlated with FC of the anterior brain regions in slow (theta) and fast (beta) oscillations. These negative correlations increased as the learning progressed. Our findings provide evidence that dynamic antagonist brain networks serve a hallmark of statistical learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Aircraft Wake Dynamics on Measured and Simulated NO(x) and HO(x) Wake Chemistry. Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. S.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution numerical large-eddy simulations of the near wake of a B757 including simplified NOx and HOx chemistry were performed to explore the effects of dynamics on chemistry in wakes of ages from a few seconds to several minutes. Dilution plays an important basic role in the NOx-O3 chemistry in the wake, while a more interesting interaction between the chemistry and dynamics occurs for the HOx species. These simulation results are compared with published measurements of OH and HO2 within a B757 wake under cruise conditions in the upper troposphere taken during the Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) mission in May 1996. The simulation provides a much finer grained representation of the chemistry and dynamics of the early wake than is possible from the 1 s data samples taken in situ. The comparison suggests that the previously reported discrepancy of up to a factor of 20 - 50 between the SUCCESS measurements of the [HO2]/[OH] ratio and that predicted by simplified theoretical computations is due to the combined effects of large mixing rates around the wake plume edges and averaging over volumes containing large species fluctuations. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using three-dimensional unsteady large-eddy simulations with coupled chemistry to study such phenomena.

  11. Noise emission from wind turbines in wake. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam Madsen, K.; Plovsing, B. (DELTA, Hoersholm (Denmark)); Soerensen, Thomas (EMD International A/S, Aalborg (Denmark)); Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bertagnolio, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    When installing wind turbines in clusters or wind farms the inflow conditions to the wind turbines can be disturbed due to wake effects from other wind turbines. The effect of wake on noise generation from wind turbines are described in this report. The work is based on measurements carried out on a M80 2 MW wind turbine. To investigate the relationship between the far field noise levels and the surface pressure and inflow angles measured by sensors on an instrumented wind turbine blade, a parabolic measurement system (PMMS) was designed and tested as part of this project. Based on the measurement results obtained with surface pressure sensors and results from the far field measurements using the PMMS it is concluded that: The variance of surface pressure at the trailing edge (TE) agrees with the theory with regard to variation of pressure spectra with varying inflow angle (AoA) to the blade. Low frequency TE surface pressure increases with increased AoA and high frequency surface pressure decreases with increased AoA. It seems that the TE surface pressure remains almost unaltered during wake operation. Results from the surface transducers at the leading edge (LE) and the inflow angles determined from the pitot tube indicates that the inflow at LE is more turbulent in wake for the same AoA and with a low frequency characteristic, thereby giving rise to more low frequency noise generated during wake operation. The far field measurements supports that on one hand there will be produced relative more low frequency noise due to a turbulent inflow to the blade and on the other hand there will be produced less noise in the broader frequency range/high frequency range due to a lower inflow angle caused by the wind deficit in the wake. The net effect of wake on the total noise level is unresolved. As a secondary result it is seen that noise observed from a position on the ground is related to directional effects of the noise radiated from the wind turbine blade. For an

  12. The Sleep–Wake Cycle in the Nicotinic Alpha-9 Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Madrid-López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a neural matrix controlling the sleep–wake cycle (SWC embedded within high ranking integrative mechanisms in the central nervous system. Nicotinic alpha-9 acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha-9 nAChR participate in physiological processes occurring in sensory, endocrine and immune systems. There is a relationship between the SWC architecture, body homeostasis and sensory afferents so that disruption of afferent signaling is expected to affect the temporal organization of sleep and wake states. The analysis of the SWC of 9 nAChR knock-out animals may help to reveal the contribution of alpha-9 nAChR to sleep chronobiological determinants. Here we explore the polysomnogram in chronically implanted alpha-9 nAChR knock-out (KO and wild-type (WT individuals of the hybrid CBA/Sv129 mouse strain. Records were obtained in isolation chambers under a stable 12:12 light:dark cycle (LD. To unmask the 24-h modulation of the SWC a skeleton photoperiod (SP protocol was performed. Under LD the daily quota (in % of wakefulness (W, NREM sleep and REM sleep obtained in KO and WT animals were 45, 48 and 7, and 46, 46 and 8 respectively. Both groups exhibit nocturnal phase preference of W as well as diurnal and unimodal phase preference of NREM and REM sleep. The acrophase mean angles of KO vs. WT genotypes were not different (Zeitgeber Time: 6.5 vs. 14.9 for W, 4.3 vs. 2.8 for NREM sleep and 5.3 vs. 3.4 for REM sleep, respectively. Transference to SP do not affect daily state quotas, phase preferences and acrophases among genotypes. Unmasking phenomena of the SWC such as wake increment during the rest phase under SP was evident only among WT mice suggesting the involvement of retinal structures containing alpha-9 nAChR in masking processes. Furthermore, KO animals exhibit longer NREM and REM sleep episodes that is independent of illumination conditions. Consolidated diurnal NREM sleep contributed to obtain higher values of NREM sleep delta-EEG activity

  13. Sleep fragmentation exacerbates mechanical hypersensitivity and alters subsequent sleep-wake behavior in a mouse model of musculoskeletal sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Blair C; Opp, Mark R

    2014-03-01

    Sleep deprivation, or sleep disruption, enhances pain in human subjects. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent in our society, and constitutes a tremendous public health burden. Although preclinical models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain demonstrate effects on sleep, few studies focus on musculoskeletal pain. We reported elsewhere in this issue of SLEEP that musculoskeletal sensitization alters sleep of mice. In this study we hypothesize that sleep fragmentation during the development of musculoskeletal sensitization will exacerbate subsequent pain responses and alter sleep-wake behavior of mice. This is a preclinical study using C57BL/6J mice to determine the effect on behavioral outcomes of sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization. Musculoskeletal sensitization, a model of chronic muscle pain, was induced using two unilateral injections of acidified saline (pH 4.0) into the gastrocnemius muscle, spaced 5 days apart. Musculoskeletal sensitization manifests as mechanical hypersensitivity determined by von Frey filament testing at the hindpaws. Sleep fragmentation took place during the consecutive 12-h light periods of the 5 days between intramuscular injections. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and body temperature were recorded from some mice at baseline and for 3 weeks after musculoskeletal sensitization. Mechanical hypersensitivity was determined at preinjection baseline and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after sensitization. Two additional experiments were conducted to determine the independent effects of sleep fragmentation or musculoskeletal sensitization on mechanical hypersensitivity. Five days of sleep fragmentation alone did not induce mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization resulted in prolonged and exacerbated mechanical hypersensitivity. Sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization had an effect on subsequent sleep of mice as demonstrated by increased

  14. Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuan-Bao; Sun, Zhen-Xu; Guo, Di-Long; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Guo-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Intensive turbulence exists in the wakes of high speed trains, and the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car could deteriorate rapidly due to complicated features of the vortices in the wake zone. As a result, the safety and amenity of high speed trains would face a great challenge. This paper considers mainly the mechanism of vortex formation and evolution in the train flow field. A real CRH2 model is studied, with a leading car, a middle car and a trailing car included. Different running speeds and cross wind conditions are considered, and the approaches of unsteady Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached eddy simulation (DES) are utilized, respectively. Results reveal that DES has better capability of capturing small eddies compared to URANS. However, for large eddies, the effects of two approaches are almost the same. In conditions without cross winds, two large vortex streets stretch from the train nose and interact strongly with each other in the wake zone. With the reinforcement of the ground, a complicated wake vortex system generates and becomes strengthened as the running speed increases. However, the locations of flow separations on the train surface and the separation mechanism keep unchanged. In conditions with cross winds, three large vortices develop along the leeward side of the train, among which the weakest one has no obvious influence on the wake flow while the other two stretch to the tail of the train and combine with the helical vortices in the train wake. Thus, optimization of the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car should be aiming at reducing the intensity of the wake vortex system.

  15. Maximum wind power plant generation by reducing the wake effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Prada-Gil, Mikel; Alías, César Guillén; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • To analyze the benefit of applying a new control strategy to maximise energy yield. • To operate some wind turbines at non-optimum points for reducing wake effects. • Single, partial and multiple wakes for any wind direction are taken into account. • Thrust coefficient is computed according to Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. - Abstract: This paper analyses, from a steady state point of view, the potential benefit of a Wind Power Plant (WPP) control strategy whose main objective is to maximise its total energy yield over its lifetime by taking into consideration that the wake effect within the WPP varies depending on the operation of each wind turbine. Unlike the conventional approach in which each wind turbine operation is optimised individually to maximise its own energy capture, the proposed control strategy aims to optimise the whole system by operating some wind turbines at sub-optimum points, so that the wake effect within the WPP is reduced and therefore the total power generation is maximised. The methodology used to assess the performance of both control approaches is presented and applied to two particular study cases. It contains a comprehensive wake model considering single, partial and multiple wake effects among turbines. The study also takes into account the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory to accurately compute both power and thrust coefficient of each wind turbine. The results suggest a good potential of the proposed concept, since an increase in the annual energy captured by the WPP from 1.86% up to 6.24% may be achieved (depending on the wind rose at the WPP location) by operating some specific wind turbines slightly away from their optimum point and reducing thus the wake effect

  16. Comparison of two LES codes for wind turbine wake studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarlak, H; Mikkelsen, R; Sørensen, J N; Pierella, F

    2014-01-01

    For the third time a blind test comparison in Norway 2013, was conducted comparing numerical simulations for the rotor C p and C t and wake profiles with the experimental results. As the only large eddy simulation study among participants, results of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) using their in-house CFD solver, EllipSys3D, proved to be more reliable among the other models for capturing the wake profiles and the turbulence intensities downstream the turbine. It was therefore remarked in the workshop to investigate other LES codes to compare their performance with EllipSys3D. The aim of this paper is to investigate on two CFD solvers, the DTU's in-house code, EllipSys3D and the open-sourse toolbox, OpenFoam, for a set of actuator line based LES computations. Two types of simulations are performed: the wake behind a signle rotor and the wake behind a cluster of three inline rotors. Results are compared in terms of velocity deficit, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy viscosity. It is seen that both codes predict similar near-wake flow structures with the exception of OpenFoam's simulations without the subgrid-scale model. The differences begin to increase with increasing the distance from the upstream rotor. From the single rotor simulations, EllipSys3D is found to predict a slower wake recovery in the case of uniform laminar flow. From the 3-rotor computations, it is seen that the difference between the codes is smaller as the disturbance created by the downstream rotors causes break down of the wake structures and more homogenuous flow structures. It is finally observed that OpenFoam computations are more sensitive to the SGS models

  17. Wireless and wearable EEG system for evaluating driver vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Sheng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Ko, Li-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Brain activity associated with attention sustained on the task of safe driving has received considerable attention recently in many neurophysiological studies. Those investigations have also accurately estimated shifts in drivers' levels of arousal, fatigue, and vigilance, as evidenced by variations in their task performance, by evaluating electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. However, monitoring the neurophysiological activities of automobile drivers poses a major measurement challenge when using a laboratory-oriented biosensor technology. This work presents a novel dry EEG sensor based mobile wireless EEG system (referred to herein as Mindo) to monitor in real time a driver's vigilance status in order to link the fluctuation of driving performance with changes in brain activities. The proposed Mindo system incorporates the use of a wireless and wearable EEG device to record EEG signals from hairy regions of the driver conveniently. Additionally, the proposed system can process EEG recordings and translate them into the vigilance level. The study compares the system performance between different regression models. Moreover, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for online analysis. A case study involving 15 study participants assigned a 90 min sustained-attention driving task in an immersive virtual driving environment demonstrates the reliability of the proposed system. Consistent with previous studies, power spectral analysis results confirm that the EEG activities correlate well with the variations in vigilance. Furthermore, the proposed system demonstrated the feasibility of predicting the driver's vigilance in real time.

  18. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted in the se......Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted...... in the second, revised version of SCORE (Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG), which is presented in this paper. The revised terminology was implemented in a software package (SCORE EEG), which was tested in clinical practice on 12,160 EEG recordings. Standardized terms implemented in SCORE....... In the end, the diagnostic significance is scored, using a standardized list of terms. SCORE has specific modules for scoring seizures (including seizure semiology and ictal EEG patterns), neonatal recordings (including features specific for this age group), and for Critical Care EEG Terminology. SCORE...

  19. FFT transformed quantitative EEG analysis of short term memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Singh, Jayvardhan; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2015-07-01

    The EEG is considered as building block of functional signaling in the brain. The role of EEG oscillations in human information processing has been intensively investigated. To study the quantitative EEG correlates of short term memory load as assessed through Sternberg memory test. The study was conducted on 34 healthy male student volunteers. The intervention consisted of Sternberg memory test, which runs on a version of the Sternberg memory scanning paradigm software on a computer. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 19 scalp locations according to 10-20 international system of electrode placement. EEG signals were analyzed offline. To overcome the problems of fixed band system, individual alpha frequency (IAF) based frequency band selection method was adopted. The outcome measures were FFT transformed absolute powers in the six bands at 19 electrode positions. Sternberg memory test served as model of short term memory load. Correlation analysis of EEG during memory task was reflected as decreased absolute power in Upper alpha band in nearly all the electrode positions; increased power in Theta band at Fronto-Temporal region and Lower 1 alpha band at Fronto-Central region. Lower 2 alpha, Beta and Gamma band power remained unchanged. Short term memory load has distinct electroencephalographic correlates resembling the mentally stressed state. This is evident from decreased power in Upper alpha band (corresponding to Alpha band of traditional EEG system) which is representative band of relaxed mental state. Fronto-temporal Theta power changes may reflect the encoding and execution of memory task.

  20. Higher-Order Spectrum in Understanding Nonlinearity in EEG Rhythms

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    Cauchy Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental nature of the brain's electrical activities recorded as electroencephalogram (EEG remains unknown. Linear stochastic models and spectral estimates are the most common methods for the analysis of EEG because of their robustness, simplicity of interpretation, and apparent association with rhythmic behavioral patterns in nature. In this paper, we extend the use of higher-order spectrum in order to indicate the hidden characteristics of EEG signals that simply do not arise from random processes. The higher-order spectrum is an extension Fourier spectrum that uses higher moments for spectral estimates. This essentially nullifies all Gaussian random effects, therefore, can reveal non-Gaussian and nonlinear characteristics in the complex patterns of EEG time series. The paper demonstrates the distinguishing features of bispectral analysis for chaotic systems, filtered noises, and normal background EEG activity. The bispectrum analysis detects nonlinear interactions; however, it does not quantify the coupling strength. The squared bicoherence in the nonredundant region has been estimated to demonstrate nonlinear coupling. The bicoherence values are minimal for white Gaussian noises (WGNs and filtered noises. Higher bicoherence values in chaotic time series and normal background EEG activities are indicative of nonlinear coupling in these systems. The paper shows utility of bispectral methods as an analytical tool in understanding neural process underlying human EEG patterns.

  1. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on non-linear bistable dynamics model based EEG signal discrimination analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Lin, Han; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations generating from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. EEG signal is looked as one of the most important factors that will be focused in the next 20 years. In this paper, EEG signal discrimination based on non-linear bistable dynamical model was proposed. EEG signals were processed by non-linear bistable dynamical model, and features of EEG signals were characterized by coherence index. Experimental results showed that the proposed method could properly extract the features of different EEG signals.

  3. Automated approach to detecting behavioral states using EEG-DABS

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    Zachary B. Loris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrocorticographic (ECoG signals represent cortical electrical dipoles generated by synchronous local field potentials that result from simultaneous firing of neurons at distinct frequencies (brain waves. Since different brain waves correlate to different behavioral states, ECoG signals presents a novel strategy to detect complex behaviors. We developed a program, EEG Detection Analysis for Behavioral States (EEG-DABS that advances Fast Fourier Transforms through ECoG signals time series, separating it into (user defined frequency bands and normalizes them to reduce variability. EEG-DABS determines events if segments of an experimental ECoG record have significantly different power bands than a selected control pattern of EEG. Events are identified at every epoch and frequency band and then are displayed as output graphs by the program. Certain patterns of events correspond to specific behaviors. Once a predetermined pattern was selected for a behavioral state, EEG-DABS correctly identified the desired behavioral event. The selection of frequency band combinations for detection of the behavior affects accuracy of the method. All instances of certain behaviors, such as freezing, were correctly identified from the event patterns generated with EEG-DABS. Detecting behaviors is typically achieved by visually discerning unique animal phenotypes, a process that is time consuming, unreliable, and subjective. EEG-DABS removes variability by using defined parameters of EEG/ECoG for a desired behavior over chronic recordings. EEG-DABS presents a simple and automated approach to quantify different behavioral states from ECoG signals.

  4. A STUDY ON EEG ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH MIGRAINE

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    Subinay Mandal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Migraine is one of the common causes of headache in children. Migraine and epilepsy are both common episodic neurological disorders. The comorbidity of these two conditions is well known. Many researcher have pointed out that neuronal hyperexcitability is the initiating event for occurrence of migraine attack. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the EEG in children with migraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively analysed records of children who attended our paediatric outpatient department with diagnoses as suffering from migraine based on International Headache Society (IHS diagnostic criteria. Apart from detailed clinical history, EEG of every patient was collected and analysed. EEG was performed interictally at least 24 hours after the last episode of headache attack in all the cases. RESULTS 56 children (age range, 4-14 years constituted our study group. 64.3% children had migraine without aura (common type and in 23.2% cases had migraine with aura (classic type other were with migraine variants. Abnormal EEG was reported in 30.3% children. 17% of children with migraine without history of seizure had abnormal EEG. Sixty one percent of patients with aura had abnormal EEG. History of either febrile fits or afebrile fits was present in total 17.1% of cases. The type of paroxysmal discharges we came across was- a Sharp waves, b Spikes and c Spike and slow wave complexes. Abnormal paroxysmal sharp and spike-wave complexes (also called spike-and-slow-wave complexes were the most common EEG abnormality. CONCLUSION EEG abnormality was found in significant number of children with migraine both with and without history of seizure in our study. This indicates neuronal hyperexcitability during episodes of migraine. So, EEG should be considered in patients with clinical diagnoses of migraine to exclude association of any seizure activity.

  5. Doppler lidar investigation of wind turbine wake characteristics and atmospheric turbulence under different surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaochun; Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi

    2017-06-12

    Four field experiments based on Pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar with different surface roughness have been carried out in 2013-2015 to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating wind turbine in the onshore and offshore wind parks. The turbulence characteristics in ambient atmosphere and wake area was analyzed using transverse structure function based on Plane Position Indicator scanning mode. An automatic wake processing procedure was developed to determine the wake velocity deficit by considering the effect of ambient velocity disturbance and wake meandering with the mean wind direction. It is found that the turbine wake obviously enhances the atmospheric turbulence mixing, and the difference in the correlation of turbulence parameters under different surface roughness is significant. The dependence of wake parameters including the wake velocity deficit and wake length on wind velocity and turbulence intensity are analyzed and compared with other studies, which validates the empirical model and simulation of a turbine wake for various atmosphere conditions.

  6. Impact of bubble wakes on a developing bubble flow in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, A.; Makino, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Tamai, H.; Serizawa, A.; Zun, I.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional two-way bubble tracking simulation of single large air bubbles rising through a stagnant water filled in a vertical pipe was conducted to investigate the structures of bubble wakes. Spatial distributions of time-averaged liquid velocity field, turbulent intensity and Reynolds stress caused by bubble wakes were deduced from the calculated local instantaneous liquid velocities. It was confirmed that wake structures are completely different from the ones estimated by a conventional wake model. Then, we developed a simple wake model based on the predicted time-averaged wake velocity fields, and implemented it into a 3D one-way bubble tracking method to examine the impact of bubble wake structures on time-spatial evolution of a developing air-water bubble flow in a vertical pipe. As a results, we confirmed that the developed wake model can give better prediction for flow pattern evolution than a conventional wake model

  7. Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, C. D.; Carbajo Fuertes, F.; Iungo, V.; Stefan, H. G.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ˜O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 40-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Allée de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is approximately 40 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

  8. Brain Functional Connectivity in MS: An EEG-NIRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0582 TITLE: Brain Functional Connectivity in MS: An EEG -NIRS Study PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Heather Wishart...Functional Connectivity in MS: An EEG -NIRS Study 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0582 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Heather...electrical ( EEG ) and blood volume and blood oxygen-based (NIRS and fMRI) signals, and to use the results to help optimize blood oxygen level

  9. EEG Artifact Removal Using a Wavelet Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh T.; Musson, John; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederick; Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    !n this paper we developed a wavelet neural network. (WNN) algorithm for Electroencephalogram (EEG) artifact removal without electrooculographic (EOG) recordings. The algorithm combines the universal approximation characteristics of neural network and the time/frequency property of wavelet. We. compared the WNN algorithm with .the ICA technique ,and a wavelet thresholding method, which was realized by using the Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) with an adaptive gradient-based optimal threshold. Experimental results on a driving test data set show that WNN can remove EEG artifacts effectively without diminishing useful EEG information even for very noisy data.

  10. EEG Clearing Office strengthened by EEG 2012. Alternative dispute resolution in the renewable energies industry; Aufwertung der Clearingstelle EEG durch das EEG 2012. Alternative Dispute Resolution im Bereich der Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzinerantzis, Alexandros; Fach, Martin [Linklaters LLP, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Praxisgruppe Litigation and Arbitration

    2012-11-14

    The EEG Clearing Office is a special arbitration forum for the purpose of facilitating quick and inexpensive out-of-court dispute resolutions and resolving cases of legal uncertainty in connection with the regulations of the EEG (Renewable Energy Law). The Clearing Office has developed dynamically over the past years, as the numbers of newly registered potential and ongoing procedures impressively show. In the 2012 amendment to the EEG the legislature has fundamentally revised and substantially widened the legal basis for the work of the Clearing Office. This provides the motivation for presenting the Clearing Office and its procedural rules in the following article.

  11. Added clinical value of the inferior temporal EEG electrode chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Justesen, Anders; Eskelund Johansen, Ann Berit; Martinussen, Noomi Ida

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic added value of supplementing the 10–20 EEG array with six electrodes in the inferior temporal chain. Methods EEGs were recorded with 25 electrodes: 19 positions of the 10–20 system, and six additional electrodes in the inferior temporal chain (F9/10, T9/10, P...... in the inferior chain) and 6% (only seen at the inferior chain). Conclusions Adding six electrodes in the inferior temporal electrode chain to the 10–20 array improves the localization and identification of EEG abnormalities, especially those located in the temporal region. Significance Our results suggest...

  12. Rational manipulation of digital EEG: pearls and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Udaya

    2014-12-01

    The advent of digital EEG has provided greater flexibility and more opportunities in data analysis to optimize the diagnostic yield. Changing the filter settings, sensitivity, montages, and time-base are possible rational manipulations to achieve this goal. The options to use polygraphy, video, and quantification are additional useful features. Aliasing and loss of data are potential pitfalls in the use of digital EEG. This review illustrates some common clinical scenarios where rational manipulations can enhance the diagnostic EEG yield and potential pitfalls in the process.

  13. Proposal for best practice in the use of video-EEG when psychogenic non-epileptic seizures are a possible diagnosis

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    Kimberley Whitehead

    Full Text Available The gold-standard for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES is capturing an attack with typical semiology and lack of epileptic ictal discharges on video-EEG. Despite the importance of this diagnostic test, lack of standardisation has resulted in a wide variety of protocols and reporting practices. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of research findings on the diagnostic video-EEG procedure, in both the adult and paediatric literature. We discuss how uncertainties about the ethical use of suggestion can be resolved, and consider what constitutes best clinical practice. We stress the importance of ictal observation and assessment and consider how diagnostically useful information is best obtained. We also discuss the optimal format of video-EEG reports; and of highlighting features with high sensitivity and specificity to reduce the risk of miscommunication. We suggest that over-interpretation of the interictal EEG, and the failure to recognise differences between typical epileptic and nonepileptic seizure manifestations are the greatest pitfalls in neurophysiological assessment of patients with PNES. Meanwhile, under-recognition of semiological pointers towards frontal lobe seizures and of the absence of epileptiform ictal EEG patterns during some epileptic seizure types (especially some seizures not associated with loss of awareness, may lead to erroneous PNES diagnoses. We propose that a standardised approach to the video-EEG examination and the subsequent written report will facilitate a clear communication of its import, improving diagnostic certainty and thereby promoting appropriate patient management. Keywords: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, Nonepileptic attack disorder, Suggestion, EEG

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in wake-active neurons progresses with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Nirinjini; Zhu, Jingxu; Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Lian, Jie; Galante, Ray; Veasey, Sigrid

    2011-08-01

    Fragmentation of wakefulness and sleep are expected outcomes of advanced aging. We hypothesize that wake neurons develop endoplasmic reticulum dyshomeostasis with aging, in parallel with impaired wakefulness. In this series of experiments, we sought to more fully characterize age-related changes in wakefulness and then, in relevant wake neuronal populations, explore functionality and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. We report that old mice show greater sleep/wake transitions in the active period with markedly shortened wake periods, shortened latencies to sleep, and less wake time in the subjective day in response to a novel social encounter. Consistent with sleep/wake instability and reduced social encounter wakefulness, orexinergic and noradrenergic wake neurons in aged mice show reduced c-fos response to wakefulness and endoplasmic reticulum dyshomeostasis with increased nuclear translocation of CHOP and GADD34. We have identified an age-related unfolded protein response injury to and dysfunction of wake neurons. It is anticipated that these changes contribute to sleep/wake fragmentation and cognitive impairment in aging. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Wind Turbine Wake Characterization from Temporally Disjunct 3-D Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Doubrawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning LiDARs can be used to obtain three-dimensional wind measurements in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer. In this work, metrics characterizing wind turbine wakes are derived from LiDAR observations and from large-eddy simulation (LES data, which are used to recreate the LiDAR scanning geometry. The metrics are calculated for two-dimensional planes in the vertical and cross-stream directions at discrete distances downstream of a turbine under single-wake conditions. The simulation data are used to estimate the uncertainty when mean wake characteristics are quantified from scanning LiDAR measurements, which are temporally disjunct due to the time that the instrument takes to probe a large volume of air. Based on LES output, we determine that wind speeds sampled with the synthetic LiDAR are within 10% of the actual mean values and that the disjunct nature of the scan does not compromise the spatial variation of wind speeds within the planes. We propose scanning geometry density and coverage indices, which quantify the spatial distribution of the sampled points in the area of interest and are valuable to design LiDAR measurement campaigns for wake characterization. We find that scanning geometry coverage is important for estimates of the wake center, orientation and length scales, while density is more important when seeking to characterize the velocity deficit distribution.

  16. A new approach for evaluating measured wake data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Mikael [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Wind turbine wakes have been studied by analysing a large set of atmospheric data, from a wind farm with four turbines sited on a flat coastal area. The results obtained have ben generalized to allow tests against data from other full scale wind turbines as well as wind tunnel simulations. These comparisons are found to give very satisfactory results. The thrust coefficient is found to be a better parameter for description than wind speed, of wake characteristics because it implicitly includes the effect of regulation. It is also found that down-wind travel time is more convenient to use than down-wind distance in this context. The travel time to the end of the near wake region, i.e. to the point where a single velocity deficit peak first appears, is found to be inversely proportional to the rotational frequency of the turbine and to the turbulence intensity of the ambient air flow and proportional to the ratio of the wake radius and the hub height. For larger travel times, i.e. for the far wake region, it is found that the centre line relative velocity deficit decreases with the logarithm of the time traveled and is parametrically dependent on the time constant and the thrust coefficient. 3 refs, 5 figs

  17. Improvement of a near wake model for trailing vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirrung, G R; Hansen, M H; Madsen, H A

    2014-01-01

    A near wake model, originally proposed by Beddoes, is further developed. The purpose of the model is to account for the radially dependent time constants of the fast aerodynamic response and to provide a tip loss correction. It is based on lifting line theory and models the downwash due to roughly the first 90 degrees of rotation. This restriction of the model to the near wake allows for using a computationally efficient indicial function algorithm. The aim of this study is to improve the accuracy of the downwash close to the root and tip of the blade and to decrease the sensitivity of the model to temporal discretization, both regarding numerical stability and quality of the results. The modified near wake model is coupled to an aerodynamics model, which consists of a blade element momentum model with dynamic inflow for the far wake and a 2D shed vorticity model that simulates the unsteady buildup of both lift and circulation in the attached flow region. The near wake model is validated against the test case of a finite wing with constant elliptical bound circulation. An unsteady simulation of the NREL 5 MW rotor shows the functionality of the coupled model

  18. Wake-field studies on photonic band gap accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Kroll, N.; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, M/S 26, P.O. Box 4349, Stanford, California; Smith, D.R.; Schultz, S.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the wake-field of several metal Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cavities which consist of either a square or a hexagonal array of metal cylinders, bounded on top and bottom by conducting or superconducting sheets, surrounded by placing microwave absorber at the periphery or by replacing outer rows of metal cylinders with lossy dielectric ones, or by metallic walls. A removed cylinder from the center of the array constitutes a site defect where a localized electromagnetic mode can occur. While both monopole and dipole wake-fields have been studied, we confine our attention here mainly to the dipole case. The dipole wake-field is produced by modes in the propagation bands which tend to fill the entire cavity more or less uniformly and are thus easy to damp selectively. MAFIA time domain simulation of the transverse wake-field has been compared with that of a cylindrical pill-box comparison cavity. Even without damping the wake-field of the metal PBG cavity is substantially smaller than that of the pill-box cavity and may be further reduced by increasing the size of the lattice. By introducing lossy material at the periphery we have been able to produce Q factors for the dipole modes in the 40 to 120 range without significantly degrading the accelerating mode. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. CFD three dimensional wake analysis in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, F.; Astolfi, D.; Terzi, L.

    2017-11-01

    Even if wind energy technology is nowadays fully developed, the use of wind energy in very complex terrain is still challenging. In particular, it is challenging to characterize the combination effects of wind ow over complex terrain and wake interactions between nearby turbines and this has a practical relevance too, for the perspective of mitigating anomalous vibrations and loads as well improving the farm efficiency. In this work, a very complex terrain site has been analyzed through a Reynolds-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) numerical wind field model; in the simulation the inuence of wakes has been included through the Actuator Disk (AD) approach. In particular, the upstream turbine of a cluster of 4 wind turbines having 2.3 MW of rated power is studied. The objective of this study is investigating the full three-dimensional wind field and the impact of three-dimensionality on the evolution of the waked area between nearby turbines. A post-processing method of the output of the CFD simulation is developed and this allows to estimate the wake lateral deviation and the wake width. The reliability of the numerical approach is inspired by and crosschecked through the analysis of the operational SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) data of the cluster of interest.

  20. The role of nucleus accumbens core/shell in sleep-wake regulation and their involvement in modafinil-induced arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hong Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that modafinil promotes wakefulness via dopamine receptor D(1 and D(2 receptors; however, the locus where dopamine acts has not been identified. We proposed that the nucleus accumbens (NAc that receives the ventral tegmental area dopamine inputs play an important role not only in reward and addiction but also in sleep-wake cycle and in mediating modafinil-induced arousal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we further explored the role of NAc in sleep-wake cycle and sleep homeostasis by ablating the NAc core and shell, respectively, and examined arousal response following modafinil administration. We found that discrete NAc core and shell lesions produced 26.5% and 17.4% increase in total wakefulness per day, respectively, with sleep fragmentation and a reduced sleep rebound after a 6-hr sleep deprivation compared to control. Finally, NAc core but not shell lesions eliminated arousal effects of modafinil. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the NAc regulates sleep-wake behavior and mediates arousal effects of the midbrain dopamine system and stimulant modafinil.